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Sample records for actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection

  1. Specific Humoral Immune Response Induced by Propionibacterium acnes Can Prevent Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feng; Ma, Qiuyue; Huang, Jing; Ji, Qun; Zhai, Ruidong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yu; Li, Linxi; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Han, Wenyu

    2014-01-01

    Porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, has a major impact on economics, ecology, and animal welfare in the pig-rearing industry. Propionibacterium acnes, a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive corynebacterium, exists widely in normal healthy adult animals. We have shown previously that P. acnes can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infections in mice and pigs. To elucidate the mechanism of this effect and to identify novel A. pleuropneumoniae vaccines, the role of anti-P. acnes antibodies in preventing infection was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence and opsonophagocytosis assays in vitro. The role of the specific humoral immune response induced by P. acnes was confirmed in a B cell depletion mouse model. The survival rates of mice challenged with A. pleuropneumoniae exhibited a highly significant positive rank correlation with the levels of anti-P. acnes antibodies. The specific antibodies induced by P. acnes had the ability to combine with A. pleuropneumoniae and increase opsonization of A. pleuropneumoniae for phagocytosis. Furthermore, analysis in the murine B cell depletion model confirmed that the humoral immune response induced by P. acnes played an important role in resistance to A. pleuropneumoniae infection. In this study, we further elucidated the reasons that P. acnes can prevent A. pleuropneumoniae infection, which provides useful evidence for the development of heterologous vaccines for the control of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia. PMID:24429068

  2. Efficacy of tilmicosin in the control of experimentally induced Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in swine.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Marie-Anne; Vessie, Gordon H; Merrill, John K; Dick, C Paul; Moore, Camille; Charbonneau, George; Gottschalk, M; MacInnes, Janet I; Higgins, Robert; Mittal, K R; Girard, C; Aramini, Jeffery J; Wilson, Jeffrey B

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of tilmicosin administered in the feed to control Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in pigs was evaluated through a multisite, multitrial study. For each of 6 trials, 48 pigs (stratified by weight and sex) were randomly assigned to 6 to 8 pens. Medicated feed containing tilmicosin (200 g/t) and unmedicated feed were randomly assigned at the pen level and were provided ad libitum from day -7 to trial termination (day 14). Seeder pigs (inoculated intranasally with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 and showing signs of clinical disease) were introduced to each pen on day 0. Rates of death, gross lesions, and culture of A. pleuropneumoniae at necropsy, clinical scores, average daily gain in weight, and average body temperature were compared between the medicated and unmedicated pigs. Compared with the unmedicated pigs, significantly fewer (P < 0.05) pigs given tilmicosin had lesions typical of A. pleuropneumoniae or had A. pleuropneumoniae isolated from their tissues at necropsy. Together with a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the average percentage of pneumonic lung involvement (both visually and by weight), there were reductions in the numbers of pigs with moderate and severe pneumonic lung lesions and with A. pleuropneumoniae associated mortality. With tilmicosin treatment, the average daily weight gain, daily temperature, abdominal appearance, attitude, and respiration were also significantly better (P < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrate the in vivo effectiveness of tilmicosin (200 g/t) in controlling pleuropneumonia among swine experimentally infected with A. pleuropneumoniae.

  3. Evaluation and Field Validation of PCR Tests for Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Subclinically Infected Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Broes, André; Harel, Josée; Kobisch, Marylène; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    Eight PCR tests were evaluated for their abilities to detect Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in swine tonsils. At first they were compared regarding their specificities by using A. pleuropneumoniae and related bacterial species and their analytical sensitivities by using tonsils experimentally infected in vitro. PCRs were carried out both directly with tonsil homogenates (direct PCR) and after culture of the sample (after-culture PCR). Most tests demonstrated good specificities; however, some tests gave false-positive results with some non-A. pleuropneumoniae species. High degrees of variation in the analytical sensitivities among the tests were observed for the direct PCRs (109 to 102 CFU/g of tonsil), whereas those of most of the after-culture PCRs were similar (102 CFU/g of tonsil). In a second phase, the effects of sample storage time and storage conditions were evaluated by using tonsils from experimentally infected animals. Storage at −20°C allowed the detection of the organism for at least 4 months. Finally, the omlA PCR test described by Savoye et al. (C. Savoye et al., Vet. Microbiol. 73:337-347, 2000) and the commercially available Adiavet App PCR test were further validated with field samples. Their effectiveness was compared to those of standard and immunomagnetic separation-based methods of bacterial isolation. In addition, a comparison of tonsil biopsy specimens (from living animals) and whole tonsils (collected at the slaughterhouse) was also conducted. A. pleuropneumoniae was neither isolated nor detected by PCR from a herd serologically negative for A. pleuropneumoniae. PCR was more sensitive than the standard isolation method with whole tonsils from three infected herds. After-culture PCR offered the highest degree of sensitivity (93 and 83% for the omlA and Adiavet App PCRs, respectively). The PCR detection rate was higher with whole tonsils than with tonsil biopsy specimens. Good agreement (κ = 0.65) was found between the presence of A

  4. Hemolysin patterns of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Frey, J; Nicolet, J

    1990-01-01

    The secreted hemolytic activities produced by the reference strains and field isolates of the 12 serotypes and 2 subtypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were analyzed. Serotype 1 produced a Ca2(+)-inducible hemolysin, which was previously characterized as a 105-kilodalton protein and was named hemolysin I (HlyI). Serotypes 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8 produced a different hemolytic activity that was not inducible by Ca2+ but required this ion for its activity. The hemolytic activity produced by these serotypes was much weaker than that found in serotype 1 and was not neutralized by rabbit antibodies against HlyI. It was, however, neutralized by serum from pigs that were experimentally infected with a serotype 2 strain and was called hemolysin II (HlyII). Serotypes 5a, 5b, 9, 10, and 11 produced both HlyI and HlyII. In these strains, HlyI was the major contributor to the hemolytic activity. The remaining serotypes, 3 and 12, produced a very weak hemolytic activity, which was not further analyzed. Immunoblot analysis of the culture supernatants from all 12 serotypes with rabbit polyclonal antibodies directed against HlyI revealed reactions with a protein in the 105-kilodalton size range for all serotypes, indicating that HlyI and HlyII might be serologically related. Strains producing active HlyI seem to belong to serotypes that are generally considered to be virulent types and that are frequently isolated from pigs in severe pleuropneumonia outbreaks. Images PMID:2312671

  5. Identification of QTL affecting resistance/susceptibility to acute Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in swine.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Gerald; Bertsch, Natalie; Hoeltig, Doris; Selke, Martin; Willems, Hermann; Gerlach, Gerald Friedrich; Tuemmler, Burkhard; Probst, Inga; Herwig, Ralf; Drungowski, Mario; Waldmann, Karl Heinz

    2014-04-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is among the most important pathogens worldwide in pig production. The agent can cause severe economic losses due to decreased performance, acute or chronic pleuropneumonia and an increased incidence of death. Therapeutics cannot be used in a sustainable manner, and vaccination is not always available, but discovering more about host defence and disease mechanisms might lead to new methods of prophylaxis. The aim of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance/susceptibility to A. pleuropneumoniae. Under controlled conditions, 170 F2 animals of a Hampshire/Landrace family, with known differences in founder populations regarding A. pleuropneumoniae resistance, were challenged with an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 aerosol followed by a detailed clinical, radiographic, ultrasonographic, pathological and bacteriological examination. F2 pigs were genotyped with 159 microsatellite markers. Significant QTL were identified on Sus scrofa chromosomes (SSC) 2, 6, 12, 13, 16, 17 and 18. They explained 6-22% of phenotypic variance. One QTL on SSC2 reached significance on a genome-wide level for five associated phenotypic traits. A multiple regression analysis revealed a combinatory effect of markers SWR345 (SSC2) and S0143 (SSC12) on Respiratory Health Score, Clinical Score and the occurrence of death. The results indicate the genetic background of A. pleuropneumoniae resistance in swine and provide new insights into the genetic architecture of resistance/susceptibility to porcine pleuropneumonia. The results will be helpful in identifying the underlying genes and mechanisms.

  6. Antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-infected and bacterin-vaccinated pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Furesz, S E; Mallard, B A; Bossé, J T; Rosendal, S; Wilkie, B N; MacInnes, J I

    1997-01-01

    Current porcine pleuropneumonia bacterins afford only partial protection by decreasing mortality but not morbidity. In order to better understand the type(s) of immune response associated with protection, antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR) were compared for piglets before and after administration of a commercial bacterin, which confers partial protection, or a low-dose (10(5) CFU/ml) aerosol challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae CM5 (LD), which induces complete protection. Control groups received phosphate-buffered saline or adjuvant. Serum antibody response, antibody avidity, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and lymphocyte blastogenic responses were measured and compared among treatment groups to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), capsular polysaccharide (CPS), hemolysin (HLY), and outer membrane proteins (OMP) of A. pleuropneumoniae. Peripheral blood lymphocytes and sera were collected prior to and following primary and secondary immunization-infection and high-dose A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 (10(7) CFU/ml) aerosol challenge. Serum antibody and DTH, particularly that to HLY, differed significantly between treatment groups, and increases were associated with protection. LD-infected piglets had higher antibody responses (P < or = 0.01) and antibody avidity (P < or = 0.10) than bacterin-vaccinated and control groups. Anti-HLY antibodies were consistently associated with protection, whereas anti-LPS and anti-CPS antibodies were not. LD-infected animals had higher DTH responses, particularly to HLY, than bacterin-vaccinated pigs (P < or = 0.03). The LD-infected group maintained consistent blastogenic responses to HLY, LPS, CPS, and OMP over the course of infection, unlike the bacterin-vaccinated and control animals. These data suggest that the immune responses induced by a commercial bacterin are very different from those induced by LD aerosol infection and that current bacterins may be modified, for instance, by addition of HLY, so as to

  7. Nasal immunization with major epitope-containing ApxIIA toxin fragment induces protective immunity against challenge infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ki-Weon; Kim, Sae-Hae; Park, Jisang; Son, Youngok; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Kyung-Yeol; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2013-01-15

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an infective agent that leads to porcine pleuropneumonia, a disease that causes severe economic losses in the swine industry. Based on the fact that the respiratory tract is the primary site for bacterial infection, it has been suggested that bacterial exclusion in the respiratory tract through mucosal immune induction is the most effective disease prevention strategy. ApxIIA is a vaccine candidate against A. pleuropneumoniae infection, and fragment #5 (aa. 439-801) of ApxIIA contains the major epitopes for effective vaccination. In this study, we used mice to verify the efficacy of intranasal immunization with fragment #5 in the induction of protective immunity against nasal challenge with A. pleuropneumoniae and compared its efficacy with that of subcutaneous immunization. Intranasal immunization of the fragment induced significantly higher systemic and mucosal immune responses measured at the levels of antigen-specific antibodies, cytokine-secreting cells after antigen exposure, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation. Intranasal immunization not only efficiently inhibited the bacterial colonization in respiratory organs, but also prevented alveolar tissue damage in infectious condition similar to that of a contaminated pig. Moreover, intranasal immunization with fragment #5 provided acquired protective immunity against intranasal challenge with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. In addition, it conferred cross-protection against serotype 5, a heterologous pathogen that causes severe disease by ApxI and ApxII secretion. Collectively, intranasal immunization with fragment #5 of ApxIIA can be considered an efficient protective immunization procedure against A. pleuropneumoniae infection.

  8. Blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, R; Plambeck, T; Foged, N T

    1991-01-01

    A blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), based upon a polyclonal rabbit antiserum specific to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, was developed for the detection of antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in pigs. By testing sera from pigs experimentally infected with the 11 recognized serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae, the assay was proven to be specific for A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. With field sera from herds infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, the assay was found to be more sensitive than the complement fixation test. Positive results were not observed with field sera from herds known to be free from Actinobacillus infection or with sera from two herds infected with either A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 6 or 8. The high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the blocking ELISA will make it useful in field diagnostic work. PMID:1890179

  9. Comparison of four lung scoring systems for the assessment of the pathological outcomes derived from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae experimental infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, four lung lesion scoring methods (Slaughterhouse Pleurisy Evaluation System [SPES], Consolidation Lung Lesion Score [LLS], Image analyses [IA] and Ratio of lung weight/body weight [LW/BW]) were compared for the assessment of the different pathological outcomes derived from an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) experimental infection model. Moreover, pathological data was coupled with clinical (fever, inappetence and clinical score), production (average daily weigh gain [ADWG]) and diagnostic (PCR, ELISA and bacterial isolation) parameters within the four infection outcomes (peracute, acute, subclinically infected and non-infected). Results From the 61 inoculated animals, 9 were classified as peracute (presence of severe App-like clinical signs and lesions and sudden death or euthanasia shortly after inoculation), 31 as acutely affected (presence of App-like clinical signs and lesions and survival until the end of the experiment), 12 as subclinically infected (very mild or no clinical signs but App infection confirmed) and 9 as non-infected animals (lack of App-like clinical signs and lack of evidence of App infection). A significant correlation between all lung lesion scoring systems was found with the exception of SPES score versus LW/BW. SPES showed a statistically significant association with all clinical, production and diagnostic (with the exception of PCR detection of App in the tonsil) variables assessed. LLS and IA showed similar statistically significant associations as SPES, with the exception of seroconversion against App at necropsy. In contrast, LW/BW was statistically associated only with App isolation in lungs, presence of App-like lesions and ELISA OD values at necropsy. Conclusions In conclusion, SPES, LLS and IA are economic, fast and easy-to-perform lung scoring methods that, in combination with different clinical and diagnostic parameters, allow the characterization of different outcomes after App infection. PMID

  10. Experimental aerosol transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Jobert, J L; Savoye, C; Cariolet, R; Kobisch, M; Madec, F

    2000-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possible role of aerosol in the transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an experiment including 18 specific pathogen-free (SPF), 10-week-old piglets, randomly distributed into 2 adjacent units, was carried out. In these facilities, air was forced through absolute filters to prevent any contact with infectious agents. During the first 6 d post inoculation, the 2 units were connected by a rectangular opening and the air circulation was forced by the ventilation system from unit A (inoculated pigs) to unit B (non-inoculated pigs). The A. pleuropneumoniae strain (biovar 1 serovar 9) was isolated in France from an outbreak of porcine pleuropneumonia. Two different infecting doses, 10(7) cfu/animal and 10(8) cfu/animal, were inoculated by intranasal route in 6 pigs of unit A. The infection spread quickly from the inoculated pigs to the non-inoculated pigs. Clinical signs were acute during the 4 d post inoculation: hyperthermia, respiratory distress and, sometimes, death (6 pigs of the unit A and 2 pigs of the unit B). All pigs seroconverted against A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 9 within 2 weeks. Lung lesions were severe: fibrinous pleurisy and lung hemorrhages in the acute stage, pleural adherences and focal pulmonary necrosis in the chronic stage. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was isolated from the tonsils and/or lungs in 16 animals. It could be also isolated from the air of the experimental unit. This study showed that A. pleuropneumoniae was readily transmitted through aerosol over a distance of at least 2.5 m. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10680652

  11. Analysis of major antigens of Haemophilus (Actinobacillus) pleuropneumoniae and related organisms.

    PubMed Central

    MacInnes, J I; Rosendal, S

    1987-01-01

    Outer membrane protein (OMP)-enriched extracts and whole-cell protein preparations of Haemophilus (Actinobacillus) pleuropneumoniae and related organisms were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Both the OMP-enriched and whole-cell protein profiles of Actinobacillus suis, A. pleuropneumoniae (NAD-independent biovar), A. lignieresii, and Pasteurella haemolytica were very similar to those of H. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 to 8. Antisera prepared against H. pleuropneumoniae typically recognized three major OMP antigens with approximate molecular weights of 17,000 (17K), 32K, and 42K in immunoblots of H. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 to 8, Actinobacillus spp., and P. haemolytica. Antisera prepared against Actinobacillus spp. and Haemophilus sp. "minor group" also recognized these 17K, 32K, and 42K antigens. Using absorbed sera, we demonstrated that the 17K antigen had an epitope (or epitopes) common to all the gram-negative organisms examined, including Escherichia coli. The 32K and 42K antigens had epitopes common to members of the family Pasteurellaceae but, in the case of the 32K antigen, also contained unique epitopes. These results provide a basis for understanding the lack of specificity of serodiagnostic tests for H. pleuropneumoniae infection and provide another line of evidence for the association of H. pleuropneumoniae with the genus Actinobacillus. Images PMID:3298061

  12. Prevalence of seroreactors to the 104-kilodalton hemolysin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in swine herds.

    PubMed Central

    Devenish, J; Rosendal, S; Bossé, J T; Wilkie, B N; Johnson, R

    1990-01-01

    A rabbit homologous polyclonal antiserum to the 104-kilodalton hemolysin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 strain CM-5 was specifically produced and used in an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect swine serum antibodies to this potentially important virulence factor. Sera from pigs experimentally infected with the most common disease-producing serotypes (serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 7) of A. pleuropneumoniae produced positive results in this ELISA. Of 144 serum samples collected from 10 herds free of pleuropneumonia and 155 serum samples from 11 herds with a history of the disease, 68 (47%) and 148 (95%), respectively, were found positive by the ELISA. In addition, pigs naturally infected with Actinobacillus suis produced antibodies which seroreacted in this ELISA. The results indicated that a high proportion of swine have antibodies seroreactive with the 104-kilodalton hemolysin produced by A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:2332472

  13. Influence of Serum and Glucose Additives on Survival of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Aerosolized from the Freeze-Dried State.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A

    1994-06-01

    Serum and/or glucose added to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae suspensions before freeze-drying significantly increased survival rates of bacteria in aerosols. Aerosols with predictable numbers of viable bacteria can be made as required in an aerosol infection model. Sucrose supplementation of impinger fluids increased recovery of viable A. pleuropneumoniae.

  14. Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in drinking water from pig farms.

    PubMed

    Loera-Muro, Victor M; Jacques, Mario; Tremblay, Yannick D N; Avelar-González, Francisco J; Loera Muro, Abraham; Ramírez-López, Elsa M; Medina-Figueroa, Alejandra; González-Reynaga, Higinio M; Guerrero-Barrera, Alma L

    2013-03-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the aetiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia and is normally transmitted by aerosols and direct contact between animals. A. pleuropneumoniae has traditionally been considered an obligate pathogen of pigs and its presence in the environment has yet to be investigated. Here, the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae was detected in drinking water of pig farms in Mexico using a PCR specific for the RTX toxin gene, apxIV. The presence of A. pleuropneumoniae in farm drinking water was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using an A. pleuropneumoniae-specific polyclonal antibody and by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Viable bacteria from the farm drinking water were detected using the Live/Dead BacLight stain. Additionally, viable A. pleuropneumoniae was selected and isolated using the cAMP test and the identity of the isolated bacteria were confirmed by Gram staining, a specific polyclonal antibody and an A. pleuropneumoniae-specific PCR. Furthermore, biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy in A. pleuropneumoniae-positive samples. In conclusion, our data suggest that viable A. pleuropneumoniae is present in the drinking water of swine farms and may use biofilm as a strategy to survive in the environment.

  15. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D. E.; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J.; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as “disease susceptibility”, in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001) than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to

  16. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs.

    PubMed

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D E; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001) than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to co-infection

  17. Efficacy of tilmicosin phosphate (Pulmotil premix) in feed for the treatment of a clinical outbreak of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Hoflack, G; Maes, D; Mateusen, B; Verdonck, M; de Kruif, A

    2001-11-01

    A double-blind randomized clinical trial was carried out to investigate the efficacy of tilmicosin (Pulmotil premix) for the treatment of a clinical outbreak of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in growing-finishing pigs. The effects of tilmicosin administration in the feed at 400 mg/kg and an injection therapy of clinically diseased pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline (Terramycine LA) at 20 mg/kg bodyweight were compared. Both groups, totalling 147 pigs, were compared during a medication period of 15 days and a post-medication period of 11 days by means of different clinical and performance parameters. During the medication period, the tilmicosin group showed a significant advantage with respect to the number of new disease cases (P < 0.01), and a non-significant advantage regarding the number of removed pigs (P = 0.16), the number of sick pigs that recovered (P = 0.27) and the time to recovery (P = 0.42). During the post-medication period, the pigs of the tilmicosin group showed numerical non-significant benefits (P > 0.05) with respect to the clinical parameters. During the overall study period (26 days), the average daily gain and the feed conversion ratio were both significantly (P < 0.01) better in pigs from the tilmicosin group compared with pigs from the oxytetracycline group. This study demonstrated that in-feed medication of tilmicosin at a dosage of 400 mg/kg is efficacious for the treatment of a clinical respiratory disease outbreak of A. pleuropneumoniae infection in growing-finishing pigs. Compared with oxytetracycline injection of clinically diseased pigs, the tilmicosin treatment is particularly beneficial in the prevention of new disease cases while increasing or maintaining the performance of the pigs.

  18. Detection and Identification of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Serotype 5 by Multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Terry M.; Ward, Christine K.; Inzana, Thomas J.

    1998-01-01

    Serotyping of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is based on detection of the serotype-specific capsular antigen. However, not all isolates can be serotyped, and some may cross-react with multiple serotyping reagents. To improve sensitivity and specificity of serotyping and for early detection, a multiplex PCR assay was developed for detection of A. pleuropneumoniae and identification of serotype 5 isolates. DNA sequences specific to the conserved export and serotype-specific biosynthesis regions of the capsular polysaccharide of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were used as primers to amplify 0.7- and 1.1-kb DNA fragments, respectively. The 0.7-kb fragment was amplified from all strains of A. pleuropneumoniae tested with the exception of serotype 4. The 0.7-kb fragment was not amplified from any heterologous species that are also common pathogens or commensals of swine. In contrast, the 1.1-kb fragment was amplified from all serotype 5 strains only. The assay was capable of amplifying DNA from less than 102 CFU. The A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular DNA products were readily amplified from lung tissues obtained from infected swine, although the 1.1-kb product was not amplified from some tissues stored frozen for 6 years. The multiplex PCR assay enabled us to detect A. pleuropneumoniae rapidly and to distinguish serotype 5 strains from other serotypes. The use of primers specific to the biosynthesis regions of other A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes would expand the diagnostic and epidemiologic capabilities of this assay. PMID:9620404

  19. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of marbofloxacin in the treatment of Haemophilus parasuis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in nursery and fattener pigs using Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Vilalta, C; Giboin, H; Schneider, M; El Garch, F; Fraile, L

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the theoretical clinical outcome of three marbofloxacin posology regimens in two groups of pigs (weaners and fatteners) for the treatment of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and Haemophilus parasuis (Hp) infection and the appearance of resistant bacteria due to the antibiotic treatment. The probability of target attainment (PTA) for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) ratios associated with clinical efficacy and with the appearance of antimicrobial resistance for fluoroquinolones at each minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) or mutant prevention concentration (MPC) were calculated, respectively. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR) was calculated for the three posology regimens against App and they ranged from 91.12% to 96.37% in weaners and from 93% to 97.43% in fatteners, respectively. In the case of Hp, they ranged from 80.52% to 85.14% in weaners and from 82.01% to 88.49% in fatteners, respectively. Regarding the PTA of the PK/PD threshold associated with the appearance of antimicrobial resistance, results showed that marbofloxacin would prevent resistances in most of the animals up to the MPC value of 1 μg/mL.

  20. Antibiofilm activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Karwacki, Michael T; Kadouri, Daniel E; Bendaoud, Meriem; Izano, Era A; Sampathkumar, Vandana; Inzana, Thomas J; Kaplan, Jeffrey B

    2013-01-01

    Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications. PMID:23691104

  1. Antibiofilm Activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Serotype 5 Capsular Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Karwacki, Michael T.; Kadouri, Daniel E.; Bendaoud, Meriem; Izano, Era A.; Sampathkumar, Vandana; Inzana, Thomas J.; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications. PMID:23691104

  2. Electron microscopic examination of capsular material from various serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, M; Foiry, B; Higgins, R; Mittal, K R

    1988-01-01

    The capsular material on PPLO broth-grown cells of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae representing serotypes 1 to 10 was visualized by transmission electron microscopy after polycationic ferritin labeling and also after stabilization with specific antibodies. All the isolates examined were covered with a layer of capsular material whose thickness varied between 80 to 90 nm and 210 to 230 nm when examined by immunostabilization. We were also able to visualize A. pleuropneumoniae in lungs of infected pigs and to estimate the amount of capsular material covering the cells. Our results indicate that differences in capsular structure exist among the different A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes, and this result may explain in part why the serotypes are not equally virulent. Images PMID:3384814

  3. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T; Langford, Paul R; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:26509499

  4. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T; Langford, Paul R; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5'-triphosphate 3'-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae.

  5. Role of (p)ppGpp in Viability and Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S8

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Yanhe; Bossé, Janine T.; Langford, Paul R.; Wang, Chunlai

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the cause of porcine pleuropneumonia. When the bacterium encounters nutritional starvation, the relA-dependent (p)ppGpp-mediated stringent response is activated. The modified nucleotides guanosine 5’-diphosphate 3’-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5’-triphosphate 3’-diphosphate (pppGpp) are known to be signaling molecules in other prokaryotes. Here, to investigate the role of (p)ppGpp in A. pleuropneumoniae, we created a mutant A. pleuropneumoniae strain, S8ΔrelA, which lacks the (p)ppGpp-synthesizing enzyme RelA, and investigated its phenotype in vitro. S8ΔrelA did not survive after stationary phase (starvation condition) and grew exclusively as non-extended cells. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the S8ΔrelA mutant had an increased ability to form a biofilm. Transcriptional profiles of early stationary phase cultures revealed that a total of 405 bacterial genes were differentially expressed (including 380 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes) in S8ΔrelA as compared with the WT strain. Most of the up-regulated genes are involved in ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis. The data indicate that (p)ppGpp coordinates the growth, viability, morphology, biofilm formation and metabolic ability of A. pleuropneumoniae in starvation conditions. Furthermore, S8ΔrelA could not use certain sugars nor produce urease which has been associated with the virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that (p)ppGpp may directly or indirectly affect the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae during the infection process. In summary, (p)ppGpp signaling represents an essential component of the regulatory network governing stress adaptation and virulence in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:26509499

  6. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, M; Larivière, S; Higgins, R; Martineau, G P

    1988-01-01

    Forty-five isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents using a microdilution method for the minimal inhibitory concentration determinations. These results confirmed the high prevalence of A. pleuropneumoniae strains resistant to antibiotics as reported earlier using the disc diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer method). While 36% of the isolates were resistant to the penicillins, 47% were resistant to chloramphenicol and 68% were resistant to tetracycline. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for the resistant isolates were approximately 32 times higher than those for the susceptible isolates to the above antibacterial agents. The isolates were in general weakly susceptible or resistant to spectinomycin, lincomycin, tiamulin and spiramycin whereas most of them were susceptible to gentamicin, trimethoprim and erythromycin. The susceptibility pattern was similar throughout the 1980 to 1984 period. The 14 serotype 5 isolates were more resistant to tetracycline but less resistant to chloramphenicol and the penicillins than the 28 serotype 1 isolates. PMID:3167716

  7. Immune response to an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae vaccine in swine

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Paul; Assaf, Robert; Boulay, Gaston; Désy, Marie

    1988-01-01

    Piglets vaccinated with an inactivated tetravalent vaccine (Pleurovac 4) against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2, 5 and 7, produced circulating antibodies after a first intramuscular injection and showed an anamnestic reaction after a second. The rise in antibody levels in vaccinated piglets was statistically significant when compared with those of the control group. The administration of 1 or 2 mL of vaccine did not lead to significantly different antibody levels. The specificity of the immune response is demonstrated by an increase in titer to all four serotypes in pigs given the tetravalent vaccine, but an increase in titer to only two serotypes in pigs given a bivalent vaccine (Pleurovac). PMID:17423199

  8. Effects of growth conditions on biofilm formation by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Josée; Pelletier-Jacques, Geneviève; Deslandes, Vincent; Ramjeet, Mahendrasingh; Auger, Eliane; Nash, John H.E.; Jacques, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Biofilm formation is an important virulence trait of many bacterial pathogens. It has been reported in the literature that only two of the reference strains of the swine pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, representing serotypes 5b and 11, were able to form biofilm in vitro. In this study, we compared biofilm formation by the serotype 1 reference strain S4074 of A. pleuropneumoniae grown in five different culture media. We observed that strain S4074 of A. pleuropneumoniae is able to form biofilms after growth in one of the culture conditions tested brain heart infusion (BHI medium, supplier B). Confocal laser scanning microscopy using a fluorescent probe specific to the poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA) polysaccharide further confirmed biofilm formation. In accordance, biofilm formation was susceptible to dispersin B, a PGA hydrolase. Transcriptional profiles of A. pleuropneumoniae S4074 following growth in BHI-B, which allowed a robust biofilm formation, and in BHI-A, in which only a slight biofilm formation was observed, were compared. Genes such as tadC, tadD, genes with homology to autotransporter adhesins as well as genes pgaABC involved in PGA biosynthesis and genes involved in zinc transport were up-regulated after growth in BHI-B. Interestingly, biofilm formation was inhibited by zinc, which was found to be more present in BHI-A (no or slight biofilm) than in BHI-B. We also observed biofilm formation in reference strains representing serotypes 3, 4, 5a, 12 and 14 as well as in 20 of the 37 fresh field isolates tested. Our data indicate that A. pleuropneumoniae has the ability to form biofilms under appropriate growth conditions and transition from a biofilm-positive to a biofilm-negative phenotype was reversible. PMID:19737507

  9. A PCR assay used to study aerosol transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from samples of live pigs under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Savoye, C; Jobert, J L; Berthelot-Hérault, F; Keribin, A M; Cariolet, R; Morvan, H; Madec, F; Kobisch, M

    2000-05-11

    The study describes a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The test is based on the amplification of the omlA gene coding for an outer membrane protein of A. pleuropneumoniae. To test the specificity of the reaction, 19 other bacterial species related to A. pleuropneumoniae or isolated from pigs were assayed. They were all found negative in the PCR assay. The detection threshold of the test was 10(2) A. pleuropneumoniae CFU/assay. The test was then applied to the detection of A. pleuropneumoniae from tonsillar biopsies and tracheobronchial lavage fluids of pigs without a culture step. The detection of A. pleuropneumoniae in these samples was performed by PCR, by conventional culture and by bacteriology with immunomagnetic beads. The number of samples that were found positive by PCR was almost three times higher than the number of samples from which A. pleuropneumoniae was isolated by both bacteriological techniques. The detection of A. pleuropneumoniae in these samples allowed us to demonstrate its aerosol transmission to pigs under experimental conditions. The trial involved 18 specific pathogen free pigs. Six pigs, infected with A. pleuropneumoniae, were located in a unit A, together with four non-infected animals (contact pigs). Eight non-infected pigs (reporter pigs) were located in a unit B, adjacent to A. We detected A. pleuropneumoniae in samples from infected animals but also from 'contact' (unit A) and 'reporter' (unit B) pigs. The results of this study show that the simple preparation of the samples followed by the PCR assay may be a useful tool for epidemiological studies. PMID:10781732

  10. Oral immunization against porcine pleuropneumonia using the cubic phase of monoolein and purified toxins of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Bermudez, Jorge; Quintanar-Guerrero, David; Lara Puente, Horacio; Tórtora Perez, Jorge; Suárez Güemez, Francisco; Ciprián Carrasco, Abel; Mendoza Elvira, Susana

    2014-11-28

    The main goal of this work was to obtain an orally administered immunogen that would protect against infections by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The Apx I, II and III toxins were obtained from the supernatants of cultures of serotypes 1 and 3 of A. pleuropneumoniae. The capacity of monoolein gel to trap and protect the Apx toxins, and the effect of their incorporation on the stability of the cubic phase were evaluated. The gel was capable of trapping a 400-μg/ml concentration of the antigen with no effects on its structure. Approximately 60% of the protein molecules were released from the gel within 4h. Four experimental groups were formed, each one with four pigs. All challenges were conducted in a nebulization chamber. Group A: Control (-) not vaccinated and not challenged; Group B: Control (+) not vaccinated but challenged; Group C: vaccinated twice intramuscularly with ToxCom (a commercial toxoid) at an interval of 15 days and then challenged; and Group D: vaccinated orally twice a week for 4 weeks with ToxOral (an oral toxoid) and challenged on day 28 of the experiment with a same dose of 2.0 × 10(4) UFC of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 and 3. The lesions found in group B covered 27.7-43.1% of the lungs; the pigs in group C had lesions over 12.3-28%; and those in group D over 15.4-32.3%. No lesions were found in the Group A pigs. A. pleuropneumoniae induced macroscopic lesions characteristic of infection by and lesions microscopic detected by histopathology. The etiologic agent was recovered from the infected lungs, tonsils and spleen. The serotypes identified were 1 and 3. An indirect ELISA test identified the antibodies against the Apx toxins in the serum of the animals immunized orally.

  11. Absence of TolC Impairs Biofilm Formation in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by Reducing Initial Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jianlin; Lau, Gee W.; Wen, Yiping; Wu, Rui; Zhao, Qin; Huang, Xiaobo; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Wen, Xintian

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, a major cause of economic loss in swine industry worldwide. TolC, the key component of multidrug efflux pumps and type I secretion systems, has been well-studied as an exit duct for numerous substances in many Gram-negative bacteria. By contrast, little is known on the role of TolC in biofilm formation. In this study, a ΔtolC mutant was used to examine the importance of TolC in biofilm formation of A. pleuropneumoniae. Surface attachment assays demonstrated the essential role of TolC in initial attachment of biofilm cells. The loss of TolC function altered surface hydrophobicity, and resulted in greatly reduced autoaggregation in ΔtolC. Using both enzymatic treatments and confocal microscopy, biofilm composition and architecture were characterized. When compared against the wild-type strain, the poly-β-1, 6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA), an important biofilm matrix component of A. pleuropneumoniae, was significantly reduced at the initial attachment stage in ΔtolC. These results were confirmed by mRNA level using quantitative RT-PCR. Additionally, defective secretion systems in ΔtolC may also contribute to the deficiency in biofilm formation. Taken together, the current study demonstrated the importance of TolC in the initial biofilm formation stage in A. pleuropneumoniae. These findings could have important clinical implications in developing new treatments against biofilm-related infections by A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:27681876

  12. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification targeting the apxIVA gene for detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wang; Pin, Chen; Haibing, Guo; Yang, Chen; Hui, Liu; Qigai, He

    2009-11-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel nucleic acid amplification method performed under isothermal conditions with high specificity and efficiency. We developed a diagnostic method based on LAMP for detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Using six specific primers targeting the apxIVA gene, the LAMP assay rapidly amplified the target gene within 30 min, requiring only a laboratory water bath for the reaction to occur. The resulting amplificon was visualized by adding SYBR Green I to the mixture. The results obtained from testing 15 A. pleuropneumoniae reference strains and other seven bacterial species strains showed that the LAMP was as specific as and 10 times more sensitive than nested PCR. Sixty-five tonsil samples were collected from 65 healthy pigs. All the samples were negative for A. pleuropneumoniae by immunomagnetic separation-based (IMS) bacterial isolation, nested PCR and LAMP, respectively. Meanwhile, 115 tonsil samples were also collected from 115 pigs with apparent respiratory problems. Twenty-two were positive by IMS bacterial isolation. All the samples that were positive by IMS bacterial isolation were also positive by nested PCR and LAMP. The LAMP assay demonstrated exceptionally higher sensitivity than nested PCR by picking up 14 additional positive cases (chi(2) test, P<0.0001); we concluded that LAMP was a highly sensitive and reliable method for detection of A. pleuropneumoniae infection.

  13. The antibacterial mechanism of berberine against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shuai; Li, Zhengwen; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Chen, Zhenzhen; Peng, Lianci; Qu, Jing; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lai, Xin; Wang, Guangxi; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Yin, Lizi

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated berberine to be a potential natural compound against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Liquid doubling dilution, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SDS-PAGE and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining were employed to elucidate the antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine. The minimal inhibitory concentration of berberine was 0.3125 mg/mL, and time-kill curves showed concentration and time dependence. The TEM micrographs displayed damaged cell wall, concentrated cytoplasm, cytoplasmic content leakage and cell death. SDS-PAGE and DAPI assays revealed that berberine can restrain DNA and protein syntheses. Berberine inhibited the synthesis of proteins associated with the growth and cleavage of bacteria and then blocked the division and development of bacteria. The compound ultimately induced cytoplasm pyknosis and bacterial death.

  14. Pathogenesis of porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia: Part I. Effects of surface components of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, H; Potter, A A; Campos, M; Leighton, F A; Willson, P J; Yates, W D

    1998-01-01

    To understand the role of non-secreted components of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in virulence, we investigated in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo pulmonary changes in pigs due to various A. pleuropneumoniae (serotype 1) fractions. Following 1.5 h incubation, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 2 crude extracts and bacterial culture supernatant (BCS) at high concentrations were cytotoxic to porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM), peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes, neutrophils and a cultured porcine bone marrow cell line. Heat-killed bacteria were cytotoxic to PAM after 24 h incubation. The 2 crude extracts were prepared by shaking either intact bacteria after removing culture supernatants (crude surface extract, CSE), or whole bacterial culture (crude surface plus culture supernatant extract, CSSE) with glass beads in saline at 60 degrees C. Further experiments showed that proteins from the bacterial membrane were partially involved in cytotoxicities of these 2 extracts. Both BCS and CSSE caused multivocal hemorrhage and neutrophil infiltration when inoculated into porcine lungs, but CSE did not. The lung:whole body weight ratios of the pigs treated with CSSE were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of pigs treated with BCS, CSE, or control solution. It is concluded that beside the secreted proteins, bacterial surface components including LPS and non-secreted proteins were cytotoxic in vitro; and secreted and non-secreted components act synergistically to cause lung lesions. PMID:9553707

  15. Changes in gene expression of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in response to anaerobic stress reveal induction of central metabolism and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Zhu, Jiawen; Yang, Kui; Xu, Zhuofei; Liu, Ziduo; Zhou, Rui

    2014-06-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important porcine respiratory pathogen causing great economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Oxygen deprivation is a stress that A. pleuropneumoniae will encounter during both early infection and the later, persistent stage. To understand modulation of A. pleuropneumoniae gene expression in response to the stress caused by anaerobic conditions, gene expression profiles under anaerobic and aerobic conditions were compared in this study. The microarray results showed that 631 genes (27.7% of the total ORFs) were differentially expressed in anaerobic conditions. Many genes encoding proteins involved in glycolysis, carbon source uptake systems, pyruvate metabolism, fermentation and the electron respiration transport chain were up-regulated. These changes led to an increased amount of pyruvate, lactate, ethanol and acetate in the bacterial cells as confirmed by metabolite detection. Genes encoding proteins involved in cell surface structures, especially biofilm formation, peptidoglycan biosynthesis and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis were up-regulated as well. Biofilm formation was significantly enhanced under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that induction of central metabolism is important for basic survival of A. pleuropneumoniae after a shift to an anaerobic environment. Enhanced biofilm formation may contribute to the persistence of this pathogen in the damaged anaerobic host tissue and also in the early colonization stage. These discoveries give new insights into adaptation mechanisms of A. pleuropneumoniae in response to environmental stress.

  16. Transcriptional Portrait of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during Acute Disease - Potential Strategies for Survival and Persistence in the Host

    PubMed Central

    Klitgaard, Kirstine; Friis, Carsten; Jensen, Tim K.; Angen, Øystein; Boye, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene expression profiles of bacteria in their natural hosts can provide novel insight into the host-pathogen interactions and molecular determinants of bacterial infections. In the present study, the transcriptional profile of the porcine lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was monitored during the acute phase of infection in its natural host. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacterial expression profiles of A. pleuropneumoniae isolated from lung lesions of 25 infected pigs were compared in samples taken 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours post experimental challenge. Within 6 hours, focal, fibrino hemorrhagic lesions could be observed in the pig lungs, indicating that A. pleuropneumoniae had managed to establish itself successfully in the host. We identified 237 differentially regulated genes likely to encode functions required by the bacteria for colonization and survival in the host. This group was dominated by genes involved in various aspects of energy metabolism, especially anaerobic respiration and carbohydrate metabolism. Remodeling of the bacterial envelope and modifications of posttranslational processing of proteins also appeared to be of importance during early infection. The results suggested that A. pleuropneumoniae is using various strategies to increase its fitness, such as applying Na+ pumps as an alternative way of gaining energy. Furthermore, the transcriptional data provided potential clues as to how A. pleuropneumoniae is able to circumvent host immune factors and survive within the hostile environment of host macrophages. This persistence within macrophages may be related to urease activity, mobilization of various stress responses and active evasion of the host defenses by cell surface sialylation. Conclusions/Significance The data presented here highlight the importance of metabolic adjustments to host conditions as virulence factors of infecting microorganisms and help to provide insight into the mechanisms behind the efficient

  17. RTX toxin genotypes and phenotypes in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae field strains.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, M; van den Bosch, J F; Jongenelen, I M; Loeffen, P L; Nielsen, R; Nicolet, J; Frey, J

    1994-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype reference strains and 204 A. pleuropneumoniae field strains representing all 12 serotypes and both biovars 1 and 2, obtained from laboratories from various countries worldwide, were analyzed for the presence of the toxin genes apxIC, apxIA, apxIB, apxID, apxIIC, apxIIA, apxIIIC, apxIIIA, apxIIIB, and apxIIID by DNA-DNA hybridization with specific gene probes. Expression of the toxins ApxI, ApxII, and ApxIII was assessed by immunoblot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. The results show that the patterns of apx genes and those of the expressed Apx toxins in biovar 1 field strains are the same as those of the genes and toxins of corresponding serotype reference strain. We found only three strains which had certain apx genes missing compared with the genes in their serotype reference strains. Analysis of the expression of the three toxins showed that nearly all strains expressed their apx genes and produced the same Apx toxins as their serotype reference strain. We found only one strain that did not produce ApxI, although it contained the apxICABD genes, and one strain which did not express ApxII but which contained apxIICA. Several field strains which initially showed that their serotype did not correspond to the apx gene profile of the reference strain and which had an unexpected virulence for the given serotype revealed that their initial serotyping was erroneous. We show that the apx gene profiles are inherent to a given serotype. The method cannot differentiate between all 12 serotypes. However, it allowed us to distinguish five groups of toxin gene patterns which showed pathological, toxicological, and epidemiological significance. None of the biovar 2 strains contained apxIII genes. The apxI and apxII genes in the biovar 2 strains, however, were the same as those found in the serotype reference strains of biovar 1. PMID:7852567

  18. Proteomic and immunoproteomic characterization of a DIVA subunit vaccine against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Protection of pigs by vaccination against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is hampered by the presence of 15 different serotypes. A DIVA subunit vaccine comprised of detergent-released proteins from A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2 and 5 has been developed and shown to protect pigs from clinical symptoms upon homologous and heterologous challenge. This vaccine has not been characterized in-depth so far. Thus we performed i) mass spectrometry in order to identify the exact protein content of the vaccine and ii) cross-serotype 2-D immunoblotting in order to discover cross-reactive antigens. By these approaches we expected to gain results enabling us to argue about the reasons for the efficacy of the analyzed vaccine. Results We identified 75 different proteins in the vaccine. Using the PSORTb algorithm these proteins were classified according to their cellular localization. Highly enriched proteins are outer membrane-associated lipoproteins like OmlA and TbpB, integral outer membrane proteins like FrpB, TbpA, OmpA1, OmpA2, HgbA and OmpP2, and secreted Apx toxins. The subunit vaccine also contained large amounts of the ApxIVA toxin so far thought to be expressed only during infection. Applying two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) we showed different isoforms and variations in expression levels of several proteins among the strains used for vaccine production. For detection of cross-reactive antigens we used detergent released proteins of serotype 7. Sera of pigs vaccinated with the detergent-released proteins of serotypes 1, 2, and 5 detected seven different proteins of serotype 7, and convalescent sera of pigs surviving experimental infection with serotype 7 reacted with 13 different proteins of the detergent-released proteins of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2, and 5. Conclusions A detergent extraction-based subunit vaccine of A. pleuropneumoniae was characterized by mass

  19. The genetic organization of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis region of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 14

    PubMed Central

    ITO, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    The genetic organization of the gene involved in the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 has been determined. The DNA region for the CPS biosynthesis of serotype 14 (cps14) comprised 9 open reading frames, designated as cps14AB1B2B3CDEFG genes, encoding Cps14A to Cps14G protein, respectively. Cps14A was similar to CpsA of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12; the Cps14B1 and Cps14B2 were similar to CpsB of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12, suggesting that CPS structure of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 would belong to Group I including A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4, 12 and 15. Surprisingly, the overall nucleotide sequence, deduced amino acid sequence, and the genetic organization of the cps14 were nearly identical to those of Actinobacillus suis. This study will provide the molecular basic knowledge for development of diagnostics and vaccine of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14. PMID:25648373

  20. Analysis of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ArcA regulon identifies fumarate reductase as a determinant of virulence.

    PubMed

    Buettner, Falk F R; Bendallah, Ibrahim M; Bosse, Janine T; Dreckmann, Karla; Nash, John H E; Langford, Paul R; Gerlach, Gerald-F

    2008-06-01

    The ability of the bacterial pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to grow anaerobically allows the bacterium to persist in the lung. The ArcAB two-component system is crucial for metabolic adaptation in response to anaerobic conditions, and we recently showed that an A. pleuropneumoniae arcA mutant had reduced virulence compared to the wild type (F. F. Buettner, A. Maas, and G.-F. Gerlach, Vet. Microbiol. 127:106-115, 2008). In order to understand the attenuated phenotype, we investigated the ArcA regulon of A. pleuropneumoniae by using a combination of transcriptome (microarray) and proteome (two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometry) analyses. We show that ArcA negatively regulates the expression of many genes, including those encoding enzymes which consume intermediates during fumarate synthesis. Simultaneously, the expression of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a component of the respiratory chain serving as a direct reduction equivalent for fumarate reductase, was upregulated. This result, together with the in silico analysis finding that A. pleuropneumoniae has no oxidative branch of the citric acid cycle, led to the hypothesis that fumarate reductase might be crucial for virulence by providing (i) energy via fumarate respiration and (ii) succinate and other essential metabolic intermediates via the reductive branch of the citric acid cycle. To test this hypothesis, an isogenic A. pleuropneumoniae fumarate reductase deletion mutant was constructed and studied by using a pig aerosol infection model. The mutant was shown to be significantly attenuated, thereby strongly supporting a crucial role for fumarate reductase in the pathogenesis of A. pleuropneumoniae infection.

  1. The Adh adhesin domain is required for trimeric autotransporter Apa1-mediated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae adhesion, autoaggregation, biofilm formation and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Yang, Shuxin; Zhai, Ruidong; Zhou, Liang; Sun, Changjiang; Pan, Fengguang; Ji, Qun; Wang, Yu; Gu, Jingmin; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng

    2015-05-15

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which is a highly contagious endemic disease of pigs. Adhesion is a critical first step in the infection process. Trimeric autotransporter adhesions (TAAs) have been identified as novel virulence factors; however, little is known on their roles in A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity. Here, our data show that YadA-like head region (Adh) of Apa1 was the optimal adhesion functional domain via segment expression and adhesion assays in vitro. Additionally, Adh induced partial protection against A. pleuropneumoniae 5b L20 and serotypes 1, 3, and 5a in mice. The deletion of Adh gene significantly decreased autoaggregation, biofilm formation and adherence to host cells in vitro. Furthermore, with delaying of clinical symptoms, reducing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lessening the lung injury after infection, Adh deletion strain (5bϕAdh) significantly reduced the pathogenicity to piglets. To elucidate the mechanism of lung injury, the differentially expressed genes in the lung tissues of piglets infected with the 5b L20 or 5bϕAdh strains were investigated using microarray analysis and validated by qRT-PCR. Compared with the 5b L20 infected piglets, 495 genes were differentially expressed in 5bϕAdh infected lung tissue (221 upregulated and 274 downregulated). Especially, the antigen processing and presentation gene IFI30 was increased following infection with the 5bϕAdh strain. Thus, Adh may enhance pathogenicity by depressing host immune recognition. We conclude that the head domain of the A. pleuropneumoniae trimeric autotransporter Apa1 regulates autoagglutination, biofilm formation, adhesion to host cells and pathogenicity.

  2. Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Atherton, Tom G; Walker, Stephanie; Williamson, Susanna M; Rogers, Jon; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Weinert, Lucy A; Holden, Matthew T G; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R

    2015-08-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a 7.7kb mobilisable plasmid (pM3446F), isolated from a florfenicol resistant isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, showed extended similarity to plasmids found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae containing the floR gene as well as replication and mobilisation genes. Mobilisation into other Pasteurellaceae species confirmed that this plasmid can be transferred horizontally. PMID:26049592

  3. Characterisation of a mobilisable plasmid conferring florfenicol and chloramphenicol resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Atherton, Tom G; Walker, Stephanie; Williamson, Susanna M; Rogers, Jon; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Weinert, Lucy A; Holden, Matthew TG; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a 7.7 kb mobilisable plasmid (pM3446F), isolated from a florfenicol resistant isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, showed extended similarity to plasmids found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae containing the floR gene as well as replication and mobilisation genes. Mobilisation into other Pasteurellaceae species confirmed that this plasmid can be transferred horizontally. PMID:26049592

  4. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Possesses an Antiviral Activity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Josée; Hernandez Reyes, Yenney; Burciaga Nava, Jorge A.; Gagnon, Carl A.; Jacques, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are often colonized by more than one bacterial and/or viral species during respiratory tract infections. This phenomenon is known as the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are pathogens that are frequently involved in PRDC. The main objective of this project was to study the in vitro interactions between these two pathogens and the host cells in the context of mixed infections. To fulfill this objective, PRRSV permissive cell lines such as MARC-145, SJPL, and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) were used. A pre-infection with PRRSV was performed at 0.5 multiplicity of infection (MOI) followed by an infection with App at 10 MOI. Bacterial adherence and cell death were compared. Results showed that PRRSV pre-infection did not affect bacterial adherence to the cells. PRRSV and App co-infection produced an additive cytotoxicity effect. Interestingly, a pre-infection of SJPL and PAM cells with App blocked completely PRRSV infection. Incubation of SJPL and PAM cells with an App cell-free culture supernatant is also sufficient to significantly block PRRSV infection. This antiviral activity is not due to LPS but rather by small molecular weight, heat-resistant App metabolites (<1 kDa). The antiviral activity was also observed in SJPL cells infected with swine influenza virus but to a much lower extent compared to PRRSV. More importantly, the PRRSV antiviral activity of App was also seen with PAM, the cells targeted by the virus in vivo during infection in pigs. The antiviral activity might be due, at least in part, to the production of interferon γ. The use of in vitro experimental models to study viral and bacterial co-infections will lead to a better understanding of the interactions between pathogens and their host cells, and could allow the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic tools. PMID:24878741

  5. Preparation, characterization, and immunogenicity of conjugate vaccines directed against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae virulence determinants.

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, W; Kadis, S

    1992-01-01

    Conjugate vaccines were prepared in an attempt to protect pigs against swine pleuropneumonia induced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (SPAP). Two subunit conjugates were prepared by coupling the A. pleuropneumoniae 4074 serotype 1 capsular polysaccharide (CP) to the hemolysin protein (HP) and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the HP. Adipic acid dihydrazide was used as a spacer to facilitate the conjugation in a carbodiimide-mediated reaction. The CP and the LPS were found to be covalently coupled to the HP in the conjugates as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and detergent gel chromatography analyses. Following a booster vaccination, pigs exhibited significantly high (P less than 0.05) immunoglobulin G antibodies against CP, LPS, and HP. The anti-CP and anti-LPS immunoglobulin G antibodies were found to function as opsonins in the phagocytosis of A. pleuropneumoniae by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, whereas antibodies to the HP neutralized the cytotoxic effect of the HP on polymorphonuclear leukocytes. No killing of A. pleuropneumoniae was observed when the effects of the antibodies were tested in the presence of complement. Thus, polysaccharide-protein A. pleuropneumoniae conjugates elicit significant antibody responses against each component of each conjugate, which could be instrumental in protecting swine against SPAP. Images PMID:1639471

  6. Preparation, characterization, and immunogenicity of conjugate vaccines directed against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Byrd, W; Kadis, S

    1992-08-01

    Conjugate vaccines were prepared in an attempt to protect pigs against swine pleuropneumonia induced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (SPAP). Two subunit conjugates were prepared by coupling the A. pleuropneumoniae 4074 serotype 1 capsular polysaccharide (CP) to the hemolysin protein (HP) and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the HP. Adipic acid dihydrazide was used as a spacer to facilitate the conjugation in a carbodiimide-mediated reaction. The CP and the LPS were found to be covalently coupled to the HP in the conjugates as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and detergent gel chromatography analyses. Following a booster vaccination, pigs exhibited significantly high (P less than 0.05) immunoglobulin G antibodies against CP, LPS, and HP. The anti-CP and anti-LPS immunoglobulin G antibodies were found to function as opsonins in the phagocytosis of A. pleuropneumoniae by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, whereas antibodies to the HP neutralized the cytotoxic effect of the HP on polymorphonuclear leukocytes. No killing of A. pleuropneumoniae was observed when the effects of the antibodies were tested in the presence of complement. Thus, polysaccharide-protein A. pleuropneumoniae conjugates elicit significant antibody responses against each component of each conjugate, which could be instrumental in protecting swine against SPAP. PMID:1639471

  7. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae genes expression in biofilms cultured under static conditions and in a drip-flow apparatus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the Gram-negative bacterium responsible for porcine pleuropneumonia. This respiratory infection is highly contagious and characterized by high morbidity and mortality. The objectives of our study were to study the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae biofilms at different stages and to develop a protocol to grow an A. pleuropneumoniae biofilm in a drip-flow apparatus. This biofilm reactor is a system with an air-liquid interface modeling lung-like environment. Bacteria attached to a surface (biofilm) and free floating bacteria (plankton) were harvested for RNA isolation. Labelled cDNA was hybridized to a microarray to compare the expression profiles of planktonic cells and biofilm cells. Results It was observed that 47 genes were differentially expressed (22 up, 25 down) in a 4 h-static growing/maturing biofilm and 117 genes were differentially expressed (49 up, 68 down) in a 6h-static dispersing biofilm. The transcriptomes of a 4 h biofilm and a 6 h biofilm were also compared and 456 genes (235 up, 221 down) were identified as differently expressed. Among the genes identified in the 4 h vs 6h biofilm experiment, several regulators of stress response were down-regulated and energy metabolism associated genes were up-regulated. Biofilm bacteria cultured using the drip-flow apparatus differentially expressed 161 genes (68 up, 93 down) compared to the effluent bacteria. Cross-referencing of differentially transcribed genes in the different assays revealed that drip-flow biofilms shared few differentially expressed genes with static biofilms (4 h or 6 h) but shared several differentially expressed genes with natural or experimental infections in pigs. Conclusion The formation of a static biofilm by A. pleuropneumoniae strain S4074 is a rapid process and transcriptional analysis indicated that dispersal observed at 6 h is driven by nutritional stresses. Furthermore, A. pleuropneumoniae can form a biofilm under low

  8. Purification and characterization of a protease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1, an antigen common to all the serotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Negrete-Abascal, E; Tenorio, V R; Guerrero, A L; García, R M; Reyes, M E; de la Garza, M

    1998-01-01

    A high molecular-mass proteolytic enzyme of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1, was purified from culture supernatants (CSN) by using DEAE-cellulose and sepharose-4B-gelatin chromatography. In 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with porcine gelatin, the protease showed a single band of activity of > 200 kDa. However, minor molecular-mass proteolytic bands were observed when the protease was electrophoresed in the presence of either 5% beta-mercaptoethanol, 50 mM dithiothreitol, or 0.25 M urea. Furthermore, when the > 200-kDa purified protein was passed through a sucrose gradient, several bands with proteolytic activity were found: 62, 90, 190, and 540 kDa. The proteolytic activity was increased in the presence of calcium or zinc and was not affected after being heated at 90 degrees C for 5 min. Proteolytic activities were also observed in CSN from all A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes and biotypes. The purified protease hydrolyzed porcine IgA and IgG in vitro. In addition, by immunoblot the protease was recognized by serum of naturally infected pigs with serotypes 1 and 5, and by serum of pigs experimentally infected with serotypes 1, 2, 8, or 9. Serum of a pig vaccinated with CSN of a serotype 3 strain also recognized the protease, but not sera of pigs vaccinated with a bacterin (serotype 1). Proteins from CSN of all the serotypes, which were precipitated with 70% (NH4)2SO4, were recognized by a polyclonal antibody raised against the purified protease. Taken together these results indicate that an antigenic protease is produced in vivo by all the serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. The results indicate that proteases could have a role in the disease and in the immune response of pigs infected with A. pleuropneumoniae. Images Figure 2A. Figure 2B. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5A. Figure 5B. Figure 6A. Figure 6B. PMID:9684047

  9. Expression and phylogenetic relationships of a novel lacZ homologue from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T J; MacInnes, J I

    1997-07-01

    To learn more about the genetics and physiology of the important swine pathogen, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, we cloned the lacZ gene by complementation of an Escherichia coli delta lac mutant. The A. pleuropneumoniae lacZ gene has an open reading frame of 3015 bp which could encode a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 117022. The deduced protein shares 26.8-34.8% identity with beta-galactosidases from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Sequences with homology to seven regions commonly found in beta-galactosidases are present and amino acids corresponding to active site residues Tyr-503 and Glu-537 in E. coli LacZ are also conserved; however, there is a leucine in the place of Gly-794, a residue which has been implicated in substrate recognition. The sequences flanking the A. pleuropneumoniae lacZ gene do not share homology with known transport or regulatory genes nor do they share homology with cAMP receptor protein (CRP) or LacI binding sites. Low levels of beta-galactosidase activity could be detected when the protein was expressed from a multicopy plasmid in E. coli delta lac and when it was measured in A. pleuropneumoniae. The level of activity was not markedly reduced in the presence of glucose. Although the A. pleuropneumoniae LacZ shares some features with other beta-galactosidases, its constitutive expression and an unusual active site residue suggest that it may have a unique function. PMID:9228778

  10. Growth of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is promoted by exogenous hydroxamate and catechol siderophores.

    PubMed Central

    Diarra, M S; Dolence, J A; Dolence, E K; Darwish, I; Miller, M J; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

    1996-01-01

    Siderophores bind ferric ions and are involved in receptor-specific iron transport into bacteria. Six types of siderophores were tested against strains representing the 12 different serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Ferrichrome and bis-catechol-based siderophores showed strong growth-promoting activities for A. pleuropneumoniae in a disk diffusion assay. Most strains of A. pleuropneumoniae tested were able to use ferrichrome (21 of 22 or 95%), ferrichrome A (20 of 22 or 90%), and lysine-based bis-catechol (20 of 22 or 90%), while growth of 36% (8 of 22) was promoted by a synthetic hydroxamate, N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine tripeptide. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (strain FMV 87-682) and serotype 5 (strain 2245) exhibited a distinct yellow halo around colonies on Chrome Azurol S agar plates, suggesting that both strains can produce an iron chelator (siderophore) in response to iron stress. The siderophore was found to be neither a phenolate nor a hydroxamate by the chemical tests of Arnow and Csaky, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the production of an iron chelator and the use of exogenous siderophores by A. pleuropneumoniae. A spermidine-based bis-catechol siderophore conjugated to a carbacephalosporin was shown to inhibit growth of A. pleuropneumoniae. A siderophore-antibiotic-resistant strain was isolated and shown to have lost the ability to use ferrichrome, synthetic hydroxamate, or catechol-based siderophores when grown under conditions of iron restriction. This observation indicated that a common iron uptake pathway, or a common intermediate, for hydroxamate- and catechol-based siderophores may exist in A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:8975614

  11. Clonal analysis of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae population in a geographically restricted area by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Møller, K; Nielsen, R; Andersen, L V; Kilian, M

    1992-01-01

    The genetic diversity among 250 isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from lungs of pigs with pleuropneumonia and from tonsils of apparently healthy pigs at slaughter was estimated by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The Danish strains were derived from both specific-pathogen-free and conventional herds. Sixty-six percent of the isolates belonged to three electrophoretic types (ETs) of a total of 37 ETs detected. While five biotype 2 isolates constituted a separate ET closely related to biotype 1 isolates, the type strain of the species (Shope 4074) belonged to its own ET, with a genetic distance of 0.30 from its nearest neighbor. Isolates of serotypes traditionally considered to have less pathogenic potential (serotypes 6, 10, and 12) from herds with acute outbreaks of pleuropneumonia belonged to the same ETs as isolates from apparently healthy pigs, suggesting that factors such as cross immunity and management may lead to divergent clinical results. Isolates from four herds harboring more than one serotype showed distinct profiles between the serotypes, indicating no or only limited chromosomal recombination among clones. Isolates from tonsils belonged to the same ET as isolates from lungs. The same ET was isolated from widely different parts of the world. Evidence from this study indicates that multilocus enzyme electrophoresis may be a valuable tool for the epidemiological analysis of A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:1551979

  12. Apa is a trimeric autotransporter adhesin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae responsible for autoagglutination and host cell adherence.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Longwen; Zhou, Liang; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Du, ChongTao; Gao, Yu; Ji, Qun; Yang, Shuxin; Wang, Yu; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng

    2012-10-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, and adherence to host cells is a key step in the pathogenic process. Although trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) were identified in many pathogenic bacteria in recent years, none in A. pleuropneumoniae have been characterized. In this study, we identified a TAA from A. pleuropneumoniae, Apa, and characterized the contribution of its amino acid residues to the adhesion process. Sequence analysis of the C-terminal amino acid residues of Apa revealed the presence of a putative translocator domain and six conserved HsfBD1-like or HsfBD2-like binding domains. Western blot analysis revealed that the 126 C-terminal amino acids of Apa could form trimeric molecules. By confocal laser scanning microscopy, one of these six domains (ApaBD3) was determined to mediate adherence to epithelial cells. Adherence assays and adherence inhibition assays using a recombinant E. coli- ApaBD3 strain which expressed ApaBD3 on the surface of E. coli confirmed that this domain was responsible for the adhesion activity. Moreover, cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays demonstrated that ApaBD3 mediated high-level adherence to epithelial cell lines. Intriguingly, autoagglutination was observed with the E. coli- ApaBD3 strain, and this phenomenon was dependent upon the association of the expressed ApaBD3 with the C-terminal translocator domain.

  13. A computational strategy for the search of regulatory small RNAs in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ciro C.; Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Witney, Adam A.; Gould, Kate A.; Langford, Paul R.; Bazzolli, Denise M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in gene regulation and are frequently connected to the expression of virulence factors in diverse bacteria. Only a few sRNAs have been described for Pasteurellaceae pathogens and no in-depth analysis of sRNAs has been described for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, responsible for considerable losses in the swine industry. To search for sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae, we developed a strategy for the computational analysis of the bacterial genome by using four algorithms with different approaches, followed by experimental validation. The coding strand and expression of 17 out of 23 RNA candidates were confirmed by Northern blotting, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing. Among them, two are likely riboswitches, three are housekeeping regulatory RNAs, two are the widely studied GcvB and 6S sRNAs, and 10 are putative novel trans-acting sRNAs, never before described for any bacteria. The latter group has several potential mRNA targets, many of which are involved with virulence, stress resistance, or metabolism, and connect the sRNAs in a complex gene regulatory network. The sRNAs identified are well conserved among the Pasteurellaceae that are evolutionarily closer to A. pleuropneumoniae and/or share the same host. Our results show that the combination of newly developed computational programs can be successfully utilized for the discovery of novel sRNAs and indicate an intricate system of gene regulation through sRNAs in A. pleuropneumoniae and in other Pasteurellaceae, thus providing clues for novel aspects of virulence that will be explored in further studies. PMID:27402897

  14. Surface Polysaccharide Mutants Reveal that Absence of O Antigen Reduces Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Hathroubi, S.; Hancock, M. A.; Langford, P. R.; Tremblay, Y. D. N.; Labrie, J.

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family and the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious lung disease causing important economic losses. Surface polysaccharides, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and capsular polysaccharides (CPS), are implicated in the adhesion and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, but their role in biofilm formation is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the requirement for these surface polysaccharides in biofilm formation by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. Well-characterized mutants were used: an O-antigen LPS mutant, a truncated core LPS mutant with an intact O antigen, a capsule mutant, and a poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA) mutant. We compared the amount of biofilm produced by the parental strain and the isogenic mutants using static and dynamic systems. Compared to the findings for the biofilm of the parental or other strains, the biofilm of the O antigen and the PGA mutants was dramatically reduced, and it had less cell-associated PGA. Real-time PCR analyses revealed a significant reduction in the level of pgaA, cpxR, and cpxA mRNA in the biofilm cells of the O-antigen mutant compared to that in the biofilm cells of the parental strain. Specific binding between PGA and LPS was consistently detected by surface plasmon resonance, but the lack of O antigen did not abolish these interactions. In conclusion, the absence of the O antigen reduces the ability of A. pleuropneumoniae to form a biofilm, and this is associated with the reduced expression and production of PGA. PMID:26483403

  15. Experimental model of swine pneumonic pasteurellosis using crude Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin and Pasteurella multocida given endobronchially.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, W B; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to develop and characterize a swine pneumonic pasteurellosis model by concurrent introduction of Pasteurella multocida type A and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae crude cytotoxin. After a series of preliminary experiments, a combination of 4 x 10(9) P. multocida and 4,000 toxic units of A. pleuropneumoniae crude cytotoxin was determined to produce optimal results. A total of 48 pigs were divided into four groups of 12 pigs each. The control group received buffered saline only. Four pigs from each group were randomly selected for necropsy 3, 7 and 14 days postinoculation (PI). Inoculation of pigs with P. multocida and A. pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin (group 1) resulted in moderate to severe pneumonia. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from pneumonic lesions, grossly normal lung, and bronchial lymph nodes of all group 1 pigs throughout the 14 day experimental period. Pathological changes typical of field cases of swine pneumonic pasteurellosis were produced. Pigs inoculated with P. multocida alone (group 2) had pneumonic lesions and P. multocida was reisolated from lungs at three days PI. Pasteurella multocida was not isolated from these pigs at 7 and 14 days PI, except for one pig in which an abscess developed in the thorax. Pulmonary lesions induced by A. pleuropneumoniae crude cytotoxin alone (group 3) were transient and resolved by seven days PI. Group 1 pigs had significantly greater lung lesion volumes than group 2 and 3 pigs at 3, 7 and 14 days PI. Statistical analysis indicated a significant interactive effect of P. multocida and A. pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin on the development of lung lesion volumes at 7 and 14 days PI (p < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. PMID:8143249

  16. Surface Polysaccharide Mutants Reveal that Absence of O Antigen Reduces Biofilm Formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Hathroubi, S; Hancock, M A; Bossé, J T; Langford, P R; Tremblay, Y D N; Labrie, J; Jacques, M

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family and the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious lung disease causing important economic losses. Surface polysaccharides, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and capsular polysaccharides (CPS), are implicated in the adhesion and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae, but their role in biofilm formation is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the requirement for these surface polysaccharides in biofilm formation by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. Well-characterized mutants were used: an O-antigen LPS mutant, a truncated core LPS mutant with an intact O antigen, a capsule mutant, and a poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA) mutant. We compared the amount of biofilm produced by the parental strain and the isogenic mutants using static and dynamic systems. Compared to the findings for the biofilm of the parental or other strains, the biofilm of the O antigen and the PGA mutants was dramatically reduced, and it had less cell-associated PGA. Real-time PCR analyses revealed a significant reduction in the level of pgaA, cpxR, and cpxA mRNA in the biofilm cells of the O-antigen mutant compared to that in the biofilm cells of the parental strain. Specific binding between PGA and LPS was consistently detected by surface plasmon resonance, but the lack of O antigen did not abolish these interactions. In conclusion, the absence of the O antigen reduces the ability of A. pleuropneumoniae to form a biofilm, and this is associated with the reduced expression and production of PGA. PMID:26483403

  17. A Transcriptome Map of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae at Single-Nucleotide Resolution Using Deep RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhipeng; Zhu, Jiawen; Xu, Zhuofei; Xiao, Ran; Zhou, Rui; Li, Lu; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the pathogen of porcine contagious pleuropneumoniae, a highly contagious respiratory disease of swine. Although the genome of A. pleuropneumoniae was sequenced several years ago, limited information is available on the genome-wide transcriptional analysis to accurately annotate the gene structures and regulatory elements. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has been applied to study the transcriptional landscape of bacteria, which can efficiently and accurately identify gene expression regions and unknown transcriptional units, especially small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), UTRs and regulatory regions. The aim of this study is to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae by RNA-seq in order to improve the existing genome annotation and promote our understanding of A. pleuropneumoniae gene structures and RNA-based regulation. In this study, we utilized RNA-seq to construct a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of A. pleuropneumoniae. More than 3.8 million high-quality reads (average length ~90 bp) from a cDNA library were generated and aligned to the reference genome. We identified 32 open reading frames encoding novel proteins that were mis-annotated in the previous genome annotations. The start sites for 35 genes based on the current genome annotation were corrected. Furthermore, 51 sRNAs in the A. pleuropneumoniae genome were discovered, of which 40 sRNAs were never reported in previous studies. The transcriptome map also enabled visualization of 5'- and 3'-UTR regions, in which contained 11 sRNAs. In addition, 351 operons covering 1230 genes throughout the whole genome were identified. The RNA-Seq based transcriptome map validated annotated genes and corrected annotations of open reading frames in the genome, and led to the identification of many functional elements (e.g. regions encoding novel proteins, non-coding sRNAs and operon structures). The transcriptional units described in this study

  18. A Transcriptome Map of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae at Single-Nucleotide Resolution Using Deep RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhipeng; Zhu, Jiawen; Xu, Zhuofei; Xiao, Ran; Zhou, Rui; Li, Lu; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the pathogen of porcine contagious pleuropneumoniae, a highly contagious respiratory disease of swine. Although the genome of A. pleuropneumoniae was sequenced several years ago, limited information is available on the genome-wide transcriptional analysis to accurately annotate the gene structures and regulatory elements. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has been applied to study the transcriptional landscape of bacteria, which can efficiently and accurately identify gene expression regions and unknown transcriptional units, especially small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), UTRs and regulatory regions. The aim of this study is to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae by RNA-seq in order to improve the existing genome annotation and promote our understanding of A. pleuropneumoniae gene structures and RNA-based regulation. In this study, we utilized RNA-seq to construct a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of A. pleuropneumoniae. More than 3.8 million high-quality reads (average length ~90 bp) from a cDNA library were generated and aligned to the reference genome. We identified 32 open reading frames encoding novel proteins that were mis-annotated in the previous genome annotations. The start sites for 35 genes based on the current genome annotation were corrected. Furthermore, 51 sRNAs in the A. pleuropneumoniae genome were discovered, of which 40 sRNAs were never reported in previous studies. The transcriptome map also enabled visualization of 5'- and 3'-UTR regions, in which contained 11 sRNAs. In addition, 351 operons covering 1230 genes throughout the whole genome were identified. The RNA-Seq based transcriptome map validated annotated genes and corrected annotations of open reading frames in the genome, and led to the identification of many functional elements (e.g. regions encoding novel proteins, non-coding sRNAs and operon structures). The transcriptional units described in this study

  19. Risk assessment of transmission of capsule-deficient, recombinant Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Inzana, Thomas J; Glindemann, Gretchen; Fenwick, Bradley; Longstreth, Janice; Ward, Daniel

    2004-11-30

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine pleuropneumonia. Live, non-encapsulated vaccine strains have been shown to be efficacious in preventing acute disease in pigs. Recombinant DNA technology has the advantage of generating defined mutants that are safe, but maintain critical immunoprotective components. However, some recombinant strains have the disadvantage of containing antibiotic resistance genes that could be transferred to the animal's normal bacterial flora. Using DNA allelic exchange we have constructed attenuated, capsule-deficient mutants of A. pleuropneumoniae that contain a kanamycin resistance (Kn(R)) gene within the capsule locus of the genome. Following intranasal or intratracheal challenge of pigs the encapsulated parent strains colonized the challenge pigs, and were transmitted to contact pigs. In contrast, the capsule-deficient mutants were recovered only from the challenged pigs and not from contact pigs. Each kanamycin-resistant colony type recovered from the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts of pigs challenged with the recombinant strain was screened with a probe specific for the Kn(R) gene. All probe-positive colonies were assayed for the specific Kn(R) gene by amplification of a 0.9 kb fragment of the antibiotic resistance gene by PCR. The 0.9 kb fragment was amplified from the recombinant A. pleuropneumoniae colonies, but not from any of the heterologous bacteria, indicating there was no evidence of transmission of the Kn(R) gene to resident bacteria. Following aerosol exposure of 276 pigs with recombinant, non-encapsulated A. pleuropneumoniae the recombinant bacteria were not recovered from any nasal swabs of 75 pigs tested or environmental samples 18 h after challenge. Statistical risk analysis, based on the number of kanamycin-resistant colonies screened, indicated that undetected transmission of the Kn(R) gene could still have occurred in at most 1.36% of kanamycin-resistant bacteria in contact with

  20. Cloning and expression of a cohemolysin, the CAMP factor of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Frey, J; Perrin, J; Nicolet, J

    1989-01-01

    The genetic determinant of the cohemolysin which is responsible for the CAMP phenomenon, a cohemolysis, of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was cloned in Escherichia coli. Total DNA from the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 type strain 4074 was used to construct a gene library in plasmid pUC18 in E. coli JM83. A total of 10,500 clones containing recombinant plasmids have been screened for hemolysis on blood plates. Fifty-five clones which showed a weak hemolytic response after 24 to 48 h of incubation were screened for the CAMP reaction with Staphylococcus aureus. This led to the identification of one clone which showed a positive CAMP reaction. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the recombinant strain expressed a protein with a molecular mass of 27,000 daltons, similar in size to the CAMP protein of the group B streptococci. Rabbit antibodies against the CAMP+ clone neutralized the CAMP reaction mediated by the E. coli strain containing the cloned CAMP gene as well as that of A. pleuropneumoniae. Antibodies raised against the cloned CAMP cohemolysin cross-reacted with Streptococcus agalactiae protein B. We designate the 27,000-dalton molecule CAMP factor protein and name its corresponding gene cfp. Images PMID:2659534

  1. Assessment of the efficacy of tilmicosin phosphate to eliminate Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from carrier pigs.

    PubMed

    Fittipaldi, N; Klopfenstein, C; Gottschalk, M; Broes, A; Paradis, M A; Dick, C P

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of in-feed medication with tilmicosin phosphate in order to eliminate or reduce the carriage of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in the tonsils of carrier pigs. Two groups of 6 carrier animals received either a non-medicated feed (control group) or feed medicated with 400 ppm of tilmicosin phosphate (treated group) for 30 d. Three sentinel pigs were then introduced in each group and left for 29 d. The presence of A. pleuropneumoniae in tonsils was monitored using several techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At the end of the treatment all of the control animals, but only 1 treated pig, were positive by PCR from tonsillar surface material. However, at necropsy, all control and most treated animals, as well as 1 sentinel animal, in both groups were positive by PCR from whole tonsils. In conclusion, under the experimental conditions, in-feed treatment with 400 ppm of tilmicosin phosphate significantly reduced the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae on the surface of tonsils but was unable to completely eliminate the organism from deeper tonsillar tissues and to prevent bacterial shedding by carrier animals.

  2. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of penicillin G induce biofilm formation by field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Hathroubi, S; Fontaine-Gosselin, S-È; Tremblay, Y D N; Labrie, J; Jacques, M

    2015-09-30

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. This is a highly contagious disease that causes important economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Penicillins are extensively used in swine production and these antibiotics are associated with high systemic clearance and low oral bioavailability. This may expose A. pleuropneumoniae to sub-inhibitory concentrations of penicillin G when the antibiotic is administered orally. Our goal was to evaluate the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of penicillin G on the biofilm formation of A. pleuropneumoniae. Biofilm production of 13 field isolates from serotypes 1, 5a, 7 and 15 was tested in the presence of sub-MIC of penicillin G using a polystyrene microtiter plate assay. Using microscopy techniques and enzymatic digestion, biofilm architecture and composition were also characterized after exposure to sub-MIC of penicillin G. Sub-MIC of penicillin G significantly induced biofilm formation of nine isolates. The penicillin G-induced biofilms contained more poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA), extracellular DNA and proteins when compared to control biofilms grown without penicillin G. Additionally, penicillin G-induced biofilms were sensitive to DNase which was not observed with the untreated controls. Furthermore, sub-MIC of penicillin G up-regulated the expression of pgaA, which encodes a protein involved in PGA synthesis, and the genes encoding the envelope-stress sensing two-component regulatory system CpxRA. In conclusion, sub-MICs of penicillin G significantly induce biofilm formation and this is likely the result of a cell envelope stress sensed by the CpxRA system resulting in an increased production of PGA and other matrix components.

  3. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody to a 110,000-molecular-weight hemolysin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, J N; Inzana, T J

    1990-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect swine antibody to a 110,000-molecular-weight hemolysin (110K hemolysin) of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal or mouse monoclonal immunoglobulin G to the hemolysin of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 strain J45, followed by hemolysin-rich concentrated culture supernatant, was used to bind swine antibody to hemolysin to microdilution plates. Sixty-nine serum samples from swine that were clinically normal, presented with clinical evidence of pleuropneumonia, were experimentally immunized or challenged, or were free of pleuropneumonia were tested, and their ELISA titers were compared with complement fixation (CF) titers. On the basis of serum samples from swine that were clinically normal and negative by CF, an ELISA titer of 1:320 or greater was considered positive. In comparison with CF, the sensitivity of the ELISA was 98.1% and the specificity was 90%. The two samples negative by CF and positive by indirect ELISA were, however, also positive for antibody to serotype 5 capsule by ELISA. Immunization of normal pigs with whole cells or purified hemolysin boosted titers 4- to 128-fold within 4 weeks. Immunoblotting demonstrated that the affinity-purified immunoglobulin G to hemolysin used for capture in the assay recognized only a 110K protein of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 to 7, although the reactivity was quantitatively variable between serotypes. Therefore, the indirect ELISA is capable of identifying animals infected with or exposed to most, if not all, serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. If an indirect ELISA titer of 1:320 or greater is considered positive, the assay can be a valuable diagnostic tool in both clinical and research laboratories. Images PMID:2380363

  4. Aerosol exposure of pigs to viable or inactivated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 induces antibodies in bronchoalveolar lining fluids and serum, and protects against homologous challenge.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Ganter, M; Petzoldt, K

    1995-11-01

    A dose-defined nose-only inhalation system for pigs was used to study the immunogenic and protective potentials of a single aerosol application of viable or killed Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9. Respiratory volumes were measured for each pig to calculate inhaled individual doses. Eight pigs inhaled 107 CFU A. pleuropneumoniae CVI 13261 reference strain for serotype 9. Another eight pigs received an identical dose of killed actinobacilli. After three weeks the pigs and nonexposed controls were challenged with 108 CFU of the homologous strain by aerosol. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) in pigs was performed during the experiment to obtain lavage samples for assessment of local antibodies. Isotype-specific antibody responses in serum and BAL fluids were measured by ELISAs based on whole-cell antigens. The protective efficacy of aerosol immunization was evaluated by clinical and post-mortem examinations. The controls developed fever and severe pleuropneumonia, whereas previously exposed pigs had less fever and less extensive gross pulmonary lesions. After the first aerosol exposure pulmonary IgM, and IgG antibodies reactive with A. pleuropneumoniae increased significantly in both aerosol exposed groups. IgA in BALF and serum concentrations of each Ig class were significantly increased in the group exposed to viable bacteria when compared to the non-exposed controls. After aerosol challenge a pronounced increase of systemic and pulmonary IgA, IgM, and IgG antibodies was detected in both exposure groups. Aerosol application of whole-cell A. pleuropneumoniae bacterins induced similar protective effects against aerosol challenge infection as administration of an identical dose of viable bacteria. Inhalation of A. pleuropneumoniae may lead to asymptomatic carriers in some pigs that could spread the disease under field conditions.

  5. Adh enhances Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity by binding to OR5M11 and activating p38 which induces apoptosis of PAMs and IL-8 release.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Zhang, Jing; Bao, Chuntong; Zhang, Hu; Che, Yanyi; Sun, Changjiang; Gu, Jingmin; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Richard, Paul Langford; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-04-05

    Members of the Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin (TAA) family play a crucial role in the adhesion of Gram-negative pathogens to host cells, but the immunopathogenesis of TAAs remains unknown. Our previous studies demonstrated that Adh from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is required for full bacterial pathogenicity. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against respiratory infections. This study compared the interactions between porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae (5b WT) or an Adh-deletion strain (5b ΔAdh) via gene microarray, immunoprecipitation and other technologies. We found that Adh was shown to interact with the PAMs membrane protein OR5M11, an olfactory receptor, resulting in the high-level secretion of IL-8 by activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Subsequently, PAMs apoptosis via the activation of the Fax and Bax signaling pathways was observed, followed by activation of caspases 8, 9, and 3. The immunological pathogenic roles of Adh were also confirmed in both murine and piglets infectious models in vivo. These results identify a novel immunological strategy for TAAs to boost the pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae. Together, these datas reveal the high versatility of the Adh protein as a virulence factor and provide novel insight into the immunological pathogenic role of TAAs.

  6. Adh enhances Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity by binding to OR5M11 and activating p38 which induces apoptosis of PAMs and IL-8 release

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Qin, Wanhai; Zhang, Jing; Bao, Chuntong; Zhang, Hu; Che, Yanyi; Sun, Changjiang; Gu, Jingmin; Feng, Xin; Du, Chongtao; Han, Wenyu; Richard, Paul Langford; Lei, Liancheng

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin (TAA) family play a crucial role in the adhesion of Gram-negative pathogens to host cells, but the immunopathogenesis of TAAs remains unknown. Our previous studies demonstrated that Adh from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is required for full bacterial pathogenicity. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against respiratory infections. This study compared the interactions between porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and wild-type A. pleuropneumoniae (5b WT) or an Adh-deletion strain (5b ΔAdh) via gene microarray, immunoprecipitation and other technologies. We found that Adh was shown to interact with the PAMs membrane protein OR5M11, an olfactory receptor, resulting in the high-level secretion of IL-8 by activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Subsequently, PAMs apoptosis via the activation of the Fax and Bax signaling pathways was observed, followed by activation of caspases 8, 9, and 3. The immunological pathogenic roles of Adh were also confirmed in both murine and piglets infectious models in vivo. These results identify a novel immunological strategy for TAAs to boost the pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae. Together, these datas reveal the high versatility of the Adh protein as a virulence factor and provide novel insight into the immunological pathogenic role of TAAs. PMID:27046446

  7. Characterization of bifunctional L-glutathione synthetases from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Actinobacillus succinogenes for efficient glutathione biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianhua; Li, Wei; Wang, Dezheng; Wu, Hui; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2016-07-01

    Glutathione (GSH), an important bioactive substance, is widely applied in pharmaceutical and food industries. In this work, two bifunctional L-glutathione synthetases (GshF) from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (GshFAp) and Actinobacillus succinogenes (GshFAs) were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3). Similar to the GshF from Streptococcus thermophilus (GshFSt), GshFAp and GshFAs can be applied for high titer GSH production because they are less sensitive to end-product inhibition (Ki values 33 and 43 mM, respectively). The active catalytic forms of GshFAs and GshFAp are dimers, consistent with those of GshFPm (GshF from Pasteurella multocida) and GshFSa (GshF from Streptococcus agalactiae), but are different from GshFSt (GshF from S. thermophilus) which is an active monomer. The analysis of the protein sequences and three dimensional structures of GshFs suggested that the binding sites of GshFs for substrates, L-cysteine, L-glutamate, γ-glutamylcysteine, adenosine-triphosphate, and glycine are highly conserved with only very few differences. With sufficient supply of the precursors, the recombinant strains BL-21(DE3)/pET28a-gshFas and BL-21(DE3)/pET28a-gshFap were able to produce 36.6 and 34.1 mM GSH, with the molar yield of 0.92 and 0.85 mol/mol, respectively, based on the added L-cysteine. The results showed that GshFAp and GshFAs are potentially good candidates for industrial GSH production. PMID:26996628

  8. Serotyping reanalysis of unserotypable Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates by agar gel diffusion test

    PubMed Central

    MORIOKA, Ayako; SHIMAZAKI, Yoko; UCHIYAMA, Mariko; SUZUKI, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    We observed increasing unserotypable (UT) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates using agar gel diffusion (AGD) test. To reanalyze their serovar, we performed rapid slide agglutination (RSA) test and multiplex PCR for 47 UT isolates. Of these, 25 were serovar 1 (UT-serovar 1), 20 were serovar 2 (UT-serovar 2) and 2 were serovar 15 (UT-serovar 15). We examined serotyping antigen extraction temperature to determine heat influence. UT-serovar 1 and 15 were influenced by heat, because their precipitation lines were observed in the case of low antigen extraction temperature. To investigate the relationship between antigenicity and genotype, we performed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis using UT-serovar 2 and 15. The predominant PFGE pattern of UT-serovar 2 was identical to that of serovar 2. PMID:26726101

  9. Oral immunization of pigs with viable or inactivated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 induces pulmonary and systemic antibodies and protects against homologous aerosol challenge.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Petzoldt, K; Lubitz, W

    1995-08-01

    A dose-defined aerosol infection of pigs was used to study the immunogenic and protective potentials of oral immunization with dead or live Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 reference strain CVI 13261 against an aerogenic challenge. Pigs were vaccinated with a single dose of 10(11) CFU of viable (n = 8) or inactivated (n = 8) A. pleuropneumoniae given orally in a gelatin capsule. After 3 weeks, vaccinated pigs and nonvaccinated controls were challenged aerogenically with a dose of 10(8) CFU of A. pleuropneumoniae CVI 13261. The protective efficacy of oral immunization was evaluated by clinical and postmortem examinations. Bronchoalveolar lavage in pigs was performed during the experiment to obtain lavage samples for assessment of local antibodies. Isotype-specific antibody responses in sera and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on whole-cell antigen. Oral immunization did not induce clinical side effects. After aerosol challenge, two animals of both vaccinated groups (25% in each case) showed a moderate fever for 2 days, whereas all four pigs (100%) of the nonvaccinated control group developed severe fever. In contrast to the controls, which developed severe pleuropneumonia, the vaccinated pigs had only mild pulmonary lesions. Three weeks after challenge, 13 of 16 vaccinated pigs (81%) were found to be free of pathomorphological changes of the lungs. From two of these pigs immunized with live bacteria we were able to reisolate A. pleuropneumoniae. A significant systemic and pulmonary increase in the concentrations of immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG antibodies reactive with A. pleuropneumoniae was detectable after aerosol challenge in both vaccinated groups. Immunization with viable bacteria was found to induce significantly higher concentrations of each Ig isotype in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and sera than immunization with inactivated A. pleuropneumoniae. These serological findings were

  10. Isolation and genetic characterization of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar K12:O3 strain.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroya; Matsumoto, Atsuko

    2015-01-01

    An atypical Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 12 strain, termed QAS106, was isolated from a clinical case of porcine pleuropneumonia in Japan. An immunodiffusion (ID) test identified the strain as serovar 12. However, the ID test also demonstrated that strain QAS106 shared antigenic determinants with both the serovar 3 and 15 reference strains. Strain QAS106 was positive in the capsular serovar 12-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, while the PCR toxin gene profiling and omlA PCR typing assays indicated that strain QAS106 was similar to serovar 3. The nucleotide sequence of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of strain QAS106 was identical with that of serovars 3 and 12, but it showed 99.7% identity with that of serovar 15. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that genes involved in biosynthesis of the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of strain QAS106 were identical to those of serovar 12 at the amino acid level. On the other hand, strain QAS106 would express putative proteins involved in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-polysaccharide (O-PS), the amino acid sequences of which were identical or nearly identical to those of serovars 3 and 15. In conclusion, strain QAS106 should be recognized as K12:O3, even though typical serovar 12 strains are K12:O12. The emergence of an atypical A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 12 strain expressing a rare combination of CPS and O-PS antigens would hamper precise serodiagnosis by the use of either CPS- or LPS-based serodiagnostic methodology alone. PMID:25387844

  11. ICEApl1, an Integrative Conjugative Element Related to ICEHin1056, Identified in the Pig Pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Rogers, Jon; Holden, Matthew T G; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    ICEApl1 was identified in the whole genome sequence of MIDG2331, a tetracycline-resistant (MIC = 8 mg/L) serovar 8 clinical isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. PCR amplification of virB4, one of the core genes involved in conjugation, was used to identify other A. pleuropneumoniae isolates potentially carrying ICEApl1. MICs for tetracycline were determined for virB4 positive isolates, and shotgun whole genome sequence analysis was used to confirm presence of the complete ICEApl1. The sequence of ICEApl1 is 56083 bp long and contains 67 genes including a Tn10 element encoding tetracycline resistance. Comparative sequence analysis was performed with similar integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae. ICEApl1 is most similar to the 59393 bp ICEHin1056, from Haemophilus influenzae strain 1056. Although initially identified only in serovar 8 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae (31 from the UK and 1 from Cyprus), conjugal transfer of ICEApl1 to representative isolates of other serovars was confirmed. All isolates carrying ICEApl1 had a MIC for tetracycline of 8 mg/L. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of an ICE in A. pleuropneumoniae, and the first report of a member of the ICEHin1056 subfamily in a non-human pathogen. ICEApl1 confers resistance to tetracycline, currently one of the more commonly used antibiotics for treatment and control of porcine pleuropneumonia. PMID:27379024

  12. Identification and characterization of a DNA region involved in the export of capsular polysaccharide by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, C K; Inzana, T J

    1997-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae synthesizes a serotype-specific capsular polysaccharide that acts as a protective barrier to phagocytosis and complement-mediated killing. To begin understanding the role of A. pleuropneumoniae capsule in virulence, we sought to identify the genes involved in capsular polysaccharide export and biosynthesis. A 5.3-kb XbaI fragment of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a J45 genomic DNA that hybridized with DNA probes specific for the Haemophilus influenzae type b cap export region was cloned and sequenced. This A. pleuropneumoniae DNA fragment encoded four open reading frames, designated cpxDCBA. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of cpxDCBA contained a high degree of homology to the capsule export genes of H. influenzae type b bexDCBA, Neisseria meningitidis group B ctrABCD, and, to a lesser extent, Escherichia coli K1 and K5 kpsE and kpsMT. When present in trans, the cpxDCBA gene cluster complemented kpsM::TnphoA or kpsT::TnphoA mutations, determined by enzyme immunoassay and by restored sensitivity to a K5-specific bacteriophage. A cpxCB probe hybridized to genomic DNA from all A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes tested, indicating that this DNA was conserved among serotypes. These data suggest that A. pleuropneumoniae produces a group II family capsule similar to those of related mucosal pathogens. PMID:9169799

  13. ICEApl1, an Integrative Conjugative Element Related to ICEHin1056, Identified in the Pig Pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Rogers, Jon; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Tucker, Alexander W.; Wren, Brendan W.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Langford, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    ICEApl1 was identified in the whole genome sequence of MIDG2331, a tetracycline-resistant (MIC = 8 mg/L) serovar 8 clinical isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. PCR amplification of virB4, one of the core genes involved in conjugation, was used to identify other A. pleuropneumoniae isolates potentially carrying ICEApl1. MICs for tetracycline were determined for virB4 positive isolates, and shotgun whole genome sequence analysis was used to confirm presence of the complete ICEApl1. The sequence of ICEApl1 is 56083 bp long and contains 67 genes including a Tn10 element encoding tetracycline resistance. Comparative sequence analysis was performed with similar integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae. ICEApl1 is most similar to the 59393 bp ICEHin1056, from Haemophilus influenzae strain 1056. Although initially identified only in serovar 8 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae (31 from the UK and 1 from Cyprus), conjugal transfer of ICEApl1 to representative isolates of other serovars was confirmed. All isolates carrying ICEApl1 had a MIC for tetracycline of 8 mg/L. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of an ICE in A. pleuropneumoniae, and the first report of a member of the ICEHin1056 subfamily in a non-human pathogen. ICEApl1 confers resistance to tetracycline, currently one of the more commonly used antibiotics for treatment and control of porcine pleuropneumonia. PMID:27379024

  14. Genetic and antigenic characteristics of ApxIIA and ApxIIIA from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 15.

    PubMed

    To, Ho; Nagai, Shinya; Iwata, Akira; Koyama, Tomohiro; Oshima, Atsushi; Tsutsumi, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Apx toxins produced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae are essential components of new generation vaccines. In this study, apxIIA and apxIIIA genes of serovars 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 15 were cloned and sequenced. Amino acid sequences of ApxIIA proteins of serovars 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 15 were almost identical to those of serovars 1, 5, 7, 9 and 11-13. Immunoblot analysis showed that rApxIIA from serovars 2 and 15 reacts strongly with sera from animals infected with various serovars. Sequence analysis revealed that ApxIIIA proteins has two variants, one in strains of serovar 2 and the other in strains of serovars 3, 4, 6, 8 and 15. A mouse cross-protection study showed that mice actively immunized with rApxIIIA/2 or rApxIIIA/15 are protected against challenge with A. pleuropneumoniae strains of serovars 3, 4, 6, 8, 15, and 2 expressing ApxIII/15 and ApxIII/2, respectively. Similarly, mice passively immunized with rabbit anti-rApxIIIA/2 or anti-rApxIIIA/15 sera were found to be protected against challenge with strains of serovars 2 and 15. Our study revealed antigenic and sequence similarities within ApxIIA and ApxIIIA proteins, which may help in the development of effective vaccines against disease caused by A. pleuropneumoniae.

  15. Immunoprotective Efficacy of Six In vivo-Induced Antigens against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae as Potential Vaccine Candidates in Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fei; Cao, Sanjie; Zhu, Zhuang; Yang, Yusheng; Wen, Xintian; Chang, Yung-Fu; Huang, Xiaobo; Wu, Rui; Wen, Yiping; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Ma, Xiaoping; Zhao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Six in vivo-induced (IVI) antigens—RnhB, GalU, GalT, Apl_1061, Apl_1166, and HflX were selected for a vaccine trial in a mouse model. The results showed that the IgG levels in each immune group was significantly higher than that of the negative control (P < 0.001). Except rRnhB group, proliferation of splenocytes was observed in all immunized groups and a relatively higher proliferation activity was observed in rGalU and rGalT groups (P < 0.05). In the rGalT vaccinated group, the proportion of CD4+ T cells in spleen was significant higher than that of negative control (P < 0.05). Moreover, proportions of CD4+ T cells in other vaccinated groups were all up-regulated to varying degrees. Up-regulation of both Th1 (IFN-γ, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were detected. A survival rate of 87.5, 62.5, and 62.5% were obtained among rGalT, rAPL_1166, and rHflX group, respectively while the remaining three groups was only 25%. Histopathological analyses of lungs indicated that surviving animals from the vaccinated groups showed relatively normal pulmonary structure alveoli. These findings confirm that IVI antigens used as vaccine candidates provide partial protection against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in a mouse model, which could be used as potential vaccine candidates in piglets.

  16. Microarray-based comparative genomic profiling of reference strains and selected Canadian field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Gouré, Julien; Findlay, Wendy A; Deslandes, Vincent; Bouevitch, Anne; Foote, Simon J; MacInnes, Janet I; Coulton, James W; Nash, John HE; Jacques, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes severe losses to the swine industry worldwide. Current commercially-available vaccines are of limited value because they do not induce cross-serovar immunity and do not prevent development of the carrier state. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations (M-CGH) were used to estimate whole genomic diversity of representative Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains. Our goal was to identify conserved genes, especially those predicted to encode outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins because of their potential for the development of more effective vaccines. Results Using hierarchical clustering, our M-CGH results showed that the majority of the genes in the genome of the serovar 5 A. pleuropneumoniae L20 strain were conserved in the reference strains of all 15 serovars and in representative field isolates. Fifty-eight conserved genes predicted to encode for outer membrane proteins or lipoproteins were identified. As well, there were several clusters of diverged or absent genes including those associated with capsule biosynthesis, toxin production as well as genes typically associated with mobile elements. Conclusion Although A. pleuropneumoniae strains are essentially clonal, M-CGH analysis of the reference strains of the fifteen serovars and representative field isolates revealed several classes of genes that were divergent or absent. Not surprisingly, these included genes associated with capsule biosynthesis as the capsule is associated with sero-specificity. Several of the conserved genes were identified as candidates for vaccine development, and we conclude that M-CGH is a valuable tool for reverse vaccinology. PMID:19239696

  17. Tissue reaction and immunity in swine immunized with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae vaccines.

    PubMed

    Willson, P J; Rossi-Campos, A; Potter, A A

    1995-10-01

    These studies were done to develop a subunit vaccine for swine that would protect against disease, but not create unacceptable tissue reactions at the immunization site. Swine were used to evaluate the local effects of subunit vaccines prepared from extracts of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 containing one of a wide variety of adjuvants. The antigen was an anionic fraction of a saline extract of A. pleuropneumoniae (ANEX). The adjuvants used were vegetable oils (peanut, sesame, canola, or corn oils, vitamin E, or Lipposyn II emulsion); mineral oil (Marcol-52) and other materials (aluminum hydroxide, polyethylene glycol, Quil-A, Amphigen, or Emulsigen-Plus). Two types of experiments were done. In the 1st set of experiments, pigs were given multiple simultaneous injections in different sites and euthanized on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, or 28. Tissues were examined for gross and histopathological lesions. In the 2nd set of experiments, 48 pigs were allocated to 6 groups and vaccinated twice with a vaccine containing ANEX antigen combined with one of various adjuvants. Antibody responses and protection from challenge were evaluated. Among the adjuvants that were tested, mineral oils induced protective immunity, although the mineral oil Marcol-52 resulted in severe tissue reactions. The vegetable oils induced little protective immunity, and some of them were quite irritating. The response to the other materials ranged from little irritation or protection induced by the vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide to effective protection without irritation after vaccination with ANEX/Amphigen or ANEX/Emulsigen-Plus combinations. In conclusion, swine were protected against disease by a subunit vaccine that did not create unacceptable tissue reaction at the immunization site.

  18. Tissue reaction and immunity in swine immunized with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Willson, P J; Rossi-Campos, A; Potter, A A

    1995-01-01

    These studies were done to develop a subunit vaccine for swine that would protect against disease, but not create unacceptable tissue reactions at the immunization site. Swine were used to evaluate the local effects of subunit vaccines prepared from extracts of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 containing one of a wide variety of adjuvants. The antigen was an anionic fraction of a saline extract of A. pleuropneumoniae (ANEX). The adjuvants used were vegetable oils (peanut, sesame, canola, or corn oils, vitamin E, or Lipposyn II emulsion); mineral oil (Marcol-52) and other materials (aluminum hydroxide, polyethylene glycol, Quil-A, Amphigen, or Emulsigen-Plus). Two types of experiments were done. In the 1st set of experiments, pigs were given multiple simultaneous injections in different sites and euthanized on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, or 28. Tissues were examined for gross and histopathological lesions. In the 2nd set of experiments, 48 pigs were allocated to 6 groups and vaccinated twice with a vaccine containing ANEX antigen combined with one of various adjuvants. Antibody responses and protection from challenge were evaluated. Among the adjuvants that were tested, mineral oils induced protective immunity, although the mineral oil Marcol-52 resulted in severe tissue reactions. The vegetable oils induced little protective immunity, and some of them were quite irritating. The response to the other materials ranged from little irritation or protection induced by the vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide to effective protection without irritation after vaccination with ANEX/Amphigen or ANEX/Emulsigen-Plus combinations. In conclusion, swine were protected against disease by a subunit vaccine that did not create unacceptable tissue reaction at the immunization site. PMID:8548692

  19. Secreted proteases from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 degrade porcine gelatin, hemoglobin and immunoglobulin A.

    PubMed Central

    Negrete-Abascal, E; Tenorio, V R; Serrano, J J; Garcia, C; de la Garza, M

    1994-01-01

    It was found that 48 hour cultures of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae secreted proteases into the medium. Electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels (10%) copolymerized with porcine gelatin (0.1%), of the 70% (NH4)2SO4 precipitate from the culture supernatants, displayed protease activities of different molecular weights: > 200, 200, 90, 80, 70 and 50 kDa. They had activity over a broad range of pHs (4-8), with an optimal pH of 6-7. All were inhibited by 10 mM EDTA, and reactivated by 10 mM calcium. They were stable at -20 degrees C for more than a month. The proteases also degraded porcine IgA and porcine, human, and bovine hemoglobin, although they appeared to be less active against the hemoglobins. The IgA was totally cleaved in 48 h, using supernatants concentrated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone or the 70% (NH4)2SO4. Extracellular proteases could play a role in virulence. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:8004545

  20. [Generation of nalidixic acid-resistant strains and signature-tagged mutants of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Shang, Lin; Li, Wei; Li, Liangjun; Li, Lu; Zhang, Sihua; Li, Tingting; Li, Yaokun; Liu, Lei; Guo, Zhiwei; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun

    2008-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a very important respiratory pathogen for swine and causes great economic losses in pig industry worldwide. Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is an effective method to identify virulence genes in bacteria. In this study, we selected nalidixic acid-resistant strains of APP serotypes 1 and 3 by in vitro cultivation, and used as receipt strains for constructing transposon mutants by mating with E. coli CC 118 lambdapir or S17-1 lambdapir containing mini-Tn10 tag plasmids pLOF/TAG1-48, with or without the help of E. coli DH5alpha (pRK2073). We screened mutant strains by antibiotics selection, PCR and Southern blot identification. Our data revealed that nalidixic acid-resistance of APP strains could easily be induced in vitro and the resistance was due to the mutation in the DNA gyrase A subunit gene gyrA. In the mating experiments, the bi-parental mating was more effective and easier than tri-parental mating. Different APP strains showed a different mating and transposon efficiency in the bi-parental mating, with the strains of serotype 1 much higher than serotype 3 and the reference strain of serotype 3 higher than the field strains. These data were helpful for the construction of STM mutants and pickup of virulence genes of APP. PMID:18338580

  1. Porcine mononuclear phagocyte subpopulations in the lung, blood and bone marrow: dynamics during inflammation induced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Ondrackova, Petra; Nechvatalova, Katerina; Kucerova, Zdenka; Leva, Lenka; Dominguez, Javier; Faldyna, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (MP) are cells of nonspecific immunity, playing an essential role in defense against bacterial pathogens. Although various MP subpopulations have been described in the pig, relations among these populations in vivo are unknown to date. The present study was aimed at describing porcine MP subpopulations infiltrating inflamed tissue of pigs under in vivo conditions. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) infection was used to induce an inflammatory response. CD172α, CD14, CD163, MHCII and CD203α cell surface molecules were used to identify MP by flow cytometry. Changes in MP subpopulations in the peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) compartments along with the analysis of MP appearing in the inflamed lungs were assessed to elucidate the possible origin and maturation stages of the infiltrating MP. The MP population migrating to the inflamed lungs was phenotype CD14+ CD163+ CD203α+/− MHCII+/−. Concomitantly, after APP infection there was an increase in the PB MP CD14+ CD163+ CD203α− MHC II− population, suggesting that these cells give rise to inflammatory monocytes/macrophages. The CD203α and MHCII molecules appear on these cells after leaving the PB. In healthy animals, the BM MP precursors were represented by CD14− CD163− cells maturing directly into CD14+ CD163− that were then released into the PB. After infection, an altered maturation pathway of MP precursors appeared, represented by CD14− CD163− CD203α− MHCII− MP directly switching into CD14+ CD163+ CD203α− MHCII− MP. In conclusion, two different MP maturation pathways were suggested in pigs. The use of these pathways differs under inflammatory and noninflammatory conditions. PMID:20519113

  2. Characterization of the omlA gene from different serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: A new insight into an old approach

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ciro César; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares

    2013-01-01

    The OmlA protein is a virulence factor of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important pathogen in pigs. The polymorphisms present in the omlA gene sequence of 15 reference serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae and non-serotypable isolates were assessed to determine the possible evolutionary relationship among them and to validate the importance of this gene as a molecular marker for the characterization of this bacterium. Divergence among the 15 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae probably resulted initially from two major evolutionary events that led to subsequent differentiation into nine groups. This differentiation makes it possible to characterize most of the serotypes by using bionformatics, thereby avoiding problems with immunological cross-reactivity. A conserved α-helix common to all the serotypes was most likely involved in connecting the protein to the outer membrane and acting as a signal peptide. A previously unknown gene duplication was also identified and could contribute to the genetic variability that makes it difficult to serotype some isolates. Our data support the importance of the omlA gene in the biology of A. pleuropneumoniae and provide a new area of research into the OmlA protein. PMID:23885207

  3. A 24-kDa cloned zinc metalloprotease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is common to all serotypes and cleaves actin in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    García-Cuéllar, C; Montañez, C; Tenorio, V; Reyes-Esparza, J; Durán, M J; Negrete, E; Guerrero, A; de la Garza, M

    2000-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia in swine. This bacterium secretes proteases that degrade porcine hemoglobin and IgA in vitro. To further characterize A. pleuropneumoniae proteases, we constructed a genomic library expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha, and selected a clone that showed proteolytic activity. The recombinant plasmid carries an 800-base pair A. pleuropneumoniae gene sequence that.codes for a 24-kDa polypeptide. A 350-base pair PstI fragment from the sequence hybridized at high stringency with DNA from 12 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae, but not with DNA from Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida A or D, or E. coli DH5alpha, thus showing specificity for A. pleuropneumoniae. The expressed polypeptide was recognized as an antigen by convalescent-phase pig sera. Furthermore, a polyclonal antiserum developed against the purified polypeptide recognized an A. pleuropneumoniae oligomeric protein in both crude-extract and cell-free culture media. This recombinant polypeptide cleaved azocoll, gelatin, and actin. Inhibition of the proteolytic activity by diethylpyrocarbonate suggests that this polypeptide is a zinc metalloprotease. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:10805246

  4. The Live Attenuated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Triple-Deletion Mutant ΔapxIC ΔapxIIC ΔapxIV-ORF1 Strain, SLW05, Immunizes Pigs against Lethal Challenge with Haemophilus parasuis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shulin; Ou, Jiwen; Zhang, Minmin; Xu, Juan; Liu, Huazhen; Liu, Jinlin; Yuan, Fangyan; Chen, Huanchun

    2013-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae both belong to the family Pasteurellaceae and are major respiratory pathogens that cause large economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. We previously constructed an attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 live vaccine prototype, SLW05 (ΔapxIC ΔapxIIC ΔapxIV-ORF1), which is able to produce nontoxic but immunogenic ApxIA, ApxIIA, and ApxIVA. This triple-deletion mutant strain was shown to elicit protective immunity against virulent A. pleuropneumoniae. In the present study, we investigated whether immunization with SLW05 could also protect against lethal challenge with virulent H. parasuis SH0165 (serovar 5) or MD0322 (serovar 4). The SLW05 strain was found to elicit a strong humoral antibody response in pigs and to confer significant protection against challenge with a lethal dose of H. parasuis SH0165 or MD0322. IgG subtype analysis revealed that SLW05 induces a bias toward a Th1-type immune response and stimulates interleukin 2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production. Moreover, antisera from SLW05-vaccinated pigs efficiently inhibited both A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis growth in a whole-blood assay. This is the first report that a live attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae vaccine with SLW05 can protect against lethal H. parasuis infection, which provides a novel approach for developing an attenuated H. parasuis vaccine. PMID:23220998

  5. The genetic organisation of the capsule biosynthesis region of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 6, 7, and 12.

    PubMed

    Jessing, Stine G; Ahrens, Peter; Inzana, Thomas J; Angen, Øystein

    2008-06-22

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the organisation of the genes (cps) involved in biosynthesis the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 6, 7, and 12 and to compare these to the corresponding genes previously described in other A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes. In serotypes 6 and 7 the sequenced DNA regions comprised five and four open reading frames, respectively, designated cps6ABCDE and cps7ABCD, whereas the sequenced DNA region in serotype 12 comprised only two open reading frames designated cps12AB. At the amino acid level, CpsA, CpsB, and CpsC of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 6, 7, and 8 contained a high degree of homology. At the amino acid level Cps6D revealed a high degree of homology to Cps8D, whereas Cps7D contained a high degree of homology to the Cps2D. The deduced gene product of the partially sequenced cps6E gene showed no homology to any deduced gene products of any cps genes of A. pleuropneumoniae investigated so far. None of the deduced gene products of the cps genes involved in encapsulation of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 6, 7, and 8 revealed homology to the deduced gene products of the cps genes of serotypes 1, 5A, and 12. For some genes, a local homology was found to genes probably involved in teichoic acid synthesis in other bacteria. The results obtained revealed a high degree of homology among the genes involved in CPS biosynthesis for serotypes 2, 6, 7, and 8 and a different group of homologous cps genes for serotypes 1 and 12. In some serotype 7 strains, including the serotype 7 reference strain, WF83, the cps genes were not located adjacent to the genes responsible for CPS export (cpx), probably due to genetic rearrangements.

  6. Experimental Identification of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Strains L20 and JL03 Heptosyltransferases, Evidence for a New Heptosyltransferase Signature Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally identified the activities of six predicted heptosyltransferases in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae genome serotype 5b strain L20 and serotype 3 strain JL03. The initial identification was based on a bioinformatic analysis of the amino acid similarity between these putative heptosyltrasferases with others of known function from enteric bacteria and Aeromonas. The putative functions of all the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae heptosyltrasferases were determined by using surrogate LPS acceptor molecules from well-defined A. hydrophyla AH-3 and A. salmonicida A450 mutants. Our results show that heptosyltransferases APL_0981 and APJL_1001 are responsible for the transfer of the terminal outer core D-glycero-D-manno-heptose (D,D-Hep) residue although they are not currently included in the CAZY glycosyltransferase 9 family. The WahF heptosyltransferase group signature sequence [S(T/S)(GA)XXH] differs from the heptosyltransferases consensus signature sequence [D(TS)(GA)XXH], because of the substitution of D261 for S261, being unique. PMID:23383222

  7. Pigs aerogenously immunized with genetically inactivated (ghosts) or irradiated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae are protected against a homologous aerosol challenge despite differing in pulmonary cellular and antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Katinger, A; Lubitz, W; Szostak, M P; Stadler, M; Klein, R; Indra, A; Huter, V; Hensel, A

    1999-08-20

    Aerosol immunization is a safe way to induce complete protection against pleuropneumonia in pigs caused by the lung pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In order to determine the local immune responses of vaccinees in concomitant with protection, lung lining fluid before and 3 weeks after immunization from pigs immunized three times with aerosols of either genetically inactivated ghosts which represent whole cell envelope preparations, or irradiated bacteria were examined following an homologous aerosol challenge. Specific antibody isotypes in the bronchoalveolar lavage were assayed by whole cell ELISAs. Total and relative numbers of cells including lymphocyte subsets were determined. In both vaccinated groups a net influx of plasma cells and lymphocytes, as well as a significant increase of specific IgG occurred. Concurrently, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was found to increase after aerosol immunization. The lymphocyte subsets of IgG+ and IgA+ cells were found significantly higher in the group immunized with irradiated bacteria when compared to pigs immunized with bacterial ghosts. The latter group showed a significant increase of IgA, IgM, and a net influx of lymphoid blasts and granulocytes in the bronchoalveolar lining fluid. Although differences between the local immune responses of both immunized groups occurred, a significant increase of specific IgG and a net influx of plasma cells and lymphocytes were found to be associated with complete protection against a homologous aerosol challenge infection.

  8. Viability of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in frozen pig lung samples and comparison of different methods of direct diagnosis in fresh samples.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, C B; Rodriguez Barbosa, J I; Gonzalez, O R; Tascon, R I; Rodriguez Ferri, E F

    1992-04-01

    A comparative study on different methods of diagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from both fresh and frozen pig lungs is described. A total of 196 lung tissues with pneumonic lesions were examined for culture isolation on chocolate blood agar, as well as for antigen detection by means of the coagglutination test, the immunodiffusion test and the indirect ELISA. These samples were subsequently frozen for 1 yr and then they were recultured. A. pleuropneumoniae was recovered from fresh lung specimens in 30 cases (15.3%) and from frozen samples in only two cases (0.9%). Such a different degree of isolation demonstrates that long freezing had an adverse effect on the viability of this organism in lung samples. A pleuropneumoniae detection was positive in 134 samples (68.4%) by at least one of the immunological techniques examined. The indirect ELISA was the most sensitive and specific test, with antigen detected in 125 lungs (63.8%). In comparison with the coagglutination and immunodiffusion tests, the sensitivities of the indirect ELISA were 95.8 and 93.7%, and the specificities were 67.0 and 63.4%, respectively.

  9. Detection of antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Stenbaek, E I; De LaSalle, F; Gottschalk, M

    1997-01-01

    An inhibition enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detection of antibodies against A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 (App-5) in pig sera, based on the inhibition of the binding of an App-5 specific monoclonal antibody was established. The monoclonal antibody (MAb 210-F11) was found to be directed against an epitope on the O-chain of App-5 LPS. In the inhibition EIA, highly purified App-5 LPS was used to coat microtitre plates. Serial dilutions of pig sera were added to the plates prior to the addition of the MAb 210-F11. The degree of binding of App-5 antibodies from pig sera was determined as the percentage inhibition of the MAb 210-F11. Pig serum from specific pathogen free (SPF) herds, from experimentally infected animals, and from acutely and chronically infected herds were tested. A serum dilution of 1/30 was found to be optimal, when using 50% inhibition as the discriminating inhibition percentage. No cross-reactivity was observed with serum from pigs infected with other App serotypes or bacteria isolated from the respiratory tract, such as A. suis and H. parasuis. The inhibition EIA will be used for surveillance of App-5 antibodies in SPF and conventional herds. Images Figure 1. PMID:9008793

  10. Molecular Analysis of an Alternative N-Glycosylation Machinery by Functional Transfer from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Naegeli, Andreas; Neupert, Christine; Fan, Yao-Yun; Lin, Chia-Wei; Poljak, Kristina; Papini, Anna Maria; Schwarz, Flavio; Aebi, Markus

    2014-01-01

    N-Linked protein glycosylation is a frequent post-translational modification that can be found in all three domains of life. In a canonical, highly conserved pathway, an oligosaccharide is transferred by a membrane-bound oligosaccharyltransferase from a lipid donor to asparagines in the sequon NX(S/T) of secreted polypeptides. The δ-proteobacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae encodes an unusual pathway for N-linked protein glycosylation. This pathway takes place in the cytoplasm and is mediated by a soluble N-glycosyltransferase (NGT) that uses nucleotide-activated monosaccharides to glycosylate asparagine residues. To characterize the process of cytoplasmic N-glycosylation in more detail, we studied the glycosylation in A. pleuropneumoniae and functionally transferred the glycosylation system to Escherichia coli. N-Linked glucose specific human sera were used for the analysis of the glycosylation process. We identified autotransporter adhesins as the preferred protein substrate of NGT in vivo, and in depth analysis of the modified sites in E. coli revealed a surprisingly relaxed peptide substrate specificity. Although NX(S/T) is the preferred acceptor sequon, we detected glycosylation of alternative sequons, including modification of glutamine and serine residues. We also demonstrate the use of NGT to glycosylate heterologous proteins. Therefore, our study could provide the basis for a novel route for the engineering of N-glycoproteins in bacteria. PMID:24275653

  11. Susceptibility testing of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Denmark. Evaluation of three different media of MIC-determinations and tablet diffusion tests.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, F M; Jensen, N E

    1999-02-12

    This study was conducted to compare the applicability of three different media in sensitivity testing of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by means of MIC and tablet diffusion tests. The media used were: modified PPLO agar, chocolatized Mueller-Hinton-II and Columbia agar supplemented with NAD. Seven antimicrobial agents were tested: ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tiamulin, trimethoprim + sulfadiazine and tylosin, against 40 randomly selected A. pleuropneumoniae isolates. In general, good agreement was found between results obtained with all combinations of media, most antimicrobials tested and the two-test systems. Some variations between media were observed for spectinomycin, tiamulin and tylosin. For ceftiofur and trimethoprim + sulfadiazine some isolates with low MIC-values were classified as resistant using tablet diffusion, indicating that the break points of resistance for these antimicrobials using the tablet diffusion tests need adjustment. Using current break points for resistance with MIC-determinations, all isolates tested susceptible to ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, penicillin, tiamulin and trimethoprim + sulfadiazine. A larger number of isolates tested resistant to spectinomycin and tylosin on all three media using both MIC determinations and tablet diffusion. PMID:10063535

  12. Genomic relatedness among Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae field strains of sterotypes 1 and 5 isolated from healthy and diseased pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Chatellier, S; Harel, J; Dugourd, D; Chevallier, B; Kobisch, M; Gottschalk, M

    1999-01-01

    Forty-four Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates recovered from both healthy and diseased pigs were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and apx toxin gene typing. Nine RAPD types and 14 PFGE patterns were identified. No common RAPD or PFGE patterns were found between strains of serotype 1 and those of serotype 5. The RAPD analysis indicated that the 15 serotype 1 strains isolated from diseased pigs were assigned to 4 RAPD types, with 66% of strains characterized by the same RAPD type. By contrast, the 5 strains of serotype 1 isolated from healthy carriers were dispersed in 4 RAPD types. These data suggest that the diversity of strains isolated from healthy pigs could be higher than that of strains recovered from diseased pigs. In addition, all serotype 5 strains exhibited a unique RAPD type. Unlike RAPD, PFGE analysis allowed discrimination among isolates of serotype 1 and among those of serotype 5. All but 3 isolates showed the same apx genotype as their respective serotype reference strain. These data indicate that RAPD analysis is a valuable rapid tool for routine subtyping of strains of serotype 1. For strains of serotype 5, a combination of several typing methods, such as PFGE and apx gene typing, is needed to provide useful information on the molecular epidemiology of swine pleuropneumonia. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. PMID:10480458

  13. Magnetic beads-based enzymatic spectrofluorometric assay for rapid and sensitive detection of antibody against ApxIVA of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Li, Fang; Yang, Huicui; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Kaihong; Zhou, Rui; Hu, Yonggang

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, a simple, easily-operated and enzyme-amplified fluorescence immunoassay method using magnetic particles for the detection of antibody against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) has been presented. The A protein of APP Repeats-in-Toxin IV (ApxIVA) with high specificity to the APP species was immobilized onto the magnetic bead surfaces. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP), which can catalyze the substrate 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (p-HPA), generating fluorescent bi-p, p'-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (DBDA), was selected as an enzymatic-amplified tracer. The ApxIVA antibody was detected for the presence of APP infection by measuring the fluorescence intensity of DBDA. Under optimal conditions, the calibration plot obtained for standard positive serum was approximately linear within the dilution range 1:160-1:5120. The limit of detection (LOD) for the assay was 1:10240, considerably lower than that of ApxIVA-ELISA (1:320) (S/N=3). A series of repeatability measurements of using 1:320-fold diluted standard positive serum gave reproducible results with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.8% (n=11). The ability of the immunosensor to analyze clinical samples was tested on porcine sera. The immunosensor yielded an efficiency of 89.7%, sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 89.3% compared with ApxIVA-ELISA.

  14. Cloning and characterization of the gene coding for NADPH-sulfite reductase hemoprotein from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and use of the protein product as a vaccine.

    PubMed

    Willson, P J; Gerlach, G F; Klashinsky, S; Potter, A A

    2001-10-01

    An expression library was constructed from an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 clinical isolate and screened with serum produced in pigs that had been vaccinated with the anionic fraction of a sodium chloride extract. One E. coli transformant was isolated that produced a large amount of a protein with an electrophoretic mobility of about 67,000 molecular mass. The A. pleuropneumoniae-derived DNA encoding the protein was localized and characterized by restriction enzyme digestion and nucleotide sequence analysis which showed strong homology with the cysI gene of E. coli. One open reading frame of 1764 bases in length was detected which encoded a cysI protein from serotype 1, with a calculated molecular mass of 66,678. The DNA encoding the protein was labeled with radio-isotope and the homologous gene was isolated from an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a library. The serotype 5a gene was the same length, but the cysI protein from serotype 5a was slightly larger (66,849) due to 8 substitutions in the amino acid sequence. Expression plasmids containing cysI from either serotype of A. pleuropneumoniae complemented an E. coli cysI mutant. Pigs vaccinated with the recombinant cysI were protected from challenge with A. pleuropneumoniae of the homologous serotype.

  15. The Lon protease homologue LonA, not LonC, contributes to the stress tolerance and biofilm formation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fang; Li, Gang; Zhang, Yanhe; Zhou, Long; Liu, Shuanghong; Liu, Siguo; Wang, Chunlai

    2016-04-01

    Lon proteases are a family of ATP-dependent proteases that are involved in the degradation of abnormal proteins in bacteria exposed to adverse environmental stress. An analysis of the genome sequence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae revealed the unusual presence of two putative ATP-dependent Lon homologues, LonA and LonC. Sequence comparisons indicated that LonA has the classical domain organization of the LonA subfamily, which includes the N-terminal domain, central ATPase (AAA) domain, and C-terminal proteolytic (P) domain. LonC belongs to the recently classified LonC subfamily, which includes Lon proteases that contain neither the N-terminal domain of LonA nor the transmembrane region that is present only in LonB subfamily members. To investigate the roles of LonA and LonC in A. pleuropneumoniae, mutants with deletions in the lonA and lonC genes were constructed. The impaired growth of the △lonA mutant exposed to low and high temperatures and osmotic and oxidative stress conditions indicates that the LonA protease is required for the stress tolerance of A. pleuropneumoniae. Furthermore, the △lonA mutant exhibited significantly reduced biofilm formation compared to the wild-type strain. However, no significant differences in stress responses or biofilm formation were observed between the △lonC mutant and the wild-type strain. The △lonA mutant exhibited reduced colonization ability and attenuated virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae in the BALB/c mouse model compared to the wild-type strain. Disruption of lonC gene did not significantly influence the colonization and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae. The data presented in this study illustrate that the LonA protease, but not the LonC protease, is required for the stress tolerance, biofilm formation and pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae.

  16. Immunological study of an attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium expressing ApxIA, ApxIIA, ApxIIIA and OmpA of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang-Youel; Choi, Yoonyoung; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium strain expressing the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae antigens, ApxIA, ApxIIA, ApxIIIA and OmpA, was previously constructed as a vaccine candidate for porcine pleuropneumonia. This strain was a live attenuated (∆lon∆cpxR∆asd)Salmonella as a delivery host and contained a vector containing asd. An immunological study of lymphocyte proliferation, T-lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in the splenocytes of a mouse model was carried out after stimulation with the candidate Salmonella Typhimurium by intranasal inoculation. The splenic lymphocyte proliferation and the levels of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-12 of the inoculated mice were significantly increased, and the T- and B-cell populations were also elevated. Collectively, the candidate may efficiently induce the Th1- and Th2-type immune responses.

  17. Oral and aerosol immunization with viable or inactivated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae bacteria: antibody response to capsular polysaccharides in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and sera of pigs.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A; Pabst, R; Bunka, S; Petzoldt, K

    1994-04-01

    To investigate the antibody response after local application of lung-pathogenic bacteria, pigs were immunized with viable or inactivated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by the oral and aerogenous route. After 3 weeks class-specific immunoglobulins against purified A. pleuropneumoniae capsular polysaccharides (CP) were determined in serum and BALF by ELISA. A significant increase of IgA antibodies was found in BALF but not in sera of all immunized pigs. Oral immunization with viable A. pleuropneumoniae and aerosol immunization with either viable or inactivated bacteria resulted in a significant increase of IgG antibodies to the CP antigen in BALF, whereas only aerosol exposure to viable bacteria resulted in a significant increase in IgG antibodies in serum. A significant increase in anti-CP IgM in BALF was observed after aerosol exposure but not after oral immunization. IgM antibodies towards CP increased significantly by both routes of immunization with viable bacteria. The anti-CP activity of all three isotypes in sera and BALF was low in all groups compared with the positive controls, although inoculation of viable A. pleuropneumoniae led to higher levels of antibody concentration than inactivated bacteria. Our results indicate a traffic of primed lymphocytes from the gut into the bronchoalveolar airways and further support the hypothesis that polysaccharide-specific B cells may functionally mature at the mucosal surfaces.

  18. Optimization and standardization of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol for serodiagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5.

    PubMed Central

    Trottier, Y L; Wright, P F; Larivière, S

    1992-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol has been optimized with special emphasis given to assay standardization and quality control. Technical aspects such as choice of a microplate, antigen immobilization, buffer composition, optimal screening dilution of sera, and kinetics of the enzymatic reaction were studied and evaluated in order to design a standard protocol offering maximal analytical sensitivity and specificity, as well as to obtain minimal within- and between-plate variability. Among the 27 plates tested, the Nunc 475-094 and 269-620 immunoplates were found to be the best in terms of high positive-to-negative ratio and low variability. No significant differences in antigen immobilization were found by using buffers of various compositions or pHs; however, the presence of magnesium ions (Mg2+; 0.02 M) resulted in a twofold increase in nonspecific background. An optimal screening dilution of sera was established at 1:200. A 1-h incubation period for test serum was found to be optimal. Maximum enzymatic activity for peroxidase was obtained by adjusting both substrate (H2O2) and hydrogen donor [2,2' -azinobis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline sulfonic acid)] concentrations to 4 and 1 mM, respectively. To control between-plate variability, a timing protocol was adopted. Within-plate variability was also controlled by using a sample placement configuration pattern. Sliding scales were determined by repeated testing of a cross section of samples to set acceptance limits for both within- and between-plate variability. These limits were used in a quality control program to monitor assay performance. The results obtained suggest that this standardized protocol might be useful in the serodiagnosis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. PMID:1734068

  19. Epidemiology of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs: a survey of Ontario Pork Producers, 1981.

    PubMed Central

    Rosendal, S; Mitchell, W R

    1983-01-01

    Information about factors associated with the spread and the effect of pleuropneumonia was obtained from 418 pork producers in Ontario, who returned a mailed questionnaire. The overall herd prevalence of pleuropneumonia was 23.2%. The prevalence among herds with feeder pigs only was 34.3% and 16% among sow herds. The chance of pleuropneumonia breaking out in a herd was increased with increased traffic of pigs into the herd. The source of supplementary stock had an important effect on the chance of pleuropneumonia occurring. The highest risk resulted from introducing stock from salesbarns and the lowest from stock of health status known to the purchaser and supplied by one breeder only. Mortality, primarily among feeder pigs, and unthriftiness were the major effects of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae infection. Stress, such as crowding or inclement climatic conditions, was associated with outbreaks of pleuropneumonia. This would suggest that the infection with H. pleuropneumoniae can be subclinical until stress precipitates the disease. PMID:6831302

  20. Antibody response of swine to outer membrane components of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae during infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, V J; Ross, R F

    1986-01-01

    Sera from pigs infected with Haemophilus (Actinobacillus) pleuropneumoniae were tested for antibodies to outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of the organism by immunoblotting. Convalescent sera were produced in naturally born, colostrum-fed pigs and in cesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs given H. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 intranasally twice at 5-week intervals. Sera, collected at weekly intervals, were reacted with Sarkosyl-insoluble, OMP-enriched preparations of H. pleuropneumoniae which had been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose. Antibodies were detected to OMPs with an apparent molecular weight of 16,500 (16.5K OMP); to 29K, 38.5K, 43.5K, 45K, 49.5K, and 66.5K OMPs; and to several high-molecular-weight (greater than or equal to 94,000) OMPs, but not to the major 42K OMP. Antibodies to the heat-modifiable OMP (29K/43.5K) and the 38.5K OMP were detected in sera from noninfected pigs. Antibodies were also detected to two broad 54,000- and 95,000-molecular-weight bands which did not stain with Coomassie blue, stained with silver nitrate, resisted proteinase K digestion, and were eliminated by oxidation with sodium metaperiodate. This indicates that the 54,000- and 95,000-molecular-weight bands represent polysaccharide, possibly capsular or lipopolysaccharide immunogens. Adsorption of sera with cells from the homologous serotype 5 strain removed antibodies to the 45K, 49.5K, 66.5K, and greater than or equal to 94K OMPs and to the two polysaccharide bands, indicating that these antibodies were directed primarily to surface-exposed epitopes. When tested with OMP preparations from other serotype 5 strains, heterogeneity was apparent, both in the reactions with OMPs and with the polysaccharide bands. Silver staining of proteinase K-treated, whole-cell lysates from serotype 5 strains also indicated variable expression of the polysaccharide bands. Sera also reacted with OMPs from

  1. Minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoints and disk diffusion inhibitory zone interpretive criteria for tilmicosin susceptibility testing against Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae associated with porcine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Shryock, Thomas R; Staples, J Mitchell; DeRosa, David C

    2002-09-01

    Tilmicosin is a novel macrolide antibiotic developed for exclusive use in veterinary medicine. Tilmicosin has been approved as a feed premix to control porcine respiratory disease associated with Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The development of antimicrobial susceptibility testing guidelines for tilmicosin was predicated on the relationship of clinical efficacy studies that demonstrated a favorable therapeutic outcome, on pharmacokinetic data, and on in vitro test data, as recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). The approved breakpoints for the minimum inhibitory concentration dilution testing for both species are resistant, > or = 32 microg/ml, and susceptible, < or = 16 microg/ml. The zone of inhibition interpretive criteria for disk diffusion testing with a 15-microg tilmicosin disk are resistant, < or = 10 mm, and susceptible, > or = 11 mm.

  2. The Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae HMW1C-Like Glycosyltransferase Mediates N-Linked Glycosylation of the Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 Adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Grass, Susan; Paek, Seonghee; St. Geme, Joseph W.; Yeo, Hye-Jeong

    2010-01-01

    The Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 adhesin is an important virulence exoprotein that is secreted via the two-partner secretion pathway and is glycosylated at multiple asparagine residues in consensus N-linked sequons. Unlike the heavily branched glycans found in eukaryotic N-linked glycoproteins, the modifying glycan structures in HMW1 are mono-hexoses or di-hexoses. Recent work demonstrated that the H. influenzae HMW1C protein is the glycosyltransferase responsible for transferring glucose and galactose to the acceptor sites of HMW1. An Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae protein designated ApHMW1C shares high-level homology with HMW1C and has been assigned to the GT41 family, which otherwise contains only O-glycosyltransferases. In this study, we demonstrated that ApHMW1C has N-glycosyltransferase activity and is able to transfer glucose and galactose to known asparagine sites in HMW1. In addition, we found that ApHMW1C is able to complement a deficiency of HMW1C and mediate HMW1 glycosylation and adhesive activity in whole bacteria. Initial structure-function studies suggested that ApHMW1C consists of two domains, including a 15-kDa N-terminal domain and a 55-kDa C-terminal domain harboring glycosyltransferase activity. These findings suggest a new subfamily of HMW1C-like glycosyltransferases distinct from other GT41 family O-glycosyltransferases. PMID:21209858

  3. Mutation in the LPS outer core biosynthesis gene, galU, affects LPS interaction with the RTX toxins ApxI and ApxII and cytolytic activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1.

    PubMed

    Ramjeet, Mahendrasingh; Cox, Andrew D; Hancock, Mark A; Mourez, Michael; Labrie, Josée; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Jacques, Mario

    2008-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and Apx toxins are major virulence factors of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a pathogen of the respiratory tract of pigs. Here, we evaluated the effect of LPS core truncation in haemolytic and cytotoxic activities of this microorganism. We previously generated a highly attenuated galU mutant of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 that has an LPS molecule lacking the GalNAc-Gal II-Gal I outer core residues. Our results demonstrate that this mutant exhibits wild-type haemolytic activity but is significantly less cytotoxic to porcine alveolar macrophages. However, no differences were found in gene expression and secretion of the haemolytic and cytotoxic toxins ApxI and ApxII, both secreted by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. This suggests that the outer core truncation mediated by the galU mutation affects the toxins in their cytotoxic activities. Using both ELISA and surface plasmon resonance binding assays, we demonstrate a novel interaction between LPS and the ApxI and ApxII toxins via the core oligosaccharide. Our results indicate that the GalNAc-Gal II-Gal I trisaccharide of the outer core is fundamental to mediating LPS/Apx interactions. The present study suggests that a lack of binding between LPS and ApxI/II affects the cytotoxicity and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:18713318

  4. Activity of antibodies against Salmonella dublin, Toxoplasma gondii, or Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in sera after treatment with electron beam irradiation or binary ethylenimine.

    PubMed Central

    Kyvsgaard, N C; Lind, P; Preuss, T; Kamstrup, S; Lei, J C; Bøgh, H O; Nansen, P

    1996-01-01

    Viral contamination of biological material may constitute a risk when samples are exchanged between countries, and it may be necessary to subject the material to an inactivation treatment. The present study investigated possible adverse effects on antibody activity subsequent to either electron beam irradiation or binary ethylenimine (BEI) treatment. The treatments were performed with sera obtained from pigs or cattle. For each treatment level, the posttreatment activity was plotted against the pretreatment activity, and regression analyses were carried out. The slope of the regression line was used as an estimate for the relative posttreatment activity. For a Toxoplasma gondii indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agglutination assay as well as for a Salmonella dublin indirect ELISA, the posttreatment activity was more than 89% of the pretreatment activity when the samples were irradiated in the frozen state (on dry ice) with up to 46. kGy or when they were treated with 5 or 10 mM BEI for up to 48 h. The samples were more sensitive to irradiation in the liquid state. Thus, samples irradiated with 22.6 kGy retained 98% of their activity in the indirect ELISA when they were irradiated in the frozen state on dry ice but only 35% of their activity when they were irradiated in the liquid state at 0 degrees C. The patterns seen in an S. dublin blocking ELISA and an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae complement fixation assay differed in that samples with a low level of pretreatment activity were subject to a relatively greater decrease in activity than samples with a high level of pretreatment activity. The complement fixation assay was particularly sensitive to irradiation of serum. It is concluded that serum samples retain sufficient activity by both methods of virus inactivation, especially when used in indirect ELISA or in the T. gondii agglutination assay. PMID:8914750

  5. Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in porcine plasma, lung tissue, and bronchial fluid and effects of test conditions on in vitro activity against reference strains and field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; Menge, M; Bohland, C; Zschiesche, E; Wilhelm, C; Kilp, S; Metz, W; Allan, M; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M

    2013-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin (Zuprevo(®) 40 mg/mL solution for injection for pigs), a novel 16-membered-ring macrolide for the treatment for swine respiratory disease (SRD), was investigated in studies collecting blood plasma and postmortem samples of lung tissue and bronchial fluid (BF) from swine. In view of factors influencing the in vitro activity of macrolides, and for the interpretation of tildipirosin pharmacokinetics in relation to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), additional experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere, buffers, and serum on tildipirosin MICs for various reference strains and Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae field isolates. After single intramuscular (i.m.) injection at 4 mg/kg body weight, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 0.9 μg/mL observed within 23 min (Tmax ). Mean residence time from the time of dosing to the time of last measurable concentration (MRTlast) and terminal half-life (T1/2) both were about 4 days. A dose-response relationship with no significant sex effect is observed for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last sampling time with a quantifiable drug concentration (AUClast) over the range of doses up to 6 mg/kg. However, linear dose proportionality could not be proven with statistical methods. The time-concentration profile of tildipirosin in BF and lung far exceeded that in blood plasma. In lung, tildipirosin concentrations reached 3.1 μg/g at 2 h, peaked at 4.3 μg/g at day 1, and slowly declined to 0.8 μg/g at day 17. In BF, tildipirosin levels were 14.3, 7.0, and 6.5 μg/g at days 5, 10, and 14. T1/2 in lung was ∼7 days. Tildipirosin is rapidly and extensively distributed to the respiratory tract followed by slow elimination. Culture media pH and carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere (CO2 -EA) had a marked impact on in vitro activity of tildipirosin in reference strains of various rapidly growing aerobic and

  6. Induction of protective immunity by aerosol or oral application of candidate vaccines in a dose-controlled pig aerosol infection model.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A; van Leengoed, L A; Szostak, M; Windt, H; Weissenböck, H; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Katinger, A; Stadler, M; Ganter, M; Bunka, S; Pabst, R; Lubitz, W

    1996-01-26

    In order to outline basic concepts for the design of a bacterial aerosol infection model, the development of a pig model with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is described. First, reproducibility of aerosol parameters should be maintained by optimizing generating and sampling conditions. Survival rates of the chosen strain must be predictable. Secondly, inhalation conditions for the recipients have to be standardized to enable the determination of deposition sites and the dose administered. Subsequently, dose-response relationship should be evaluated to find a suitable challenge dose. Furthermore, it seems necessary to establish methods to obtain local specimens for determination of the local immune responses. The present study demonstrates that after aerosol challenge pigs were completely protected after inhalation and partially protected after oral application of A. pleuropneumoniae vaccines and describes techniques to administer bacteria in a dose-dependent, viable way. Using the infection model several stages of the disease from acute pleuropneumonia to chronic infection can be induced for research purposes.

  7. Experimental Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia: A Long Term Study on the Course of Infection and Pathology in a Flock of Goats Infected with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Wesonga, HO; Bölske, G; Thiaucourt, F; Wanjohi, C; Lindberg, R

    2004-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a major threat to goat farming in parts of Africa and Asia. It classically causes acute high morbidity and mortality early in infection, but little is known of its long term epizootiology and course. In this study, 10 goats were inoculated with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae) and then mixed with 15 goats for contact transmission. The disease course was monitored in each goat for 56–105 days, whereafter the goats were killed and necropsied. Varying features signifying infection occurred in altogether 17 goats (7 inoculated, 10 in-contact). Clinical signs were severe in 8 goats but no fatalities occurred. Only 6 goats had serum antibody titres against M. capripneumoniae in ELISA. Fourteen goats (5 inoculated, 9 in-contact) had chronic pleuropulmonary lesions compatible with CCPP at necropsy and 7 of those showed M. capripneumoniae antigen in the lung by immunohistochemistry. Neither cultivation nor PCR tests were positive for the agent in any goat. The results indicate that the clinical course of CCPP in a flock may be comparatively mild, M. capripneumoniae-associated lung lesions may be present at a late stage of infection, and chronic infection may occur without a significant serological response. PMID:15663077

  8. Monoclonal antibodies to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Place, D A; Scidmore, N C; McArthur, W P

    1988-01-01

    Murine hybridoma cell lines were developed which synthesized monoclonal antibodies against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-associated antigens. Monoclonal antibodies specific for an antigen(s) common to all A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates tested but not detected on other gram-negative oral plaque microorganisms or other Actinobacillus species were identified. Monoclonal antibodies specific for each serotype group of A. actinomycetemcomitans which did not bind to other Actinobacillus species or oral plaque microorganisms were also identified. PMID:3356470

  9. Actinobacillus suis strains isolated from healthy and diseased swine are clonal and carry apxICABDvar. suis and apxIICAvar. suis toxin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Van Ostaaijen, J; Frey, J; Rosendal, S; MacInnes, J I

    1997-01-01

    Actinobacillus suis isolates recovered from both healthy and diseased pigs were characterized by biochemical testing, serotyping, restriction endonuclease fingerprinting, and apx toxin gene typing. The clinical isolates analyzed were collected over a 10-year period from approximately 40 different locations in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Little variation in the biochemical profiles of these isolates was seen, and all isolates reacted strongly with rabbit antisera prepared against one of the strains. Similarly, by using BamHI and BglII for restriction endonuclease fingerprinting (REF) analysis, all isolates were found to belong to a single REF group. Minor variations could be detected, especially in the BglII fingerprints, but overall the patterns were remarkably similar. Sequences that could be amplified by PCR with primers to the apxICA and apxIICA genes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were detected in all strains. Although no amplification was obtained with primers to the A. pleuropneumoniae apxIBD genes, sequences with homology to apxIBD were detected by hybridization. There was no evidence of apxIII homologs. Taken together, these data suggest that A. suis isolates are genotypically and phenotypically very similar, regardless of their source, and that they contain genes similar to, but not identical to, the apxICABD and apxIICA genes of A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:9114394

  10. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using an EDTA-extracted antigen for the serology of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Nicolet, J; Paroz, P; Krawinkler, M; Baumgartner, A

    1981-12-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was proposed as an alternative to the complement-fixation test (CF) for the detection of antibodies of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae, agent of the pleuropneumonia in pigs. In tests done with different antigen-extraction procedures (including Tween 20, sodium dodecyl sulfate, aqueous phenol, sonification, and heat treatment at 120 C), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) provided a satisfactorily reactive antigen. Chromatography purification on Sephacryl S200 improved the specificity of this antigen. Using hyperimmune rabbit sera, we investigated the specificity and the sensitivity of the ELISA with the EDTA-purified antigen of the different serotypes of H pleuropneumoniae on selected swine sera in herds with confirmed H pleuropneumoniae infection, from specific-pathogen-free animals showing doubtful CF reactions. The ELISA proved to be highly specific and more sensitive than the CF test. Furthermore, evidence of cross-reactions with H parasuis, a common bacteria isolated in swine populations, was not found.

  11. Genetic variability in swine leukocyte antigen class II and Toll-like receptors affects immune responses to vaccination for bacterial infections in pigs.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, H; Arakawa, A; Tanaka-Matsuda, M; Ide-Okumura, H; Terada, K; Chikyu, M; Kawarasaki, T; Ando, A; Uenishi, H

    2012-12-01

    The genes encoding swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) are highly polymorphic in pig populations, and likely have influences on infection and the effects of vaccination. We explored the associations of different genotypes of SLA class II and of the genes TLR1, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR6 with antibody responses after vaccination against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (ER) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) serotypes 1, 2, and 5 in 191 Duroc pigs maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions. We demonstrated close relationships between SLA class II and ER antibody response and between TLR genes other than TLR4 and APP antibody responses. Pigs with specific haplotypes in SLA class II or TLR5 showed decreased antibody response to ER vaccination or increased responses to APP2 and APP5 vaccination, respectively. It might be possible to breed for responsiveness to vaccination and to implement new vaccine development strategies unaffected by genetic backgrounds of pigs.

  12. Pleural effusion associated with acute and chronic pleuropneumonia and pleuritis secondary to thoracic wounds in horses: 43 cases (1982-1992).

    PubMed

    Collins, M B; Hodgson, D R; Hutchins, D R

    1994-12-15

    Case records of 43 horses with pleural effusion associated with acute pleuropneumonia, chronic pleuropneumonia, or pleuritis secondary to a penetrating thoracic wound were reviewed to determine the predisposing factors, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition. Acute pleuropneumonia was diagnosed in 36 horses, the majority of which were Thoroughbreds (89%). Of 22 (61%) horses that were in race training at the onset of illness, 11 (31%) had been recently transported a long distance and 4 (11%) had evidence of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Physical examination findings and hematologic data were nonspecific. The most consistent abnormality was hyperfibrino-genemia. Affected horses were treated with antibiotics, thoracic drainage, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care. Twenty-two (61%) horses were discharged from the hospital, with the mean duration of hospitalization for those discharged being 23 days. Nine (25%) horses were euthanatized and 5 (14%) died. Bacterial culturing of thoracic fluid resulted in growth in 30 of the 36 (83%) horses. The finding of anaerobic bacteria in thoracic fluid was not associated with a lower survival rate (62%) than the overall survival rate (61%). Four horses with chronic pleuropneumonia had a history of lethargy and inappetence for > 2 weeks. Actinobacillus equuli was isolated, either alone or in combination with other bacteria, from thoracic fluid of these 4 horses. Each horse was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and made a rapid recovery. Three horses with acute pleuritis secondary to penetrating thoracic wounds also had nonspecific clinical signs, apart from the wound and a large volume of pleural effusion. Bacteriologic isolates from these horses differed slightly from those of horses with acute pleuropneumonia. PMID:7744650

  13. Killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by human lactoferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Kalmar, J R; Arnold, R R

    1988-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a fastidious, facultative gram-negative rod associated with endocarditis, certain forms of periodontal disease, and other focal infections. Human neutrophils have demonstrated bactericidal activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans, and much of the oxygen-dependent killing has been attributed to the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide system. However, the contribution of other neutrophil components to killing activity is obscure. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein, is a major constituent of neutrophil-specific granules and is also found in mucosal secretions. In this report, we show that human lactoferrin is bactericidal for A. actinomycetemcomitans. Killing activity required an unsaturated (iron- and anion-free) molecule that produced a 2-log decrease in viability within 120 min at 37 degrees C at a concentration of 1.9 microM. Besides exhibiting concentration dependence, killing kinetics were affected by minor variations in temperature and pH. Magnesium, a divalent cation thought to stabilize lipopolysaccharide interactions on the surface of gram-negative organisms, enhanced lactoferrin killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans, while other cations, such as potassium and calcium, had no effect. Our data suggest that lactoferrin contributes to killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans by human neutrophils and that it may also play a significant role in innate secretory defense against this potential periodontopathogen. PMID:3417349

  14. Serotype specificity and immunogenicity of the capsular polymer of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5.

    PubMed Central

    Inzana, T J; Mathison, B

    1987-01-01

    Serotyping of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae and serologic assays for detection of serotype-specific antibody are problematic due to the potential cross-reactivity of the crude antigens used for raising immune serum or for serology. The capsular polymer (CP) of H. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 was investigated for serotype-specific activity with antiserum to whole cells or with antiserum made monospecific to CP by adsorption with a capsule-deficient mutant. When antiserum to whole cells or monospecific antiserum to CP was tested against purified CP from serotypes 1 to 7 by immunodiffusion or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, only capsules of serotype 5 were reactive. In addition, only encapsulated serotype 5 cells reacted with serum monospecific to CP in an indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay. Serotype-specific antibody was completely inhibited in each assay by preincubation of purified CP with the serum. Antiserum to whole cells of H. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 contained antibodies to proteins and lipopolysaccharide; these antibodies cross-reacted with antigens of heterologous serotypes by dot-blot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting. The antigenic activity of CP was stable after heating for at least 30 min at 100 degrees C. High titers of antibody to CP were present in the sera of rabbits immunized intravenously with whole log-phase cells or in the convalescent sera of pigs experimentally infected with H. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. However, the purified CP was poorly immunogenic in rabbits and swine. Our results indicate that the capsule is the serotype-specific antigen of H. pleuropneumoniae and that a monospecific antiserum to capsule or purified capsule should be used for serotyping or serologic assays, respectively. Images PMID:3110066

  15. Outer membrane protein profiles of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, V J; Munson, R S; Ross, R F

    1986-01-01

    Outer membrane protein profiles of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Cells were disrupted by sonication, and outer membrane-enriched fractions were prepared by differential centrifugation and selective solubilization of the inner membrane with sodium N-lauroyl sarcosinate. Colony type, growth medium, time of harvest, and in vitro or in vivo passage had no appreciable effect on the protein profiles of the strains examined. Seven patterns were distinguished among the reference strains of the nine capsular serotypes. These patterns were based on the mobility of the major outer membrane proteins migrating in the 39,000- to 44,000-molecular-weight region of the gel, a 16K to 16.5K protein, and a heat-modifiable 29K protein. Strains of serotypes 1 and 9 had identical outer membrane protein profiles, as did strains of serotypes 2 and 6. The reference strains of the remaining five serotypes each had a distinct pattern. The outer membrane protein profiles of 95 field isolates belonging to serotypes 1, 5, 7, and 9 from swine in the midwestern United States were determined and compared with the reference patterns. The results indicate that the population of H. pleuropneumoniae is clonal, with three predominant clones distinguished by both serotype and outer membrane protein profile responsible for the majority of H. pleuropneumoniae disease occurring in swine in the United States. Images PMID:3699889

  16. 21 CFR 520.445b - Chlortetracycline powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Pasteurella spp., Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Hemophilus spp.), and Klebsiella spp. (2) Limitations...) associated with Pasteurella spp., A. pleuropneumoniae (Hemophilus spp.), and Klebsiella spp. (2) Limitations... Pasteurella spp., Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Hemophilus spp.), and Klebsiella spp. (C)...

  17. Identification of Fur-regulated genes in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Haraszthy, Violet I; Jordan, Shawn F; Zambon, Joseph J

    2006-03-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is an oral pathogen that causes aggressive periodontitis as well as sometimes life-threatening, extra-oral infections. Iron regulation is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of A. actinomycetemcomitans infections and, consistent with this hypothesis, the fur gene has recently been identified and characterized in A. actinomycetemcomitans. In this study, 14 putatively Fur-regulated genes were identified by Fur titration assay (Furta) in A. actinomycetemcomitans, including afuA, dgt, eno, hemA, tbpA, recO and yfe - some of which are known to be Fur regulated in other species. A fur mutant A. actinomycetemcomitans strain was created by selecting for manganese resistance in order to study the Fur regulon. Comparisons between the fur gene sequences revealed that nucleotide 66 changed from C in the wild-type to T in the mutant strain, changing leucine to isoleucine. The fur mutant strain expressed a nonfunctional Fur protein as determined by Escherichia coli-based ferric uptake assays and Western blotting. It was also more sensitive to acid stress and expressed higher levels of minC than the wild-type strain. minC, which inhibits cell division in other bacterial species and whose regulation by iron has not been previously described, was found to be Fur regulated in A. actinomycetemcomitans by Furta, by gel shift assays, and by RT-qPCR assays for gene expression. PMID:16514158

  18. Use of 16S rRNA Sequencing for Identification of Actinobacillus ureae Isolated from a Cerebrospinal Fluid Sample

    PubMed Central

    Whitelaw, A. C.; Shankland, I. M.; Elisha, B. G.

    2002-01-01

    Actinobacillus ureae, previously Pasteurella ureae, has on rare occasions been described as a cause of human infection. Owing to its rarity, it may not be easily identified in clinical microbiology laboratories by standard tests. This report describes a patient with acute bacterial meningitis due to A. ureae. The identity of the isolate was determined by means of DNA sequence analysis of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. PMID:11825992

  19. Severity of Bovine Tuberculosis Is Associated with Co-Infection with Common Pathogens in Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  20. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  1. Factors associated with herd-level PRRSV infection and age-time to seroconversion in farrow-to-finish herds.

    PubMed

    Fablet, C; Marois-Créhan, C; Grasland, B; Simon, G; Rose, N

    2016-08-30

    Factors associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection were investigated in 109 herds. Serums from four batches of pigs (4, 10, 16 and 22 weeks, 15 pigs/batch) were tested by ELISA for PRRSV antibodies. Infection by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza A viruses (swIAV) and PCV2 were detected by specific serological or PCR tests. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management housing and climatic conditions were collected during a herd visit. Factors associated with the herd's PRRSV seropositive status were identified by logistic regression. Large herd size, the lack of disinsectisation in the gestation facilities, on-farm semen collection, a short time-period for gilt quarantine and a low temperature setpoint for the ventilation controller in the fattening room significantly increased the odds of a herd being seropositive for PRRSV. Infection by Mhp and H1N2 swIAV were associated with a PRRSV seropositive status. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the factors associated with the age-time to seroconversion in infected herds. Joint housing for the gilts and sows when lactating, a large nursery pen, a small number of pens per fattening room and lack of all-in all-out management in the fattening section significantly reduced the age-time to seroconversion. A small range of temperatures controlling ventilation rate in the nursery room was also associated with time to PRRSV seroconversion. Infection by Mhp and a high PCV2 infection pressure were associated with a shorter time to seroconversion. Biosecurity measures minimising the risk of introducing PRRSV into the herd, management practices reducing contacts between animals from different batches and within batches and favourable climatic conditions should be implemented to better control PRRSV infection. PMID:27527759

  2. Characterization of leukotoxin from a clinical strain of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Roger; Ghofaily, Lourdes Al; Patel, Jigna; Balashova, Nataliya V; Freitas, Anna C; Labib, Irene; Kachlany, Scott C

    2006-02-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram negative pathogen that is the etiologic agent of localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP), a rapidly progressing and severe disease of the oral cavity that affects predominantly adolescents. A. actinomycetemcomitans is also found in extraoral infections including infective endocarditis. As one of its many virulence determinants, A. actinomycetemcomitans produces the RTX (repeats in toxin) exotoxin, leukotoxin (LtxA). LtxA specifically kills leukocytes of humans and Old World Monkeys. All of our current knowledge of A. actinomycetemcomitans LtxA is based on the protein from strain JP2, a nonadherent laboratory isolate. Because laboratory isolates can lose virulence properties, we wished to examine LtxA from a clinical isolate, NJ4500. We show that localization patterns of LtxA do not differ between the strains. Subcellular localization studies with NJ4500 revealed that LtxA localizes to the outer membrane and that the interaction between LtxA and the surface of cells is specific. Surface localized LtxA was not removed with NaCl treatment and protease protection experiments revealed that approximately 10 kDa of LtxA is exposed. We purified secreted LtxA from NJ4500 and found that the specific activity of this toxin was greater than that of secreted LtxA from JP2. For other RTX toxins, fatty acid modification affects toxin activity, and A. actinomycetemcomitans LtxA is predicted to be modified. We show by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis that NJ4500 LtxA is more highly modified than JP2 LtxA, suggesting that the difference in activities could be due to differential modification. Studies of A. actinomycetemcomitans pathogenesis should therefore consider LtxA from clinical isolates.

  3. Inhibition of fibroblast proliferation by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Shenker, B J; Kushner, M E; Tsai, C C

    1982-01-01

    We have examined soluble sonic extracts of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans for their ability to alter human and murine fibroblast proliferation. We found that extracts of all A. actinomycetemcomitans strains examined (both leukotoxic and nonleukotoxic) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of both murine and human fibroblast proliferation as assessed by DNA synthesis ([3H]thymidine incorporation). Addition of sonic extract simultaneously with [3H]thymidine had no effect on incorporation, indicating that suppression was not due to the presence of excessive amounts of cold thymidine. Inhibition of DNA synthesis was also paralleled by decreased RNA synthesis ([3H]uridine incorporation) and by a decrease in cell growth as assessed by direct cell counts; there was no effect on cell viability. The suppressive factor(s) is heat labile; preliminary purification and characterization studies indicate that it is a distinct and separate moiety from other A. actinomycetemcomitans mediators previously reported, including leukotoxin, immune suppressive factor, and endotoxin. Although it is not clear how A. actinomycetemcomitans acts to cause disease, we propose that one aspect of the pathogenicity of this organism rests in its ability to inhibit fibroblast growth, which in turn could contribute to the collagen loss associated with certain forms of periodontal disease, in particular juvenile periodontitis. PMID:7152684

  4. Fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Chaber, A L; Lignereux, L; Al Qassimi, M; Saegerman, C; Manso-Silván, L; Dupuy, V; Thiaucourt, F

    2014-09-17

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles.

  5. Isolation and phylogenetic characterization of Streptococcus halichoeri from a European badger (Meles meles) with pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Moreno, B; Bolea, R; Morales, M; Martín-Burriel, I; González, Ch; Badiola, J J

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and pathological studies in European badgers (Meles meles) are limited. Badgers play a significant role in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in some countries and an accurate diagnosis is needed for this infection. However, the lesions of bovine TB are similar to those associated with other pathogens, making pathological diagnosis difficult. In the present study, Streptococcus halichoeri was isolated from a European badger with pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia and suspected of having tuberculosis. TB and other pathogens able to induce similar lesions were ruled out. Comparative 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing studies showed an identity of 99.51% and 98.28%, respectively, with S. halichoeri. This report represents the third description of this bacterium and the first in an animal species other than the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). It also shows that S. halichoeri can be associated with a pathological process characterized by granulomatous inflammation and resembling tuberculosis.

  6. Fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Chaber, A L; Lignereux, L; Al Qassimi, M; Saegerman, C; Manso-Silván, L; Dupuy, V; Thiaucourt, F

    2014-09-17

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. As CCPP has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated Arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. The Mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence type was identical to the Mccp strain previously identified in a sand gazelle from a nearby enclosure. This case shows for the first time that members of the hippotraginae subfamily, here the Arabian oryx, can be affected by CCPP. In addition, genotyping shows that the oryx was most probably infected, at a distance, by sand gazelles. PMID:25069622

  7. Isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat with clinical epididymo-orchitis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fabrine Alexandre; de Azevedo, Edísio Oliveira; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Júnior, Felício Garino; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; Gomes, Ana Lisa Vale; Alves, Clebert José

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. PMID:24948932

  8. Isolation of Actinobacillus suis from a cat's lung.

    PubMed Central

    Daignault, D; Chouinard, L; Møller, K; Ahrens, P; Messier, S; Higgins, R

    1999-01-01

    Actinobacillus suis has been isolated from the lungs of 9-month-old cat. The bacterium was characterized biochemically as well as genetically, and its sensitivity profile to different antimicrobial agents was established. The role of this isolate in the cat's condition is discussed. PMID:9919368

  9. Classification of avian haemolytic Actinobacillus-like organisms (Bisgaard taxon 26) associated with anseriforme birds as Actinobacillus anseriformium sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Bisgaard, M; Christensen, H

    2012-02-01

    Avian haemolytic Actinobacillus-like organisms have tentatively been named Bisgaard taxon 26. Phenotypic information has been published on 65 strains of this taxon. In the current study, 31 isolates were selected for genotypic characterization. Thirty strains had the same rpoB sequence and only one strain diverged in 1 nt. The highest rpoB similarity to members of other taxa was 89.7 % to the type strain of Actinobacillus equuli subsp. haemolyticus and the similarity to the type strain of the type species, Actinobacillus lignieresii, was 88.2 %. The lowest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains of the group was determined in previous investigations to be 99.6 % and the highest similarities of 96.4 and 96.2 % outside the group were obtained to the reference strain of Actinobacillus genomospecies 2 and to the type strain of A. equuli subsp. equuli, respectively; 95.8-95.3 % similarity was obtained with the type strain of A. lignieresii. recN gene sequence similarities within the group were from 99.5 % (strains F66(T) and F64) to 99.8 % (strains F66(T) and F67) corresponding to genome similarities of 93.9-94.6 %, which are near the upper limit for species compared with other members of the Pasteurellaceae. The highest recN similarity outside the group (83.4 %) was observed to the type strain of Actinobacillus capsulatus, whereas the similarity to the type strain of A. lignieresii was 80.9 %, corresponding to genome similarities of 57.7 and 52.0 %, respectively. All isolates meet the phenotypic characters outlined for Actinobacillus (urease-, phosphatase- and porphyrin-positive, indole-negative, acid production from fructose, sucrose, maltose and dextrin). β-Haemolysis of bovine blood is observed and isolates may demonstrate in vitro satellitic growth, referred to as V-factor or NAD requirement. Isolates have been obtained from the upper respiratory tract of web-footed birds in which they may cause sinusitis, conjunctivitis and

  10. First isolation of Actinobacillus genomospecies 2 in Japan

    PubMed Central

    MURAKAMI, Miyuki; SHIMONISHI, Yoshimasa; HOBO, Seiji; NIWA, Hidekazu; ITO, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    We describe here the first isolation of Actinobacillus genomospecies 2 in Japan. The isolate was found in a septicemic foal and characterized by phenotypic and genetic analyses, with the latter consisting of 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis plus multilocus sequence analysis using three housekeeping genes, recN, rpoA and thdF, that have been proposed for use as a genomic tool in place of DNA-DNA hybridization. PMID:26668165

  11. CAPACITY OF PLEUROPNEUMONIA-LIKE MICROORGANISMS TO GROW ON CHORIOALLANTOIC MEMBRANES

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Homer F.

    1941-01-01

    1. Among eight strains or variants, included in four different immunological types of pleuropneumonia-like microorganisms, all grew on chorioallantoic membranes; those belonging to Klieneberger's Type L5 (Sabin Type A) grew very poorly; and those included in three other types grew with varying degrees of vigor. 2. In all instances, strains of pleuropneumonia-like microorganisms tested grew better on dead sterile chorioallantoic membranes than on living membranes. 3. None of the strains tested was in itself lethal for chick embryos. 4. No constant macroscopic lesion developed as a result of inoculating chorioallantoic membranes with pleuropneumonia-like microorganisms. PMID:19871155

  12. 21 CFR 522.313b - Ceftiofur hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bacterial pneumonia) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Salmonella... treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD, shipping fever, pneumonia) associated with...

  13. Expression cloning of a periodontitis-associated apoptotic effector, cagE homologue, in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yen-Tung A; Hu, Wenqi

    2003-04-18

    To study anti-bacterial immunity and to identify critical bacterial antigens associated with specific periodontal infection, we screened the genomic library of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a major Gram(-) anaerobe causing human periodontitis, by expression cloning using disease-associated periodontal CD4(+)T cells derived from HuPBL-engrafted NOD/SCID mice. Here, we report one of the novel genes identified and designated, cagE homologue (in short: cagE) of A. actinomycetemcomitans, which encodes a putative bacterial type IV secretion system with significant homology to Helicobacter pylori CagE and Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB4. All serum samples from A. actinomycetemcomitans-infected periodontitis patients, but not from the healthy controls, readily recognized CagE by ELISA and Western blot, suggesting its biological and clinical significance. The CagE protein, upon secretion, elicited significant apoptosis on primary human epithelia, endothelia, osteoblasts, and T cells by 4-12h in vitro. Importantly, both cagE(-) mutant strain and N-terminus truncated CagE protein drastically reduced (p<0.001) the induction of apoptosis on human epithelia in vitro. These data strongly suggest that a novel effector protein, CagE in A. actinomycetemcomitans, induces apoptosis of human cells and destructive immunity, thereby it may play an important role in the pathogenesis of A. actinomycetemcomitans-mediated infections. PMID:12684047

  14. Proteomic characterization of pleural effusion, a specific host niche of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides from cattle with contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP).

    PubMed

    Weldearegay, Yenehiwot B; Pich, Andreas; Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Gicheru, Nimmo; Wesonga, Hezron; Thiaucourt, Francois; Kiirika, Leonard M; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Jores, Joerg; Meens, Jochen

    2016-01-10

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe pleuropneumonia in cattle. The abnormal accumulation of pleural fluid, called pleural effusion (PE), is one of the characteristics of this disease. We performed a proteomic analysis of seven PE samples from experimentally infected cattle and characterized their composition with respect to bovine and Mmm proteins. We detected a total of 963 different bovine proteins. Further analysis indicated a strong enrichment of proteins involved in antigen processing, platelet activation and degranulation and apoptosis and an increased abundance of acute phase proteins.With regard to the pathogen, up to 108 viable mycoplasma cells per ml were detected in the PE supernatant. The proteomic analysis revealed 350 mycoplasma proteins, including proteins involved in virulence-associated processes like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and capsule synthesis. The bovine proteins detected will aid to characterize the inflammasome during an acute pleuropneumonia in cattle and the identified mycoplasma proteins will serve as baseline data to be compared with in vitro studies to improve our understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms. Based on our results, we named the pleural effusion an “in vivo niche” of Mmm during the acute phase of CBPP. Biological significance: This is the first study on bovine pleural effusions derived from an infectious disease and the first approach to characterize the proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides in vivo. This study revealed a high number of viable Mmm cells in the pleural effusion. The bovine pleural effusion proteome during Mmm infection is qualitatively similar to plasma, but differs with respect to high abundance of acute phase proteins. On the other hand,Mmm in its natural host produces proteins involved in capsule synthesis, H2O2 production and induction of inflammatory response, supporting previous knowledge on mechanisms underlying

  15. Proteomic characterization of pleural effusion, a specific host niche of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides from cattle with contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP).

    PubMed

    Weldearegay, Yenehiwot B; Pich, Andreas; Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Gicheru, Nimmo; Wesonga, Hezron; Thiaucourt, Francois; Kiirika, Leonard M; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Jores, Joerg; Meens, Jochen

    2016-01-10

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe pleuropneumonia in cattle. The abnormal accumulation of pleural fluid, called pleural effusion (PE), is one of the characteristics of this disease. We performed a proteomic analysis of seven PE samples from experimentally infected cattle and characterized their composition with respect to bovine and Mmm proteins. We detected a total of 963 different bovine proteins. Further analysis indicated a strong enrichment of proteins involved in antigen processing, platelet activation and degranulation and apoptosis and an increased abundance of acute phase proteins.With regard to the pathogen, up to 108 viable mycoplasma cells per ml were detected in the PE supernatant. The proteomic analysis revealed 350 mycoplasma proteins, including proteins involved in virulence-associated processes like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and capsule synthesis. The bovine proteins detected will aid to characterize the inflammasome during an acute pleuropneumonia in cattle and the identified mycoplasma proteins will serve as baseline data to be compared with in vitro studies to improve our understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms. Based on our results, we named the pleural effusion an “in vivo niche” of Mmm during the acute phase of CBPP. Biological significance: This is the first study on bovine pleural effusions derived from an infectious disease and the first approach to characterize the proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides in vivo. This study revealed a high number of viable Mmm cells in the pleural effusion. The bovine pleural effusion proteome during Mmm infection is qualitatively similar to plasma, but differs with respect to high abundance of acute phase proteins. On the other hand,Mmm in its natural host produces proteins involved in capsule synthesis, H2O2 production and induction of inflammatory response, supporting previous knowledge on mechanisms underlying

  16. A longitudinal microbiological investigation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Eikenella corrodens in juvenile periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, R L

    1984-01-01

    Longitudinal clinical and microbiological monitoring of subjects with localized juvenile periodontitis indicated that Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Eikenella corrodens were significantly associated (P less than 0.05) with active tissue destruction. PMID:6381313

  17. Cellular fatty acid and soluble protein composition of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and related organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Calhoon, D A; Mayberry, W R; Slots, J

    1981-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid and protein content of twenty-five representative strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetecomitans isolated from juvenile and adult periodontitis patients was compared to that of 15 reference strains of oral and nonoral Actinobacillus species and Haemophilus aphrophilus. Trimethylsilyl derivatives of the fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The predominant fatty acids of all 40 strains examined were 14:0, 3-OH 14:0, 16 delta, and 16:0. Actinobacillus seminis (ATCC 15768) was unlike the other strains examined because of a greater amount of 14:0 detected. The soluble protein analysis using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that A. actinomycetemcomitans, H. aphrophilus, and nonoral Actinobacillus species possessed distinct protein profiles attesting to the validity of separating these organisms into different species. Established biotypes of A. actinomycetemcomitans could not be differentiated on the basis of fatty acid or protein profiles. PMID:7287893

  18. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Keratitis After Glaucoma Infiltration Surgery: A Clinical Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiaxu; Xu, Jianjiang; Cao, Wenjun; Ji, Jian; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans infection is a rare and easily misdiagnosed ocular disease. In this article, the authors report a chronic, purulent, and difficult-to-treat case of A actinomycetemcomitans keratitis following a glaucoma infiltration surgery.A 56-year-old man with a long-standing history of open-angle glaucoma in both eyes presented with a 12-week history of ocular pain, redness, and blurred vision in his right eye. He underwent a glaucoma infiltration surgery in his right eye 6 months ago. Three months postoperatively, he developed peripheral corneal stromal opacities associated with a white, thin, cystic bleb, and conjunctival injection. These opacities grew despite topical treatment with topical tobramycin, levofloxacin, natamycin, amikacin, and metronidazole eye drops.Multiple corneal scrapings revealed no organisms, and no organisms grew on aerobic, anaerobic, fungal, or mycobacterial cultures. The patient's right eye developed a severe purulent corneal ulcer with a dense hypopyon and required a corneal transplantation. Histopathologic analysis and 16S ribosomalribonucleic acid polymerase chain reaction sequencing revealed A actinomycetemcomitans as the causative organism. Postoperatively, treatment was initiated with topical levofloxacin and cyclosporine, as well as oral levofloxacin and cyclosporine. Graft and host corneal transparency were maintained at the checkup 1 month after surgery.Although it is a rare cause of corneal disease, A actinomycetemcomitans should be suspected in patients with keratitis refractory to topical antibiotic therapy. Delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment can result in vision loss. PMID:26817919

  19. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Keratitis After Glaucoma Infiltration Surgery: A Clinical Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiaxu; Xu, Jianjiang; Cao, Wenjun; Ji, Jian; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans infection is a rare and easily misdiagnosed ocular disease. In this article, the authors report a chronic, purulent, and difficult-to-treat case of A actinomycetemcomitans keratitis following a glaucoma infiltration surgery.A 56-year-old man with a long-standing history of open-angle glaucoma in both eyes presented with a 12-week history of ocular pain, redness, and blurred vision in his right eye. He underwent a glaucoma infiltration surgery in his right eye 6 months ago. Three months postoperatively, he developed peripheral corneal stromal opacities associated with a white, thin, cystic bleb, and conjunctival injection. These opacities grew despite topical treatment with topical tobramycin, levofloxacin, natamycin, amikacin, and metronidazole eye drops.Multiple corneal scrapings revealed no organisms, and no organisms grew on aerobic, anaerobic, fungal, or mycobacterial cultures. The patient's right eye developed a severe purulent corneal ulcer with a dense hypopyon and required a corneal transplantation. Histopathologic analysis and 16S ribosomalribonucleic acid polymerase chain reaction sequencing revealed A actinomycetemcomitans as the causative organism. Postoperatively, treatment was initiated with topical levofloxacin and cyclosporine, as well as oral levofloxacin and cyclosporine. Graft and host corneal transparency were maintained at the checkup 1 month after surgery.Although it is a rare cause of corneal disease, A actinomycetemcomitans should be suspected in patients with keratitis refractory to topical antibiotic therapy. Delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment can result in vision loss.

  20. Cellular fatty acid composition of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus.

    PubMed

    Braunthal, S D; Holt, S C; Tanner, A C; Socransky, S S

    1980-06-01

    Strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolated from deep pockets of patients with juvenile periodontitis were analyzed for their content of cellular fatty acids. Oral Haemophilus strains, morphologically and biochemically similar to Haemophilus aphrophilus, were also examined for their content of cellular fatty acids. The extractable lipids of the actinobacilli represented approximately 10% of the cell dry weight, with the bound lipids representing 2 to 5%. The major fatty acids consisted of myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids and a C16:1 acid, possibly palmitoleic acid, accounting for 21, 35, and 31% of the total extractable fatty acids, respectively. Haemophilus strains had a similar cellular fatty acid content. PMID:7430333

  1. Cellular fatty acid composition of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Braunthal, S D; Holt, S C; Tanner, A C; Socransky, S S

    1980-01-01

    Strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolated from deep pockets of patients with juvenile periodontitis were analyzed for their content of cellular fatty acids. Oral Haemophilus strains, morphologically and biochemically similar to Haemophilus aphrophilus, were also examined for their content of cellular fatty acids. The extractable lipids of the actinobacilli represented approximately 10% of the cell dry weight, with the bound lipids representing 2 to 5%. The major fatty acids consisted of myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids and a C16:1 acid, possibly palmitoleic acid, accounting for 21, 35, and 31% of the total extractable fatty acids, respectively. Haemophilus strains had a similar cellular fatty acid content. PMID:7430333

  2. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans contamination of toothbrushes from patients harbouring the organism.

    PubMed

    Müller, H P; Lange, D E; Müller, R F

    1989-07-01

    The main ecological niche of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.) seems to be the periodontal pocket, but it can also be isolated from supragingival plaque, buccal and tongue mucosa, or saliva. We examined toothbrushes from 21 patients, all identified as harbouring moderate to large numbers of A.a. in subgingival plaque, for contamination with this organism. 29% of the toothbrushes presented by our patients yielded detectable numbers of A.a. Immediately after toothbrushing this figure rose to 62%, but dropped to 50% after 1 h. Numbers of isolated A.a. on toothbrushes were weakly correlated with the degree of periodontal destruction, and significantly more numbers of A.a. on toothbrushes could be detected if the organism was found on mucous membranes or in saliva. There was no association with gingival inflammation, supragingival plaque nor mean numbers of isolated subgingival A.a. PMID:2760252

  3. Quantitative risk assessment of entry of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia through live cattle imported from northwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woube, Yilkal Asfaw; Dibaba, Asseged Bogale; Tameru, Berhanu; Fite, Richard; Nganwa, David; Robnett, Vinaida; Demisse, Amsalu; Habtemariam, Tsegaye

    2015-11-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (SC) bovine biotype (MmmSC). It has been eradicated from many countries; however, the disease persists in many parts of Africa and Asia. CBPP is one of the major trade-restricting diseases of cattle in Ethiopia. In this quantitative risk assessment the OIE concept of zoning was adopted to assess the entry of CBPP into an importing country when up to 280,000 live cattle are exported every year from the northwestern proposed disease free zone (DFZ) of Ethiopia. To estimate the level of risk, a six-tiered risk pathway (scenario tree) was developed, evidences collected and equations generated. The probability of occurrence of the hazard at each node was modelled as a probability distribution using Monte Carlo simulation (@RISK software) at 10,000 iterations to account for uncertainty and variability. The uncertainty and variability of data points surrounding the risk estimate were further quantified by sensitivity analysis. In this study a single animal destined for export from the northwestern DFZ of Ethiopia has a CBPP infection probability of 4.76×10(-6) (95% CI=7.25×10(-8) 1.92×10(-5)). The probability that at least one infected animal enters an importing country in one year is 0.53 (90% CI=0.042-0.97). The expected number of CBPP infected animals exported any given year is 1.28 (95% CI=0.021-5.42). According to the risk estimate, an average of 2.73×10(6) animals (90% CI=10,674-5.9×10(6)) must be exported to get the first infected case. By this account it would, on average, take 10.15 years (90% CI=0.24-23.18) for the first infected animal to be included in the consignment. Sensitivity analysis revealed that prevalence and vaccination had the highest impact on the uncertainty and variability of the overall risk.

  4. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia: new aspects of an old disease.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, R; Churchward, C

    2012-06-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, is a serious OIE-listed disease affecting goats in the Middle East, north and east Africa and Asia. Mortality and morbidity rates can be as high as 60% and 90%, respectively, when the disease first enters a territory, invariably through carrier animals. Recent detections of CCPP in Pakistan and Tajikistan are probably the result of improved diagnosis as the disease has been suspected there for many years, while those in Thrace in 2003 and Mauritius in 2009 represent new outbreaks. CCPP was thought to be highly host specific until recent outbreaks in wildlife species including gazelles and gerenuks show that the causative mycoplasma has broader specificity. Diagnosis was hampered by the fastidiousness of the causative mycoplasma but molecular-based tests like PCR have greatly improved detection. Rapid latex agglutination tests that can be performed at the penside are also available for antibody detection. Clinically affected animals respond to a range of antibiotics although it is unlikely that this results in complete elimination of the mycoplasma. Vaccines consisting of saponized organisms have been shown to be protective but the quality and efficacy may be variable. PMID:21951488

  5. Estimation of impact of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia on pastoralists in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Onono, J O; Wieland, B; Rushton, J

    2014-08-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an infectious disease which impacts cattle production in sub-Saharan Africa. To adequately allocate resources for its control, there is a need to assess its impact on cattle producers. The present study estimated the impact of CBPP on pastoralists through analysis of various strategies employed for its control in cattle herds including: preventive vaccination, antimicrobial treatment, slaughter of clinical cases and other combinations of these control strategies. The assessment was based on a loss-expenditure frontier framework to identify a control strategy with minimum cost from both expenditures on control strategies and output losses due to mortalities, reduced milk yield, reduced weight gain and reduced fertility rate. The analysis was undertaken in a stochastic spreadsheet model. The control strategy with minimum cost per herd was preventive vaccination with an estimated cost of US$ 193 (90% CI; 170-215) per 100 cows per year, while slaughter of clinical cases had an estimated cost of US$ 912 (90% CI; 775-1055) per 100 cows per year. The impact of CBPP to the nation was estimated at US$ 7.6 (90% CI; 6.5-8.7) million per year. Yet, if all pastoralists whose cattle are at high risk of infection adopted preventive vaccination, the aggregate national impact would be US$ 3.3 (90% CI; 2.9-3.7) million per year, with savings amounting to US$ 4.3 million through reallocation of control expenditures. The analysis predicted that control of CBPP in Kenya is profitable through preventive vaccination. However, further research is recommended for the technical and financial feasibility of implementing a vaccine delivery system in pastoral areas where CBPP is endemic.

  6. The use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP).

    PubMed

    Thiaucourt, F; Bölske, G; Libeau, G; Le Goff, C; Lefèvre, P C

    1994-08-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia is a severe disease affecting goats in Eastern Africa and the Middle East, caused by Mycoplasma sp. type F38. Its exact geographical distribution is however not exactly known due to the lack of specificity of the available serological tests and the difficulty in cultivating M. sp. F38. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was produced, using crude or membrane proteins antigens from type F38 strains to immunize mice. The reactivity of the mAbs was tested by an immunobinding assay with crude mycoplasma antigens spotted on nitrocellulose filters. One hundred and twelve antigens, standardized at 0.5 mg protein/ml, were used. Mycoplasma strains were chosen among closely related species of the "mycoides cluster", M. capricolum, Group 7 of Leach, M. mycoides mycoides LC, M. mycoides mycoides SC, M. mycoides capri, as well as among species that are isolated from goat lungs, M. arginini, M. ovipneumoniae, M. putrefaciens, M. agalactiae. Out of 60 mAbs, 4 were chosen to build an identification test for mycoplasmas of the "mycoides cluster". Controls showed that accurate identification could be hampered by antigenic heterogeneity within the M. capricolum species. One mAb was used for the direct detection of M. sp. F38 antigen in pleural fluid from goats suspected of CCPP. The sensitivity of the test can be estimated at 0.5 micrograms protein/ml. Comparison with isolation results show a 74% agreement between the two methods. The same mAb was used to build a blocking ELISA. This serological test was strictly specific for CCPP. It detects antibodies in sera of naturally infected or artificially immunized animals while it remained negative with hyperimmune sera to related strains such as PG 50. Direct antigen detection and blocking ELISA are tools that may enable a better assessment of CCPP distribution.

  7. Combination of medical and surgical therapy for pleuropneumonia in a horse.

    PubMed Central

    Dechan, J

    1997-01-01

    Medical management was unable to prevent the development of an extrapulmonary abscess in a 10-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with anaerobic pleuropneumonia. Intercostal thoracostomy achieved drainage of the abscess. Resolution of the abscess and subsequent bronchopleural fistulas was monitored by ultrasonography and video-endoscopy. The horse returned to training 4 mo after discharge. PMID:9262860

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides T1/44, a Vaccine Strain against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gourgues, Géraldine; Barré, Aurélien; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Weber, Johann; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Barbe, Valérie; Schieck, Elise; Jores, Joerg; Vashee, Sanjay; Blanchard, Alain; Lartigue, Carole; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoidessubsp.mycoidesis the etiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete genome sequence of the strain T1/44, which is widely used as a live vaccine in Africa. PMID:27081135

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides T1/44, a Vaccine Strain against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Gourgues, Géraldine; Barré, Aurélien; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Weber, Johann; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Barbe, Valérie; Schieck, Elise; Jores, Joerg; Vashee, Sanjay; Blanchard, Alain; Lartigue, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is the etiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete genome sequence of the strain T1/44, which is widely used as a live vaccine in Africa. PMID:27081135

  10. The survival rate of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Bacteroides forsythus following 4 randomized treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Shiloah, J; Patters, M R; Dean, J W; Bland, P; Toledo, G

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this clinical study was to determine the short-term anti-infective effects of four randomized treatment modalities on Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), and Bacteroides forsythus (Bf) and determine the effects of bacterial survival on treatment outcomes in patients with adult periodontitis. Twelve adult patients requiring therapy for moderate periodontitis were selected for this study. All patients had at least one tooth in each quadrant that had an inflamed pocket of probing depth > or =5 mm with probing attachment loss that harbored at least one of the following three periodontal pathogens: Aa, Pg, or Bf. The number of target organisms per site was determined pre-operatively, at 1 week, and 1 month and 3 months postoperatively utilizing DNA probes. One quadrant in each patient was randomly assigned to each one of the following four treatment groups: 1) scaling and root planing (SRP group); 2) pocket reduction through osseous surgery and apically-positioned flap (OS group); 3) modified Widman flap (MWF group); and 4) modified Widman flap and topical application of saturated citric acid at pH 1 for 3 minutes (CA group). The 4 treatment modalities were performed in one appointment. No postoperative antibiotics were used. Patients were instructed to supplement their daily oral hygiene with chlorohexidine oral rinse during the study. The results of this investigation indicated that: 1) none of the treatment modalities was effective in eliminating the target species; 2) the incidence of infected sites for all groups was 100% preoperatively; 62.5%, 33.3%, and 31.3% at 1 week, and 1 and 3 months postoperatively, respectively; 3) these infected sites lost 1.1 +/- 0.4 mm of probing attachment compared to gain of 0.0 +/- 0.3 mm for uninfected sites; 4) the infected sites had higher plaque and bleeding on probing 0.9 +/- 0.3, 73 +/- 12%, respectively, compared to 0.3 +/- 0.1 and 30 +/- 8% for the uninfected sites

  11. Immunosuppressive factor from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans down regulates cytokine production.

    PubMed Central

    Kurita-Ochiai, T; Ochiai, K

    1996-01-01

    A cytoplasmic soluble fraction of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 was isolated and characterized as suppressing mitogen-stimulated proliferation of and cytokine production by C3H/HeN mouse splenic T cells. This factor, designated suppressive factor 1 (SF1), was isolated from the supernatant of sonicated whole bacteria and purified by Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography, DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography, hydroxyapatite high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and Protein Pack 300 & 125 gel filtration HPLC. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the purified SF1 migrated as a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 14 kDa. This molecule was protease labile, heat resistant, and noncytotoxic. N'-terminal sequence analysis revealed no homology with any known peptides of periodontopathic bacteria or with any host-derived growth factors. Purified SF1 suppressed the proliferation of mouse splenic T cells which had been stimulated with concanavalin A, as well as suppressing the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma interferon, IL-4, and IL-5 from CD4+ T cells as 0.1 microgram/ml or more. These data suggest that SF1 produced by the periodontal pathogen A. actinomycetemcomitans functions as a virulence factor by down regulating T-cell proliferation and cytokine production at local defense sites. PMID:8557373

  12. Economical succinic acid production from cane molasses by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Peng; Zheng, Pu; Sun, Zhi-Hao; Ni, Ye; Dong, Jin-Jun; Zhu, Lei-Lei

    2008-04-01

    In this work, production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC1593 using cane molasses as a low cost carbon source was developed. In anaerobic bottles fermentation, succinic acid concentration of 50.6+/-0.9 g l(-1) was attained at 60 h using an optimum medium containing molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid, resulting in a succinic acid yield of 79.5+/-1.1% and sugar utilization of 97.1+/-0.6%. When batch fermentation was carried out in a 5-l stirred bioreactor with pretreated molasses, 46.4 g l(-1) of succinic acid was attained at 48 h and faster cells growth was also observed. Fed batch fermentation was performed to minimize the substrate (sugar) inhibition effect, giving 55.2 g l(-1) of succinic acid and 1.15 g l(-1)h(-1) of productivity at 48 h. The present study suggests that the inexpensive cane molasses could be utilized for the economical and efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes.

  13. Continuous succinic acid production from xylose by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Bradfield, Michael F A; Nicol, Willie

    2016-02-01

    Continuous, anaerobic fermentations of D-xylose were performed by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z in a custom, biofilm reactor at dilution rates of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.30 h(-1). Succinic acid yields on xylose (0.55-0.68 g g(-1)), titres (10.9-29.4 g L(-1)) and productivities (1.5-3.4 g L(-1) h(-1)) were lower than those of a previous study on glucose, but product ratios (succinic acid/acetic acid = 3.0-5.0 g g(-1)) and carbohydrate consumption rates were similar. Also, mass balance closures on xylose were up to 18.2 % lower than those on glucose. A modified HPLC method revealed pyruvic acid excretion at appreciable concentrations (1.2-1.9 g L(-1)) which improved the mass balance closure by up to 16.8 %. Furthermore, redox balances based on the accounted xylose consumed and the excreted metabolites, indicated an overproduction of reducing power. The oxidative pentose phosphate pathway was shown to be a plausible source of the additional reducing power. PMID:26610345

  14. Development of a Markerless Knockout Method for Actinobacillus succinogenes

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajasi V.; Schindler, Bryan D.; McPherson, Nikolas R.; Tiwari, Kanupriya

    2014-01-01

    Actinobacillus succinogenes is one of the best natural succinate-producing organisms, but it still needs engineering to further increase succinate yield and productivity. In this study, we developed a markerless knockout method for A. succinogenes using natural transformation or electroporation. The Escherichia coli isocitrate dehydrogenase gene with flanking flippase recognition target sites was used as the positive selection marker, making use of A. succinogenes's auxotrophy for glutamate to select for growth on isocitrate. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae flippase recombinase (Flp) was used to remove the selection marker, allowing its reuse. Finally, the plasmid expressing flp was cured using acridine orange. We demonstrate that at least two consecutive deletions can be introduced into the same strain using this approach, that no more than a total of 1 kb of DNA is needed on each side of the selection cassette to protect from exonuclease activity during transformation, and that no more than 200 bp of homologous DNA is needed on each side for efficient recombination. We also demonstrate that electroporation can be used as an alternative transformation method to obtain knockout mutants and that an enriched defined medium can be used for direct selection of knockout mutants on agar plates with high efficiency. Single-knockout mutants of the fumarate reductase and of the pyruvate formate lyase-encoding genes were obtained using this knockout strategy. Double-knockout mutants were also obtained by deleting the citrate lyase-, β-galactosidase-, and aconitase-encoding genes in the pyruvate formate lyase knockout mutant strain. PMID:24610845

  15. Nonspecific Adherence by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Requires Genes Widespread in Bacteria and Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Kachlany, Scott C.; Planet, Paul J.; Bhattacharjee, Mrinal K.; Kollia, Evyenia; DeSalle, Rob; Fine, Daniel H.; Figurski, David H.

    2000-01-01

    The gram-negative coccobacillus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, is the putative agent for localized juvenile periodontitis, a particularly destructive form of periodontal disease in adolescents. This bacterium has also been isolated from a variety of other infections, notably endocarditis. Fresh clinical isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans form tenacious biofilms, a property likely to be critical for colonization of teeth and other surfaces. Here we report the identification of a locus of seven genes required for nonspecific adherence of A. actinomycetemcomitans to surfaces. The recently developed transposon IS903φkan was used to isolate mutants of the rough clinical isolate CU1000 that are defective in tight adherence to surfaces (Tad−). Unlike wild-type cells, Tad− mutant cells adhere poorly to surfaces, fail to form large autoaggregates, and lack long, bundled fibrils. Nucleotide sequencing and genetic complementation analysis revealed a 6.7-kb region of the genome with seven adjacent genes (tadABCDEFG) required for tight adherence. The predicted TadA polypeptide is similar to VirB11, an ATPase involved in macromolecular transport. The predicted amino acid sequences of the other Tad polypeptides indicate membrane localization but no obvious functions. We suggest that the tad genes are involved in secretion of factors required for tight adherence of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Remarkably, complete and highly conserved tad gene clusters are present in the genomes of the bubonic plague bacillus Yersinia pestis and the human and animal pathogen Pasteurella multocida. Partial tad loci also occur in strikingly diverse Bacteria and Archaea. Our results show that the tad genes are required for tight adherence of A. actinomycetemcomitans to surfaces and are therefore likely to be essential for colonization and pathogenesis. The occurrence of similar genes in a wide array of microorganisms indicates that they have important functions. We propose that tad

  16. Blood values of captive beira antelope (Dorcatragus megalotis) prior to and during an outbreak of fibrinous pleuropneumonia syndrome (FPPS).

    PubMed

    Gull, Jessica M; Hebel, Christiana; Deb, Amrita; Arif, Abdi; Clauss, Marcus; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Hammer, Sven

    2014-12-01

    Currently the only captive population of beira antelope (Dorcatragus megalotis) is held at the Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, Qatar. An outbreak of a severe respiratory disease--fibrinous pleuropneumonia syndrome, most likely caused by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae--led to a marked population decline. Reactive systemic inflammatory (AA) amyloidosis was noted as a chronic manifestation of the disease. Blood samples had been collected for biochemistry and hematology baseline values prior to the outbreak. Population-level changes were analyzed before and during the course of the outbreak in selected blood parameters (white blood cells [WBC], blood urea nitrogen [BUN], and creatinine). The annual population WBC increased and decreased concurrently with the population size, with a significant correlation between the two measures (R = 0.92; P = 0.001). Both BUN and creatinine values were higher during the outbreak. These values peaked at the same time as mortality, which was 1 yr after the WBC peak. These changes were interpreted as the transition from an acute disease with a primary respiratory manifestation into a chronic condition where renal amyloidosis led to chronic renal failure and death. Also, elevated liver values in diseased animals were attributed to amyloidosis. Parallels to a literature report on a lung disease complex caused by M. ovipneumoniae in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were found. Trends in population-level blood values of the beira antelopes implicate amyloidosis as a significant, long-term consequence of the putative Mycoplasma infection. PMID:25632657

  17. Blood values of captive beira antelope (Dorcatragus megalotis) prior to and during an outbreak of fibrinous pleuropneumonia syndrome (FPPS).

    PubMed

    Gull, Jessica M; Hebel, Christiana; Deb, Amrita; Arif, Abdi; Clauss, Marcus; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Hammer, Sven

    2014-12-01

    Currently the only captive population of beira antelope (Dorcatragus megalotis) is held at the Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, Qatar. An outbreak of a severe respiratory disease--fibrinous pleuropneumonia syndrome, most likely caused by Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae--led to a marked population decline. Reactive systemic inflammatory (AA) amyloidosis was noted as a chronic manifestation of the disease. Blood samples had been collected for biochemistry and hematology baseline values prior to the outbreak. Population-level changes were analyzed before and during the course of the outbreak in selected blood parameters (white blood cells [WBC], blood urea nitrogen [BUN], and creatinine). The annual population WBC increased and decreased concurrently with the population size, with a significant correlation between the two measures (R = 0.92; P = 0.001). Both BUN and creatinine values were higher during the outbreak. These values peaked at the same time as mortality, which was 1 yr after the WBC peak. These changes were interpreted as the transition from an acute disease with a primary respiratory manifestation into a chronic condition where renal amyloidosis led to chronic renal failure and death. Also, elevated liver values in diseased animals were attributed to amyloidosis. Parallels to a literature report on a lung disease complex caused by M. ovipneumoniae in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were found. Trends in population-level blood values of the beira antelopes implicate amyloidosis as a significant, long-term consequence of the putative Mycoplasma infection.

  18. Mathematical modelling of the transmission dynamics of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia reveals minimal target profiles for improved vaccines and diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Ssematimba, Amos; Jores, Joerg; Mariner, Jeffrey C

    2015-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a cattle disease that has hampered the development of the livestock sector in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, vaccination with a live vaccine strain is its recommended control measure although unofficial antimicrobial use is widely practiced. Here, modelling techniques are used to assess the potential impact of early elimination of infected cattle via accurate diagnosis on CBPP dynamics. A herd-level stochastic epidemiological model explicitly incorporating test sensitivity and specificity is developed. Interventions by annual vaccination, annual testing and elimination and a combination of both are implemented in a stepwise manner and their effectiveness compared by running 1000 simulations per intervention over ten years. The model predicts that among the simulated interventions, the ones likely to eliminate the disease from an isolated herd all involved annual vaccination of more than 75% of the animals with a vaccine that protects for at least 18 months combined with annual testing (and elimination of positive reactors) of 75% of the animals every six months after vaccination. The highest probability of disease elimination was 97.5% and this could occur within a median of 2.3 years. Generally, our model predicts that regular testing and elimination of positive reactors using improved tests will play a significant role in minimizing CBPP burden especially in the current situation where improved vaccines are yet to be developed.

  19. Lytic sensitivity of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 to lysozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Iacono, V J; Boldt, P R; MacKay, B J; Cho, M I; Pollock, J J

    1983-01-01

    The ability of both human and hen egg white lysozymes to lyse Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 was investigated. Lysis was followed optically at 540 nm by measuring the percent reduction in turbidity of freshly harvested log-phase cells suspended in Tris-maleate buffers within a wide range of pH (5.2 to 8.5) and molarity (0.01 to 0.2 M) and containing various amounts of enzyme and EDTA. In several instances, treated microorganisms were subsequently examined in thin sections by electron microscopy. Reductions in turbidity and clearing of suspensions occurred with small amounts of lysozyme (less than 1 microgram) under relatively alkaline conditions and at low ionic strength and in the presence of small amounts of EDTA (greater than 0.01 mM). Under the most alkaline conditions, EDTA alone effected turbidity reductions similar to those observed in the presence of lysozyme, which suggested that EDTA not only increased outer membrane permeability but also caused cell lysis. Ultrastructural analysis did not always correspond to turbidimetric observations. Cell lysis was virtually complete in suspensions containing both lysozyme and EDTA. However, in contrast to turbidimetric findings, a significant percentage of cells (greater than 25%) was lysed in the presence of lysozyme alone. Furthermore, significant damage occurred in the presence of EDTA alone. Spheroplast-like cell ghosts were present which surrounded condensed cytoplasm or relatively clear spaces. These findings further support the concept of the requirement for electron microscopy to assess lytic damage in addition to turbidimetric and biochemical methods. Our results are the first to demonstrate the remarkable sensitivity of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 to lysozyme and to show that EDTA not only affects outer membrane permeability but effects cell lysis, possibly through activation of autolytic enzymes at the cytoplasmic membrane. The exquisite sensitivity of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 to lysis could be

  20. Introns in the Cytolethal Distending Toxin Gene of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kai Soo; Ong, Grace; Song, Keang Peng

    2005-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, genes are interrupted by intervening sequences called introns. Introns are transcribed as part of a precursor RNA that is subsequently removed by splicing, giving rise to mature mRNA. However, introns are rarely found in bacteria. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a periodontal pathogen implicated in aggressive forms of periodontal disease. This organism has been shown to produce cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), which causes sensitive eukaryotic cells to become irreversibly blocked at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. In this study, we report the presence of introns within the cdt gene of A. actinomycetemcomitans. By use of reverse transcription-PCR, cdt transcripts of 2.123, 1.572, and 0.882 kb (RTA1, RTA2, and RTA3, respectively) were detected. In contrast, a single 2.123-kb amplicon was obtained by PCR with the genomic DNA. Similar results were obtained when a plasmid carrying cdt was cloned into Escherichia coli. Sequence analysis of RTA1, RTA2, and RTA3 revealed that RTA1 had undergone splicing, giving rise to RTA2 and RTA3. Two exon-intron boundaries, or splice sites, were identified at positions 863 to 868 and 1553 to 1558 of RTA1. Site-directed and deletion mutation studies of the splice site sequence indicated that sequence conservation was important in order for accurate splicing to occur. The catalytic region of the cdt RNA was located within the cdtC gene. This 0.56-kb RNA behaved independently as a catalytically active RNA molecule (a ribozyme) in vitro, capable of splicing heterologous RNA in both cis and trans configurations. PMID:15629928

  1. The gingival immune response to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in juvenile periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Hall, E R; Falkler, W A; Martin, S A; Suzuki, J B

    1991-12-01

    The established and advanced lesions of juvenile periodontitis-localized form (JP) are predominated by B-lymphocytes and plasma cells. Local immune processes may participate in protective or immunopathologic roles in the pathogenesis of this disease. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.) is implicated as a primary etiologic agent in JP. An in vitro gingival explant culture system was utilized to study the specificity of immunoglobulins produced by diseased JP tissues. A dot-immunobinding assay demonstrated that 46% of the supernatant fluids (SF) from explant cultures of diseased tissues (n = 39) were positive for the presence of antibody to A.a. Y4, while 61% of autologous JP sera (n = 39) tested positive. For rapidly progressive (RP) and adult periodontitis (AP) SF, 50% and 40% were positive for A.a. Y4, respectively. Seventeen percent of SF from healthy tissue were positive for A.a. Y4. There was no significant difference between JP SF reactivities to A.a. Y4 when compared to reactivities of SF from AP and RP patients. Only 10% of JP SF were positive for Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, a non-oral control microorganism. The de novo biosynthesis of antibody in JP tissue, reactive with A.a. Y4, was demonstrated with Staph Protein A isolated 14C-labeled IgG (SPAG) and the use of a dot-immunobinding assay and autoradiography. The in vitro gingival tissue explant culture system described provides a useful model for the study of the synthesis and specificity of localized immunoglobulins produced by diseased tissues of JP patients. PMID:1765941

  2. Morphology and ultrastructure of oral strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, S C; Tanner, A C; Socransky, S S

    1980-01-01

    Selected human oral and nonoral strains of the genera Actinobacillus and Haemophilus were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The strains examined were morphologically identical to recognized Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, and Haemophilus paraphrophilus. By transmission electron microscopy, the cells were typically gram negative in morphology, with several strains possessing some extracellular ruthenium red-staining polymeric material. Numerous vesicular structures, morphologically identical to lipopolysaccharide vesicles, were seen to originate from and be continuous with the surface of the outer membrane. Large numbers of these vesicles were also found in the external environment. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that both actinobacilli and haemophili possessed surface projections and an amorphous surface material which connected and covered adjacent cells. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:7439996

  3. 21 CFR 558.261 - Florfenicol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... disease (SRD) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus suis... streptococcal septicemia associated with Streptococcus iniae Feed as a sole ration for 10 consecutive days...

  4. 21 CFR 558.261 - Florfenicol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... disease (SRD) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus suis... septicemia associated with Streptococcus iniae Feed as a sole ration for 10 consecutive days to deliver 15...

  5. 21 CFR 522.812 - Enrofloxacin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis, Streptococcus..., Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis. (iii) Limitations. Animals intended for human consumption...

  6. 21 CFR 522.313a - Ceftiofur crystalline free acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis. For the... strains of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus. (iii) Limitations. Do not use in horses intended...

  7. An international collaborative study to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by monoclonal antibody-based cELISA

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few serological tests are available for detecting antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The complement fixation test, the test prescribed for international trade purposes, uses a crude antigen that cross-reacts with all the other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster” frequently infecting goat herds. The lack of a more specific test has been a real obstacle to the evaluation of the prevalence and economic impact of CCPP worldwide. A new competitive ELISA kit for CCPP, based on a previous blocking ELISA, was formatted at CIRAD and used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in some regions of Kenya, Ethiopia, Mauritius, Tajikistan and Pakistan in an international collaborative study. Results The strict specificity of the test was confirmed in CCPP-free goat herds exposed to other mycoplasma species of the “mycoides cluster”. Prevalence studies were performed across the enzootic range of the disease in Africa and Asia. Seroprevalence was estimated at 14.6% in the Afar region of Ethiopia, whereas all the herds presented for CCPP vaccination in Kenya tested positive (individual seroprevalence varied from 6 to 90% within each herd). In Mauritius, where CCPP emerged in 2009, nine of 62 herds tested positive. In Central Asia, where the disease was confirmed only recently, no positive animals were detected in the Wakhan District of Afghanistan or across the border in neighboring areas of Tajikistan, whereas seroprevalence varied between 2.7% and 44.2% in the other districts investigated and in northern Pakistan. The test was also used to monitor seroconversion in vaccinated animals. Conclusions This newly formatted CCPP cELISA kit has retained the high specificity of the original kit. It can therefore be used to evaluate the prevalence of CCPP in countries or regions without vaccination programs. It could also be used to monitor the efficacy of vaccination

  8. Sero-prevalence of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in bulls originated from Borena pastoral area of Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Gezahegn; Leta, Samson; Hailu, Berhanu

    2015-06-01

    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly infectious cattle disease, which is widespread in pastoral areas of Africa, and it imposes a major problem on Ethiopian livestock export market. Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 on bulls originated from Borena pastoral area to determine seroprevalence of CBPP. Forty batches of bulls containing 38,187 Borana bulls were tested using c-ELISA. Of the total 40 batches tested for the presence of antibodies, 25 (62.5 %) of them contained at least one seropositive bull. From the total of 38,187 bulls tested, 150 (0.4 %) bulls were positive. The number of seropositive animals increases as the herd size increases (P < 0.05). Both at herd and individual level, the highest CBPP prevalence was recorded in herd size >1000, and the difference was found statistically significant (P < 0.05). There was statistically significant (χ (2) = 23.73, df = 9, P = 0.005) difference of CBPP prevalence between months of the year. The present low prevalence of CBPP in the cattle feedlots indicates that the disease is decreasing progressively in Borena pastoral area, this might be associated with the ongoing mass vaccination campaign against economically important livestock diseases in pastoral areas. The decrease in the prevalence of CBPP offered a great opportunity to livestock producers and live animal and meat exporters by improving the demand of Ethiopian livestock on international market. Regular reintroduction of infected cattle from neighboring countries or herds where the disease remains endemic may change the disease dynamics again. Therefore, mass blanket vaccinations coupled with prompt diagnosis, isolation and stamping out of the outbreaks, intensive surveillance, followed by strict cattle movement control should be implemented by concerned parties.

  9. Combination fibrinolytic therapy in the treatment of chronic septic pleuropneumonia in a Thoroughbred gelding.

    PubMed

    Rendle, D I; Armstrong, S K; Hughes, K J

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the treatment of a case of chronic pleuropneumonia in a 3-year-old Thoroughbred gelding. A recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tenecteplase) and a recombinant deoxyribonucleic acidase (alphadornase) were infused into the pleural cavity as adjunctive therapy in the early stages of treatment. Instillation of fibrinolytic drugs was associated with a subjective reduction in the amount of fibrin deposition and decreased fluid accumulation within the pleural cavities. Fibrinolytic therapy may be a useful adjunctive therapy in selected cases of intrapleural disease in horses. PMID:22928684

  10. Antigenic properties of pleuropneumonia-like organisms from tissue cell cultures and the human genital area.

    PubMed

    BAILEY, J S; CLARK, H W; FELTS, W R; FOWLER, R C; BROWN, T M

    1961-10-01

    Bailey, Jack S. (George Washington University, Washington, D. C.), Harold W. Clark, William R. Felts, Richard C. Fowler, and Thomas McP. Brown. Antigenic properties of pleuropneumonia-like organisms from tissue cell cultures and the human genital area. J. Bacteriol. 82:542-547. 1961.-Antigens were prepared from several tissue culture and human genital strains of pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO) by a method utilizing continuous agitation of the incubating cultures. Antisera were produced in rabbits by intravenous injection of suspensions of these organisms standardized turbidimetrically. The antigenic properties of the selected strains were compared by agglutination techniques supplemented by a test based upon the inhibition of growth of PPLO by specific antisera.The majority of tissue culture strains of PPLO studied, including contaminants from several HeLa cell lines, appeared to be antigenically similar to the human type 1 strains. However, one strain (Sp-1) from a HeLa cell line was found to be related to the human type 2 PPLO.

  11. Production of succinic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose using Actinobacillus succinogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    SciTech Connect

    Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2008-05-01

    A periplasmic membrane-fusion protein MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria, was crystallized. Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni–NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  13. Evaluation of the xerovac process for the preparation of heat tolerant contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Litamoi, J K; Ayelet, G; Rweyemamu, M M

    2005-04-01

    The study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the xerovac process as a method for preparing contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) vaccine with increased heat resistance. The thermo-protective effects of various concentrations of trehalose in mycoplasma growth medium, various concentrations of trehalose in the dehydration stabilizer and the importance of some divalent cations were assessed. The results obtained indicate that a rapid dehydration of CBPP vaccine following the xerovac method and in an excipient composed of a high concentration of trehalose, renders the product more heat tolerant than a similar vaccine prepared using a regular or an extended freeze drying regime. It was also demonstrated that the addition of chitosan as a mycoplasma precipitating agent conferred additional heat resistance to the vaccine. It is suggested that the application of the xerovac process in the dehydration of CBPP vaccine offers the advantages of a faster, cheaper and easier process over the conventional dehydration methods like freeze drying.

  14. Rapid Detection of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia by a Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC Capsular Polysaccharide-Specific Antigen Detection Latex Agglutination Test

    PubMed Central

    March, John B.; Kerr, Karen; Lema, Benedict

    2003-01-01

    A latex agglutination test (LAT) has been developed for the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). The latex microspheres were coated with MmmSC polyclonal immunoglobulin G antiserum and detected MmmSC antigen in the serum of cattle infected with CBPP and in growth medium containing MmmSC. The specific antigen recognizsed by this test appeared to be the capsular polysaccharide (CPS). The LAT recognized all 23 strains of MmmSC examined in this study, with a sensitivity level of 2 ng of CPS, or the equivalent of 5 × 103 CFU, in a reaction volume of 0.03 ml. Therefore, rapid identification of MmmSC cultures should be possible. Agglutination was also observed with the related goat pathogens and “Mycoplasma mycoides” cluster members Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony biotype (four of six strains positive) and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (three of six strains positive), in agreement with the suggestion that these latter two mycoplasmas may in fact represent a single species (although collectively exhibiting two capsular serotypes). Comparisons in diagnosis with the complement fixation test (CFT) were made by using African field sera from CBPP-infected cattle. After 2 (or 3) min of incubation, the test detected 55% (or 61%) of CFT-positive sera and 29% (or 40%) of CFT-negative sera, with an overall correlation in diagnosis of 62% (or 61%). The rates for false-positive diagnoses made by using “known” CBPP-negative sera from the United Kingdom were 3 or 13% after 2 or 3 min of incubation, respectively. The data agree with previous findings that some CBPP CFT-negative misdiagnoses may occur due to “antibody eclipsing” by excess circulating antigen. The LAT combines low cost and high specificity with ease of application in the field, without the need for any specialist training or equipment. PMID:12626448

  15. Infection.

    PubMed

    Miclau, Theodore; Schmidt, Andrew H; Wenke, Joseph C; Webb, Lawrence X; Harro, Janette M; Prabhakara, Ranjani; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2010-09-01

    Musculoskeletal infection is a clinical problem with significant direct healthcare costs. The prevalence of infection after closed, elective surgery is frequently estimated to be less than 2%, but in severe injuries, posttraumatic infection rates have been reported as 10% or greater. Although clinical infections are found outside the realm of medical devices, it is clear that the enormous increase of infections associated with the use of implants presents a major challenge worldwide. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of musculoskeletal infections.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Actinobacillus equuli subspecies equuli ATCC 19392T

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacillus equuli subsp. equuli is a member of the family Pasteurellaceae that is a common resident of the oral cavity and alimentary tract of healthy horses. At the same time, it can also cause a fatal septicemia in foals, commonly known as sleepy foal disease or joint ill disease. In addition, A. equuli subsp. equuli has recently been reported to act as a primary pathogen in breeding sows and piglets. To better understand how A. equuli subsp. equuli can cause disease, the genome of the type strain of A. equuli subsp. equuli, ATCC 19392T, was sequenced using the PacBio RSII sequencing system. Its genome is comprised of 2,431,533 bp and is predicted to encode 2,264 proteins and 82 RNAs. PMID:26203343

  17. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in Brazilian insulin-dependent individuals with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, A C; de Uzeda, M; Novaes, A B

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) in subgingival plaque specimens from 26 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, 11-25 years of age, was determined between January 1987 and December 1989. One hundred and thirty subgingival plaque samples were collected with sterile periodontal curettes. The specimens were weighted, diluted, inoculated on trypticase-soy-serum-bacitracin-vancomycin agar medium (TSBV) and incubated under microacrophilic conditions. Aa was isolated from 2.3% of healthy periodontal areas in these patients, while the microorganism was found in 12.5% of the sites with gingivitis and in 2.6% of the periodontal pockets examined. Although biochemical tests used for the characterization of Aa strains showed homogeneous results, different biotypes were isolated from one or more periodontal sites in the same patient.

  18. Characterization of the lipopolysaccharide from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 and N27.

    PubMed Central

    Kiley, P; Holt, S C

    1980-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans strains Y4 and N27 was isolated by the phenol-water procedure. Morphologically, the molecule consisted of ribbon and branched filaments which comprised 3% of the cellular dry weight. Chemical analysis of the isolated and purified LPSs of both strains showed them to consist of carbohydrate, lipid, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate, heptose, hexosamine, and phosphate. The major fatty acids of the lipid A moiety were saturated C14 and beta-OH C14 compounds. Rhamnose, fucose, galactose, glucose, heptose, glucosamine, and galactosamine comprised the monosaccharide portion of the LPS. Biological activity studies revealed both LPS molecules to be active in the Schwartzman reaction and in in vitro 45Ca bone resorption, as well as in macrophage activation and lethality and in platelet aggregation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7228391

  19. Succinic acid production from duckweed (Landoltia punctata) hydrolysate by batch fermentation of Actinobacillus succinogenes GXAS137.

    PubMed

    Shen, Naikun; Wang, Qingyan; Zhu, Jing; Qin, Yan; Liao, Siming; Li, Yi; Zhu, Qixia; Jin, Yanling; Du, Liqin; Huang, Ribo

    2016-07-01

    Duckweed is potentially an ideal succinic acid (SA) feedstock due to its high proportion of starch and low lignin content. Pretreatment methods, substrate content and nitrogen source were investigated to enhance the bioconversion of duckweed to SA and to reduce the costs of production. Results showed that acid hydrolysis was an effective pretreatment method because of its high SA yield. The optimum substrate concentration was 140g/L. The optimum substrate concentration was 140g/L. Corn steep liquor powder could be considered a feasible and inexpensive alternative to yeast extract as a nitrogen source. Approximately 57.85g/L of SA was produced when batch fermentation was conducted in a 1.3L stirred bioreactor. Therefore, inexpensive duckweed can be a promising feedstock for the economical and efficient production of SA through fermentation by Actinobacillus succinogenes GXAS137. PMID:27023386

  20. Succinic acid production from duckweed (Landoltia punctata) hydrolysate by batch fermentation of Actinobacillus succinogenes GXAS137.

    PubMed

    Shen, Naikun; Wang, Qingyan; Zhu, Jing; Qin, Yan; Liao, Siming; Li, Yi; Zhu, Qixia; Jin, Yanling; Du, Liqin; Huang, Ribo

    2016-07-01

    Duckweed is potentially an ideal succinic acid (SA) feedstock due to its high proportion of starch and low lignin content. Pretreatment methods, substrate content and nitrogen source were investigated to enhance the bioconversion of duckweed to SA and to reduce the costs of production. Results showed that acid hydrolysis was an effective pretreatment method because of its high SA yield. The optimum substrate concentration was 140g/L. The optimum substrate concentration was 140g/L. Corn steep liquor powder could be considered a feasible and inexpensive alternative to yeast extract as a nitrogen source. Approximately 57.85g/L of SA was produced when batch fermentation was conducted in a 1.3L stirred bioreactor. Therefore, inexpensive duckweed can be a promising feedstock for the economical and efficient production of SA through fermentation by Actinobacillus succinogenes GXAS137.

  1. Succinic acid production from corn stover by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Pu; Fang, Lin; Xu, Yan; Dong, Jin-Jun; Ni, Ye; Sun, Zhi-Hao

    2010-10-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) technique was applied for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in a 5-l stirred bioreactor with corn stover as the raw material. The process parameters of SSF, including corn stover pretreatment condition, substrate concentration, enzyme loading and fermentation temperature were investigated. Results indicated that pretreating corn stover with diluted alkaline was beneficial for the succinic acid production, and succinic acid yield could be significantly increased when adding the cellulase supplemented with cellobiase. The maximal succinic acid concentration and yield could reach 47.4 g/l and 0.72 g/g-substrate, respectively. The corresponding operation conditions were summarized as follows: SSF operation at 38 °C for 48 h, diluted alkaline pretreated corn stover as substrate with concentration of 70 g/l, enzyme loading of 20FPU cellulase and 10 U cellobiase per gram substrate. This result suggested an industrial potential of succinic acid production by using SSF and corn stover.

  2. Iron-Chelating Activity of Tetracyclines and Its Impact on the Susceptibility of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to These Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, Daniel; Huot, Marie-Pierre; Mayrand, Denis

    2000-01-01

    Three tetracyclines (tetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline) were found to possess iron-chelating activity in a colorimetric siderophore assay. Determination of MICs indicated that the activity of doxycycline against the periodontopathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was only slightly influenced by the presence of an excess of iron that likely saturates the antibiotic. On the other hand, the MICs of doxycycline and minocycline were significantly lower for A. actinomycetemcomitans cultivated under iron-poor conditions than under iron-rich conditions. PMID:10681353

  3. Challenges of controlling contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa: a Zambian perspective.

    PubMed

    Muuka, Geoffrey; Songolo, Nadi; Kabilika, Swithine; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Nalubamba, King S; Muma, John B

    2013-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of economic importance that is widely distributed in sub-Saharan African and contributes significantly to cattle morbidity and mortality. Control of CBPP offers a number of challenges as a result many developing countries in Africa are still struggling with this disease. In this study, we look at the challenges encountered in CBPP control in sub-Saharan Africa from the Zambian perspective. In conducting this study, we reviewed scientific literature and reports from the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock and related animal institutions, and also made interviews with experts and key government officials involved in CBPP control in Zambia. Among the challenges identified for the successful control of CBPP were as follows: failure in the delivery of veterinary services, lack of a cattle identification system, natural phenomenon, livestock husbandry systems in the traditional sector, human movements, traditional practices among cattle farmers and cattle marketing systems. It was seen that the epidemiology of CBPP in Zambia is influenced by both ecological and anthological factors. Therefore, design and implementation of any control or eradication programme should be area/regional-dependent taking into account the different factors influencing disease transmission and maintenance.

  4. Demonstration of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, small colony type in outbreaks of caprine pleuropneumonia in eastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kusiluka, L J; Semuguruka, W D; Kazwala, R R; Ojeniy, B; Friis, N F

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of caprine pleuropneumonia involving about 1200 goats in the Coast and Morogoro regions of eastern Tanzania is reported. The major clinical findings were severe respiratory distress, fever, mucopurulent nasal discharge and high mortality involving all age groups and both sexes of goats. The morbidity and mortality rates were 45%-90% and 14%-50%, respectively. The principal pathological lesions were confined to the thoracic cavity and comprised hydrothorax and serofibrinous pleuropneumonia. The histopathological features consisted of a necrotizing fibrinous pleuropneumonia characterized by different degrees of vasculitis, and fibrinocellular exudation into the alveolar septae and lumina, and into interlobular septae and pleura. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were isolated from some of the examined goats including a case with a sequestrum which yielded Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type. This work reports the first description of an outbreak of caprine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania in which M. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type were concurrently isolated.

  5. Significance of CO2 donor on the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Succinic acid is a building-block chemical which could be used as the precursor of many industrial products. The dissolved CO2 concentration in the fermentation broth could strongly regulate the metabolic flux of carbon and the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase, which are the important committed steps for the biosynthesis of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes. Previous reports showed that succinic acid production could be promoted by regulating the supply of CO2 donor in the fermentation broth. Therefore, the effects of dissolved CO2 concentration and MgCO3 on the fermentation process should be investigated. In this article, we studied the impacts of gaseous CO2 partial pressure, dissolved CO2 concentration, and the addition amount of MgCO3 on succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618. We also demonstrated that gaseous CO2 could be removed when MgCO3 was fully supplied. Results An effective CO2 quantitative mathematical model was developed to calculate the dissolved CO2 concentration in the fermentation broth. The highest succinic acid production of 61.92 g/L was obtained at 159.22 mM dissolved CO2 concentration, which was supplied by 40 g/L MgCO3 at the CO2 partial pressure of 101.33 kPa. When MgCO3 was used as the only CO2 donor, a maximal succinic acid production of 56.1 g/L was obtained, which was just decreased by 7.03% compared with that obtained under the supply of gaseous CO2 and MgCO3. Conclusions Besides the high dissolved CO2 concentration, the excessive addition of MgCO3 was beneficial to promote the succinic acid synthesis. This was the first report investigating the replaceable of gaseous CO2 in the fermentation of succinic acid. The results obtained in this study may be useful for reducing the cost of succinic acid fermentation process. PMID:22040346

  6. Infection.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Gaurav; Nagornaya, Natalya; Post, M Judith D

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is useful in the diagnosis and management of infections of the central nervous system. Typically, imaging findings at the outset of the disease are subtle and nonspecific, but they often evolve to more definite imaging patterns in a few days, with less rapidity than for stroke but faster than for neoplastic lesions. This timing is similar to that of noninfectious inflammatory brain disease, such as multiple sclerosis. Fortunately, imaging patterns help to distinguish the two kinds of processes. Other than for sarcoidosis, the meninges are seldom involved in noninfectious inflammation; in contrast, many infectious processes involve the meninges, which then enhance with contrast on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, brain infection causes a vast array of imaging patterns. Although CT is useful when hemorrhage or calcification is suspected or bony detail needs to be determined, MRI is the imaging modality of choice in the investigation of intracranial infections. Imaging sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging help in accurately depicting the location and characterizing pyogenic infections and are particularly useful in differentiating bacterial infections from other etiologies. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is extremely useful for the detection of hemorrhage. Although MR spectroscopy findings can frequently be nonspecific, certain conditions such as bacterial abscesses show a relatively specific spectral pattern and are useful in diagnosing and constituting immediate therapy. In this chapter we review first the imaging patterns associated with involvement of various brain structures, such as the epidural and subdural spaces, the meninges, the brain parenchyma, and the ventricles. Involvement of these regions is illustrated with bacterial infections. Next we illustrate the patterns associated with viral and prion diseases, followed by mycobacterial and fungal infections, to conclude with a review of imaging findings

  7. A meta-analysis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abayneh, Takele; Mekuria, Solomon; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Skjerve, Eystein; Szonyi, Barbara; Wieland, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    This systematic literature review was initiated due to lack of comprehensive information on the status and distribution of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Ethiopia. The objectives of the review were thus to provide a pooled prevalence estimate of CCPP in the country and asses the level of in between study variance among the available reports. Manual and electronic search was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015. A total of twelve published articles and one MSc thesis was retrieved from 19 initially identified studies. Twenty five animal level datasets were extracted at regional level considering some hypothesized predictors. The retrieved data were summarized in a meta-analytical approach. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate of CCPP was 25.7% (95% CI:20.9,31.0). The inverse variance square (I(2)) that explains the variation in effect size attributed to reports true heterogeneity was 95.7%.The sub-group analysis was also computed for assumed predictors including, age, sex, type of study population, production systems and regional states. Among these predictors, study population type revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Accordingly, the prevalence estimate for samples collected at abattoir was 39.2%, while that of samples collected at field level was 22.4%. In the final model, type of study population fitted the multivariable meta-regression model accounting for 22.87% of the explainable proportion of heterogeneity among the presumed predictors. Evidence on isolation and confirmation of Mycoplasma capricolum subspp. capripneumonie in the country was obtained from five regional states. In conclusion, it is recommended to further investigate facilities related with transportation and collection premises along with potential role of sheep in the epidemiology of CCPP. Finally, the review emphasizes the need for monitoring the ongoing CCPP control intervention and introduces amendments based on the findings

  8. Improving succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes from raw industrial carob pods.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-10-01

    Carob pods are an inexpensive by-product of locust bean gum industry that can be used as renewable feedstock for bio-based succinic acid. Here, for the first time, unprocessed raw carob pods were used to extract a highly enriched sugar solution, afterwards used as substrate to produce succinic acid using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Batch fermentations containing 30g/L sugars resulted in a production rate of 1.67gSA/L.h and a yield of 0.39gSA/g sugars. Taking advantage of A. succinogenes' metabolism, uncoupling cell growth from succinic acid production, a fed-batch mode was implemented to increase succinic acid yield and reduce by-products formation. This strategy resulted in a succinic acid yield of 0.94gSA/g sugars, the highest yield reported in the literature for fed-batch and continuous experiments, while maintaining by-products at residual values. Results demonstrate that raw carob pods are a highly efficient feedstock for bio-based succinic acid production.

  9. Carob pod water extracts as feedstock for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-10-01

    Carob pods are a by-product of locust bean gum industry containing more than 50% (w/w) sucrose, glucose and fructose. In this work, carob pod water extracts were used, for the first time, for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. Kinetic studies of glucose, fructose and sucrose consumption as individual carbon sources till 30g/L showed no inhibition on cell growth, sugar consumption and SA production rates. Sugar extraction from carob pods was optimized varying solid/liquid ratio and extraction time, maximizing sugar recovery while minimizing the extraction of polyphenols. Batch fermentations containing 10-15g/L total sugars resulted in a maximum specific SA production rate of 0.61Cmol/Cmol X.h, with a yield of 0.55Cmol SA/Cmol sugar and a volumetric productivity of 1.61g SA/L.h. Results demonstrate that carob pods can be a promising low cost feedstock for bio-based SA production.

  10. Succinic Acid Production from Cheese Whey using Actinobacillus succinogenes 130 Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Xiu, Shuangning

    Actinobacillus succinogenes 130 Z was used to produce succinic acid from cheese whey in this study. At the presence of external CO2 supply, the effects of initial cheese whey concentration, pH, and inoculum size on the succinic acid production were studied. The by-product formation during the fermentation process was also analyzed. The highest succinic acid yield of 0.57 was obtained at initial cheese whey concentration of 50 g/L, while the highest succinic acid productivity of 0.58 g h-1 L-1 was obtained at initial cheese whey concentration of 100 g/L. Increase in pH and inoculum size caused higher succinic acid yield and productivity. At the preferred fermentation condition of pH 6.8, inoculum size of 5% and initial cheese whey concentration of 50 g/L, succinic acid yield of 0.57, and productivity of 0.44 g h-1 L-1 were obtained. Acetic acid and formic acid were the main by-products throughout the fermentation run of 48 h. It is feasible to produce succinic acid using lactose from cheese whey as carbon resource by A. succinogenes 130 Z.

  11. Purification and characterization of the serotype c antigen from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Zambon, J J; Slots, J; Miyasaki, K; Linzer, R; Cohen, R; Levine, M; Genco, R J

    1984-01-01

    The serotype c antigen from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was purified with fractional ethanol precipitation of cell-free culture supernatant, sequential ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. The preparation obtained demonstrated a single precipitin line in immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, and crossed immunoelectrophoresis when rabbit antisera to serotype c whole bacterial cells were used. No immunological reaction was detected with antisera to serotype c lipopolysaccharide, indicating that lipopolysaccharide was not present in the preparation. The serotype c antigen was composed of 95% carbohydrate, 2% protein, and 3.1% phosphate. Gas chromatographic analysis of the antigen obtained from growth in either complex or chemically defined media revealed that the carbohydrate constituent was composed of 84 to 90.1% mannose, 4.8 to 16% glucose, 1.9% N-acetylglucosamine, 1.4% fucose, and 0.2% galactose. The present data suggest that A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype c antigen is predominantly a mannose-containing carbohydrate suggestive of a mannan. Images PMID:6423542

  12. In vitro activity of azithromycin compared with that of erythromycin against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Pajukanta, R; Asikainen, S; Saarela, M; Alaluusua, S; Jousimies-Somer, H

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to azithromycin, a new macrolide antibiotic of a new class known as azalides, was compared with that of erythromycin by the agar dilution method on Mueller-Hinton Haemophilus test medium. Eighty-two A. actinomycetemcomitans strains, 79 recent clinical isolates obtained from 40 periodontally healthy or diseased subjects, and 3 type strains were included in the study. Erythromycin showed poor in vitro activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans. Azithromycin, however, was highly effective against A. actinomycetemcomitans: all strains were inhibited at 2.0 micrograms/ml. Azithromycin exhibited the best in vitro activity against the serotype a subpopulation of A. actinomycetemcomitans: 100% of the strains were inhibited at 1.0 micrograms/ml. The lowest MICs were, however, recorded by serotype b strains. Since azithromycin has favorable pharmacokinetic properties, including excellent distribution into tissues, it could be expected to pass into gingival crevicular fluid at levels sufficient to inhibit A. actinomycetemcomitans in vivo. Therefore, it is a good candidate for future clinical trials in A. actinomycetemcomitans-associated periodontitis. PMID:1329617

  13. Succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes using hydrolysates of spent yeast cells and corn fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke-Quan; Li, Jian; Ma, Jiang-Feng; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Liu, Zhong-Min; Ying, Han-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysate of spent yeast cells was evaluated as a nitrogen source for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113, using corn fiber hydrolysate as a carbon source. When spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used directly as a nitrogen source, a maximum succinic acid concentration of 35.5 g/l was obtained from a glucose concentration of 50 g/l, with a glucose utilization of 95.2%. Supplementation with individual vitamins showed that biotin was the most likely factor to be limiting for succinic acid production with spent yeast cell hydrolysate. After supplementing spent yeast cell hydrolysate and 90 g/l of glucose with 150 μg/l of biotin, cell growth increased 32.5%, glucose utilization increased 37.6%, and succinic acid concentration was enhanced 49.0%. As a result, when biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used with corn fiber hydrolysate, a succinic acid yield of 67.7% was obtained from 70.3 g/l of total sugar concentration, with a productivity of 0.63 g/(l h). Our results suggest that biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate may be an alternative nitrogen source for the efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes NJ113, using renewable resources. PMID:20801644

  14. Identification of genomic clonal types of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by restriction endonuclease analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Han, N; Hoover, C I; Winkler, J R; Ng, C Y; Armitage, G C

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate its utility in discriminating different strains, restriction endonuclease analysis was applied to 12 strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (3 serotype a, 5 serotype b, and 4 serotype c strains). DNA isolated from each strain was digested by 12 different restriction endonucleases, and the electrophoretic banding patterns of the resulting DNA fragments were compared. The DNA fragment patterns produced by SalI, XhoI, and XbaI for the 12 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains were simple (less than 30 bands) and allowed us to recognize easily 10 distinct genomic clonal types. The three serotype a strains exhibited distinctly different clonal types from one another, the five serotype b strains exhibited an additional four distinct clonal types, and the four serotype c strains showed another three different clonal types. The other endonucleases tested were less useful in typing A. actinomycetemcomitans. We conclude that restriction endonuclease analysis is a powerful tool for typing and discerning genetic heterogeneity and homogeneity among A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. It should, therefore, be very useful for epidemiologic studies. Images PMID:1761677

  15. Immunodominant antigen of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 in high-responder patients.

    PubMed Central

    Califano, J V; Schenkein, H A; Tew, J G

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken to look for characteristics of the immunodominant antigen(s) of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 that might help explain the high antibody titers in periodontitis patients. Radioimmunoassays (RIA) were performed on sera from 481 patients; sera from the 32 patients with the highest anti-Y4 titers (above 128,000 RIA U/ml) were further analyzed. Y4 antigen was boiled for 45 min or treated with papain, and antibody responses were analyzed by RIA and Western blotting (immunoblotting). In addition, carbohydrate was purified from Y4 and examined by Western blotting. The results indicated that the immunodominant antigen of Y4 in high responders was stable after papain treatment or boiling for 45 min. Papain or boiling eliminated protein bands but a large diffuse band persisted on Western blots. With increasing dilutions of sera, bands on Western blots corresponding to protein antigens disappeared, while the large diffuse band resembling that of carbohydrate persisted. Partially purified Y4 carbohydrate contained the large diffuse band. Double-immunodiffusion analysis indicated that rabbit serotype b-specific antiserum and patient sera recognized the same antigen. When the carbohydrate extract was passed over a lipid A-binding column to remove lipopolysaccharide, the smear corresponding to the immunodominant antigen was still present on Western blots. The immunodominant antigen of Y4 in high-responder individuals appears to be a carbohydrate and is possibly the capsular polysaccharide. Images PMID:2496034

  16. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans toxin induces both cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ohguchi, M; Ishisaki, A; Okahashi, N; Koide, M; Koseki, T; Yamato, K; Noguchi, T; Nishihara, T

    1998-12-01

    We found that the culture supernatant of the periodontopathic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans had a cytotoxic effect on several cell lines. In this study, we purified the toxin from the culture supernatant of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 by a four-step procedure: ammonium sulfate precipitation, POROS HQ/M column chromatography, polymyxin B matrix column chromatography, and Mono-Q column chromatography. The purified toxin gave two major bands of protein with molecular masses of 80 and 85 kDa upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The mechanism of cell death of the B-cell hybridoma cell line HS-72 was examined by observing changes in nuclear morphology, an increase in the proportion of fragmented DNA, and the typical ladder pattern of degraded chromosomal DNA, indicating the induction of apoptosis. Overexpression of human Bcl-2 suppressed apoptosis in HS-72 cells, indicating that the toxin from A. actinomycetemcomitans induces apoptosis by a Bcl-2-inhibitable mechanism. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the toxin caused cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and apoptosis in HS-72 cells. In addition, aurintricarboxylic acid, a DNA endonuclease inhibitor, markedly decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells but had no effect on cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Taken together, these findings suggest that the toxin from A. actinomycetemcomitans could mediate the development of periodontal diseases through cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and apoptosis in B lymphocytes of periodontal tissue. PMID:9826381

  17. Improving succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes from raw industrial carob pods.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-10-01

    Carob pods are an inexpensive by-product of locust bean gum industry that can be used as renewable feedstock for bio-based succinic acid. Here, for the first time, unprocessed raw carob pods were used to extract a highly enriched sugar solution, afterwards used as substrate to produce succinic acid using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Batch fermentations containing 30g/L sugars resulted in a production rate of 1.67gSA/L.h and a yield of 0.39gSA/g sugars. Taking advantage of A. succinogenes' metabolism, uncoupling cell growth from succinic acid production, a fed-batch mode was implemented to increase succinic acid yield and reduce by-products formation. This strategy resulted in a succinic acid yield of 0.94gSA/g sugars, the highest yield reported in the literature for fed-batch and continuous experiments, while maintaining by-products at residual values. Results demonstrate that raw carob pods are a highly efficient feedstock for bio-based succinic acid production. PMID:27394995

  18. Carob pod water extracts as feedstock for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-10-01

    Carob pods are a by-product of locust bean gum industry containing more than 50% (w/w) sucrose, glucose and fructose. In this work, carob pod water extracts were used, for the first time, for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. Kinetic studies of glucose, fructose and sucrose consumption as individual carbon sources till 30g/L showed no inhibition on cell growth, sugar consumption and SA production rates. Sugar extraction from carob pods was optimized varying solid/liquid ratio and extraction time, maximizing sugar recovery while minimizing the extraction of polyphenols. Batch fermentations containing 10-15g/L total sugars resulted in a maximum specific SA production rate of 0.61Cmol/Cmol X.h, with a yield of 0.55Cmol SA/Cmol sugar and a volumetric productivity of 1.61g SA/L.h. Results demonstrate that carob pods can be a promising low cost feedstock for bio-based SA production. PMID:25164341

  19. Identification of an immunogenic protein of Actinobacillus seminis that is present in microvesicles

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Actinobacillus seminis is a gram-negative bacterium of the Pasteurellaceae family that is involved in ovine epididymitis. Looking for a protein specific to this species, we determined the protein profile of subcellular fractions of A. seminis (American Type Culture Collection number 15768): proteins from the outer membrane (OMPs), inner membrane (IMPs), and cytoplasm (CPs). These profiles provide the first data, to our knowledge, regarding subcellular fractions of A. seminis. In the OMP fraction, we identified a protein with a molecular mass of 75 kDa that proved to be immunogenic and apparently specific for A. seminis. This conclusion was based on the reaction of hyperimmune serum of rabbits inoculated with whole cells of A. seminis that was tested against sonicated complete cells of reference strains and field isolates of Brucella ovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. No protein of these bacteria cross-reacted with the 75-kDa protein of A. seminis. Furthermore, when each type of hyperimmune serum was tested against the sonicated cells and each of the subcellular fractions of A. seminis, it did not recognize the A. seminis 75-kDa protein. We also isolated and identified this protein in microvesicles released to the culture supernatant. The results suggest that the 75-kDa protein could be used to establish a diagnostic test specific for ovine epididymitis caused by A. seminis. PMID:16548331

  20. Mannheimia haemolytica A1-induced fibrinosuppurative meningoencephalitis in a naturally-infected Holstein-Friesian calf.

    PubMed

    Aschenbroich, S; Nemeth, N; Rech, R; Briggs, R; Sanchez, S; Brown, C

    2013-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is an opportunistic bacterium that is widely recognized among the bovine respiratory disease complex as the predominant pathogen causing broncho- and pleuropneumonia in cattle. Among the characterized M. haemolytica serotypes, A1 is the major cause of severe pulmonary lesions in cattle. This report describes post-mortem findings in a Holstein-Friesian calf with fibrinosuppurative meningoencephalitis and fibrinonecrotizing, haemorrhagic broncho- and pleuropneumonia, from which M. haemolytica and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) were isolated. Microscopical evaluation showed expansion of the brainstem and cerebellar leptomeninges by neutrophils and fibrin, associated with gram-negative coccobacilli. Occasional blood vessels within the midbrain and cerebellum contained fibrin thrombi. Bacterial culture of cerebellum and lung yielded M. haemolytica with unusually high haemolytic activity. The isolates were confirmed as serotype A1 by rapid plate agglutination. Lung tissue was positive for BVDV by polymerase chain reaction. The broncho- and pleuropneumonia in this calf were consistent with typical mannheimiosis due to serotype A1; however, extrapulmonary infections due to M. haemolytica, as seen in this case, are rarely reported. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a natural BVDV and M. haemolytica co-infection associated with fibrinosuppurative meningoencephalitis in a calf.

  1. Exploring farmer preferences for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccination: a case study of Narok District of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kairu-Wanyoike, Salome W; Kaitibie, Simeon; Taylor, Nick M; Gitau, George K; Heffernan, Claire; Schnier, Christian; Kiara, Henry; Taracha, Evans; McKeever, Declan

    2013-07-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important disease in most of sub-Saharan Africa. A conjoint analysis and ordered probit regression models were used to measure the preferences of farmers for CBPP vaccine and vaccination attributes. This was with regard to inclusion or not of an indicator in the vaccine, vaccine safety, vaccine stability as well as frequency of vaccination, vaccine administration and the nature of vaccination. The analysis was carried out in 190 households in Narok District of Kenya between October and December 2006 using structured questionnaires, 16 attribute profiles and a five-point Likert scale. The factors affecting attribute valuation were shown through a two-way location interaction model. The study also demonstrated the relative importance (RI) of attributes and the compensation value of attribute levels. The attribute coefficient estimates showed that farmers prefer a vaccine that has an indicator, is 100% safe and is administered by the government (p<0.0001). The preferences for the vaccine attributes were consistent with expectations. Preferences for stability, frequency of vaccination and nature of vaccination differed amongst farmers (p>0.05). While inclusion of an indicator in the vaccine was the most important attribute (RI=43.6%), price was the least important (RI=0.5%). Of the 22 household factors considered, 15 affected attribute valuation. The compensation values for a change from non inclusion to inclusion of an indicator, 95-100% safety, 2h to greater than 2h stability and from compulsory to elective vaccination were positive while those for a change from annual to biannual vaccination and from government to private administration were negative. The study concluded that the farmers in Narok District had preferences for specific vaccine and vaccination attributes. These preferences were conditioned by various household characteristics and disease risk factors. On average the farmers would need to be

  2. Exploring farmer preferences for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccination: a case study of Narok District of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kairu-Wanyoike, Salome W; Kaitibie, Simeon; Taylor, Nick M; Gitau, George K; Heffernan, Claire; Schnier, Christian; Kiara, Henry; Taracha, Evans; McKeever, Declan

    2013-07-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important disease in most of sub-Saharan Africa. A conjoint analysis and ordered probit regression models were used to measure the preferences of farmers for CBPP vaccine and vaccination attributes. This was with regard to inclusion or not of an indicator in the vaccine, vaccine safety, vaccine stability as well as frequency of vaccination, vaccine administration and the nature of vaccination. The analysis was carried out in 190 households in Narok District of Kenya between October and December 2006 using structured questionnaires, 16 attribute profiles and a five-point Likert scale. The factors affecting attribute valuation were shown through a two-way location interaction model. The study also demonstrated the relative importance (RI) of attributes and the compensation value of attribute levels. The attribute coefficient estimates showed that farmers prefer a vaccine that has an indicator, is 100% safe and is administered by the government (p<0.0001). The preferences for the vaccine attributes were consistent with expectations. Preferences for stability, frequency of vaccination and nature of vaccination differed amongst farmers (p>0.05). While inclusion of an indicator in the vaccine was the most important attribute (RI=43.6%), price was the least important (RI=0.5%). Of the 22 household factors considered, 15 affected attribute valuation. The compensation values for a change from non inclusion to inclusion of an indicator, 95-100% safety, 2h to greater than 2h stability and from compulsory to elective vaccination were positive while those for a change from annual to biannual vaccination and from government to private administration were negative. The study concluded that the farmers in Narok District had preferences for specific vaccine and vaccination attributes. These preferences were conditioned by various household characteristics and disease risk factors. On average the farmers would need to be

  3. Role of high-avidity binding of human neutrophil myeloperoxidase in the killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaki, K T; Zambon, J J; Jones, C A; Wilson, M E

    1987-01-01

    The binding of the neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) to microbial surfaces is believed to be the first step in its microbicidal activity. The MPO-H2O2-Cl- system is responsible for most oxidative killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by human neutrophils. There appear to be three forms of MPO (MPO I, II, and III), all of which can kill this organism in the presence of H2O2 and chloride. In this study, we characterized the binding of native human neutrophil MPO to A. actinomycetemcomitans by an elution procedure dependent on the cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Binding of native MPO was rapid and reached apparent equilibrium within 1 min. A proportion of binding under equilibrium conditions was saturable and highly avid, with a capacity of 4,500 sites per cell and a dissociation constant of 7.9 X 10(-10) M. At equal protein concentrations, more MPO III bound than MPO II, and more MPO II bound than MPO I. The high-avidity interaction was inhibitable with yeast mannan and with the serotype-defining mannan of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Binding was also partially reversible with yeast mannan. MPO bound to the high-avidity sites did not oxidize guaiacol but oxidized chloride, as detected by the chlorination of taurine. MPO bound to the high-avidity sites was incapable of killing A. actinomycetemcomitans alone in the presence of H2O2 and Cl-, but potentiated killing when sufficient additional MPO was provided. The killing of A. actinomycetemcomitans by the MPO-H2O2-Cl- system was inhibited by yeast mannan and a serotype-defining mannan of A. actinomycetemcomitans. We conclude that high-avidity binding of MPO to the surface of A. actinomycetemcomitans is a mannan-specific interaction and that MPO bound to the high-avidity sites is essential but not alone sufficient to kill A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:3032796

  4. In vitro activity of antibiotics alone and in combination against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Yogev, R; Shulman, D; Shulman, S T; Glogowski, W G

    1986-01-01

    The MICs for 90% of the organisms tested (MIC90S) of 11 antibiotics against 24 clinical isolates of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were determined by the MIC 2000 system. The lowest MIC90S (16 micrograms/ml) were observed with ceftriaxone and rifampin. The next lowest MIC90S were found with cephapirin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol (3.12 micrograms/ml). The MIC90S of penicillin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, piperacillin, and amikacin were each greater than or equal to 12.5 micrograms/ml. Antibiotic synergy was studied by the killing curve method and was defined as a greater than or equal to 2 log10 reduction in CFU when two antibiotics were used in combination at one-fourth the MBC for each compared with the effect of each antibiotic alone at one-half the MBC. Synergism between rifampin and penicillin, cephapirin, or ceftriaxone was tested for with 12 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. In 7 of 37 instances, synergism was demonstrated for the combinations rifampin plus ceftriaxone (n = 3) or rifampin plus penicillin (n = 4); in 9 instances, an additive effect was noted, and impaired killing with drug combinations compared with the effect of a single antibiotic was suggested in 4 strains. The majority of strains were indifferent to the combinations. Similarly, variable results were observed when the combination of trimethoprim and cephapirin was tested against eight A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. Our data suggest that rifampin and cephapirin are the most active of the 11 antibiotics studied against A. actinomycetemcomitans. In addition, in vitro synergism between rifampin and other antibiotics or between trimethoprim and cephapirin was not consistently demonstrable.

  5. Succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes from batch fermentation of mixed sugars.

    PubMed

    Almqvist, Henrik; Pateraki, Chrysanthi; Alexandri, Maria; Koutinas, Apostolis; Lidén, Gunnar

    2016-08-01

    Succinic acid production from the monosaccharides xylose, arabinose, glucose, mannose and galactose was studied using the bacterium Actinobacillus succinogenes. In Duran bottle cultures, containing 10 g/L of each of sugar, succinic acid was produced from all sugars except for galactose. The highest succinate yield, 0.56 g/g, was obtained with glucose, whereas the succinate yield was 0.42, 0.38 and 0.44 g/g for xylose, mannose and arabinose, respectively. The specific succinate productivity was 0.7 g/g h for glucose, but below 0.2 g/g h for the other sugars. Batch bioreactor fermentations were carried out using a sugar mixture of the five sugars giving a total concentration of 50 g/L, mimicking the distribution of sugars in spent sulfite liquor (SSL) from Eucalyptus which is rich in xylose. In this mixture, an almost complete conversion of all sugars (except galactose) was achieved resulting in a final succinate concentration of 21.8-26.8 g/L and a total yield of 0.59-0.68 g/g. There was evidence of co-consumption of glucose and xylose, whereas mannose was consumed after glucose. The main by-products were acetate 0.14-0.20 g/g and formate 0.08-0.13 g/g. NADH balance calculations suggested that NADH required for succinate production was not met solely from formate and acetate production, but other means of NADH production was necessary. Results from mixed sugar fermentations were verified using SSL as substrate resulting in a succinate yield of 0.60 g/g. In addition, it was found that CO2 sparging could replace carbonate supply in the form of MgCO3 without affecting the succinate yield. PMID:27255975

  6. Infective endocarditis due to Enterobacter cloacae resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Yusuke; Okugawa, Shu; Kimura, Satoshi; Makita, Eiko; Seo, Kazunori; Koga, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Naohisa; Kitazawa, Takatoshi; Ota, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    We report the case of using a long-term combination of meropenem and amikacin to treat infective endocarditis caused by Enterobacter cloacae resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli, such as the E. cloacae in our study, may become possible pathogens of infective endocarditis. Our experience with this case indicates that long-term use of a combination of β-lactam and aminoglycosides might represent a suitable management option for future infective endocarditis cases due to non-Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella spp. (HACEK group) Gram-negative bacilli such as ours.

  7. Characterization of Biofilm Formation in [Pasteurella] pneumotropica and [Actinobacillus] muris Isolates of Mouse Origin.

    PubMed

    Sager, Martin; Benten, W Peter M; Engelhardt, Eva; Gougoula, Christina; Benga, Laurentiu

    2015-01-01

    [Pasteurella] pneumotropica biotypes Jawetz and Heyl and [Actinobacillus] muris are the most prevalent Pasteurellaceae species isolated from laboratory mouse. However, mechanisms contributing to their high prevalence such as the ability to form biofilms have not been studied yet. In the present investigation we analyze if these bacterial species can produce biofilms in vitro and investigate whether proteins, extracellular DNA and polysaccharides are involved in the biofilm formation and structure by inhibition and dispersal assays using proteinase K, DNase I and sodium periodate. Finally, the capacity of the biofilms to confer resistance to antibiotics is examined. We demonstrate that both [P.] pneumotropica biotypes but not [A.] muris are able to form robust biofilms in vitro, a phenotype which is widely spread among the field isolates. The biofilm inhibition and dispersal assays by proteinase and DNase lead to a strong inhibition in biofilm formation when added at the initiation of the biofilm formation and dispersed pre-formed [P.] pneumotropica biofilms, revealing thus that proteins and extracellular DNA are essential in biofilm formation and structure. Sodium periodate inhibited the bacterial growth when added at the beginning of the biofilm formation assay, making difficult the assessment of the role of β-1,6-linked polysaccharides in the biofilm formation, and had a biofilm stimulating effect when added on pre-established mature biofilms of [P.] pneumotropica biotype Heyl and a majority of [P.] pneumotropica biotype Jawetz strains, suggesting that the presence of β-1,6-linked polysaccharides on the bacterial surface might attenuate the biofilm production. Conversely, no effect or a decrease in the biofilm quantity was observed by biofilm dispersal using sodium periodate on further biotype Jawetz isolates, suggesting that polysaccharides might be incorporated in the biofilm structure. We additionally show that [P.] pneumotropica cells enclosed in biofilms

  8. Characterization of Biofilm Formation in [Pasteurella] pneumotropica and [Actinobacillus] muris Isolates of Mouse Origin

    PubMed Central

    Sager, Martin; Benten, W. Peter M.; Engelhardt, Eva; Gougoula, Christina; Benga, Laurentiu

    2015-01-01

    [Pasteurella] pneumotropica biotypes Jawetz and Heyl and [Actinobacillus] muris are the most prevalent Pasteurellaceae species isolated from laboratory mouse. However, mechanisms contributing to their high prevalence such as the ability to form biofilms have not been studied yet. In the present investigation we analyze if these bacterial species can produce biofilms in vitro and investigate whether proteins, extracellular DNA and polysaccharides are involved in the biofilm formation and structure by inhibition and dispersal assays using proteinase K, DNase I and sodium periodate. Finally, the capacity of the biofilms to confer resistance to antibiotics is examined. We demonstrate that both [P.] pneumotropica biotypes but not [A.] muris are able to form robust biofilms in vitro, a phenotype which is widely spread among the field isolates. The biofilm inhibition and dispersal assays by proteinase and DNase lead to a strong inhibition in biofilm formation when added at the initiation of the biofilm formation and dispersed pre-formed [P.] pneumotropica biofilms, revealing thus that proteins and extracellular DNA are essential in biofilm formation and structure. Sodium periodate inhibited the bacterial growth when added at the beginning of the biofilm formation assay, making difficult the assessment of the role of β-1,6-linked polysaccharides in the biofilm formation, and had a biofilm stimulating effect when added on pre-established mature biofilms of [P.] pneumotropica biotype Heyl and a majority of [P.] pneumotropica biotype Jawetz strains, suggesting that the presence of β-1,6-linked polysaccharides on the bacterial surface might attenuate the biofilm production. Conversely, no effect or a decrease in the biofilm quantity was observed by biofilm dispersal using sodium periodate on further biotype Jawetz isolates, suggesting that polysaccharides might be incorporated in the biofilm structure. We additionally show that [P.] pneumotropica cells enclosed in biofilms

  9. Site-specific subgingival colonization by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Paolantonio, M; Festa, F; di Placido, G; D'Attilio, M; Catamo, G; Piccolomini, R

    1999-04-01

    A high prevalence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) in subgingival plaque in patients for orthodontia already has been observed. The present study had the following aims: 1) to ascertain a direct relationship between the orthodontic appliance placement and the subgingival colonization by Aa, and 2) to determine whether the Aa growth specifically occurred on teeth with braces attached or whether the presence of orthodontic appliances could also cause the isolation of Aa in teeth free from therapeutic appliances. Twenty-four young systemically and periodontally healthy subjects with malaligned and crowded teeth in the anterior sextants of both dental arches participated in this study. After 1 session of ultrasonic scaling with oral hygiene instructions during the first experimental session, the mesiobuccal sites of the first molars and the distobuccal sites of the lateral incisors in both dental arches in each participant were subjected to clinical and microbiologic examination for the recovery of Aa. Clinical examination consisted of recording the presence of plaque and the examination of gingival bleeding on probing and probing depth. Microbiologic sampling was obtained with the insertion of 3 sterile paper points at the deepest part of each gingival sulcus. Altogether, 192 periodontal sites were examined. After the examinations, the patients received fixed orthodontic appliances in only 1 dental arch (test sites) and the other one was left free from appliances (control sites). Clinical examination and microbiologic sampling were repeated in the same experimental test and control sites after 4, 8, and 12 weeks. At the 12-week session, the orthodontic appliance was removed from the test arch, and, 4 weeks later, a further clinical and microbiologic examination was performed. The results showed that, during the period with orthodontic appliances, the presence of plaque scores and the gingival bleeding on probing scores were increased significantly and that

  10. Willingness to pay for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccination in Narok South District of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kairu-Wanyoike, Salome W; Kaitibie, Simeon; Heffernan, Claire; Taylor, Nick M; Gitau, George K; Kiara, Henry; McKeever, Declan

    2014-08-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important trans-boundary cattle disease which affects food security and livelihoods. A conjoint analysis-contingent valuation was carried out on 190 households in Narok South District of Kenya to measure willingness to pay (WTP) and demand for CBPP vaccine and vaccination as well as factors affecting WTP. The mean WTP was calculated at Kenya Shillings (KSh) 212.48 (USD 3.03) for vaccination using a vaccine with the characteristics that were preferred by the farmers (preferred vaccine and vaccination) and KSh -71.45 (USD -1.02) for the currently used vaccine and vaccination. The proportion of farmers willing to pay an amount greater than zero was 66.7% and 34.4% for the preferred and current vaccine and vaccination respectively. About one third (33.3%) of farmers would need to be compensated an average amount of KSh 1162.62 (USD 13.68) per animal to allow their cattle to be vaccinated against CBPP using the preferred vaccine and vaccination. About two-thirds (65.6%) of farmers would need to be compensated an average amount of KSh 853.72 (USD 12.20) per animal to allow their cattle to be vaccinated against CBPP using the current vaccine and vaccination. The total amount of compensation would be KSh 61.39 million (USD 0.88 million) for the preferred vaccine and vaccination and KSh 90.15 million (USD 1.29 million) for the current vaccine and vaccination. Demand curves drawn from individual WTP demonstrated that only 59% and 27% of cattle owners with a WTP greater than zero were willing to pay a benchmark cost of KSh 34.60 for the preferred and current vaccine respectively. WTP was negatively influenced by the attitude about household economic situation (p=0.0078), presence of cross breeds in the herd (p<0.0001) and years since CBPP had been experienced in the herd (p=0.0375). It was positively influenced by education (p=0.0251) and the practice of treating against CBPP (p=0.0432). The benefit cost ratio (BCR

  11. Conjugal transfer of broad-host-range incompatibility group P and Q plasmids from Escherichia coli to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Goncharoff, P; Yip, J K; Wang, H; Schreiner, H C; Pai, J A; Furgang, D; Stevens, R H; Figurski, D H; Fine, D H

    1993-01-01

    The first example of conjugal transfer of DNA from Escherichia coli to the periodontal pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is presented. Derivatives of the incompatibility group P (IncP) plasmid RK2 successfully transferred from an E. coli donor to an A. actinomycetemcomitans recipient. The resulting A. actinomycetemcomitans transconjugants transferred the plasmids back to E. coli recipients. The IncP transfer functions were also used in trans to mobilize the IncQ plasmid pBK1 from E. coli to A. actinomycetemcomitans. The IncP and IncQ plasmids both transferred into A. actinomycetemcomitans at high frequencies (0.3 to 0.5 transconjugants per donor) and showed no gross deletions, insertions, or rearrangements. Determinations of MICs of various antibiotics for the A. actinomycetemcomitans transconjugant strains demonstrated the expression of ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin resistance determinants. Images PMID:8335386

  12. Genetic and Functional Analyses of the Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans AfeABCD Siderophore-Independent Iron Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Eric R.; Tomaras, Andrew P.; McGillivary, Glen; Connerly, Pamela L.; Actis, Luis A.

    2005-01-01

    The Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans afeABCD iron transport system, the expression of which is controlled by iron and Fur, was identified in three different isolates. The protein products of this locus are related to bacterial ABC transporters involved in metal transport. Transformation of the Escherichia coli 1017 iron acquisition mutant with a plasmid harboring afeABCD promoted cell growth under iron-chelated conditions. However, insertion disruption of each of the afeABCD coding regions abolished this growth-relieving effect. The replacement of the parental afeA allele with the derivative afeA::EZ::TN drastically reduced the ability of A. actinomycetemcomitans cells to grow under iron-chelated conditions. PMID:15908408

  13. Molecular Characterization of an Outer Membrane Protein of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Belonging to the OmpA Family

    PubMed Central

    White, Peter A.; Nair, Sean P.; Kim, Mi-Jurng; Wilson, Michael; Henderson, Brian

    1998-01-01

    The major outer membrane protein (OMP) of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is an OmpA homolog that demonstrates electrophoretic heat modifiability. The gene encoding this protein was isolated from a genomic library of A. actinomycetemcomitans NCTC 9710 by immunoscreening with serum from a patient with localized juvenile periodontitis. Expression of the cloned gene in Escherichia coli and subsequent Western blot analysis revealed a protein with an approximate molecular mass of 34 kDa. The amino acid sequence predicted from the cloned gene demonstrated that the mature protein had a molecular mass of 34,911 Da and significant identity to members of the OmpA family of proteins. We have named the major OMP of A. actinomycetemcomitans Omp34, and its corresponding gene has been named omp34. PMID:9423883

  14. Microbial ecology of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens and Capnocytophaga spp. in adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Müller, H P; Heinecke, A; Borneff, M; Knopf, A; Kiencke, C; Pohl, S

    1997-08-01

    Information on intraoral distribution of putative periodontal pathogens might be essential for controlling different forms of periodontal disease. Colonization may be either promoted or impeded by other bacteria competing in the subgingival ecosystem. In recent investigations microbial associations between dental organisms have been determined in a multitude of subgingival plaque samples within multiple patients and described by odds ratios, in most circumstances without taking into account the correlated structure of the observations within a single individual. The present investigation had 3 major objectives: (i) to describe the intraoral distribution of some facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative rods, i.e. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens-like organisms and Capnocytophaga spp., in a multitude of subgingival and extracrevicular samples of 10 adult subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans-associated periodontitis; (ii) to analyse possible inconsistencies of microbial associations between these periodontal organisms; and (iii) to determine factors increasing the likelihood of isolating these bacteria in a given subgingival site by employing Generalized Estimation Equation (GEE) methods. Clinical examinations were carried out at 6 sites of every tooth present. In each subject, 13 extracrevicular (2 cheek mucosa, 3 tongue, 4 gingival, 2 tonsillar samples, 1 palatinal, 1 saliva sample) and between 22 and 44 subgingival samples from deepest sites of every tooth present (n = 296) were selectively cultivated for A. actinomycetemcomitans, E. corrodens and Capnocytophaga spp. In extracrevicular material, A. actinomycetemcomitans, Capnocytophaga spp. and E. corrodens were isolated in 9, 10 and 6 patients, and from 65, 82 and 15% samples, respectively. The organisms were recovered from 51, 62 and 27% subgingival plaque samples, respectively. Heterogeneity tests did not reveal significant inconsistencies of microbial associations between bacteria in

  15. Multi-locus sequence analysis of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae for the molecular epidemiology of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) is the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), a devastating disease of domestic goats. The exact distribution of CCPP is not known but it is present in Africa and the Middle East and represents a significant threat to many disease-free areas including Europe. Furthermore, CCPP has been recently identified in Tajikistan and China. A typing method with an improved resolution based on Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) has been developed to trace new epidemics and to elucidate whether the recently identified cases in continental Asia were due to recent importation of Mccp. The H2 locus, a polymorphic region already in use as a molecular marker for Mccp evolution, was complemented with seven new loci selected according to the analysis of polymorphisms observed among the genome sequences of three Mccp strains. A total of 25 strains, including the two new strains from Asia, were analysed by MLSA resulting in the discrimination of 15 sequence types based on 53 polymorphic positions. A distance tree inferred from the concatenated sequences of the eight selected loci revealed two evolutionary lineages comprising five groups, which showed good correlation with geographic origins. The presence of a distinct Asian cluster strongly indicates that CCPP was not recently imported to continental Asia. It is more likely that the disease has been endemic in the area for a long time, as supported by historical clinical descriptions. In conclusion, this MLSA strategy constitutes a highly discriminative tool for the molecular epidemiology of CCPP. PMID:21756321

  16. Characterization of the in vitro core surface proteome of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Krasteva, Ivanka; Liljander, Anne; Fischer, Anne; Smith, David G E; Inglis, Neil F; Scacchia, Massimo; Pini, Attilio; Jores, Joerg; Sacchini, Flavio

    2014-01-10

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is a severe cattle disease, present in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The development of improved diagnostic tests and vaccines for CBPP control remains a research priority. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to characterize the Triton X-114 soluble proteome of nine Mmm strains isolated from Europe or Africa. Of a total of 250 proteins detected, 67 were present in all strains investigated. Of these, 44 were predicted to be lipoproteins or cytoplasmic membrane-associated proteins and are thus likely to be members of the core in vitro surface membrane-associated proteome of Mmm. Moreover, the presence of all identified proteins in other ruminant Mycoplasma pathogens were investigated. Two proteins of the core proteome were identified only in other cattle pathogens of the genus Mycoplasma pointing towards a role in host-pathogen interactions. The data generated will facilitate the identification and prioritization of candidate Mycoplasma antigens for improved control measures, as it is likely that surface-exposed membrane proteins will include those that are involved in host-pathogen interactions.

  17. Diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by detection and identification of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bölske, G; Mattsson, J G; Bascuñana, C R; Bergström, K; Wesonga, H; Johansson, K E

    1996-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), one of the most serious and dramatic diseases of goats, is caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae). This organism is very difficult to isolate and to correctly identify. In a previous report we described a method for the rapid detection and identification of M. capripneumoniae. This method is based on a PCR system by which a segment of the 16S rRNA gene from all mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides cluster can be amplified. The PCR product is then analyzed by restriction enzyme cleavage for the identification of M. capripneumoniae DNA. This system has now been further evaluated with respect to specificity and diagnostic efficacy for the identification and direct detection of the organism in clinical material. Identification by restriction enzyme analysis of amplified DNA from mycoplasmas of the M. mycoides cluster was verified for 55 strains, among which were 15 strains of M. capripneumoniae. The PCR was applied to clinical samples from the nose, ear, pharynx, pleural fluid, and lung tissue containing M. capripneumoniae or other mycoplasmas. As expected, mycoplasmas belonging to the M. mycoides cluster could be detected by the PCR. Restriction enzyme analysis of the PCR products could then be applied for the identification of M. capripneumoniae. Clinical samples and cultures containing M. capripneumoniae were dried on filter paper, to try an easier sample transport method, and were tested by PCR. M. capripneumoniae DNA could be detected in the dried specimens, but the sensitivity of the PCR test was reduced. PMID:8815084

  18. Interleukin-10 Gene Therapy-Mediated Amelioration of Bacterial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Daniel F.; Foss, Dennis L.; Murtaugh, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    Respiratory infection by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes a highly pathogenic necrotizing pleuropneumonia with severe edema, hemorrhage and fever. Acute infection is characterized by expression of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6 and IL-8. To determine if high level production of inflammatory cytokines contributed to disease pathogenesis, we investigated if inhibiting macrophage activation with adenovirus type 5-expressed IL-10 (Ad-5/IL-10) reduced the severity of acute disease. Porcine tracheal epithelial cells infected with Ad-5/IL-10 produced bioactive human IL-10. When pigs were intratracheally infected with A. pleuropneumoniae, pigs pretreated with Ad-5/IL-10 showed a significant reduction in the amount of lung damage when compared to adenovirus type 5-expressing β-galactosidase (Ad-5/β-Gal)-treated and untreated pigs. In addition, serum zinc levels were unchanged, the lung weight/body weight ratio (an indicator of vascular leakage) was significantly reduced, and lung pathology scores were reduced. Myeloperoxidase activity in lung lavage fluid samples, an indicator of neutrophil invasion, was decreased to levels similar to that seen in pigs not infected with A. pleuropneumoniae. Reduction in inflammatory cytokine levels in lung lavage fluid samples correlated with the clinical observations in that pigs pretreated with Ad-5/IL-10 showed a corresponding reduction of IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) compared with untreated and Ad-5/β-Gal-treated pigs. IL-6 levels were unaffected by pretreatment with Ad-5/IL-10, consistent with observations that IL-6 was not derived from alveolar macrophages. Since inflammatory cytokines are expressed at high levels in acute bacterial pleuropneumonia, these results indicate that macrophage activation, involving overproduction of IL-1 and TNF, is a prime factor in infection-related cases of massive lung injury. PMID:10899882

  19. Observations on Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides infection in Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Bar-Moshe, B; Rapapport, E

    1981-07-01

    An epizootic in white Saanen goats, caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is described. Twenty-five flocks totalling approximately 4,500 animals were involved. The disease was characterized by a high, transient temperature, general malaise and mastitis in the lactating does, and a keratoconjunctivitis, arthritis, mycoplasmaemia and death among the kids. In one goat flock there was a precipitous change in the character of the disease, from a predominantly mastitis syndrome to a fulminating pleuropneumonia. In another goat flock, twin kids were born with an advanced purulent, proliferative arthritis, suggesting early congenital infection. In yet another infected flock there were cases of subcutaneous abscesses from which both M. mycoides and Corynebacterium pyogenes were cultured. M. mycoides was also isolated from synovial fluid and the parenchymal organs of an Ibex mountain goat that died of a purulent polyarthritis. Experimental infection in kids caused a diffuse cellulitis at the site of inoculation, a high fever, polyarthritis and death.

  20. 21 CFR 520.445b - Chlortetracycline powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....445b, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... Pasteurella spp., Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Hemophilus spp.), and Klebsiella spp. (2) Limitations...) associated with Pasteurella spp., A. pleuropneumoniae (Hemophilus spp.), and Klebsiella spp. (2)...

  1. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of acid-pretreated rapeseed meal for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kequan; Zhang, Han; Miao, Yelian; Wei, Ping; Chen, Jieyu

    2011-04-01

    Rapeseed meal was evaluated for succinic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618. Diluted sulfuric acid pretreatment and subsequent hydrolysis with pectinase was used to release sugars from rapeseed meal. The effects of culture pH, pectinase loading and yeast extract concentration on succinic acid production were investigated. When simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of diluted acid pretreated rapeseed meal with a dry matter content of 12.5% (w/v) was performed at pH 6.4 and a pectinase loading of 2% (w/w, on dry matter) without supplementation of yeast extract, a succinic acid concentration of 15.5 g/L was obtained at a yield of 12.4 g/100g dry matter. Fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was carried out with supplementation of concentrated pretreated rapeseed meal and pectinase at 18 and 28 h to yield a final dry matter content of 20.5% and pectinase loading of 2%, with the succinic acid concentration enhanced to 23.4 g/L at a yield of 11.5 g/100g dry matter and a productivity of 0.33 g/(Lh). This study suggests that rapeseed meal may be an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes without requiring nitrogen source supplementation.

  2. Bacteriocin production by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolated from the oral cavity of humans with periodontal disease, periodontally healthy subjects and marmosets.

    PubMed

    Lúcia, Lima Francisca; Farias, Flávio F; Eustáquio, Costa José; Auxiliadora, Maria; Carvalho, R; Alviano, Celuta S; Farias, Luiz M

    2002-01-01

    The ability of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to produce bacteriocin has rarely been reported. Antagonistic substance production may confer an important ecological advantage for the producer microorganisms, especially in a competitive ecosystem such as the oral cavity. In the present study, 75 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains isolated from the oral cavity of human patients with periodontal disease, periodontally healthy subjects and marmosets, as well as two reference strains (A. actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523 and FDC Y4) were evaluated for auto-, iso-, and heteroantagonistic activity. Fifty-one (68.00%) strains exhibited antagonistic activity; heteroantagonism was observed more often than isoantagonism. Isolated strains antagonized 17 different species of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria from the oral and nonoral microbiota. Sensitivity to heat and to proteolytic enzymes constituted strong evidence that the antagonistic substance has a proteic nature. Taken together, our data enabled us to confirm that the antagonistic substance detected was a bacteriocin. The wide spectrum of activity indicates the possibility that more than one antagonistic substance is produced and that these substances play an important role in the ecological balance of the oral ecosystem.

  3. Use of corn steep liquor as an economical nitrogen source for biosuccinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, J. P.; Jahim, J. M.; Wu, T. Y.; Harun, S.; Mumtaz, T.

    2016-06-01

    Expensive raw materials are the driving force that leads to the shifting of the petroleum-based succinic acid production into bio-based succinic acid production by microorganisms. Cost of fermentation medium is among the main factors contributing to the total production cost of bio-succinic acid. After carbon source, nitrogen source is the second largest component of the fermentation medium, the cost of which has been overlooked for the past years. The current study aimed at replacing yeast extract- a costly nitrogen source with corn steep liquor for economical production of bio-succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. In this study, a final succinic acid concentration of 20.6 g/L was obtained from the use of corn steep liquor as the nitrogen source, which was comparable with the use of yeast extract as the nitrogen source that had a final succinate concentration of 21.4 g/l. In terms of economical wise, corn steep liquor was priced at 200 /ton, which was one fifth of the cost of yeast extract at 1000 /ton. Therefore, corn steep liquor can be considered as a potential nitrogen source in biochemical industries instead of the costly yeast extract.

  4. 16S rDNA PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in determining proportions of coexisting Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans strains.

    PubMed

    Ihalin, Riikka; Asikainen, Sirkka

    2006-06-01

    Certain serotypes of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans seem to prefer coexistence in vivo. The 16S rDNA PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was tested for its capability to distinguish coexisting A. actinomycetemcomitans strains of different serotypes or genetic lineages and to determine their proportions in vitro. The migration pattern of the PCR amplicon from serotype c differed from those of the other serotypes. Contrary to the strains of serotypes c, d, and e, strains of serotypes a, b, and f consistently demonstrated intra-serotype migration patterns similar to each other. Since the migration patterns differed between serotype c and b strains a strain of each was used to determine their proportional representation in a strain mixture. The strains were distinguishable from each other above the 5% PCR-DGGE detection level (12.5 ng DNA/1.5 x 10(6) cells). DGGE provides a promising tool for in vitro studies on the coexistence of different genetic lineages of A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  5. Bagasse hydrolyzates from Agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh.

  6. Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618 Fermentation Medium Optimization for the Production of Succinic Acid by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li-Wen; Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, Rui-Sang; Li, Hong-Mei; Wan, Duan-Ji; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2012-01-01

    As a potential intermediary feedstock, succinic acid takes an important place in bulk chemical productions. For the first time, a method combining Plackett-Burman design (PBD), steepest ascent method (SA), and Box-Behnken design (BBD) was developed to optimize Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618 fermentation medium. First, glucose, yeast extract, and MgCO3 were identified to be key medium components by PBD. Second, preliminary optimization was run by SA method to access the optimal region of the key medium components. Finally, the responses, that is, the production of succinic acid, were optimized simultaneously by using BBD, and the optimal concentration was located to be 84.6 g L−1 of glucose, 14.5 g L−1 of yeast extract, and 64.7 g L−1 of MgCO3. Verification experiment indicated that the maximal succinic acid production of 52.7 ± 0.8 g L−1 was obtained under the identified optimal conditions. The result agreed with the predicted value well. Compared with that of the basic medium, the production of succinic acid and yield of succinic acid against glucose were enhanced by 67.3% and 111.1%, respectively. The results obtained in this study may be useful for the industrial commercial production of succinic acid. PMID:23093852

  7. Bagasse hydrolyzates from Agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh. PMID:26802183

  8. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans serotype b-specific polysaccharide antigen stimulates production of chemotactic factors and inflammatory cytokines by human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, N; Yamashita, Y; Ikeda, D; Koga, T

    1996-01-01

    Serotype b-specific polysaccharide antigen (SPA) was extracted from whole cells of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 by autoclaving and purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 and Sephacryl S-300. SPA induced the release of monocyte and leukocyte chemotactic factors by human monocytes. Polymyxin B had almost no effect on the release of monocyte chemotactic factor, but a monoclonal antibody against SPA markedly inhibited it. Human monocytes stimulated with SPA exhibited the increased mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and a neutrophil chemotactic factor, interleukin-8 (IL-8). On the other hand, SPA induced the release of IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and enhanced the expression of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNAs. Human monocytes expressed MCP-1 and IL-8 mRNAs when stimulated by human recombinant IL-1alpha, I1-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, suggesting that these inflammatory cytokines induced by SPA might participate in the production of chemotactic factors in human monocytes. PMID:8698480

  9. Utilization of CO2 fixating bacterium Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z for simultaneous biogas upgrading and biosuccinic acid production.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-10-21

    Biogas is an attractive renewable energy carrier. However, it contains CO2 which limits its use for certain applications. Here we report a novel approach for removing CO2 from biogas and capturing it as a biochemical through a biological process. This approach entails converting CO2 into biosuccinic acid using the bacterial strain Actinobacillus succinogenes 130 Z, and simultaneously producing high-purity CH4 (> 95%). Results showed that when pressure during fermentation was increased from 101.325 to 140 kPa, higher CO2 solubility was achieved, thereby positively affecting final succinic acid yield and titer, CO2 consumption rate, and CH4 purity. When using biogas as the only CO2 source at 140 kPa, the CO2 consumption rate corresponded to 2.59 L CO2 L(-1) d(-1) with a final succinic acid titer of 14.4 g L(-1). Under this pressure condition, the highest succinic acid yield and biogas quality reached corresponded to 0.635 g g(-1) and 95.4% (v v(-1)) CH4 content, respectively, after 24 h fermentation. This work represents the first successful attempt to develop a system capable of upgrading biogas to vehicle fuel/gas grid quality and simultaneously produce biosuccinic acid, a valuable building block with large market potential in the near term.

  10. Evidence that the serotype b antigenic determinant of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 resides in the polysaccharide moiety of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M E; Schifferle, R E

    1991-04-01

    A high-molecular-weight polysaccharide-containing antigen was isolated from a phenol-water extract of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 43718 (formerly Y4) by gel permeation chromatography in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-disaggregating buffer. The polysaccharide antigen formed a precipitin band with rabbit serotype b-specific antiserum but not with rabbit antisera to serotype a or c. Electroblotted serotype b antigen was probed with serum from a patient with localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP), resulting in a diffuse "smear" in the upper region of the lane. By utilizing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, it was demonstrated that the geometric mean immunoglobulin G antibody titer to the serotype b polysaccharide was significantly higher in sera from LJP patients than in sera from periodontally healthy individuals. Moreover, LJP antibody titers to the serotype b polysaccharide exhibited age-dependent variation. Double immunodiffusion analysis revealed that the serotype b antigen formed a line of identity with low-molecular-weight LPS following reaction with serotype b-specific antiserum. Incubation of LJP serum in the presence of a lipid-free polysaccharide moiety obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of LPS from A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 markedly reduced immunoglobulin G titer to the serotype b antigen. In contrast, solubilized lipid A was only weakly inhibitory. The results of this study indicate that the serotype b-specific determinant of A. actinomycetemcomitans resides in the polysaccharide moiety of LPS and represents a major target for immunoglobulin G antibody in serum of LJP subjects colonized by this organism.

  11. A large-scale genomic approach affords unprecedented resolution for the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary history of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Virginie; Verdier, Axel; Thiaucourt, François; Manso-Silván, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp), is a devastating disease of domestic goats and of some wild ungulate species. The disease is currently spreading in Africa and Asia and poses a serious threat to disease-free areas. A comprehensive view of the evolutionary history and dynamics of Mccp is essential to understand the epidemiology of CCPP. Yet, analysing the diversity of genetically monomorphic pathogens, such as Mccp, is complicated due to their low variability. In this study, the molecular epidemiology and evolution of CCPP was investigated using a large-scale genomic approach based on next-generation sequencing technologies, applied to a sample of strains representing the global distribution of this disease. A highly discriminatory multigene typing system was developed, allowing the differentiation of 24 haplotypes among 25 Mccp strains distributed in six genotyping groups, which showed some correlation with geographic origin. A Bayesian approach was used to infer the first robust phylogeny of the species and to date the principal events of its evolutionary history. The emergence of Mccp was estimated only at about 270 years ago, which explains the low genetic diversity of this species despite its high mutation rate, evaluated at 1.3 × 10(-6) substitutions per site per year. Finally, plausible scenarios were proposed to elucidate the evolution and dynamics of CCPP in Asia and Africa, though limited by the paucity of Mccp strains, particularly in Asia. This study shows how combining large-scale genomic data with spatial and temporal data makes it possible to obtain a comprehensive view of the epidemiology of CCPP, a precondition for the development of improved disease surveillance and control measures. PMID:26149260

  12. Cell cycle-specific growth inhibitory effect on human gingival fibroblasts of a toxin isolated from the culture medium of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Helgeland, K; Nordby, O

    1993-05-01

    A toxin isolated from the growth medium of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by ammonium sulfate precipitation was shown to inhibit irreversibly the multiplication of human gingival fibroblasts. DNA histograms from flow cytometric measurements showed that the cells accumulated preferentially in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Such cells exhibited sheetlike protrusions, and an increased frequency of micronuclei was evident in cells treated with low concentrations of the toxin. Toxin-treated cells were viable for several weeks, as shown by staining with trypan blue and fluorescein diacetate, and the general cell metabolism as measured by oxygen consumption was unimpaired. PMID:8496779

  13. Immunoglobulin allotypes and immunoglobulin G subclass responses to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in early-onset periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, J I; Ha, M H; Kim, J H; Kim, S J

    1996-01-01

    The present study was performed to estimate the observed frequencies of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (Gm) and light-chain (Km) allotypes among patients with early-onset periodontitis (EOP) and their effect on the IgG2 subclass responses against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 and Porphyromonas gingivalis 381, respectively. Sixty-nine EOP patients, including 11 with localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP), 19 who had LJP, 15 with LJP-rapidly progressing periodontitis (RPP), and 24 with RPP, were examined for the Gm and Km allotypes by a hemagglutination inhibition test. Levels of immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) antibodies against the two organisms were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fifty race- and age-matched, periodontally healthy subjects were also included as a control group. The observed frequencies of the Gm haplotype afnb and Km(1) were significantly higher in the RPP and LJP groups, respectively. The G2m(n)+ group of those with RPP and the Km(1)+ group of those with LJP had significantly higher levels of IgG2 antibodies to A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, respectively. The results indicate that linkage disequilibrium of the G2m(n) locus in RPP patients or the Km(1) locus in LJP patients may be associated with high IgG2 antibody responses to the respective bacteria. It was reasoned that the IgG2 antibody responses are associated with the immunoglobulin allotypes. The function of IgG2 antibodies in their reaction to different bacterial antigens may be interpreted as either protective or nonprotective in the two different types of EOP (i.e., LJP and RPP). PMID:8926092

  14. Sero-positivity and associated risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia under two cattle production systems in North Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, Nma Bida; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 765 cattle in 125 nomadic and 375 cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013. Data on herd characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on herd owners. Serological analysis was conducted using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) test. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted with OpenEpi version 2.3.1 software. Statistical significance was held at P < 0.05. CBPP sero-prevalence in nomadic cattle was 16.2 % (confidence interval (CI) 13.7-19.0) and 9.6 % (CI 6.9-12.9) in sedentary cattle. The overall cattle-level sero-prevalence for two the cattle production systems was 14.0 % (CI 12.1-16.1). Age and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) associated with sero-positivity to Mmm in nomadic production. Agro-ecological zone C had the highest sero-prevalence (25.3 %, CI 20.2-31.0). No significant cattle factors were detected in sedentary production. Factors significantly associated with CBPP occurrence at herd-level were contacts with other herds during grazing (P < 0.001) and at watering points (P < 0.001). Others were introduction of new cattle into herd (P < 0.001), outbreaks of CBPP in an area (P < 0.001), socio-cultural factors of cattle gifts and dowry payment (P < 0.001), herd composition of keeping cattle and small ruminants together (P < 0.001), and long trekking during migrations (P = 0.0009). This study had shown the burden of CBPP in the two production systems. Sero-diagnosis and risk factor identification should be institutionalized as elements of epidemio-surveillance and control strategies for CBPP, especially in resource-poor pastoralists' settlements in Nigeria.

  15. Coinfection by Ureaplasma spp., Photobacterium damselae and an Actinomyces-like microorganism in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with pleuropneumonia stranded along the Adriatic coast of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Gabriella; Cammà, Cesare; Curini, Valentina; Mazzariol, Sandro; Proietto, Umberto; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Ferri, Nicola; Di Provvido, Andrea; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    A case of pleuropneumonia is reported in an adult male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded in 2014 along the Central Adriatic coast of Italy. A severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia and thoracic lymphadenopathy were present at necropsy. Numerous Splendore-Hoeppli bodies were found microscopically scattered throughout the lung. Histochemical evidence of Actinomyces-like organisms was obtained from the pulmonary parenchyma, with a strain of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Ureaplasma spp. being also isolated from the same tissue. For the latter, a genome fragment of approximately 1400 bp from the 16s rDNA was amplified and sequenced. BLAST analysis revealed 100% identity with an uncultured Ureaplasma spp. (JQ193826.1).

  16. Coinfection by Ureaplasma spp., Photobacterium damselae and an Actinomyces-like microorganism in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with pleuropneumonia stranded along the Adriatic coast of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Gabriella; Cammà, Cesare; Curini, Valentina; Mazzariol, Sandro; Proietto, Umberto; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Ferri, Nicola; Di Provvido, Andrea; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    A case of pleuropneumonia is reported in an adult male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded in 2014 along the Central Adriatic coast of Italy. A severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia and thoracic lymphadenopathy were present at necropsy. Numerous Splendore-Hoeppli bodies were found microscopically scattered throughout the lung. Histochemical evidence of Actinomyces-like organisms was obtained from the pulmonary parenchyma, with a strain of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Ureaplasma spp. being also isolated from the same tissue. For the latter, a genome fragment of approximately 1400 bp from the 16s rDNA was amplified and sequenced. BLAST analysis revealed 100% identity with an uncultured Ureaplasma spp. (JQ193826.1). PMID:27033917

  17. First report on the molecular prevalence of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) in goats the cause of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Balochistan province of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Awan, Mohammad Arif; Abbas, Ferhat; Yasinzai, Masoom; Nicholas, Robin A J; Babar, Shakeel; Ayling, Roger D; Attique, Mohammad Adnan; Ahmed, Zafar; Wadood, Abdul; Khan, Faisal Ameer

    2010-10-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) is a disease of goats which causes high morbidity and mortality and is reported in many countries of the world. There are probably no reports on the molecular prevalence of Mccp, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc) and Mycoplasma putrefaciens (Mp) in Balochistan and any other part of Pakistan. Thirty goats (n = 30) with marked respiratory symptoms were selected and procured from forty goat flocks in Pishin district of Balochistan in 2008. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from the lung samples (n = 30) of the slaughtered goats was purified and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the presence of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster members and Mp. The PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) was also used to further confirm the Mccp. Of the thirty lung samples 17 (56.67%) were positive for the molecular prevalence of Mcc, Mccp and Mp. In total the molecular prevalence was observed as 17.65% for Mccp (n = 3), 70.59% for Mcc (n = 12) and 11.76% for Mp (n = 2). The RFLP profile has also validated the PCR results of Mccp by yielding two bands of 190 and 126 bp. The results of PCR-RFLP coupled with the presence of fibrinous pleuropneumonia and pleurisy during postmortem of goats (n = 3) strongly indicated the prevalence of CCPP in this part of world. Moreover the prevalence of Mcc and Mp is also alarming in the study area. We report for the very first time the molecular prevalence of Mcc, Mccp, and Mp in the lung tissues of goats in the Pishin district of Balochistan, Pakistan.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria associated with porcine respiratory disease in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dayao, Denise Ann E; Gibson, Justine S; Blackall, Patrick J; Turni, Conny

    2014-06-25

    The porcine respiratory disease complex greatly affects the health and production of pigs. While antimicrobial agents are used to treat the respiratory infections caused by bacterial pathogens, there is no current information on antimicrobial resistance in Australian pig respiratory bacterial isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles, by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of nine antimicrobial agents for 71 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, 51 Pasteurella multocida and 18 Bordetella bronchiseptica cultured from Australian pigs. The majority of A. pleuropneumoniae isolates were resistant to erythromycin (89%) and tetracycline (75%). Resistance to ampicillin (8.5%), penicillin (8.5%) and tilmicosin (25%) was also identified. The P. multocida isolates exhibited resistance to co-trimoxazole (2%), florfenicol (2%), ampicillin (4%), penicillin (4%), erythromycin (14%) and tetracycline (28%). While all the B. bronchiseptica isolates showed resistance to beta-lactams (ampicillin, ceftiofur and penicillin), some were resistant to erythromycin (94%), florfenicol (6%), tilmicosin (22%) and tetracycline (39%). The incidence of multiple drug resistance (MDR) varied across the species - in B. bronchiseptica, 27.8% of resistant isolates showed MDR, while 9.1% of the resistant isolates in A. pleuropneumoniae, and 4.8% in P. multocida showed MDR. This study illustrated that Australian pig strains of bacterial respiratory pathogens exhibited low levels of resistance to antimicrobial agents commonly used in the pig industry.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria associated with porcine respiratory disease in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dayao, Denise Ann E; Gibson, Justine S; Blackall, Patrick J; Turni, Conny

    2014-06-25

    The porcine respiratory disease complex greatly affects the health and production of pigs. While antimicrobial agents are used to treat the respiratory infections caused by bacterial pathogens, there is no current information on antimicrobial resistance in Australian pig respiratory bacterial isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles, by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of nine antimicrobial agents for 71 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, 51 Pasteurella multocida and 18 Bordetella bronchiseptica cultured from Australian pigs. The majority of A. pleuropneumoniae isolates were resistant to erythromycin (89%) and tetracycline (75%). Resistance to ampicillin (8.5%), penicillin (8.5%) and tilmicosin (25%) was also identified. The P. multocida isolates exhibited resistance to co-trimoxazole (2%), florfenicol (2%), ampicillin (4%), penicillin (4%), erythromycin (14%) and tetracycline (28%). While all the B. bronchiseptica isolates showed resistance to beta-lactams (ampicillin, ceftiofur and penicillin), some were resistant to erythromycin (94%), florfenicol (6%), tilmicosin (22%) and tetracycline (39%). The incidence of multiple drug resistance (MDR) varied across the species - in B. bronchiseptica, 27.8% of resistant isolates showed MDR, while 9.1% of the resistant isolates in A. pleuropneumoniae, and 4.8% in P. multocida showed MDR. This study illustrated that Australian pig strains of bacterial respiratory pathogens exhibited low levels of resistance to antimicrobial agents commonly used in the pig industry. PMID:24726505

  20. Development of a Novel Cocktail Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and a Field-Applicable Lateral-Flow Rapid Test for Diagnosis of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed

    Heller, Martin; Gicheru, Nimmo; Tjipura-Zaire, Georgina; Muriuki, Cecilia; Yu, Mingyan; Botelho, Ana; Naessens, Jan; Jores, Joerg; Liljander, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease that is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, a bacterium belonging to the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. In the absence of an efficient CBPP vaccine, improved and easy-to-use diagnostic assays for recurrent testing combined with isolation and treatment of positive animals represent an option for CBPP control in Africa. Here we describe the comprehensive screening of 17 immunogenic Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides proteins using well-characterized bovine sera for the development of a novel cocktail enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for laboratory use. Two recombinant Mycoplasma immunogens, MSC_0136 and MSC_0636, were used to set up a standardized cocktail ELISA protocol. According to the results from more than 100 serum samples tested, the sensitivity and specificity of the novel cocktail ELISA were 85.6% and 96.4%, respectively, with an overall diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE)-prescribed serological assays. In addition, we provide a proof of principle for a field-applicable, easy-to-use commercially produced prototype lateral-flow test for rapid (<30-min) diagnosis of CBPP.

  1. Analytical performance of an immunologic-based periodontal bacterial test for simultaneous detection and differentiation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia.

    PubMed

    Snyder, B; Ryerson, C C; Corona, H; Grogan, E A; Reynolds, H S; Contestable, P B; Boyer, B P; Mayer, J; Mangan, T; Norkus, N; Zambon, J J; Genco, R J

    1996-05-01

    The analytical performance of a membrane-based immunoassay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia (including Prevotella nigrescens) was investigated. Positive reactions were observed for 71 of 71 reference strains and recent oral isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and P. intermedia. No cross-reactivity was observed with 39 other common oral and environmental species. The specificity of the test was unaffected by the presence of potential oral interferents including whole blood, white blood cells, mucin, saliva, toothpastes, and oral rinses. A proficiency test by dental professionals using a standardized set of unknown simulated samples yielded a sensitivity of 97% (116/120) and a 100% specificity (240/ 240). An additional group including dental professionals and high school students was shown to be 99% proficient (1385/1397) in distinguishing proper from improper test function when processing control samples with normal test devices and devices with simulated error conditions. Comparisons to a culture standard for 104 subgingival plaque samples collected from 26 adult periodontitis patients yielded > 98% specificity for each of the test bacteria. In addition, the detection threshold for the test was determined to be equivalent to 10(4) cultivable test bacteria when compared to the culture standard. The data indicate that this membrane immunoassay is a valid and easy-to-use method for the detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and P. intermedia in subgingival plaque, at levels above the detection threshold of the test.

  2. Risk factors associated with contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia in goats in pastoral areas in the Rift Valley region of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kipronoh, K A; Ombui, J N; Binepal, Y S; Wesonga, H O; Gitonga, E K; Thuranira, E; Kiara, H K

    2016-09-15

    A cross-sectional study to determine risk factors associated with sero-prevalence of contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia (CCPP) in goats was carried out between the months of March, 2014 and March, 2015 in Pokot East, Turkana West and Kajiado Central Sub-counties. A semi-structured questionnaire focusing on risk factors for CCPP was completed for each flock whose serum samples were collected. A logistic regression model was developed to assess the association between the risk factors and CCPP sero-positivity. Of the 54 flocks, 49 (90.7%) presented at least one sero-positive animal. Two hundred and four of the 432 goats tested sero-positive at monoclonal antibody based competitive Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (c-ELISA), hence a sero-prevalence of 47.2% (95% CI=42.5- 51.9). Previous exposure of flocks to CCPP (p<0.001, OR=52.8; CI=6.45, 432), distant sources of veterinary drugs (p<0.001, OR=6.17; CI=3.41, 11.1), movement of goats to dry season feeding areas (p<0.001, OR=4.31; CI=2.39, 7.75) and markets as a source of new introductions to the flock (p=0.033, OR=1.86; CI=1.05, 3.27) were identified as risk factors significantly associated with CCPP sero-prevalence. The findings provide further evidence supporting the high prevalence and endemic state of the disease in pastoral flocks and hence there is need for adequate measures to be put in place to control the disease effectively.

  3. Rapid Detection of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia Using a Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Capsular Polysaccharide-Specific Antigen Detection Latex Agglutination Test

    PubMed Central

    March, J. B.; Gammack, C.; Nicholas, R.

    2000-01-01

    Latex microspheres (diameter, 8 μm) were coated with anti-Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antiserum (anti-F38 biotype). The coated microspheres, when used in a latex agglutination test (LAT), detected M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae antigen in the serum of goats with contagious caprine pleuropneumoniae (CCPP). Beads also agglutinated strongly in the presence of purified M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Preabsorption of CPS-specific antibodies prior to coating of the beads removed agglutinating activity in the presence of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, strongly suggesting that CPS is the likely soluble antigen recognized by the test. In addition, the specificity of the LAT exactly mirrored that of an M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (WM25): of the 8 other mycoplasma species tested, agglutination was observed only with bovine serogroup 7. The LAT detected all 11 strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae examined in this study, with a sensitivity level of 2 ng of CPS, or the equivalent of 1.7 × 104 CFU, in a reaction volume of 0.03 ml of serum. With field sera from goats with CCPP, the results of the LAT exhibited a 67% correlation with the results of the currently used complement fixation test (CFT), with the main discrepancy in diagnosis resulting from the increased sensitivity of the LAT compared to that of CFT. This antigen-detection LAT should prove particularly useful in identifying animals in the earliest stages of CCPP and combines sensitivity and low cost with ease of application in the field, without the need for any specialist training or equipment. PMID:11060083

  4. Monoclonal antibodies to surface-exposes proteins of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (small-colony strain), which causes contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Kiarie, M N; Rurangirwa, F R; Perryman, L E; Jasmer, D P; McGuire, T C

    1996-01-01

    Outbreaks of bovine pleuropneumonia caused by small-colony strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides occur in Africa, and vaccination is used for control. Since protein subunits are needed to improve multivalent vaccines, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were made to facilitate protein identification and isolation. Eleven immunoglobulin M MAbs derived from mouse spleen donors immunized with disrupted whole organisms bound periodate-sensitive epitopes on externally exposed polysaccharide. Seven of these MAbs caused in vitro growth inhibition of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides; however, reaction with carbohydrate epitopes prevented their use in identifying proteins. Ten additional MAbs from mouse spleen donors immunized with Triton X-114-phase integral membrane proteins reacted with periodate-insensitive, proteinase K-sensitive epitopes. These MAbs were classified into three groups based on immunoblots of Triton X-114-phase proteins. One group reacted with 96-, 16-, and 15-kDa proteins. Another group reacted with 26-, 21-, and 16-kDa proteins, while a third group reacted only with 26- and 21-kDa proteins. One MAb from each group reacted with trypsinsensitive epitopes on live organisms, yet none caused in vitro growth inhibition. Representative MAbs reacted with all small-colony strains in immunoblots and did not react with large colony strains. However, these MAbs were not specific for small-colony strains, as proteins from two other M. mycoides cluster organisms were identified. Nevertheless, MAbs to surface-exposed epitopes on integral membrane proteins will be useful for isolation of these proteins for immunization, since one or more might induce growth-inhibiting antibodies or other protective responses. PMID:8914769

  5. Risk factors associated with contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia in goats in pastoral areas in the Rift Valley region of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kipronoh, K A; Ombui, J N; Binepal, Y S; Wesonga, H O; Gitonga, E K; Thuranira, E; Kiara, H K

    2016-09-15

    A cross-sectional study to determine risk factors associated with sero-prevalence of contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia (CCPP) in goats was carried out between the months of March, 2014 and March, 2015 in Pokot East, Turkana West and Kajiado Central Sub-counties. A semi-structured questionnaire focusing on risk factors for CCPP was completed for each flock whose serum samples were collected. A logistic regression model was developed to assess the association between the risk factors and CCPP sero-positivity. Of the 54 flocks, 49 (90.7%) presented at least one sero-positive animal. Two hundred and four of the 432 goats tested sero-positive at monoclonal antibody based competitive Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (c-ELISA), hence a sero-prevalence of 47.2% (95% CI=42.5- 51.9). Previous exposure of flocks to CCPP (p<0.001, OR=52.8; CI=6.45, 432), distant sources of veterinary drugs (p<0.001, OR=6.17; CI=3.41, 11.1), movement of goats to dry season feeding areas (p<0.001, OR=4.31; CI=2.39, 7.75) and markets as a source of new introductions to the flock (p=0.033, OR=1.86; CI=1.05, 3.27) were identified as risk factors significantly associated with CCPP sero-prevalence. The findings provide further evidence supporting the high prevalence and endemic state of the disease in pastoral flocks and hence there is need for adequate measures to be put in place to control the disease effectively. PMID:27664453

  6. Augmentation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Invasion of Human Oral Epithelial Cells and Up-Regulation of Interleukin-8 Production by Saliva CD14

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Atsuko; Satoh, Aya; Ngai, Tomoko; Nishimura, Takashi; Ikawa, Keiji; Matsuyama, Takami; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Takada, Haruhiko; Sugawara, Shunji

    2003-01-01

    It has recently been shown that human salivary glands constitutively express CD14, an important molecule in innate immunity, and that a soluble form of CD14 is secreted in saliva. The concentration of CD14 in parotid (a serous gland) saliva was comparable to that in normal serum and 10-fold the amount in whole saliva, although the physiological function of saliva CD14 remained unclear. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a periodontopathic bacterium and is able to invade oral epithelial cells. The present study showed that upon exposure to live A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 for 2 h, human oral epithelial HSC-2 cells produced interleukin-8 (IL-8) for a further 24 h and whole saliva augmented the production induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4. Parotid saliva showed a more pronounced effect on the production of IL-8 than whole saliva. Neither saliva preparation itself had IL-8-inducing activity. Parotid saliva exhibited antibacterial activity against a low concentration of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4, but recombinant CD14 did not show the activity. The internalization of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 into HSC-2 cells was inhibited by cytochalasin B, indicating that the process was actin dependent, and depletion of CD14 from parotid saliva inhibited the invasion and, as a consequence, inhibited production of IL-8. Furthermore, human recombinant CD14 augmented invasion and IL-8 production. These results suggest that saliva CD14 promoted the invasion of oral epithelial cells by A. actinomycetemcomitans and consequently augmented the production of IL-8, playing an important role in innate immunity in the oral cavity. PMID:14500479

  7. Characterization of an antiproliferative surface-associated protein from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans which can be neutralized by sera from a proportion of patients with localized juvenile periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    White, P A; Wilson, M; Nair, S P; Kirby, A C; Reddi, K; Henderson, B

    1995-01-01

    The gentle agitation of suspensions of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans serotype a, b, or c in saline resulted in the release of a proteinaceous surface-associated material (SAM) which produced a dose-dependent inhibition of tritiated thymidine incorporation by the osteoblast-like cell line MG63 in culture. This cell line was sensitive to low concentrations of SAM (50% inhibitory concentration, 200 ng/ml for serotype c). Immunoglobulin G antibodies to constituents of the SAM were found in the blood of patients with localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP). Sera from 9 of 16 patients with LJP significantly neutralized the antiproliferative activity of the SAM, while sera from 15 controls, with no evidence of periodontal disease, were unable to neutralize this activity. Neutralization was not directly related to the patient's antibody titer to the whole SAM. Characterization of the antiproliferative activity in the SAM demonstrated that it was not cytotoxic and was heat and trypsin sensitive. The active component separated in a well-defined peak in anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) which, when further analyzed by size exclusion HPLC, revealed a single active peak, which had an apparent molecular mass of approximately 8 kDa. The lipopolysaccharide from A. actinomycetemcomitans was only weakly active. SAM from Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 and Eikenella corrodens NCTC 10596 did not exhibit any antiproliferative activity with this cell line, even at concentrations as high as 10 micrograms/ml. This study has shown that SAM from A. actinomycetemcomitans contains a potent antiproliferative protein whose activity can be neutralized by antibodies in the sera from some patients with LJP. PMID:7790076

  8. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  9. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-polysaccharide-like polysaccharide promotes osteoclast-like cell formation by interleukin-1 alpha production in mouse marrow cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, T; Ueda, N; Amano, K; Ishihara, Y; Hayakawa, H; Kuroyanagi, T; Ohsaki, Y; Nagata, K; Noguchi, T

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of osteoclast-like cell formation induced by periodontopathic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b) capsular-polysaccharide-like polysaccharide (capsular-like polysaccharide) was examined in a mouse bone marrow culture system. When mouse bone marrow cells were cultured with A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide for 9 days, many multinucleated cells were formed. The multinucleated cells showed several characteristics of osteoclasts, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) and the ability to resorb the calcified dentine. In this study, we examined the effects of antisera to interleukins on the formation of osteoclast-like cells induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide. Monospecific anti-mouse recombinant interleukin-1 alpha (rIL-1 alpha) serum completely inhibited the formation of osteoclast-like cells in the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide. However, anti-mouse rIL-1 beta and anti-mouse rIL-6 sera showed no effect on osteoclast-like cell formation. IL-1 receptor antagonist significantly inhibited the osteoclast-like cell formation mediated by A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide in mouse marrow cultures. The bioactive IL-1 was detected in the culture media of mouse bone marrow cells stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide. These results indicate that IL-1 alpha is involved in the mechanism of the formation of osteoclast-like cells induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide. We sought to determine whether osteoclast-like cell formation induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide could be modulated by the protein kinase inhibitors H8 and HA1004. The formation of osteoclast-like cells was suppressed by H8 and HA1004. These findings suggest that the signals by protein kinases may regulate osteoclast-like cell formation induced by A

  10. Meningococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a type of bacteria that cause serious infections. The most common infection is meningitis, which is an inflammation of the ... also cause other problems, including a serious bloodstream infection called sepsis. Meningococcal infections can spread from person ...

  11. Qualitative and quantitative impacts assessment of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Fulani pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria: The associated socio-cultural factors.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is one of the most important trans-boundary disease affecting Fulani cattle herds of Nigeria and whose control is urgently needed. A Participatory Epidemiology approach and cross-sectional study were concurrently conducted to investigate qualitative and quantitative impacts of CBPP, respectively and associated socio-cultural factors that influenced exposure of Fulani nomadic pastoral communities to its risk in Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and December 2013. A total of nine pastoral communities were purposively selected for qualitative impact assessment using Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, while 765 cattle randomly sampled from 125 purposively selected nomadic herds were analyzed using c-ELISA. Data on socio-cultural characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on nomadic herd owners of the 125 selected herds. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W statistics and OpenEpi 2.3 were used for statistical analyses. Pastoralists' dependent factors associated with their socio-cultural activities were tested using Chisquare tests and likelihood backward logistic regressions. The mean proportional piles (relative qualitative impact) of CBPP was 12.6%, and nomads agreement on this impact was strong (W=0.6855) and statistically significant (P<0.001). This was validated by 16.2% (95% CI: 13.7, 19.0) sero-positive (quantitative impact). Highest sero-prevalence of 25.3% was observed in Northern agro-ecological zone, while lowest of 6.2% was in Eastern zone. Pastoralists in the age groups 51-60 and 61-70 years were more likely (OR 13.07; 95% CI: 3.21, 53.12 and OR 7.10; 95% CI: 1.77, 28.33, respectively) to have satisfactory information/awareness on CBPP and lowland transhumance pastoralists were more likely (OR 5.21; 95% CI: 2.01, 13.54) to have satisfactory information. Socio-cultural activities of extensive husbandry system was six times more likely (OR 5.79; 95% CI: 2.55, 13.13) to be

  12. Qualitative and quantitative impacts assessment of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Fulani pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria: The associated socio-cultural factors.

    PubMed

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2016-06-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is one of the most important trans-boundary disease affecting Fulani cattle herds of Nigeria and whose control is urgently needed. A Participatory Epidemiology approach and cross-sectional study were concurrently conducted to investigate qualitative and quantitative impacts of CBPP, respectively and associated socio-cultural factors that influenced exposure of Fulani nomadic pastoral communities to its risk in Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and December 2013. A total of nine pastoral communities were purposively selected for qualitative impact assessment using Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, while 765 cattle randomly sampled from 125 purposively selected nomadic herds were analyzed using c-ELISA. Data on socio-cultural characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on nomadic herd owners of the 125 selected herds. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W statistics and OpenEpi 2.3 were used for statistical analyses. Pastoralists' dependent factors associated with their socio-cultural activities were tested using Chisquare tests and likelihood backward logistic regressions. The mean proportional piles (relative qualitative impact) of CBPP was 12.6%, and nomads agreement on this impact was strong (W=0.6855) and statistically significant (P<0.001). This was validated by 16.2% (95% CI: 13.7, 19.0) sero-positive (quantitative impact). Highest sero-prevalence of 25.3% was observed in Northern agro-ecological zone, while lowest of 6.2% was in Eastern zone. Pastoralists in the age groups 51-60 and 61-70 years were more likely (OR 13.07; 95% CI: 3.21, 53.12 and OR 7.10; 95% CI: 1.77, 28.33, respectively) to have satisfactory information/awareness on CBPP and lowland transhumance pastoralists were more likely (OR 5.21; 95% CI: 2.01, 13.54) to have satisfactory information. Socio-cultural activities of extensive husbandry system was six times more likely (OR 5.79; 95% CI: 2.55, 13.13) to be

  13. Hookworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... The last 2 types also occur in animals. Hookworm disease is common in the moist tropics and ...

  14. Vaginal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Two common vaginal infections are bacterial vaginosis and yeast infections . Bacterial vaginosis (BV) happens when a certain ... increases the chances that you’ll get BV. Yeast infections happen when a fungus (a type of ...

  15. Staphylococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... of bacteria. There are over 30 types, but Staphylococcus aureus causes most staph infections (pronounced "staff infections"), including ... Some staph bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) are resistant to certain antibiotics, making infections harder ...

  16. Whipworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the large intestine with a type of roundworm. ... Whipworm infection is caused by the roundworm Trichuris trichiura. It is a common infection that mainly affects children. Children may become infected if they swallow soil contaminated with whipworm ...

  17. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  18. Bone Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body, bones can get infected. The infections are usually bacterial, but can also be fungal. ... bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent ...

  19. An approach to a patient with infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Hitzeroth, J; Beckett, N; Ntuli, P

    2016-02-01

    Although infective endocarditis (IE) is relatively uncommon, it remains an important clinical entity with a high in-hospital and 1-year mortality. It is most commonly caused by viridans streptococci. Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a malignant course of IE and often requires early surgery to eradicate. Other rarer causes are various bacilli, including the HACEK (Haemophilus, Actinobacillus,Cardiobacterium, Eikenella and Kingella spp.) group of organisms and fungi. The clinical presentation varies. Patients may present with a nonspecific illness, valve dysfunction, heart failure (HF) and symptoms due to peripheral embolisation. The diagnosis is traditionally based on the modified Duke criteria and rests mainly on clinical features and to a lesser extent on certain laboratory findings,microbiological assessment and cardiovascular imaging. Identification of the offending micro-organism is not only important from a diagnostic point of view, but also makes targeted antibiotic treatment possible and provides useful prognostic information. A significant proportion of microbiological cultures are negative, frequently owing to the administration of antibiotics prior to appropriate culture.Blood-culture-negative IE poses significant diagnostic and treatment challenges. The course of the disease is frequently complicated, and sequelae include HF, local intracardiac extension of infection (abscess, fistula, pseudoaneurysm), stroke and intracranial haemorrhage due to septic emboli or mycotic aneurysm formation as well as renal injury. Management includes prolonged intravenous antibiotics and consideration for early surgery with removal of infective tissue and valve replacement in patients who have poor prognostic features or complications. Antibiotic administration for at-risk patients to prevent bacteraemia during specific procedures (particularly dental) is recommended to prevent IE. The patient population who would benefit from antibiotic prophylaxis has become

  20. An approach to a patient with infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Hitzeroth, J; Beckett, N; Ntuli, P

    2016-02-01

    Although infective endocarditis (IE) is relatively uncommon, it remains an important clinical entity with a high in-hospital and 1-year mortality. It is most commonly caused by viridans streptococci. Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a malignant course of IE and often requires early surgery to eradicate. Other rarer causes are various bacilli, including the HACEK (Haemophilus, Actinobacillus,Cardiobacterium, Eikenella and Kingella spp.) group of organisms and fungi. The clinical presentation varies. Patients may present with a nonspecific illness, valve dysfunction, heart failure (HF) and symptoms due to peripheral embolisation. The diagnosis is traditionally based on the modified Duke criteria and rests mainly on clinical features and to a lesser extent on certain laboratory findings,microbiological assessment and cardiovascular imaging. Identification of the offending micro-organism is not only important from a diagnostic point of view, but also makes targeted antibiotic treatment possible and provides useful prognostic information. A significant proportion of microbiological cultures are negative, frequently owing to the administration of antibiotics prior to appropriate culture.Blood-culture-negative IE poses significant diagnostic and treatment challenges. The course of the disease is frequently complicated, and sequelae include HF, local intracardiac extension of infection (abscess, fistula, pseudoaneurysm), stroke and intracranial haemorrhage due to septic emboli or mycotic aneurysm formation as well as renal injury. Management includes prolonged intravenous antibiotics and consideration for early surgery with removal of infective tissue and valve replacement in patients who have poor prognostic features or complications. Antibiotic administration for at-risk patients to prevent bacteraemia during specific procedures (particularly dental) is recommended to prevent IE. The patient population who would benefit from antibiotic prophylaxis has become

  1. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  2. Coronavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be able to reduce your risk of infection by washing your hands often with soap and ... sick. There is no vaccine to prevent coronavirus infection. There are no specific treatments. You can relieve ...

  3. Campylobacter infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection occurs in the small intestine from a bacteria called Campylobacter jejuni . It is a type of food poisoning. ... Campylobacter enteritis is a common cause of intestinal infection . ... of traveler's diarrhea or food poisoning . People most often ...

  4. Gastrointestinal Infections.

    PubMed

    Alby, Kevin; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-06-01

    Gastrointestinal infections in the immunocompromised host are caused by the common bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic agents that also cause infections in the immunocompetent host. Of special consideration is that immunocompromised patients may be at increased risk for infection or disease severity and by pathogens not seen in the competent host. This chapter reviews the various agents, risk factors, and diagnostic approaches to detect gastrointestinal infections in this patient population. PMID:27337464

  5. Simultaneous measurement of the viability, aggregation, and live and dead adherence of Streptococcus crista, Streptococcus mutans and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human saliva in relation to indices of caries, dental plaque and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Rudney, J D; Staikov, R K

    2002-05-01

    Salivary proteins have multiple functions and many share similar functions, which may be why it has been difficult to relate variations in their concentrations to oral health and ecology. An alternative is to focus on variations in the major functions of saliva. An hydroxyapatite-coated microplate model has been developed that simultaneously measures saliva-promoted bacterial viability, bacterial aggregation, and live and dead bacterial adherence, while simulating oral temperature and shearing forces from swallowing. That model was applied to resting whole and stimulated parotid saliva from 149 individuals, using representative strains of Streptococcus crista, S. mutans, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Two major factors were defined by multivariate analysis (this was successful only for whole-saliva). One factor was correlated with aggregation, live adherence and dead adherence for all three strains; the other was correlated with total viability of all three strains. Participants were grouped <25th percentile and >75th percentile for each factor. Those groups were compared for clinical indices of oral health. Caries scores were significantly lower in those with high scores for aggregation-adherence, regardless of whether total viability scores were low or high. Live bacteria always predominated on surfaces when live and dead adherence scores were expressed as ratios. However, participants with high scores for aggregation-adherence showed significantly more dead adherent bacteria than those with low scores (these ratios were uncorrelated with total viability). This finding may indicate that extreme differences in the ability to kill bacteria on surfaces can influence caries risk.

  6. OCCURRENCE OF ACTINOBACILLUS ACTINOMYCETEMCOMITANS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS, AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS, HEALTHY SUBJECTS AND CHILDREN WITH GINGIVITIS IN TWO CITIES OF THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Jardim, Elerson Gaetti; Bosco, Joseane Maria Dias; Lopes, Angélica Marquezim; Landucci, Luís Fernando; Jardim, Ellen Cristina Gaetti; Carneiro, Sílvia Rosana Soares

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) in 100 patients with chronic periodontitis, 14 patients with aggressive periodontitis, 142 pre-school children with gingivitis and 134 periodontally healthy subjects. Samples of subgingival plaque were taken using sterilized paper points introduced into periodontal pockets or gingival crevice for 60 seconds and inoculated on TSBV agar, which was incubated under anaerobiosis at 37°C, for 4 days. Microbial identification was performed through biochemical methods and morphocellular and morphocolonial analysis. Aa was detected in 40.3% of healthy subjects, 68% of patients with chronic periodontitis, 92.86% of patients with aggressive periodontitis and 40.14% of children with gingivitis. The rate of recovery of Aa in the tested human groups proved to be higher than previously reported and in agreement with participation of this facultative anaerobe as a member of native microbiota of the periodontium and its relation with aggressive and chronic periodontitis in Brazil. PMID:19089064

  7. Postpartum Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Interactions Pill Identifier Commonly searched drugs Aspirin Metformin Warfarin Tramadol Lactulose Ranitidine News & Commentary Recent News ... Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's Health Issues ... Bladder and Kidney Infections Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum ...

  8. Infection Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... These steps are part of infection control. Proper hand washing is the most effective way to prevent the spread of infections in hospitals. If you are a patient, don't be afraid to remind friends, family and health care providers to wash their hands before getting close to you. Other ...

  9. Salmonella Infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bacteria of the genus Salmonella are responsible for both acute and chronic poultry diseases. These diseases cause economically significant losses for poultry producers in many nations and absorb large investments of public and private resources in testing and control efforts. Infect...

  10. Nail infections.

    PubMed

    Jules, K T; Bonar, P L

    1989-04-01

    Nail infections are and will continue to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to all foot physicians. Attention to basic concepts of accurate detailed history and physical examination will aid in the determination of the etiology of these infections. Following basic guidelines of incision and drainage, gram stain, soaks, and antibiotics will be the cornerstone of initial treatment of pyogenic infections. Upon resolution of the acute infection a permanent treatment plan can be constituted based on the etiology. Nail infections of mycotic nature require an understanding by both patient and doctor as to the difficulty and resistance to treatment of this problem. It is the authors' opinion that aggressive persistent treatment will provide the best long-term result when dealing with mycotic infections. This may require nail removal, local and systemic treatment as well as change in shoe environment. As we have seen and is stated throughout this text, the nail and its pathologic processes can be a mirror of systemic disease. Many times a dystrophic infected nail may be the initial clinical presentation of a much more involved disease process. It is the responsibility and duty of all foot physicians to have a total understanding of knowledge of normal and pathologic process that affect the nail plates, nail bed, and surrounding nail proper. I hope this article will stimulate the foot physician to approach the disease of the nail with a high index of suspicion and respect. PMID:2650850

  11. Characterization of a multiple antibiotic resistance plasmid from Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed Central

    Willson, P J; Albritton, W L; Slaney, L; Setlow, J K

    1989-01-01

    Plasmid pLS88 from a clinical isolate of Haemophilus ducreyi encoded resistance determinants for sulfonamides and streptomycin related to those of RSF1010 and for kanamycin related to Tn903 but lacked the inverted repeats of the transposon. Its host range included Haemophilus influenzae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and Escherichia coli; and it was compatible with pDM2 and RSF1010. Images PMID:2684012

  12. Mycobacterial Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... many different kinds. The most common one causes tuberculosis. Another one causes leprosy. Still others cause infections ... aren't "typical" because they don't cause tuberculosis. But they can still harm people, especially people ...

  13. Rotavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all children in the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before ...

  14. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby What to Do Teach kids not to pop, pick at, or scratch pimples, pus-filled infections, ... Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your ...

  15. Bacterial Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... body will learn to resist them causing antibiotic resistance. Later, you could get or spread an infection that those antibiotics cannot cure. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  16. Salmonella Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... vegetables. You also can get infected after handling pets, especially reptiles like snakes, turtles, and lizards. Symptoms include Fever Diarrhea Abdominal cramps Headache Possible nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite Symptoms usually last 4-7 days. ...

  17. Hantavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... can enter the air. People can get the disease if they breathe infected air or come into contact with rodents or their urine or droppings. You cannot catch it from people. Early symptoms of HPS include ...

  18. Pneumococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor will do a physical exam and health history. Possible tests may include blood, imaging, or lab tests. Treatment is with antibiotics. Vaccines can prevent pneumococcal infections. There are two ...

  19. Hand Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread to others. Necrotizing Fasciitis, or “Flesh-Eating Bacteria” Necrotizing fasciitis is a very rare but severe infection. Streptococcus pyogenes or other “flesh-eating bacteria” enter the body through a cut. Bacteria toxins ...

  20. Giardia Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... a parasite called Giardia intestinalis. It lives in soil, food, and water. It may also be on ... Doctors use several drugs to treat it. The best way to prevent giardia infection is to practice ...

  1. Staphylococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of skin infections (eg, impetigo, pimples, boils). Staphylococcus aureus also causes toxin-related illnesses, including toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome, and staphylococcal-related food poisoning. In fact, ... Staphylococcus that you should be familiar with include the ...

  2. Norovirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Noroviruses are a group of related viruses. Infection with these viruses causes an illness called gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It can spread from person to person, or ...

  3. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Ear Infections Overview How does the ear work? A tube called the eustachian (say: "you-stay-shee-an") tube connects the middle ear with the back of the nose. Normally this ...

  4. Yeast Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

  5. Application of enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin disks approved in Japan for susceptibility testing of representative veterinary respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Usui, Masaru; Asai, Tetsuo

    2014-10-01

    In this study, susceptibilities of Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin were tested using an agar diffusion method with the commercial disks and a broth microdilution method. Good correlation between the 2 methods for enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin was observed for P. multocida (r = -0.743 and -0.818, respectively), M. haemolytica (r = -0.739 and -0.800, respectively) and A. pleuropneumoniae (r = -0.785 and -0.809, respectively). Based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute interpretive criteria for enrofloxacin, high-level categorical agreement between the 2 methods was found for P. multocida (97.9%), M. haemolytica (93.8%) and A. pleuropneumoniae (92.0%). Our findings indicate that the tested commercial disks can be applied for susceptibility testing of veterinary respiratory pathogens.

  6. Application of Enrofloxacin and Orbifloxacin Disks Approved in Japan for Susceptibility Testing of Representative Veterinary Respiratory Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    HARADA, Kazuki; USUI, Masaru; ASAI, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, susceptibilities of Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin were tested using an agar diffusion method with the commercial disks and a broth microdilution method. Good correlation between the 2 methods for enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin was observed for P. multocida (r = −0.743 and −0.818, respectively), M. haemolytica (r = −0.739 and −0.800, respectively) and A. pleuropneumoniae (r = −0.785 and −0.809, respectively). Based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute interpretive criteria for enrofloxacin, high-level categorical agreement between the 2 methods was found for P. multocida (97.9%), M. haemolytica (93.8%) and A. pleuropneumoniae (92.0%). Our findings indicate that the tested commercial disks can be applied for susceptibility testing of veterinary respiratory pathogens. PMID:25008965

  7. Tinea Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Tinea is the name of a group of diseases caused by a fungus. Types of tinea include ringworm, athlete's foot and jock itch. These infections are ... depend on the affected area of the body: Ringworm is a red skin rash that forms a ...

  8. Chlamydia Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... PID). PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system. This can lead to long-term pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Women who have had chlamydia infections more than once are at higher risk of serious reproductive health complications. Men often don't have health ...

  9. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campylobacter is found in the intestines of many wild and domestic animals. The bacteria are passed in their feces (poop), which can lead to infection in humans via contaminated food, meats (especially chicken), water taken from contaminated sources (streams or rivers ...

  10. Fusarium Infection

    PubMed Central

    Muhammed, Maged; Anagnostou, Theodora; Desalermos, Athanasios; Kourkoumpetis, Themistoklis K.; Carneiro, Herman A.; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Coleman, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Fusarium species is a ubiquitous fungus that causes opportunistic infections. We present 26 cases of invasive fusariosis categorized according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria of fungal infections. All cases (20 proven and 6 probable) were treated from January 2000 until January 2010. We also review 97 cases reported since 2000. The most important risk factors for invasive fusariosis in our patients were compromised immune system, specifically lung transplantation (n = 6) and hematologic malignancies (n = 5), and burns (n = 7 patients with skin fusariosis), while the most commonly infected site was the skin in 11 of 26 patients. The mortality rates among our patients with disseminated, skin, and pulmonary fusariosis were 50%, 40%, and 37.5%, respectively. Fusarium solani was the most frequent species, isolated from 49% of literature cases. Blood cultures were positive in 82% of both current study and literature patients with disseminated fusariosis, while the remaining 16% had 2 noncontiguous sites of infection but negative blood cultures. Surgical removal of focal lesions was effective in both current study and literature cases. Skin lesions in immunocompromised patients should raise the suspicion for skin or disseminated fusariosis. The combination of medical monotherapy with voriconazole or amphotericin B and surgery in such cases is highly suggested. PMID:24145697

  11. Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it, you'll be saying bye-bye to fungi (say: FUN-guy). What Is a Fungal Infection? Fungi , the word for more than one fungus, can ... but of course, they're not!). Because the fungi that cause tinea (ringworm) live on different parts ...

  12. Sequence analysis of serotype-specific synthesis regions II of Haemophilus influenzae serotypes c and d: evidence for common ancestry of capsule synthesis in Pasteurellaceae and Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Lâm, Thiên-Trí; Claus, Heike; Frosch, Matthias; Vogel, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    Sequencing of yet unknown Haemophilus influenzae serotype c (Hic) and d (Hid) capsule synthesis regions II revealed four (ccs1-4) and five (dcs1-5) open reading frames, respectively. The inferred gene functions were in line with capsular polysaccharide structures. One or more proteins encoded by the Hic capsule synthesis region II showed similarity to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 and Actinobacillus suis K1 enzymes. Orthologues to the complete operon were observed in Actinobacillus minor strain 202, where even the gene order was conserved. Furthermore, Ccs4 was related to the capsule O-acetyltransferase of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W-135. For the Hid locus, similarities to Hie, Mannheimia haemolytica A1 and N. meningitidis serogroup A were identified and the succession of genes was similar in the different species. The resemblance of genes and gene organization found for Hic and Hid with other species suggested horizontal gene transfer during capsule evolution across the bacterial classes.

  13. Outer membrane vesicles of Pasteurella multocida contain virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Rojas, Miguel A; Vaca, Sergio; Reyes-López, Magda; de la Garza, Mireya; Aguilar-Romero, Francisco; Zenteno, Edgar; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida (Pm) is a gram-negative bacterium able to infect different animal species, including human beings. This bacterium causes economic losses to the livestock industry because of its high morbidity and mortality in animals. In this work, we report the characterization of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released into the culture medium by different Pm serogroups. Purified OMVs in the range of 50–300 nm were observed by electron microscopy. Serum obtained from chickens infected with Pm recognized several proteins from Pm OMVs. Additionally, rabbit antiserum directed against a secreted protease from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae recognized a similar protein in the Pm OVMs, suggesting that OMVs from these bacterial species contain common immunogenic proteins. OmpA, a multifunctional protein, was identified in OMVs from different Pm serogroups, and its concentration was twofold higher in OMVs from Pm serogroups B and D than in OMVs from other serogroups. Three outer membrane proteins were also identified: OmpH, OmpW, and transferrin-binding protein. Three bands of 65, 110, and 250 kDa with proteolytic activity were detected in Pm OMVs of serogroups A and E. Additionally, β-lactamase activity was detected only in OMVs from Pm 12945 Ampr (serogroup A). Pm OMVs may be involved in different aspects of disease pathogenesis. PMID:25065983

  14. Fungal nail infection

    MedlinePlus

    Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Infection - fungal - nails; Tinea unguium ... hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the ...

  15. Cell adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of and host defence against microbial infection.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, J R

    1999-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are used by various cells and extracellular molecules in host defence against infection. They are involved in many processes including recognition by circulating phagocytes of a site of inflammation, transmigration through the endothelial barrier, diapedesis through basement membrane and extracellular matrix, and release of effector mechanisms at the infected site. CAMs involved in leucocyte-endothelial cell interaction include the selectins, integrins, and members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. However, CAMs are also used by various microorganisms (protozoa, fungi, bacteria, and viruses) during their pathogenesis. For example, bacteria that utilise CAMs include Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia spp, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Neisseria spp, Bordetella spp, and Borrelia burgdorferi. In addition, CAMs are involved in the pathogenetic effects of the RTX toxins of Pasteurella haemolytica, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and the superantigen exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. A recurrent and topical theme of potential importance within the bacterial group is the intimate relation between CAMs, bacterial protein receptors, and type III secretion systems. For example, the IpaBCD protein complex is secreted by the type III system of Shigella flexneri and interacts with alpha 5 beta 1 integrin on the eukaryotic cell surface, followed by Rho mediated internalisation; this illustrates the relevance of cellular microbiology. CAMs might prove to be novel therapeutic targets. Comparative genomics has provided the knowledge of shared virulence determinants among diverse bacterial genera, and will continue to deepen our understanding of microbial pathogenesis, particularly in the context of the interaction of prokaryotic and eukaryotic molecules. PMID:10694943

  16. Viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Puigdomènech, Isabel; de Armas-Rillo, Laura; Machado, José-David

    2011-01-01

    Viruses have developed different survival strategies in host cells by crossing cell-membrane compartments, during different steps of their viral life cycle. In fact, the non-regenerative viral membrane of enveloped viruses needs to encounter the dynamic cell-host membrane, during early steps of the infection process, in which both membranes fuse, either at cell-surface or in an endocytic compartment, to promote viral entry and infection. Once inside the cell, many viruses accomplish their replication process through exploiting or modulating membrane traffic, and generating specialized compartments to assure viral replication, viral budding and spreading, which also serve to evade the immune responses against the pathogen. In this review, we have attempted to present some data that highlight the importance of membrane dynamics during viral entry and replicative processes, in order to understand how viruses use and move through different complex and dynamic cell-membrane structures and how they use them to persist. PMID:21966556

  17. Infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas J; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2016-02-27

    Infective endocarditis occurs worldwide, and is defined by infection of a native or prosthetic heart valve, the endocardial surface, or an indwelling cardiac device. The causes and epidemiology of the disease have evolved in recent decades with a doubling of the average patient age and an increased prevalence in patients with indwelling cardiac devices. The microbiology of the disease has also changed, and staphylococci, most often associated with health-care contact and invasive procedures, have overtaken streptococci as the most common cause of the disease. Although novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have emerged, 1 year mortality has not improved and remains at 30%, which is worse than for many cancers. Logistical barriers and an absence of randomised trials hinder clinical management, and longstanding controversies such as use of antibiotic prophylaxis remain unresolved. In this Seminar, we discuss clinical practice, controversies, and strategies needed to target this potentially devastating disease.

  18. Dermatophyte infections.

    PubMed

    Hainer, Barry L

    2003-01-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi that require keratin for growth. These fungi can cause superficial infections of the skin, hair, and nails. Dermatophytes are spread by direct contact from other people (anthropophilic organisms), animals (zoophilic organisms), and soil (geophilic organisms), as well as indirectly from fomites. Dermatophyte infections can be readily diagnosed based on the history, physical examination, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopy. Diagnosis occasionally requires Wood's lamp examination and fungal culture or histologic examination. Topical therapy is used for most dermatophyte infections. Cure rates are higher and treatment courses are shorter with topical fungicidal allylamines than with fungistatic azoles. Oral therapy is preferred for tinea capitis, tinea barbae, and onychomycosis. Orally administered griseofulvin remains the standard treatment for tinea capitis. Topical treatment of onychomycosis with ciclopirox nail lacquer has a low cure rate. For onychomycosis, "pulse" oral therapy with the newer imidazoles (itraconazole or fluconazole) or allylamines (terbinafine) is considerably less expensive than continuous treatment but has a somewhat lower mycologic cure rate. The diagnosis of onychomycosis should be confirmed by KOH microscopy, culture, or histologic examination before therapy is initiated, because of the expense, duration, and potential adverse effects of treatment.

  19. Anthrax Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Daniel A.; Hicks, Caitlin W.; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described with cutaneous anthrax, it appears much more common with gastrointestinal, inhalational (5 of 11 patients in the 2001 outbreak in the United States), and injectional anthrax. Based in part on case series, the estimated mortalities of cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalational, and injectional anthrax are 1%, 25 to 60%, 46%, and 33%, respectively. Nonspecific early symptomatology makes initial identification of anthrax cases difficult. Clues to anthrax infection include history of exposure to herbivore animal products, heroin use, or clustering of patients with similar respiratory symptoms concerning for a bioterrorist event. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with Gram stain and culture from blood or surgical specimens followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR or immunohistochemistry). Although antibiotic therapy (largely quinolone-based) is the mainstay of anthrax treatment, the use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists is a consideration. PMID:21852539

  20. Infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Ferro, José M; Fonseca, Ana Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease of the endocardium of the heart and cardiac valves, caused by a variety of infectious agents, ranging from streptococci to rickettsia. The proportion of cases associated with rheumatic valvulopathy and dental surgery has decreased in recent years, while endocarditis associated with intravenous drug abuse, prosthetic valves, degenerative valve disease, implanted cardiac devices, and iatrogenic or nosocomial infections has emerged. Endocarditis causes constitutional, cardiac and multiorgan symptoms and signs. The central nervous system can be affected in the form of meningitis, cerebritis, encephalopathy, seizures, brain abscess, ischemic embolic stroke, mycotic aneurysm, and subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke in endocarditis is an ominous prognostic sign. Treatment of endocarditis includes prolonged appropriate antimicrobial therapy and in selected cases, cardiac surgery. In ischemic stroke associated with infective endocarditis there is no indication to start antithrombotic drugs. In previously anticoagulated patients with an ischemic stroke, oral anticoagulants should be replaced by unfractionated heparin, while in intracranial hemorrhage, all anticoagulation should be interrupted. The majority of unruptured mycotic aneurysms can be treated by antibiotics, but for ruptured aneurysms, endovascular or neurosurgical therapy is indicated.

  1. Fish tapeworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  2. [Diagnosis of caprine contagious pleuropneumonia: recent improvements].

    PubMed

    Thiaucourt, F; Guérin, C; Mady, V; Lefèvre, P C

    1992-09-01

    Due to the difficulty in isolating Mycoplasma sp. type F38, two techniques for rapid detection are proposed in order to identify the presence of mycoplasmas of the mycoides group in samples of pleural fluid. A modification in the composition of isolation media promotes the growth of type F38 mycoplasmas and inhibits the growth of M. ovipneumoniae strains.

  3. Infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Holland, Thomas L; Baddour, Larry M; Bayer, Arnold S; Hoen, Bruno; Miro, Jose M; Fowler, Vance G

    2016-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare, life-threatening disease that has long-lasting effects even among patients who survive and are cured. IE disproportionately affects those with underlying structural heart disease and is increasingly associated with health care contact, particularly in patients who have intravascular prosthetic material. In the setting of bacteraemia with a pathogenic organism, an infected vegetation may form as the end result of complex interactions between invading microorganisms and the host immune system. Once established, IE can involve almost any organ system in the body. The diagnosis of IE may be difficult to establish and a strategy that combines clinical, microbiological and echocardiography results has been codified in the modified Duke criteria. In cases of blood culture-negative IE, the diagnosis may be especially challenging, and novel microbiological and imaging techniques have been developed to establish its presence. Once diagnosed, IE is best managed by a multidisciplinary team with expertise in infectious diseases, cardiology and cardiac surgery. Antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of IE remains controversial. Efforts to develop a vaccine that targets common bacterial causes of IE are ongoing, but have not yet yielded a commercially available product. PMID:27582414

  4. [Norovirus infections].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2007-10-01

    During the last winter season, there was the hitherto largest norovirus gastroenteritis epidemic in Germany. Noroviruses are genetically highly variable, non-enveloped viruses with a single-stranded, positive sense RNA genome. They are the major cause of epidemic non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and have been identified as the cause of more than 70% of outbreaks and approximately half of all gastroenteritis outbreaks. Noroviruses also are frequently involved in sporadic cases of gastroenteritis. Typically, norovirus-associated enteritis is characterized by the sudden onset of vomiting and watery diarrhoea, frequently accompanied by several unspecific symptoms, e. g. abdominal pain, anorexia, malaise, headache, and low-grade fever. Diarrhoea without emesis as well as asymptomatic infections is also common. With few exceptions, diseases due to noroviruses are self-limited and the illness duration is restricted to a few days. Noroviruses are transmitted primarily from person-to-person by the faecal-oral route, but airborne transmission also occurs. Contamination of food and water represent important sources for human infection. Treatment ofnorovirus gastroenteritis is usually symptomatic and comprises a sufficient fluid and electrolyte substitution. There is no specific antiviral therapy. For prophylaxis, obeying of common hygienic rules in canteen kitchens and community institutions is regarded to be sufficient. Food with high risk of contamination should be cooked thoroughly. Because of the high stability of noroviruses to several environmental conditions, disinfection should be performed applying disinfectants with proven activity against noroviruses.

  5. Erythema Multiforme Associated with Respiratory Disease in a Commercial Breeding Pig Herd.

    PubMed

    Papatsiros, Vasileios G; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Psalla, Dimitra; Petridou, Evanthia; Maragkakis, Giorgos G; Papatsas, Ioannis; Arsenakis, Ioannis; Maes, Dominiek

    2015-10-01

    This study describes an erythema multiforme (EM) in breeding sows, after their mixing in the group housing system. Sows at 30-35 days of gestation showed red and raised skin areas, depression, anorexia, fever, respiratory problems, and increased return to estrus. Blood and nasal samples from diseased sows were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for respiratory pathogens. Hematological and biochemical analyses were performed on the blood samples. From diseased sows, vaginal swabs for microbiological examinations and samples at slaughterhouse for gross and microscopic examinations were collected. Samples from the complete gestation and lactation feed were examined for mycotoxins. All sampled sows were seropositive for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). No viremia for PRRSV and porcine circovirus type 2 were detected. All nasal samples were positive for Streptococcus suis, one for Swine Influenza Virus and one for App, Hemophilus parasuis, and S. suis. In all vaginal swabs, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp. were detected. Diseased sows had moderate leukocytosis, mild anemia, and thrombocytopenia. No mycotoxins were detected in feed. Histopathological examination revealed increased vascularization of the superficial and middle dermis. EM was likely due to illness caused by viral and bacterial infections. This study suggests that stress caused by the sows' mixing might have triggered the problem. PMID:26266696

  6. Erythema Multiforme Associated with Respiratory Disease in a Commercial Breeding Pig Herd.

    PubMed

    Papatsiros, Vasileios G; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Psalla, Dimitra; Petridou, Evanthia; Maragkakis, Giorgos G; Papatsas, Ioannis; Arsenakis, Ioannis; Maes, Dominiek

    2015-10-01

    This study describes an erythema multiforme (EM) in breeding sows, after their mixing in the group housing system. Sows at 30-35 days of gestation showed red and raised skin areas, depression, anorexia, fever, respiratory problems, and increased return to estrus. Blood and nasal samples from diseased sows were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for respiratory pathogens. Hematological and biochemical analyses were performed on the blood samples. From diseased sows, vaginal swabs for microbiological examinations and samples at slaughterhouse for gross and microscopic examinations were collected. Samples from the complete gestation and lactation feed were examined for mycotoxins. All sampled sows were seropositive for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). No viremia for PRRSV and porcine circovirus type 2 were detected. All nasal samples were positive for Streptococcus suis, one for Swine Influenza Virus and one for App, Hemophilus parasuis, and S. suis. In all vaginal swabs, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp. were detected. Diseased sows had moderate leukocytosis, mild anemia, and thrombocytopenia. No mycotoxins were detected in feed. Histopathological examination revealed increased vascularization of the superficial and middle dermis. EM was likely due to illness caused by viral and bacterial infections. This study suggests that stress caused by the sows' mixing might have triggered the problem.

  7. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Listeria Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Listeria Infections Print A ... to Call the Doctor en español Listeriosis About Listeria Listeria infections (known as listeriosis ) are rare. When ...

  8. Infections and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    If you are pregnant, an infection can be more than just a problem for you. Some infections can be dangerous to your baby. You can help yourself avoid infections: Don't eat raw or undercooked meat Don' ...

  9. Chlamydial infections - male

    MedlinePlus

    Chlamydia infection in males is an infection of the urethra (the tube that drains urine from the ... and passes through the penis). This type of chlamydia infection is passed from one person to another ...

  10. Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

    MedlinePlus

    CMV mononucleosis; Cytomegalovirus (CMV) ... Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is very common. The infection is spread by: Blood transfusions Organ transplants Respiratory droplets Saliva Sexual contact ...

  11. Infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Herregods, M-C

    2011-01-01

    Despite the progress in medicine, infectious endocarditis is often diagnosed late, as its symptomatology is subject to a high variability. The clinical features are usually atypical. Since the introduction of the Duke criteria, clinical, bacteriological and echocardiographical findings are being integrated, allowing an earlier definitive diagnosis. The incidence remains practically stable. The decrease in post-rheumatic valvular heart disease at population level is compensated by an increase in degenerative valvular heart disease as predisposing factor. Moreover, the share of patients with intravascular foreign material is increasing. Endocarditis is usually characterized by a complicated development. About half of the patients develop heart failure as a consequence of the destruction of the affected valve with serious valvular insufficiency. One third of the patients present cerebral or peripheral embolization. Embolization predominantly occurs at the beginning, until the first two weeks of antibiotic treatment. Abscess formation occurs more frequently than is suspected based on echographical examinations. Particularly a Staphylococcus aureus infection in the presence of an artificial valve leads to extravalvular extension with abscess formation around the artificial valve. Treatment should be initiated promptly. High doses of antibiotics, tailored to the microorganism and the valve type (native or artificial valve), are administered intravenously during four, or more frequently, six weeks. In more than half of the patients cardiac surgery is also required. As soon as an indication for cardiac surgery is present, the operation should not be postponed. Experience learns that a smaller risk is associated with an early intervention. The operation is performed in a technically easier way. Eventually, also the total duration of hospitalization is shorter. Despite the available antibiotics and the technical progress in cardiac surgery, mortality remains high. This is

  12. Who Gets Fungal Infections?

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections can also happen in people without weak immune systems Fungal infections that are not life-threatening, such ... likely to cause an infection. People with weak immune systems Infections that happen because a person’s immune system ...

  13. Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Vaginal Yeast Infections KidsHealth > For Teens > Vaginal Yeast Infections Print ... side effect of taking antibiotics. What Is a Yeast Infection? A yeast infection is a common infection ...

  14. [Infection and urinary lithiasis].

    PubMed

    Bruyere, F; Traxer, O; Saussine, C; Lechevallier, E

    2008-12-01

    Urinary infection is a risk factor for lithiasis. Urinary tract infection is a factor of gravity of urinary stone. The stone can exist before the infection which colonizes the stone, infected stone. The infection can be the cause of the stone, infectious stone (struvite stone). Infectious stones can be secondary to a non urinary infectious agent, oxalobacter formigenes (OF) and nanobacteria. The first-line treatment of struvite stone is percutaneous surgery. Perioperative antibiotics, renal urines and stone cultures are obligatory. PMID:19033073

  15. Bloodstream infections in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Taramasso, Lucia; Tatarelli, Paola; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    In the combined antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-infected patients remain a vulnerable population for the onset of bloodstream infections (BSI). Worldwide, nontyphoid salmonellae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci are the most important pathogens. Intravenous catheter associated infection, skin-soft tissue infection and endocarditis are associated with Gram-positive bacteremia. Among the Gram-negative, nontyphoidal Salmonella have been previously correlated to sepsis. Other causes of BSI in HIV-infected patients are mycobacteria and fungi. Mycobacteria constitute a major cause of BSI in limited resource countries. Fungal BSI are not frequent and among them Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common life-threatening infection. The degree of immunosuppression remains the key prognostic factor leading to the development of BSI. PMID:26950194

  16. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Botwin, Gregory J; Morgan, Timothy R

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial infections occur in 25-35 % of cirrhotics admitted to hospital. Health-care associated and hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections are the most common epidemiology, with community acquired infections less common (15-30 %). Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and urinary infections are the most common sites, with spontaneous bacteremia, pneumonia, cellulitis and other sites being less common. The risk of infection is increased among subjects with more severe liver disease and an infection in the past 6 months. Bacteria are isolated from approximately half of patients with a clinical diagnosis of infection. Gram-negative enterobacteriaceae are the most common organisms among community acquired infections; Gram-positive cocci are the most common organisms isolated among subjects with nosocomial infections. Up to 30 % of hospital associated infections are with multidrug resistant bacteria. Consequently, empiric antibiotic therapy that is recommended for community acquired infections is often inadequate for nosocomial infections. Infections worsen liver function. In-hospital and 1-year mortality of cirrhotics with infections is significantly higher than among cirrhotics without infection. In-hospital complications of infections, such as severe sepsis and septic shock, and mortality, are increased among subjects with multidrug-resistant infections as compared with cirrhotics with susceptible bacteria. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis of cirrhotics with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and long-term antibiotic prophylaxis of selected cirrhotics with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis reduces infections and improves survival. Albumin administration to cirrhotics with SBP and evidence of advanced liver disease improves survival. The benefit of albumin administration to cirrhotics with infections other than SBP is under investigation. PMID:26201326

  17. Development of an Animal Model for Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans Biofilm-Mediated Oral Osteolytic Infection: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Freire, Marcelo O.; Sedghizadeh, Parish P.; Schaudinn, Christoph; Gorur, Amita; Downey, Jennifer S.; Choi, Jeong-Ho; Chen, Weizhen; Kook, Joong-Ki; Chen, Casey; Goodman, Steven D.; Zadeh, Homayoun H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Biofilm-induced inflammatory osteolytic oral infections, such as periodontitis and peri-implantitis, have complex etiology and pathogenesis. A significant obstacle to research has been the lack of appropriate animal models where the inflammatory response to biofilms can be investigated. The aim of this study is to develop a novel animal model to study the host response to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans)–biofilm colonizing titanium implants. Methods Titanium implants were inoculated in vitro with A. actinomycetemcomitans, establishing a biofilm for 1 to 3 days. Biofilm-inoculated and control implants were transmucosally placed into rat hard palate or alveolar ridge. Analysis included documentation of clinical inflammation, polymerase chain reaction, and culture detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans and microcomputed tomography quantitation of peri-implant bone volume. Results Viable A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilm was successfully established on titanium implants in vitro, detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. An inflammatory response characterized by clinical inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, hyperplasia, and necrosis was observed around biofilm-inoculated implants. A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected by polymerase chain reaction and culture analysis on 100%of biofilm-inoculated implants for up to 3 weeks and 25%for up to 6 weeks. Microcomputed tomography analysis demonstrated significantly lower bone volume (P <0.05) around biofilm-inoculated implants (29.6% ± 7.6%) compared to non-inoculated implants (50.5% ± 9.6%) after 6 weeks. Conclusions These results describe a novel animal model where A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilm was established in vitro on titanium implants before placement in rat oral cavity, leading to an inflammatory response, osteolysis, and tissue destruction. This model may have potential use for investigation of host responses to biofilm pathogens and

  18. Postoperative Spine Infections.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Abhijit Yuvaraj; Biswas, Samar Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Postoperative spinal wound infection increases the morbidity of the patient and the cost of healthcare. Despite the development of prophylactic antibiotics and advances in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patient outcome after spinal surgery. Spinal instrumentation also has an important role in the development of postoperative infections. This review analyses the risk factors that influence the development of postoperative infection. Classification and diagnosis of postoperative spinal infection is also discussed to facilitate the choice of treatment on the basis of infection severity. Preventive measures to avoid surgical site (SS) infection in spine surgery and methods for reduction of all the changeable risk factors are discussed in brief. Management protocols to manage SS infections in spine surgery are also reviewed. PMID:26949475

  19. E. Coli Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... You can also get the infection by swallowing water in a swimming pool contaminated with human waste. Most cases of E. coli infection get better without treatment in 5 to 10 days. NIH: National Institute ...

  20. Postoperative Spine Infections

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Samar Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative spinal wound infection increases the morbidity of the patient and the cost of healthcare. Despite the development of prophylactic antibiotics and advances in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patient outcome after spinal surgery. Spinal instrumentation also has an important role in the development of postoperative infections. This review analyses the risk factors that influence the development of postoperative infection. Classification and diagnosis of postoperative spinal infection is also discussed to facilitate the choice of treatment on the basis of infection severity. Preventive measures to avoid surgical site (SS) infection in spine surgery and methods for reduction of all the changeable risk factors are discussed in brief. Management protocols to manage SS infections in spine surgery are also reviewed. PMID:26949475

  1. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the urethra is called urethritis . Some UTIs Lead to Severe Problems Most UTIs are not serious. But some UTIs, such as kidney infections, can lead to severe problems. Bacteria from a kidney infection ...

  2. Urinary tract infection - children

    MedlinePlus

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...

  3. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  4. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  5. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    MedlinePlus

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... Many different types of bacteria can cause this infection. A very severe and usually deadly form of necrotizing soft tissue infection is due to the ...

  6. Particle exposures and infections

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle exposures increase the risk for human infections. Particles can deposit in the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and distal lung and, accordingly, the respiratory tract is the system most frequently infected after such exposure; however, meningitis also occurs. Ci...

  7. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2010). Candida Infections of the Genitourinary Tract . Clinical Microbiology Reviews; 23(2): 253–273. National Institute of ... 2010). Candida Infections of the Genitourinary Tract . Clinical Microbiology Reviews; 23(2): 253–273. National Institute of ...

  8. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fungal Skin Infections Overview of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock ... are caused by yeasts (such as Candida —see Candidiasis ) or dermatophytes, such as Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton ( ...

  9. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Chole RA. Chronic otitis media, mastoiditis, and petrositis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  10. Urinary tract infection - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... to the hospital if you: Are an older adult Have kidney stones or changes in the anatomy ...

  11. Tapeworm infection - Hymenolepsis

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States. Insects eat the eggs of these worms. Humans and other animals become infected when they ... an infected person, it is possible for the worm's entire life cycle to be completed in the ...

  12. [Microbiological approach to a possible infective endocarditis case caused by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans].

    PubMed

    Gürcan, Şaban; Ünlü, Selahattin; Kuloğlu, Figen; Karadenizli, Aynur; Kuşkucu, Mert Ahmet

    2016-04-01

    Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, a small, gram-negative coccobacillus that grows slow and fastidious, is generally colonized in the oral cavity. It is a rarely seen bacterium because of the difficulty of isolation but it can be a causative agent for dental infections and infective endocarditis (IE) particularly in the persons having prosthetic heart valves. In this report, a possible IE case caused by A.actinomycetemcomitans in a patient with aortic valve replacement has been presented. A 36-year-old man has admitted to Trakya University Hospital, Health Center for Medical Research and Practice, with the complaints of chills, malaise, intermittent fever, severe arthralgia and weight loss (20 kg). During his follow-up period, the blood cultures that were obtained three week intervals yielded the identical gram-negative coccobacilli morphology. The patient was then diagnosed as possible IE on the basis of having one major (growth of the typical microorganisms that may cause IE in two different blood cultures) and two minor (presence of prosthetic valve and high fever) criterias. The isolate could not be identified with conventional methods, while it was identified as Francisella tularensis with VITEK 2 (bioMerieux, France) system. Hence this identification was not confirmed by real-time Taqman polymerase chain reaction, so MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used to identify this bacteria. In the first run of the study, the isolate was named as Shigella dysenteriae initially, however when it was retested the next day it was identified as A.actinomycetemcomitans. In order to enlighten these conflicting results, 16S and 23S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis was performed, and consequently the bacterium was identified as A.actinomycetemcomitans. Doxycycline (2 x 100 mg po, 20 days) and streptomycin (2 x 10 mg/kg im, 10 days) therapy were initiated, considering the initial suspicious identification (F.tularensis), and on the fifth day of therapy the

  13. Necrotizing soft tissue infections

    PubMed Central

    Urschel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Necrotizing soft tissue infections are a group of highly lethal infections that typically occur after trauma or surgery. Many individual infectious entities have been described, but they all have similar pathophysiologies, clinical features, and treatment approaches. The essentials of successful treatment include early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement, antibiotics, and supportive intensive treatment unit care. The two commonest pitfalls in management are failure of early diagnosis and inadequate surgical debridement. These life-threatening infections are often mistaken for cellulitis or innocent wound infections, and this is responsible for diagnostic delay. Tissue gas is not a universal finding in necrotizing soft tissue infections. This misconception also contributes to diagnostic errors. Incision and drainage is an inappropriate surgical strategy for necrotizing soft tissue infections; excisional debridement is needed. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be useful, but it is not as important as aggressive surgical therapy. Despite advances in antibiotic therapy and intensive treatment unit medicine, the mortality of necrotizing soft tissue infections is still high. This article emphasizes common treatment principles for all of these infections, and reviews some of the more important individual necrotizing soft tissue infectious entities.


Keywords: fasciitis; gas gangrene; clostridium infections; streptococcal infections; necrosis; debridement; surgical infections; soft tissue infections PMID:10621873

  14. Recurrent infective endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Lossos, I. S.; Oren, R.

    1993-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease associated with high mortality. Patients surviving recurrent bouts of infective endocarditis are reported infrequently. We report on a non-drug abuser patient who experienced seven episodes of infective endocarditis--the largest number reported to our knowledge in a single non-drug abuser patient. PMID:8290417

  15. Disseminated Balamuthia mandrillaris Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neil; Almira-Suarez, M. I.; Reese, Jennifer M.; Hoke, George M.; Mandell, James W.; Roy, Sharon L.; Visvesvara, Govinda

    2015-01-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a rare cause of human infection, but when infections do occur, they result in high rates of morbidity and mortality. A case of disseminated Balamuthia infection is presented. Early diagnosis and initiation of recommended therapy are essential for increased chances of successful outcomes. PMID:26135864

  16. Infections and intravascular devices.

    PubMed

    Elliott, T S; Faroqui, M H

    Complications associated with intravascular devices include infections mainly caused by Staphylococcus epidermis and S. aureus. The reported incidence of these infections varies. Several factors influence the propensity for catheter infections. We recommend strategies for the prevention and treatment of catheter-related sepsis. PMID:1422561

  17. Infection after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative infections are uncommon after hand surgery. Infection can delay recovery and contribute to scarring and stiffness. Measures intended to reduce the risk of infection after hand surgery include hand washing, skin preparation, sterile technique, and prophylactic antibiotics. The role of prophylactic antibiotics for small, clean, elective hand surgery procedures lasting less than 2 hours is debated.

  18. Infection after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative infections are uncommon after hand surgery. Infection can delay recovery and contribute to scarring and stiffness. Measures intended to reduce the risk of infection after hand surgery include hand washing, skin preparation, sterile technique, and prophylactic antibiotics. The role of prophylactic antibiotics for small, clean, elective hand surgery procedures lasting less than 2 hours is debated. PMID:25934209

  19. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  20. Informatics in Infection Control.

    PubMed

    Lin, Michael Y; Trick, William E

    2016-09-01

    Informatics tools are becoming integral to routine infection control activities. Informatics has the potential to improve infection control outcomes in surveillance, prevention, and connections with public health. Surveillance activities include fully or semiautomated surveillance of infections, surveillance of device use, and hospital/ward outbreak investigation. Prevention activities include awareness of multidrug-resistant organism carriage on admission, enhanced interfacility communication, identifying inappropriate infection precautions, reducing device use, and antimicrobial stewardship. Public health activities include electronic communicable disease reporting, syndromic surveillance, and regional outbreak detection. The challenge for infection control personnel is in translating the knowledge gained from electronic surveillance systems into action.

  1. Opportunistic Infections and Other Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... toxo) Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) Tuberculosis (TB) Vaginal yeast infections Treatments for HIV/AIDS Research and clinical ... fact sheet Urinary tract infections fact sheet Vaginal yeast infections fact sheet More information on opportunistic infections ...

  2. Types of Haemophilus influenzae Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... many different kinds of infections. These infections can range from mild ear infections to severe diseases, like bloodstream infections. When the bacteria invade parts of the body that are normally free from germs, like spinal fluid or blood, this ...

  3. Diabetic foot infections.

    PubMed

    Gemechu, Fassil W; Seemant, Fnu; Curley, Catherine A

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus leading to hospitalization and the most frequent cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are diagnosed clinically based on the presence of at least two classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial. The most common pathogens are aerobic gram-positive cocci, mainly Staphylococcus species. Osteomyelitis is a serious complication of diabetic foot infection that increases the likelihood of surgical intervention. Treatment is based on the extent and severity of the infection and comorbid conditions. Mild infections are treated with oral antibiotics, wound care, and pressure off-loading in the outpatient setting. Selected patients with moderate infections and all patients with severe infections should be hospitalized, given intravenous antibiotics, and evaluated for possible surgical intervention. Peripheral arterial disease is present in up to 40% of patients with diabetic foot infections, making evaluation of the vascular supply critical. All patients with diabetes should undergo a systematic foot examination at least once a year, and more frequently if risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers exist. Preventive measures include patient education on proper foot care, glycemic and blood pressure control, smoking cessation, use of prescription footwear, intensive care from a podiatrist, and evaluation for surgical interventions as indicated.

  4. Catheter-Associated Infections

    PubMed Central

    Trautner, Barbara W.; Darouiche, Rabih O.

    2010-01-01

    Intravascular catheters and urinary catheters are the 2 most commonly inserted medical devices in the United States, and they are likewise the two most common causes of nosocomially acquired bloodstream infection. Biofilm formation on the surfaces of indwelling catheters is central to the pathogenesis of infection of both types of catheters. The cornerstone to any preventive strategy of intravascular catheter infections is strict attention to infection control practices. Antimicrobial-impregnated intravascular catheters are a useful adjunction to infection control measures. Prevention of urinary catheter–associated infection is hindered by the numbers and types of organisms present in the periurethral area as well as by the typically longer duration of catheter placement. Antimicrobial agents in general have not been effective in preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection in persons with long-term, indwelling urethral catheters. Preventive strategies that avoid the use of antimicrobial agents may be necessary in this population. PMID:15111369

  5. Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Bale, James F.; Miner, Lonnie; Petheram, Susan J.

    2002-05-01

    Intrauterine infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), a betaherpesvirus, remains the most frequent congenital virus infection in many regions of the world. Although most CMV-infected newborns lack signs of CMV infection, approximately 10% have signs that can consist of low birth weight, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, skin rash, microcephaly, and chorioretinitis. Neonates with signs of CMV infection at birth have high rates of audiologic and neurodevelopmental sequelae. Although postnatal therapy with ganciclovir transiently reduces virus shedding and may lessen the audiologic consequences of CMV in some infected infants, additional strategies are needed to prevent congenital CMV disease and to improve the neurodevelopmental prognosis of infants infected with CMV in utero. Some cases of intrauterine infections can be prevented in susceptible women by avoiding contact with the urine or saliva of young children who may be shedding CMV. Vaccines against CMV remain in the experimental stages of development. Termination of pregnancy can be offered to women whose infants have evidence of intrauterine CMV infection and sonographic signs of central nervous system damage. Infants who survive symptomatic intrauterine infections have high rates of neurodevelopmental sequelae and require comprehensive evaluation and therapy through center and home-based early intervention programs. PMID:11931729

  6. [Deep neck infections].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold

    2006-01-01

    Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible. PMID:17152800

  7. [Deep neck infections].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold

    2006-01-01

    Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible.

  8. [Diagnosis of congenital infection].

    PubMed

    Sampedro Martínez, Antonio; Martínez, Luis Aliaga; Teatino, Pablo Mazuelas; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier

    2011-12-01

    In general, congenital diagnosis is based on: a) maternal serologic assays; b) microbiologic study of amniotic fluid or fetal blood sampling; and c) serology in children and microorganism detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or culture. Congenital infections due to cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, varicella, B19 erythrovirus and toxoplasmosis are usually the result of primary infection in the mother. Therefore, when IgG antibodies are detected before pregnancy, these infections are ruled out. Definitive serologic diagnosis of acute infection in pregnant women requires the demonstration of seroconversion (i.e., from seronegative to seropositive). In these cases, amniotic fluid or fetal blood sampling should be performed to determine the presence of intrauterine congenital infection. Cytomegalovirus, rubella and toxoplasmosis can be diagnosed by detection of specific IgM antibodies in fetal blood. However, PCR in amniotic fluid has replaced conventional prenatal diagnostic techniques, including fetal blood sampling, in the diagnosis of these infections. In the newborn, these infections may be confirmed by measuring IgM specific antibodies. B19 erythrovirus can be detected by PCR in amniotic fluid or fetal blood. Congenital varicella-zoster infection may be diagnosed on the basis of persistence of IgG antibodies after birth. Definitive diagnosis of herpes simplex virus infection requires viral isolation. Swabs or scraping from clinical specimens can be inoculated into susceptible cell lines for isolation. PMID:22305665

  9. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    PubMed

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection. PMID:27509655

  10. Bacterial Skin Infections.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fadi; Khan, Tariq; Pujalte, George G A

    2015-12-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections account for 0.5% of outpatient visits to primary care. Skin and soft tissue infections can usually be managed in an outpatient setting. However, there are certain circumstances as discussed in this article that require more urgent care or inpatient management. Primary care providers should be able to diagnose, manage, and provide appropriate follow-up care for these frequently seen skin infections. This article provides family physicians with a comprehensive review of the assessment and management of common bacterial skin infections. PMID:26612370

  11. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    PubMed

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  12. Bacterial Skin Infections.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fadi; Khan, Tariq; Pujalte, George G A

    2015-12-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections account for 0.5% of outpatient visits to primary care. Skin and soft tissue infections can usually be managed in an outpatient setting. However, there are certain circumstances as discussed in this article that require more urgent care or inpatient management. Primary care providers should be able to diagnose, manage, and provide appropriate follow-up care for these frequently seen skin infections. This article provides family physicians with a comprehensive review of the assessment and management of common bacterial skin infections.

  13. Particle exposures and infections.

    PubMed

    Ghio, A J

    2014-06-01

    Particle exposures increase the risk for human infections. Particles can deposit in the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and distal lung and, accordingly, the respiratory tract is the system most frequently infected after such exposure; however, meningitis also occurs. Cigarette smoking, burning of biomass, dust storms, mining, agricultural work, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), wood stoves, traffic-related emissions, gas stoves, and ambient air pollution are all particle-related exposures associated with an increased risk for respiratory infections. In addition, cigarette smoking, burning of biomass, dust storms, mining, and ETS can result in an elevated risk for tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial infections, and meningitis. One of the mechanisms for particle-related infections includes an accumulation of iron by surface functional groups of particulate matter (PM). Since elevations in metal availability are common to every particle exposure, all PM potentially contributes to these infections. Therefore, exposures to wood stove emissions, diesel exhaust, and air pollution particles are predicted to increase the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial infections, and meningitis, albeit these elevations are likely to be small and detectable only in large population studies. Since iron accumulation correlates with the presence of surface functional groups and dependent metal coordination by the PM, the risk for infection continues as long as the particle is retained. Subsequently, it is expected that the cessation of exposure will diminish, but not totally reverse, the elevated risk for infection.

  14. Preventing infections when visiting

    MedlinePlus

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 36. Infection control. In: Mills JE, ed. Nursing Procedures . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009:chap 2. Pollock M. Universal precautions. ...

  15. Corneal ulcers and infections

    MedlinePlus

    Bacterial keratitis; Fungal keratitis; Acanthamoeba keratitis; Herpes simplex keratitis ... occur in people with a suppressed immune system. Herpes simplex keratitis is a serious viral infection. It ...

  16. Preventing Giardia Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, W. Nicholas

    1993-01-01

    Outdoor recreationists are at risk for developing giardia infection from drinking contaminated stream water. Giardia is the most common human parasite found in contaminated water that causes gastrointestinal illness. Describes medical treatment and ways of preventing infection through water treatment, including heat, filtration, and chemical…

  17. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... body's drainage system for removing wastes and extra water. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice ...

  18. Repeated Infections in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause of an infection, such as being in day-care centers. Children in day-care centers give infections to each other. They drool ... winter, you could move your child out of day care, where so many other children would have colds. ...

  19. Infection prevention in NOTES.

    PubMed

    Kantsevoy, Sergey V

    2008-04-01

    Prevention of infection during natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) was identified as one of the most important challenges for translumenal surgery. Does infection prevention during NOTES warrant such attention? This article summarizes the accumulated data about septic complications during translumenal surgery.

  20. [Nosocomial urinary infections].

    PubMed

    Butreau-Lemaire, M; Botto, H

    1997-09-01

    The concept of nosocomial urinary tract infection now corresponds to a precise definition. It is generally related to bladder catheterization, constitutes the most frequent form of nosocomial infection (30 to 50% of infections), and represents the third most frequent portal of entry of bacteraemia. The organism most frequently isolated is Escherichia coli; but the flora is changing and the ecological distribution is continually modified. Despite their usually benign nature, these nosocomial infections can nevertheless influence hospital mortality; they increase the hospital stay by an average of 2.5 days and their treatment represents a large share of the antibiotic budget. Prevention of these infections is therefore essential, with particular emphasis on simple and universally accessible measures: very precise indications for vesical catheterization, use of closed circuit drainage, maximal asepsis when handling catheters, after washing the hands.

  1. [Infection by human cytomegalovirus].

    PubMed

    Sanbonmatsu Gámez, Sara; Ruiz, Mercedes Pérez; Navarro Marí, José María

    2014-02-01

    Prevalence of human cytomegalovirus infection is very high worldwide. Following primary infection, the virus remains latent, being able to cause recurrences either by reinfection with a new strain or by reactivation of the replication of the latent virus. The most severe disease is seen in congenital infection and in immunosuppressed patients, in whom the virus act as an opportunistic pathogen. Serological techniques are the methods of choice in primary infection and to determine the immune status against CMV in organ donor and receptor. Although well-standardized studies are lacking, the recent commercial availability of methods that measure cellular immune response are promising to predict the risk of CMV disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Molecular assays, that have gradually been substituting viral culture and/or antigen detection, are the most widely used methods for the diagnosis and control of CMV infection.

  2. Assessment of a novel multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of the CBPP agent Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC through experimental infection in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC is the pathogenic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), the most important disease of cattle in Africa causing significant economic losses. The re-emergence of CBPP in Europe in the 1980s and 1990s illustrates that it is still a threat also to countries that have successfully eradicated the disease in the past. Nowadays, probe-based real-time PCR techniques are among the most advanced tools for a reliable identification and a sensitive detection of many pathogens, but only few protocols have been published so far for CBPP diagnosis. Therefore we developed a novel TaqMan®-based real-time PCR assay comprising the amplification of two independent targets (MSC_0136 and MSC_1046) and an internal exogenous amplification control in a multiplex reaction and evaluated its diagnostic performance with clinical samples. Results The assays detected 49 MmmSC strains from diverse temporal and geographical origin, but did not amplify DNA from 82 isolates of 20 non-target species confirming a specificity of 100%. The detection limit was determined to be 10 fg DNA per reaction for the MSC_0136 assay and 100 fg per reaction for the MSC_1046 assay corresponding to 8 and 80 genome equivalents, respectively. The diagnostic performance of the assay was evaluated with clinical samples from 19 experimentally infected cattle and from 20 cattle without CBPP and compared to those of cultivation and a conventional PCR protocol. The two rt-PCR tests proved to be the most sensitive methods and identified all 19 infected animals. The different sample types used were not equally suitable for MmmSC detection. While 94.7% of lung samples from the infected cohort were positively tested in the MSC_0136 assay, only 81% of pulmonal lymph nodes, 31% of mediastinal lymph nodes and 25% of pleural fluid samples gave a positive result. Conclusions The developed multiplex rt-PCR assay is recommended as an efficient tool for rapid confirmation of

  3. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... faeces, which contaminate the soil in areas where sanitation is poor. Approximately 2 billion people are infected ... worms health education to prevent re-infection improved sanitation to reduce soil contamination with infective eggs. Safe ...

  4. Infections in myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Toma, Andréa; Fenaux, Pierre; Dreyfus, François; Cordonnier, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes are associated with a risk of severe infections. While neutropenia is likely to be the main predisposing factor, several other immune defects have been reported, including impaired neutrophil function, B-, T- and NK-cell defects and the possible consequences of iron overload due to red blood cell transfusions. The advanced age of most patients, their frequent comorbidities, and the fact that drugs such as hypomethylating agents and lenalidomide, which are effective in myelodysplastic syndromes but can transiently worsen neutropenia, may increase the risk of infection and their severity in this context. The majority of infections in myelodysplastic syndromes are bacterial, while the incidence of fungal infections is not well known and viral infections seem to be rare. No prophylactic measures against infections have demonstrated efficacy in myelodysplastic syndromes. However, pending more data, we propose here some recommendations for the management of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. In the future, an important contribution can be made by prospective trials testing the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to infection in these patients, especially in the context of the new drugs available for myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:22733024

  5. Hepatitis E Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Harry R.; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

  6. [CMV infection in elderly].

    PubMed

    Pytka, Dorota; Czarkowska-Pączek, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects approximately 40-90% of the world population. The infection is usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent persons. However, it may have negative impact on physiological status or accompanying diseases especially in the elderly. In particular, increasing number of data suggests that persistent infection with CMV is associated with accelerated aging of the immune system accompanying by the decrease in the number of naïve T cells, the increase in in the number of late-differentiated T cells, and reduced TCD4/ TCD8 ratio. This constellation reduces immunity against a variety of diseases, including infectious diseases, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and alters the response to vaccinations. CMV infection could also influence the pathophysiology of age-related diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, however, the mechanism of such influence is still not clear. It is not clear as well, whether CMV infection influences the all-cause and cardiovascular diseases-related mortality. In conclusion, CMV infection could intensify immunosenescence and contribute to age-related diseases, but inconsistent results of many experiments do not allow currently to define clear guidelines for the treatment of CMV infection in elderly. PMID:27526428

  7. Rarely seen infections.

    PubMed

    Amer, Mohamed; Amer, Amin

    2014-01-01

    There are many rare cutaneous infections of the face. This phrase seems irrelevant, because rare infections in certain parts of the world are common in others. This is more apparent if applied to different sites of the body (eg, face). For instance, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is common in Central and South America and uncommon in the United States. Because most medical practitioners in this country have never seen a case, it is easy for them to miss a diagnosis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, a protozoan infection transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, is typically divided into two forms: one found in the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and southern Europe, called Old World leishmaniasis, and one found in Latin and Central America, called New World leishmaniasis. Also atypical mycobacterial infection has been described in the medical literature since the mid-1950s. The development and introduction of a rapid radiometric mycobacterial detection system has advanced the field of mycobacteriology over the past 20 years. This method has allowed the distinction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from other mycobacteria and enabled the performance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of mycobacteria. The increased frequency of atypical mycobacterial infection stems from advances in the diagnostic procedures concerning the infection paired with the prevalence of mycobacterial disease in immunocompromised patients infected with HIV. Erysipelas and facial cellulitis are covered briefly in this paper.

  8. DENGUE INFECTION IN PREGNANCY.

    PubMed

    Khamim, Kriangsak; Khamim, Boonluck; Pengsaa, Krisana

    2015-01-01

    While dengue infection is still on the increase in adults in Thailand, it also affects pregnant women, especially pregnant teenagers. This study was designed to investigate dengue infection during pregnancy. Seven cases of dengue infection in pregnant women were admitted to Ban Pong Hospital, Ratchaburi, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Dengue infection presented in all pregnancy trimesters. There were two severe cases: one was dengue hemorrhagic fever in the first trimester, and the second was at a critical stage of the infection during labor. There were three cases of abortion. These three cases included one complete, one incomplete, and one threatened abortion, with rising hematocrits of 22.8%, 17.1%, and 14.7%, respectively. Two out of the three teenage pregnancies experienced complete and threatened abortions, while the third abortion case was a threatened abortion pregnancy at the critical stage of infection during intrapartum. Leukopenia was identified in six out of seven women. Low baseline hematocrit and low maximum hematocrit were laboratory findings. Clinical management involved administration of intravenous fluids and antipyretics. Favorable outcomes can be obtained through early diagnosis and supportive treatment. The morbidity profile can be more serious in teenage pregnancies. Additional studies should be conducted to establish whether low baseline hematocrit, low percentages of rising hematocrit in pregnant women with dengue infection, and abortions (with a high degree of increasing hematocrit during the critical stage of the disease) are typical clinical signs.

  9. Hepatitis E virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kamar, Nassim; Dalton, Harry R; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

  10. DENGUE INFECTION IN PREGNANCY.

    PubMed

    Khamim, Kriangsak; Khamim, Boonluck; Pengsaa, Krisana

    2015-01-01

    While dengue infection is still on the increase in adults in Thailand, it also affects pregnant women, especially pregnant teenagers. This study was designed to investigate dengue infection during pregnancy. Seven cases of dengue infection in pregnant women were admitted to Ban Pong Hospital, Ratchaburi, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Dengue infection presented in all pregnancy trimesters. There were two severe cases: one was dengue hemorrhagic fever in the first trimester, and the second was at a critical stage of the infection during labor. There were three cases of abortion. These three cases included one complete, one incomplete, and one threatened abortion, with rising hematocrits of 22.8%, 17.1%, and 14.7%, respectively. Two out of the three teenage pregnancies experienced complete and threatened abortions, while the third abortion case was a threatened abortion pregnancy at the critical stage of infection during intrapartum. Leukopenia was identified in six out of seven women. Low baseline hematocrit and low maximum hematocrit were laboratory findings. Clinical management involved administration of intravenous fluids and antipyretics. Favorable outcomes can be obtained through early diagnosis and supportive treatment. The morbidity profile can be more serious in teenage pregnancies. Additional studies should be conducted to establish whether low baseline hematocrit, low percentages of rising hematocrit in pregnant women with dengue infection, and abortions (with a high degree of increasing hematocrit during the critical stage of the disease) are typical clinical signs. PMID:26506742

  11. Multiple sclerosis and infections.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arun

    2015-01-01

    The intersection between infections and multiple sclerosis (MS) is complex and bidirectional. Numerous infectious agents have been posited to play a role in the initiation of MS, while emerging evidence suggests a potential relationship between established MS and the gut microbiome. As both systemic and CNS infections are major complications of MS, the clinical manifestations and evolving epidemiology of these infections over the lifespan of the MS patient are examined in this review. Data from animal models and human studies are discussed. PMID:26611265

  12. Prosthetic Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tande, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global health care industry. While a small minority of joint arthroplasties will become infected, appropriate recognition and management are critical to preserve or restore adequate function and prevent excess morbidity. In this review, we describe the reported risk factors for and clinical manifestations of PJI. We discuss the pathogenesis of PJI and the numerous microorganisms that can cause this devastating infection. The recently proposed consensus definitions of PJI and approaches to accurate diagnosis are reviewed in detail. An overview of the treatment and prevention of this challenging condition is provided. PMID:24696437

  13. Parasitic infections & ectoparasitic infestations.

    PubMed

    Cockerell, C J

    1995-06-01

    The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, histopathology, and differential diagnosis of parasitic infections and ectoparasitic infestations, especially scabies, in HIV-positive patients are examined. Treatment options for scabies include lindane cream or lotion or five percent permethrin cream. Precipitated sulfur in petrolatum may also be effective. Post-treatment sensitivity can be treated with corticosteroids. Various antifungal agents are used to treat demodicidosis, pneumocystosis, strongyloidiasis, amebiasis, and leishmaniasis, although different drugs may be required to treat these infections in immunocompromised hosts. Suggestions are provided to treat prurititis which accompanies these infections.

  14. Microsporidia and human infections.

    PubMed Central

    Shadduck, J A; Greeley, E

    1989-01-01

    Protozoa of the phylum Microspora are obligate intracellular pathogens that are being detected with increasing frequency in humans, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Organisms from four genera have been reported to date, and serological data suggest the occurrence of latent infections. Sources of human infections are not known, but microsporidia are widespread in lower vertebrates and invertebrates. There is no known treatment. Study of the disease in mammals suggests that infection often will be clinically silent, that intact T-cell-mediated host defenses are required for resistance, and that serious clinical disease may occur under circumstances in which extensive parasite replication can occur. Images PMID:2650860

  15. [Relationship between odontogenic infections and infective endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz-Corcuera, Marta; Bascones-Ilundain, Jaime

    2012-03-24

    Revised guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis published by national and international associations in the last years do not support the indiscriminate use of antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures. However, some of them still recommend its use in high-risk patients before dental treatments likely to cause bleeding. Given the high prevalence of bacteremia of dental origin due to tooth-brushing, mastication or other daily activities, it appears unlikely that infective endocarditis from oral microorganisms can be completely prevented. A good oral health status and satisfactory level of oral hygiene are sufficient to control the consequences of the systemic spread of oral microorganisms in healthy individuals. However, caution is still needed and prophylactic antibiotics must be administered to susceptible or medically compromised patients. This review briefly outlines the current concepts of odontogenic bacteremia and antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing dental treatment.

  16. [Neonatal herpes simplex infection].

    PubMed

    van Ham-Borawitz, Veronique E J; Stam, Edo D; Welborn, Kathleen M; Sas, Theo C J

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a familiar disease with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Isolated skin-eye-mouth infection is less familiar among professionals. In this article we present two neonates with an isolated skin lesion caused by an HSV infection. Of the neonates infected with HSV, 40-45% show isolated skin-eye-mouth disease. With correct treatment, the risk of spread to the central nervous system will decrease from 50-60% to 5-10%. Typical HSV skin lesions may present at a late stage of the disease or may be masked by a secondary bacterial infection. When a neonate presents with atypical skin lesions starting 7-12 days after the birth, immediate testing for HSV and immediate treatment are required, to decrease the risk of further progression of the disease.

  17. Viral infections during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Silasi, Michelle; Cardenas, Ingrid; Kwon, Ja-Young; Racicot, Karen; Aldo, Paula; Mor, Gil

    2015-03-01

    Viral infections during pregnancy have long been considered benign conditions with a few notable exceptions, such as herpes virus. The recent Ebola outbreak and other viral epidemics and pandemics show how pregnant women suffer worse outcomes (such as preterm labor and adverse fetal outcomes) than the general population and non-pregnant women. New knowledge about the ways the maternal-fetal interface and placenta interact with the maternal immune system may explain these findings. Once thought to be 'immunosuppressed', the pregnant woman actually undergoes an immunological transformation, where the immune system is necessary to promote and support the pregnancy and growing fetus. When this protection is breached, as in a viral infection, this security is weakened and infection with other microorganisms can then propagate and lead to outcomes, such as preterm labor. In this manuscript, we review the major viral infections relevant to pregnancy and offer potential mechanisms for the associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25582523

  18. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    PubMed

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  19. Small Intestinal Infections.

    PubMed

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections. PMID:27168147

  20. Dengue viral infections

    PubMed Central

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing this disease. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment are vital if disease related morbidity and mortality are to be limited. This review outlines aspects of the epidemiology of dengue infections, the dengue virus and its mosquito vector, clinical features and pathogenesis of dengue infections, and the management and control of these infections. PMID:15466994

  1. Infective endocarditis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be transient bacteremia, which is common during dental, upper respiratory, urologic, and lower gastrointestinal diagnostic and surgical procedures. The infection can cause growths on the heart valves, the lining of the ...

  2. Infection Prevention in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pergam, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients undergoing hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation are increasing every year, as are the number of centers both transplanting and caring for these patients. Improvements in transplant procedures, immunosuppressive regimens, and prevention of transplant-associated complications have led to marked improvements in survival in both populations. Infections remain one of the most important sources of excess morbidity and mortality in transplant, and therefore, infection prevention strategies are a critical element for avoiding these complications in centers caring for high-risk patients. This manuscript aims to provide an update of recent data on prevention of major healthcare-associated infections unique to transplantation, reviews the emergence of antimicrobial resistant infections, and discusses updated strategies to both identify and prevent transmission of these pathogens in transplant recipients.

  3. Cancer treatment: preventing infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood cells drop too low, it is called neutropenia . Often this is a short-lived side effect ... 17, 2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Neutropenia and Risk for Infection. www.cdc.gov/cancer/ ...

  4. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  5. Infection and Atherosclerosis Development

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Lee Ann; Rosenfeld, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease hallmarked by chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and lipid accumulation in the vasculature. Although lipid modification and deposition are thought to be a major source of the continuous inflammatory stimulus, a large body of evidence suggests that infectious agents may contribute to atherosclerotic processes. This could occur by either direct effects through infection of vascular cells and/or through indirect effects by induction of cytokine and acute phase reactant proteins by infection at other sites. Multiple bacterial and viral pathogens have been associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, identification of the infectious agent in human atherosclerotic tissue, and experimental studies demonstrating an acceleration of atherosclerosis following infection in animal models of atherosclerosis. This review will focus on those infectious agents for which biological plausibility has been demonstrated in animal models and on the challenges of proving a role of infection in human atherosclerotic disease. PMID:26004263

  6. Bacterial Nail Infection (Paronychia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in people who work in the health care industry. Chronic paronychia is most common in adult women and those who work in places where their hands are kept moist, such as food handlers. Signs and Symptoms Bacterial nail infection most ...

  7. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript ... this? Submit Button Information For: Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  8. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection) Note: Javascript ... this? Submit Button Information For: Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  9. Infection and Other Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stage 3 Infection and Other Complications NLN Position Papers Lymphedema Awareness Campaign Education Kits Educational Videos What ... Patients (8) LymphLink Articles (175) FAQ's (6) Position Papers (9) LSAP Perspective (9) Become a member now » ...

  10. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & ...

  11. Phlebovirus infections in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsergouli, Katerina

    2015-07-01

    Sandfly fever viruses are endemic in the Mediterranean region causing to humans asymptomatic or mild infections to severe neurological syndromes. In order to investigate the epidemiology of phlebovirus infections in Greece, samples from 499 patients with acute febrile illness (50.2% accompanied by neurological symptoms) were tested during 2010-2014 by serological and molecular methods. Phlebovirus infection was detected in 40 (8%) patients, 25 of them presenting acute neurological infection. Most cases were observed in the summer, with a peak in August. Increased number of cases was observed in 2013, and three of them were observed in Athens. Toscana virus lineage C RNA was detected in one encephalitis case, while the serological results showed that most cases were caused by phleboviruses belonging to the sandfly fever Naples virus serocomplex. This study provided the first insight into the epidemiology of phleboviral disease in Greece.

  12. VIRAL INFECTIONS DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Silasi, Michelle; Cardenas, Ingrid; Racicot, Karen; Kwon, Ja-Young; Aldo, Paula; Mor, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections during pregnancy have long been considered benign conditions with a few notable exceptions, such as herpes virus. The recent Ebola outbreak and other viral epidemics and pandemics show how pregnant women suffer worse outcomes (such as preterm labor and adverse fetal outcomes) than the general population and non-pregnant women. New knowledge about the ways the maternal-fetal interface and placenta interact with the maternal immune system may explain these findings. Once thought to be “immunosuppressed”, the pregnant woman actually undergoes an immunological transformation, where the immune system is necessary to promote and support the pregnancy and growing fetus. When this protection is breached, as in a viral infection, this security is weakened and infection with other microorganisms can then propagate and lead to outcomes, such as preterm labor. In this manuscript, we review the major viral infections relevant to pregnancy, and offer potential mechanisms for the associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25582523

  13. Microbiome in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Salas, January T.; Chang, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammation are associated with increased risks of HIV acquisition, suggesting the role of microbiome in HIV transmission. In this review, we will focus on microbiome in HIV infection at various mucosal compartments. Understanding the relationship between microbiome and HIV may offer insights into development of better strategies for HIV prevention and treatment. PMID:25439273

  14. Vaginal yeast infection

    MedlinePlus

    Medicines to treat vaginal yeast infections are available as creams, ointments, vaginal tablets or suppositories and oral tablets. Most can be bought without needing to see your provider. Treating yourself at home is probably OK if: Your ...

  15. Systemic opportunistic fungal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Vanbreuseghem, R.; Vroey, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of "opportunistic" fungal infections in compromised hosts, asthenomycoses, differ from those caused by the same fungus in otherwise normal people. Examples are given on the field of dermatophytoses, aspergillosis, candidiasis and cryptococcosis. PMID:523345

  16. Dengue viral infections.

    PubMed

    Malavige, G N; Fernando, S; Fernando, D J; Seneviratne, S L

    2004-10-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing this disease. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment are vital if disease related morbidity and mortality are to be limited. This review outlines aspects of the epidemiology of dengue infections, the dengue virus and its mosquito vector, clinical features and pathogenesis of dengue infections, and the management and control of these infections.

  17. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  18. Advances in infection control

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several initiatives took place in recent years in relation to nosocomial infection control in order to increase patient safety. Some of these initiatives will be commented in this brief review. PMID:27074240

  19. Fungal Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  20. Mycobacterium marinum infection.

    PubMed

    Cassetty, Christopher T; Sanchez, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    A 49-year-old man presented with nodules on his right hand after a history of Mycobacterium marinum infection recently treated with rifampin and clarithromycin. The patient has an aquarium with Betta fish (Siamese fighting fish). PMID:15748591

  1. E. Coli Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is E. coli? E. coli is short for Escherichia coli -- bacteria (germs) that cause severe cramps and diarrhea. E. ... and especially in people who have another illness. E. coli infection is more common during the summer months and ...

  2. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of most infections start within 3 days of contamination and usually go away without medical treatment. At ... surfaces regularly. Salmonellosis also can spread through cross-contamination, so when you're preparing meals, keep uncooked ...

  3. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... washcloths. Showering may be preferred to avoid possible contamination of bath water. Careful handling and frequent changing ... bedding can help reduce infection, reinfection, and environmental contamination with pinworm eggs. These items should be laundered ...

  4. Vaginal Yeast Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... t diagnose this condition by a person’s medical history and physical examination. They usually diagnose yeast infection by examining vaginal secretions under a microscope for evidence of yeast. Treatment Various antifungal vaginal ...

  5. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... in and drinking water from contaminated streams or lakes can lead to an infection and chronic diarrhea. ... or camping, never drink from streams, springs, or lakes unless local health authorities have certified the water ...

  6. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two- ... breath or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of ...

  7. [Update on infective endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Parize, P; Mainardi, J-L

    2011-10-01

    Infective endocarditis has continuously evolved since its first clinical description by William Osler in the late 19th century. The epidemiological and microbiological profile of the disease has changed as the result of the progress of the medical care and demographic mutation in industrialized countries. Furthermore, advances in anti-infective therapy and in cardiovascular surgery have contributed to an improvement in the management and the prognosis of this severe infectious disease. During the past decade, the recommendations on antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis have changed dramatically. Guidelines on management of infective endocarditis and state-of-the-art articles have been published recently and this work aims to outline current recommendations about this evolving disease.

  8. Treatment of chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Cierny, George; DiPasquale, Doreen

    2006-01-01

    Failure of an acute inflammatory response to resolve a wound infection heralds a cascade of events that affects the host and pathogens, culminating in a chronic, refractory condition. The factors contributing to this outcome include immune compromise of the host, antimicrobial resistance, wound-healing deficiencies, and the adherence of pathogens to themselves and wound surfaces via an impenetrable, resistant biofilm. To eradicate chronic infection, the pathogens, biofilm, surfaces available for adherence, and compromised tissue must be removed.

  9. Mycoplasma infections of plants.

    PubMed

    Bove, J M

    1981-07-01

    Plants can be infected by two types of wall-less procaryotes, spiroplasmas and mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO), both located intracellularly in the phloem tissues of affected plants. Spiroplasmas have been cultured, characterized and shown to be true members of the class Mollicutes. MLO have not yet been cultured or characterized; they are thought to be mycoplasma-like on the basis of their ultrastructure as seen in situ, their sensitivity to tetracycline and resistance to penicillin. Mycoplasmas can also be found on the surface of plants. These extracellularly located organisms are members of the following genera: Spiroplasma. Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. The presence of such surface mycoplasmas must not be overlooked when attempts to culture MLO from affected plants are undertaken. Sensitive serological techniques such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can successfully be used to compare the MLO located in the phloem of affected plants with those eventually cultured from the same plants. In California and Morocco periwinkles naturally infected with both Spiroplasma citri and MLO have been reported. With such doubly infected plants, the symptom expression has been that characteristic of the MLO disease (phyllody or stolbur), not that given by S. citri. Only S. citri can be cultured from such plants, but this does not indicate that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease expressed by the plant. In California many nonrutaceous plants have been found to be infected with S. citri. Stubborn affected citrus trees represent an important reservoir of S. citri, and Circulifer tenellus is an active leafhopper vector of S. citri. Hence, it is not surprising that in California MLO-infected fruit trees could also become infected with S. citri but it would not mean that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease. Criteria are discussed that are helpful in distinguishing between MLO infections and S. citri infections.

  10. Detection and Characterization of Infections and Infection Susceptibility

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Immune Disorders; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; Genetic Immunological Deficiencies; Hyperimmunoglobulin-E Recurrent Infection Syndrome; Recurrent Infections; Unknown Immune Deficiency; GATA2 Deficiency (MonoMAC); Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections; Hyper IgE (Job s) Syndrome; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency; Susceptibility to Disseminated Infections; Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD)

  11. Sternal mycobacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Sternal mycobacterial infections are rare. Due to the rarity, its clinical characteristics, diagnoses, and regular management strategies are still scanty. A total of 76 articles on this topic were obtained by a comprehensive literature collection. The clinical features, diagnosis, management strategies and prognosis were carefully analyzed. There were totally 159 patients including 152 (95%) cases of tuberculosis (TB) and seven (5%) cases of non-TB sternal infections. Sternal mycobacterial infections can be categorized into three types: Primary, secondary, and postoperative, according to the pathogenesis; and categorized into isolated, peristernal, and multifocal, according to the extent of the lesions. Microbiological investigation is more sensitive than medical imaging and Mantoux tuberculin skin test in the diagnosis of sternal infections. Most patients show good responses to the standard four-drug regimen and a surgical intervention was necessary in 28.3% patients. The prognoses of the patients are good with a very low mortality. A delayed diagnosis of sternal mycobacterial infections may bring about recurrent sternal infections and sustained incurability. An early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic regimens may significantly improve the patients' outcomes. PMID:27168857

  12. Deep neck space infections.

    PubMed

    Beasley, D J; Amedee, R G

    1995-05-01

    The incidence of deep neck space infections has dramatically decreased since the advent of antibiotics, but with delayed treatment they carry the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Odontogenic infections with involvement of the submandibular space are the most common source of deep neck space infections in adults, whereas in the pediatric population the most common cause is acute tonsillitis with involvement of the peritonsillar space. The newest group of patients at risk for deep neck space infections are intravenous drug abusers who inject the major vessels of the neck. Knowledge of neck spaces and fascial relationships is important in understanding the presentation, treatment, and complications of deep neck space infections. The spaces, which are created by various fasciae of the head and neck, are only potential spaces in that under normal conditions they cannot be examined clinically or radiographically. As the spaces are invaded by bacteria, a cellulitis or abscess occurs, and this infection may travel through paths of least resistance from one space to another.

  13. Stubborn vaginal yeast infections.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Fungi, which along with plants and animals comprise a distinct group in the classification of living things, break down and recycle organic matter. One sub-group with over 600 varieties consists of microscopic, single-celled yeasts. Of the genus Candida, the species Candida albicans accounts for 94% of all cases of fungal vaginitis. Yeasts thrive in human bodies as either beneficial or pathogenic agents. Even when they are an innocuous presence in a healthy human body, they are always poised to create opportunistic infections in susceptible individuals. Candida has been known to infect every organ of the body, but its ability to cause infection depends upon the presence of a sufficient amount of fungal organisms or generally reduced resistance or both. Often use of modern medical drugs such as oral contraceptives, antibiotics, or immunosuppressant drugs can trigger an infection. The symptoms of vaginal infection are vaginal itching, inflammation, and swelling; a burning sensation; and a white, cheesy discharge. Yeast infections can occur in females of all ages (although they are most common in women of child-bearing age) and prompt a large percentage of trips to the gynecologist. Recurrence is common, and each occurrence is harder to eradicate. Often frustrated women turn to alternative therapies. Successful treatment depends upon reducing the yeast population in the body, building up the beneficial bacteria population, limiting and controlling yeast triggers, and strengthening overall health. PMID:12318962

  14. Postoperative Spine Infections

    PubMed Central

    Evangelisti, Gisberto; Andreani, Lorenzo; Girardi, Federico; Darren, Lebl; Sama, Andrew; Lisanti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative spinal wound infection is a potentially devastating complication after operative spinal procedures. Despite the utilization of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in recent years and improvements in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patients’ outcome after spinal surgery. In the modern era of pending health care reform with increasing financial constraints, the financial burden of post-operative spinal infections also deserves consideration. The aim of our work is to give to the reader an updated review of the latest achievements in prevention, risk factors, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using electronic medical databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus for the years 1973-2012 to obtain access to all publications involving the incidence, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. We initially identified 119 studies; of these 60 were selected. Despite all the measures intended to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections in spine surgery, these remain a common and potentially dangerous complication. PMID:26605028

  15. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana infections.

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, M; Raoult, D

    1996-01-01

    Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) quintana is the etiological agent of trench fever, a disease extensively reported during the World Wars. Recent molecular biology approaches have allowed dramatic extension of the spectrum of Bartonella infections. B. quintana is now also recognized as an etiological agent of fever and bacteremia, endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis, and chronic lymphadenopathy. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and/or homeless people are the most vulnerable to infection. Poverty and louse infestation were the main epidemiological factors associated with B. quintana infections during wartime. Although poverty and chronic alcoholism have been associated with modern cases of trench fever and bacteremia due to B. quintana in Europe and the United States, vectors for B. quintana have not been clearly identified and B. quintana has not been isolated from modern-day lice. Microscopic bacillary angiomatosis lesions are characterized by tumor-like capillary lobules, with proliferating endothelial cells. In vitro experiments have shown that B. quintana survives within endothelial cells and stimulates cell proliferation. These observations, together with the finding that lesions may regress when antibiotic therapy is administered, strongly suggest that B. quintana itself stimulates angiogenesis. Bartonella infections are characterized by a high frequency of relapses after brief courses of antibiotic therapy. It is to be noted that in vitro, although Bartonella species are highly susceptible to antibiotics, only the aminoglycosides have proved to be bactericidal. However, the most effective antibiotic regimen for Bartonella infections remains to be established. PMID:8809460

  16. [Urinary catheter biofilm infections].

    PubMed

    Holá, V; Růzicka, F

    2008-04-01

    Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient.

  17. Neuroparasitic Infections: Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Walker, M.D.; Zunt, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Globalization has produced an increase in the number of people at risk for contracting parasitic infection. Central nervous system infection by nematodal parasites can be devastating. Early recognition and treatment of infection can significantly decrease morbidity of the parasitic infection, as well as the risk of secondary superinfection. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for five of the more common nematodal infections of the nervous system—Angiostrongylus spp., Baylisacaris procyonis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara spp.—is reviewed. Objectives On completion of this article, the reader should be able to summarize the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the common nematodal infections of the nervous system. Accreditation The Indiana University School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. Credit The Indiana University School of Medicine designates this educational activity for a maximum of 1 Category 1 credit toward the AMA Physicians Recognition Award. Each physician should claim only those credits that he/she actually spent in the educational activity. Disclosure Statements of disclosure have been obtained regarding the authors’ relevant financial relationships. The authors have nothing to disclose. PMID:16170738

  18. Hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Hwei

    2007-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide health problem and may cause acute, fulminant, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or hepatocelullar carcinoma (HCC). Infection with HBV in infancy or early childhood may lead to a high rate of persistent infection (25-90%), while the rates are lower if infection occurs during adulthood (5-10%). In most endemic areas, infection occurs mainly during early childhood and mother-to-infant transmission accounts for approximately 50% of the chronic infection cases. Hepatitis B during pregnancy does not increase maternal mortality or morbidity or the risk of fetal complications. Approximately 90% of the infants of HBsAg carrier mothers with positive hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) will become carriers if no immunoprophylaxis is given. Transplacental HBeAg may induce a specific non-responsiveness of helper T cells and HBcAg. Spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion to anti-HBe may develop with time but liver damage may occur during the process of the immune clearance of HBV and HBeAg. Mother-to-infant transmission of HBV from HBeAg negative but HBsAg positive mothers is the most important cause of acute or fulminant hepatitis B in infancy. Although antiviral agents are available to treat and avoid the complications of chronic hepatitis B, prevention of HBV infection is the best way for control. Screening for maternal HBsAg with/without HBeAg, followed by three to four doses of HBV vaccine in infancy and hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) within 24h of birth is the most effective way to prevent HBV infection. In areas with a low prevalence of HBV infection or with limited resources, omitting maternal screening but giving three doses of HBV vaccine universally in infancy can also produce good protective efficacy. The first universal HBV immunisation programme in the world was launched in Taiwan 22 years ago. HBV infection rates, chronicity rates, incidence of HCC and incidence of fulminant hepatitis in children have been effectively

  19. Epidemiology of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Baldo, V; Baldovin, T; Trivello, R; Floreani, A

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 130-170 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). According to data from WHO community and blood donor surveys, the African and Eastern Mediterranean countries report the highest prevalence rates (>10%). The rates of infection in the general population and the incidence of newly-acquired cases indicate an appreciable change in the epidemiology of the infection in recent years. Prior to the widespread screening of blood donations, infected blood and blood products represented a common source of infection. On the other hand, the high peak in HCV antibodies among the elderly in Italian epidemiological studies on the population at large reflects a cohort effect due to an epidemic of HCV infection occurring after the Second World War. According to data reported by the CDC Surveillance System, the incidence of acute hepatitis C has declined since the late 1980s. In 2005, as in previous years, the majority of such cases in North America and Northern Europe occurred among young adults and injected drug use was the most common risk factor. Other, less commonly reported modes of HCV acquisition are occupational exposure to blood, high-risk sexual activity, tattooing, body piercing and other forms of skin penetration. Finally, the overall rate of mother-to-child transmission from HCV-infected, HIV-negative mothers has been estimated at around 5% (coinfection with HIV raises this figure to 19.4%). HCV prevention relies on identifying and counseling uninfected persons at risk of contracting hepatitis C. PMID:18673187

  20. [Emerging invasive fungal infections].

    PubMed

    Alvez, F; Figueras, C; Roselló, E

    2010-07-01

    The frequency and diversity of invasive fungal infections has changed over the last 25 years. The emergence of less common, but medically important fungi has increased, and the children at risk has expanded, with the inclusion of medical conditions such as cancer, mainly haematological malignancy or stem cell transplant, immunosuppressive therapy, prolonged neutropenia, and T-cell immunodeficiency. Among mould infections, fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis (Dematiaceous fungi) have been increasingly reported in this group of patients. To successfully manage these challenging infections, it is imperative that paediatricians and sub-specialists remain aware of the optimal and timely diagnosis and therapeutic options. Unlike other common mycoses that cause human disease, there no simple antigen or serological tests available to detect these pathogens in tissue or blood. The outcome for these disseminate, and often refractory fungal infections in neutropenic patients and transplant recipients remains extremely poor, requiring early and aggressive therapy. Unfortunately there are no guidelines outlining the choices for optimal therapy in the treatment of paediatric invasive fungal infections do not exist, and on the other hand are limited paediatric data available comparing antifungal agents in children with proven, probable or suspected invasive fungal infection. The options for treatment rest mainly on some adult guidelines that comment on the treatment of these emerging and uncommon important fungi in children. Despite the sparse clinical trials available on treatment and its poor outcome, options for treatment of invasive fungal infections have increased with the advance of new antifungal agents, with improved tolerability and increased range of activity. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis are discussed in this article.

  1. Infections with flaviviridae.

    PubMed

    Neyts, J; Leyssen, P; De Clercq, E

    1999-01-01

    The family of the Flaviviridae contains 3 genera: (i) the hepaciviruses, to which belongs Hepatitis C virus (HCV), (ii) the flaviviruses and (iii) the pestiviruses. Over 140 million people, more than four times the number of HIV-positive individuals, are chronically infected with the HCV. Hepatitis G virus (HGV) has not yet been assigned to a genus. The impact of this recently discovered virus is yet to be established. Infections with flaviviruses such as Yellow Fever virus (YFV), Dengue Fever virus (DENV), Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) and Tick-borne Encephalitis virus (TBEV) are emerging world-wide. The Pestiviruses, Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus (BVDV), Classical Swine Fever virus (CSFV) and Border Disease virus (BDV) have a serious impact on life-stock. At present, only treatment with interferon, alone or combined with ribavirin, has been approved for the treatment of HCV infections. No specific antivirals are available for the treatment of infections with Hepaci-, Flavi- or Pestiviruses. Possible targets for inhibition of the replication of Flaviviridae are the binding to, and the uptake of the virus in the cell; the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) of Hepaci- and Pestiviruses; viral proteases; the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the viral helicase. The search for specific inhibitors of HCV replication is hindered by the absence of an efficient cell culture system for propagation of this virus. In addition, small laboratory animals, including mice, are not susceptible to HCV infection. Flaviviruses may cause infection in mice, but do so mainly following direct intracerebral inoculation. We have established a small animal model for flavivirus infections in SCID mice inoculated peripherally with the murine flavivirus Modoc.

  2. Frequently Asked Questions about Surgical Site Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Infections What is a Surgical Site Infection (SSI)? Can SSIs be treated? What are some of ... a Surgical Site Infection? A surgical site infection (SSI) is an infection that occurs after surgery in ...

  3. [Diagnosis of maternofetal infections].

    PubMed

    Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Bouthry, Elise

    2015-06-01

    Prevention is an essential aspect of management of infections that can be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy: The prescription and interpretation of serologic markers differ according to clinical context: screening, counts, clinical signs, or ultrasound signs. Testing for rubella IgG antibodies is recommended at the beginning of pregnancy, in the absence of written results proving either immunity or previous vaccination with two doses. Monthly serologic monitoring (IgG and IgM) is recommended for woman lacking immunity to toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of a primary infection requires the concomitant detection of IgG and IgM. Nonetheless, the presence of specific IgM is not necessarily a marker of recent infection. IgG avidity must be measured to confirm or rule out a recent primary infection when IgM is positive. The observation of stable antibody titers is often inaccurately considered to be reassuring. In fact, depending on the individuals tested and especially the technique used, antibodies may reach a plateau several days or several weeks after the onset of the infection. Clinical diagnosis of rubella is not reliable, and its rarity today means that physicians are unlikely to recognize it or consider it as a possible differential diagnosis. Nonetheless, residual circulation of the rubella virus continues in France. A chickenpox rash is diagnosed clinically. For atypical eruptions, the virus can be sought directly in the vesicular fluid. Serology is not helpful in this case. PMID:26033555

  4. Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices. PMID:16614255

  5. Infection control for norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, L.; Park, G. W.; Vega, E.; Hall, A.; Parashar, U.; Vinjé, J.; Lopman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus infections are notoriously difficult to prevent and control, owing to their low infectious dose, high shedding titre, and environmental stability. The virus can spread through multiple transmission routes, of which person-to-person and foodborne are the most important. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have helped to establish norovirus as the most common cause of sporadic gastroenteritis and the most common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis across all ages. In this article, we review the epidemiology and virology of noroviruses, and prevention and control guidelines, with a focus on the principles of disinfection and decontamination. Outbreak management relies on sound infection control principles, including hand hygiene, limiting exposure to infectious individuals, and thorough environmental decontamination. Ideally, all infection control recommendations would rely on empirical evidence, but a number of challenges, including the inability to culture noroviruses in the laboratory and the challenges of outbreak management in complex environments, has made it difficult to garner clear evidence of efficacy in certain areas of infection control. New experimental data on cultivable surrogates for human norovirus and on environmental survivability and relative resistance to commonly used disinfectants are providing new insights for further refinining disinfection practices. Finally, clinical trials are underway to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines, which may shift the current infection control principles to more targeted interventions. PMID:24813073

  6. Hospital-Associated Infections.

    PubMed

    Babady, N Esther

    2016-06-01

    Hospital-associated infection (HAI) in immunocompromised patients can result in high rates of morbidity and mortality. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are especially worrisome because of the limited choice of remaining antibiotics available when a patient becomes colonized or infected with an MDRO. It is therefore important that immunocompromised patients be cared for in an environment that limits the risk for acquiring infections. However, with healthcare being increasingly delivered in settings other than the traditional inpatient hospital wards, a bigger effort will need to be set forth to prevent or rapidly diagnose HAI. The last few years have seen a significant increase in the number of singleplex and multiplex molecular assays for the detection of many of the organisms responsible for HAI, but more is needed as infections caused by organisms like Legionella pneumophila and Aspergillus species are still diagnosed with methods that have relatively low yield and are slow to provide actionable results. Finally, the use of novel techniques for outbreak investigations will provide new information on transmission of infectious agents in healthcare settings and allow stronger, evidence-based recommendations to be developed for prevention of HAIs in the immunocompromised host. PMID:27337459

  7. Dirofilarial infections in Europe.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Claudio; Kramer, Laura H; Rivasi, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Nematodes of the genus Dirofilaria are currently considered emerging agents of parasitic zoonoses in Europe. Climatic changes and an increase in the movement of reservoirs (mostly infected dogs) have caused an increase in the geographical range of these parasites from the traditionally endemic/hyperendemic southern regions, and the risk for human infection has increased. In the last several years, forecast models have predicted that current summer temperatures are sufficient to facilitate extrinsic incubation of Dirofilaria in many areas of Europe. The global warming projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggests that warm summers suitable for Dirofilaria transmission in Europe will be the rule in the future decades, and if the actual trend of temperature increase continues, filarial infection should spread into previously infection-free areas. Dirofilaria repens is currently the filarial species that is most commonly reported as spreading from southern to northern areas. This article reviews the zoonotic aspects, effects of climate, and other global drivers on Dirofilaria infections in Europe and the possible implications on the transmission and control of these mosquito-borne nematodes.

  8. DENGUE VIRAL INFECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Gurugama, Padmalal; Garg, Pankaj; Perera, Jennifer; Wijewickrama, Ananda; Seneviratne, Suranjith L

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections. PMID:20418983

  9. Dengue viral infections.

    PubMed

    Gurugama, Padmalal; Garg, Pankaj; Perera, Jennifer; Wijewickrama, Ananda; Seneviratne, Suranjith L

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  10. Infected Dentine Revisited.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Edwina; Fejerskov, Ole; Nyvad, Bente

    2015-11-01

    Dentine becomes infected as a result of caries lesion formation on root surfaces and when lesions progress following cavitation of enamel lesions. However, this infection is unimportant because the driving force for lesion formation and progression is the overlying biofilm. This explains why root surface caries can be controlled by mechanical plaque control and fluoride, and restorations are not needed to arrest these lesions. Similarly, the infected dentine in cavitated coronal lesions does not have to be removed to arrest the lesion. If the lesion is either accessible or opened for cleaning by the patient or parent, the lesion can be arrested. Sealing of infected dentine within the tooth, either by a Hall crown in the primary dentition or by partial caries removal prior to placing a well-sealed filling, will also arrest the lesion. When restoring deep lesions in symptomless, vital teeth, vigorous excavation of infected dentine is likely to expose the pulp and make root canal treatment necessary. Thus complete excavation'is not needed and should be avoided. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Root surface caries can be arrested by cleaning and fluoride application. Restorations are not essential. Vigorous excavation of softened dentine in deep cavities of symptomless, vital teeth is contra-indicated. It is not needed and increases the risk of pulp exposure. PMID:26749788

  11. The Biophysics of Infection.

    PubMed

    Leake, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the processes involved in infection has grown enormously in the past decade due in part to emerging methods of biophysics. This new insight has been enabled through advances in interdisciplinary experimental technologies and theoretical methods at the cutting-edge interface of the life and physical sciences. For example, this has involved several state-of-the-art biophysical tools used in conjunction with molecular and cell biology approaches, which enable investigation of infection in living cells. There are also new, emerging interfacial science tools which enable significant improvements to the resolution of quantitative measurements both in space and time. These include single-molecule biophysics methods and super-resolution microscopy approaches. These new technological tools in particular have underpinned much new understanding of dynamic processes of infection at a molecular length scale. Also, there are many valuable advances made recently in theoretical approaches of biophysics which enable advances in predictive modelling to generate new understanding of infection. Here, I discuss these advances, and take stock on our knowledge of the biophysics of infection and discuss where future advances may lead.

  12. Zika virus infections.

    PubMed

    de Laval, F; Leparc-Goffart, I; Meynard, J-B; Daubigny, H; Simon, F; Briolant, S

    2016-05-01

    Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda, the Zika virus (ZIKV) remained in the shadows emerging in 2007 in Micronesia, where hundreds of dengue-like syndromes were reported. Then, in 2013-2014, it was rife in French Polynesia, where the first neurological effects were observed. More recently, its arrival in Brazil was accompanied by an unusually high number of children with microcephaly born to mothers infected with ZIKV during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be a public health emergency and now talks about a ZIKV pandemic. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about ZIKV infection, successively addressing its transmission, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention before discussing some perspectives. PMID:27412976

  13. Emerging chlamydial infections.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Venditti, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    Chlamydiae are important intracellular bacterial pathogens of vertebrates. In the last years, novel members of this group have been discovered: Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Simkania negevensis seems to be emerging respiratory human pathogens, while Waddlia chondrophila might be a new agent of bovine abortion. Various species have been showed to infect also the herpetofauna and fishes, and some novel chlamydiae are endosymbionts of arthropods. In addition, molecular studies evidenced a huge diversity of chlamydiae from both environmental and clinical samples, most of such a diversity could be formed by novel lineages of chlamydiae. Experimental studies showed that free-living amoebae may support multiplication of various chlamydiae, then could play an important role as reservoir/vector of chlamydial infections. Here we reviewed literature data concerning chlamydial infections, with a particular emphasis on the novely described chlamydial organisms.

  14. Zika virus infections.

    PubMed

    de Laval, F; Leparc-Goffart, I; Meynard, J-B; Daubigny, H; Simon, F; Briolant, S

    2016-05-01

    Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda, the Zika virus (ZIKV) remained in the shadows emerging in 2007 in Micronesia, where hundreds of dengue-like syndromes were reported. Then, in 2013-2014, it was rife in French Polynesia, where the first neurological effects were observed. More recently, its arrival in Brazil was accompanied by an unusually high number of children with microcephaly born to mothers infected with ZIKV during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be a public health emergency and now talks about a ZIKV pandemic. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about ZIKV infection, successively addressing its transmission, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention before discussing some perspectives.

  15. Infections, inflammation and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Vezzani, Annamaria; Fujinami, Robert S; White, H Steve; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Blümcke, Ingmar; Sander, Josemir W; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Epilepsy is the tendency to have unprovoked epileptic seizures. Anything causing structural or functional derangement of brain physiology may lead to seizures, and different conditions may express themselves solely by recurrent seizures and thus be labelled "epilepsy." Worldwide, epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition. The range of risk factors for the development of epilepsy varies with age and geographic location. Congenital, developmental and genetic conditions are mostly associated with the development of epilepsy in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Head trauma, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and tumours may occur at any age and may lead to the development of epilepsy. Infections of the CNS are a major risk factor for epilepsy. The reported risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of survivors of CNS infections from developed countries is between 6.8 and 8.3 %, and is much higher in resource-poor countries. In this review, the various viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infectious diseases of the CNS which result in seizures and epilepsy are discussed. The pathogenesis of epilepsy due to brain infections, as well as the role of experimental models to study mechanisms of epileptogenesis induced by infectious agents, is reviewed. The sterile (non-infectious) inflammatory response that occurs following brain insults is also discussed, as well as its overlap with inflammation due to infections, and the potential role in epileptogenesis. Furthermore, autoimmune encephalitis as a cause of seizures is reviewed. Potential strategies to prevent epilepsy resulting from brain infections and non-infectious inflammation are also considered.

  16. Emerging and Resistant Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kalil, Andre C.; Fowler, Vance G.; Ghedin, Elodie; Kolls, Jay K.; Nguyen, M. Hong

    2014-01-01

    The lungs are a major target for infection and a key battleground in the fight against the development of antimicrobial drug–resistant pathogens. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated with mortality rates of 24–50%. The optimal duration of antibiotic therapy against VAP is unknown, but prolonged courses are associated with the emergence of bacterial resistance. De-escalation strategies in which treatment is discontinued based on signs of clinical resolution, fixed durations of therapy (generally 7–8 d), or serum procalcitonin responses have been shown to decrease antibiotic consumption. Outcomes are comparable to longer treatment courses, with the possible exception of VAP due to nonfermenting, gram-negative bacilli such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of VAP and other infections. Outcomes after S. aureus infection are shaped by the interplay between environmental, bacterial, and host genetic factors. It is increasingly clear that mechanisms of pathogenesis vary in different types of S. aureus infections. Genome-scale studies of S. aureus strains, host responses, and host genetics are redefining our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying VAP. Genome-sequencing technologies are also revolutionizing our understanding of the molecular epidemiology, evolution, and transmission of influenza. Deep sequencing using next-generation technology platforms is defining the remarkable genetic diversity of influenza strains within infected hosts. Investigators have demonstrated that antiviral drug-resistant influenza may be present prior to the initiation of treatment. Moreover, drug-resistant minor variant influenza strains can be transmitted from person to person in the absence of selection pressure. Studies of lung infections and the causative pathogens will remain at the cutting edge of clinical and basic medical research. PMID:25148425

  17. [Incidence of congenital infections].

    PubMed

    Friese, K; Beichert, M; Hof, H; Weikel, W; Falke, D; Sickinger, R; Melchert, F

    1991-11-01

    The discussions on the pros and cons of obstetric screening for connatal infections have been going on for years. We, therefore, conducted a prevalence study of the most common connatal infections. HIV infection, rubella and syphilis were not subjects of this study. We analysed the relevance of these infections in 512 pregnant women and their newborn infants at the moment of delivery. Further serological tests were run three months post partum, if necessary even for a longer period. Cytomegaly IgG antibodies were found in 46% of the examined women, IgM antibodies in 1.3%. Women under the age of twenty and women of low social standing showed the highest rate of prevalence of infection with CMV. The prevalence of IgG antibodies against parvovirus B 19 was 29%. In 10 mothers, positive IgM titers were found at the time of delivery. In all these women, pregnancies had been uneventful. However, 9 mothers exhibited a significantly raised abortion rate within the last 20 months before delivery. 7 of 512 women turned out to be HBs antigen carriers, 3 women and their babies were anti-HCV positive. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis IgG antibodies was 36%, of IgM antibodies 5.3%. By further investigation (Toxo ISAGA, Toxo IgA) we were able to detect one child with connatal toxoplasmosis. We conclude, that screening for parvovirus B 19 and hepatitis C is required only, if there are contact or clinical hints that the patients might have acquired either one of these infections. But we postulate, that a routine screening programme for hepatitis B and toxoplasmosis should be carried out in all pregnant women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1663470

  18. Clostridium difficile Infection

    PubMed Central

    Heinlen, Latisha; Ballard, Jimmy D.

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea in Europe and North America and is a serious re-emerging pathogen. Recent outbreaks have led to increasing morbidity and mortality and have been associated with a new strain (BI/NAP1/027) of C. difficile that produces more toxin than historical strains. With the increasing incidence of C. difficile infection, clinicians have also seen a change in the epidemiology with increased infections in previously low-risk populations. This chapter highlights the current knowledge on C. difficile virulence, human disease, epidemic outbreaks, and optimal treatment strategies. PMID:20697257

  19. Schmallenberg virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wernike, K; Elbers, A; Beer, M

    2015-08-01

    Since Schmallenberg virus, an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, was identified near the German-Dutch border for the first time in late 2011 it has spread extremely quickly and caused a large epidemic in European livestock. The virus, which is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, infects domestic and wild ruminants. Adult animals show only mild clinical symptoms or none at all, whereas an infection during a critical period of gestation can lead to abortion, stillbirth or the birth of severely malformed offspring. The impact of the disease is usually greater in sheep than in cattle. Vaccination could be an important aspect of disease control. PMID:26601441

  20. Lymphangiosarcoma after filarial infection

    SciTech Connect

    Sordillo, E.M.; Sordillo, P.P.; Hajdu, S.I.; Good, R.A.

    1981-03-01

    A case of lymphangiosarcoma of a lower extremity is described in a patient with chronic lymphedema of that leg from a filarial infection in childhood. Histologically, the neoplasm resembled lymphangiosarcomas that arise in arms that become lymphedematous after mastectomies, but was different in that it also contained areas of calcification consistent with prior filarial infection. Calcifications were also present in muscle uninvolved by the lymphangiosarcoma of this case. The prolonged survival of this patient is unlike that of most patients with lymphangiosarcoma, which is generally shorter. Although lymphedema after filariasis is common, this is the first case of a lymphangiosarcoma arising in chronic lymphedema of filarial origin.

  1. Viral infections in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Marlier, D; Vindevogel, H

    2006-07-01

    This review provides a current update on the major viral diseases of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica), based on scientific reports and clinical experience. Paramyxovirus 1, adenovirus, rotavirus, herpesvirus 1, poxvirus and circovirus infections are described according to common clinical signs and target tissues. Since pigeons are sometimes treated as if they were poultry, the review also summarises the common viral infections of poultry for which pigeons are considered resistant. It is hoped that the review will provide a useful reference for veterinarians and others and offer advice on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the major infectious diseases of pigeons.

  2. Dipylidium caninum infection

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

    2011-01-01

    Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child. PMID:22674592

  3. Dengue viral infection.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Y K; Singh, S; Singh, T

    1998-02-01

    Dengue viral infection produces a spectrum of disease. For example, mild dengue disease is characterized by biphasic fever, myalgia, arthralgia, leukopenia, and lymphadenopathy, while dengue hemorrhagic fever is an often fatal disease characterized by hemorrhages and shock syndrome. The disease, especially in its severe form, is seen more often among children than among adults. With focus upon India, dengue's etiology, epidemiology, pathology, pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever, clinical manifestations of both the mild and severe forms of dengue viral infection, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and prognosis are discussed.

  4. Rubella infection in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    De Santis, M; Cavaliere, A F; Straface, G; Caruso, A

    2006-05-01

    Rubella is the first virus demonstrated as a teratogen. There is a high risk to develop congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the infection occurs in the first part of pregnancy, particularly in women without specific immunological protection. Specific therapies to prevent CRS are not available. Many developed countries have specific vaccination programs and maternal rubella is rare. However, in developing countries or where campaigns of rubella surveillance and preconceptional vaccination are inadequate, there are still cases of CRS registered despite primary possibilities of prevention. Maternal infection is not indicative of vertical transmission in 100% of cases, and damage does not necessarily occur in all cases of fetal infection. This is the reason why an adequate prenatal counselling is mandatory, particularly in cases of proven maternal infection. Advanced prenatal diagnostic techniques, invasive or not, should be offered to the women especially in order to distinguish the cases without fetal damage. Prevention of voluntary interruption of pregnancy for the latter or in case of maternal false IgM rubella antibody positivity or IgM "chronic carrier" patients is mandatory. World wide, the aim is to perform an adequate primary prevention through vaccination of childbearing age women without specific immunological protection. PMID:16580940

  5. Salivary gland infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... least twice a day. This may help with healing and prevent an infection from spreading. Rinse your mouth ... if you are a smoker, to speed up healing. Drink lots of water and use sugar-free lemon drops to increase the ...

  6. Biophysics of Biofilm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofilm and release of planktonic microbial cells is also important in vivo because it can result in dissemination of infection. The fundamental criterion for detachment and dissemination is that the applied stress exceeds the biofilm failure strength. The apparent contradiction for a biofilm to both persist and disseminate is resolved by recognizing that biofilm material properties are inherently heterogeneous. There are also mechanical aspects to the ways that infectious biofilms evade leukocyte phagocytosis. The possibility of alternative therapies for treating biofilm infections that work by reducing biofilm cohesion could: 1) allow prevailing hydrodynamic shear to remove biofilm, 2) increase the efficacy of designed interventions for removing biofilms, 3) enable phagocytic engulfment of softened biofilm aggregates, and 4) improve phagocyte mobility and access to biofilm. PMID:24376149

  7. Acute upper airway infections.

    PubMed

    West, J V

    2002-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections are common and important. Although rarely fatal, they are a source of significant morbidity and carry a considerable economic burden. Numerous therapies for the common cold have no effect on symptoms or outcome. Complications such as cough are not improved by over-the-counter preparations, while labelling cough alone as a symptom of asthma may result in unnecessary use of inhaled steroid treatment. Clinical presentation of sore throat does not accurately predict whether the infection is viral or bacterial, while throat culture and rapid antigen tests do not significantly change prescribing practice. Antibiotics have only a limited place in the management of recurrent sore throat due to group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection. Routine use of antibiotics in upper respiratory infection enhances parent belief in their effectiveness and increases the likelihood of future consultation in primary care for minor self-limiting illness. Respiratory viruses play a major role in the aetiology of acute otitis media (AOM); prevention includes the use of influenza or RSV vaccination, in addition to reducing other risk factors such as early exposure to respiratory viruses in day-care settings and to environmental tobacco smoke. The use of ventilation tubes (grommets) in secretory otitis media (SOM) remains controversial with conflicting data on developmental outcome and quality of life in young children. New conjugate pneumococcal vaccines appear safe in young children and prevent 6-7% of clinically diagnosed AOM.

  8. Infections and Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Christina N.; Tsimis, Michael; Burd, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Several different bodies of evidence support a link between infection and altered brain development. Maternal infections, such as influenza and human immunodeficiency virus, have been linked to the development of autism spectrum disorders, differences in cognitive test scores, and bipolar disorder; an association that has been shown in both epidemiologic and retrospective studies. Several viral, bacterial, and parasitic illnesses are associated with alterations in fetal brain structural anomalies including brain calcifications and hydrocephalus. The process of infection can activate inflammatory pathways causing the release of various proinflammatory biomarkers and histological changes consistent with an infectious intrauterine environment (chorioamnionitis) or umbilical cord (funisitis). Elevations in inflammatory cytokines are correlated with cerebral palsy, schizophrenias, and autism. Animal studies indicate that the balance of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is critical to the effect prenatal inflammation plays in neurodevelopment. Finally, chorioamnionitis is associated with cerebral palsy and other abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes. In conclusion, a plethora of evidence supports, albeit with various degrees of certainty, the theory that maternal infection and inflammation that occur during critical periods of fetal development could theoretically alter brain structure and function in a time-sensitive manner. PMID:26490164

  9. [Focal infections in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T

    2016-01-01

    This publication is focused on the mechanisms underlying the clinical course of acute focal infections concomitant with ENT pathology, factors responsible for their chronization and the development of complications. Also discussed are the methods for the early adequate conservative and surgical treatment of these conditions. Special emphasis is placed on the principles of management of chronic tonsillitis. PMID:26977559

  10. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    PubMed

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection. PMID:27486731

  11. Vascular graft infections.

    PubMed

    Hasse, Barbara; Husmann, Lars; Zinkernagel, Annelies; Weber, Rainer; Lachat, Mario; Mayer, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Vascular procedures are rarely complicated by infection, but if prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI) occurs, morbidity and mortality are high. Several patient-related, surgery-related and postoperative risk factors are reported, but they are not well validated. PVGI is due to bacterial colonisation of the wound and the underlying prosthetic graft, generally as a result of direct contamination during the operative procedure, mainly from the patient's skin or adjacent bowel. There is no consensus on diagnostic criteria or on the best management of PVGI. On the basis of reported clinical studies and our own experience, we advocate a surgical approach combining repeated radical local debridement, with graft preservation whenever possible or partial excision of the infected graft, depending on its condition, plus simultaneous negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT). In addition, antimicrobial therapy is recommended, but there is no consensus on which classes of agent are adequate for the treatment of PVGI and whether certain infections may be treated by means of NPWT alone. Since staphylococci and Gram-negative rods are likely to be isolated, empirical treatment might include a penicillinase-resistant beta-lactam or a glycopeptide, plus an aminoglycoside, the latter for Gram-negative coverage and synergistic treatment of Gram-positive cocci. Additionally, empirical treatment might include rifampicin since it penetrates well into biofilms.

  12. [Emergent viral infections].

    PubMed

    Galama, J M

    2001-03-31

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic infections such as dengue and hepatitis E, but also of hepatitis A, which is no longer endemic. Apart from import diseases new viruses have appeared (Nipah-virus and transfusion-transmitted virus). Existing viruses may suddenly cause more severe diseases, e.g. infection by enterovirus 71. The distribution area of a virus may change, e.g. in case of West Nile virus, an Egyptian encephalitis virus that appears to have established itself in the USA. Furthermore, there is no such thing as a completely new virus; it is always an existing virus that has adapted itself to another host or that was already present in humans but has only recently been discovered. A number of factors facilitate the emergence of new infectious diseases. These include intensive animal husbandry and the transport of animals. The unexpected appearance of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere was possibly due to animal transportation.

  13. Parainfluenza Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Branche, Angela R; Falsey, Ann R

    2016-08-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses of the Paramyoviridaie family. There are four serotypes which cause respiratory illnesses in children and adults. HPIVs bind and replicate in the ciliated epithelial cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract and the extent of the infection correlates with the location involved. Seasonal HPIV epidemics result in a significant burden of disease in children and account for 40% of pediatric hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) and 75% of croup cases. Parainfluenza viruses are associated with a wide spectrum of illnesses which include otitis media, pharyngitis, conjunctivitis, croup, tracheobronchitis, and pneumonia. Uncommon respiratory manifestations include apnea, bradycardia, parotitis, and respiratory distress syndrome and rarely disseminated infection. Immunity resulting from disease in childhood is incomplete and reinfection with HPIV accounts for 15% of respiratory illnesses in adults. Severe disease and fatal pneumonia may occur in elderly and immunocompromised adults. HPIV pneumonia in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is associated with 50% acute mortality and 75% mortality at 6 months. Though sensitive molecular diagnostics are available to rapidly diagnose HPIV infection, effective antiviral therapies are not available. Currently, treatment for HPIV infection is supportive with the exception of croup where the use of corticosteroids has been found to be beneficial. Several novel drugs including DAS181 appear promising in efforts to treat severe disease in immunocompromised patients, and vaccines to decrease the burden of disease in young children are in development. PMID:27486735

  14. Congenital CMV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... CMV Babies Born with CMV (Congenital CMV Infection) Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Detection and Intervention Helping Children With Congenital CMV Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  15. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    PubMed

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection.

  16. Pathogenesis of gastrointestinal infection.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Alan

    2008-06-01

    The last 30 years has seen the recognition of many intestinal pathogens, through a combination of microscopy, tissue availability and open minds. In the developing world the challenge to eradicate such infections continues, especially in infancy and early childhood. In developed communities, however, the challenge is shifting to pathogens ('super bugs') arising from our own interventions and lifestyles which will occupy many future careers.

  17. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete

  18. Salmonella Infections in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Bula-Rudas, Fernando J; Rathore, Mobeen H; Maraqa, Nizar F

    2015-08-01

    Salmonella are gram-negative bacilli within the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Animals (pets) are an important reservoir for nontyphoidal Salmonella, whereas humans are the only natural host and reservoir for Salmonella Typhi. Salmonella infections are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They account for an estimated 2.8 billion cases of diarrheal disease each year. The transmission of Salmonella is frequently associated with the consumption of contaminated water and food of animal origin, and it is facilitated by conditions of poor hygiene. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections have a worldwide distribution, whereas most typhoidal Salmonella infections in the United States are acquired abroad. In the United States, Salmonella is a common agent for food-borne–associated infections. Several outbreaks have been identified and are most commonly associated with agricultural products. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection is usually characterized by a self-limited gastroenteritis in immunocompetent hosts in industrialized countries, but it may also cause invasive disease in vulnerable individuals (eg, children less than 1 year of age, immunocompromised). Antibiotic treatment is not recommended for treatment of mild to moderate gastroenteritis by nontyphoidal Salmonella in immunocompetent adults or children more than 1 year of age. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in infants less than 3 months of age, because they are at higher risk for bacteremia and extraintestinal complications. Typhoid (enteric) fever and its potential complications have a significant impact on children, especially those who live in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of typhoid fever has become challenging because of the emergence of Salmonella Typhi strains that are resistant to classically used first-line agents: ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. The

  19. Bistability and Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Malka, Roy; Shochat, Eliezer; Rom-Kedar, Vered

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial infections occur when the natural host defenses are overwhelmed by invading bacteria. The main component of the host defense is impaired when neutrophil count or function is too low, putting the host at great risk of developing an acute infection. In people with intact immune systems, neutrophil count increases during bacterial infection. However, there are two important clinical cases in which they remain constant: a) in patients with neutropenic-associated conditions, such as those undergoing chemotherapy at the nadir (the minimum clinically observable neutrophil level); b) in ex vivo examination of the patient's neutrophil bactericidal activity. Here we study bacterial population dynamics under fixed neutrophil levels by mathematical modelling. We show that under reasonable biological assumptions, there are only two possible scenarios: 1) Bacterial behavior is monostable: it always converges to a stable equilibrium of bacterial concentration which only depends, in a gradual manner, on the neutrophil level (and not on the initial bacterial level). We call such a behavior type I dynamics. 2) The bacterial dynamics is bistable for some range of neutrophil levels. We call such a behavior type II dynamics. In the bistable case (type II), one equilibrium corresponds to a healthy state whereas the other corresponds to a fulminant bacterial infection. We demonstrate that published data of in vitro Staphylococcus epidermidis bactericidal experiments are inconsistent with both the type I dynamics and the commonly used linear model and are consistent with type II dynamics. We argue that type II dynamics is a plausible mechanism for the development of a fulminant infection. PMID:20463954

  20. The distribution of Mycobacterium bovis infection in naturally infected badgers.

    PubMed

    Corner, Leigh A L; O'Meara, D; Costello, E; Lesellier, S; Gormley, E

    2012-11-01

    Populations of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) with tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis infection) are a significant reservoir of infection for cattle in Ireland and the United Kingdom. In this study the distribution of infection, histological lesions and gross lesions was determined in a sample of 132 culled badgers from naturally-infected wild populations. Badgers were culled when an epidemiological investigation following a tuberculosis breakdown in a cattle herd implicated badgers as the probable source of infection. The definition of tuberculosis infection was based on the isolation of M. bovis from tissues or clinical samples. An accurate diagnosis of infection was achieved by culturing a wide range of lymph nodes (LN) and organ tissues (mean 32.1) and clinical samples (faeces and urine) from each badger. Infection was detected in 57/132 badgers (43.2%). Histological lesions consistent with tuberculosis were seen in 39/57 (68.4%) culture-positive and 7/75 (9.3%) culture-negative animals. Gross lesions were seen in only 30/57 (52.6%) infected badgers, leaving a high proportion (47.4%) of infected animals with latent infection (no grossly visible lesions). The most frequently infected tissues were the lungs and axillary LN, followed by the deep cervical LN, parotid LN and tracheobronchial LN. The data support the hypotheses that in badgers there are only two significant routes of infection, namely, the lower respiratory tract and bite wounds, and that badgers are very susceptible to infection but resistant to the development and progression of the disease. At all levels of disease severity, infection was found in widely dispersed anatomical locations suggesting that there is early dissemination of infection in the period preceding the development of active immunity.

  1. [Implant-associated infections - Diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Renz, N; Müller, M; Perka, C; Trampuz, A

    2016-10-01

    The diagnosis of implant-associated infections is challenging as chronic low-grade infections often only manifest as subtle clinical symptoms. Clinical evaluation, patient history, imaging, histopathological and microbiological examinations build the cornerstones of the diagnostics for implant-associated infections. New onset of pain at rest, local symptoms at the surgical site and early loosening of the prosthesis or pseudarthrosis should raise suspicion for an infection and prompt further evaluation. Percutaneous sinus tracts, purulent wound secretions and skin erosions with exposure of the implant are certain signs of implant-associated infections. Elevated C‑reactive protein levels in blood support the diagnosis of infection but are neither sufficient sensitive nor specific to confirm or exclude infection. Preoperative antibiotic therapy interferes with the diagnostic evaluation and should be avoided. In periprosthetic joint infections, joint aspiration with determination of the leukocyte count and microbiological examination is a crucial first diagnostic step. Through microbiological and histopathological examinations of intraoperative tissue samples, as well as sonication of explanted implants, the causative pathogen can be identified in most cases. In osteosynthesis-associated infections imaging plays a key role to detect non-union, infection callus, sequester, peri-implant osteolysis and extraosseous and intramedullary pathologies. In prosthetic joint infections imaging provides information about the position and stability of the prosthesis. In case of hematogenic infection seeding from a distant focus, blood cultures should be sampled, followed by a meticulous investigation of potential primary focus of infection, depending on the causative agent.

  2. Hepatitis C Virus Infection in HIV-infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Sulkowski, Mark S.

    2001-10-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a spherical enveloped RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, classified within the Hepacivirus genus. Since its discovery in 1989, HCV has been recognized as a major cause of chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis that progresses in some patients to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the United States, approximately 4 million people have been infected with HCV, and 10,000 HCV-related deaths occur each year. Due to shared routes of transmission, HCV and HIV co-infection are common, affecting approximately one third of all HIV-infected persons in the United States. In addition, HIV co-infection is associated with higher HCV RNA viral load and a more rapid progression of HCV-related liver disease, leading to an increased risk of cirrhosis. HCV infection may also impact the course and management of HIV disease, particularly by increasing the risk of antiretroviral drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus, chronic HCV infection acts as an opportunistic disease in HIV-infected persons because the incidence of infection is increased and the natural history of HCV infection is accelerated in co-infected persons. Strategies to prevent primary HCV infection and to modify the progression of HCV-related liver disease are urgently needed among HIV/HCV co-infected individuals.

  3. Hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Sulkowski, Mark S

    2007-10-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a spherical enveloped RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, classified within the Hepacivirus genus. Since its discovery in 1989, HCV has been recognized as a major cause of chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis that progresses in some patients to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the United States, approximately 4 million people have been infected with HCV, and 10,000 HCVrelated deaths occur each year. Due to shared routes of transmission, HCV and HIV co-infection are common, affecting approximately one third of all HIV-infected persons in the United States. In addition, HIV co-infection is associated with higher HCV RNA viral load and a more rapid progression of HCV-related liver disease, leading to an increased risk of cirrhosis. HCV infection may also impact the course and management of HIV disease, particularly by increasing the risk of antiretroviral drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus, chronic HCV infection acts as an opportunistic disease in HIV-infected persons because the incidence of infection is increased and the natural history of HCV infection is accelerated in co-infected persons. Strategies to prevent primary HCV infection and to modify the progression of HCV-related liver disease are urgently needed among HIV/HCV co-infected individuals.

  4. 1: Infections in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2002-03-01

    Some infections are more serious in pregnant than non-pregnant women because of the potential for vertical transmission to the fetus or infant (eg, varicella, rubella, cytomegalovirus infection, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis). Pre-pregnancy or routine antenatal screening for presence of, or susceptibility to, some of these infections and appropriate management can prevent adverse fetal or perinatal outcomes; screening should include rubella IgG, hepatitis B surface antigen, serological tests for syphilis and HIV antibody. If certain other vertically transmissible infections are suspected because of a positive antenatal test result, confirmatory tests for maternal and, if indicated, fetal infection are essential before intervention is considered (eg, cytomegalovirus infection). For some vertically transmissible infections that are not readily preventable, appropriate management of maternal infection can reduce fetal damage (eg, toxoplasmosis). PMID:11999241

  5. Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search AAAAI Breadcrumb navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Library ▸ Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies Share | Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI ...

  6. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... these infections are caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like fungus, although other species of Candida are ... in some cases. Teenaged girls who develop a yeast infection of the vagina and the surrounding area ...

  7. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2016-01-01

    A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  8. HIV/AIDS and Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are bacterial infections. Viral infections include cytomegalovirus (CMV) and hepatitis C. Fungi cause thrush (candidiasis), cryptococcal meningitis, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and histoplasmosis, and parasites ...

  9. Do dental infections really cause central nervous system infections?

    PubMed

    Lazow, Stewart K; Izzo, Steven R; Vazquez, David

    2011-11-01

    In the post-World War I antibiotic era, the prevalence of central nervous system (CNS) infections is estimated to be 1 per 100,000 population. The literature is replete with anecdotal case reports of CNS infections of apparent dental etiology. Conversely, it is widely cited that the incidence of CNS infection of dental etiology is only in the range of 1% to 2%. We seek to answer the question if dental infections really cause CNS infections. In this article, we focus on septic cavernous sinus thrombosis and brain abscess and if it is a diagnosis of exclusion or evidence-based.

  10. Retroviral infections of small animals.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Stephen P; Graham, Elizabeth

    2008-07-01

    Retroviral infections are particularly important in cats, which are commonly infected with feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus. This article describes the biology of these viruses and explores current issues regarding vaccination and diagnosis. The seeming lack of a recognized retrovirus infection in dogs is speculated on, and current and potential future therapies are discussed.

  11. Postoperative infections: prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Gaston, R Glenn; Kuremsky, Marshall A

    2010-05-01

    Postoperative infections continue to be a challenging problem. The incidence of bacterial antibiotic resistance such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is rising. There are numerous intrinsic patient factors that should be optimized before surgery to minimize the risk of surgical site infections. When postoperative infections develop, treatment must be individualized. This article outlines the principles that can help guide treatment.

  12. Postcircumcision urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Cohen, H A; Drucker, M M; Vainer, S; Ashkenasi, A; Amir, J; Frydman, M; Varsano, I

    1992-06-01

    The possible association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ritual circumcision on the eighth day of life was studied by analyzing the epidemiology of urinary tract infections during the first year of life in 169 children with UTI (56 males and 113 females) born in Israel from 1979 to 1984. Forty-eight percent of the episodes of UTI occurring in males appeared during the 12 days following circumcision, and the increased incidence during that period was highly significant. The median age of the males at the time of the UTI was 16 days, compared with seven months in females. Ritual Jewish circumcision as practiced in Israel may be a predisposing factor for UTI during the 12-day period following that procedure.

  13. Nosocomial viral respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Graman, P S; Hall, C B

    1989-12-01

    Nosocomial infections with respiratory tract viruses, particularly influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses, account for the majority of serious nosocomial viral disease. Chronically ill, immunocompromised, elderly, and very young hosts are especially vulnerable to potentially life-threatening involvement of the lower respiratory tract. Effective preventive strategies are based upon early accurate viral diagnosis and an appreciation of the epidemiology and mechanisms of transmission for each viral agent. Influenza viruses spread via airborne dispersion of small particle aerosols, resulting in explosive outbreaks; control measures emphasize immunization and chemoprophylaxis of susceptible patients and personnel, and isolation of those already infected. Transmission of respiratory syncytial virus, in contrast, seems to require closer contact, with virus passed on hands, fomites, or in large droplets inoculated into the eyes and nose at close range. Strategies for control of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus are designed to interrupt hand carriage and inoculation of virus onto mucous membranes.

  14. Varicella infection modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Katherine A.; Finley, Patrick D.; Moore, Thomas W.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Martin, Nathaniel; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Evans, Leland B.; Berger, Taylor Eugen

    2013-09-01

    Infectious diseases can spread rapidly through healthcare facilities, resulting in widespread illness among vulnerable patients. Computational models of disease spread are useful for evaluating mitigation strategies under different scenarios. This report describes two infectious disease models built for the US Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) motivated by a Varicella outbreak in a VA facility. The first model simulates disease spread within a notional contact network representing staff and patients. Several interventions, along with initial infection counts and intervention delay, were evaluated for effectiveness at preventing disease spread. The second model adds staff categories, location, scheduling, and variable contact rates to improve resolution. This model achieved more accurate infection counts and enabled a more rigorous evaluation of comparative effectiveness of interventions.

  15. Third molar infections.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Pérez, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    Pericoronitis is an infectious disease often associated with the eruption of a third molar. It can be either acute (serous and suppurative) or chronic. Pain is usually the predominant symptom in acute stages, whereas chronic forms of the disease may display very few symptoms. Both present exudate. The infection is multimicrobial, predominantly caused strictly by betalactamase-producing anaerobeic microorganisms. Treatment measures are symptomatic, antimicrobial and surgical. Antimicrobial treatment is indicated for preoperative prophylaxis when there is a high risk of postoperative infection and, during the acute stages of suppurative pericoronitis when surgery must be postponed. First-line treatment in this case consists of amoxicillin with associated clavulanic acid. Although surgical treatment of pericoronitis presenting at the third molar is indicated as a Grade C recommendation for extraction, it is the most common indication for extraction of a retained third molar, owing to the improved quality of life it can offer the patient.

  16. Fusobacterium infections in children

    PubMed Central

    Arane, Karen; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Question A 2-year-old patient in my practice with acute otitis media that has progressed to mastoiditis with a high fever returns with positive culture results for Fusobacterium. What should I do next? Answer Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic bacteria. Although Fusobacterium infections are rare, they can become severe if not treated promptly. Appropriate treatment is combination antibiotic therapy consisting of a β-lactam (penicillin, cephalosporin) and an anaerobic antimicrobial agent (metronidazole, clindamycin). At times surgical involvement is required for mastoiditis such as drainage of abscesses or insertion of a ventilation tube. Delayed treatment of an infection caused by Fusobacterium can lead to serious complications, including Lemierre syndrome. Children should be seen in a hospital for close monitoring. PMID:27737977

  17. Lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne B; Chang, Christina C; O'Grady, K; Torzillo, P J

    2009-12-01

    Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children worldwide. ALRIs are important indicators of the health disparities that persist between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children in developed countries. Bronchiolitis and pneumonia account for the majority of the ALRI burden. The epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of these diseases in Indigenous children are discussed. In comparison with non-Indigenous children in developing countries they have higher rates of disease, more complications, and their management is influenced by several unique factors including the epidemiology of disease and, in some remote regions, constraints on hospital referral and access to highly trained staff. The prevention of repeat infections and the early detection and management of chronic lung disease is critical to the long-term respiratory and overall health of these children.

  18. Cytomegalovirus Infection in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Jaythoon; O’Neill, Derek; Honari, Bahman; De Gascun, Cillian; Connell, Jeff; Keogan, Mary; Hickey, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections occur worldwide and primary infection usually occurs in early childhood and is often asymptomatic whereas primary infection in adults may result in symptomatic illness. CMV establishes a chronic latent infection with intermittent periods of reactivation. Primary infection or reactivation associate with increased mortality and morbidity in those who are immunocompromised. Transplacental transmission may result in significant birth defects or long-term sensorineural hearing loss. We performed a study to determine the CMV seroprevalence and the association between HLA Class I alleles and frequency of CMV infection in Ireland. The presence of CMV IgG, a marker of previous CMV infection, was determined for a cohort of 1849 HLA typed solid organ transplant donors between 1990 and 2013. The presence of CMV IgG was correlated with HLA type. The CMV seroprevalence in solid organ transplant donors was 33.4% (range 22–48% per annum) over the time period 1990 to 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that both age and HLA alleles were associated with CMV seropositivity. A significant and positive relationship between age and CMV seropositivity was observed (OR = 1.013, P < 0.001, CI [1.007, 1.019]). Chi-square analysis revealed that the female gender was independently associated with CMV seropositivity (P < 0.01). Seroprevalence in women of reproductive age (20–39 years) was significantly higher than men of the same age (37% vs 26%, P < 0.01). The frequencies of HLA-A1, HLA-A2, and HLA-A3 in our cohort were 40.8%, 48.8%, and 25.9%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of HLA-A1 but not HLA-A2 or HLA-A3 was independently associated with CMV seronegativity (P < 0.01). Interestingly, individuals who co-expressed HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 alleles were significantly more likely to be CMV seropositive (P < 0.02). The frequencies of HLA-B5, HLA-B7, and HLA-B8 in our cohort

  19. Human microsporidial infections.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, R; Bryan, R T; Schwartz, D A; Owen, R L

    1994-01-01

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular spore-forming protozoal parasites belonging to the phylum Microspora. Their host range is extensive, including most invertebrates and all classes of vertebrates. More than 100 microsporidial genera and almost 1,000 species have now been identified. Five genera (Enterocytozoon spp., Encephalitozoon spp., Septata spp., Pleistophora sp., and Nosema spp.) and unclassified microsporidia (referred to by the collective term Microsporidium) have been associated with human disease, which appears to manifest primarily in immunocompromised persons. The clinical manifestations of microsporidiosis are diverse and include intestinal, pulmonary, ocular, muscular, and renal disease. Among persons not infected with human immunodeficiency virus, ten cases of microsporidiosis have been documented. In human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, on the other hand, over 400 cases of microsporidiosis have been identified, the majority attributed to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, an important cause of chronic diarrhea and wasting. Diagnosis of microsporidiosis currently depends on morphological demonstration of the organisms themselves. Initial detection of microsporidia by light microscopic examination of tissue sections and of more readily obtainable specimens such as stool, duodenal aspirates, urine, sputum, nasal discharge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and conjunctival smears is now becoming routine practice. Definitive species identification is made by using the specific fluorescein-tagged antibody (immunofluorescence) technique or electron microscopy. Treatment options are limited, but symptomatic improvement of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection may be achieved with the anthelmintic-antiprotozoal drug albendazole. Preliminary observations suggest that Septata intestinalis and Encephalitozoon infections may be cured with albendazole. Progress is being made with respect to in vitro propagation of microsporidia, which is crucial for developing

  20. Endotoxin in meningococcal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Tubbs, H R

    1980-01-01

    26 children with meningococcal infections were studied to find out the relationaship between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of endotoxin, the clinical outcome, the level of antigen in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, and indices of complement activation and disseminated intravascular coagulation. No association was found between endotoxin levels and the other factors. A high cerebrospinal fluid antigen level in patients with meningitis was associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:6776899

  1. IL-17 and infections.

    PubMed

    Ling, Y; Puel, A

    2014-10-01

    IL-17 immunity has been shown to be essential for mucocutaneous protection against Candida albicans in mice and humans. However, mice with defective IL-17 immunity display broader susceptibility, as they are also prone to infections with diverse infectious agents at various sites. Humans with genetic defects affecting their IL-17 immunity usually suffer from chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC): recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nails, and mucosae with C. albicans, with or without other clinical signs. Most patients with autosomal dominant (AD) hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) due to STAT3 deficiency or AD STAT1 gain-of-function display impaired IL-17-producing T-cell development, and CMC is one of their principal clinical manifestations. Similarly, patients with autosomal recessive (AR) autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) caused by AIRE deficiency have high levels of neutralizing autoantibodies against IL-17A, IL-17F and/or IL-22 and present CMC as their only infectious disease. Finally, CMC is the main clinical phenotype observed in patients with inborn errors specifically affecting IL-17 immunity. Indeed, patients with AD IL-17F deficiency or AR IL-17RA or ACT1 deficiency display CMC and, to a lesser extent, superficial staphylococcal diseases. Candida infection was recently reported in psoriasis patients treated with anti-IL-17A antibodies. Careful monitoring for CMC is thus important during anti-IL-17 treatment. PMID:25398490

  2. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Tim N.; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection. PMID:27096872

  3. [Hantaviruses and hantavirus infections].

    PubMed

    Dekonenko, A E; Tkachenko, E A

    2004-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HVRS) has been for decades a topical problem for healthcare systems of many countries in the Eurasian continent. Viruses triggering HVRS alongside with other related viruses (but not pathogenic to man) were discovered in 70-80-ies and formed a new genus Hantavirus of the Bunyaviridae family. The study results of a severe outbreak of the respiratory disease with the mortality rate of 60% (South-West of the USA, 1933) showed that hantaviruses were also among the causative agents. Later, the disease was designated as hantavirus cardio-pulmonary syndrome. By now, it has been established that hantaviruses are wide spread with different rodents being their carriers. The discussed viruses cause, in rodents, a chronic asymptomatic infection and are transferred, later, to man by the aerogenic path through excretions of infected animals. Studies of hantaviruses have been restricted for a long time due to their high pathogenicity (protection equipment not below than the P-3 level is needed), because of a lack of a laboratory model of infected animals and because of a low growth in cell cultures. With the rapid development and application of molecular biological techniques of the recent years, substantial progress has been made in studies of hantaviruses. Different aspects of hantavirus ecology, molecular biology, morphology, pathogenesis and diagnostics are discussed in the offered survey.

  4. Infections on Cruise Ships.

    PubMed

    Kak, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    The modern cruise ship is a small city on the seas, with populations as large as 5,000 seen on large ships. The growth of the cruise ship industry has continued in the twenty-first century, and it was estimated that nearly 21.3 million passengers traveled on cruise ships in 2013, with the majority of these sailing from North America. The presence of large numbers of individuals in close proximity to each other facilitates transmission of infectious diseases, often through person-to-person spread or via contaminated food or water. An infectious agent introduced into the environment of a cruise ship has the potential to be distributed widely across the ship and to cause significant morbidity. The median cruise ship passenger is over 45 years old and often has chronic medical problems, so it is important that, to have a safe cruise ship experience, any potential for the introduction of an infecting agent as well as its transmission be minimized. The majority of cruise ship infections involve respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. This article discusses infectious outbreaks on cruise ships and suggests preventative measures for passengers who plan to travel on cruise ships. PMID:26350312

  5. Paleomicrobiology of Bartonella infections.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Drancourt, Michel; Aboudharam, Gérard; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Studying ancient infectious diseases is a challenge, as written contemporary descriptions, when available, are often imprecise and do not allow for accurate discrimination among the pathogens endemic at that time. Paleomicrobiology offers a unique access to the history of these infections by identifying precisely the causative agents. Body louse-transmitted infections are amongst the most epidemic diseases in history, especially in war and famine periods. Of these, Bartonella quintana was detected by suicide PCR in 4000-year-old human remains, thus representing the oldest evidence to date of an arthropod-transmitted infection to human beings. This species has also been detected in human specimens from the 11th to 15th, 18th and 19th centuries. In addition, Bartonella henselae, a cat- and flea-associated pathogen, was detected in cat specimens from the 13th to 18th centuries, therefore demonstrating an association of the bacterium and its reservoir for over 800 years. Therefore, pathogenic Bartonella species have been involved in several outbreaks in the past millennia and should systematically be investigated in human remains from suspected epidemics.

  6. Fungal toenail infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral treatments for fungal toenail infections in adults? What are the effects of topical treatments for fungal toenail infections in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 13 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amorolfine, butenafine, ciclopirox, fluconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine, tioconazole, and topical ketoconazole. PMID:24625577

  7. Fungal toenail infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 5% of people. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral treatments for fungal toenail infections? What are the effects of topical treatments for fungal toenail infections? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amorolfine, butenafine, ciclopirox, fluconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, mechanical debridement, terbinafine, and tioconazole. PMID:21846413

  8. Bat lyssavirus infections.

    PubMed

    McColl, K A; Tordo, N; Aguilar Setién, A A

    2000-04-01

    Bats, which represent approximately 24% of all known mammalian species, frequently act as vectors of lyssaviruses. In particular, insectivorous bats play an important role in the epidemiology of rabies and some rabies-like viruses, while the haematophagous vampire bats are the major wildlife vector for rabies in Latin America. In contrast, the role of fruit bats (flying foxes) in the epidemiology of the recently discovered Australian bat lyssavirus is only just emerging. Information on the pathogenesis of lyssaviruses in bats is scarce. However, in general, mortality in bats infected via a natural route appears to be low, and seroconversion occurs in many of those that survive. While transmission of rabies from an infected bat may be via a bite, other routes are apparently also possible. Methods for the diagnosis of bat lyssavirus infections in bats and terrestrial mammals (including humans) are similar to the classical procedures for rabies. Measures for the prevention and control of these diseases are also similar to those for rabies, although additional innovative methods have been tested, specifically to control vampire bat rabies. PMID:11189715

  9. Microscopes and ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Olcerst, R B

    1987-05-01

    Environmental microbial assays of industrial microscope eyepieces were conducted following reports of multiple intershift ocular infections. Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus was identified among the microorganisms cultured. This paper suggests that direct contact with industrial microscope eyepieces provides a potentially significant route of transmission of both bacterial and viral ocular infections. An industrial hygiene ocular health questionnaire was distributed to a first and second shift manufacturing operation to assess the incidence of ocular infections. These data were compared to the questionnaire responses of 122 control manufacturing workers who did not use microscopes. Based on self-reporting by employees, those who used microscopes were found to have statistically significant incidence of sites and conjunctivitis that was 8.3 times that of the control group. Sterilization of eyepieces by ethylene oxide, formaldehyde and isopropyl alcohol were considered, but ultimately rejected. These biocides were found respectively to damage ocular lens coatings, contribute to volatile organic emissions, or be ineffective against spore-forming bacteria. This article presents a detailed evaluation of a commercially available ultraviolet sanitization unit (manufactured by the King Bactostat Corp., 7115 Armistad Street, El Paso, TX 79912). This ultraviolet disinfection process proved to be rapid and emission free; it also yielded eyepieces free of residual chemical biocides that have the potential for ocular irritation. Field tests involving 60 eyepieces demonstrated effective disinfection by a Chi-Square statistical comparison, at values greater than 95% confidence level, as compared to unirradiated eyepieces.

  10. Infections on Cruise Ships.

    PubMed

    Kak, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    The modern cruise ship is a small city on the seas, with populations as large as 5,000 seen on large ships. The growth of the cruise ship industry has continued in the twenty-first century, and it was estimated that nearly 21.3 million passengers traveled on cruise ships in 2013, with the majority of these sailing from North America. The presence of large numbers of individuals in close proximity to each other facilitates transmission of infectious diseases, often through person-to-person spread or via contaminated food or water. An infectious agent introduced into the environment of a cruise ship has the potential to be distributed widely across the ship and to cause significant morbidity. The median cruise ship passenger is over 45 years old and often has chronic medical problems, so it is important that, to have a safe cruise ship experience, any potential for the introduction of an infecting agent as well as its transmission be minimized. The majority of cruise ship infections involve respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. This article discusses infectious outbreaks on cruise ships and suggests preventative measures for passengers who plan to travel on cruise ships.

  11. Modeling intraocular bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Astley, Roger A; Coburn, Phillip S; Parkunan, Salai Madhumathi; Callegan, Michelle C

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial endophthalmitis is an infection and inflammation of the posterior segment of the eye which can result in significant loss of visual acuity. Even with prompt antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and surgical intervention, vision and even the eye itself may be lost. For the past century, experimental animal models have been used to examine various aspects of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial endophthalmitis, to further the development of anti-inflammatory treatment strategies, and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and efficacies of antibiotics. Experimental models allow independent control of many parameters of infection and facilitate systematic examination of infection outcomes. While no single animal model perfectly reproduces the human pathology of bacterial endophthalmitis, investigators have successfully used these models to understand the infectious process and the host response, and have provided new information regarding therapeutic options for the treatment of bacterial endophthalmitis. This review highlights experimental animal models of endophthalmitis and correlates this information with the clinical setting. The goal is to identify knowledge gaps that may be addressed in future experimental and clinical studies focused on improvements in the therapeutic preservation of vision during and after this disease. PMID:27154427

  12. Infections in open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Baddour, L M; Kluge, R M

    1989-01-01

    More than 250,000 open heart surgical procedures are performed annually in the United States. The majority of these procedures are coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) and valve replacements. In this forum our authors discuss the kinds of infections that occur in patients following open heart surgery, as well as the documented risk factors and microbiology of these infections. We also asked each author to outline the criteria used to diagnose post open heart surgery infections, and to address associated consequences and complications. Finally, we were interested in each author's definition of the infection control practitioner's role in the prevention of this particular subset of nosocomial infections.

  13. Interaction of obesity and infections.

    PubMed

    Dhurandhar, N V; Bailey, D; Thomas, D

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence that certain infections may induce obesity. Obese persons may also have more severe infections and have compromised response to therapies. The objective of this study is to review the available literature identifying infections that potentially contribute to greater body mass index (BMI) and differential responses of overweight and obese persons to infections. A systematic literature review of human studies examining associations between infections and weight gain, differential susceptibility, severity, and response to prevention and treatment of infection according to BMI status (January 1980-July 2014) was conducted. Three hundred and forty-three studies were eligible for inclusion. Evidence indicated that viral infection by human adenovirus Ad36 and antibiotic eradication of Helicobacter pylori were followed by weight gain. People who were overweight or obese had higher susceptibility to developing post-surgical infections, H1N1 influenza and periodontal disease. More severe infections tended to be present in people with a larger BMI. People with a higher BMI had a reduced response to vaccinations and antimicrobial drugs. Higher doses of antibiotics were more effective in obese patients. Infections may influence BMI, and BMI status may influence response to certain infections, as well as to preventive and treatment measures. These observations have potential clinical implications. PMID:26354800

  14. Infections Following Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Arnow, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    The epidemiology of infections associated with orthotopic liver transplantation is summarized herein, and approaches to prophylaxis are outlined. Infection is a major complication following orthotopic liver transplantation, and more than half of transplant recipients develop at least one infection. The risk of infection is highest in the first month after transplantation, and the most common pathogens are bacteria and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Bacterial infections usually occur in the first month, arise in the abdomen, and are caused by aerobes. The peak incidence of CMV infection is late in the first month and early in the second month after transplantationn. CMV syndromes include fever and neutropenia, hepatitis, pneumonitis, gut ulceration, and disseminated infection. Other significant problems are Candida intraabdominal infection, Herpes simplex mucocutaneous infection or hepatitis, adenovirus hepatitis, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Prophylaxis of infection in liver transplant recipients has not been well-studied. Several different regimens of parenteral, oral absorbable, and/or oral non-absorbable antibiotics active against bacteria and yeast have been used at various centers, but no randomized controlled trials have been conducted. Selective bowel decontamination appears to be a promising approach to the prevention of bacterial and Candida infections, while oral acyclovir may be a relatively convenient and effective agent for CMV prophylaxis. PMID:1650245

  15. Bacterial infection after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Il

    2014-01-01

    Infectious complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation, despite recent advances in the transplant field. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites can cause infection before and after transplantation. Among them, bacterial infections are predominant during the first two months post-transplantation and affect patient and graft survival. They might cause surgical site infections, including deep intra-abdominal infections, bacteremia, pneumonia, catheter-related infections and urinary tract infections. The risk factors for bacterial infections differ between the periods after transplant, and between centers. Recently, the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria is great concern in liver transplant (LT) patients. The instructive data about effects of infections with extended-spectrum beta lactamase producing bacteria, carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria, and glycopeptide-resistant gram-positive bacteria were reported on a center-by-center basis. To prevent post-transplant bacterial infections, proper strategies need to be established based upon center-specific data and evidence from well-controlled studies. This article reviewed the recent epidemiological data, risk factors for each type of infections and important clinical issues in bacterial infection after LT. PMID:24876741

  16. Interaction of obesity and infections.

    PubMed

    Dhurandhar, N V; Bailey, D; Thomas, D

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence that certain infections may induce obesity. Obese persons may also have more severe infections and have compromised response to therapies. The objective of this study is to review the available literature identifying infections that potentially contribute to greater body mass index (BMI) and differential responses of overweight and obese persons to infections. A systematic literature review of human studies examining associations between infections and weight gain, differential susceptibility, severity, and response to prevention and treatment of infection according to BMI status (January 1980-July 2014) was conducted. Three hundred and forty-three studies were eligible for inclusion. Evidence indicated that viral infection by human adenovirus Ad36 and antibiotic eradication of Helicobacter pylori were followed by weight gain. People who were overweight or obese had higher susceptibility to developing post-surgical infections, H1N1 influenza and periodontal disease. More severe infections tended to be present in people with a larger BMI. People with a higher BMI had a reduced response to vaccinations and antimicrobial drugs. Higher doses of antibiotics were more effective in obese patients. Infections may influence BMI, and BMI status may influence response to certain infections, as well as to preventive and treatment measures. These observations have potential clinical implications.

  17. Intrauterine infections: a literature review.

    PubMed

    França, Cristiane Miranda; Mugayar, Leda R F

    2004-01-01

    During gestation, many microorganisms can infect the fetus, causing severe birth defects. Such organisms and the resulting clinical syndromes have been categorized as TORCH infections, a useful acronym referring to Toxoplasma gondii, other microorganisms (like syphilis), rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpesviruses. Since dental patients typically report pregnancy or previous infections as part of their health history, and TORCH infections can manifest oral symptoms, the dentist is in a position to act as an educator and screener for these infections. This article reviews TORCH agents for dentists to help the clinician in educating pregnant patients about the risks these infections pose to the fetus. The authors also note oral symptoms related to these infections. PMID:15552342

  18. Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jasper FW; Lau, Susanna KP; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick CY

    2016-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. The clinical significance of T. marneffei became evident when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic arrived in Southeast Asia in 1988. Subsequently, a decline in the incidence of T. marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients was seen in regions with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and other control measures for HIV. Since the 1990s, an increasing number of T. marneffei infections have been reported among non-HIV-infected patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Their comorbidities included primary adult-onset immunodeficiency due to anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies and secondary immunosuppressive conditions including other autoimmune diseases, solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, T-lymphocyte-depleting immunsuppressive drugs and novel anti-cancer targeted therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors. Moreover, improved immunological diagnostics identified more primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with T. marneffei infection in children. The higher case-fatality rate of T. marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected than HIV-infected patients might be related to delayed diagnosis due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Correction of the underlying immune defects and early use of antifungals are important treatment strategies. Clinicians should be familiar with the changing epidemiology and clinical management of T. marneffei infection among non-HIV-infected patients. PMID:26956447

  19. Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Infection: From an Infection Prevention Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sastry, Sangeeta; Rahman, Riaz; Yassin, Mohamed H.

    2015-01-01

    A cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) is indicated for patients with severely reduced ejection fraction or with life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Infection related to a CIED is one of the most feared complications of this life-saving device. The rate of CIED infection has been estimated to be between 2 and 25; though evidence shows that this rate continues to rise with increasing expenditure to the patient as well as healthcare systems. Multiple risk factors have been attributed to the increased rates of CIED infection and host comorbidities as well as procedure related risks. Infection prevention efforts are being developed as defined bundles in numerous hospitals around the country given the increased morbidity and mortality from CIED related infections. This paper aims at reviewing the various infection prevention measures employed at hospitals and also highlights the areas that have relatively less established evidence for efficacy. PMID:26550494

  20. [Corynebacterium ulcerans pulmonary infection].

    PubMed

    Thouvenin, Maxime; Beilouny, Bassam; Badell, Edgar; Guiso, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium ulcerans is a bacterium able to infect humans by inducing a disease close to diphtheria. We describe the case of a 83-year-old patient hospitalized as a matter of urgency in intensive care for which C. ulcerans was isolated in pure culture in its bronchial samples. Even if the isolate was not secreting toxin in vitro, it possesses the tox gene which motivated the use of specific antitoxin serum. After two months of intensive care the patient went out of the service. It is about a remarkable case of clinicobiologic collaboration.