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Sample records for actinomyces viscosus t14v

  1. A polysaccharide from Streptococcus sanguis 34 that inhibits coaggregation of S. sanguis 34 with Actinomyces viscosus T14V.

    PubMed Central

    McIntire, F C; Crosby, L K; Vatter, A E; Cisar, J O; McNeil, M R; Bush, C A; Tjoa, S S; Fennessey, P V

    1988-01-01

    Coaggregation between Actinomyces viscosus T14V and Streptococcus sanguis 34 depends on interaction of a lectin on A. viscosus T14V with a cell surface carbohydrate on S. sanguis 34. This carbohydrate was isolated, and its chemical makeup was established. The carbohydrate remained attached to S. sanguis 34 cells through extraction with Triton X-100 and treatment with pronase. It was cleaved from the cell residue by autoclaving and purified by differential centrifugation and column chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel and Sephadex G-75. The polysaccharide contained phosphate which was neither inorganic nor monoester. Treatment with NaOH-NaBH4, followed by Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase, or with 48% HF at 4 degrees C, followed by NaBH4, yielded inorganic phosphate and oligosaccharide alditols. Therefore, the polysaccharide is composed of oligosaccharide units joined together by phosphodiester bridges. The structure and stereochemistry of the main oligosaccharide alditol was established previously (F. C. McIntire, C. A. Bush, S.-S. Wu, S.-C. Li, Y.-T. Li, M. McNeil, S. Tjoa, and P. V. Fennessey, Carbohydr. Res. 166:133-143). Permethylation analysis, 1H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance studies on the whole polysaccharide revealed the position of the phosphodiester linkages. The polysaccharide is mainly a polymer of (6) GalNAc(alpha 1-3)Rha(beta 1-4)Glc(beta 1-6)Galf(beta 1-6)GalNAc(beta 1- 3)Gal(alpha 1)-OPO3. It reacted as a single antigen with antiserum to S. sanguis 34 cells and was a potent inhibitor of coaggregation between A. viscosus T14V and S. sanguis 34. Quantitative inhibition of precipitation assays with oligosaccharides, O-allyl N-acetylgalactosaminides, and simple sugars indicated that specific antibodies were directed to the GalNAc end of the hexasaccharide unit. In contrast, coaggregation was inhibited much more effectively by saccharides containing betaGalNAc. Thus, the specificity of the A. viscosus T14V lectin is strikingly different from that of

  2. Fimbria-specific antibodies in serum and saliva of mice immunized with Actinomyces viscosus T14V fimbriae.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, P C; Clark, W B

    1986-01-01

    Fimbria-specific antibody responses were compared in mice immunized with purified fimbrial adhesins in the region of the submandibular gland (i.e., local site) or at a remote site in the back. One hundred micrograms of fimbriae isolated from Actinomyces viscosus T14V was used as the vaccine. Four subcutaneous injections of the vaccine in the local site induced greater amounts of fimbria-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum and saliva than three injections. However, there was no difference in the response of fimbria-specific IgA in serum and saliva. Fimbria-specific IgG in serum and saliva were first detected 21 days after the primary immunization at both the local or remote sites. Fimbria-specific IgA in serum was first detected 28 days after the primary immunization at both the local or remote sites. However, fimbria-specific IgA in saliva occurred only in mice immunized with the fimbrial vaccine at the local site and was first detected 14 days after the primary immunization. Both serum and saliva from mice immunized 4 times with the fimbrial vaccine in the local site inhibited in vitro adsorption of strain T14V cells to hydroxyapatite beads pretreated with normal mouse saliva, whereas adsorption of strain T14V cells suspended in serum and saliva from sham-immunized animals was not inhibited. Collectively, these data suggest that mice immunized locally in the submandibular gland region with a vaccine composed of purified fimbrial adhesins provide a potential model for evaluating the efficacy of fimbria-specific antibodies in saliva to inhibit strain T14V colonization of tooth surfaces. PMID:2876962

  3. Bacteroides gingivalis-Actinomyces viscosus cohesive interactions as measured by a quantitative binding assay

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, S.; Ellen, R.P.; Grove, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    There is limited evidence, mostly indirect, to suggest that the adherence of Bacteroides gingivalis to teeth may be enhanced by the presence of gram-positive dental plaque bacteria like Actinomyces viscosus. The purpose of this study was to carry out direct quantitative assessments of the cohesion of B gingivalis and A. viscosus by using an in vitro assay modeled on the natural sequence in which these two species colonize the teeth. The assay allowed comparisons to be made of the adherence of /sup 3/H-labeled B. gingivalis 2561 and 381 to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (S-HA) and A. viscosus WVU627- or T14V-coated S-HA (actinobeads) in equilibrium and kinetics binding studies. A series of preliminary binding studies with 3H-labeled A. viscosus and parallel studies by scanning electron microscopy with unlabeled A. viscosus were conducted to establish a protocol by which actinobeads suitable for subsequent Bacteroides adherence experiments could be prepared. By scanning electron microscopy, the actinobeads had only small gaps of exposed S-HA between essentially irreversibly bound A. viscosus cells. Furthermore, B. gingivalis cells appeared to bind preferentially to the Actinomyces cells instead of the exposed S-HA. B. gingivalis binding to both S-HA and actinobeads was saturable with at least 2 X 10(9) to 3 X 10(9) cells per ml, and equilibrium with saturating concentrations was reached within 10 to 20 min. B. gingivalis always bound in greater numbers to the actinobeads than to S-HA. These findings provide direct measurements supporting the concept that cohesion with dental plaque bacteria like A. viscosus may foster the establishment of B. gingivalis on teeth by enhancing its adherence.

  4. Interaction of Inflammatory Cells and Oral Microorganisms VII. In Vitro Polymorphonuclear Responses to Viable Bacteria and to Subcellular Components of Avirulent and Virulent Strains of Actinomyces viscosus

    PubMed Central

    Taichman, Norton S.; Hammond, Benjamin F.; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Baehni, Pierre C.; McArthur, William P.

    1978-01-01

    Both virulent (V) and avirulent (AV) strains of Actinomyces viscosus T14 are capable of colonizing the oral cavity of gnotobiotic rats, but only T14-V causes destructive periodontal disease. The basis for this difference in in vivo pathogenicity has not been adequately defined. In the present study we compared the capacities of T14-AV and T14-V to provoke in vitro extracellular release of lysosomal constituents from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In serum-free cultures, viable T14-V but not T14-AV stimulated discharge of PMN lysosomes. The release response was correlated with PMN phagocytic activity; thus, PMNs readily ingested T14-V but not T14-AV. To explain these differences in PMN-bacteria interactions, subcellular fractions of T14-AV or T14-V were incubated with PMNs. A crude, insoluble sonic extract derived from T14-V caused PMN lysosome release, but a similar fraction from T14-AV was inactive. However, following extensive washing and treatment with deoxyribonuclease or sodium dodecyl sulfate, cell wall fractions of T14-AV stimulated lysosome release. These procedures apparently removed an extracellular polysaccharide slime which is synthesized by T14-AV but not by T14-V. There was a significant reduction in the capacities of viable T14-V or cell wall fractions of T14-V or T14-AV to provoke PMN lysosome release when these agents were preincubated with a slime material isolated from T14-AV. This inhibitory influence of slime was overcome by the addition of fresh or heated (56°C, 30 min) serum to the PMN-bacteria cultures. The data suggest a relationship between the abilities of the avirulent and virulent strains of A. viscosus T14 to act as periodontal pathogens in vivo and to serve as stimuli for PMN lysosome release in vitro. Images PMID:689737

  5. Streptococcus gordonii DL1 adhesin SspB V-region mediates coaggregation via receptor polysaccharide of Actinomyces oris T14V.

    PubMed

    Back, C R; Douglas, S K; Emerson, J E; Nobbs, A H; Jenkinson, H F

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB proteins, members of the antigen I/II (AgI/II) family of Streptococcus adhesins, mediate adherence to cysteine-rich scavenger glycoprotein gp340 and cells of other oral microbial species. In this article we investigated further the mechanism of coaggregation between S. gordonii DL1 and Actinomyces oris T14V. Previous mutational analysis of S. gordonii suggested that SspB was necessary for coaggregation with A. oris T14V. We have confirmed this by showing that Lactococcus lactis surrogate host cells expressing SspB coaggregated with A. oris T14V and PK606 cells, while L. lactis cells expressing SspA did not. Coaggregation occurred independently of expression of A. oris type 1 (FimP) or type 2 (FimA) fimbriae. Polysaccharide was prepared from cells of A. oris T14V and found to contain 1,4-, 4,6- and 3,4-linked glucose, 1,4-linked mannose, and 2,4-linked galactose residues. When immobilized onto plastic wells this polysaccharide supported binding of L. lactis expressing SspB, but not binding of L. lactis expressing other AgI/II family proteins. Purified recombinant NAVP region of SspB, comprising amino acid (aa) residues 41-847, bound A. oris polysaccharide but the C-domain (932-1470 aa residues) did not. A site-directed deletion of 29 aa residues (Δ691-718) close to the predicted binding cleft within the SspB V-region ablated binding of the NAVP region to polysaccharide. These results infer that the V-region head of SspB recognizes an actinomyces polysaccharide ligand, so further characterizing a lectin-like coaggregation mechanism occurring between two important primary colonizers.

  6. Adhesion of Actinomyces viscosus to Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis-coated hexadecane droplets.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, M; Buivids, I A; Ellen, R P

    1991-01-01

    Interbacterial adhesion (coadhesion) is considered a major determinant of dental plaque ecology. In this report, we studied several aspects of the adhesion of Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis to hexadecane in order to use the liquid hydrocarbon as a convenient substratum for coadhesion assays. Washed suspensions of hydrophobic P. gingivalis 2561 cells were vortexed with hexadecane to yield highly stable cell-coated droplets. Kinetics of coadhesion between Actinomyces viscosus cells and P. gingivalis-coated hexadecane droplets (PCHD) was subsequently studied. Aliquots of PCHD were added to A. viscosus suspensions, and the mixtures were gently rotated. Avid adhesion of A. viscosus cells to the immobilized P. gingivalis layer could be readily measured by the decrease in turbidity in the aqueous phase, following phase separation. Despite the ability of A. viscosus cells to adsorb to hexadecane following vigorous mixing, gentle mixing did not appreciably promote adhesion to bare hexadecane. Moreover, extensive microscopic examinations revealed that A. viscosus cells adhered exclusively to the bound P. gingivalis cells rather than to exposed areas of hexadecane. Coadhesion of A. viscosus to the PCHD appeared to follow first-order kinetics, attaining 80% levels within 30 min. Electron micrographs revealed A. viscosus cells adhering to the P. gingivalis cell layer adsorbed at the hexadecane-water interface. Interestingly, P. gingivalis cells did not appear to penetrate the hexadecane. A viscosus mutants lacking type 1 or type 2 fimbriae or both were still able to bind to the PCHD. No obvious correlation was observed between relative hydrophobicity of A. viscosus strains and their binding to PCHD. However, defatted bovine serum albumin, an inhibitor of hydrophobic interactions, was the most potent inhibitor among those tested. The data suggest that this approach provides a simple, quantitative technique for studying kinetics of bacterial coadhesion which is amenable

  7. Evidence that Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis fimbriae function in adhesion to Actinomyces viscosus.

    PubMed Central

    Goulbourne, P A; Ellen, R P

    1991-01-01

    Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis adheres to gram-positive bacteria, such as Actinomyces viscosus, when colonizing the tooth surface. However, little is known of the adhesins responsible for this interaction. A series of experiments were performed to determine whether P. gingivalis fimbriae function in its coadhesion with A. viscosus. Fimbriae typical of P. gingivalis were isolated from strain 2561 (ATCC 33277) by the method of Yoshimura et al. (F. Yoshimura, K. Takahashi, Y. Nodasaka, and T. Suzuki, J. Bacteriol. 160:949-957, 1984) in fractions enriched with a 40-kDa subunit, the fimbrillin monomer, P. gingivalis-A. viscosus coaggregation was inhibited by purified rabbit antifimbrial immunoglobulin G (IgG) at dilutions eightfold higher than those of preimmune IgG, providing indirect evidence implicating P. gingivalis fimbriae in coadhesion. Three types of direct binding assays further supported this observation. (i) Mixtures of isolated P. gingivalis fimbriae and A. viscosus WVU627 cells were incubated for 1 h, washed vigorously with phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2), and subjected to electrophoresis. Transblots onto nitrocellulose were probed with antifimbrial antiserum. Fimbrillin labeled positively on these blots. No reaction occurred with the control protein, porcine serum albumin, when blots were exposed to anti-porcine serum albumin, (ii) A. viscosus cells incubated with P. gingivalis fimbriae were agglutinated only after the addition of antifimbrial antibodies. (iii) Binding curves generated from an enzyme immunoassay demonstrated concentration-dependent binding of P. gingivalis fimbriae to A. viscosus cells. From these lines of evidence, P. gingivalis fimbriae appear to be capable of binding to A. viscosus and mediating the coadhesion of these species. Images PMID:1679428

  8. Characterization of the binding of Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) to glycosphingolipids, using a solid-phase overlay approach

    SciTech Connect

    Stroemberg, N.K.; Karlsson, K.A. )

    1990-07-05

    Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) were radiolabeled externally (125I) or metabolically (35S) and analyzed for their ability to bind glycosphingolipids separated on thin layer chromatograms or coated in microtiter wells. Two binding properties were found and characterized in detail. (i) Both bacteria showed binding to lactosylceramide (LacCer) in a fashion similar to bacteria characterized earlier. The activity of free LacCer was dependent on the ceramide structure; species with 2-hydroxy fatty acid and/or a trihydroxy base were positive, while species with nonhydroxy fatty acid and a dihydroxy base were negative binders. Several glycolipids with internal lactose were active but only gangliotriaosylceramide and gangliotetraosylceramide were as active as free LacCer. The binding to these three species was half-maximal at about 200 ng of glycolipid and was not blocked by preincubation of bacteria with free lactose or lactose-bovine serum albumin. (ii) A. naeslundii, unlike A. viscosus, showed a superimposed binding concluded to be to terminal or internal GalNAc beta and equivalent to a lactose-inhibitable specificity previously analyzed by other workers. Terminal Gal beta was not recognized in several glycolipids, although free Gal and lactose were active as soluble inhibitors. The binding was half-maximal at about 10 ng of glycolipid. A glycolipid mixture prepared from a scraping of human buccal epithelium contained an active glycolipid with sites for both binding specificities.

  9. Relative adherence of Bacteroides species and strains to Actinomyces viscosus on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Ellen, R.P. )

    1989-09-01

    The study was designed to compare the adherence of several Bacteroides species to A. viscosus. Using 3H, we labeled 24 laboratory strains, including 13 Bacteroides species and 11 fresh clinical isolates of three Bacteroides species. Their adherence to A. viscosus bound to a saliva-coated mineral surface was quantified by liquid scintillation. Adherence relative to a standard strain, B. gingivalis 2561, was compared. Among the lab bacteroides, those of B. gingivalis (eight strains) were the greatest binders (mean, 80.5 {plus minus} 12.4%). Strains of other lab bacteroides bound less well (mean, 33.4 {plus minus} 6.3%). The difference in means was statistically significant (p less than 0.01). The mean for B. gingivalis strains was also significantly greater than that for strains of B. intermedius (51.7 {plus minus} 6.2%). Attachment of B. gingivalis was saturable in experiments in which either input concentration or time was the independent variable, indicating that B. gingivalis cells do not accumulate in this vitro simulation of plaque formation by binding to each other. Subculture did not seem to affect the degree of binding.

  10. Sequence homology between the subunits of two immunologically and functionally distinct types of fimbriae of Actinomyces spp.

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, M K; Cisar, J O

    1990-01-01

    Nucleotide sequencing of the type 1 fimbrial subunit gene of Actinomyces viscosus T14V revealed a consensus ribosome-binding site followed by an open reading frame of 1,599 nucleotides. The encoded protein of 533 amino acids (Mr = 56,899) was predominantly hydrophilic except for an amino-terminal signal peptide and a carboxy-terminal region identified as a potential membrane-spanning segment. Edman degradation of the cloned protein expressed in Escherichia coli and the type 1 fimbriae of A. viscosus T14V showed that both began with alanine at position 31 of the deduced amino acid sequence. The amino acid compositions of the cloned protein and fimbriae also were comparable and in close agreement with the composition of the deduced protein. The amino acid sequence of the A. viscosus T14V type 1 fimbrial subunit showed no significant global homology with various other proteins, including the pilins of gram-negative bacteria. However, 34% amino acid sequence identity was noted between the type 1 fimbrial subunit of strain T14V and the type 2 fimbrial subunit of Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 (M. K. Yeung and J. O. Cisar, J. Bacteriol. 170:3803-3809, 1988). This homology included several different conserved sequences of up to eight identical amino acids that were distributed in both the amino- and carboxy-terminal thirds of each Actinomyces fimbrial subunit. These findings indicate that the different types of fimbriae on these gram-positive bacteria share a common ancestry. PMID:1970561

  11. Common antigens of streptococcal and non-streptococcal oral bacteria: immunochemical studies of extracellular and cell-wall-associated antigens from Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Actinomyces viscosus.

    PubMed Central

    Schöller, M; Klein, J P; Frank, R M

    1981-01-01

    Soluble extracellular antigens (ESA) were prepared from the culture supernatant of exponential growing cells of Streptococcus sanguis OMZ 9 by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatography on a Bio-Gel P6 column. Soluble cell wall antigens (WEA) were obtained from the bacterial pellet by extraction with 1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6). Antisera against whole cells of S. sanguis and S. mutans of different serotypes, 10% trichloroacetic extracts of bacterial cell walls, dextran, ESA, and WEA were prepared by injecting the different antigens several times in rabbits. ESA and WEA were prepared from a representative strain of Bratthall's seven serological groups, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Actinomyces viscosus. All sera showed various agglutinin titers against heat-killed cells, and titers were generally higher with homologous cells. The comparison of the different antigens using agar gel diffusion and immunoelectrophoresis showed the presence of extracellular common antigens in both ESA and WEA between the different strains. Absorption of anti-ESA sera with WEA, and anti-WEA sera with ESA, showed the existence of a specific antigen common to all bacteria in each fraction. Enzymatic treatment of the antigen before immunodiffusion demonstrated the protein nature of the two antigens present in ESA and WEA. Images PMID:6783541

  12. Emended description of Actinomyces naeslundii and descriptions of Actinomyces oris sp. nov. and Actinomyces johnsonii sp. nov., previously identified as Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1, 2 and WVA 963.

    PubMed

    Henssge, Uta; Do, Thuy; Radford, David R; Gilbert, Steven C; Clark, Douglas; Beighton, David

    2009-03-01

    Actinomyces naeslundii is an important early colonizer in the oral biofilm and consists of three genospecies (1, 2 and WVA 963) which cannot be readily differentiated using conventional phenotypic testing or on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We have investigated a representative collection of type and reference strains and clinical and oral isolates (n=115) and determined the partial gene sequences of six housekeeping genes (atpA, rpoB, pgi, metG, gltA and gyrA). These sequences identified the three genospecies and differentiated them from Actinomyces viscosus isolated from rodents. The partial sequences of atpA and metG gave best separation of the three genospecies. A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 formed two distinct clusters, well separated from both genospecies WVA 963 and A. viscosus. Analysis of the same genes in other oral Actinomyces species (Actinomyces gerencseriae, A. israelii, A. meyeri, A. odontolyticus and A. georgiae) indicated that, when sequence data were obtained, these species each exhibited <90 % similarity with the A. naeslundii genospecies. Based on these data, we propose the name Actinomyces oris sp. nov. (type strain ATCC 27044(T) =CCUG 34288(T)) for A. naeslundii genospecies 2 and Actinomyces johnsonii sp. nov. (type strain ATCC 49338(T) =CCUG 34287(T)) for A. naeslundii genospecies WVA 963. A. naeslundii genospecies 1 should remain as A. naeslundii sensu stricto, with the type strain ATCC 12104(T) =NCTC 10301(T) =CCUG 2238(T).

  13. Characterization of Actinomyces species isolated from failed dental implant fixtures.

    PubMed

    Sarkonen, Nanna; Könönen, Eija; Eerola, Erkki; Könönen, Mauno; Jousimies-Somer, Hannele; Laine, Pekka

    2005-08-01

    In the oral cavity, Actinomyces form a fundamental component of the indigenous microflora, being among initial colonizers in polymicrobial biofilms. However, some differences may exist between different species in terms of their attachment not only to teeth but also to biomaterials. In this study we investigated the distribution of Actinomyces in 33 dental implant fixtures explanted from 17 patients. The identification was based on comprehensive biochemical testing and gas-liquid chromatography and when needed, 16S rRNA sequencing. Actinomyces was the most prevalent bacterial genus in these failed implants, colonizing 31/33 (94%) of the fixtures. Proportions of Actinomyces growth of the total bacterial growth in the Actinomyces-positive fixtures varied from 0.01% up to 75%. A. odontolyticus was the most common Actinomyces finding, present in 26/31 (84%) Actinomyces-positive fixtures. Actinomyces naeslundii and A. viscosus were both detected in 10/31 (32%) and A. israelii in 7/31 (23%) fixtures. Other Actinomyces species, including A. georgiae, A. gerencseriae and A. graevenitzii, were detected less frequently. Our results suggest that Actinomyces species are frequent colonizers on failed implant surfaces, where A. odontolyticus was the far most prominent Actinomyces species.

  14. Characterization of fimbriae of Actinomyces naeslundii N16 using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    Two populations of fimbriae, which differ both in antigenicity and biological activity, have been identified on Actinomyces viscosus T14V cells. Although A. naeslundii serotype 1 isolates possess only one of these fimbrial populations (type 2 fimbriae), there was functional evidence to suggest that A. naeslundii serotype 3 strain N16 had both types of fimbriae. The purpose of this study was to characterize the fimbriae of A. naeslundii N16 immunologically by using both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to N16 were produced; all three bound to N16 fimbriae as determined by immunoelectron microscopy. In a solid-phase radioimmunoassay MAb 3B5.A1 reacted with 100% of the A. naeslundii serotype 3 isolates tested, but it did not react with any heterologous isolates. Type 1 and type 2 fimbriae were detected in Lancefield extracts of N16 cells by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (XIEP) using rabbit antiserum against N16 whole cells. When {sup 125}I-MAb 3B5.A1 was also incorporated into the gel, autoradiography indicated that MAb 3B5.A1 was specific for type 2 fimbriae. The N16 type 2 fimbriae were purified by gel filtration and immunoaffinity chromatography on a MAb 3B5.A1 column. Fimbriae-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were used in various immunological assays to determine that (a) N16 type 1 fimbriae are not related antigenically to type 2 fimbriae, (b) each type of fimbriae has epitopes that are present on the corresponding fimbriae of certain heterologous strains, and (c) MAb 3B5.A1 recognizes a serotype-specific epitope residing on the type 2 fimbriae of A. naeslundii serotype 3 strains.

  15. In vitro activity of amoxicillin, clindamycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, and moxifloxacin against oral Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    LeCorn, Demetrick W; Vertucci, Frank J; Rojas, Maria F; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Bélanger, Myriam

    2007-05-01

    Actinomyces spp have been increasingly associated with endodontic infections. However, the antimicrobial susceptibility of this genus has not been studied extensively. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of oral isolates of Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces gerencseriae, Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces viscosus, and Actinomyces odontolyticus to amoxicillin, clindamycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, and moxifloxacin using in vitro assays. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each bacterial isolate was determined by using E-test strips (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden). The MIC(90) was 0.19 microg/mL for amoxicillin, 0.25 microg/mL for doxycycline, 0.50 microg/mL for moxifloxacin, and 1.00 microg/mL for clindamycin. However, metronidazole was not active against any of the Actinomyces spp tested (MIC(90)>256 microg/mL).

  16. Evidence for recombination between a sialidase (nanH) of Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces oris, previously named 'Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2'.

    PubMed

    Do, Thuy; Henssge, Uta; Gilbert, Steven C; Clark, Douglas; Beighton, David

    2008-11-01

    Actinomyces spp., predominant members of human oral biofilms, may use extracellular sialidase to promote adhesion, deglycosylate immunoglobulins and liberation of nutrients. Partial nanH gene sequences (1,077 bp) from Actinomyces oris (n=74), Actinomyces naeslundii (n=30), Actinomyces viscosus (n=1) and Actinomyces johnsonii (n=2) which included the active-site region and the bacterial neuraminidase repeats (BNRs) were compared. The sequences were aligned and each species formed a distinct cluster with five isolates having intermediate positions. These five isolates (two A. oris and three A. naeslundii) exhibited interspecies recombination. The nonsynonymous/synonymous ratio was <1 for both A. oris and A. naeslundii indicating that nanH in both species is under stabilizing selective pressure; nonsynonymous mutations are not selected. However, for A. oris significant negative values in tests for neutral selection suggested the rate of mutation in A. oris was greater than in A. naeslundii but with selection against nonsynonymous mutations. This was supported by the observation that the frequency of polymorphic sites in A. oris, which were monomorphic in A. naeslundii was significantly greater than the frequency of polymorphic sites in A. naeslundii which were monomorphic in A. oris (chi(2)=7.011; P=0.00081). The higher proportions of A. oris in the oral biofilm might be explained by the higher mutation rate facilitating an increased ability to respond successfully to environmental stress.

  17. Actinomyces lymphadenitis: case report.

    PubMed

    Arik, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an unusual case of lymphadenopathy associated with Actinomyces infection is reported. In the literature, there are only two cases presented with histopathologic features. A forty-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with painless mass on the neck. Clinical examination revealed a firm mass on the right submandibular region. The patient had no malignancy history. A cystic mass radiologically compatible with abscess was detected adjacent to the submandibular gland. Sialadenitis and lymphadenitis were considered but the mass was refractory to the antibiotherapy. The mass and the right submandibular gland were excised. Histopathologic evaluation of the lymph node revealed characteristic sulfur granules of Actinomyces.

  18. [Actinomyces empyema treated with decortications].

    PubMed

    Shteinberg, Michal; Perek, Shoshan; Ghanem, Nesrin; Sarafov, Israel; Peysakhovich, Yury; Adir, Yochai

    2012-04-01

    Actinomyces infections are rare infections, involving the head and neck, abdominal cavity, and the lung. We report a case of a 66 year old woman with shortness of breath and a pleural effusion from which Actinomyces meyeriwas cultured. The diagnosis was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction technique. The infection was successfully treated with a combination of ampicillin and surgical decortication. Due to their rarity, Actinomyces infections are not often suspected. These infections are difficult to diagnose due to specific microbiologic requirements for isolation of Actinomyces. In many reviewed cases of Actinomyces infection, patients underwent surgery for presumed cancer but were eventually diagnosed as being infected with actinomycosis. Due to lack of improvement of our patient, surgical decortication was performed, which led to a successful outcome.

  19. Actinomyces and related organisms in human infections.

    PubMed

    Könönen, Eija; Wade, William G

    2015-04-01

    Actinomyces israelii has long been recognized as a causative agent of actinomycosis. During the past 3 decades, a large number of novel Actinomyces species have been described. Their detection and identification in clinical microbiology laboratories and recognition as pathogens in clinical settings can be challenging. With the introduction of advanced molecular methods, knowledge about their clinical relevance is gradually increasing, and the spectrum of diseases associated with Actinomyces and Actinomyces-like organisms is widening accordingly; for example, Actinomyces meyeri, Actinomyces neuii, and Actinomyces turicensis as well as Actinotignum (formerly Actinobaculum) schaalii are emerging as important causes of specific infections at various body sites. In the present review, we have gathered this information to provide a comprehensive and microbiologically consistent overview of the significance of Actinomyces and some closely related taxa in human infections.

  20. Actinomyces and Related Organisms in Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Wade, William G.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Actinomyces israelii has long been recognized as a causative agent of actinomycosis. During the past 3 decades, a large number of novel Actinomyces species have been described. Their detection and identification in clinical microbiology laboratories and recognition as pathogens in clinical settings can be challenging. With the introduction of advanced molecular methods, knowledge about their clinical relevance is gradually increasing, and the spectrum of diseases associated with Actinomyces and Actinomyces-like organisms is widening accordingly; for example, Actinomyces meyeri, Actinomyces neuii, and Actinomyces turicensis as well as Actinotignum (formerly Actinobaculum) schaalii are emerging as important causes of specific infections at various body sites. In the present review, we have gathered this information to provide a comprehensive and microbiologically consistent overview of the significance of Actinomyces and some closely related taxa in human infections. PMID:25788515

  1. [Two cases of anaerobic empyema including Actinomyces].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yukiko; Ishikawa, Satoru; Takiguchi, Yasuo

    2009-03-01

    We report 2 cases of empyema including Actinomyces spp. Case 1 was a 66-year-old man with fever and left pleural effusion, Actinomyces israelii and 2 other microbes were isolated. Case 2 was a 52-year-old male inpatient who developed empyema during treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Actinomyces odontolyticus and 3 other microbes were cultured in pleural effusion. Empyema caused by Actinomyces spp. is rare, in particular Actinomyces odontolyticus is rarely isolated and only 4 cases have been reported in Japan.

  2. Actinomyces suimastitidis sp. nov., isolated from pig mastitis.

    PubMed

    Hoyles, L; Falsen, E; Holmström, G; Persson, A; Sjödén, B; Collins, M D

    2001-07-01

    An unusual Actinomyces-like bacterium originating from a pig with mastitis was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. The morphological and biochemical characteristics of the organism were consistent with its preliminary assignment to the genus Actinomyces but it did not appear to correspond to any recognized species. PAGE analysis of whole-cell proteins confirmed the phenotypic distinctiveness of the bacterium and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that it represents a hitherto unknown sub-line amongst a cluster of Actinomyces species which embraces Actinomyces canis, Actinomyces georgiae, Actinomyces hyovaginalis, Actinomyces meyeri, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Actinomyces radingae and Actinomyces turicensis. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium isolated from pig mastitis be classified as Actinomyces suimastitidis sp. nov. The type strain of Actinomyces suimastitidis is CCUG 39279T (= CIP 106779T). PMID:11491328

  3. Actinomyces Species Isolated from Breast Infections.

    PubMed

    Bing, A U; Loh, S F; Morris, T; Hughes, H; Dixon, J M; Helgason, K O

    2015-10-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces species characterized by abscess formation, tissue fibrosis, and draining sinuses. The spectrum of infections caused by Actinomyces species ranges from classical invasive actinomycosis to a less invasive form of superficial skin and soft tissue infection. We present a review detailing all Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections in NHS Lothian between 2005 and 2013, Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections referred to the United Kingdom Anaerobe Reference Unit between 1988 and 2014, and cases describing Actinomyces breast infections published in the medical literature since 1994. Actinomyces species are fastidious organisms which can be difficult to identify and are likely to be underascertained as a cause of breast infections. Due to improved diagnostic methods, they are increasingly associated with chronic, recurrent breast infections and may play a more significant role in these infections than has previously been appreciated.

  4. Actinomyces Species Isolated from Breast Infections

    PubMed Central

    Loh, S. F.; Morris, T.; Hughes, H.; Dixon, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces species characterized by abscess formation, tissue fibrosis, and draining sinuses. The spectrum of infections caused by Actinomyces species ranges from classical invasive actinomycosis to a less invasive form of superficial skin and soft tissue infection. We present a review detailing all Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections in NHS Lothian between 2005 and 2013, Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections referred to the United Kingdom Anaerobe Reference Unit between 1988 and 2014, and cases describing Actinomyces breast infections published in the medical literature since 1994. Actinomyces species are fastidious organisms which can be difficult to identify and are likely to be underascertained as a cause of breast infections. Due to improved diagnostic methods, they are increasingly associated with chronic, recurrent breast infections and may play a more significant role in these infections than has previously been appreciated. PMID:26224846

  5. Subcutaneous fistulae in a patient with femoral hypoplasia due to Actinomyces europaeus and Actinomyces turicensis.

    PubMed

    Zautner, A E; Schmitz, S; Aepinus, C; Schmialek, A; Podbielski, A

    2009-06-01

    Infections due to Actinomyces europaeus or Actinomyces turicensis have only rarely been reported. We describe a case of chronic fistulae caused by a coinfection with A. europaeus and A. turicensis in an immunocompetent male patient with a severe congenital femur hypoplasia. Actinomycosis is most probably the consequence of a postoperative wound infection after a prior surgical intervention. Both Actinomyces species were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The Actinomyces-caused fistulae were treated by excision and a 1-week course of i.v. vancomycin followed by a 1-week course of p.o. cefuroxime.

  6. Importance of Actinomyces and certain gram-negative anaerobic organisms in the transformation of lymphocytes from patients with periodontal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, J J; Chan, S P; Socransky, S S; Oppenheim, J J; Mergenhagen, S E

    1976-01-01

    Dental plaque deposits are known to be potent stimulants of lymphocyte transformation in patients with periodontal disease but not in normal subjects. Since plaque deposits consist mainly of whole bacteria, the cell walls of the most commonly found organisms in plaque were tested for their capacity to induce lymphocyte transformation. There was a direct correlation between the severity of peridontal disease and the amount of transformation induced by the cell walls of oral bacteria and by solubilized dental plaque. Cord blood leukocytes and lymphocytes from clinically normal people did not respond, which indicates that these stimulants are antigens rather than mitogens. Of the eleven bacteria tested, four members of the family Actinomycetaceae (Actinomyces viscosus, A. israelii, A. naeslundii, and Arachnia propionica), the related Propionibacterium acnes, and an anaerobic gram-negative anaerobic rod (27N). The high prevalence of the former organisms in the mature dental plaque that forms around the gingival crevice area and the potent efficacy with which they stimulate lymphocytes indicates that Actinomyces and certain gram-negative anaerobes may be important etiological agents in chronic periodontal inflammation in man. PMID:1270144

  7. Actinomyces weissii sp. nov., isolated from dogs.

    PubMed

    Hijazin, Muaz; Alber, Jörg; Lämmler, Christoph; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Kassmannhuber, Johannes; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Förnges, Thorsten; Hassan, Abdulwahed Ahmed; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Zschöck, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Two Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from the oral cavities of two dogs. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities both strains were shown to belong to the genus Actinomyces and were most closely related to Actinomyces bovis (97.3% and 97.5%, respectively). The polyamine profile of the two isolates and Actinomyces bovis DSM 43014(T) was composed of spermidine and spermine as the major components. Menaquinone MK-9 was the major compound in the quinone system of the two strains and Actinomyces bovis. The polar lipid profiles of strains 2298(T) and 4321 were almost identical, containing diphosphatidylglycerol as the major compound, and moderate to trace amounts of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol-mannoside, phosphatidylglycerol and several unidentified lipids. A highly similar polar lipid profile was detected in Actinomyces bovis DSM 43014(T) supporting the affiliation of strains 2298(T) and 4321 to the genus Actinomyces. The typical major fatty acids were C(16:0), C(18:0) and C(18:1)ω9c. Fatty acids C(14:0) and C(18:2)ω6,9c were found in minor amounts. The results of physiological and biochemical analyses revealed clear differences between both strains and the most closely related species of the genus Actinomyces. Thus, strains 2298(T) and 4321 represent a novel species, for which the name Actinomyces weissii sp. nov., is proposed, with strain 2298(T) ( = CIP 110333(T) = LMG 26472(T) = CCM 7951(T) = CCUG 61299(T)) as the type strain.

  8. Actinomyces turicensis Bacteremia Secondary to Pyometra.

    PubMed

    Hagiya, Hideharu; Ogawa, Hiroko; Takahashi, Yusuke; Kimura, Kosuke; Hasegawa, Kan; Otsuka, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    We herein present a rare case of Actinomyces turicensis bacteremia that was caused by pyometra. The patient was successfully treated with transvaginal drainage and antibiotic therapy. A literature review in MEDLINE showed that there have been only 8 previously reported cases of A. turicensis bacteremia. This infection frequently occurs in patients with visceral abscesses, and blood culture examinations usually reveal a polymicrobial pattern. However, the prognosis of such patients has been reported to generally be benign. Due to difficulties in performing bacterial identification and the wide-spectrum clinical pictures associated with this bacteremia, no comprehensive understanding of the clinical features of each Actinomyces species has yet been established.

  9. Actinomyces turicensis Bacteremia Secondary to Pyometra.

    PubMed

    Hagiya, Hideharu; Ogawa, Hiroko; Takahashi, Yusuke; Kimura, Kosuke; Hasegawa, Kan; Otsuka, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    We herein present a rare case of Actinomyces turicensis bacteremia that was caused by pyometra. The patient was successfully treated with transvaginal drainage and antibiotic therapy. A literature review in MEDLINE showed that there have been only 8 previously reported cases of A. turicensis bacteremia. This infection frequently occurs in patients with visceral abscesses, and blood culture examinations usually reveal a polymicrobial pattern. However, the prognosis of such patients has been reported to generally be benign. Due to difficulties in performing bacterial identification and the wide-spectrum clinical pictures associated with this bacteremia, no comprehensive understanding of the clinical features of each Actinomyces species has yet been established. PMID:26521910

  10. Actinomyces massiliensis sp. nov., isolated from a patient blood culture.

    PubMed

    Renvoise, Aurélie; Raoult, Didier; Roux, Véronique

    2009-03-01

    Gram-positive, non-spore-forming rods (strain 4401292(T)) were isolated from a human blood sample. Based on cellular morphology and the results of biochemical tests, this strain was tentatively identified as belonging to an undescribed species of the genus Actinomyces. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison showed that the bacterium was related closely to Actinomyces gerencseriae (95.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Actinomyces israelii (95.2 %), Actinomyces oricola (95.2 %), Actinomyces ruminicola (93.3 %) and Actinomyces dentalis (91.4 %). The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1omega9c and C16 : 0. On the basis of phenotypic data and phylogenetic inference, the novel species Actinomyces massiliensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 4401292(T) (=CSUR P18(T)=CCUG 53522(T)).

  11. Actinomyces bowdenii ulcerative keratitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Amanda; Daniels, Joshua B; Wilkie, David A; Lutz, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    A 5-year-old spayed female diabetic mixed-breed dog underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation to correct bilateral hypermature cataracts. Two months postsurgery, the patient presented with ulcerative keratitis and multifocal stromal abscessation OD, which was controlled, but never resolved, with topical fluoroquinolone therapy. The patient re-presented 2 months later with a new, raised, white gritty corneal opacity associated with hyperemia, chemosis, and blepharospasm OD. Cytology of the right cornea revealed filamentous bacteria, suggestive of Actinomyces spp. Actinomyces bowdenii was subsequently isolated in pure culture and identified via 16s rDNA sequencing. Actinomyces bowdenii has never before been described as a cause of ocular infection. An immunosuppressed corneal environment likely contributed to this opportunistic Actinomycosis. The infection was not controlled with fluoroquinolone therapy, and the isolate, in vitro, was resistant to three fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and levofloxacin), which also has not been previously reported for this species of Actinomyces. A superficial keratectomy with conjunctival graft was employed to successfully manage the infection.

  12. Actinomyces canaliculitis and its surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Dilek; Hazirolan, Dicle; Sungur, Gulten; Duman, Sunay

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this article is to describe four rare cases of Actinomyces israelii canaliculitis and their surgical treatment in a case series consisting of four cases of Actinomyces israelii canaliculitis. Patient charts were reviewed retrospectively. All four patients presented with epiphora, recurrent conjunctivitis, swelling around the superior canaliculus, and mucopurulent punctal discharge persisting despite medical treatments. Two patients with large canalicular dilation were treated with canaliculoplasty and the other two patients with minimal canalicular dilation were treated with one-snip punctoplasty. The specimens that were evacuated were sent for microbiological and histopathological examinations. The results showed that Actinomyces israelii was isolated in all patients. After medical and surgical treatment, the patients experienced resolution of signs and symptoms. The disease did not recur during the 2-4-year follow-up period. In conclusion Canaliculoplasty with canalicular intubation and one-snip punctoplasty may be safe and efficacious techniques in largely dilated canaliculum and mildly dilated canaliculum, respectively, with no demonstrable risk of post-treatment epiphora in patients with Actinomyces canaliculitis.

  13. Breast abscess due to Actinomyces europaeus.

    PubMed

    Silva, W A; Pinheiro, A M; Jahns, B; Bögli-Stuber, K; Droz, S; Zimmerli, S

    2011-06-01

    Actinomyces europaeus was first described in 1997 as a new species causing predominantly skin and soft-tissue infections. Mastitis due to A. europaeus is an unusual condition. This article reports a case of primary breast abscess caused by A. europaeus in a postmenopausal woman.

  14. Vibrio viscosus in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Scotland: field and experimental observations.

    PubMed

    Bruno, D W; Griffiths, J; Petrie, J; Hastings, T S

    1998-11-30

    Winter mortality occurred in market-sized (2 to 3 kg) Atlantic salmon Salmo salar reared in sea cages in Scottish waters. Many of the fish had skin ulcers. Internally prominent dark-brown petechiae or ecchymotic haemorrhage was observed. Splenomegaly was associated with congestion and widespread necrosis. A Vibrio sp. was isolated from internal organs. Biochemically isolates of the bacterium were similar to a previously described bacterium, Vibrio viscosus, recorded in a phenotypic study from farmed salmon in Norway. This work examines the occurrence of V. viscosus in marine-reared Atlantic salmon for the first time in Scottish waters. An experimental study reproduced the field observations and Koch's postulates were fulfilled. The histopathology associated with natural infection was compared with that in laboratory-infected fish. PMID:9891731

  15. Actinomyces cardiffensis septicemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong Youn; Yeom, Joon-Sup; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2012-05-01

    Actinomyces cardiffensis is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming rod that was first identified by Hall et al. (Hall V. et al. (2002) J Clin Microbiol 40:3427-31). Here we report a case of bacteremia with liver and lung abscesses associated with A. cardiffensis. A 67-year-old man was hospitalized with fever and headache for 20 days. Blood culture revealed an Actinomyces species, which was ultimately identified as A. cardiffensis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A computed tomography scan of his chest showed small abscesses in his lung and liver. After a 3-week course of intravenous ceftriaxone, the patient showed rapid improvement. The patient was transitioned to oral amoxicillin for the remainder of his antibiotic treatment.

  16. Actinomyces meyeri: from "lumpy jaw" to empyema.

    PubMed

    Attaway, A; Flynn, T

    2013-10-01

    While the most common presentation of actinomycosis is cervicofacial disease, or "lumpy jaw syndrome," Actinomyces meyeri has a predilection for pulmonary disease as well as dissemination to distant organs. We describe a 61-year-old Caucasian male with a relapsing-remitting mandibular sinus tract who would go on to develop weight loss, dyspnea, and a cough productive of malodorous sputum. Imaging revealed a right lower lobe pneumonia and a large left sided empyema. He underwent thoracotomy and decortication on the left side, and 1 L of foul-smelling purulent fluid was drained. Culture grew Actinomyces meyeri. He completed an extended antibiotic course and had his teeth extracted with good clinical outcome.

  17. Assessment of Arthrobacter viscosus as reactive medium for forming permeable reactive biobarrier applied to PAHs remediation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L; Cobas, M; Tavares, T; Sanromán, M A; Pazos, M

    2013-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are significant environmental contaminants as they are present naturally as well as anthropogenically in soil, air and water. In spite of their low solubility, PAHs are spread to the environment, and they are present in surface water, industrial effluent or groundwater. Amongst all remediation technologies for treating groundwater contaminated with PAHs, the use of a permeable reactive biobarrier (PRBB) appears to be the most cost-effective, energy efficient, and environmentally sound approach. In this technology, the microorganisms are used as reactive medium to degrade or stabilize the contaminants. The main limits of this approach are that the microorganisms or consortium used for forming the PRBB should show adequate characteristics. They must be retained in the barrier-forming biofilm, and they should also have degradative ability for the target pollutants. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the viability of Arthrobacter viscosus as bioreactive medium for forming PRBB. Initially, the ability of A. viscosus to remove PAHs, benzo[a]anthracene 100 μM and phenanthrene 100 μM was evaluated operating in a batch bench-scale bioreactor. In both cases, total benzo[a]anthracene and phenanthrene removals were obtained after 7 and 3 days, respectively. Furthermore, the viability of the microorganisms was evaluated in the presence of chromium in a continuous mode. As a final point, the adhesion of A. viscosus to sepiolite forming a bioreactive material to build PRBB was demonstrated. In view of the attained results, it can be concluded that A. viscosus could be a suitable microorganism to form a bioreactive medium for PAHs remediation. PMID:23640390

  18. Assessment of Arthrobacter viscosus as reactive medium for forming permeable reactive biobarrier applied to PAHs remediation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L; Cobas, M; Tavares, T; Sanromán, M A; Pazos, M

    2013-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are significant environmental contaminants as they are present naturally as well as anthropogenically in soil, air and water. In spite of their low solubility, PAHs are spread to the environment, and they are present in surface water, industrial effluent or groundwater. Amongst all remediation technologies for treating groundwater contaminated with PAHs, the use of a permeable reactive biobarrier (PRBB) appears to be the most cost-effective, energy efficient, and environmentally sound approach. In this technology, the microorganisms are used as reactive medium to degrade or stabilize the contaminants. The main limits of this approach are that the microorganisms or consortium used for forming the PRBB should show adequate characteristics. They must be retained in the barrier-forming biofilm, and they should also have degradative ability for the target pollutants. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the viability of Arthrobacter viscosus as bioreactive medium for forming PRBB. Initially, the ability of A. viscosus to remove PAHs, benzo[a]anthracene 100 μM and phenanthrene 100 μM was evaluated operating in a batch bench-scale bioreactor. In both cases, total benzo[a]anthracene and phenanthrene removals were obtained after 7 and 3 days, respectively. Furthermore, the viability of the microorganisms was evaluated in the presence of chromium in a continuous mode. As a final point, the adhesion of A. viscosus to sepiolite forming a bioreactive material to build PRBB was demonstrated. In view of the attained results, it can be concluded that A. viscosus could be a suitable microorganism to form a bioreactive medium for PAHs remediation.

  19. Different Type 1 Fimbrial Genes and Tropisms of Commensal and Potentially Pathogenic Actinomyces spp. with Different Salivary Acidic Proline-Rich Protein and Statherin Ligand Specificities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tong; Khah, Massoud Kheir; Slavnic, Snjezana; Johansson, Ingegerd; Strömberg, Nicklas

    2001-01-01

    Actinomyces spp. exhibit type 1 fimbria-mediated adhesion to salivary acidic proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and statherin ligands. Actinomyces spp. with different animal and tissue origins belong to three major adhesion types as relates to ligand specificity and type 1 fimbria genes. (i) In preferential acidic-PRP binding, strains of Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 from human and monkey mouths displayed at least three ligand specificities characterized by preferential acidic-PRP binding. Slot blot DNA hybridization showed seven highly conserved type 1 fimbria genes (orf1- to -6 and fimP) in genospecies 1 and 2 strains, except that orf5 and orf3 were divergent in genospecies 1. (ii) In preferential statherin binding, oral Actinomyces viscosus strains of rat and hamster origin (and strain 19246 from a human case of actinomycosis) bound statherin preferentially. DNA hybridization and characterization of the type 1 fimbria genes from strain 19246 revealed a homologous gene cluster of four open reading frames (orfA to -C and fimP). Bioinformatics suggested sortase (orfB, orf4, and part of orf5), prepilin peptidase (orfC and orf6), fimbria subunit (fimP), and usher- and autotransporter-like (orfA and orf1 to -3) functions. Those gene regions corresponding to orf3 and orf5 were divergent, those corresponding to orf2, orf1, and fimP were moderately conserved, and those corresponding to orf4 and orf6 were highly conserved. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses using a fimP probe separated human and monkey and rat and hamster strains into phylogenetically different groups. (iii) In statherin-specific binding, strains of A. naeslundii genospecies 1 from septic and other human infections displayed a low-avidity binding to statherin. Only the orf4 and orf6 gene regions were highly conserved. Finally, rat saliva devoid of statherin bound bacterial strains avidly irrespective of ligand specificity, and specific antisera detected either type 1, type 2, or both

  20. Roles of Fructosyltransferase and Levanase-Sucrase of Actinomyces naeslundii in Fructan and Sucrose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Lori J.; Burne, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of Actinomyces naeslundii to convert sucrose to extracellular homopolymers of fructose and to catabolize these types of polymers is suspected to be a virulence trait that contributes to the initiation and progression of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Previously, we reported on the isolation and characterization of the gene, ftf, encoding the fructosyltransferase (FTF) of A. naeslundii WVU45. Allelic exchange mutagenesis was used to inactivate ftf, revealing that FTF-deficient stains were completely devoid of the capacity to produce levan-type (β2,6-linked) polysaccharides. A polyclonal antibody was raised to a histidine-tagged, purified A. naeslundii FTF, and the antibody was used to localize the enzyme in the supernatant fluid. A sensitive technique was developed to detect levan formation by proteins that had been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the method was used to confirm that the levan-synthesizing activity of A. naeslundii existed predominantly in a cell-free form, that a small amount of the activity was cell associated, and that the ftf mutant was unable to produce levans. By using the nucleotide sequence of the levanase gene of a genospecies 2 A. naeslundii, formerly Actinomyces viscosus, a portion of a homologue of this gene (levJ) was amplified by PCR and inserted into a suicide vector, and the resulting construct was used to inactivate the levJ gene in the genospecies 1 strain WVU45. A variety of physiologic and biochemical studies were performed on the wild-type and LevJ-deficient strains to demonstrate that (i) this enzyme was the dominant levanase and sucrase of A. naeslundii; (ii) that LevJ was inducible by growth in sucrose; (iii) that the LevJ activity was found predominantly (>90%) in a cell-associated form; and (iv) that there was a second, fructose-inducible fructan hydrolase activity produced by these strains. The data provide the first detailed molecular analysis of fructan

  1. Prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Vielkind, Paul; Jentsch, Holger; Eschrich, Klaus; Rodloff, Arne C; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in shallow, deep and very deep pockets of patients with chronic periodontitis compared to healthy controls and correlated the results with clinical status. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 15 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Clinical indices were recorded in a six-point measurement per tooth. From each patient samples of supra and subgingival plaque were taken separately from teeth with shallow, deep and very deep pockets. Samples of supragingival plaque and sulcular microflora were collected from the healthy subjects. All the samples were cultivated on different media at 37̊C in an anaerobic atmosphere for 7 days. All the suspect colonies were identified using a rapid ID 32 A system (bioMèrieux) and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis using an Autoflex II Instrument (Bruker Daltonics) together with in house developed identification software and a reference spectra database. A total of 977 strains were identified as Actinomyces. Actinomyces naeslundii/oris/johnsonii (430 isolates) was the most prevalent species and was found in all patients and in almost all of the healthy subjects. Significant differences (p=0.003) between the groups were found for Actinomyces odontolyticus/meyeri and Actinomyces israelii which were associated with periodontitis patients. Actinomyces dentalis was found in higher percentage (p=0.015) in the periodontitis group. Actinomyces gerencseriae and Actinomyces massiliensis were significantly more often found supragingivally than subgingivally (p=0.004, p=0.022, respectively) in the periodontitis group. Whether some Actinomyces species, definitely important plaque formers, are actively involved in the pathogenicity of chronic periodontitis needs further investigation.

  2. Prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Vielkind, Paul; Jentsch, Holger; Eschrich, Klaus; Rodloff, Arne C; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in shallow, deep and very deep pockets of patients with chronic periodontitis compared to healthy controls and correlated the results with clinical status. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 15 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Clinical indices were recorded in a six-point measurement per tooth. From each patient samples of supra and subgingival plaque were taken separately from teeth with shallow, deep and very deep pockets. Samples of supragingival plaque and sulcular microflora were collected from the healthy subjects. All the samples were cultivated on different media at 37̊C in an anaerobic atmosphere for 7 days. All the suspect colonies were identified using a rapid ID 32 A system (bioMèrieux) and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis using an Autoflex II Instrument (Bruker Daltonics) together with in house developed identification software and a reference spectra database. A total of 977 strains were identified as Actinomyces. Actinomyces naeslundii/oris/johnsonii (430 isolates) was the most prevalent species and was found in all patients and in almost all of the healthy subjects. Significant differences (p=0.003) between the groups were found for Actinomyces odontolyticus/meyeri and Actinomyces israelii which were associated with periodontitis patients. Actinomyces dentalis was found in higher percentage (p=0.015) in the periodontitis group. Actinomyces gerencseriae and Actinomyces massiliensis were significantly more often found supragingivally than subgingivally (p=0.004, p=0.022, respectively) in the periodontitis group. Whether some Actinomyces species, definitely important plaque formers, are actively involved in the pathogenicity of chronic periodontitis needs further investigation. PMID:26324012

  3. Draft genome sequence of Actinomyces massiliensis strain 4401292T.

    PubMed

    Roux, Véronique; Robert, Catherine; Gimenez, Grégory; Gharbi, Reem; Raoult, Didier

    2012-09-01

    A draft genome sequence of Actinomyces massiliensis, an anaerobic bacterium isolated from a patient's blood culture, is described here. CRISPR-associated proteins, insertion sequences, and toxin-antitoxin loci were found on the genome.

  4. Actinomyces meyeri brain abscess following dental extraction.

    PubMed

    Clancy, U; Ronayne, A; Prentice, M B; Jackson, A

    2015-04-13

    We describe the rare occurrence of an Actinomyces meyeri cerebral abscess in a 55-year-old woman following a dental extraction. This patient presented with a 2-day history of hemisensory loss, hyper-reflexia and retro-orbital headache, 7 days following a dental extraction for apical peridonitis. Neuroimaging showed a large left parietal abscess with surrounding empyema. The patient underwent craniotomy and drainage of the abscess. A. meyeri was cultured. Actinomycosis is a rare cause of cerebral abscess. The A. meyeri subtype is particularly rare, accounting for less than 1% of specimens. This case describes an unusually brief course of the disease, which is usually insidious. Parietal lobe involvement is unusual as cerebral abscesses usually have a predilection for the frontal and temporal regions of the brain. Although there are no randomised trials to guide therapy, current consensus is to use a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotics, followed by 6-12 months of oral therapy.

  5. Actinomyces--gathering evidence of human colonization and infection.

    PubMed

    Hall, Val

    2008-02-01

    The roles of the 'classical'Actinomyces spp. as colonizers of oral cavities of man and animals, in development of intra-oral infections and as agents of actinomycosis have been well documented. This mini-review focuses on perceptions of human colonization and infection that have emerged in the past decade, largely as a result of advances in classification, identification and direct detection from clinical material. Arguably, of the greatest importance is the recognition of actinomycosis as a major factor and indicator of poor prognosis in both infected osteoradionecrosis and bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws. Among recently described species, Actinomyces graevenitzii has been isolated almost exclusively from oral and respiratory sites and may be a causative agent of actinomycosis. Conversely, several other Actinomyces spp. are isolated commonly from superficial soft tissue infections. Members of the genus Actinobaculum, which is closely related to Actinomyces, are strongly associated with urosepsis. Isolation and identification of Actinomyces and related genera by conventional methods remain difficult. Diagnosis is commonly belated and based solely upon histological findings. Development of direct detection methods may aid patient management and further elucidate clinical associations.

  6. Pseudo-outbreak of Actinomyces graevenitzii associated with bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Peaper, David R; Havill, Nancy L; Aniskiewicz, Michael; Callan, Deborah; Pop, Olivia; Towle, Dana; Boyce, John M

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of infection related to bronchoscopy typically involve Gram-negative bacteria, Mycobacterium species or Legionella species. We report an unusual bronchoscopy-related pseudo-outbreak due to Actinomyces graevenitzii. Extensive epidemiological and microbiological investigation failed to identify a common source. Strain typing revealed that the cluster was comprised of heterogeneous strains of A. graevenitzii. A change in laboratory procedures for Actinomyces cultures was coincident with the emergence of the pseudo-outbreak, and we determined that A. graevenitzii isolates more readily adopted a white, dry, molar tooth appearance on anaerobic colistin nalidixic acid (CNA) agar which likely facilitated its detection and identification in bronchoscopic specimens. This unusual pseudo-outbreak was related to frequent requests of bronchoscopists for Actinomyces cultures combined with a change in microbiology laboratory practices.

  7. Actinomyces hominis sp. nov., isolated from a wound swab.

    PubMed

    Funke, Guido; Englert, Ralf; Frodl, Reinhard; Bernard, Kathryn A; Stenger, Steffen

    2010-07-01

    A coryneform bacterium (strain 1094(T)) was isolated from a wound swab taken from an 89-year-old female patient. Chemotaxonomic investigations suggested that this bacterium was related to the genera Actinomyces, Arcanobacterium and Actinobaculum. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 1094(T) was most closely related to Actinomyces europaeus CCUG 32789 A(T) (94.3 % similarity). Phenotypically, the isolate could be separated from its closest phylogenetic neighbours on the basis of being positive for catalase, CAMP reaction, acid phosphatase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and raffinose fermentation. Based on the data presented, it is proposed that strain 1094(T) should be classified in a novel species, Actinomyces hominis sp. nov. The type strain is 1094(T) (=CCUG 57540(T) =DSM 22168(T)).

  8. Actinomyces meyeri infection: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fazili, Tasaduq; Blair, Donald; Riddell, Scott; Kiska, Deanna; Nagra, Shehzadi

    2012-10-01

    Actinomyces meyeri is an uncommon cause of actinomycosis. We present a patient with pneumonia and empyema due to A. meyeri. The patient underwent open thoracotomy with decortication and was discharged home on a twelve-month course of oral penicillin. Review of the English literature revealed thirty-two cases of infection due to A. meyeri. The majority of patients were male, and a significant number had poor dental hygiene and a history of alcoholism. More than other Actinomyces species, A. meyeri causes pulmonary infection and has a predilection for dissemination. Prognosis is favorable with prolonged penicillin therapy combined with surgical debridement, if needed.

  9. The association of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw with Actinomyces spp. infection

    PubMed Central

    Russmueller, Guenter; Seemann, Rudolf; Weiss, Kathrin; Stadler, Victoria; Speiss, Manuel; Perisanidis, Christos; Fuereder, Thorsten; Willinger, Birgit; Sulzbacher, Irene; Steininger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) represents a complication of bisphosphonate treatment that responds poorly to standard treatment. In a retrospective cohort study we investigated a possible role of Actinomyces spp. in the pathogenesis of MRONJ. Deep biopsies of necrotic bone were collected during surgical treatment of MRONJ and evaluated by histology and microbiology for the presence of Actinomyces spp. Microbiological, demographic and clinicpathological data were analyzed for risk of Actinomyces-associated MRONJ. Between 2005 and 2014, 111 patients suffering from histologically-confirmed MRONJ were identified. Actinomyces spp. were detected in 99 cases (89%) by histology and in six further patients by microbiological culture. A diverse microbial flora was found in all specimens without association with Actinomyces spp. Demographic and clinicopathological characteristics did not separate significantly Actinomyces-positive from Actinomyces-negative cases. Our observations confirm previous reports of a high prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in MRONJ in the single largest cohort available up to now. The high prevalence of Actinomyces spp. and the lack of clinicopathological risk factors underline the prominent role of Actinomyces spp. in MRONJ and may change the current understanding of MRONJ. Established prolonged antimicrobial treatment regimens against Actinomyces spp. infection could therefore be a mainstay of future MRONJ management. PMID:27530150

  10. Paediatric ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by Actinomyces neuii.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ian A; Jarral, Fazain; Sethi, Kavita; Chumas, Paul D

    2014-05-23

    We present the first reported case of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection secondary to Actinomyces neuii in a paediatric patient. Our patient was managed with temporary shunt removal, intrathecal antibiotics and a prolonged course of intravenous and then oral antibiotics. She went on to make a complete recovery. Subsequent cerebrospinal fluid analysis at 5 months post-treatment demonstrated no evidence of residual infection.

  11. Actinomyces spp. gene expression in root caries lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dame-Teixeira, Naile; Parolo, Clarissa Cavalcanti Fatturi; Maltz, Marisa; Tugnait, Aradhna; Devine, Deirdre; Do, Thuy

    2016-01-01

    Background The studies of the distribution of Actinomyces spp. on carious and non-carious root surfaces have not been able to confirm the association of these bacteria with root caries, although they were extensively implicated as a prime suspect in root caries. Objective The aim of this study was to observe the gene expression of Actinomyces spp. in the microbiota of root surfaces with and without caries. Design The oral biofilms from exposed sound root surface (SRS; n=10) and active root caries (RC; n=30) samples were collected. The total bacterial RNA was extracted, and the mRNA was isolated. Samples with low RNA concentration were pooled, yielding a final sample size of SRS=10 and RC=9. Complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were prepared and sequenced on an Illumina® HiSeq 2500 system. Sequence reads were mapped to eight Actinomyces genomes. Count data were normalized using DESeq2 to analyse differential gene expression applying the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (false discovery rate [FDR]<0.001). Results Actinomyces spp. had similar numbers of reads (Mann-Whitney U-test; p>0.05), except for Actinomyces OT178 (p=0.001) and Actinomyces gerencseriae (p=0.004), which had higher read counts in the SRS. Genes that code for stress proteins (clp, dnaK, and groEL), enzymes of glycolysis pathways (including enolase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), adhesion (Type-2 fimbrial and collagen-binding protein), and cell growth (EF-Tu) were highly – but not differentially (p>0.001) – expressed in both groups. Genes with the most significant upregulation in RC were those coding for hypothetical proteins and uracil DNA glycosylase (p=2.61E-17). The gene with the most significant upregulation in SRS was a peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein (log2FC=−6.00, FDR=2.37E-05). Conclusion There were similar levels of Actinomyces gene expression in both sound and carious root biofilms. These bacteria can be commensal in root surface sites but may be cariogenic

  12. Actinomyces naturae sp. nov., the first Actinomyces sp. isolated from a non-human or animal source.

    PubMed

    Rao, Jyoti U; Rash, Brian A; Nobre, M Fernanda; da Costa, Milton S; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2012-01-01

    Three facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive staining, rod-shaped, non-spore forming, flagellated bacterial strains, BL-75, BL-79(T) and BL-104, were isolated from chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed them to represent a distinct lineage within the genus Actinomyces with sequence identities in the range of <88-95.4% with previously described Actinomyces species. The strains were oxidase and catalase negative. Nitrate was not reduced. Esculin was hydrolyzed. Growth occurred in the temperature range of 20-43°C (optimum 30-37°C) and pH range 4.5-9.0 (optimum pH 6.5). Substrates supporting growth included various mono-, di-, and tri-saccharides. The end products of glucose fermentation were acetate, lactate, succinate and formate. Fermentative growth was observed in the presence of near saturation concentrations of perchloroethene (PCE) and toluene and in the presence of 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,1,2-trichloroethane at concentrations up to at least 24.4 mM and 11.2 mM, respectively. The dominant cellular fatty acids when grown in peptone/yeast extract/glucose (PYG) medium were C(18:1) ω9c, C(16:0), and C(14:0). The peptidoglycan was found to contain the amino acids alanine, glutamic acid, lysine, and ornithine at approximate molar ratios of 1.7 Ala: 2.3 Glu: 1.3 Lys: 1.0 Orn. The cell wall sugars were found to include rhamnose and mannose. The polar lipids were found to include diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phospholipid (PL), phosphoglycolipids (PGL), and glycolipids (GL). The main respiratory quinone of strain BL-79(T) was MK-9(H(4)), with minor components MK-10(H(4)) and MK-8(H(4)). The DNA mol% G+C content of the type strain is 69.8%. On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics, these strains could be differentiated from previously described species of the genus Actinomyces. Strains BL-75, BL-79(T) and BL-104 are designated as a novel

  13. Low-grade infection after a total knee arthroplasty caused by Actinomyces naeslundii.

    PubMed

    Hedke, J; Skripitz, R; Ellenrieder, M; Frickmann, H; Köller, T; Podbielski, A; Mittelmeier, W

    2012-08-01

    Here, we present a case of an 85-year-old woman with a low-grade-infection caused by Actinomyces naeslundii after total-knee arthroplasty (TKA) followed by septic loosening. Actinomyces naeslundii was cultured from a tissue sample from the knee joint capsule/synovial tissue obtained after the initial TKA. A review of the literature revealed two cases of periprosthetic infection and another three cases of arthritis due to Actinomyces naeslundii. So far, no standard treatment for periprosthetic infections caused by Actinomyces species has been established.

  14. Mediastinitis by Actinomyces meyeri after oesophageal stent placement.

    PubMed

    Branquinho, Diogo Ferreira; Andrade, Daniel Ramos; Almeida, Nuno; Sofia, Carlos

    2014-06-05

    Actinomyces meyeri is a Gram-positive anaerobic forming bacterium of the genus Actinomyces, part of the oral cavity's flora, and its classification remains an unresolved issue. It is an extremely rare cause of disease, occurring in middle-aged immunocompetent patients and frequently misdiagnosed as malignancy or lung abscess. A 56-year-old man diagnosed with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma had an endoscopically placed stent to palliate his dysphagia. Two weeks later he presented with thoracalgia and fever, interpreted as a common lung infection. Owing to lack of improvement, additional examinations were undertaken revealing mediastinum involvement. Unlike the good prognosis usually associated with this infection, the patient eventually died, reflecting the aggressive nature of his underlying condition. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mediastinitis by A. meyeri, supporting the described propensity of this agent to disseminate, particularly to the thoracic cavity, although probably in this case with an iatrogenic contribution.

  15. Actinomyces neuii: review of an unusual infectious agent.

    PubMed

    von Graevenitz, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Actinomyces neuii, a species first described in 1994, has proven to be an exception in this genus on account of its aerobic growth, microscopic morphology (no branching), and the types and location of infections. Abscesses and infected atheromas are the most frequent types of infections, followed by infected skin structures, endophthalmitis, and bacteremias, including endocarditis. They are most likely of endogenous origin. To date, approximately 100 cases have been recorded in the literature. Intra-abdominal and intrathoracic infections, however, have not yet been described, and cases of classical actinomycosis seem to be extremely rare. Prognosis has generally been good with antibiotic and/or surgical treatment. Susceptibility to antibiotics has paralleled that of other Actinomyces spp.

  16. Actinomyces and nocardia infections in immunocompromised and nonimmunocompromised patients.

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, D. C.; Antony, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    A retrospective survey of nocardia and actinomyces infections in five local hospitals was conducted over a 3-year period in El Paso, Texas, a border city, in the southwestern United States. The medical records of 42 patients with suspected nocardiosis or actinomycosis were reviewed. One patient was diagnosed with actinomyces and 12 patients with nocardia. Microbiological data included morphologic characteristics, biochemical profile, and susceptibility testing. Predisposing factors included leukemia, renal insufficiency, renal transplant, and lymphoma. No predisposing factors were found in 67% (n = 8) of patients (including the patient with actinomycosis). Twenty-three percent (n = 3) of patients had disseminated disease without evidence of underlying disease or immunosuppression. The mortality and morbidity of these infections appeared to be low. PMID:10063786

  17. Multiple lung abscesses caused by Actinomyces graevenitzii mimicking acute pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Kentaro; Izumikawa, Koichi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2012-09-01

    Actinomyces graevenitzii is a newly recognized Actinomyces species that is seldom isolated from clinical specimens. A case of multiple pulmonary abscesses mimicking acute pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is described in this study, and the findings indicate that this organism is an opportunistic human pathogen.

  18. Multiple Lung Abscesses Caused by Actinomyces graevenitzii Mimicking Acute Pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Actinomyces graevenitzii is a newly recognized Actinomyces species that is seldom isolated from clinical specimens. A case of multiple pulmonary abscesses mimicking acute pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is described in this study, and the findings indicate that this organism is an opportunistic human pathogen. PMID:22760049

  19. Comparison of PCR, culturing and Pap smear microscopy for accurate diagnosis of genital Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Dilek; Demirezen, Şayeste; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Gülmez Kivanç, Dolunay; Beksaç, Mehmet Sinan

    2013-05-01

    Members of the genus Actinomyces, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria, are normal inhabitants of the mucosal surfaces of the oral, gastrointestinal and genital tracts. Identification of these bacteria using conventional methods is generally difficult because of their complex transport and growth requirements and their fastidious and slow-growing nature. However, in recent years, the advancement of molecular techniques has provided much improved identification and differentiation of closely related Actinomyces species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the PCR technique in the diagnosis of genital Actinomyces in comparison with culturing and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear microscopy. Multiple sampling was conducted from 200 women using smear microscopy, culturing and PCR. Cyto-brushes were smeared on glass slides and stained using the routine Pap technique. Culturing was performed from a sterile swab, and Actinomyces were determined using the BBL Crystal ANR ID kit. PCR was performed from a second swab, and the Actinomyces type was determined using type-specific primers designed in our laboratory. Only one vaginal fluid sample (0.5%) revealed Actinomyces-like organisms on Pap smear examination. Actinomyces were detected in nine samples (4.5%) using the BBL Crystal ANR ID kit. Using PCR, eight samples (4%) were found positive for Actinomyces. No specimens that gave positive results by Pap smear microscopy and culturing could be confirmed by PCR. Pap smear microscopy and culturing were both found to have zero sensitivity for Actinomyces. PCR appears to be a sensitive and reliable diagnostic method for the detection of Actinomyces, which are difficult to cultivate from genital samples. PCR can be used for diagnostic confirmation in cases diagnosed by conventional methods, to prevent false-positive results.

  20. Actinomyces meyeri meningitis: the need for anaerobic cerebrospinal fluid cultures.

    PubMed

    Hagiya, Hideharu; Otsuka, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    We herein present a rare case of Actinomyces meyeri-induced meningitis that occurred in a patient of advanced age with poor oral hygiene. Although Gram staining of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed Gram-positive rods and a blood culture was positive for the organism, a bacterial culture of the CSF was negative. Anaerobic cultures of CSF specimens are not routinely performed; however, anaerobes are sometimes involved in central nervous system infection. We therefore believe that anaerobic cultures should be considered in high-risk cases, such as those involving necrotizing bowel lesions or poor oral hygiene. A negative result on a CSF culture can result in misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment.

  1. Application of MLST and pilus gene sequence comparisons to investigate the population structures of Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces oris.

    PubMed

    Henssge, Uta; Do, Thuy; Gilbert, Steven C; Cox, Steven; Clark, Douglas; Wickström, Claes; Ligtenberg, A J M; Radford, David R; Beighton, David

    2011-01-01

    Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces oris are members of the oral biofilm. Their identification using 16S rRNA sequencing is problematic and better achieved by comparison of metG partial sequences. A. oris is more abundant and more frequently isolated than A. naeslundii. We used a multi-locus sequence typing approach to investigate the genotypic diversity of these species and assigned A. naeslundii (n = 37) and A. oris (n = 68) isolates to 32 and 68 sequence types (ST), respectively. Neighbor-joining and ClonalFrame dendrograms derived from the concatenated partial sequences of 7 house-keeping genes identified at least 4 significant subclusters within A. oris and 3 within A. naeslundii. The strain collection we had investigated was an under-representation of the total population since at least 3 STs composed of single strains may represent discrete clusters of strains not well represented in the collection. The integrity of these sub-clusters was supported by the sequence analysis of fimP and fimA, genes coding for the type 1 and 2 fimbriae, respectively. An A. naeslundii subcluster was identified with both fimA and fimP genes and these strains were able to bind to MUC7 and statherin while all other A. naeslundii strains possessed only fimA and did not bind to statherin. An A. oris subcluster harboured a fimA gene similar to that of Actinomyces odontolyticus but no detectable fimP failed to bind significantly to either MUC7 or statherin. These data are evidence of extensive genotypic and phenotypic diversity within the species A. oris and A. naeslundii but the status of the subclusters identified here will require genome comparisons before their phylogenic position can be unequivocally established.

  2. Actinomyces denticolens colonisation identified in equine tonsillar crypts

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, S.; Otaki, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Higuchi, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Torii, Y.; Yokoyama, E.; Azuma, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, submandibular abscesses associated with Actinomyces denticolens have been reported in horses. The actinomycotic clumps have been observed in the tonsillar crypts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate colonisation of A denticolens in equine tonsils. Twelve equine tonsils obtained from a slaughterhouse were divided into two parts for histopathological examination and for isolation of A denticolens. When actinomycotic clumps were found in these tonsillar crypts, immunohistochemistry using hyperimmune serum against A denticolens (DMS 20671) was performed on the serial sections. To determine whether Actinomyces-like bacteria isolated using immunoantigenic separation technique were A denticolens, the isolates were analysed for the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Actinomycotic clumps were found in the tonsillar crypts of 11 (91.7 per cent) horses. The clumps were of the saprophytic type accompanied with the feedstuffs, but a few clumps were surrounded by inflammatory cells. A denticolens antigens were immunodetected not only in the clumps of 11 (100 per cent) tonsils, but also in the tonsillar parenchyma. Six isolates obtained from four tonsils showed 99.7–99.9 per cent similarity to A denticolens in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. In horses, the colonisation sites of A denticolens are the tonsils, thus the authors suggest that the tonsils provide the intrinsic infection site for A denticolens.

  3. Actinomyces denticolens colonisation identified in equine tonsillar crypts.

    PubMed

    Murakami, S; Otaki, M; Hayashi, Y; Higuchi, K; Kobayashi, T; Torii, Y; Yokoyama, E; Azuma, R

    2016-01-01

    Recently, submandibular abscesses associated with Actinomyces denticolens have been reported in horses. The actinomycotic clumps have been observed in the tonsillar crypts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate colonisation of A denticolens in equine tonsils. Twelve equine tonsils obtained from a slaughterhouse were divided into two parts for histopathological examination and for isolation of A denticolens. When actinomycotic clumps were found in these tonsillar crypts, immunohistochemistry using hyperimmune serum against A denticolens (DMS 20671) was performed on the serial sections. To determine whether Actinomyces-like bacteria isolated using immunoantigenic separation technique were A denticolens, the isolates were analysed for the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Actinomycotic clumps were found in the tonsillar crypts of 11 (91.7 per cent) horses. The clumps were of the saprophytic type accompanied with the feedstuffs, but a few clumps were surrounded by inflammatory cells. A denticolens antigens were immunodetected not only in the clumps of 11 (100 per cent) tonsils, but also in the tonsillar parenchyma. Six isolates obtained from four tonsils showed 99.7-99.9 per cent similarity to A denticolens in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. In horses, the colonisation sites of A denticolens are the tonsils, thus the authors suggest that the tonsils provide the intrinsic infection site for A denticolens. PMID:27651913

  4. A Pathological Analysis of Canaliculitis Concretions: More Than Just Actinomyces

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, John Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Canaliculitis is classically associated with Actinomyces species, which are filamentous bacteria; the purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which nonfilamentous bacteria colonize canalicular concretions by using graded histopathological analysis. Methods. This is a series of 16 cases. The percentage of Gram-positive/Gomori's methenamine silver-positive filamentous bacteria (Actinomyces) versus the total bacteria identified was graded, and the types of bacteria seen were recorded. Nonfilamentous bacteria were categorized based upon Gram stain (positive or negative) and morphology (cocci or rods). Results. There were 11 females and 5 males. Nonfilamentous bacteria were identified in 16 of 16 (100%) specimens and filamentous bacteria were identified in 15 of 16 (94%) specimens. The mean percentage of filamentous bacteria relative to total bacteria was 57%. Regarding the nonfilamentous bacteria present, 69% of specimens had Gram-positive cocci only, 25% had Gram-positive and Gram-negative cocci, and 6% had Gram-positive cocci and Gram-positive rods. Conclusion. In the current study, there was a mix of filamentous and nonfilamentous bacteria in almost all canalicular concretions analyzed. Nonfilamentous bacteria may contribute to the pathogenesis of canaliculitis. In addition, the success of bacterial culture can be variable; therefore, pathological analysis can assist in determining the etiology. PMID:27403375

  5. A Pathological Analysis of Canaliculitis Concretions: More Than Just Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Balaji; Carlson, John Andrew; Meyer, Dale Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Canaliculitis is classically associated with Actinomyces species, which are filamentous bacteria; the purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which nonfilamentous bacteria colonize canalicular concretions by using graded histopathological analysis. Methods. This is a series of 16 cases. The percentage of Gram-positive/Gomori's methenamine silver-positive filamentous bacteria (Actinomyces) versus the total bacteria identified was graded, and the types of bacteria seen were recorded. Nonfilamentous bacteria were categorized based upon Gram stain (positive or negative) and morphology (cocci or rods). Results. There were 11 females and 5 males. Nonfilamentous bacteria were identified in 16 of 16 (100%) specimens and filamentous bacteria were identified in 15 of 16 (94%) specimens. The mean percentage of filamentous bacteria relative to total bacteria was 57%. Regarding the nonfilamentous bacteria present, 69% of specimens had Gram-positive cocci only, 25% had Gram-positive and Gram-negative cocci, and 6% had Gram-positive cocci and Gram-positive rods. Conclusion. In the current study, there was a mix of filamentous and nonfilamentous bacteria in almost all canalicular concretions analyzed. Nonfilamentous bacteria may contribute to the pathogenesis of canaliculitis. In addition, the success of bacterial culture can be variable; therefore, pathological analysis can assist in determining the etiology. PMID:27403375

  6. Actinomyces denticolens colonisation identified in equine tonsillar crypts

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, S.; Otaki, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Higuchi, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Torii, Y.; Yokoyama, E.; Azuma, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, submandibular abscesses associated with Actinomyces denticolens have been reported in horses. The actinomycotic clumps have been observed in the tonsillar crypts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate colonisation of A denticolens in equine tonsils. Twelve equine tonsils obtained from a slaughterhouse were divided into two parts for histopathological examination and for isolation of A denticolens. When actinomycotic clumps were found in these tonsillar crypts, immunohistochemistry using hyperimmune serum against A denticolens (DMS 20671) was performed on the serial sections. To determine whether Actinomyces-like bacteria isolated using immunoantigenic separation technique were A denticolens, the isolates were analysed for the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Actinomycotic clumps were found in the tonsillar crypts of 11 (91.7 per cent) horses. The clumps were of the saprophytic type accompanied with the feedstuffs, but a few clumps were surrounded by inflammatory cells. A denticolens antigens were immunodetected not only in the clumps of 11 (100 per cent) tonsils, but also in the tonsillar parenchyma. Six isolates obtained from four tonsils showed 99.7–99.9 per cent similarity to A denticolens in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. In horses, the colonisation sites of A denticolens are the tonsils, thus the authors suggest that the tonsils provide the intrinsic infection site for A denticolens. PMID:27651913

  7. The cause of Actinomyces canalictulis--a case study.

    PubMed

    Olender, Alina; Matysik-Woźniak, Anna; Rymgayłło-Jankowska, Beata; Rejdak, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Actinomycosis of the lacrimal ducts is a rare chronic infection, caused by bacteria of the genus Actinomyces, usually A. israelii. The analyzed case of a 72-year-old man draws attention to the chronic nature of the infection and the need to thoroughly investigate the microbiological material sampled from the lacrimal ducts. Good effects of treatment resulted from oral use of doxycycline and local application of erythromycin. A precise removal of actinomycotic deposits and the applied antibiotic therapy resulted in a complete recovery without recurrences. The analyzed case confirms incidents in Poland of actinomycosis of the lacrimal ducts, and draws attention to this group of microorganisms that may cause infections in ophthalmology. This confirms the need for accurate diagnosis of microbial infections in the lacrimal ducts towards anaerobic bacteria. This would contribute to greater detection of a rare form of infection.

  8. Cervical spondylitis and spinal abscess due to Actinomyces meyeri.

    PubMed

    Duvignaud, Alexandre; Ribeiro, Emmanuel; Moynet, Daniel; Longy-Boursier, Maïté; Malvy, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Human actinomycosis with involvement of the spine is a rare condition although it has been first described a long time ago. It is probably underrecognized since its clinical presentation is often misleading and accurate bacteriological diagnosis is challenging. We herein report a rare case of cervical actinomycosis with paravertebral abscess and spondylitis imputed to an infection by Actinomyces meyeri in a 52-year-old immunocompetent Caucasian man. A. meyeri should be considered as a potential cause for subacute or chronic spondylitis, even in immunocompetent subjects. Modern diagnostic tools such as Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA sequencing are efficient for accurate microbiological identification.

  9. Actinomyces infection causing acute right iliac fossa pain

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajah, Narendranath; Hameed, Waseem; Middleton, Simon; Booth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This is a case of a 75-year-old man being admitted to the on-call surgical department with acute abdominal pain. On arrival he was clinically dehydrated and shocked with localised pain over McBurney's point and examination findings were suggestive of appendiceal or other colonic pathology. Full blood testing revealed a white cell count of 38×109/L and a C reactive protein (CRP) of 278 mg/L. A CT scan revealed a gallbladder empyema that extended into the right iliac fossa. This case highlights the potential for a hyperdistended gallbladder empyema to present as acute right iliac fossa pain with blood tests suggestive of complicated disease. Further analysis confirmed Actinomyces infection as the underlying aetiology prior to a laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy. This case serves to remind clinicians of this as a rare potential cause of atypical gallbladder pathology. PMID:24872493

  10. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis due to Actinomyces Mimicking a Perforation of the Proximal Jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Eenhuis, Louise L.; de Lange, Marleen E.; Samson, Anda D.; Busch, Olivier R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 42 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous pelvic-abdominal peritonitis due to actinomyces Symptoms: Abdominal distension • abdominal pain • acute abdomen • fever • intermenstrual bleeding • nausea • sepsis • septic shock Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Pelvic-abdominal actinomycosis is a rare chronic condition caused by an anaerobic, gram-negative rod-shaped commensal bacterium of the Actinomyces species. When Actinomyces becomes pathogenic, it frequently causes a chronic infection with granulomatous abscess formation with pus. Due to diversity in clinical and radiological presentation, actinomycosis can easily be mistaken for several other conditions. Peritonitis without preceding abscess formation caused by Actinomyces species has been described in only few cases before in literature. Case report: We report a case of spontaneous pelvic-abdominal peritonitis with presence of pneumoperitoneum and absence of preceding abscesses due to acute actinomycosis mimicking a perforation of the proximal jejunum in a 42-year-old female with an intra-uterine contraceptive device in place. Explorative laparotomy revealed 2 liters of odorless pus but no etiological explanation for the peritonitis. The intra-uterine contraceptive device was removed. Cultivation showed growth of Actinomyces turicensis. The patient was successfully treated with penicillin. Conclusions: In the case of primary bacterial peritonitis or lower abdominal pain without focus in a patient with an intrauterine device in situ, Actinomyces should be considered as a pathogen. PMID:27561364

  11. Actinomyces osteomyelitis in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ): the missing link?

    PubMed

    De Ceulaer, J; Tacconelli, E; Vandecasteele, S J

    2014-11-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a rare complication of bisphosphonate treatment characterized by the development of exposed, necrotic bone in the jaw with inflammatory signs. The pathogenesis of BRONJ is not yet fully understood. This review analyzes the evidence supporting the hypothesis that BRONJ may be considered as a bisphosphonate-induced Actinomyces infection of the jaw according to the modified Koch's postulates. The main arguments relies on the following factors: (1) the high prevalence of isolation of Actinomyces from bone BRONJ lesions (73.2 % in retrospective series); (2) the similar pathological appearance of BRONJ and Actinomyces osteomyelitis in most studies, although BRONJ lesions without inflammation have been reported; (3) the high incidence of events that disrupt the normal mucosal barrier as a necessary trigger to develop BRONJ in bisphosphonate-exposed patients; (4) the predilection of bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis for the bones of the jaws; and (5) the favorable response of BRONJ on treatment that is active on Actinomyces. If BRONJ confirms to be a bisphosphonate-induced Actinomyces osteomyelitis of the jaw, this has major consequences for the prevention and treatment of this condition.

  12. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis due to Actinomyces Mimicking a Perforation of the Proximal Jejunum.

    PubMed

    Eenhuis, Louise L; de Lange, Marleen E; Samson, Anda D; Busch, Olivier R C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pelvic-abdominal actinomycosis is a rare chronic condition caused by an anaerobic, gram-negative rod-shaped commensal bacterium of the Actinomyces species. When Actinomyces becomes pathogenic, it frequently causes a chronic infection with granulomatous abscess formation with pus. Due to diversity in clinical and radiological presentation, actinomycosis can easily be mistaken for several other conditions. Peritonitis without preceding abscess formation caused by Actinomyces species has been described in only few cases before in literature. CASE REPORT We report a case of spontaneous pelvic-abdominal peritonitis with presence of pneumoperitoneum and absence of preceding abscesses due to acute actinomycosis mimicking a perforation of the proximal jejunum in a 42-year-old female with an intra-uterine contraceptive device in place. Explorative laparotomy revealed 2 liters of odorless pus but no etiological explanation for the peritonitis. The intra-uterine contraceptive device was removed. Cultivation showed growth of Actinomyces turicensis. The patient was successfully treated with penicillin. CONCLUSIONS In the case of primary bacterial peritonitis or lower abdominal pain without focus in a patient with an intra-uterine device in situ, Actinomyces should be considered as a pathogen. PMID:27561364

  13. Actinomyces haliotis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong-Wook; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Pil Soo; Kim, Joon Yong; Whon, Tae Woong; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2014-02-01

    A novel, Gram-staining-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile and coccus-shaped bacterium, strain WL80(T), was isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, collected from the northern coast of Jeju in Korea. Optimal growth occurred at 30 °C, pH 7-8 and with 1% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain WL80(T) fell within the cluster of the genus Actinomyces, with highest sequence similarity to the type strains of Actinomyces radicidentis (98.8% similarity) and Actinomyces urogenitalis (97.0% similarity). The major cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c and C16 : 0. Menaquinone-10 (H4) was the major respiratory quinone. The genomic DNA G+C content of the isolate was 70.4 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values with closely related strains indicated less than 7.6% genomic relatedness. The results of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genotypic analyses indicated that strain WL80(T) represents a novel species of the genus Actinomyces, for which the name Actinomyces haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WL80(T) ( = KACC 17211(T) = JCM 18848(T)).

  14. Actinomyces naeslundii and Eikenella corrodens as rare causes of liver abscesses.

    PubMed

    Jaqua, Nathan Thomas; Smith, Adam J; Shin, Terry T; Jahanmir, Jay

    2013-07-17

    A 48-year-old man with an unremarkable medical history was admitted with vague conditions of fever, chills, myalgias and malaise. Physical examination was remarkable for only scleral icterus. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Imaging demonstrated two masses in the right lobe of his liver, which were ultimately drained and cultures demonstrated Actinomyces and Eikenella. He continued to have fever on broad-spectrum antibiotics until catheter drainage of the abscesses was performed. He was eventually discharged in improved condition on amoxicillin-clavulanate. His aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin continued to improve and he remained afebrile and asymptomatic. A repeat CT 2 months after discharge demonstrated resolution of the abscesses. Actinomyces and Eikenella are rare causes of liver abscesses and treatment requires drainage and an extended course of antibiotics. The polymicrobial character typical of liver abscesses makes antibiotic therapy challenging when cultures reveal rare organisms such as Actinomyces and Eikenella.

  15. Purulent meningitis caused by Actinomyces successfully treated with rifampicin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Keiko; Kamitani, Hideki; Nakayasu, Hiroyuki; Asai, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman presented with fever and headache. Lumbar puncture revealed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that contained 67,386 /mm(3) of WBC; CSF culture revealed Actinomyces species. She was diagnosed with purulent meningitis caused by actinomyces, and treated with intravenous ampicillin 12 g/day. The administration of ampicillin was effective, but not sufficient to control the inflammation in CSF. CSF inflammation persisted and a gradual increase in granulation tissue was found in the subdural space on lumbar MRI. After administration of rifampicin 450 mg/day, the CSF was normalized and the enhancement of granulation tissue decreased. The patient completely recovered 5 months after the therapy was initiated. We suggest that rifampicin may be an option for the treatment of meningitis caused by actinomyces.

  16. [Screening of antifungi endophytic actinomyces strains from salvia przewalskii in Tibean Plateau].

    PubMed

    Liu, Song-Qing; Jiang, Hua-Ming; Guan, Tong-Wei; Qi, Shan-Shan; Gu, Yun-Fu; Zhao, Ke; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Twenty-four endophytic actinomycetes strains were isolated from the Salvia przewalskii in Tibetan Plateau of China by tablet coating method. Fusarium moniliforme, Helminthosporium turcicum and Bipolaris maydis were selected as indicator fungi to test the antimicrobial activities of these endophytic actinomycetes by tablet confrontation method. The results showed that 21 strains can produce antimicrobial substances which accounts for 85.7% of the total separates number. Four strains of endogenous actinomyces have more obvious antifungi activity. According to results of morphology and culture properties and 16S rDNA sequences of endophytic actinomyces, it is concluded that all of the isolates were streptomycetes trains.

  17. Further characteristics of Actinomyces weissii, a novel species isolated from the oral cavity of dogs.

    PubMed

    Hijazin, Muaz; Alber, Jörg; Lämmler, Christoph; Hassan, Abdulwahed Ahmed; Timke, Markus; Kostrzewa, Markus; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Zschöck, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Comparable to previously conducted phenotypical and genotypical investigations (Hijazin et al., 2011c), three strains of the newly described species Actinomyces weissii, isolated from infections of the oral cavity of three dogs could be classified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and by sequencing the target genes 23S rDNA and cpn60 as novel species of genus Actinomyces. The detection of peptidic spectra and both genotypic approaches might help to identify A. weissii in future and elucidate the role this species plays in infections of dogs.

  18. Fluoride-sensitivity of growth and acid production of oral Actinomyces: comparison with oral Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Junko; Nakajo, Kazuko; Washio, Jumpei; Mayanagi, Gen; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2013-12-01

    Actinomyces are predominant oral bacteria; however, their cariogenic potential in terms of acid production and fluoride sensitivity has not been elucidated in detail and compared with that of other caries-associated oral bacteria, such as Streptococcus. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate and compare the acid production and growth of Actinomyces and Streptococcus in the presence of bicarbonate and fluoride to mimic conditions in the oral cavity. Acid production from glucose was measured by pH-stat at pH 5.5 and 7.0 under anaerobic conditions. Growth rate was assessed by optical density in anaerobic culture. Although Actinomyces produced acid at a lower rate than did Streptococcus, their acid production was more tolerant of fluoride (IDacid production 50 = 110-170 ppm at pH 7.0 and 10-13 ppm at pH 5.5) than that of Streptococcus (IDacid production 50 = 36-53 ppm at pH 7.0 and 6.3-6.5 ppm at pH 5.5). Bicarbonate increased acid production by Actinomyces with prominent succinate production and enhanced their fluoride tolerance (IDacid production 50 = 220-320 ppm at pH 7.0 and 33-52 ppm at pH 5.5). Bicarbonate had no effect on these variables in Streptococcus. In addition, although the growth rate of Actinomyces was lower than that of Streptococcus, Actinomyces growth was more tolerant of fluoride (IDgrowth 50 = 130-160 ppm) than was that of Streptococcus (IDgrowth 50 = 27-36 ppm). These results indicate that oral Actinomyces are more tolerant of fluoride than oral Streptococcus, and bicarbonate enhances the fluoride tolerance of oral Actinomyces. Because of the limited number of species tested here, further study is needed to generalize these findings to the genus level.

  19. Super Infection of An Ovarian Dermoid Cyst with Actinomyces in An Infertile Woman

    PubMed Central

    Salehpour, Saghar; Akbari Sene, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    We present super infection of an ovarian dermoid cyst with actinomyces in an infertile patient. This is a case-report study for evaluation a couple with male factor infertility, who was a good candidate for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), while a 10 cm dermoid cyst was found in the woman’s right ovary. Patient complained of pelvic pain, intermittent fever, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia. The cyst was extracted using laparoscopy, whilst in histopathological examination, an actinomycosis super infection was reported. Actinomyc super infection of an ovarian dermoid cyst is a very rare incident which can also occur in women with no history of intrauterine device (IUD) usage or previous fertility. PMID:24520476

  20. The rising tide of bloodstream infections with Actinomyces species: bimicrobial infection with Actinomyces odontolyticus and Escherichia coli in an intravenous drug user.

    PubMed

    Weiand, Daniel; Barlow, Gavin

    2014-12-01

    Clinicians of all specialties need to be aware of a recent, nationwide increase in the number of Actinomyces bloodstream infections. We report a case of bimicrobial bloodstream infection with Actinomyces odontolyticus and Escherichia coli in an intravenous drug user. A 36-year-old, male intravenous drug user was admitted with acute-onset pleuritic chest pain, back pain, pyrexia, tachycardia, tachypnoea and hypotension. Chest CT showed multiple, bilateral, cavitating lung lesions, most likely the result of septic emboli originating from an infected deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Blood cultures led to a mixed growth of A. odontolyticus, identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF), and E. coli. The rising tide of bloodstream infections with Actinomyces species is likely to continue with the increasing availability of sophisticated molecular identification techniques, including MALDI-TOF. In this case, the results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests were particularly important because the E. coli was susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whereas the A. odontolyticus was resistant.

  1. The rising tide of bloodstream infections with Actinomyces species: bimicrobial infection with Actinomyces odontolyticus and Escherichia coli in an intravenous drug user

    PubMed Central

    Weiand, Daniel; Barlow, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians of all specialties need to be aware of a recent, nationwide increase in the number of Actinomyces bloodstream infections. We report a case of bimicrobial bloodstream infection with Actinomyces odontolyticus and Escherichia coli in an intravenous drug user. A 36-year-old, male intravenous drug user was admitted with acute-onset pleuritic chest pain, back pain, pyrexia, tachycardia, tachypnoea and hypotension. Chest CT showed multiple, bilateral, cavitating lung lesions, most likely the result of septic emboli originating from an infected deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Blood cultures led to a mixed growth of A. odontolyticus, identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF), and E. coli. The rising tide of bloodstream infections with Actinomyces species is likely to continue with the increasing availability of sophisticated molecular identification techniques, including MALDI-TOF. In this case, the results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests were particularly important because the E. coli was susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whereas the A. odontolyticus was resistant. PMID:25988064

  2. [Effect of organic acids on the biosynthesis of carotenes by an Actinomyces chrysomallus strain].

    PubMed

    Nefelova, M V; Sverdlova, A N; Alekseeva, L N

    1978-01-01

    Synthesis of carotenes by Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides was stimulated by citric, acetic, oxalacetic, fumaric, succinic, malic, alpha-ketoglutaric, tartaric, pyruvic, and propionic acids. Acetic acid acts as a precursor of carotene synthesis and also has another stimulating mechanism of action on carotenogenesis of the actinomycete. Acetic, furmaric, malic, succinic, and alpha-ketoglutaric acids stimulate cyclization of lycopene yielding beta-carotene.

  3. [The effect of beta-ionine on biosynthesis of carotenes by Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides].

    PubMed

    Sverdlova, A N; Alekseeva, L N; Nefelova, M V

    1977-01-01

    Biosynthesis of carotenoids by a growing culture of Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides is totally inhibited by beta-ionone added at different concentrations, at various time of the cultural growth, and in various combinations with oil. The inhibition of carotenoid synthesis by beta-ionone is of a specific character since the biomass growth under the same conditions does not increase.

  4. Coinfection of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Actinomyces israelii in mastoiditis diagnosed by next-generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Salipante, Stephen J; Hoogestraat, Daniel R; Abbott, April N; SenGupta, Dhruba J; Cummings, Lisa A; Butler-Wu, Susan M; Stephens, Karen; Cookson, Brad T; Hoffman, Noah G

    2014-05-01

    Some bacterial infections involve potentially complex mixtures of species that can now be distinguished using next-generation DNA sequencing. We present a case of mastoiditis where Gram stain, culture, and molecular diagnosis were nondiagnostic or discrepant. Next-generation sequencing implicated coinfection of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Actinomyces israelii, resolving these diagnostic discrepancies.

  5. Draft genome sequences of Actinomyces timonensis strain 7400942T and its prophage.

    PubMed

    Gorlas, Aurore; Gimenez, Grégory; Raoult, Didier; Roux, Véronique

    2012-12-01

    A draft genome sequence of Actinomyces timonensis, an anaerobic bacterium isolated from a human clinical osteoarticular sample, is described here. CRISPR-associated proteins, insertion sequence, and toxin-antitoxin loci were found on the genome. A new virus or provirus, AT-1, was characterized.

  6. Submandibular lymph node abscess caused by Actinomyces denticolens in a horse in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Aswin; Baird, John D.; Slavić, Đurda

    2011-01-01

    This is the first report of the isolation of Actinomyces denticolens, an opportunistic pathogen, from a draining submandibular lymph node abscess in a horse in Ontario. Due to the similarity of the clinical signs with strangles, this pathogen should be included in the differential diagnosis of submandibular lymphadenopathy in the horse. PMID:22043071

  7. In situ hybridization for the differentiation of Actinomyces and Nocardia in tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Isotalo, Phillip A; Qian, Xiang; Hayden, Randall T; Roberts, Glenn D; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2009-09-01

    The specific identification of filamentous bacteria in tissue sections can be difficult. The filamentous bacteria Actinomyces and Nocardia often produce similar host responses and single bacterial organisms seem morphologically similar; however, their differentiation may be clinically significant. In situ hybridization (ISH) may assist in the rapid and accurate identification of these microorganisms. In this study, DNA probes were directed against the variable regions of 16S ribosomal RNA genes of multiple Actinomyces and Nocardia spp. Probes were tested on 26 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens, each of which contained diagnostic foci of filamentous bacteria confirmed by both Gram and Grocott methenamine silver stains. On the basis of histology and clinical features, cases were classified as Actinomyces-related, n = 13 with 6 culture-proven cases and Nocardia-related, n = 13 with 11 culture-proven cases. Using this classification, all cases were assessed for cross-reactivity using other species-specific probes and probe specificity was determined. Overall, Gram and Grocott methenamine silver histochemical stains (100% sensitivity) were more sensitive than ISH (77% sensitivity for both Actinomyces and Nocardia probes). The slender caliber of filamentous bacteria was a limitation for ISH interpretation and necessitated careful examination of some slides. Probes demonstrated 100% specificity for identifying both species, 100% positive predictive value and 81% negative predictive value. No mixed infections were observed. This study demonstrates that ISH is highly specific for distinguishing between Actinomyces and Nocardia spp. in tissue sections. Although histochemical stains demonstrate greater sensitivity for organism detection, ISH is a rapid and specific technique that is especially useful for evaluating culture-negative or clinically unsuspected cases of filamentous bacterial infection.

  8. [Ovarian abscess due to Actinomyces sp. in absence of an intrauterine contraceptive device].

    PubMed

    Burlando, S C; Paz, L A; De Feo, L G; Benchetrit, G; Rimoldi, D; Predari, S C

    2001-01-01

    The disease caused by Actinomyces spp. is often of difficult diagnosis. Actinomyces spp. are anaerobic or microaerophilic non-spore-forming gram-positive rods that may reach, occasionally, the normal female genital tract. IUD and pessaries facilitate the access of the microorganisms to the pelvis. We report an unusual case of ovarian infection by Actinomyces sp. in a 41 year-old female without IUD, admitted at the Institute in November 1998, with persistent fever. She had had an early menopause 3 years before, and had received hormonal replacement therapy. Usual and unusual infections were discarded by microbiological and serologic studies. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a slight left pyelocalycial dilatation and a simple cyst in the left ovary; heart ultrasonography was normal. Gynecological examination showed an enlarged uterus, similar to an 8 week pregnancy, painless, and fixed anexial masses. The transvaginal ultrasonography showed uterine myomas, one of them of 42 mm in the isthmus region, large ovaries, cystic, with acoustic shadows, and the left one with a septum. The preoperative diagnosis was infected bilateral cystic teratoma. The procedure was an exploratory laparotomy, followed by a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The specimen studies showed an endometrioma with calcium deposits in the wall of the right ovary, and an abscess in the left ovary, also with calcification of the wall. The sample from the left abscess developed Actinomyces sp. After surgery, and treatment with penicillin, the fever disappeared. It is important to remark that the ovarian infection by Actinomyces sp. can also occur in patients without an IUD or a pessary; it might cause anexial images that can be interpreted as a tumour, inducing to erroneous diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Identification of Actinomyces meyeri actinomycosis in middle ear and mastoid by 16S rRNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Kakuta, Risako; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Yano, Hisakazu; Miyazaki, Hiromitsu; Suzaki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Kanamori, Hajime; Endo, Shiro; Hirakata, Yoichi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    2013-08-01

    Actinomycosis of the middle ear and mastoid is extremely rare. Here, we report a unique case of actinomycosis of the middle ear and mastoid caused by Actinomyces meyeri diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

  10. Genome sequence and description of Actinomyces polynesiensis str. MS2 sp. nov. isolated from the human gut.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, T; Metidji, S; Labas, N; Le Page, S; Musso, D; Raoult, D; Rolain, J-M

    2016-07-01

    Actinomyces polynesiensis strain MS2 gen. nov., sp. nov. is a newly proposed genus within the family Actinomycetaceae, isolated from the stools of a healthy individual in Raiatea Island (French Polynesia, South Pacific). Actinomyces massiliensis is an anaerobic, Gram-positive organism. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation-2 943 271 bp with a 70.80% G+C content, assembled into 15 scaffolds and containing 2080 genes.

  11. Actinomyces urogenitalis bacteremia and tubo-ovarian abscess after an in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure.

    PubMed

    Van Hoecke, Frederik; Beuckelaers, Ellen; Lissens, Peter; Boudewijns, Michael

    2013-12-01

    We describe the first case of bacteremia due to Actinomyces urogenitalis. Bacteremia was secondary to a tubo-ovarian abscess following transvaginal oocyte retrieval. Identification was established by matrix-assisted desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A. urogenitalis should be considered as a potential causative agent of infection after gynecological procedures.

  12. Empyema Secondary to Actinomyces meyeri Treated Successfully with Ceftriaxone Followed by Doxycycline

    PubMed Central

    Piscopo, Tonio; Cassar, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a relatively rare infection caused by Gram-positive bacteria. We present the case of a 54-year-old, previously healthy, male patient with a history of severe penicillin allergy who developed severe pneumonia and empyema caused by Actinomyces meyeri. Presenting symptoms included productive cough, right upper quadrant pain, and chills and rigors. He required drainage of the empyema via tube and prolonged antibiotic treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone for 2 weeks followed by oral doxycycline for 6 months. PMID:27752374

  13. Study of precipitation reactions to Actinomyces israelii antigens in uterine secretions.

    PubMed

    Persson, E; Holmberg, K

    1985-01-01

    Uterine secretions were obtained from 110 women and analysed by counterimmunoelectrophoresis for the occurrence of precipitation reactions against Actinomyces israelii antigens. Precipitation reactions were found in secretions from seven women and a correlation was found between these reactions and long term use of plastic intrauterine devices. The precipitating components could not be proved to be immunoglobulins; neither could identity be shown with IgG precipitins in reference serum. The nature and the importance of the precipitating components are discussed.

  14. Solitary plasmacytoma of the tonsillar site associated with actinomyces infection: the possible role of IL-6.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, R; Rosini, S; Aiello, F B; Rullo, A; Croce, A; Lattanzio, G; Viola, P

    2012-01-01

    ExtraMedullary Plasmacytoma (EMP) is a rare plasma cell tumor. It can occur in the upper aerodigestive tract and presents as a large nodule causing local compressive symptoms. A 79-year old woman presented to Otorhinolaryngology Department with progressive hearing loss and no other symptoms. Following PET/TC examination due to the suspicion of a lymphoproliferative disease, the patient underwent tonsillectomy and the diagnosis of solitary EMP was formulated. In addition to that, the histological examination of the tonsillar tissue revealed large colonies of filamentous bacteria, showing abundant sulphur granules and Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon; these evidences indicating the presence of a chronic Actinomyces infection. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a marked IL-6 immunoreactivity of the neoplastic plasma cells. Interestingly, a marked IL-6 immunoreactivity was also found in the tissue surrounding the Actinomyces colonies. In the present study we report for the first time a solitary EMP associated with Actinomycosis. It is tempting to speculate that the unsuspected and untreated Actinomyces infection, through chronic IL-6 production, could contribute to the neoplastic transformation of plasma cells.

  15. Actinomyces timonensis sp. nov., isolated from a human clinical osteo-articular sample.

    PubMed

    Renvoise, Aurélie; Raoult, Didier; Roux, Véronique

    2010-07-01

    Gram-positive, non-spore-forming rods were isolated from a human osteo-articular sample (strain 7400942(T)). Based on cellular morphology and the results of biochemical analysis, this strain was tentatively identified as a novel species of the genus Actinomyces. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the bacterium was closely related to the type strain of Actinomyces denticolens (96.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). A comparison of biochemical traits showed that strain 7400942(T) was distinct from A. denticolens in a number of characteristics, i.e. in contrast with A. denticolens, strain 7400942(T) was negative for nitrate reduction and for beta-galactosidase, alpha-glucosidase and alanine arylamidase activities, it was positive for acid production from N-acetylglucosamine, melezitose and glycogen, and it was negative for acid production from turanose. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS protein analysis confirmed that strain 7400942(T) represents a novel species, as scores obtained for its spectra were significant (>2.2) only with strain 7400942(T). On the basis of phenotypic data and phylogenetic inference, it is proposed that this strain should be designated Actinomyces timonensis sp. nov.; the type strain is strain 7400942(T) (=CSUR P35(T)=CCUG 55928(T)).

  16. Primary actinomycosis of the breast caused by Actinomyces turicensis with associated Peptoniphilus harei.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahman, Ganiy Opeyemi; Gateley, Christopher Alan

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis of the breast is a rare disease which may mimic malignancy in presentation. Clinical presentation may make it difficult to distinguish primary actinomycosis from mastitis and inflammatory carcinoma. A 22-year-old lady presented with a 3-week history of right breast pain and greenish discharge through her nipple piercing. Physical examination revealed a palpable fluctuant lump in the upper inner quadrant of the right breast and a nipple jewelry in-situ in the upper inner quadrant of the right breast with an abscess at the edge of the areola. Needle aspiration was performed and microbiological examination of the aspirate isolated Actinomyces turicensis and Peptoniphilus harei. Actinomycosis of the breast is rare and the specie, Actinomyces turicensis, is even rarer especially in association with Peptoniphilus harei. Actinomyces is a difficult organism to treat due to its relative indolent course with potential scarring and disruption of local tissue. However, surgical intervention could be avoided with an intensive course of high-dose intravenous antibiotics and prolonged oral antibiotics afterwards.

  17. [Isolation and identification of imazethapyr degradable actinomyces S181 and its degradation characteristics].

    PubMed

    Huo, Ying; Xu, Jing-gang; Li, Shu-qin; Wang, Lei

    2011-05-01

    A selection of actinomyces that could degrade imazethapyr was conducted to provide actinomyces source for bioremediation of soil contaminated by imazethapyr. A strain of actinomyces was isolated from the samples of soil where imazethapyr had been applied for a long-term by use of bottle enriched culture and named S181. The strain had strong ability to degrade imazethapyr and could grow using mazethapyr as the sole nitrogen. The strain was related and shared characteristics to genus Streptomyces omiyaensis according to the physiological and biochemical properties as well as 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The influencing factors (temperature, pH, concentration and inoculum) were studied with fungus growth mass and degradation ratio as indexes. The results showed that the optimal degradation ratio occurred at the condition of inoculation ratio of 3%, 200 mg x L(-1) imazethapyr, at 30 degrees C and pH 7.0. Under these conditions, 84% imazethapyr had been degraded by S181 in medium Gao 1 without nitrogen after 5 days.

  18. Nitrogenous compounds stimulate glucose-derived acid production by oral Streptococcus and Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, Yuka; Kawashima, Junko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Both Streptococcus and Actinomyces can produce acids from dietary sugars and are frequently found in caries lesions. In the oral cavity, nitrogenous compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, are provided continuously by saliva and crevicular gingival fluid. Given that these bacteria can also utilize nitrogen compounds for their growth, it was hypothesized that nitrogenous compounds may influence their acid production; however, no previous studies have examined this topic. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of nitrogenous compounds (tryptone and glutamate) on glucose-derived acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces. Acid production was evaluated using a pH-stat method under anaerobic conditions, whereas the amounts of metabolic end-products were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Tryptone enhanced glucose-derived acid production by up to 2.68-fold, whereas glutamate enhanced Streptococcus species only. However, neither tryptone nor glutamate altered the end-product profiles, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds stimulate the whole metabolic pathways involving in acid production from glucose, but are not actively metabolized, nor do they alter metabolic pathways. These results suggest that nitrogenous compounds in the oral cavity promote acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces in vivo.

  19. Genome sequence and description of Actinomyces polynesiensis str. MS2 sp. nov. isolated from the human gut.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, T; Metidji, S; Labas, N; Le Page, S; Musso, D; Raoult, D; Rolain, J-M

    2016-07-01

    Actinomyces polynesiensis strain MS2 gen. nov., sp. nov. is a newly proposed genus within the family Actinomycetaceae, isolated from the stools of a healthy individual in Raiatea Island (French Polynesia, South Pacific). Actinomyces massiliensis is an anaerobic, Gram-positive organism. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation-2 943 271 bp with a 70.80% G+C content, assembled into 15 scaffolds and containing 2080 genes. PMID:27200177

  20. Fournier's gangrene caused by Actinomyces funkei, Fusobacterium gonidiaformans and Clostridium hathewayi.

    PubMed

    Tena, Daniel; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2014-06-01

    We report the first case of Fournier's gangrene caused by three unusual anaerobic organisms: Actinomyces funkei, Fusobacterium gonidiaformans and Clostridium hathewayi. The infection occurred in a 73-year-old man without typical risk factors for the development of Fournier's gangrene. Clinical outcome was good after prolonged antibiotic treatment and extensive debridement of the perineum. The case suggests that A. funkei, F. gonidiaformans and C. hathewayi should be considered as potential pathogens of Fournier's gangrene. Human infections caused by these organisms are very rare but can be underestimated because correct identification is very difficult, especially in polymicrobial infections such as Fournier's gangrene.

  1. Intrauterine device infection causing concomitant streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and pelvic abscess with Actinomyces odontolyticus bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Carolyn M Yu; Noska, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are rarely associated with serious infections. We report an unusual concomitant infection of group A Streptococcus (GAS) causing toxic shock syndrome and pelvic abscess with Actinomyces odontolyticus associated with an IUD in a healthy 50-year-old patient. The IUD was subsequently removed and the patient recovered on the appropriate antibiotics. This case highlights the importance of clinicians' high index of suspicion of an IUD infection and prompt removal of the infected foreign body to obtain source control. PMID:26965406

  2. Role of hydrogen peroxide in competition and cooperation between Streptococcus gordonii and Actinomyces naeslundii.

    PubMed

    Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Gill, Steven R; Vickerman, M Margaret; Kolenbrander, Paul E

    2008-12-01

    In dental plaque alpha-haemolytic streptococci, including Streptococcus gordonii, are considered beneficial for oral health. These organisms produce hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) at concentrations sufficient to kill many oral bacteria. Streptococci do not produce catalase yet tolerate H(2)O(2). We recently demonstrated that coaggregation with Actinomyces naeslundii stabilizes arginine biosynthesis in S. gordonii. Protein arginine residues are sensitive to oxidation by H(2)O(2). Here, the ability of A. naeslundii to protect S. gordonii against self-produced H(2)O(2) was investigated. Coaggregation with A. naeslundii enabled S. gordonii to grow in the absence of arginine, and promoted survival of S. gordonii following growth with or without added arginine. Arginine-replete S. gordonii monocultures contained 20-30 microM H(2)O(2) throughout exponential growth. Actinomyces naeslundii did not produce H(2)O(2) but synthesized catalase, removed H(2)O(2) from coaggregate cultures and decreased protein oxidation in S. gordonii. On solid medium, S. gordonii inhibited growth of A. naeslundii; exogenous catalase overcame this inhibition. In coaggregate cultures, A. naeslundii cell numbers were >90% lower than in monocultures after 24 h. These results indicate that coaggregation with A. naeslundii protects S. gordonii from oxidative damage. However, high cell densities of S. gordonii inhibit A. naeslundii. Therefore, H(2)O(2) may drive these organisms towards an ecologically balanced community in natural dental plaque.

  3. Pulmonary Actinomyces graevenitzii infection presenting as organizing pneumonia diagnosed by PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yu; Iikura, Motoyasu; Horio, Yuko; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

    2012-08-01

    We report what is believed to be the first case of pulmonary Actinomyces graevenitzii infection presenting as organizing pneumonia. Fever and night sweats developed in a 69-year-old male. The only abnormal laboratory data were an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level. On chest images, multiple consolidations with air bronchograms were seen in the bilateral lungs. Histological examination from lung biopsy revealed a pattern of organizing pneumonia with microabscesses, but definitive diagnosis was not obtained because culture from lung specimen was negative. A. graevenitzii was eventually identified in the lung biopsy specimen by detection of an Actinomyces-specific PCR product followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patient was treated with high-dose ampicillin intravenously for 1 month, followed by oral amoxicillin and clarithromycin for 6 months, and recovered. We suggest that actinomycosis can present as organizing pneumonia, and identification of infection by PCR analysis and rRNA gene sequencing is a useful strategy in cases that are difficult to diagnose.

  4. Actinomyces-induced inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the colon: A rare cause of an abdominal mass

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sami; Yagmur, Yusuf; Gumus, Serdar; Sogutcu, Nilgun; Demircan, Firat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMFTs) are neoplastic lesions that are either benign or have low-grade malignancy potential. Although the etiopathogenesis is not entirely clear, many factors play a role in their development, including trauma, autoimmune disorders, and infectious and inflammatory processes. However, IMFTs caused by Actinomyces spp. infection are rare, with a limited number of cases reported in the literature. Presentation of case A 30-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with abdominal pain and a palpable abdominal mass. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a tumoral lesion (11 × 10 × 7 cm) in the right colon. A right hemicolectomy and ileocolic anastomosis were performed, during which almost complete obstruction of the lumen by the 7.5 × 7.0 × 5.0 cm tumor was observed. Histopathology and immunohistochemical findings revealed that the tumor was consistent with an IMFT that developed from an Actinomyces infection. The patient was then placed on amoxicillin and doxycycline therapy. Conclusion This case demonstrates that the development of IMFT secondary to actinomycosis is difficult to predict in the preoperative period. Once an exact diagnosis is confirmed by histopathologic examination, affected patients should receive prolonged antibiotherapy. PMID:25704558

  5. Nitrogen-Containing and Carbohydrate-Containing Antigen from Actinomyces bovis

    PubMed Central

    Pirtle, E. C.; Rebers, P. A.; Weigel, W. W.

    1965-01-01

    Pirtle, E. C. (National Animal Disease Laboratory, Ames, Iowa), P. A. Rebers, and W. W. Weigel. Nitrogen-containing and carbohydrate-containing antigen from Actinomyces bovis. J. Bacteriol. 89:880–888. 1965.—Water-soluble, heat-stable antigens have been isolated from the supernatant fluids of broth cultures of Actinomyces bovis ATCC 10048 after 8 days of growth in a broth medium composed of Casamino Acids, yeast extract, Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate), sodium thioglycolate, dextrose, and sodium chloride. The antigens were precipitated from the culture supernatant fluid with alcohol and purified by fractional precipitation with alcohol in the presence of calcium or zinc and by chromatography on diethylaminoethyl Sephadex. Two serologically active substances which differed in chemical composition and size were characterized. The larger one contained 71% hexose and 2.8% nitrogen, and the smaller one contained 45% hexose and 5.4% nitrogen. Heterogeneity of these fractions could not be demonstrated by electrophoresis in free solution at pH 7.8 or 2, by ultracentrifugal analysis, by double diffusion in agar, or by immunoelectrophoresis. Despite their differences in chemical composition and size, they appeared identical in activity as antigens in complement fixation and in double-diffusion tests in agar. Each was found to contain mannose as its chief component after hydrolysis and paper chromatography with three solvent systems. A small percentage of the total nitrogen may be attributed to the presence of amino sugars but the remainder is as yet unidentified. Images PMID:14273674

  6. Actinomyces israelii in osteoradionecrosis of the jaws. Histopathologic and immunocytochemical study of five cases

    SciTech Connect

    Happonen, R.P.; Viander, M.; Pelliniemi, L.; Aitasalo, K.

    1983-06-01

    Five surgically treated patients with osteoradionecrosis of the jaws are presented. The clinical history of the disease varied from 3 to 17 years. In three cases the progression of the disease was enhanced by surgical procedures performed in the irradiated area causing exfoliation of the premaxillary area in one case and spontaneous mandibular fracture in two cases. Actinomyces israelii was demonstrated in tissue sections of all five cases by using FITC-labeled specific antiserum and additionally with peroxidase-antiperoxidase method in one case. Candida was found in histologic sections of three cases. Radiation damage in the oral soft tissues and jawbones makes the atmosphere favorable for anaerobic microorganisms. The present results indicate that the role of A. israelii in the pathogenesis of osteoradionecrosis of the jaws has not been fully appreciated.

  7. Isolation of Actinomyces hyovaginalis from sheep and comparison with isolates obtained from pigs.

    PubMed

    Foster, Geoffrey; Wragg, Peter; Koylass, Mark S; Whatmore, Adrian M; Hoyles, Lesley

    2012-06-15

    Actinomyces hyovaginalis, an organism initially described from pigs, was recovered from nine sheep and a moufflon. Further strains of A. hyovaginalis were recovered from five samples from pigs over the same period. 16S rRNA sequencing and extensive phenotyping demonstrated high similarity between the ovine and porcine isolates; however differences with respect to erythritol, adonitol and l-arabitol fermentation were detected. Ovine isolates were made from various sample sites including abscesses and highlight the importance of the accurate identification of the various coryneform isolates which affect sheep. A. hyovaginalis can be added to the growing list of coryneforms which can cause disease in sheep including Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Trueperella pyogenes and Arcanobacterium pluranimalium.

  8. Olecranon Osteomyelitis due to Actinomyces meyeri: Report of a Culture-Proven Case

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eun Kyung; Moon, Song Mi; Seo, Yiel-Hea; Jeong, Juhyeon; Cho, Hyuni; Yang, Dongki

    2016-01-01

    Actinomyces meyeri is a Gram positive, strict anaerobic bacterium, which was first described by Meyer in 1911. Primary actinomycotic osteomyelitis is rare and primarily affects the cervicofacial region, including mandible. We present an unusual case of osteomyelitis of a long bone combined with myoabscess due to A. meyeri. A 70-year-old man was admitted for pain and pus discharge of the right elbow. Twenty-five days before admission, he had hit his elbow against a table. MRI of the elbow showed a partial tear of the distal triceps tendon and myositis. He underwent open debridement and partial bone resection for the osteomyelitis of the olecranon. Biopsy showed no sulfur granules, but acute and chronic osteomyelitis. The excised tissue grew A. meyeri and Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus. Intravenous ceftriaxone was administered and switched to oral amoxicillin. Infection of the extremities of actinomycosis often poses diagnostic difficulties, but it should not be neglected even when the characteristic pathologic findings are not present. PMID:27659433

  9. Long-term survival in a dog with meningoencephalitis and epidural abscessation due to Actinomyces species.

    PubMed

    Song, Rachel B; Vitullo, Carina A; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Daniels, Joshua B

    2015-07-01

    A 2-year-old, female spayed Golden Retriever dog was presented to The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center for evaluation of ataxia, cervical pain, 1 episode of acute collapse, dull mentation, and inappetence. Physical examination revealed an elevated temperature of 39.7°C and severe cervical pain. Blood work revealed a mature neutrophilia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed nondegenerative neutrophilic pleocytosis with no infectious agents. A presumptive diagnosis of steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis was made, and corticosteroid therapy was started. The patient improved initially but experienced a vestibular episode characterized by falling and vertical nystagmus. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed an epidural abscess in the cervical vertebral canal and diffuse meningeal enhancement in the brain and cranial cervical spine. Abscess drainage revealed degenerate neutrophils and several filamentous, branching organisms. Culture of the initial CSF using an enrichment broth revealed growth of a Gram-positive organism 5 days after fluid collection. The isolate was identified by partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing as Actinomyces spp. The patient was successfully treated with long-term antibiotics. Our study reports the long-term survival after medical treatment of bacterial meningoencephalitis and epidural abscessation due to Actinomyces sp. infection in a dog. Bacterial meningoencephalitis should be included as a differential diagnosis in patients with cervical pain and fever, even when a nondegenerative neutrophilic pleocytosis is found on CSF analysis. Culture of the CSF with use of an enrichment broth should be considered in all cases of neutrophilic pleocytosis to rule out infections of the central nervous system.

  10. [Amino acid composition and quaternary structure of glucosoisomerase (d-xylose-ketol-isomerase) from Actinomyces olivocinereus 154].

    PubMed

    Rezchikov, A A; Ulezlo, I V; Ananichev, A V; Bezborodov, A M

    1980-01-01

    The amino acid composition of glucosoisomerase from Actinomyces olivocinereus 154 was investigated. The content of dicarboxylic acids--aspartic and glutamic--was found to be greater than that of basic acids--lysine, arginine and histidine. Hydrophobic acids were also detected to occur on appreciable quantities. No cysteine was seen in the enzyme. The experimental data on the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea suggests that the enzyme has a quaternary structure consisting of four nonidentical subunits. PMID:7220510

  11. Actinomyces naeslundii GroEL-dependent initial attachment and biofilm formation in a flow cell system.

    PubMed

    Arai, Toshiaki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2015-02-01

    Actinomyces naeslundii is an early colonizer with important roles in the development of the oral biofilm. The effects of butyric acid, one of short chain fatty acids in A. naeslundii biofilm formation was observed using a flow cell system with Tryptic soy broth without dextrose and with 0.25% sucrose (TSB sucrose). Significant biofilms were established involving live and dead cells in TSB sucrose with 60mM butyric acid but not in concentrations of 6, 30, 40, and 50mM. Biofilm formation failed in 60mM sodium butyrate but biofilm level in 60mM sodium butyrate (pH4.7) adjusted with hydrochloric acid as 60mM butyric media (pH4.7) was similar to biofilm levels in 60mM butyric acid. Therefore, butyric acid and low pH are required for significant biofilm formation in the flow cell. To determine the mechanism of biofilm formation, we investigated initial A. naeslundii colonization in various conditions and effects of anti-GroEL antibody. The initial colonization was observed in the 60mM butyric acid condition and anti-GroEL antibody inhibited the initial colonization. In conclusion, we established a new biofilm formation model in which butyric acid induces GroEL-dependent initial colonization of A. naeslundii resulting in significant biofilm formation in a flow system.

  12. In vitro bactericidal effect of Nd:YAG laser on Actinomyces israelii.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, Paolo; Conti, Stefania; Merigo, Elisabetta; Ciociola, Tecla; Polonelli, Luciano; Manfredi, Maddalena; Meleti, Marco; Fornaini, Carlo; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Nammour, S Amir

    2013-07-01

    A bactericidal effect has been reported by the use of near-infrared laser light on both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser on Actinomyces israelii, filamentous bacteria causing cervicofacial actinomycosis. Experiments were realized on bacterial cells in saline suspension or streaked on Mueller-Hinton (MH) agar plates with or without India ink. Laser application was performed in Eppendorf tubes with different powers and frequencies for 40 s; bacterial suspensions were then streaked on agar plates and incubated at 35 °C in proper conditions for 5 days before colony enumeration. A reduction of colony number variable from 60.13 to 100 % for powers of 2, 4, and 6 W at 25-50 Hz of frequency was observed in comparison with growth control. For agar plates, laser application was performed with different powers at 50 Hz for 60 s. A growth inhibition was observed after 5 days of incubation on MH plates with powers of 6 W and on MH-ink plates with all applied powers. This preliminary study showed a bactericidal effect caused by Nd:YAG laser application worthy to be evaluated in further experiments in vivo.

  13. Lethality of sortase depletion in Actinomyces oris caused by excessive membrane accumulation of a surface glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenggang; Huang, I-Hsiu; Chang, Chungyu; Reardon-Robinson, Melissa Elizabeth; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2014-12-01

    Sortase, a cysteine-transpeptidase conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, anchors on the cell wall many surface proteins that facilitate bacterial pathogenesis and fitness. Genetic disruption of the housekeeping sortase in several Gram-positive pathogens reported thus far attenuates virulence, but not bacterial growth. Paradoxically, we discovered that depletion of the housekeeping sortase SrtA was lethal for Actinomyces oris; yet, all of its predicted cell wall-anchored protein substrates (AcaA-N) were individually dispensable for cell viability. Using Tn5-transposon mutagenesis to identify factors that upend lethality of srtA deletion, we uncovered a set of genetic suppressors harbouring transposon insertions within genes of a locus encoding AcaC and a LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP)-like protein. AcaC was shown to be highly glycosylated and dependent on LCP for its glycosylation. Upon SrtA depletion, the glycosylated form of AcaC, hereby renamed GspA, was accumulated in the membrane. Overexpression of GspA in a mutant lacking gspA and srtA was lethal; conversely, cells overexpressing a GspA mutant missing a membrane-localization domain were viable. The results reveal a unique glycosylation pathway in A. oris that is coupled to cell wall anchoring catalysed by sortase SrtA. Significantly, this novel phenomenon of glyco-stress provides convenient cell-based assays for developing a new class of inhibitors against Gram-positive pathogens.

  14. Coaggregation of Candida albicans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans is Candida albicans strain dependent.

    PubMed

    Arzmi, Mohd Hafiz; Dashper, Stuart; Catmull, Deanne; Cirillo, Nicola; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Microbial interactions are necessarily associated with the development of polymicrobial oral biofilms. The objective of this study was to determine the coaggregation of eight strains of Candida albicans with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans. In autoaggregation assays, C. albicans strains were grown in RPMI-1640 and artificial saliva medium (ASM) whereas bacteria were grown in heart infusion broth. C. albicans, A. naeslundii and S. mutans were suspended to give 10(6), 10(7) and 10(8) cells mL(-1) respectively, in coaggregation buffer followed by a 1 h incubation. The absorbance difference at 620 nm (ΔAbs) between 0 h and 1 h was recorded. To study coaggregation, the same protocol was used, except combinations of microorganisms were incubated together. The mean ΔAbs% of autoaggregation of the majority of RPMI-1640-grown C. albicans was higher than in ASM grown. Coaggregation of C. albicans with A. naeslundii and/or S. mutans was variable among C. albicans strains. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that A. naeslundii and S. mutans coaggregated with C. albicans in dual- and triculture. In conclusion, the coaggregation of C. albicans, A. naeslundii and S. mutans is C. albicans strain dependent.

  15. Identification of an antifungal metabolite produced by a potential biocontrol Actinomyces strain A01.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cai Ge; Liu, Wei Cheng; Qiu, Ji Yan; Wang, Hui Min; Liu, Ting; De Liu, Wen

    2008-10-01

    Actinomyces strain A01 was isolated from soil of a vegetable field in the suburb of Beijing, China. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain A01 was identified as Streptomyces lydicus. In the antimicrobial spectrum test strain A01 presented a stable and strong inhibitory activity against several plant pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia laxa, etc. However, no antibacterial activity was found. In pot experiments in greenhouse, the development of tomato gray mold was markedly suppressed by treatment with the fermentation broth of the strain A01, and the control efficacy was higher than those of Pyrimethanil and Polyoxin. A main antifungal compound (purity 99.503%) was obtained from the fermentation broth of strain A01 using column chromatography and HPLC. The chemical structural analysis with U V, IR, MS, and NMR confirmed that the compound produced by the strain A01 is natamycin, a polyene antibiotic produced by S. chattanovgensis, S. natalensis, and S. gilvosporeus, widely used as a natural biological preservative for food according to previous reports. The present study revealed a new producing strain of natamycin and its potential application as a biological control agent for fungal plant diseases.

  16. Lethality of Sortase Depletion in Actinomyces oris Caused by Excessive Membrane Accumulation of a Surface Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chenggang; Huang, I-Hsiu; Chang, Chungyu; Reardon-Robinson, Melissa Elizabeth; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2014-01-01

    Sortase, a cysteine-transpeptidase conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, anchors on the cell wall many surface proteins that facilitate bacterial pathogenesis and fitness. Genetic disruption of the housekeeping sortase in several Gram-positive pathogens reported thus far attenuates virulence, but not bacterial growth. Paradoxically, we discovered that depletion of the housekeeping sortase SrtA was lethal for Actinomyces oris; yet, all of its predicted cell wall-anchored protein substrates (AcaA-N) were individually dispensable for cell viability. Using Tn5-transposon mutagenesis to identify factors that upend lethality of srtA deletion, we uncovered a set of genetic suppressors harboring transposon insertions within genes of a locus encoding AcaC and a LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP)-like protein. AcaC was shown to be highly glycosylated and dependent on LCP for its glycosylation. Upon SrtA depletion, the glycosylated form of AcaC, hereby renamed GspA, was accumulated in the membrane. Overexpression of GspA in a mutant lacking gspA and srtA was lethal; conversely, cells overexpressing a GspA mutant missing a membrane-localization domain were viable. The results reveal a unique glycosylation pathway in A. oris that is coupled to cell wall anchoring catalyzed by sortase SrtA. Significantly, this novel phenomenon of glyco-stress provides convenient cell-based assays for developing a new class of inhibitors against Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25230351

  17. Infections Caused by Actinomyces neuii: A Case Series and Review of an Unusual Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Zelyas, Nathan; Gee, Susan; Nilsson, Barb; Bennett, Tracy; Rennie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Actinomyces neuii is a Gram-positive bacillus rarely implicated in human infections. However, its occurrence is being increasingly recognized with the use of improved identification systems. Objective. To analyse A. neuii infections in Alberta, Canada, and review the literature regarding this unusual pathogen. Methods. Cases of A. neuii were identified in 2013-2014 in Alberta. Samples were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. A predominant catalase positive Gram-positive coryneform bacillus with no branching was isolated in each case. Testing was initially done with API-CORYNE® (bioMérieux) and isolates were sent to the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health for further testing. Isolates' identities were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry microbial identification system (MALDI-TOF MS MIS; bioMérieux) and/or DNA sequencing. Results. Six cases of A. neuii infection were identified. All patients had soft tissue infections; typically, incision and drainage were done followed by a course of antibiotics. Agents used included cephalexin, ertapenem, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin. All had favourable outcomes. Conclusions. While A. neuii is infrequently recognized, it can cause a diverse array of infections. Increased use of MALDI-TOF MS MIS is leading to increased detection; thus, understanding the pathogenicity of this bacterium and its typical susceptibility profile will aid clinical decision-making. PMID:27366175

  18. Identification of an antifungal metabolite produced by a potential biocontrol Actinomyces strain A01

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cai Ge; Liu, Wei Cheng; Qiu, Ji Yan; Wang, Hui Min; Liu, Ting; De Liu, Wen

    2008-01-01

    Actinomyces strain A01 was isolated from soil of a vegetable field in the suburb of Beijing, China. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain A01 was identified as Streptomyces lydicus. In the antimicrobial spectrum test strain A01 presented a stable and strong inhibitory activity against several plant pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia laxa, etc. However, no antibacterial activity was found. In pot experiments in greenhouse, the development of tomato gray mold was markedly suppressed by treatment with the fermentation broth of the strain A01, and the control efficacy was higher than those of Pyrimethanil and Polyoxin. A main antifungal compound (purity 99.503%) was obtained from the fermentation broth of strain A01 using column chromatography and HPLC. The chemical structural analysis with U V, IR, MS, and NMR confirmed that the compound produced by the strain A01 is natamycin, a polyene antibiotic produced by S. chattanovgensis, S. natalensis, and S. gilvosporeus, widely used as a natural biological preservative for food according to previous reports. The present study revealed a new producing strain of natamycin and its potential application as a biological control agent for fungal plant diseases. PMID:24031293

  19. Infections Caused by Actinomyces neuii: A Case Series and Review of an Unusual Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Zelyas, Nathan; Gee, Susan; Nilsson, Barb; Bennett, Tracy; Rennie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Actinomyces neuii is a Gram-positive bacillus rarely implicated in human infections. However, its occurrence is being increasingly recognized with the use of improved identification systems. Objective. To analyse A. neuii infections in Alberta, Canada, and review the literature regarding this unusual pathogen. Methods. Cases of A. neuii were identified in 2013-2014 in Alberta. Samples were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. A predominant catalase positive Gram-positive coryneform bacillus with no branching was isolated in each case. Testing was initially done with API-CORYNE® (bioMérieux) and isolates were sent to the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health for further testing. Isolates' identities were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry microbial identification system (MALDI-TOF MS MIS; bioMérieux) and/or DNA sequencing. Results. Six cases of A. neuii infection were identified. All patients had soft tissue infections; typically, incision and drainage were done followed by a course of antibiotics. Agents used included cephalexin, ertapenem, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin. All had favourable outcomes. Conclusions. While A. neuii is infrequently recognized, it can cause a diverse array of infections. Increased use of MALDI-TOF MS MIS is leading to increased detection; thus, understanding the pathogenicity of this bacterium and its typical susceptibility profile will aid clinical decision-making. PMID:27366175

  20. [Effect of organic acids on the biosynthesis of macrotetralide antibiotics by an Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides strain].

    PubMed

    Nefelova, M V; Sverdlova, A N; Silaev, A B

    1978-07-01

    The biosynthesis of macrotetrolides by Actinomyces chrysomalus var. carotenoides was stimulated by acetic, succinic, propionic, oxalic, malic, tartaric, citric, pyruvic, alpha-ketoglutaric and fumaric acids. Incorporation of 14C-acetate into the molecule of the antibiotic and the data on dependence of the stimulating effect upon the quantitative ratio and time of the organic acid addition were indicative of the role of acetic, succinic and propionic acids as precursors of macrotetrolides. The other organic acids increased the biosynthesis of macrotetolides when added to the culture within wide time ranges of the culture development and prolonged the period of the mycelium productive state.

  1. [Separation of the biosynthesis products of a mutant strain of Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides and the identification of actinomycin antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Sverdlova, A N; Nefelova, M V; Silaev, A B

    1979-01-01

    An orange antibiotically active substance isolated from the mycelium of a mutant strain of Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides was identified as a mixture of actinomycins according to its light absorption spectra, circular dichroism spectra, IR spectra and chromatographic comparison with the standard samples. A scheme for successive extraction of the biologically active substances from the mycelium resulting in isolation of a fraction enriched with antibiotic substances and a fraction enriched with pigments is presented. A method for separation and purification of 3 groups of biologically active substances from the mycelium enriched extract was developed.

  2. Identification of a novel 16S rRNA gene variant of Actinomyces funkei from six patients with purulent infections.

    PubMed

    Hinić, V; Straub, C; Schultheiss, E; Kaempfer, P; Frei, R; Goldenberger, D

    2013-07-01

    Little is known about the clinical significance and laboratory diagnosis of Actinomyces funkei. In this report we describe six clinical cases where A. funkei was isolated from purulent, polymicrobial infections. Conventional identification procedures were compared with molecular methods including matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique. Analysis of the full 16S rRNA gene sequence of the six investigated strains revealed differences from the A. funkei type strain. DNA-DNA hybridization showed that the clinical strains represent a novel 16S rRNA gene variant within the species of A. funkei.

  3. Phenotypic and Physiological Characterization of the Epibiotic Interaction Between TM7x and Its Basibiont Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Bor, Batbileg; Poweleit, Nicole; Bois, Justin S; Cen, Lujia; Bedree, Joseph K; Zhou, Z Hong; Gunsalus, Robert P; Lux, Renate; McLean, Jeffrey S; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Despite many examples of obligate epibiotic symbiosis (one organism living on the surface of another) in nature, such an interaction has rarely been observed between two bacteria. Here, we further characterize a newly reported interaction between a human oral obligate parasitic bacterium TM7x (cultivated member of Candidatus Saccharimonas formerly Candidate Phylum TM7), and its basibiont Actinomyces odontolyticus species (XH001), providing a model system to study epiparasitic symbiosis in the domain Bacteria. Detailed microscopic studies indicate that both partners display extensive morphological changes during symbiotic growth. XH001 cells manifested as short rods in monoculture, but displayed elongated and hyphal morphology when physically associated with TM7x. Interestingly, these dramatic morphological changes in XH001 were also induced in oxygen-depleted conditions, even in the absence of TM7x. Targeted quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that both the physical association with TM7x as well as oxygen depletion triggered up-regulation of key stress response genes in XH001, and in combination, these conditions act in an additive manner. TM7x and XH001 co-exist with relatively uniform cell morphologies under nutrient-replete conditions. However, upon nutrient depletion, TM7x-associated XH001 displayed a variety of cell morphologies, including swollen cell body, clubbed-ends, and even cell lysis, and a large portion of TM7x cells transformed from ultrasmall cocci into elongated cells. Our study demonstrates a highly dynamic interaction between epibiont TM7x and its basibiont XH001 in response to physical association or environmental cues such as oxygen level and nutritional status, as reflected by their morphological and physiological changes during symbiotic growth.

  4. Biochemical characterization of a halotolerant feruloyl esterase from Actinomyces spp.: refolding and activity following thermal deactivation.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Cameron J; Tanksale, Akshat; Haritos, Victoria S

    2016-02-01

    Ferulic acid esterases (FAE, EC. 3.1.1.73) hydrolyse the linkage between hemicellulose and lignin and thus have potential for use in mild enzymatic pretreatment of biomass as an alternative to thermochemical approaches. Here, we report the characterization of a novel FAE (ActOFaeI) obtained from the bacterium, Actinomyces sp. oral which was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 in two forms: with and without its putative signal peptide. The truncated form was found to have <10 % relative activity compared to the full length and was more prone to aggregation after purification. The enzyme with retained peptide demonstrated 2 to 4-fold higher activity against methyl caffeate and methyl p-coumarate, with specific activities of 477.6 and 174.4 U mg(-1) respectively, than the equivalent activities of the benchmark FAE from Aspergillus niger A and B. ActOFaeI retained activity over a broad pH range with a maximum at 9 but >90 % relative activity at pH 6.5 and an optimum reaction temperature of 30 °C. ActOFaeI increased activity by 15% in high salt conditions (1000 mMNaCl) and its thermal unfolding temperature improved from 41.5 °C in standard buffer to 74 °C in the presence of 2500 mM sodium malonate. ActOFaeI also released ferulic acid from destarched wheat bran when combined with a xylanase preparation. After treatment above the thermal denaturation temperature followed by cooling to room temperature, ActOFaeI demonstrated spontaneous refolding into an active state. ActOFaeI displays many useful characteristics for enzymatic pretreatment of lignocellulose and contributes to our understanding of this important family.

  5. Effects of short-chain fatty acids on Actinomyces naeslundii biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, S; Kawarai, T; Narisawa, N; Tuna, E B; Sato, N; Tsugane, T; Saeki, Y; Ochiai, K; Senpuku, H

    2013-10-01

    Actinomyces naeslundii is an early colonizer and has important roles in the development of the oral biofilm. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are secreted extracellularly as a product of metabolism by gram-negative anaerobes, e.g. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum; and the SCFA may affect biofilm development with interaction between A. naeslundii and gram-negative bacteria. Our aim was to investigate the effects of SCFA on biofilm formation by A. naeslundii and to determine the mechanism. We used the biofilm formation assay in 96-well microtiter plates in tryptic soy broth without dextrose and with 0.25% sucrose using safranin stain of the biofilm monitoring 492 nm absorbance. To determine the mechanism by SCFA, the production of chaperones and stress-response proteins (GrpE and GroEL) in biofilm formation was examined using Western blot fluorescence activity with GrpE and GroEL antibodies. Adding butyric acid (6.25 mm) 0, 6 and 10 h after beginning culture significantly increased biofilm formation by A. naeslundii, and upregulation was observed at 16 h. Upregulation was also observed using appropriate concentrations of other SCFA. In the upregulated biofilm, production of GrpE and GroEL was higher where membrane-damaged or dead cells were also observed. The upregulated biofilm was significantly reduced by addition of anti-GroEL antibody. The data suggest biofilm formation by A. naeslundii was upregulated dependent on the production of stress proteins, and addition of SCFA increased membrane-damaged or dead cells. Production of GroEL may physically play an important role in biofilm development.

  6. Cloning and Characterization of an Endoglucanase Gene from Actinomyces sp. Korean Native Goat 40.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Chan; Kang, Seung Ha; Choi, Eun Young; Hong, Yeon Hee; Bok, Jin Duck; Kim, Jae Yeong; Lee, Sang Suk; Choi, Yun Jaie; Choi, In Soon; Cho, Kwang Keun

    2016-01-01

    A gene from Actinomyces sp. Korean native goat (KNG) 40 that encodes an endo-β-1,4-glucanase, EG1, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5α. Recombinant plasmid DNA from a positive clone with a 3.2 kb insert hydrolyzing carboxyl methyl-cellulose (CMC) was designated as pDS3. The entire nucleotide sequence was determined, and an open-reading frame (ORF) was deduced. The ORF encodes a polypeptide of 684 amino acids. The recombinant EG1 produced in E. coli DH5α harboring pDS3 was purified in one step using affinity chromatography on crystalline cellulose and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/zymogram analysis of the purified enzyme revealed two protein bands of 57.1 and 54.1 kDa. The amino terminal sequences of these two bands matched those of the deduced ones, starting from residue 166 and 208, respectively. Putative signal sequences, a Shine-Dalgarno-type ribosomal binding site, and promoter sequences related to the consensus sequences were deduced. EG1 has a typical tripartite structure of cellulase, a catalytic domain, a serine-rich linker region, and a cellulose-binding domain. The optimal temperature for the activity of the purified enzyme was 55°C, but it retained over 90% of maximum activity in a broad temperature range (40°C to 60°C). The optimal pH for the enzyme activity was 6.0. Kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax of rEG1 were 0.39% CMC and 143 U/mg, respectively. PMID:26732336

  7. Antimicrobial Effects of Novel Triple Antibiotic Paste–Mimic Scaffolds on Actinomyces naeslundii Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Maria T.P.; Ryan, Stuart J.; Münchow, Eliseu A.; Kamocka, Maria M.; Gregory, Richard L.; Valera, Marcia C.; Bottino, Marco C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Actinomyces naeslundii has been recovered from traumatized permanent teeth diagnosed with necrotic pulps. In this work, a triple antibiotic paste (TAP)–mimic scaffold is proposed as a drug-delivery strategy to eliminate A. naeslundii dentin biofilm. Methods Metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline were added to a polydioxanone (PDS) polymer solution and spun into fibrous scaffolds. Fiber morphology, mechanical properties, and drug release were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, microtensile testing, and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Human dentin specimens (4 × 4 × 1 mm3, n = 4/group) were inoculated with A. naeslundii (ATCC 43146) for 7 days for biofilm formation. The infected dentin specimens were exposed to TAP-mimic scaffolds, TAP solution (positive control), and pure PDS (drug-free scaffold). Dentin infected (7-day biofilm) specimens were used for comparison (negative control). Confocal laser scanning microscopy was done to determine bacterial viability. Results Scaffolds displayed a submicron mean fiber diameter (PDS = 689 ± 312 nm and TAP-mimic = 718 ± 125 nm). Overall, TAP-mimic scaffolds showed significantly (P ≤ .040) lower mechanical properties than PDS. Within the first 24 hours, a burst release for all drugs was seen. A sustained maintenance of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin was observed over 4 weeks, but not for minocycline. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated complete elimination of all viable bacteria exposed to the TAP solution. Meanwhile, TAP-mimic scaffolds led to a significant (P < .05) reduction in the percentage of viable bacteria compared with the negative control and PDS. Conclusions Our findings suggest that TAP-mimic scaffolds hold significant potential in the eradication/elimination of bacterial biofilm, a critical step in regenerative endodontics. PMID:25917945

  8. Streptococci and actinomyces inhibit regrowth of Streptococcus mutans on gnotobiotic rat molar teeth after chlorhexidine varnish treatment.

    PubMed

    van der Hoeven, J S; Schaeken, M J

    1995-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that the long-term suppression of mutans streptococci on tooth surfaces after intensive chlorhexidine therapy is mainly due to bacterial interference. Other streptococci and also Actinomyces naeslundii are proposed to inhibit regrowth of mutans streptococci after suppression by the agent. We have tested this hypothesis in gnotobiotic rats associated with Streptococcus mutans alone, or associated with S. mutans and strains of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mitis biovar I, and A. naeslundii. Left lower jaws in these rats were treated with concentrated chlorhexidine varnish, and the return of S. mutans on the treated jaws monitored. In mono-associated rats, S. mutans regained the level of the untreated right lower jaw in approximately 1 week. In contrast, S. mutans remained suppressed for several weeks in rats multi-associated with other streptococci and actinomyces strains. The suppression was more pronounced in the rats fed on basal diet with little free sugars than in rats fed on a sucrose-containing diet. Counts of other streptococci recovered quickly from the intensive chlorhexidine treatment, but A. naeslundii remained suppressed for at least 1 week. The findings demonstrate the crucial importance of the oral microflora in controlling regrowth of mutans streptococci after chemotherapy.

  9. Clinical spectrum of infections due to the newly described Actinomyces species A. turicensis, A. radingae, and A. europaeus.

    PubMed

    Sabbe, L J; Van De Merwe, D; Schouls, L; Bergmans, A; Vaneechoutte, M; Vandamme, P

    1999-01-01

    Over a 7-year period, we isolated 294 Actinomyces-like organisms (ALOs) which were not clearly identifiable. Using well-defined probes coding for sequences specific for recently described Actinomyces species (A. turicensis, A. radingae, and A. europaeus), we were able to identify 128 strains. The majority belonged to the A. turicensis species. A. radingae was found only in patients with skin-related pathologies. A. europaeus was also detected in patients with urinary tract infections. The main sources of A. turicensis were genital infections, followed by skin-related and urinary tract infections. Additional clinical pictures were appendicitis, cholecystitis, ear, nose, and throat infections, and bacteremia. In a small number of patients these ALOs were found as the only pathogen. Strains of the three species were tested by two widely used biochemical identification methods. A. turicensis was easily identifiable by both these methods. We conclude that these ALOs are not infrequent pathogens and are found in a wide range of human infections. At least A. turicensis is easily identifiable by clinical diagnostic laboratories.

  10. Identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of an Actinomyces hongkongensis isolate recovered from a patient with pelvic actinomycosis.

    PubMed

    Flynn, A N; Lyndon, C A; Church, D L

    2013-08-01

    A case of Actinomyces hongkongensis pelvic actinomycosis in an adult woman is described. Conventional phenotypic tests failed to identify the Gram-positive bacillus isolated from a fluid aspirate of a pelvic abscess. The bacterium was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis using the SmartGene Integrated Database Network System software.

  11. Species-Level Identification of Actinomyces Isolates Causing Invasive Infections: Multiyear Comparison of Vitek MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry) to Partial Sequencing of the 16S rRNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Lynch, T; Gregson, D; Church, D L

    2016-03-01

    Actinomyces species are uncommon but important causes of invasive infections. The ability of our regional clinical microbiology laboratory to report species-level identification of Actinomyces relied on molecular identification by partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal gene prior to the implementation of the Vitek MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry [MALDI-TOF MS]) system. We compared the use of the Vitek MS to that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing for reliable species-level identification of invasive infections caused by Actinomyces spp. because limited data had been published for this important genera. A total of 115 cases of Actinomyces spp., either alone or as part of a polymicrobial infection, were diagnosed between 2011 and 2014. Actinomyces spp. were considered the principal pathogen in bloodstream infections (n = 17, 15%), in skin and soft tissue abscesses (n = 25, 22%), and in pulmonary (n = 26, 23%), bone (n = 27, 23%), intraabdominal (n = 16, 14%), and central nervous system (n = 4, 3%) infections. Compared to sequencing and identification from the SmartGene Integrated Database Network System (IDNS), Vitek MS identified 47/115 (41%) isolates to the correct species and 10 (9%) isolates to the correct genus. However, the Vitek MS was unable to provide identification for 43 (37%) isolates while 15 (13%) had discordant results. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA sequences demonstrate high diversity in recovered Actinomyces spp. and provide additional information to compare/confirm discordant identifications between MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA gene sequences. This study highlights the diversity of clinically relevant Actinomyces spp. and provides an important typing comparison. Based on our analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing should be used to rapidly identify Actinomyces spp. until MALDI-TOF databases are optimized.

  12. Selective Antibacterial Properties of Lysozyme for Oral Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Iacono, Vincent J.; MacKay, Bruce J.; DiRienzo, Sharon; Pollock, Jerry J.

    1980-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of lysozyme were investigated with oral microorganisms representing the seven serotypes (a through g) of Streptococcus mutans, Veillonella alcalescens, and the virulent (V) and avirulent (AV) strains of Actinomyces viscosus T14. Growth of bacteria in defined medium was monitored spectrophotometrically after the addition of various amounts (25 μg to 5 mg/ml) of enzyme. No growth inhibition of V. alcalescens was observed. Inhibition of A. viscosus T14(V) and A. viscosus T14(AV) occurred with 160 μg of lysozyme per ml. Of the S. mutans cultures tested, the serotype a and b strains were inhibited with as little as 25 μg of enzyme per ml, whereas e and f strains were most resistant to the bacteriostatic activity of lysozyme. The presence of dl-threonine or sucrose in growth medium did not significantly affect the results. A lysoplate assay was developed to rapidly survey the bacterial cultures for their susceptibility to the lytic ability of the enzyme. Lysis, as a measure of a zone of clearing in agarose plates, occurred for all microorganisms in the presence of lysozyme after the subsequent addition of NaCl or detergent. The bactericidal activity of lysozyme was determined on S. mutans BHT and S. mutans LM-7 by the pour plate technique. Preincubation of S. mutans LM-7 with as much as 1 mg of enzyme for 90 min did not affect viability or growth, whereas preincubation of S. mutans BHT with 1 mg of lysozyme resulted in no recoverable colony-forming units. An antigen containing extract of S. mutans LM-7 blocked the growth inhibitory property of lysozyme. Human lysozyme was a more effective antibacterial factor than hen egg white lysozyme. Total growth inhibition of S. mutans BHT was effected with 40 μg of human enzyme, and as little as 10 μg of human enzyme inhibited growth for greater than 20 h. The data presented indicate that different mechanisms may be responsible for the bacteriostatic, lytic, and bactericidal properties of the

  13. Dynamic changes in the initial colonization of Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus gordonii using a new animal model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2013-01-01

    Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus gordonii are the predominant bacteria and initial colonizers of oral microflora. The binding of A. naeslundii and S. gordonii and the interaction between them on the salivary pellicle-coated tooth surface play an important role in the biofilm development. Recently, we reported that NOD/SCID.e2f1(-) mice are a useful model for studying oral biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans on the tooth surface. In this study, we aimed to determine whether NOD/SCID.e2f1(-) mice can be used for studying oral colonization of A. naeslundii and S. gordonii. Colonization of A. naeslundii in mice fed with 1% sucrose water for 24 h before inoculation was higher than that among mice fed with sucrose water for 1 h. A. naeslundii colonization using mixed species-inoculation was lower than that using single-species inoculation 30-90 min after inoculation; however, the colonization was higher 120-180 min after inoculation. The mixed inoculation induced better colonization of S. gordonii than single-species inoculation 60-180 min after inoculation. Polyclonal and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibody stained bacteria showed better colonization of S. gordonii when a mixed culture is used in vivo. NOD/SCID.e2f1(-) mice were useful for studying the initial colonization of A. naeslundii and S. gordonii. Long-term supply of sucrose water creates a favorable environment for the initial colonization of A. naeslundii that, in turn, supports the colonization of S. gordonii.

  14. Interkingdom cooperation between Candida albicans, Streptococcus oralis and Actinomyces oris modulates early biofilm development on denture material.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Indira M G; Nobbs, Angela H; Ricomini-Filho, Antônio Pedro; Jenkinson, Howard F; Del Bel Cury, Altair A

    2016-04-01

    Candida-associated stomatitis affects up to 60% of denture wearers, and Candida albicans remains the most commonly isolated fungal species. The oral bacteria Actinomyces oris and Streptococcus oralis are abundant in early dental plaque. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of S. oralis and A. oris on the development of C. albicans biofilms on denture material. Resin discs were coated with saliva and at early (1.5 h) or later (24 h) stages of biofilm development, cell numbers of each species were determined. Spatial distribution of microorganisms was visualized by confocal scanning laser microscopy of biofilms labelled by differential fluorescence or by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Interkingdom interactions underpinning biofilm development were also evaluated planktonically utilizing fluorescence microscopy. Synergistic interactions between all three species occurred within biofilms and planktonically. Bacterial cells coaggregated with each other and adhered singly or in coaggregates to C. albicans hyphal filaments. Streptococcus oralis appeared to enhance hyphal filament production and C. albicans biovolume was increased 2-fold. Concomitantly, cell numbers of S. oralis and A. oris were enhanced by C. albicans. Thus, cooperative physical and metabolic processes occurring between these three microbial species intensify pathogenic plaque communities on denture surfaces. PMID:26755532

  15. Structural determinants of Actinomyces sortase SrtC2 required for membrane localization and assembly of type 2 fimbriae for interbacterial coaggregation and oral biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenggang; Mishra, Arunima; Reardon, Melissa E; Huang, I-Hsiu; Counts, Sarah C; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2012-05-01

    As a pioneer colonizer of the oral cavity, Actinomyces oris expresses proteinaceous pili (also called fimbriae) to mediate the following two key events in biofilm formation: adherence to saliva deposits on enamel and interbacterial associations. Assembly of type 2 fimbriae that directly facilitate coaggregation with oral streptococci and Actinomyces biofilm development requires the class C sortase SrtC2. Although the general sortase-associated mechanisms have been elucidated, several structural attributes unique to the class C sortases require functional investigation. Mutational studies reported here suggest that the N-terminal transmembrane (TM) region of SrtC2, predicted to contain a signal peptide sequence, is cleaved off the mature protein and that this processing is critical for the proper integration of the enzyme at the cytoplasmic membrane, which is mediated by the extended hydrophobic C terminus containing a TM domain and a cytoplasmic tail. Deletion of this putative TM or the entire cytoplasmic domain abolished the enzyme localization and functionality. Alanine substitution of the conserved catalytic Cys-His dyad abrogated the SrtC2 enzymatic activity. In contrast, mutations designed to alter a "lid" domain that covers the catalytic pocket of a class C sortase showed no effect on enzyme activity. Finally, each of the deleterious mutations that affected SrtC2 activity or membrane localization also eliminated Actinomyces species biofilm development and bacterial coaggregation with streptococci. We conclude that the N terminus of SrtC2, which contains the signal sequence, is required for proper protein translocation and maturation, while the extended C-terminal hydrophobic region serves as a stable membrane anchor for proper enzyme functionality.

  16. Humoral Immunity to Commensal Oral Bacteria in Human Infants: Salivary Antibodies Reactive with Actinomyces naeslundii Genospecies 1 and 2 during Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Michael F.; Bryan, Stacey; Evans, Mishell K.; Pearce, Cheryl L.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Sura, Patricia A.; Wientzen, Raoul; Bowden, George H. W.

    1998-01-01

    The secretory immune response in saliva to colonization by Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 was studied in 10 human infants from birth to 2 years of age. Actinomyces species were not recovered from the mouths of the infants until approximately 4 months after the eruption of teeth. However, low levels of secretory immunoglobulin A1 (SIgA1) and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 were detected within the first month after birth. Although there was a fivefold increase in the concentration of SIgA between birth and age 2 years, there were no differences between the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 over this period. When the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 were normalized to the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 in saliva, the A. naeslundii genospecies 1- and 2-reactive SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies showed a significant decrease from birth to 2 years of age. The fine specificities of A. naeslundii genospecies 1- and 2-reactive SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies were examined by Western blotting of envelope proteins. Similarities in the molecular masses of proteins recognized by SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies, both within and between subjects over time, were examined by cluster analysis and showed considerable variability. Taken overall, our data suggest that among the mechanisms Actinomyces species employ to persist in the oral cavity are the induction of a limited immune response and clonal replacement with strains differing in their antigen profiles. PMID:9712779

  17. Genetic and biochemical properties of a hemolysin (pyolysin) produced by a swine isolate of Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, M; Hashimoto, N; Kaidoh, T; Sekizaki, T; Takeuchi, S

    2000-01-01

    Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes, a causative agent of various pyogenic diseases in domestic animals, produces a hemolysin which is thought to be an important virulence factor. This hemolysin was purified from the culture supernatant of A. pyogenes swine isolate. The purified hemolysin showed a single band with a molecular mass of 56 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and its isoelectric point was 9.2. The activity of this hemolysin was not enhanced by the addition of L-cysteine or sodium thioglycolate, but it was inhibited by cholesterol. The gene encoding the hemolysin was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli by means of ZAP Express vector. Analysis by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with immunoblotting showed that the molecular weight of the hemolysin expressed in E. coli is the same as that of the hemolysin purified from A. pyogenes. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1,605 bp encoding a 534 amino acid protein of 57,989 Da. The nucleotide sequence of the hemolysin gene from A. pyogenes swine isolate differed only slightly (97.6% identity) from the sequence of plo gene from A. pyogenes strain BBR1 reported by Billington et al (J. Bacteriol. 179: 6100-6106, 1997). The cysteine residue existed in the undecapeptide region of the hemolysin, which is highly conserved in thiol-activated cytolysins (cholesterol-binding cytolysins), and is replaced with alanine. Therefore, the hemolysin of A. pyogenes seems to be a novel member of the thiol-activated cytolysin family. PMID:10711593

  18. Biosynthetic gene cluster of cetoniacytone A, an unusual aminocyclitol from the endosymbiotic Bacterium Actinomyces sp. Lu 9419.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiumei; Flatt, Patricia M; Xu, Hui; Mahmud, Taifo

    2009-01-26

    A gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of the antitumor agent cetoniacytone A was identified in Actinomyces sp. strain Lu 9419, an endosymbiotic bacterium isolated from the intestines of the rose chafer beetle (Cetonia aurata). The nucleotide sequence analysis of the 46 kb DNA region revealed the presence of 31 complete ORFs, including genes predicted to encode a 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthase (CetA), a glyoxalase/bleomycin resistance protein (CetB), an acyltransferase (CetD), an FAD-dependent dehydrogenase (CetF2), two oxidoreductases (CetF1 and CetG), two aminotransferases (CetH and CetM), and a pyranose oxidase (CetL). CetA has previously been demonstrated to catalyze the cyclization of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate to the cyclic intermediate, 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone. In this report, the glyoxalase/bleomycin resistance protein homolog CetB was identified as a 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone epimerase (EVE), a new member of the vicinal oxygen chelate (VOC) superfamily. The 24 kDa recombinant histidine-tagged CetB was found to form a homodimer; each monomer contains two betaalphabetabetabeta scaffolds that form a metal binding site with two histidine and two glutamic acid residues. A BLAST search using the newly isolated cet biosynthetic genes revealed an analogous suite of genes in the genome of Frankia alni ACN14a, suggesting that this plant symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium is capable of producing a secondary metabolite related to the cetoniacytones. PMID:19101977

  19. Effect of the Environment on Genotypic Diversity of Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis in the Oral Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Paddick, James S.; Brailsford, Susan R.; Kidd, Edwina A. M.; Gilbert, Steven C.; Clark, Douglas T.; Alam, Sharmin; Killick, Zoe J.; Beighton, David

    2003-01-01

    The genotypic diversity of Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 2 (424 isolates) and Streptococcus oralis (446 isolates) strains isolated from two sound approximal sites in all subjects who were either caries active (seven subjects) or caries free (seven subjects) was investigated by using the repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR. The plaque from the caries-active subjects harbored significantly greater proportions of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli and a smaller proportion of A. naeslundii organisms than the plaque sampled from the caries-free subjects. These data confirmed that the sites of the two groups of subjects were subjected to different environmental stresses, probably determined by the prevailing or fluctuating acidic pH values. We tested the hypothesis that the microfloras of the sites subjected to greater stresses (the plaque samples from the caries-active subjects) would exhibit reduced genotypic diversity since the sites would be less favorable. We found that the diversity of A. naeslundii strains did not change (χ2 = 0.68; P = 0.41) although the proportional representation of A. naeslundii was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Conversely, the diversity of the S. oralis strains increased (χ2 = 11.71; P = 0.0006) and the proportional representation of S. oralis did not change. We propose that under these environmental conditions the diversity and number of niches within the oral biofilm that could be exploited by S. oralis increased, resulting in the increased genotypic diversity of this species. Apparently, A. naeslundii was not able to exploit the new niches since the prevailing conditions within the niches may have been deleterious and not supportive of its proliferation. These results suggest that environmental stress may modify a biofilm such that the diversity of the niches is increased and that these niches may be successfully exploited by some, but not necessarily all, members of the microbial community. PMID:14602602

  20. Two autonomous structural modules in the fimbrial shaft adhesin FimA mediate Actinomyces interactions with streptococci and host cells during oral biofilm development

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Arunima; Devarajan, Bharanidharan; Reardon, Melissa E.; Dwivedi, Prabhat; Krishnan, Vengadesan; Cisar, John O.; Das, Asis; Narayana, Sthanam V.L.; Ton-That, Hung

    2011-09-06

    By combining X-ray crystallography and modelling, we describe here the atomic structure of distinct adhesive moieties of FimA, the shaft fimbrillin of Actinomyces type 2 fimbriae, which uniquely mediates the receptor-dependent intercellular interactions between Actinomyces and oral streptococci as well as host cells during the development of oral biofilms. The FimA adhesin is built with three IgG-like domains, each of which harbours an intramolecular isopeptide bond, previously described in several Gram-positive pilins. Genetic and biochemical studies demonstrate that although these isopeptide bonds are dispensable for fimbrial assembly, cell-cell interactions and biofilm formation, they contribute significantly to the proteolytic stability of FimA. Remarkably, FimA harbours two autonomous adhesive modules, which structurally resemble the Staphylococcus aureus Cna B domain. Each isolated module can bind the plasma glycoprotein asialofetuin as well as the polysaccharide receptors present on the surface of oral streptococci and epithelial cells. Thus, FimA should serve as an excellent paradigm for the development of therapeutic strategies and elucidating the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between cellular receptors and Gram-positive fimbriae.

  1. Comparison of phenotypic methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the identification of aero-tolerant Actinomyces spp. isolated from soft-tissue infections.

    PubMed

    Ng, L S Y; Sim, J H C; Eng, L C; Menon, S; Tan, T Y

    2012-08-01

    Aero-tolerant Actinomyces spp. are an under-recognised cause of cutaneous infections, in part because identification using conventional phenotypic methods is difficult and may be inaccurate. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a promising new technique for bacterial identification, but with limited data on the identification of aero-tolerant Actinomyces spp. This study evaluated the accuracy of a phenotypic biochemical kit, MALDI-TOF MS and genotypic identification methods for the identification of this problematic group of organisms. Thirty aero-tolerant Actinomyces spp. were isolated from soft-tissue infections over a 2-year period. Species identification was performed by 16 s rRNA sequencing and genotypic results were compared with results obtained by API Coryne and MALDI-TOF MS. There was poor agreement between API Coryne and genotypic identification, with only 33% of isolates correctly identified to the species level. MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified 97% of isolates to the species level, with 33% of identifications achieved with high confidence scores. MALDI-TOF MS is a promising new tool for the identification of aero-tolerant Actinomyces spp., but improvement of the database is required in order to increase the confidence level of identification.

  2. Complete structure of the polysaccharide from Streptococcus sanguis J22

    SciTech Connect

    Abeygunawardana, C.; Bush, C.A. ); Cisar, J.O. )

    1990-01-09

    The cell wall polysaccharides of certain oral streptococci such as Streptococcus sanguis strains 34 and J22, although immunologically distinct, act as receptors for the fimbrial lectins of Actinomyces viscosus T14V. The authors report the complete covalent structure of the polysaccharide from S. sanguis J22 which is composed of a heptasaccharide subunit linked by phosphodiester bonds. The repeating subunit, which contains {alpha}-GalNAc, {alpha}-rhamnose, {beta}-rhamnose, {beta}-glucose, and {beta}-galactose all in the pyranoside form and {beta}-galactofuranose, is compared with the previously published structure of the polysaccharide from strain 34. The structure has been determined almost exclusively by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance methods. The {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra of the polysaccharides from both strains 34 and J22 have been completely assigned. The stereochemistry of pyranosides was assigned from J{sub H-H} values determined from phase-sensitive COSY spectra, and acetamido sugars were assigned by correlation of the resonances of the amide {sup 1}H with the sugar ring protons. The {sup 13}C spectra were assigned by {sup 1}H-detected multiple-quantum correlation (HMQC) spectra, and the assignments were confirmed by {sup 1}H-detected multiple-bond correlation (HMBC) spectra. The positions of the glycosidic linkages were assigned by detection of three-bond {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C correlation across the glycosidic linkage in the HMBC spectra. The positions of the phosphodiester linkages were determined by splittings observed in the {sup 13}C resonances due to {sup 31}P coupling and also by {sup 1}H-detected {sup 31}P correlation spectroscopy.

  3. Binding of /sup 18/F by cell membranes and cell walls of Streptococcus mutans

    SciTech Connect

    Yotis, W.W.; Zeb, M.; McNulty, J.; Kirchner, F.; Reilly, C.; Glendenin, L.

    1983-07-01

    The binding of /sup 18/F to isolated cell membranes and cell walls of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 or other bacteria was assayed. The attachment of /sup 18/F to these cell envelopes proceeded slowly and reached equilibrium within 60 min. /sup 18/F binding was stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ (1 mM). The binding of /sup 18/F to cellular components was dependent upon the pH, as well as the amount of /sup 18/F and dose of the binder employed. The binding of /sup 18/F by cell walls prepared from fluoride-sensitive and fluoride-resistant cells of S. salivarius and S. mutans did not differ significantly. The pretreatment of cell walls or cell membranes for 60 min at 30 degrees C with 1 mg of RNase, DNase, or trypsin per ml did not influence the binding of /sup 18/F by the walls and membranes of S. mutans GS-5. However, prior exposure of cell membranes to sodium dodecyl sulfate caused a significant reduction in the number of /sup 18/F atoms bound by the membranes. In saturated assay systems, cell membranes of S. mutans GS-5 bound 10(15) to 10(16) atoms of /sup 18/F per mg (dry weight), whereas cell walls from S. mutans GS-5, FA-1, and HS-6 or Actinomyces viscosus T14V and T14AV bound 10(12) to 10(13) atoms of /sup 18/F per mg (dry weight). /sup 18/F in this quantity (10(12) to 10(13) atoms) cannot be detected with the fluoride electrode. The data provide, for the first time, a demonstration of /sup 18/F binding by cell membranes and walls of oral flora.

  4. In Vitro Evaluation of Seven Cationic Detergents as Antiplaque Agents

    PubMed Central

    Tanzer, J. M.; Slee, A. M.; Kamay, B.; Scheer, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    The bactericidal efficacy of seven cationic detergents was studied in vitro against intact performed plaques of representative strains of four oral dental plaque-forming microorganisms: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, and Actinomyces naeslundii. Both absolute (plaque bactericidal index) and relative (chlorhexidine coefficient) indexes of antiplaque activity were established. Only cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was more efficacious than the reference agent, the bisbiguanide chlorhexidine, for the apparently more potent tooth-adherent cariogenic and periodontopathic elements, respectively, of the in vivo plaque microflora, S. mutans and A. viscosus. PMID:464568

  5. Coinfection by Ureaplasma spp., Photobacterium damselae and an Actinomyces-like microorganism in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with pleuropneumonia stranded along the Adriatic coast of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Gabriella; Cammà, Cesare; Curini, Valentina; Mazzariol, Sandro; Proietto, Umberto; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Ferri, Nicola; Di Provvido, Andrea; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    A case of pleuropneumonia is reported in an adult male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded in 2014 along the Central Adriatic coast of Italy. A severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia and thoracic lymphadenopathy were present at necropsy. Numerous Splendore-Hoeppli bodies were found microscopically scattered throughout the lung. Histochemical evidence of Actinomyces-like organisms was obtained from the pulmonary parenchyma, with a strain of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Ureaplasma spp. being also isolated from the same tissue. For the latter, a genome fragment of approximately 1400 bp from the 16s rDNA was amplified and sequenced. BLAST analysis revealed 100% identity with an uncultured Ureaplasma spp. (JQ193826.1).

  6. Coinfection by Ureaplasma spp., Photobacterium damselae and an Actinomyces-like microorganism in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with pleuropneumonia stranded along the Adriatic coast of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Gabriella; Cammà, Cesare; Curini, Valentina; Mazzariol, Sandro; Proietto, Umberto; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Ferri, Nicola; Di Provvido, Andrea; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    A case of pleuropneumonia is reported in an adult male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded in 2014 along the Central Adriatic coast of Italy. A severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia and thoracic lymphadenopathy were present at necropsy. Numerous Splendore-Hoeppli bodies were found microscopically scattered throughout the lung. Histochemical evidence of Actinomyces-like organisms was obtained from the pulmonary parenchyma, with a strain of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Ureaplasma spp. being also isolated from the same tissue. For the latter, a genome fragment of approximately 1400 bp from the 16s rDNA was amplified and sequenced. BLAST analysis revealed 100% identity with an uncultured Ureaplasma spp. (JQ193826.1). PMID:27033917

  7. Actinomyces naeslundii Displays Variant fimP and fimA Fimbrial Subunit Genes Corresponding to Different Types of Acidic Proline-Rich Protein and β-Linked Galactosamine Binding Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Hallberg, K.; Holm, C.; Öhman, U.; Strömberg, N.

    1998-01-01

    Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 bind to acidic proline-rich proteins (APRPs) and statherin via type 1 fimbriae and to β-linked galactosamine (GalNAcβ) structures via type 2 fimbriae. In addition, A. naeslundii displays two types of binding specificity for both APRPs-statherin and GalNAcβ, while Actinomyces odontolyticus binds to unknown structures. To study the molecular basis for these binding specificities, DNA fragments spanning the entire or central portions of fimP (type 1) and fimA (type 2) fimbrial subunit genes were amplified by PCR from strains of genospecies 1 and 2 and hybridized with DNA from two independent collections of oral Actinomyces isolates. Isolates of genospecies 1 and 2 and A. odontolyticus, but no other Actinomyces species, were positive for hybridization with fimP and fimA full-length probes irrespective of binding to APRPs and statherin, GalNAcβ, or unknown structures. Isolates of genospecies 1 and 2, with deviating patterns of GalNAcβ1-3Galα-O-ethyl-inhibitable coaggregation with Streptococcus oralis Ss34 and MPB1, were distinguished by a fimA central probe from genospecies 1 and 2, respectively. Furthermore, isolates of genospecies 1 and 2 displaying preferential binding to APRPs over statherin were positive with a fimP central probe, while a genospecies 2 strain with the opposite binding preference was not. The sequences of fimP and fimA central gene segments were highly conserved among isolates with the same, but diversified between those with a variant, binding specificity. In conclusion, A. naeslundii exhibits variant fimP and fimA genes corresponding to diverse APRP and GalNAcβ specificities, respectively, while A. odontolyticus has a genetically related but distinct adhesin binding specificity. PMID:9712794

  8. A Disulfide Bond-forming Machine Is Linked to the Sortase-mediated Pilus Assembly Pathway in the Gram-positive Bacterium Actinomyces oris.

    PubMed

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Chang, Chungyu; Wu, Chenggang; Jooya, Neda; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2015-08-28

    Export of cell surface pilins in Gram-positive bacteria likely occurs by the translocation of unfolded precursor polypeptides; however, how the unfolded pilins gain their native conformation is presently unknown. Here, we present physiological studies to demonstrate that the FimA pilin of Actinomyces oris contains two disulfide bonds. Alanine substitution of cysteine residues forming the C-terminal disulfide bridge abrogates pilus assembly, in turn eliminating biofilm formation and polymicrobial interaction. Transposon mutagenesis of A. oris yielded a mutant defective in adherence to Streptococcus oralis, and revealed the essential role of a vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) gene in pilus assembly. Targeted deletion of vkor results in the same defects, which are rescued by ectopic expression of VKOR, but not a mutant containing an alanine substitution in its conserved CXXC motif. Depletion of mdbA, which encodes a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, abrogates pilus assembly and alters cell morphology. Remarkably, overexpression of MdbA or a counterpart from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, rescues the Δvkor mutant. By alkylation assays, we demonstrate that VKOR is required for MdbA reoxidation. Furthermore, crystallographic studies reveal that A. oris MdbA harbors a thioredoxin-like fold with the conserved CXXC active site. Consistently, each MdbA enzyme catalyzes proper disulfide bond formation within FimA in vitro that requires the catalytic CXXC motif. Because the majority of signal peptide-containing proteins encoded by A. oris possess multiple Cys residues, we propose that MdbA and VKOR constitute a major folding machine for the secretome of this organism. This oxidative protein folding pathway may be a common feature in Actinobacteria.

  9. Study of Humoral Immunity to Commensal Oral Bacteria in Human Infants Demonstrates the Presence of Secretory Immunoglobulin A Antibodies Reactive with Actinomyces naeslundii Genospecies 1 and 2 Ribotypes

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Michael F.; Evans, Mishell K.; Kirchherr, Jennifer L.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Bowden, G. H. W.

    2004-01-01

    The mouths of three human infants were examined from birth to age 2 years to detect colonization of Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2. These bacteria did not colonize until after tooth eruption. The diversity of posteruption isolates was determined by ribotyping. Using immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we determined the reactivity of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies in saliva samples collected from each infant before and after colonization against cell wall proteins from their own A. naeslundii strains and carbohydrates from standard A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 strains. A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 carbohydrate-reactive SIgA antibodies were not detected in any saliva sample. However, SIgA antibodies reactive with cell wall proteins were present in saliva before these bacteria colonized the mouth. These antibodies could be almost completely removed by absorption with A. odontolyticus, a species known to colonize the human mouth shortly after birth. However, after colonization by A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2, specific antibodies were induced that could not be removed by absorption with A. odontolyticus. Cluster analysis of the patterns of reactivity of postcolonization salivary antibodies from each infant with antigens from their own strains showed that not only could these antibodies discriminate among strains but antibodies in saliva samples collected at different times showed different reactivity patterns. Overall, these data suggest that, although much of the salivary SIgA antibodies reactive with A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 are directed against genus-specific or more broadly cross-reactive antigens, species, genospecies, and possibly strain-specific antibodies are induced in response to colonization. PMID:15138172

  10. Adhesion of Streptococcus mitis and Actinomyces oris in co-culture to machined and anodized titanium surfaces as affected by atmosphere and pH

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the rising demand for osseointegrated titanium implants for replacing missing teeth, often in patients with a history of periodontitis, implant-related infections have become an issue of growing concern. Novel methods for treating and preventing implant-associated infections are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to investigate if different pH, atmosphere and surface properties could restrict bacterial adhesion to titanium surfaces used in dental implants. Methods Titanium discs with machined or anodized (TiUnite™) surface were incubated with a co-culture of Streptococcus mitis and Actinomyces oris (early colonizers of oral surfaces) at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 at aerobic or anaerobic atmosphere. The adhesion was analysed by counting colony forming (CFU) units on agar and by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results The CFU analysis showed that a pH of 5.0 was found to significantly decrease the adhesion of S. mitis, and an aerobic atmosphere, the adhesion of A. oris. S. mitis was found in significantly less amounts on the anodized surface than the machined surface, while A. oris was found in equal amounts on both surfaces. The CLSM analysis confirmed the results from the CFU count and provided additional information on how the two oral commensal species adhered to the surfaces: mainly in dispersed clusters oriented with the groves of the machined surface and the pores of the anodized surface. Conclusions Bacterial adhesion by S. mitis and A. oris can be restricted by acidic pH and aerobic atmosphere. The anodized surface reduced the adhesion of S. mitis compared to the machined surface; while A. oris adhered equally well to the pores of the anodized surface and to the grooves of the machined surface. It is difficult to transfer these results directly into a clinical situation. However, it is worth further investigating these findings from an in vitro perspective, as well as clinically, to gain more knowledge of the effects acid pH and

  11. Influence of sweetening agents in solution on dental caries in desalivated rats.

    PubMed

    Bowen, W H; Pearson, S K; Falany, J L

    1990-01-01

    Sucralose (trichlorogalactosucrose), sorbitol and aspartame in drinking water induced little or no caries in desalivated rats infected with Streptococcus sobrinus and Actinomyces viscosus and receiving their essential nutrition by gastric gavage. In contrast, sucrose and fructose induced extensive decay. Only sucrose could sustain implantation of Strep. sobrinus in these animals. The populations of A. viscosus were sparse (0.3-0.5%) in the animals given fructose and sucrose. Large populations of A. viscosus occurred in the controls and in those given sucralose, sorbitol and aspartame. In a second experiment, where animals were also desalivated and receive diet 2000 ad libitum, sucrose in solution promoted caries whereas sucralose, aspartame and saccharin were without effect. Addition of 10 parts/10(6) F overcame the caries-promoting effect of sucrose in solution. There was no interaction between fluoride and other sweetening agents that affected the incidence of caries.

  12. Antibacterial and phytochemical studies on Calotropis gigantia (L.) R. Br. latex against selected cariogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ishnava, Kalpesh B.; Chauhan, Jenabhai B.; Garg, Akanksha A.; Thakkar, Arpit M.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro antibacterial potential of the chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol and aqueous extracts of Calotropis gigantia (L.) R. Br. was evaluated by using five cariogenic bacteria, Actinomyces viscosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus mutans. Agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used for this purpose. The chloroform extracted fraction of latex showed inhibitory effect against S. mutans and L. acidophilus with MIC value of 0.032 and 0.52 mg/mL, respectively. Qualitative investigation on structure elucidation of bioactive compound using IR, NMR and GC–MS techniques revealed the presence of methyl nonanoate, a saturated fatty acid. PMID:23961166

  13. Complete structure of the cell surface polysaccharide of Streptococcus oralis C104: A 600-MHz NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Abeygunawardana, C.; Bush, C.A. ); Cisar, J.O. )

    1991-09-03

    Specific lectin-carbohydrate interactions between certain oral streptococci and actinomyces contribute to the microbial colonization of teeth. The receptor molecules of Streptococcus oralis, 34, ATCC 10557, and Streptococcus mitis J22 for the galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine reactive fimbrial lectins of Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii are antigenically distinct polysaccharides, each formed by a different phosphodiester-linked oligosaccharide repeating unit. Receptor polysaccharide was isolated form S. oralis C104 cells and was shown to contain galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, ribitol, and phosphate with molar ratios of 4:1:1:1. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of the polysaccharide shows that it contains a repeating structure. The individual sugars in the repeating unit were identified by {sup 1}H coupling constants observed in E-COSY and DQF-COSY spectra. NMR methods included complete resonance assignments ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) by various homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation experiments that utilize scalar couplings. Sequence and linkage assignments were obtained from the heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC) spectrum. This analysis shows that the receptor polysaccharide of S. oralis C104 is a ribitol teichoic acid polymer composed of a linear hexasaccharide repeating unit containing two residues each of galactopyranose and galactofuranose and a residue each of GalNAc and ribitol joined end to end by phosphodiester linkages.

  14. Complete structure of the cell surface polysaccharide of Streptococcus oralis ATCC 10557: A receptor for lectin-mediated interbacterial adherence

    SciTech Connect

    Abeygunawardana, C.; Bush, C.A. ); Cisar, J.O. )

    1991-07-02

    Lectin-carbohydrate binding is known to play an important role in a number of different cell-cell interactions including those between certain species of oral streptococci and actinomyces that colonize teeth. The cell wall polysaccharides of Streptococcus oralis ATCC 10557, S. oralis 34, and Streptococcus mitis J22, although not identical antigenically, each function as a receptor molecule for the galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine reactive fimbrial lectins of Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii. Carbohydrate analysis of the receptor polysaccharide isolated from S. oralis ATCC 10557 shows galactose (3 mol), glucose (1 mol), GalNAc (1 mol), and rhamnose (1 mol). {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the polysaccharide show that is partially O-acetylated. Analysis of the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of the de-O-acetylated polysaccharide shows that it is composed of repeating subunits containing six monosaccharides and that the subunits are joined by a phosphodiester linkage. The {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra were completely assigned by two-dimensional homonuclear correlation methods and by {sup 1}H-detected heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation ({sup 1}H({sup 13}C)HMQC). The complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C assignment of the native polysaccharide was carried out by the same techniques augmented by a {sup 13}C-coupled hybrid HMQC-COSY method, which is shown to be especially useful for carbohydrates in which strong coupling and overlapping peaks in the {sup 1}H spectrum pose difficulties.

  15. Autoinducer 2: A concentration-dependent signal for mutualistic bacterial biofilm growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rickard, A.H.; Palmer, R.J.; Blehert, D.S.; Campagna, S.R.; Semmelhack, M.F.; Egland, P.G.; Bassler, B.L.; Kolenbrander, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD), a product of the LuxS enzyme in the catabolism of S-ribosylhomocysteine, spontaneously cyclizes to form autoinducer 2 (AI-2). AI-2 is proposed to be a universal signal molecule mediating interspecies communication among bacteria. We show that mutualistic and abundant biofilm growth in flowing saliva of two human oral commensal bacteria, Actinomyces naeslundii T14V and Streptococcus oralis 34, is dependent upon production of AI-2 by S. oralis 34. A luxS mutant of S. oralis 34 was constructed which did not produce AI-2. Unlike wild-type dual-species biofilms, A. naeslundii T14V and an S. oralis 34 luxS mutant did not exhibit mutualism and generated only sparse biofilms which contained a 10-fold lower biomass of each species. Restoration of AI-2 levels by genetic or chemical (synthetic AI-2 in the form of DPD) complementation re-established the mutualistic growth and high biomass characteristic for the wild-type dual-species biofilm. Furthermore, an optimal concentration of DPD was determined, above and below which biofilm formation was suppressed. The optimal concentration was 100-fold lower than the detection limit of the currently accepted AI-2 assay. Thus, AI-2 acts as an interspecies signal and its concentration is critical for mutualism between two species of oral bacteria grown under conditions that are representative of the human oral cavity. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. [Influence of various anions and biological macromolecules on bacterial aggregation in vitro].

    PubMed

    Belcourt, A

    1975-09-01

    The effects of various anions on experimental bacterial aggregation has been studied with Streptococcus mutans OMZ 175 and Actinomyces viscosus X1, using an experimental system, based on the measurement of optical density in an aqueous polyethyleneglycol medium. Monovolent anions (acétate, chloride and fluoride) and sulphate had no effects on bacterial aggregation in salivary concentrations. However carbonate, mono and dihydrogenophosphates gave an important aggregation in relatively small saline concentrations. The study of the aggregation of Strep. mutans OMZ 175, grown in presence of sucrose for 12 to 96 hours, showed an increased aggregation of the micro-organims up to 24 hours. For longer incubation times, aggregation decreased. Finally a calcium precipitable salivary glycoprotein, at small concentrations, gave a bacterial aggregation of about 25% and may be important in dental plaque formation.

  17. Metabolism of glycosylsucrose by oral microorganisms and its hydrolysis by Streptococcus salivarius fructosyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Hojo, S; Mitsutomi, M; Yamada, T

    1987-01-01

    Resting-cell suspensions of oral microorganisms grown in sucrose were studied for the production of acid from glucosylsucrose and maltosylsucrose. Most oral microorganisms fermented these sugars to only a limited extent. Streptococcus salivarius, however, metabolized glucosylsucrose as well as sucrose. We therefore looked for a specific enzyme in S. salivarius which was capable of hydrolyzing glucosylsucrose. Fructosyltransferase and invertase were purified from S. salivarius 13419, and the substrate specificities and hydrolytic activities of these enzymes were determined. Purified fructosyltransferase catalyzed fructan synthesis from glucosylsucrose or maltosylsucrose, whereas purified invertase barely hydrolyzed these sugars. These results suggest that the high fermentative efficiency of glycosylsucrose by S. salivarius is due to the hydrolysis of these sugars by fructosyltransferase, but not by invertase. The partially purified fructosyltransferases of Actinomyces viscosus NY1 and Streptococcus mutans NCIB 11723 catalyzed fructan synthesis from glucosylsucrose or maltosylsucrose. The fructosyltransferases of these oral microorganisms are also responsible for the hydrolysis of glycosylsucrose. Images PMID:3818092

  18. Enzymatic removal and disinfection of bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, C; Falholt, P; Gram, L

    1997-01-01

    Model biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were made on steel and polypropylene substrata. Plaque-resembling biofilms of Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were made on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. The activity of enzymes against bacterial cells in biofilm was measured by fluorescence microscopy and an indirect conductance test in which evolution of carbon dioxide was measured. Glucose oxidase combined with lactoperoxidase was bactericidal against biofilm bacteria but did not remove the biofilm from the substrata. A complex mixture of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes was able to remove bacterial biofilm from steel and polypropylene substrata but did not have a significant bactericidal activity. Combining oxidoreductases with polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes resulted in bactericidal activity as well as removal of the biofilm. PMID:9293025

  19. Limit dilution analysis of peripheral blood T lymphocytes specific to periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Mahanonda, R; Seymour, G J; Powell, L W; Good, M F; Halliday, J W

    1989-01-01

    Limit dilution analysis (LDA) was used to determine the presence and frequency of periodontopathic-bacteria-specific T cells in the peripheral blood of patients with chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. Twelve adult periodontitis (AP), 13 marginal gingivitis (MG) and 12 healthy control subjects took part in the study. Bacteroides gingivalis and Actinomyces viscosus were used as test organisms, while tetanus toxoid was used as the control antigen. The median PTL-p frequencies to B. gingivalis were 46.33 x 10(-6), 45.33 x 10(-6) and 58.83 x 10(-6) in the control, gingivitis and AP groups respectively, while the median PTL-p frequencies to A. viscosus were 13.8 x 10(-6), 17.33 x 10(-6) and 11.5 x 10(-6), again in the control, gingivitis and AP groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups. All subjects displayed 'single-hit' kinetics with the control tetanus toxoid antigen and, with three exceptions, 'single-hit' kinetics was also found with the two test organisms. One control subject displayed a 'saw-tooth' curve with A. viscosus and a 'suppressor' curve with B. gingivalis, while two MG subjects had a 'saw-tooth' curve with B. gingivalis. These complex curves suggest that, in some subjects, more than one limiting cell type may exist in the cultures. Nevertheless, the results of the present study illustrate that lymphocytes specific to periodontopathic bacteria exist in the peripheral blood of both diseased and non-diseased subjects. PMID:2784736

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Nanoemulsion on Cariogenic Planktonic and Biofilm Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Rawls, H Ralph; Valerie, A Lee

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Nanoemulsions (NE) are a unique class of disinfectants produced by mixing a water immiscible liquid phase into an aqueous phase under high shear forces. NE have antimicrobial properties and are also effective anti-biofilm agents. Materials and Methods The effectiveness of nanoemulsion and its components was determined against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei by live/dead staining. In vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of nanoemulsion against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Actinomyces viscosus, Candida albicans and mixed culture was determined by a serial dilution technique to obtain minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC). In addition, efficacy was investigated by kinetics of killing, adherence and biofilm assays. Results Compared to its components, nanoemulsion showed notable antimicrobial activity against biofilm organisms, up to 83.0% kill within 1 min. NE dilutions ranging from 243 to 19683 were effective against planktonic S. mutans, L. casei, A. viscosus, C. albicans and mixed culture of these four strains as shown through MIC/MBC assays. NE showed antimicrobial activity against planktonic cells at high dilutions, confirmed by time kill studies. The level of adhesion on glass surface was reduced by 94.2 to 99.5 % in nanoemulsion treated groups (p < 0.001). 4-day-old S. mutans, L. casei, A. viscosus, C. albicans and mixed cultures biofilms treated with NE showed reductions of bacterial counts with decreasing dilutions (p < 0.001). Conclusion These results suggest that nanoemulsion has effective anti-cariogenic activity against cariogenic microorganisms and may be a useful medication in the prevention of caries. PMID:21807359

  1. In vitro anti-biofilm activity of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans Houtt. against oral primary colonizer bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rukayadi, Yaya; Kim, Kyu-Hoi; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2008-03-01

    In early dental plaque formation, oral primary colonizers such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus are initially attached to the pellicle-coated tooth surface to form a biofilm. The study aimed to determine the efficacy of macelignan, isolated from nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), in removing each single oral primary biofilm in vitro on a polystyrene 96-well microtiter plate. Four biofilm growth phases (4, 12, 20 and 24 h) were evaluated in this study after treatment with macelignan at various concentrations (0.2, 2 and 10 microg/mL) and exposure times (5, 10 and 30 min). Anti-biofilm activity of macelignan was measured as the percentage of the remaining biofilm absorbance after macelignan treatment in comparison with the untreated control. At 24 h of biofilm growth, S. mutans, A. viscosus and S. sanguis biofilms were reduced by up to 30%, 30% and 38%, respectively, after treatment with 10 microg/mL macelignan for 5 min. Increasing the treatment time to 30 min resulted in a reduction of more than 50% of each of the single primary biofilms. The results indicate that macelignan is a potent natural anti-biofilm agent against oral primary colonizers.

  2. Fimbria damage and removal of adherent bacteria after exposure to acoustic energy.

    PubMed

    McInnes, C; Engel, D; Martin, R W

    1993-10-01

    The physical effects of low-frequency acoustic energy on Actinomyces viscosus were studied with electron microscopy to explore both acoustically induced damage to fimbriae on the surface of these bacteria and acoustic removal of bacteria from saliva-treated hydroxyapatite disks. A bacterial suspension was exposed to acoustic energy from a laboratory acoustic generator (50 kPa, 200 Hz) and from a new electronic toothbrush, the Sonicare. The exposed bacteria were examined with electron microscopy after negative staining. A decrease in both the percentage of bacterial surface covered with fimbriae and the fimbria length was observed after acoustic exposure. To study the acoustic effects on adherent bacteria, A. viscosus bound to hydroxyapatite disks were exposed to acoustic energy and examined with scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative evaluation of the micrographs for the number of bacteria present after exposure revealed that acoustic energy removed both bacteria adherent to the hydroxyapatite surface and adherent to each other. The results support the concept that an electronic toothbrush employing low-frequency acoustic energy may help prevent and control periodontal diseases by altering bacterial adherence.

  3. Inhibitory effects of extracellular products from oral bacteria on human fibroblasts and stimulated lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Higerd, T B; Vesole, D H; Goust, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extracellular products of 12 strains of Streptococcus mutans and 5 additional species of oral bacteria were analyzed for their ability to inhibit proliferation of fibroblastoid cells (HeLa and AV3) and blast transformation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from normal individuals. Products from S. mutans strains AHT and BHT, Streptococcus intermedius, and Actinomyces viscosus inhibited [3H]thymidine uptake by fibroblastoid cells and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes. Products from S. mutans E49, Streptococcus salivarius, and Actinomyces naeslundii inhibited blast transformation of human lymphocytes but did not significantly inhibit the growth of fibroblastoid cells. Preparations from S. intermedius gave the greatest inhibitory activity against both target cell types; initial characterization of this preparation suggested a single factor active in both assays, in that the heat lability and Sephadex G-200 elution profile were similar for the inhibitory activity seen with the two cell types. The molecular weight of the inhibitor, estimated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and Ultragel AcA34, was approximately 160,000. The results strongly suggest that oral bacteria produce heat-labile substances that interfere with fibroblast proliferation and alter the lymphocytic immunological response. Images PMID:689736

  4. Inhibitory effects of extracellular products from oral bacteria on human fibroblasts and stimulated lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Higerd, T B; Vesole, D H; Goust, J M

    1978-08-01

    Extracellular products of 12 strains of Streptococcus mutans and 5 additional species of oral bacteria were analyzed for their ability to inhibit proliferation of fibroblastoid cells (HeLa and AV3) and blast transformation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from normal individuals. Products from S. mutans strains AHT and BHT, Streptococcus intermedius, and Actinomyces viscosus inhibited [3H]thymidine uptake by fibroblastoid cells and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes. Products from S. mutans E49, Streptococcus salivarius, and Actinomyces naeslundii inhibited blast transformation of human lymphocytes but did not significantly inhibit the growth of fibroblastoid cells. Preparations from S. intermedius gave the greatest inhibitory activity against both target cell types; initial characterization of this preparation suggested a single factor active in both assays, in that the heat lability and Sephadex G-200 elution profile were similar for the inhibitory activity seen with the two cell types. The molecular weight of the inhibitor, estimated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and Ultragel AcA34, was approximately 160,000. The results strongly suggest that oral bacteria produce heat-labile substances that interfere with fibroblast proliferation and alter the lymphocytic immunological response. PMID:689736

  5. Recovery of microorganisms from synovial and pleural fluids of animals using hyperosmolar media.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, A M; Davis, D C; Pedersen, N C; Beaman, B L

    1982-03-01

    L-phase (CWD) broth and plate media were used in parallel with conventional microbiological media during a 3-year period for culturing synovial and pleural fluids of animals. Two kinds of recoveries were obtained where parallel conventional methods were negative: (1) parent or normal bacteria, in very low numbers; and (2) Type B CWD variants in equally low numbers. Organisms in group 1 were: Streptococcus zooepidemicus from horses (2x); beta-hemolytic streptococci, Lancefield Gp. G (2x); Staphylococcus aureus; Actinobacillus, and Actinomyces viscosus. Group 2 consisted of Bacteroides sp., Propionibacterium acnes, and three "Nocardia-like" sp. Catalase + Actinomyces was not recovered equally well on CWD plates as on conventional media with fluids obtained during ampicillin treatment. This occurred in spite of the fact that the CWD media was shown to support growth and reversion of laboratory induced L-phase variants of Nocardia caviae and N. asteroides, and had facilitated recovery of a Bacteroides L-phase variant from a pleural fluid. The nature of this fault in the media is under investigation in this laboratory. PMID:7101719

  6. The predominant bacteria isolated from radicular cysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To detect predominant bacteria associated with radicular cysts and discuss in light of the literature. Material and methods Clinical materials were obtained from 35 radicular cysts by aspiration. Cultures were made from clinical materials by modern laboratory techniques, they underwent microbiologic analysis. Results The following are microorganisms isolated from cultures: Streptococcus milleri Group (SMG) (23.8%) [Streptococcus constellatus (19.1%) and Streptococcus anginosus (4.7%)], Streptococcus sanguis (14.3%), Streptococcus mitis (4.7%), Streptococcus cremoris (4.7%), Peptostreptococcus pevotii (4.7%), Prevotella buccae (4.7%), Prevotella intermedia (4.7%), Actinomyces meyeri (4.7%), Actinomyces viscosus (4.7%), Propionibacterium propionicum (4.7%), Bacteroides capillosus (4.7%), Staphylococcus hominis (4.7%), Rothia denticariosa (4.7%), Gemella haemolysans (4.7%), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (4.7%). Conclusions Results of this study demonstrated that radicular cysts show a great variety of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial flora. It was observed that all isolated microorganisms were the types commonly found in oral flora. Although no specific microorganism was found, Streptococcus spp. bacteria (47.5%) – especially SMG (23.8%) – were predominantly found in the microorganisms isolated. Furthermore, radicular cysts might be polymicrobial originated. Although radicular cyst is an inflammatory cyst, some radicular cyst fluids might be sterile. PMID:24011184

  7. Quantitative Molecular Detection of 19 Major Pathogens in the Interdental Biofilm of Periodontally Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Carrouel, Florence; Viennot, Stéphane; Santamaria, Julie; Veber, Philippe; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    In oral health, the interdental spaces are a real ecological niche for which the body has few or no alternative defenses and where the traditional daily methods for control by disrupting biofilm are not adequate. The interdental spaces are the source of many hypotheses regarding their potential associations with and/or causes of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, degenerative disease, and depression. This PCR study is the first to describe the interdental microbiota in healthy adults aged 18–35 years-old with reference to the Socransky complexes. The complexes tended to reflect microbial succession events in developing dental biofilms. Early colonizers included members of the yellow, green, and purple complexes. The orange complex bacteria generally appear after the early colonizers and include many putative periodontal pathogens, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum. The red complex (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola) was considered the climax community and is on the list of putative periodontal pathogens. The 19 major periodontal pathogens tested were expressed at various levels. F. nucleatum was the most abundant species, and the least abundant were Actinomyces viscosus, P. gingivalis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The genome counts for Eikenella corrodens, Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, T. denticola, and Tannerella forsythensis increased significantly with subject age. The study highlights the observation that bacteria from the yellow complex (Streptococcus spp., S. mitis), the green complex (E. corrodens, Campylobacter gracilis, Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga sputigena, A. actinomycetemcomitans), the purple complex (Veillonella parvula, Actinomyces odontolyticus) and the blue complex (A. viscosus) are correlated. Concerning the orange complex, F. nucleatum is the most abundant species in interdental biofilm. The red complex, which is recognized as the most important

  8. Surface structures (peritrichous fibrils and tufts of fibrils) found on Streptococcus sanguis strains may be related to their ability to coaggregate with other oral genera.

    PubMed Central

    Handley, P S; Carter, P L; Wyatt, J E; Hesketh, L M

    1985-01-01

    We screened 36 strains of Streptococcus sanguis biotype I and 8 strains of S. sanguis biotype II for the presence of surface structures and for their ability to coaggregate with Actinomyces viscosus, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Negative staining under an electron microscope revealed detectable surface structures on all S. sanguis strains. The majority of strains (38 of 44) carried peritrichous fibrils, which have an irregular profile and no distinct width. They usually appeared as a fringe with a constant width around the cell. Strains selected for measurement had a fringe with an average length of 72.4 +/- 8.5 nm on biotype I strains and 51.6 +/- 3.3 nm on biotype II strains. Some fibrillar biotype I strains carried an additional, longer (158.7 +/- 33.1 nm) type of fibril projecting through the shorter fibrils. Fibrillar density was characteristic for each strain, ranging from very dense on all cells in a population to very sparse on a few cells in a population. A small group of six strains carried tufts of fibrils in a lateral or polar position on the cell. Either one or two lengths of fibril were present in the tuft depending on the strain. One strain carried both peritrichous fibrils and fimbriae. Fimbriae are flexible structures with a constant width (4.5 to 5.0 nm) all along their length but very variable lengths (less than or equal to 0.7 micron) on each cell. S. sanguis I and II both included strains with peritrichous fibrils and tufts of fibrils, but the mixed morphotype strain was confined to biotype II. Fibrils were present on cells at all stages throughout the growth cycle for the strains tested. Freshly isolated fibrillar strains coaggregated consistently well with A. viscosus and A. naeslundii, although some fibrillar reference strains lacked the ability. In addition, all tufted strains could not coaggregate, but the strains with the mixed morphotype coaggregated well. Coaggregation with F. nucleatum was very strong for the

  9. Quantitative Molecular Detection of 19 Major Pathogens in the Interdental Biofilm of Periodontally Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Carrouel, Florence; Viennot, Stéphane; Santamaria, Julie; Veber, Philippe; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    In oral health, the interdental spaces are a real ecological niche for which the body has few or no alternative defenses and where the traditional daily methods for control by disrupting biofilm are not adequate. The interdental spaces are the source of many hypotheses regarding their potential associations with and/or causes of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, degenerative disease, and depression. This PCR study is the first to describe the interdental microbiota in healthy adults aged 18-35 years-old with reference to the Socransky complexes. The complexes tended to reflect microbial succession events in developing dental biofilms. Early colonizers included members of the yellow, green, and purple complexes. The orange complex bacteria generally appear after the early colonizers and include many putative periodontal pathogens, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum. The red complex (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola) was considered the climax community and is on the list of putative periodontal pathogens. The 19 major periodontal pathogens tested were expressed at various levels. F. nucleatum was the most abundant species, and the least abundant were Actinomyces viscosus, P. gingivalis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The genome counts for Eikenella corrodens, Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, T. denticola, and Tannerella forsythensis increased significantly with subject age. The study highlights the observation that bacteria from the yellow complex (Streptococcus spp., S. mitis), the green complex (E. corrodens, Campylobacter gracilis, Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga sputigena, A. actinomycetemcomitans), the purple complex (Veillonella parvula, Actinomyces odontolyticus) and the blue complex (A. viscosus) are correlated. Concerning the orange complex, F. nucleatum is the most abundant species in interdental biofilm. The red complex, which is recognized as the most important

  10. Ecological approach of macrolide-lincosamides-streptogramin producing actinomyces from Cuban soils.

    PubMed

    González, I; Niebla, A; Lemus, M; González, L; Iznaga, I O; Pérez, M E; Vallin, C

    1999-09-01

    We report in this study the frequency of Streptomyces strains to produce macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) antibiotics isolated from Cuban soils. The screening assay is based on the induction of MLS-resistance phenotype in a clinical isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus S-18. Our results suggest that of 800 Streptomyces strains isolated from different soil samples, 6% were positives in the screening test used. The ferralitic red soil from Pinar del Río (north) provided the major percentage (3.6%) of MLS producing strains. The other soil samples tested belonging to Guira de Melena and Bauta in Havana, Matanzas City, Topes De Collantes (Villa Clara), and Soroa Mountains (Pinar del Rio) hill reached very low percentages.

  11. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    SciTech Connect

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of filling materials used in primary teeth pulpotomy.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Hévelin Couto; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Neves, Ana Thereza Sabóia; Fontes, Rodrigo Gusmão; da Silva, Priscila Vieira; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of pulp capping materials used in primary teeth (formocresol [FC], zinc oxide and eugenol cement [ZOE], ZOE mixed with FC [ZOEFC], mineral trioxide aggregate [MTA] and calcium hydroxide [CH]) against cariogenic bacteria. The agar plate diffusion test was used for the cultures, including saline solution as a negative control. A base layer of 15 mL of brain heart infusion agar was inoculated with 300 mL of each inoculum. Twelve wells were made and completely filled with one of the testing materials for each bacteria strain. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Zones of microbial inhibition and material diffusion were measured and photographed. The results obtained were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests. Respectively, the medium zones of bacteria inhibition of FC, ZOE, ZOEFC, MTA and CH against Streptococcus mutans growth were 28.5, 15.2, 20.8, 9.3 and 11.6; against Lactobacillus acidophilus growth were 28.7, 14.8, 15.3, 15.2 and 20.0, and against Actinomyces viscosus growth were 13.6, 13.5, 14.7, 10.0 and 13.6. We might confirmed the high antibacterial activity of FC solution, especially against S. mutans and L. acidophilus, as wells as, the low inhibitory effect of MTA cement on the cariogenic bacteria studied.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Filling Materials Used in Primary Teeth Pulpotomy

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Hévelin Couto; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Neves, Ana Thereza Sabóia; Fontes, Rodrigo Gusmão; da Silva, Priscila Vieira; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of pulp capping materials used in primary teeth (formocresol [FC], zinc oxide and eugenol cement [ZOE], ZOE mixed with FC [ZOEFC], mineral trioxide aggregate [MTA] and calcium hydroxide [CH]) against cariogenic bacteria. The agar plate diffusion test was used for the cultures, including saline solution as a negative control. A base layer of 15 mL of brain heart infusion agar was inoculated with 300 mL of each inoculum. Twelve wells were made and completely filled with one of the testing materials for each bacteria strain. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Zones of microbial inhibition and material diffusion were measured and photographed. The results obtained were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney non-parametric tests. Respectively, the medium zones of bacteria inhibition of FC, ZOE, ZOEFC, MTA and CH against Streptococcus mutans growth were 28.5, 15.2, 20.8, 9.3 and 11.6; against Lactobacillus acidophilus growth were 28.7, 14.8, 15.3, 15.2 and 20.0, and against Actinomyces viscosus growth were 13.6, 13.5, 14.7, 10.0 and 13.6. We might confirmed the high antibacterial activity of FC solution, especially against S. mutans and L. acidophilus, as wells as, the low inhibitory effect of MTA cement on the cariogenic bacteria studied. PMID:25954072

  14. Screening and Scoring of Antimicrobial and Biological Activities of Italian Vulnerary Plants against Major Oral Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria F.; Roberto, Lia; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Chiaviello, Angela; De Natale, Antonino; Roscetto, Emanuela; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Ingenito, Aniello; Palumbo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity of Italian vulnerary plants against the most important oral pathogenic bacteria. This estimate was accomplished through a fivefold process: (a) a review of ethnobotanical and microbiological data concerning the Italian vulnerary plants; (b) the development of a scoring system to rank the plants; (c) the comparative assessment of microbiological properties; (d) the assessment of potential cytotoxic effects on keratinocyte-like cells and gingival fibroblasts in culture by XTT cell viability assay; (e) clinical evaluation of the most suitable plant extract as antibacterial agent in a home-made mouthwash. The study assays hexane (H), ethanol (E), and water (W) extracts from 72 plants. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces viscosus. Twenty-two plants showed appreciable activity. The extracts showing the strongest antibacterial power were those from Cotinus coggygria Scop., Equisetum hyemale L., Helichrysum litoreum Guss, Juniperus communis L., and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman subsp. scolopendrium. The potential cytotoxic effect of these extracts was assessed. On the basis of these observations, a mouth-rinse containing the ethanolic extract of H. litoreum has been tested in vivo, resulting in reduction of the salivary concentration of S. mutans. PMID:24302963

  15. Lectin-Like Constituents of Foods Which React with Components of Serum, Saliva, and Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, R. J.; Dankers, I.

    1981-01-01

    Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared from 22 commonly ingested fruits, vegetables, and seeds. When tested by agar diffusion, extracts from 13 and 10 of the foods formed precipitin bands with samples of normal rabbit serum and human saliva, respectively; extracts from four of the foods also reacted with antigen extracts of strains of Streptococcus mutans. When added to rabbit antiserum, extracts from 18 of 21 foods tested inhibited reactivity with antigen extracts derived from S. mutans MT3. Extracts from 16 foods agglutinated whole S. mutans cells, whereas those from 10 foods agglutinated human erythrocytes of blood types A and B. The lectin-like activities of extracts which reacted with human saliva were studied further. Pretreatment of saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (S-HA) beads with extracts of bananas, coconuts, carrots, alfalfa, and sunflower seeds markedly reduced the subsequent adsorption of S. mutans MT3. Pretreatment of S-HA with banana extract also strongly inhibited adsorption of S. mutans H12 and S. sanguis C1, but it had little effect on attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii L13 or A. viscosus LY7. Absorption experiments indicated that the component(s) in banana extract responsible for inhibiting streptococcal adsorption to S-HA was identical to that which bound to human erythrocytes. The banana hemagglutinin exhibited highest activity between pH 7 and 8, and it was inhibited by high concentrations of glucosamine, galactosamine, and, to a lesser extent, mannosamine. Other sugars tested had no effect. The selective bacterial adsorption-inhibiting effect noted for banana extract was also observed in studies with purified lectins. Thus, pretreating S-HA with wheat germ agglutinin and concanavalin A inhibited adsorption of S. mutans MT3 cells, whereas peanut agglutinin, Ulex agglutinin, Dolichos agglutinin, and soybean agglutinin had little effect; none of these lectins affected attachment of A. viscosus LY7. Collectively, the observations suggest that

  16. 21 CFR 558.500 - Ractopamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... liver abscesses caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum and Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes. As in... Fusobacterium necrophorum and Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes. As in paragraph (e)(2)(vi) of this section... caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum and Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes; and for suppression...

  17. Antimicrobial Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on Cariogenic Bacteria Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mutans, and Periodontal Diseases Actinomyces naeslundii and Tannerella forsythia.

    PubMed

    Baca-Castañón, Magda Lorena; De la Garza-Ramos, Myriam Angélica; Alcázar-Pizaña, Andrea Guadalupe; Grondin, Yohann; Coronado-Mendoza, Anahí; Sánchez-Najera, Rosa Isela; Cárdenas-Estrada, Eloy; Medina-De la Garza, Carlos Eduardo; Escamilla-García, Erandi

    2015-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well known for their beneficial effects on human health in the intestine and immune system; however, there are few studies on the impact they can generate in oral health. The aim of this study was to test and compare in vitro antimicrobial activity of L. reuteri on pathogenic bacteria involved in the formation of dental caries: S. mutans, S. gordonii, and periodontal disease: A. naeslundii and T. forsythia. Also, we determined the growth kinetics of each bacterium involved in this study. Before determining the antimicrobial action of L. reuteri on cariogenic bacteria and periodontal disease, the behavior and cell development time of each pathogenic bacterium were studied. Once the conditions for good cell growth of each of selected pathogens were established according to their metabolic requirements, maximum exponential growth was determined, this being the reference point for analyzing the development or inhibition by LAB using the Kirby Bauer method. Chlorhexidine 0.12% was positive control. L. reuteri was shown to have an inhibitory effect against S. mutans, followed by T. forsythia and S. gordonii, and a less significant effect against A. naeslundii. Regarding the effect shown by L. reuteri on the two major pathogens, we consider its potential use as a possible functional food in the prevention or treatment of oral diseases.

  18. In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis and Arnica montana against oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Koo, H; Gomes, B P; Rosalen, P L; Ambrosano, G M; Park, Y K; Cury, J A

    2000-02-01

    Arnica and propolis have been used for thousands of years in folk medicine for several purposes. They possess several biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral and tissue regenerative, among others. Although the antibacterial activity of propolis has already been demonstrated, very few studies have been done on bacteria of clinical relevance in dentistry. Also, the antimicrobial activity of Arnica has not been extensively investigated. Therefore the aim here was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity, inhibition of adherence of mutans streptococci and inhibition of formation of water-insoluble glucan by Arnica and propolis extracts. Arnica montana (10%, w/v) and propolis (10%, w/v) extracts from Minas Gerais State were compared with controls. Fifteen microorganisms were used as follows: Candida albicans--NTCC 3736, F72; Staphylococcus aureus--ATCC 25923; Enterococcus faecalis--ATCC 29212; Streptococcus sobrinus 6715; Strep. sanguis--ATCC 10556; Strep. cricetus--HS-6; Strep. mutans--Ingbritt 1600; Strep. mutans--OMZ 175; Actinomyces naeslundii--ATCC 12104, W 1053; Act. viscosus OMZ 105; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Porph. endodontalis and Prevotella denticola (the last three were clinical isolates). Antimicrobial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method and the zones of growth inhibition were measured. To assess cell adherence to a glass surface, the organisms were grown for 18 h at 37 degrees C in test-tubes at a 30 degree angle. To assay water-insoluble glucan formation, a mixture of crude glucosyltransferase and 0.125 M sucrose was incubated for 18 h at 37 degrees C in test-tubes at a 30 degree angle. Arnica and propolis extracts (20 microl) were added to these tubes to evaluate the % of inhibition of cell adherence and water-insoluble glucan formation. The propolis extract significantly inhibited all the microorganisms tested (p < 0.05), showing the largest inhibitory zone for Actinomyces spp. The Arnica extract did

  19. Activity of panduratin A isolated from Kaempferia pandurata Roxb. against multi-species oral biofilms in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yanti; Rukayadi, Yaya; Lee, Kwan-Hyoung; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2009-03-01

    The formation of dental biofilm caused by oral bacteria on tooth surfaces is the primary step leading to oral diseases. This study was performed to investigate the preventive and reducing effects of panduratin A, isolated from Kaempferia pandurata Roxb., against multi-species oral biofilms consisting of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of panduratin A was determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution assay. Prevention of biofilm formation was performed on 96-well microtiter plates by coating panduratin A in mucin at 0.5-40 microg/ml, followed by biofilm formation at 37 degrees C for 24 h. The reducing effect on the preformed biofilm was tested by forming the biofilm at 37 degrees C for 24 h, followed by treatment with panduratin A at 0.2-10 microg/ml for up to 60 min. Panduratin A showed a MIC of 1 microg/ml for multi-species strains. Panduratin A at 2 x MIC for 8 h exhibited bactericidal activity against multi-species planktonic cells for 8 h. At 8 x MIC, panduratin A was able to prevent biofilm formation by > 50%. Biofilm mass was reduced by > 50% after exposure to panduratin A at 10 microg/ml for 15 min. Panduratin A showed a dose-dependent effect in preventing and reducing the biofilm. These results suggest that panduratin A is applicable as a natural anti-biofilm agent to eliminate oral bacterial colonization during early dental plaque formation.

  20. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Soleimanpour, Saman; Sedighinia, Fereshteh Sadat; Safipour Afshar, Akbar; Zarif, Reza; Ghazvini, Kiarash

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Results: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05). No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method. Conclusion: This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts. PMID:26101754

  1. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Ten Commercially Available Herbal Dentifrices against Specific Oral Microflora – In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Padma; Hemalatha; Reddy, Srikanth; Doshi, Dolar; Kulkarni, Suhas; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of ten commercially available herbal dentifrices against specific strains of oral microflora using a standard diffusion method at full strength and 1:1 dilution at 24 h. Materials and Methods: The standard strains of Streptococcus. mutans (ATCC 21293), Streptococcus sangius (MTCC 442), Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 3268), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 2592), Streptococcus pyogenes (MTCC 442) and Candida albicans (ATCC 183) were obtained. Antimicrobial efficacy of the dentifrices was tested in triplicate, at full strength and 1:1 dilution with the sterile water using a standard diffusion method for 24 h at 37°C. The antimicrobial efficacy was tested by observing the zones of inhibition in millimeters surrounding disk containing the dentifrice. Mean standard deviation and standard error of mean of the inhibitory zones was calculated for each herbal dentifrice. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Danth Kanthi (DK) was the most effective against all the microorganisms producing larger zones of inhibition at 24 h (F.S – 40±1.5; 1:1 dilution – 40±2.71). Amar Premium (AP) also produced larger zones of inhibition against all microorganisms except S. aureus. Of all the dentifrices, least zones of inhibitions i.e., around 5 mm was observed against S. aureus by Amar Premium (AP) and Dabur Babool (DB) at 24 h. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that all herbal dentifrices exhibited antimicrobial activity against the selected oral microorganisms, with DK being the most effective. Hence, it can be inferred that herbal dentifrices can also be recommended like the conventional formulations. PMID:26023642

  2. [Non-cariogenicity of erythritol as a substrate].

    PubMed

    Kawanabe, J

    1990-03-01

    Erythritol is a sugar alcohol which is obtained through a cultivation of glucose and Aureobasidium sp. The sugar is about 70-80% as sweet as sucrose and is also non-hygroscopic. The effect of erythritol on cariogenicities of mutans streptococci (serotype a-h) and certain oral microorganisms was studies. Erythritol was not utilized as a substrate for the growth, lactic acid production and plaque formation of mutans streptococci (serotype a-h). It did not serve as a substrate for cellular aggregation of mutants streptococci (serotype d, g, h) and was not utilized water-insoluble glucan synthesis and cellular adherence by glucosyltransferase from S. mutans PS-14 (c) or S. sorbrinus 6715 (g). Erythritol was not also utilized for the growth and lactic acid production of certain oral microorganisms although some growth was seen with Actinomyces viscosus. SPF SD rats infected with S. sobrinus 6715 were fed a diet containing 26% erythritol or 26% sucrose for 53 days. A significantly (p less than 0.01) lower caries score (mean +/- SE; 3.1 +/- 0.5) was observed in the rat fed a diet containing erythritol than the control (60.5 +/- 2.0). The caries inhibition rate is 94.9%. Also, rats infected with S. mutans PS-14 were fed a diet containing 56% erythritol chocolate or 56% sucrose chocolate for 58 days. The mean total caries score of rats fed a diet containing 56% erythritol chocolate was 6.7 +/- 0.8, while the mean total caries score of rats fed a diet containing 56% sucrose chocolate was 82.8 +/- 2.8. The value between both groups was significant at 0.01 level, and the caries inhibition rate is 91.9%.

  3. Osteomyelitis of a long bone due to Fusobacterium nucleatum and Actinomyces meyeri in an immunocompetent adult: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fusobacterium species are uncommon causes of osteomyelitis. These organisms are normal flora of the oral cavity. Therefore, they mostly cause osteomyelitis of the head and neck. Hematogenous osteomyelitis at distant sites other than the head and neck has rarely been reported in pediatric or immunocompromised patients. Here, we report the first case of osteomyelitis of a long bone combined with a muscle abscess due to Fusobacterium nucleatum in an otherwise healthy adult. Case presentation A 59-year-old Korean man was admitted for pain and swelling of the right lower leg, which had been persistent for two weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging showed osteomyelitis of the right fibula with a surrounding muscle abscess of the right lower leg. Incision and drainage was performed, and repetitive tissue cultures grew F. nucleatum. In this patient, it was presumed that recurrent periodontitis caused hematogenous seeding of F. nucleatum to a distant site leading to osteomyelitis with a muscle abscess. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous ampicillin-sulbactam for three weeks and oral amoxicillin-clavulanate for eight weeks. He also underwent repeated surgical drainage. He has no evidence of recurrence after seven months of follow-up. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware that F. nucleatum could be the etiologic agent of hematogenous osteomyelitis of a long bone in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:22817336

  4. 75 FR 54017 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Penicillin G Benzathine and Penicillin G Procaine Suspension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... pneumonia (Streptococcus spp., Actinomyces pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus); upper respiratory infections such as rhinitis or pharyngitis (A. pyogenes); blackleg (Clostridium chauvoei). * * * * *...

  5. 21 CFR 558.500 - Ractopamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liver abscesses caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum and Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes. As in... necrophorum and Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes. As in paragraph (e)(2)(vi) of this section; see §§ 558... Fusobacterium necrophorum and Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes; and for suppression of estrus (heat)....

  6. 21 CFR 558.500 - Ractopamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... liver abscesses caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum and Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes. As in... necrophorum and Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes. As in paragraph (e)(2)(vi) of this section; see §§ 558... Fusobacterium necrophorum and Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes; and for suppression of estrus (heat)....

  7. In vitro antiplaque effects of antiseptic phenols.

    PubMed

    Evans, R T; Baker, P J; Coburn, R A; Fischman, S L; Genco, R J

    1977-03-01

    Several phenols known to be antiseptics were tested in vitro for their ability to adsorb to saliva-coated enamel and subsequently inhibit plaque formation. 3,5,4'-tribromosalicylanilide was found to be effective against growth and plaque formation of A viscosus, A naeslundii, S mutans and S sanguis. Dibromsalicil was effective against A viscosus. The other phenols (hexylresorcinol, thymol, phenylphenol and zinc phenolsulfonate) did not inhibit in vitro growth or plaque formation.

  8. 21 CFR 522.1696a - Penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (A) Treatment of bacterial pneumonia (Streptococcus spp., Actinomyces pyogenes pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus); upper respiratory infections such as rhinitis or pharyngitis (A. pyogenes);...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1696a - Penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (ii) Conditions of use. (A) Treatment of bacterial pneumonia (Streptococcus spp., Actinomyces pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus); upper respiratory infections such as rhinitis or pharyngitis (A. pyogenes);...

  10. 21 CFR 558.500 - Ractopamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 558.500, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... liver abscesses caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum and Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes. As in... Fusobacterium necrophorum and Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes. As in paragraph (e)(2)(vi) of this...

  11. Actinomycosis

    MedlinePlus

    Actinomycosis is usually caused by bacterium called Actinomyces israelii . This is a common organism found in the nose and throat. It normally does not cause disease. Because of the bacteria's normal ...

  12. Ground-based dosimetry support for experiment AR002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassou, R.; Benton, E. V.

    1976-01-01

    Actinomyces levoris colonies were exposed to alpha particles at the 184-inch cyclotron, and Streptomyces levoris colonies were exposed to Ne-20 ions. A description is given of the experimental conditions for each experiment along with tables listing the doses delivered to the colonies. The doses for the Actinomyces levoris exposures came from calibrations made by the cyclotron operators, while the doses for the Streptomyces levoris exposures came in part from cave calibrations and also in part from calculations.

  13. Selective uptake of pyrrolizidine N-oxides by cell suspension cultures from pyrrolizidine alkaloid producing plants.

    PubMed

    von Borstel, K; Hartmann, T

    1986-02-01

    The N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids such as senecionine or monocrotaline are rapidly taken up and accumulated by cell suspension cultures obtained from plants known to produce pyrrolizidines, i.e. Senecio vernalis, vulgaris, viscosus (Asteraceae) and Symphytum officinale (Boraginaceae). The transport of the N-oxides into the cells is a specific and selective process. Other alkaloid N-oxides such as sparteine N-oxide are not taken up. Cell cultures from plant species which do not synthesize pyrrolizidine alkaloids are unable to accumulate pyrrolizidine N-oxides. The suitability of the pyrrolizidine N-oxides in alkaloid storage and accumulation is emphasized. PMID:24247963

  14. Pyelonephritis caused by Actinobaculum schaalii in a child with pyeloureteral junction obstruction.

    PubMed

    Pajkrt, D; Simoons-Smit, A M; Savelkoul, P H M; van den Hoek, J; Hack, W W M; van Furth, A M

    2003-07-01

    Reported here is the case of a 5-year old boy with a pyeloureteral junction (PUJ) obstruction and pyelonephritis caused by Actinobaculum schaalii, an Actinomyces-like organism. Pyelonephritis or any other urinary tract infection caused by Actinobaculum schaalii has not been described in children before. The patient responded well to pyeloplasty in combination with antibiotic treatment.

  15. 21 CFR 522.1696a - Penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dosage in 48 hours. (ii) Conditions of use. (A) Treatment of bacterial pneumonia (Streptococcus spp., Actinomyces pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus); upper respiratory infections such as rhinitis or pharyngitis (A. pyogenes); blackleg (Clostridium chauvoei). (B) As in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section;...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1696a - Penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dosage in 48 hours. (ii) Conditions of use. (A) Treatment of bacterial pneumonia (Streptococcus spp., Actinomyces pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus); upper respiratory infections such as rhinitis or pharyngitis (A. pyogenes); blackleg (Clostridium chauvoei). (B) As in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section;...

  17. 21 CFR 522.1696a - Penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dosage in 48 hours. (ii) Conditions of use. (A) Treatment of bacterial pneumonia (Streptococcus spp., Actinomyces pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus); upper respiratory infections such as rhinitis or pharyngitis (A. pyogenes); blackleg (Clostridium chauvoei). (B) As in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section;...

  18. Effect of culture medium on acid production from sorbitol by oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kalfas, S; Edwardsson, S

    1990-08-01

    The fermentation of sorbitol or glucose and the acid production by strains belonging to the genera Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus isolated from the predominant sorbitol-fermenting human dental plaque flora were studied in cultures in complex or defined bacteriologic broths and in saliva-based broth. The growth yields of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus in the saliva-based media and of Actinomyces in the defined broth were poor. Addition of fermentable carbohydrate to the saliva-based broth favored the growth of Streptococcus and Lactobacillus but not that of Actinomyces. The results showed obvious differences in the capacity of oral bacteria to ferment sorbitol between cultures in saliva-based and bacteriologic broths. Lactobacillus failed to utilize sorbitol when saliva was the only source of nutrients. Lower proportions of lactic and formic acids were formed from sorbitol by Actinomyces and Lactobacillus in the saliva-based than in the bacteriologic media. The findings illustrate some mechanisms possibly involved in the interactions between sorbitol and dental plaque flora.

  19. Actinomycosis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation despite penicillin prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Barraco, F; Labussière-Wallet, H; Valour, F; Ducastelle-Leprêtre, S; Nicolini, F-E; Thomas, X; Ferry, T; Dumitrescu, O; Michallet, M; Ader, F

    2016-08-01

    Actinomycosis is a rare chronic and multifaceted disease caused by Actinomyces species frequently mimicking malignancy or other chronic granulomatous lung diseases. We report 4 original presentations of actinomycosis arising under supposed penicillin prophylaxis in allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipients. PMID:27203624

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Protamine against Oral Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Sang Moo; Lee, Si Young

    2015-01-01

    Protamine is an arginine-rich polycationic protein extracted from sperm cells of vertebrates including fishes such as salmon. The purpose of this study was to investigate the suppressive effects of protamine on the growth of oral pathogens for possible usage in dental materials. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the microdilution method. Twelve strains of oral viridans streptococci, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans were suppressed by protamine. MIC and MBC values were between 0.009 ~ 20 mg/mL and 0.019 ~ 80 mg/mL, respectively. The bactericidal activities of protamine against susceptible bacterial species were dependent on the concentration of protamine and incubation time. Based on the results of this study, protamine would be a useful compound for the development of antimicrobial agents against oral pathogens in dental materials.

  1. Endometrial biopsy in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. III. Bacteriological analysis and correlations with histological findings.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, B N; Martin, S W; Gannon, V P; Miller, R B; Etherington, W G

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the results of bacterial culture from 159 endometrial biopsy samples from 97 commercial dairy cows and correlations between bacteriological and histological findings. Bacteria were isolated from approximately 80% of biopsies taken at day 26 and day 40 postpartum. Eleven percent of biopsies were positive for both aerobic and anaerobic culture. Streptococci, Escherichia coli and Actinomyces pyogenes were the most common isolates. Isolation of A. pyogenes from a biopsy at day 26 was positively correlated with isolation of anaerobic bacteria and segmented cell inflammation in the same biopsy, and with subsequent isolation of A. pyogenes at day 40. There was a strong association between isolation of A. pyogenes and anaerobes at day 26 with increased uterine lesions at day 40. Isolation of alpha hemolytic streptococci (AHS) was negatively correlated with isolation of A. pyogenes and with inflammation. Actinomyces pyogenes and AHS showed opposite associations with mononuclear cell inflammation and lymphocytic foci. PMID:1884297

  2. Cervical vertebral actinomycosis mimicking malignancy in a paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Shyam; Yoon, Daniel J; Benitez, Carlos L; Buyuk, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    Actinomyces spp are found in the flora of the oral cavity and vagina and may cause infection with abscess formation and draining sinuses. Cervicofacial manifestations of actinomycosis involve head and neck soft tissue, however, spread to the cervical spine is rare. We report a case of an 8-year-old boy, presenting with neck pain for 1 month and denying a history of trauma or procedures. Radiography revealed an ulceration of the posterior oropharyngeal mucosa with a defect extending to the C1-C2 vertebra, mimicking a neoplastic process. The patient underwent laryngoscopy and multiple biopsies were taken from the ulcer and bone, showing severe osteomyelitis and intraosseous filamentous organisms, morphologically consistent with Actinomyces spp. The boy received long-term antibiotics with response to treatment. Actinomycosis has rarely been reported in the cervical vertebrae of paediatric patients. This should be considered as a differential diagnosis for such a presentation as prompt antibiotic treatment may be lifesaving. PMID:27033296

  3. Pseudoactinomyces in cervical mucus.

    PubMed

    Deen, Suha; Ashford, Keith; Harwood, Andrew; Gray, Trevor

    2011-05-01

    Actinomyces israelii are gram-positive filamentous bacteria forming yellow sulfur granules. They are the most well known complication of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD). Healthcare staff dealing with reporting cervical smears should be aware of pseudoactinomyces entity in a cervical smears and biopsies as it may raise a false alarm to the clinician and may lead to unnecessary removal of IUCD and/or medical treatment.

  4. In vitro activity of rodogyl against putative periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Quee, T C; Roussou, T; Chan, E C

    1983-01-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations of Rodogyl (composite tablet of metronidazole and spiramycin), metronidazole-spiramycin mixture, spiramycin, metronidazole, and tetracycline were determined for selected putative periodontopathic microorganisms. Rodogyl was active against almost all strains, including Bacteroides species and the anaerobic spirochetes. Synergism of the component drugs in the Rodogyl combination was noted against Propionibacterium species. Spiramycin activity against Actinomyces species was enhanced in the presence of metronidazole. PMID:6639002

  5. Antimicrobial action of natural substances on oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Y; Ito, Y; Shibata, M; Sato, Y; Okuda, K; Takazoe, I

    1989-08-01

    The antimicrobial action of natural substances was investigated in vitro against oral bacteria including Streptococcus sp., Actinomyces sp., Actinobacillus sp., Bacteroides sp., Capnocytophaga sp., Eikenella sp., Fusobacterium sp. and Propionibacterium sp. Among the natural substances tested, hinokitiol was the most inhibitory to oral bacteria. Cinnamon bark oil, papua-mace extracts, and clove bud oil in spice extracts were also inhibitory against many oral bacteria. Egg white lysozyme exhibited antimicrobial action against the periodontitis associated bacteria. PMID:2637783

  6. Microbial characteristics of purple paddy soil in response to Pb pollution.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Zhang, Yue-Qiang; Zhang, La-Mei; Zhou, Xin-Bin; Shi, Xiao-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The study focused on the change of microbial characteristics affected by Plumbum pollution with purple paddy soil in an incubation experiment. The results showed that low concentration of Plumbum had little effect on most of microbial amounts, biological activity and enzymatic activity. However, denitrifying activity was inhibited severely, and inhibition rate was up to 98%. Medium and high concentration of Plumbum significantly reduced the amounts and activity of all microorganisms and enzymatic activity, which increased with incubation time. Negative correlations were found between Plumbum concentrations and microbial amounts, biological activity and enzymatic activities except fungi and actinomyces. Thus they can be used to indicate the Plumbum pollution levels to some extent. LD(50) of denitrifying bacteria (DB) and ED50 of denitrifying activity were 852mg/kg and 33.5mg/kg. Across all test soil microbes, denitrifying bacteria was most sensitive to Plumbum pollution in purple paddy soil. Value of early warning showed that anaerobic cellulose-decomposing bacteria (ACDB) and actinomyces were also sensitive to Plumbum pollution. We concluded that denitrifying activity, actinomyces, ACDB or DB can be chosen as predictor of Plumbum contamination in purple paddy soil.

  7. MLPA diagnostics of complex microbial communities: relative quantification of bacterial species in oral biofilms.

    PubMed

    Terefework, Zewdu; Pham, Chi L; Prosperi, Anja C; Entius, Mark M; Errami, Abdellatif; van Spanning, Rob J M; Zaura, Egija; Ten Cate, Jacob M; Crielaard, Wim

    2008-12-01

    A multitude of molecular methods are currently used for identification and characterization of oral biofilms or for community profiling. However, multiplex PCR techniques that are able to routinely identify several species in a single assay are not available. Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) identifies up to 45 unique fragments in a single tube PCR. Here we report a novel use of MLPA in the relative quantification of targeted microorganisms in a community of oral microbiota. We designed 9 species specific probes for: Actinomyces gerencseriae, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Rothia dentocariosa, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Veillonella parvula; and genus specific probes for selected oral Streptococci and Lactobacilli based on their 16S rDNA sequences. MLPA analysis of DNA pooled from the strains showed the expected specific MLPA products. Relative quantification of a serial dilution of equimolar DNA showed that as little as 10 pg templates can be detected with clearly discernible signals. Moreover, a 2 to 7% divergence in relative signal ratio of amplified probes observed from normalized peak area values suggests MLPA can be a cheaper alternative to using qPCR for quantification. We observed 2 to 6 fold fluctuations in signal intensities of MLPA products in DNAs isolated from multispecies biofilms grown in various media for various culture times. Furthermore, MLPA analyses of DNA isolated from saliva obtained from different donors gave a varying number and intensity of signals. This clearly shows the usefulness of MLPA in a quantitative description of microbial shifts.

  8. Chemical and physical differentiation of superoxide dismutases in anaerobes.

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, E M; Dapper, C H

    1980-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase activity in crude or partially purified cell extracts from several species and strains of obligate anaerobe Bacteroides was inhibited instantaneously by NaN3 and was inactivated rapidly upon incubation with H2O2. The extent of NaN3 inhibition varied from 41 to 93%, and the half-life of the enzymatic activity in 5 mM H2O2 ranged from 1.2 to 6.1 min, depending upon the organism tests. When grown in a defined medium containing 59Fe, Bacteroides fragilis (VPI 2393) incorporated radiolabel into a 40,000-molecular-weight NaN3- and H2O2-sensitive superoxide dismutase but did not incorporate 54Mn into that protein under similar growth conditions. The anaerobe Actinomyces naeslundii (VPI 9985) incorporated 54Mn but not 59Fe into a NaN3-insensitive and H2O2-resistant superoxide dismutase. The apparent molecular weight of the superoxide dismutase from this and several other Actinomyces spp. was estimated to be 110,000 to 140,000. Comparison of these data with studies of homogeneous metallosuperoxide dismutases suggests that the Bacteroides spp. studied contain a ferrisuperoxide dismutase, whereas Actinomyces spp. contain a managanisuperoxide dismutase. PMID:7440509

  9. Carotid artery rupture and cervicofacial actinomycosis.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Anne; Lhermitte, Benoît; Ödman, Micaela; Grabherr, Silke; Mangin, Patrice; Palmiere, Cristian

    2012-11-01

    Cervicofacial actinomycosis is an uncommon, progressive infection caused by bacilli of the Actinomyces genus. Actinomyces are common commensal saprophytes in the oral cavity which may have medical importance as facultative pathogens. Subsequent to local injuries to the oral mucosa, they may penetrate the deep tissues and be responsible for suppurative or granulomatous infections. We herein report a case of a 65-year-old man who underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy for a tonsillar carcinoma. An ulcerous lesion in the base of the tongue developed and spread to the carotid artery wall. The man died of a massive hemorrhage due to left carotid artery rupture. Postmortem computed tomography angiography performed prior to autopsy allowed the precise localization of the source of bleeding to be detected. Postmortem biochemical investigations confirmed the presence of inflammation associated with local bacterial infection. Histological investigations revealed the rupture of the left carotid artery surrounded by numerous colonies of Actinomyces. Acute and chronic inflammation with tissue necrosis as well as post-actinic, fibrotic changes were also found in the tissues surrounding the ruptured artery wall. PMID:22819527

  10. Implication of zinc excess on soil health.

    PubMed

    Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Boros-Lajszner, Edyta; Borowik, Agata; Baćmaga, Małgorzata; Kucharski, Jan; Tomkiel, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate zinc's influence on the resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the University of Warmia and Mazury (UWM) in Olsztyn, Poland. Plastic pots were filled with 3 kg of sandy loam with pHKCl - 7.0 each. The experimental variables were: zinc applied to soil at six doses: 100, 300, 600, 1,200, 2,400 and 4,800 mg of Zn(2+) kg(-1) in the form of ZnCl2 (zinc chloride), and species of plant: oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Chwat and white mustard (Sinapis alba) cv. Rota. Soil without the addition of zinc served as the control. During the growing season, soil samples were subjected to microbiological analyses on experimental days 25 and 50 to determine the abundance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces and fungi, and the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase and urease, which provided a basis for determining the soil resistance index (RS). The physicochemical properties of soil were determined after harvest. The results of this study indicate that excessive concentrations of zinc have an adverse impact on microbial growth and the activity of soil enzymes. The resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease decreased with an increase in the degree of soil contamination with zinc. Dehydrogenases were most sensitive and urease was least sensitive to soil contamination with zinc. Zinc also exerted an adverse influence on the physicochemical properties of soil and plant development. The growth of oat and white mustard plants was almost completely inhibited in response to the highest zinc doses of 2,400 and 4,800 mg Zn(2+) kg(-1).

  11. Implication of zinc excess on soil health.

    PubMed

    Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Boros-Lajszner, Edyta; Borowik, Agata; Baćmaga, Małgorzata; Kucharski, Jan; Tomkiel, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate zinc's influence on the resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the University of Warmia and Mazury (UWM) in Olsztyn, Poland. Plastic pots were filled with 3 kg of sandy loam with pHKCl - 7.0 each. The experimental variables were: zinc applied to soil at six doses: 100, 300, 600, 1,200, 2,400 and 4,800 mg of Zn(2+) kg(-1) in the form of ZnCl2 (zinc chloride), and species of plant: oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Chwat and white mustard (Sinapis alba) cv. Rota. Soil without the addition of zinc served as the control. During the growing season, soil samples were subjected to microbiological analyses on experimental days 25 and 50 to determine the abundance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces and fungi, and the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase and urease, which provided a basis for determining the soil resistance index (RS). The physicochemical properties of soil were determined after harvest. The results of this study indicate that excessive concentrations of zinc have an adverse impact on microbial growth and the activity of soil enzymes. The resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease decreased with an increase in the degree of soil contamination with zinc. Dehydrogenases were most sensitive and urease was least sensitive to soil contamination with zinc. Zinc also exerted an adverse influence on the physicochemical properties of soil and plant development. The growth of oat and white mustard plants was almost completely inhibited in response to the highest zinc doses of 2,400 and 4,800 mg Zn(2+) kg(-1). PMID:26828860

  12. Primary actinomycosis of vulva with inguinal lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Asia, Anand J; Tapre, Vaibhav N

    2016-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infection of subcutaneous tissues caused by bacterium Actinomyces israelii. It is a normal commensal of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and vagina. Infection is first established locally by breach of mucosal barrier during various procedures, aspiration, trauma, or human bite. Rarely, it may spread through hematogenous and lymphatic system. We present a case of actinomycosis involving the vulva, extending to the inguinal region along with inguinal lymphadenopathy. Involvement of vulva by actinomycosis is uncommon in literature. PMID:27730039

  13. Multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to analyze multispecies oral biofilms.

    PubMed

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Hellwig, Elmar; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) constitutes a favorable microbiological method for the analysis of spatial distribution of highly variable phenotypes found in multispecies oral biofilms. The combined use of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) produces high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) images of individual bacteria in their natural environment. Here, we describe the application of M-FISH on early (Streptococcus spp., Actinomyces naeslundii) and late colonizers (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Veillonella spp.) of in situ-formed oral biofilms, the acquisition of CLSM images, as well as the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these digitally obtained and processed images.

  14. ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS AS A MARKER OF RESPIRATORY INFLAMMATION IN PRZEWALSKI'S HORSE (EQUUS FERUS PRZEWALSKII).

    PubMed

    Sander, Samantha J; Joyner, Priscilla H; Cray, Carolyn; Rotstein, David S; Aitken-Palmer, Copper

    2016-06-01

    Acute phase proteins are sensitive markers of inflammation, which are highly conserved across taxa. Although the utility of these proteins are becoming well defined in human and domestic animal medical fields, their role in nondomestic species remains unclear. In this communication, a 20-yr-old Przewalski's horse was presented for unresolving aspiration pneumonia, which cultured a unique Actinomyces-like bacteria. Despite waxing and waning clinical signs and minimal changes on baseline hematologic analysis, protein electrophoresis, serum amyloid A, and surfactant protein D serum concentrations showed changes that more accurately reflected the clinical severity of this case. PMID:27468045

  15. [Optimization of the composition of the medium for thrombolytic enzyme biosynthesis in pure and mixed cultures].

    PubMed

    Gesheva, V I; Maksimov, V N; Landau, N S; Egorov, N S

    1982-01-01

    The medium for the biosynthesis of exoproteases with the thrombolytic action in monocultures and mixed cultures of actinomycetes was optimized in several steps using the method of complete and fractional factor experiments. When Actinomyces rimosus was cultivated on the selected medium, the productivity of the mycelium rose, the fibrinolytic activity increased three-fold, and the caseinolytic activity became 2.2 times greater. During mixed cultivation of A. rimosus and A. violaceus on this medium, fibrinolysis increased six times comparing with the A. rimosus monoculture growth on the original medium while caseinolysis became only 3.7 times greater, which increased the specificity for fibrin twice. PMID:7045597

  16. [Microbial flora in Cerasus sachalinensis rhizosphere].

    PubMed

    Yu, Cui; Lü, De-Guo; Qin, Si-Jun; Du, Guo-Dong; Liu, Guo-Cheng

    2007-10-01

    By using selected culture media, the microbes in Cerasus sachalinensis rhizosphere were isolated, identified and classified, with their community structure and dynamic changes at different growth stages of C. sachalinensis studied. The bacteria isolated were belonged to 15 genera, among which, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium were the dominant ones. Flavus and Albosporus were the two dominant genera in seven groups of Actinomyces, and Mucor, Aspergillus and Penicillium were the main genera of fungi. The microbial flora varied with C. sachalinensis growth stage, being the richest at defoliation stage and the least at budding stage. PMID:18163310

  17. Antibacterial activity of four dentin bonding systems.

    PubMed

    Herrera, M; Carrión, P; Bravo, M; Castillo, A

    2000-08-01

    The antibacterial action of bonding systems Gluma 2000, Syntac, Prisma Universal Bond 3, Scotchbond Multipurpose and Prime-Bond was tested against 32 strains of the caries-producing bacteria Streptococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Actinomyces spp., Porphyromonas spp. and Clostridium spp. An agar plate diffusion method was used with chlorhexidine as the positive control. Assays were performed in triplicate for each component (primer and adhesive) of the bonding systems. All the adhesives were found to inhibit bacterial growth but with differences in their spectra of action. The sum action of the Scotchbond Multipurpose components were most inhibitory and Prime-Bond was found to be the least effective system.

  18. Ability of oral bacteria to degrade fibronectin.

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, M; Linde, A

    1986-01-01

    The fibronectin-degrading ability of 116, mainly oral, strains was assayed by using plasma-derived fibronectin adsorbed to a polystyrene surface. Ability to degrade fibronectin was revealed in strains of Bacteroides gingivalis, Bacteroides intermedius, Bacteroides loeschii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Peptococcus prevotii, Clostridium sporogenes, and Propionibacterium acnes. The fibronectinolytic activity of subgingival bacteriological samples was found to be related to the presence of B. gingivalis and B. intermedius. In addition, strains of the nonoral Bacteroides species B. asaccharolyticus and B. fragilis showed fibronectin-degrading ability. No such ability was detected in the oral strains tested of Streptococcus, Veillonella, Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, Actinobacillus, Capnocytophaga, Fusobacterium, or Haemophilus species. PMID:3943910

  19. Renal actinomycosis with concomitant renal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dong-Suk; Jang, Won Ik; Jung, Ji Yoon; Chung, Sarah; Choi, Dae Eun; Na, Ki-Ryang; Lee, Kang Wook; Shin, Yong-Tai

    2012-02-01

    Renal actinomycosis is a rare infection caused by fungi of the genus Actinomyces. A 74-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of gross hematuria with urinary symptoms and intermittent chills. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed thrombosis in the left renal vein and diffuse, heterogeneous enlargement of the left kidney. After nephrectomy, sulfur granules with chronic suppurative inflammation were seen microscopically, and the histopathological diagnosis was renal actinomycosis. Our case is the first report of renal actinomycosis with renal vein thrombosis.

  20. [Artificial illness as a result of non-medical use of anabolic androgenic steroids: A case report and a review of literature].

    PubMed

    Povzun, S A

    2016-01-01

    A 42-year-old female body builder who had used anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) for 18 years to build up muscle mass died from liver rupture. The cause of the latter was multiple abscesses caused by Actinomyces, which developed in the presence of immunodeficiency. The postmortem changes in different organs were due to hormonal imbalance. The paper gives the data available in the literature pertaining to the analysis of the effects of AASs taken in supraphysiological doses on the body and their non-medical application.

  1. Identification of a bioactive compound isolated from Brazilian propolis type 6.

    PubMed

    Castro, Myrella Lessio; do Nascimento, Andréa Mendes; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Costa-Neto, Cláudio M; Alencar, Severino M; Rosalen, Pedro L

    2009-07-15

    A prenylated benzophenone, hyperibone A, was isolated from the hexane fraction of Brazilian propolis type 6. Its structure was determined by spectral analysis including 2D NMR. This compound exhibited cytotoxic activity against HeLa tumor cells (IC(50)=0.1756microM), strong antimicrobial activity (MIC range-0.73-6.6microg/mL; MBC range-2.92-106microg/mL) against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus oralis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Actinomyces naeslundii, and the results of its cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities were considered good.

  2. Primary pulmonary botryomycosis: a bacterial lung infection mimicking lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Prota, M A; Pando-Sandoval, A; García-Clemente, M; Jiménez, H; Álvarez-Álvarez, C; Casan-Clara, P

    2013-07-01

    Primary pulmonary botryomycosis, or bacterial pseudomycosis, is an unusual bacterial infection characterised by the formation of eosinophilic granules that resemble those of Actinomyces species infection. The diagnosis of botryomycosis is based on culture of the granules revealing gram-positive cocci or gram-negative bacilli. The bacterial pathogen most frequently found is Staphylococcus aureus. The pathobiology remains unknown. Pulmonary botryomycosis can resemble actinomycosis, tuberculosis or invasive carcinoma. Definitive treatment requires a combination of both surgical debridement and long-term antimicrobial therapy. We present a case of primary pulmonary botryomycosis in an immunocompetent patient.

  3. Male Breast Abscess Secondary to Actinomycosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mahendiran, Shavitri A; Leibman, A Jill; Kommehl, Adam S

    2016-04-01

    Primary breast actinomycosis is a rare condition that has been previously reported in the female breast. Male breast infection is uncommon and most often associated with trauma to the skin or predisposing conditions like diabetes. We report the first case to our knowledge of primary breast actinomycosis in the male breast caused by Actinomycesneuii (A. neuii), a rare strain of Actinomyces. Mammography demonstrated periareolar skin thickening with a mottled pattern. Sonography showed multiple small cystic structures. Definitive diagnosis was made by culture of the nipple discharge.

  4. Male Breast Abscess Secondary to Actinomycosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Leibman, A. Jill; Kommehl, Adam S.

    2016-01-01

    Primary breast actinomycosis is a rare condition that has been previously reported in the female breast. Male breast infection is uncommon and most often associated with trauma to the skin or predisposing conditions like diabetes. We report the first case to our knowledge of primary breast actinomycosis in the male breast caused by Actinomycesneuii (A. neuii), a rare strain of Actinomyces. Mammography demonstrated periareolar skin thickening with a mottled pattern. Sonography showed multiple small cystic structures. Definitive diagnosis was made by culture of the nipple discharge. PMID:27190917

  5. Thoracic actinomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Slade, P. R.; Slesser, B. V.; Southgate, J.

    1973-01-01

    Six cases of pulmonary infection with Actinomyces Israeli and one case of infection with Nocardia asteroides are described. The incidence of thoracic actinomycosis has declined recently and the classical presentation with chronic discharging sinuses is now uncommon. The cases described illustrate some of the forms which the disease may take. Actinomycotic infection has been noted, not infrequently, to co-exist with bronchial carcinoma and a case illustrating this association is described. Sputum cytology as practised for the diagnosis of bronchial carcinoma has helped to identify the fungi in the sputum. Treatment is discussed, particularly the possible use of oral antibiotics rather than penicillin by injection. Images PMID:4568119

  6. [Artificial illness as a result of non-medical use of anabolic androgenic steroids: A case report and a review of literature].

    PubMed

    Povzun, S A

    2016-01-01

    A 42-year-old female body builder who had used anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) for 18 years to build up muscle mass died from liver rupture. The cause of the latter was multiple abscesses caused by Actinomyces, which developed in the presence of immunodeficiency. The postmortem changes in different organs were due to hormonal imbalance. The paper gives the data available in the literature pertaining to the analysis of the effects of AASs taken in supraphysiological doses on the body and their non-medical application. PMID:27600782

  7. Entamoeba gingivalis in sputum smears.

    PubMed

    Dao, A H

    1985-01-01

    Entamoeba gingivalis is a common parasite of the human buccal cavity whose rare appearance in Papanicolaou-stained sputum smears may be missed. Two such cases are described, including the morphologic features of this ameba. The trophozoites were seen to phagocytize leukocytes as well as red blood cells, in distinction to E. histiolytica, which phagocytizes only red blood cells and also can cause pulmonary abscesses. The concomitant finding of Actinomyces sp. organisms in one patient reinforces the possible symbiotic relationship between the two organisms, as has been suggested for their appearance in other extraoral sites, such as the female genital tract. PMID:3861055

  8. ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS AS A MARKER OF RESPIRATORY INFLAMMATION IN PRZEWALSKI'S HORSE (EQUUS FERUS PRZEWALSKII).

    PubMed

    Sander, Samantha J; Joyner, Priscilla H; Cray, Carolyn; Rotstein, David S; Aitken-Palmer, Copper

    2016-06-01

    Acute phase proteins are sensitive markers of inflammation, which are highly conserved across taxa. Although the utility of these proteins are becoming well defined in human and domestic animal medical fields, their role in nondomestic species remains unclear. In this communication, a 20-yr-old Przewalski's horse was presented for unresolving aspiration pneumonia, which cultured a unique Actinomyces-like bacteria. Despite waxing and waning clinical signs and minimal changes on baseline hematologic analysis, protein electrophoresis, serum amyloid A, and surfactant protein D serum concentrations showed changes that more accurately reflected the clinical severity of this case.

  9. Vaginal bacterial flora activates rat peritoneal mast cells.

    PubMed

    Brzezińska - Błaszczyk, E.; Wasiela, M.

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen strains of physiological and pathological vaginal bacteria were tested for their ability to secrete histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro. We noticed that Mycoplasma hominis-induced histamine release was very high (up to 53.6%). The stimulation of rat mast cells with Staphylococccus cohnii, Staphylococcus coagulase(-) (two strains), Ureaplasma urealyticum, Peptostreptococcus spp., Bacteroides capillosus, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae resulted in lower but significant histamine secretion (11.2%-17.5%). Other bacteria strains (Staphylococcus epidermidids, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Actinomyces naeslundii (two strains) and Lactobacillus fermentum (two strains) caused very low (4.2% - 8.8%) histamine release.

  10. A turning point for natural product discovery--ESF-EMBO research conference: synthetic biology of antibiotic production.

    PubMed

    Takano, Eriko; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Breitling, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic Biology is in a critical phase of its development: it has finally reached the point where it can move from proof-of-principle studies to real-world applications. Secondary metabolite biosynthesis, especially the discovery and production of antibiotics, is a particularly relevant target area for such applications of synthetic biology. The first international conference to explore this subject was held in Spain in October 2011. In four sessions on General Synthetic Biology, Filamentous Fungal Systems, Actinomyces Systems, and Tools and Host Structures, scientists presented the most recent technological and scientific advances, and a final-day Forward Look Plenary Discussion identified future trends in the field.

  11. Imaging of actinomycosis in various organs: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Heo, Suk Hee; Shin, Sang Soo; Kim, Jin Woong; Lim, Hyo Soon; Seon, Hyun Ju; Jung, Sook-In; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces species. Actinomyces israelii is the organism most commonly found in human disease. Actinomycosis usually manifests with abscess formation, dense fibrosis, and draining sinuses. The disease is further characterized by the tendency to extensively spread beyond normal fascial and connective tissue planes. Actinomycosis occurs most commonly in the cervicofacial region (50%-65%), followed by the thoracic (15%-30%) and abdominopelvic (20%) regions, but rarely involves the central nervous system. Most cases of cervicofacial actinomycosis are odontogenic in origin. In the acute form, cervicofacial disease can manifest with soft-tissue swelling, a painful pyogenic abscess, or a mass lesion. In the subacute to chronic form, a painless indurated mass can spread to the skin, leading to draining sinus tracts. Thoracic manifestations include parenchymal, bronchiectatic, and endobronchial actinomycosis. At computed tomography, pulmonary actinomycosis usually appears as chronic segmental airspace consolidation containing necrotic low-attenuation areas with peripheral enhancement. Abdominopelvic actinomycosis preferentially involves the ileocecal region, ovary, and fallopian tube. The imaging findings favoring abdominopelvic actinomycosis include strong enhancement in the solid portion of the mass after contrast material administration, small rim-enhancing abscesses within the mass, and extensive inflammatory extensions. Actinomycosis in the central nervous system may produce brain abscess, meningitis, subdural empyema, actinomycetoma, and spinal and cranial epidural abscess. In general, actinomycosis responds well to antibiotic therapy, but long-term follow-up after treatment is needed because of frequent relapses.

  12. Phylogenomics and evolutionary dynamics of the family Actinomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kelei; Li, Wujiao; Kang, Chunlan; Du, Lianming; Huang, Ting; Zhang, Xiuyue; Wu, Min; Yue, Bisong

    2014-10-01

    The family Actinomycetaceae comprises several important pathogens that impose serious threat to human health and cause substantial infections of economically important animals. However, the phylogeny and evolutionary dynamic of this family are poorly characterized. Here, we provide detailed description of the genome characteristics of Trueperella pyogenes, a prevalent opportunistic bacterium that belongs to the family Actinomycetaceae, and the results of comparative genomics analyses suggested that T. pyogenes was a more versatile pathogen than Arcanobacterium haemolyticum in adapting various environments. We then performed phylogenetic analyses at the genomic level and showed that, on the whole, the established members of the family Actinomycetaceae were clearly separated with high bootstrap values but confused with the dominant genus Actinomyces, because the species of genus Actinomyces were divided into three main groups with different G+C content. Although T. pyogenes and A. haemolyticum were found to share the same branch as previously determined, our results of single nucleotide polymorphism tree and genome clustering as well as predicted intercellular metabolic analyses provide evidence that they are phylogenetic neighbors. Finally, we found that the gene gain/loss events occurring in each species may play an important role during the evolution of Actinomycetaceae from free-living to a specific lifestyle. PMID:25245410

  13. [Effects of cadmium stress on the microbial biodiversity in purple soil and alluvial soil potted with a poplar (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ao; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Zhou, Li-Qiang; Wang, Xu-Xi; Han, Yu

    2011-07-01

    Effects of current Cd contamination levels on microbial biodiversity were studied under the typical Cd contaminated soils in the Yangtze Basin. Purple soil and alluvial soil potted with a poplar (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra) were selected, and the culturable soil microbial amounts by flat method, microbial biomass and bacterial community structure by PCR-DGGE were investigated. Cd supplies significantly increased the culturable amounts of bacteria and actinomyces in purple soil, but decreased the culturable amounts of fungi and the content of microbial biomass N. Fingerprint of DGGE also showed that bacterial community structure have obviously changed under different Cd supplies. In contrast, the lower Cd supplies slightly increased the culturable amounts of bacteria and fungi in alluvial soil, but higher Cd supply treatment decreased the culturable amounts of bacteria, actinomyces and fungi, and the content of microbial biomass N. However, only a slight change was observed under different Cd supplies by DGGE fingerprint. Additionally, there were few effects of Cd supplies on the content of microbial biomass C in both purple soil and alluvial soil. The results provided basic data to understand the effects of present Cd contamination levels on soil microbial characteristics.

  14. Partial colpocleisis for the treatment of sacrocolpopexy mesh erosions.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Lieschen H; Gutman, Robert E; Fagan, Matthew J; Cundiff, Geoffrey W

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the outcomes of partial colpocleisis for mesh erosions after sacrocolpopexy. We retrospectively report our surgical management of mesh erosion after sacrocolpopexy. Between 1998 and 2006, we performed 499 sacral colpopexies and treated 21 patients for mesh erosion, including three referrals. Mean (range) time to diagnosis was 10.3 months (1-49). Grafts materials included: Mersilene (13), Prolene (7), and Pelvicol (1). Surgical outcomes were available for 19 patients. Ten (48%) patients were cured by the initial partial colpocleisis, while nine (45%) required a second or third (2, 10%) vaginal operation. All of the second and third vaginal excisions failed. Eight patients had an abdominal excision, and two patients required a second abdominal procedure. The success rate for the first and second abdominal resections was 38% (3/8) and 100% (2/2). Abdominal surgeries had higher blood loss (84 vs 378 cc, p = 0.012) longer hospitalization (outpatient vs 4.2 days p = 0.001), and additional morbidity (18.6%). Potential contributing factors to surgical failure were the presence of Actinomyces and current smoking. We recommend initial transvaginal mesh resection with partial colpocleisis for synthetic mesh erosions after sacrocolpopexy. Vaginal failures may be better served by an abdominal excision. Potential contributors to failure include current smoking and the presence of Actinomyces.

  15. Phylogenomics and evolutionary dynamics of the family Actinomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kelei; Li, Wujiao; Kang, Chunlan; Du, Lianming; Huang, Ting; Zhang, Xiuyue; Wu, Min; Yue, Bisong

    2014-10-01

    The family Actinomycetaceae comprises several important pathogens that impose serious threat to human health and cause substantial infections of economically important animals. However, the phylogeny and evolutionary dynamic of this family are poorly characterized. Here, we provide detailed description of the genome characteristics of Trueperella pyogenes, a prevalent opportunistic bacterium that belongs to the family Actinomycetaceae, and the results of comparative genomics analyses suggested that T. pyogenes was a more versatile pathogen than Arcanobacterium haemolyticum in adapting various environments. We then performed phylogenetic analyses at the genomic level and showed that, on the whole, the established members of the family Actinomycetaceae were clearly separated with high bootstrap values but confused with the dominant genus Actinomyces, because the species of genus Actinomyces were divided into three main groups with different G+C content. Although T. pyogenes and A. haemolyticum were found to share the same branch as previously determined, our results of single nucleotide polymorphism tree and genome clustering as well as predicted intercellular metabolic analyses provide evidence that they are phylogenetic neighbors. Finally, we found that the gene gain/loss events occurring in each species may play an important role during the evolution of Actinomycetaceae from free-living to a specific lifestyle.

  16. [Microbial activity and functional diversity in rhizosphere of cucumber under different subsurface drip irrigation scheduling].

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; He, Hong-Jun; Li, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Zi-Kun

    2014-08-01

    The effects of subsurface drip irrigation scheduling on microbial activity and functional diversity in rhizosphere of cucumber in solar greenhouse were studied in this paper. The results showed that the soil microbial biomass C and N, basal respiration, metabolic quotient and values of AWCD, Shannon and McIntosh indexes were increased at first and then decreased with the increase of irrigation water amount. The values of microbial C and N, basal respiration and metabolic quotient in I2 treatments were significantly higher than those in I1 treatments at the 0.8E(p) irrigation level. The numbers of bacteria, actinomyces and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and the activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase, catalase and polyhenoloxidase were significantly higher in the 0.8E(p) treatment than in the other treatments. The numbers of bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, the activities of urease, phosphatase and sucrase in I2 treatments were significantly higher than in I1 treatment, the actinomyces number and activities of catalase and polyhenoloxidase had no significant difference between I1 and I2 treatments, however, the fungi number in I2 treatments were significantly lower than in I2 treaments at the 0.8E(p) irrigation level. The microbial activity and functional diversity in rhizosphere of cucumber were strengthened in the I20.8E(p) treatment, meanwhile, the soil microflora was improved and the soil enzymes activities were enhanced, therefore, the cucumber growth was promoted as well.

  17. [Correlation analysis of nutrients and microorganisms in soils with polyphenols and total flavonoids of Houttuynia cordata].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Luo, Shi-qiong; Yang, Zhan-nan; Ma, Jing; Hong, Liang

    2015-04-01

    The relationship of nutrients and microorganisms in soils with polyphenols and total flavonoids of Houttuynia cordata were investigated by measuring nutrients, enzyme activity, pH, concentrations of microbe phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soils, and determining concentrations of polyphenols and total flavonoids of H. cordata. The research is aimed to understand characteristics of the planting soils and improve the quality of cultivated H. cordata. The soils at different sample sites varied greatly in nutrients, enzyme activity, pH, microbic PLFAs and polyphenols and all flavonoids. The content of total PLFAs in sample sites was following: bacteria > fungi > actinomyces > nematode. The content of bacteria PLFAs was 37.5%-65.0% at different sample sites. Activities of polyphenol oxidease, concentrations of available P and content of PLFAs of bacteria, actinomyces and total microorganisms in soils were significantly and positively related to the concentrations of polyphenols and total flavonoids of H. cordata, respectively (P < 0.05) . The Content of fungi PLFAs in soils was significantly and negatively related to concentrations of polyphenols and total flavonoids of H. cordata, respectively (P < 0.05). This study provides evidence that effectiveness of the soil nutrient, which may be improved due to transformation of soil microorganisms and enzymes to N and P in the soils, was beneficial to adaptation of H. cordata adapted to different soil conditions, and significantly affects metabolic accumulation of polyphenols and flavonoids of H. cordata. PMID:26281577

  18. Insights into Abundant Rumen Ureolytic Bacterial Community Using Rumen Simulation System.

    PubMed

    Jin, Di; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Pengpeng; Zheng, Nan; Bu, Dengpan; Beckers, Yves; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-01-01

    Urea, a non-protein nitrogen for dairy cows, is rapidly hydrolyzed to ammonia by urease produced by ureolytic bacteria in the rumen, and the ammonia is used as nitrogen for rumen bacterial growth. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ureolytic bacteria community in the rumen. To explore the ruminal ureolytic bacterial community, urea, or acetohydroxamic acid (AHA, an inhibitor of urea hydrolysis) were supplemented into the rumen simulation systems. The bacterial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced by Miseq high-throughput sequencing and used to reveal the ureoltyic bacteria by comparing different treatments. The results revealed that urea supplementation significantly increased the ammonia concentration, and AHA addition inhibited urea hydrolysis. Urea supplementation significantly increased the richness of bacterial community and the proportion of ureC genes. The composition of bacterial community following urea or AHA supplementation showed no significant difference compared to the groups without supplementation. The abundance of Bacillus and unclassified Succinivibrionaceae increased significantly following urea supplementation. Pseudomonas, Haemophilus, Neisseria, Streptococcus, and Actinomyces exhibited a positive response to urea supplementation and a negative response to AHA addition. Results retrieved from the NCBI protein database and publications confirmed that the representative bacteria in these genera mentioned above had urease genes or urease activities. Therefore, the rumen ureolytic bacteria were abundant in the genera of Pseudomonas, Haemophilus, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Bacillus, and unclassified Succinivibrionaceae. Insights into abundant rumen ureolytic bacteria provide the regulation targets to mitigate urea hydrolysis and increase efficiency of urea nitrogen utilization in ruminants. PMID:27446045

  19. Pseudoactinomycotic radiate granules of the gynaecological tract: review of a diagnostic pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Pritt, B; Mount, S L; Cooper, K; Blaszyk, H

    2006-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium actinomyces can cause serious gynaecological tract infections, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and tubo‐ovarian abscess. Thus, definitive diagnosis of actinomycotic granules (AMGs) in gynaecological specimens is clinically important. Non‐infectious pseudoactinomycotic radiate granules (PAMRAGs) can mimic the microscopic appearance of AMGs. PAMRAGs may be more common than actinomycotic infections in specimens from patients using intrauterine devices and may be seen in patients with PID. Although the composition and aetiology of PAMRAGs is unclear and variable, a panel of histochemical stains can aid in diagnosis. On haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections, AMGs show as distinct granules with basophilic peripheral radiating filaments and a dense central eosinophilic core, whereas H&E stained sections of PAMRAGs feature refractile granules with irregular club‐like peripheral projections and no central dense core. The filaments of AMGs are Gram positive on Brown and Brenn (B&B) stain and are highlighted with Gomori methenamine silver stain (GMS). They stain negatively with a modified acid fast bacillus (AFB) stain, aiding in the distinction of actinomyces from nocardia. PAMRAGs show negative or non‐specific staining with B&B, GMS, and AFB stains. Therefore, knowledge of these staining properties and the distinguishing characteristics of PAMRAGs and AMGs enables recognition of this important diagnostic pitfall. PMID:16394276

  20. [Pulmonary actinomycosis and tuberculosis. A comorbidity pediatric case].

    PubMed

    Bisero, Elsa D; Luque, Graciela F; Rizzo, Cristina N; Zapata, Alejandra E; Cuello, María S

    2016-08-01

    La actinomicosis es una infección supurativa crónica, producida por bacterias Gram-positivas anaeróbicas o especies Actinomyces microaerófilas. Es rara en niños y adolescentes; es más común en inmunodeprimidos. El Mycobacterium tuberculosis colabora en el desarrollo de la enfermedad. La afectación pulmonar aparece como un cuadro de condensación crónica que no mejora con el tratamiento antibiótico convencional. Las complicaciones clásicas de afectación de la pared torácica con fistulización y supuración en «granulo de azufre» son descritas con menor frecuencia en la actualidad. El diagnóstico es un verdadero desafío y se establece mediante el aislamiento de las especies de Actinomyces. El tratamiento de elección para todas las formas clínicas de la enfermedad es el uso prolongado de antibióticos. Objetivo. Presentar un caso pediátrico de comorbilidad entre tuberculosis y actinomicosis. Resaltar la importancia de la sospecha diagnóstica de actinomicosis frente a todo proceso supurado crónico.

  1. Characterization of lectinlike surface components on Capnocytophaga ochracea ATCC 33596 that mediate coaggregation with gram-positive oral bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, E I; London, J; Kolenbrander, P E; Kagermeier, A S; Andersen, R N

    1987-01-01

    The interactions between Capnocytophaga ochracea ATCC 33596 and Streptococcus sanguis H1, Actinomyces naeslundii PK984, or Actinomyces israelii PK16 are dependent on specific recognitions between heat-sensitive adhesins on C. ochracea and heat-stable structures (probably carbohydrate-containing receptors) on the surfaces of these gram-positive coaggregation partners. The coaggregation of C. ochracea with each of these three organisms was inhibited by L-rhamnose and D-fucose and to a lesser extent by beta-methyl-galactoside. The reaction with S. sanguis was the most sensitive, while the coaggregation with A. israelii was the least sensitive and was only partially inhibited by each of the sugars that were considered to be effective inhibitors. A more effective inhibition of the coaggregation between C. ochracea and A. israelii was achieved by adding a combination of the 6-deoxysugars and N-acetylneuraminic acid. To further characterize the coaggregations, naturally occurring coaggregation-defective (Cog-) mutants of C. ochracea were obtained from several different selections. Three phenotypically distinct groups of mutants were were isolated. Type 1 mutants failed to coaggregate with S. sanguis only. Type 2 mutants lost ability to interact with both S. sanguis and A. naeslundii. Type 3 mutants failed to coaggregate with all three coaggregation partners. Characterization of the Cog- mutants by sugar inhibition studies made it possible to distinguish three classes of adhesin activity. PMID:3570460

  2. Insights into Abundant Rumen Ureolytic Bacterial Community Using Rumen Simulation System

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Di; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Pengpeng; Zheng, Nan; Bu, Dengpan; Beckers, Yves; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-01-01

    Urea, a non-protein nitrogen for dairy cows, is rapidly hydrolyzed to ammonia by urease produced by ureolytic bacteria in the rumen, and the ammonia is used as nitrogen for rumen bacterial growth. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ureolytic bacteria community in the rumen. To explore the ruminal ureolytic bacterial community, urea, or acetohydroxamic acid (AHA, an inhibitor of urea hydrolysis) were supplemented into the rumen simulation systems. The bacterial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced by Miseq high-throughput sequencing and used to reveal the ureoltyic bacteria by comparing different treatments. The results revealed that urea supplementation significantly increased the ammonia concentration, and AHA addition inhibited urea hydrolysis. Urea supplementation significantly increased the richness of bacterial community and the proportion of ureC genes. The composition of bacterial community following urea or AHA supplementation showed no significant difference compared to the groups without supplementation. The abundance of Bacillus and unclassified Succinivibrionaceae increased significantly following urea supplementation. Pseudomonas, Haemophilus, Neisseria, Streptococcus, and Actinomyces exhibited a positive response to urea supplementation and a negative response to AHA addition. Results retrieved from the NCBI protein database and publications confirmed that the representative bacteria in these genera mentioned above had urease genes or urease activities. Therefore, the rumen ureolytic bacteria were abundant in the genera of Pseudomonas, Haemophilus, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Bacillus, and unclassified Succinivibrionaceae. Insights into abundant rumen ureolytic bacteria provide the regulation targets to mitigate urea hydrolysis and increase efficiency of urea nitrogen utilization in ruminants. PMID:27446045

  3. The treatment of actinomycosis mimicking a retained root tip: a confusing case

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Actinomycosis is an infection caused by the actinomyces genus and is associated with trauma or previous infection. A 58-year-old male patient was referred from a private dental clinic for root extraction of the lower right molar. The x-ray showed fractured root-like material distal to the distal root of the lower right second molar. A biopsy during extraction of the root-like material was performed, which revealed a sequestrum with actinomycosis by a pathological examination. In this case, the radiopacity of the suspicious lesion was higher than that of the surrounding alveolar bone, which confused it with the root tip. The diagnosis of actinomycosis required long-term antimicrobial therapy, which is very different from simple extraction or removal of sequestrum.

  4. An atypical form of cervicofacial actinomycosis treated with short but intensive antibiotic regimen

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kaushal Mahendra; Karagir, Amol; Kanitkar, Sampada; Koppikar, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Human actinomycosis is a rare soft tissue infection caused by Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria Actinomyces israelii, a commensal of the oral cavity. The major clinical forms of actinomycosis are cervicofacial, thoracic, abdominal and pelvic forms. The cervicofacial region is most commonly affected. Actinomycosis is sometimes difficult to diagnose and it should be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of numerous infectious and non-infectious diseases. We report a patient who came with tooth pain and extra-oral swelling which later on presented as multiple draining sinuses. Our initial suspicion was dento-alveolar abscess or osteomyelitis. However, a culture of the discharge and subsequent biopsy revealed actinomycetes, confirming cervicofacial actinomycosis, but presenting itself not as the typical ‘lumpy jaw’. The patient was successfully treated conservatively with a short but intensive antibiotic course. PMID:23580677

  5. PELVIC ACTINOMYCOSIS MIMICKING A LOCALLY ADVANCED PELVIC MALIGNANCY--CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Velenciuc, Natalia; Velenciuc, I; Makkai Popa, S; Roată, C; Ferariu, D; Luncă, S

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a former user of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) for 10 years, diagnosed with a bulky, fixed pelvic tumor involving the internal genital organs and the recto sigmoid, causing luminal narrowing of the rectum, interpreted as locally advanced pelvic malignancy, probably of genital origin. Intraoperatively, a high index of suspicion made us collect a sample from the fibrous wall of the tumor mass, large Actinomyces colonies were thus identified. Surgery consisted in debridement, removal of a small amount of pus and appendectomy, thus avoiding a mutilating and useless surgery. Specific antibiotic therapy was administered for 3 months, with favorable postoperative and long-term outcomes. Pelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic tumors in women using an IUD. The association of long-term antibiotic treatment is essential to eradicate the infection and prevent relapses. PMID:27483724

  6. Antibacterial activity of commercially available plant-derived essential oils against oral pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bardají, D K R; Reis, E B; Medeiros, T C T; Lucarini, R; Crotti, A E M; Martins, C H G

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the antibacterial activity of 15 commercially available plant-derived essential oils (EOs) against a panel of oral pathogens. The broth microdilution method afforded the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the assayed EOs. The EO obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Lauraceae) (CZ-EO) displayed moderate activity against Fusobacterium nucleatum (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL), Actinomyces naeslundii (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL), Prevotella nigrescens (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL) and Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 200 μg/mL; MBC = 400 μg/mL). (Z)-isosafrole (85.3%) was the main chemical component of this oil. We did not detect cinnamaldehyde, previously described as the major constituent of CZ-EO, in specimens collected in other countries.

  7. Actinomycosis and nocardiosis co-infection in chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Soneja, Manish; Batra, Atul; Vikram, Naval K; Ahuja, Arvind; Mohan, Anant; Sood, Rita

    2012-04-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disease of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase system that causes defective production of toxic oxygen metabolites, leading to impaired bacterial and fungal killing, and recurrent life threatening infections; mostly by catalase producing organisms. Nocardiosis in CGD is well described, however actinomycosis is rare. We describe a patient of CGD with actinomycosis and nocardiosis coinfection. A 43-year-old male with history of recurrent discharging sinuses presented with fever, dyspnea and cough. He had multiple discharging sinuses over neck and anterior chest wall. There was only partial response to intravenous penicillin. Needle aspirate from chest wall showed co-infection with actinomyces and nocardia. His nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction test was negative. He was treated with penicillin, amikacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and had good clinical and radiological response. PMID:23029749

  8. Oral epithelial cell responses to multispecies microbial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Peyyala, R; Kirakodu, S S; Novak, K F; Ebersole, J L

    2013-03-01

    This report describes the use of a novel model of multispecies biofilms to stimulate profiles of cytokines/chemokines from oral epithelial cells that contribute to local inflammation in the periodontium. Streptococcus gordonii (Sg)/S. oralis (So)/S. sanguinis (Ss) and Sg/Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn)/Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) biofilms elicited significantly elevated levels of IL-1α and showed synergistic stimulatory activity compared with an additive effect of the 3 individual bacteria. Only the Sg/Actinomyces naeslundii (An)/Fn multispecies biofilms elicited IL-6 levels above those of control. IL-8 was a primary response to the Sg/An/Fn biofilms, albeit the level was not enhanced compared with a predicted composite level from the monospecies challenges. These results represent some of the first data documenting alterations in profiles of oral epithelial cell responses to multispecies biofilms.

  9. Primary cutaneous actinomycosis:a case report.

    PubMed

    Bose, Mohua; Ghosh, Ranadeep; Mukherjee, Kheya; Ghoshal, Loknath

    2014-07-01

    Actinomycosis is a subacute or chronic suppurative bacterial infection caused by filamentous gram positive, anaerobic to microaerophilic non acid fast bacilli primarily of the genus Actinomyces that normally colonize the mouth, colon and vagina. Primary cutaneous actinomycosis is a rare entity and is generally associated with trauma. We report a case of primary cutaneous actinomycosis of the back and left axilla in a 32-year-old female patient with no suggestive history of trauma.The diagnosis was suggested by the characteristic lesions with multiple discharging sinuses draining sero-sanguinous fluid scattered all over the lesions. Gram positive bacilli with plenty of pus cells were demonstrated in the direct examination of the discharging pus. Diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of the organisms by anaerobic culture giving typical molar tooth colonies. Final confirmation was done by histopathological examination.

  10. Genetic effects of cosmic radiation on bacteriophage T4Br+ (on materials of biological experiment "Soyuz-Apollo").

    PubMed

    Yurov, S S; Akoev, I G; Akhmadieva, A K; Livanova, I A; Leont'eva, G A; Marennyi, A M; Popov, V I

    1979-01-01

    During the experiment "Spore-ring Forming Fungi Biorhythm" of the Apollo-Soyuz test project the Rhythm-1 apparatus contained a dried film culture of bacteriophage T4Br+, growing cultures of Actinomyces and plastic nuclear particle detectors. The following were studied: the frequency of induction of r mutations in the bacteriophage film per 2 X 10(4) surviving particles, the spectrum of mutant types obtained (rI, rII, rIII), and the possible molecular mechanisms for the occurrence of rII mutants with due regard to the registered tracks of heavy nuclear particles. The studies showed that the local radiation due to heavy nuclear particle tracks plays a major role in space radiation damage.

  11. The treatment of actinomycosis mimicking a retained root tip: a confusing case.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ju Yeon

    2016-08-01

    Actinomycosis is an infection caused by the actinomyces genus and is associated with trauma or previous infection. A 58-year-old male patient was referred from a private dental clinic for root extraction of the lower right molar. The x-ray showed fractured root-like material distal to the distal root of the lower right second molar. A biopsy during extraction of the root-like material was performed, which revealed a sequestrum with actinomycosis by a pathological examination. In this case, the radiopacity of the suspicious lesion was higher than that of the surrounding alveolar bone, which confused it with the root tip. The diagnosis of actinomycosis required long-term antimicrobial therapy, which is very different from simple extraction or removal of sequestrum. PMID:27595087

  12. Anti-herpesviral effects of a novel broad range anti-microbial quaternary ammonium silane, K21.

    PubMed

    Gulve, Nitish; Kimmerling, Kirk; Johnston, Allen D; Krueger, Gerhard R; Ablashi, Dharam V; Prusty, Bhupesh K

    2016-07-01

    We have created a novel quaternary ammonium silane, K21 through sol-gel chemistry, using an ethoxylated version of an organosilane quaternary ammonium compound and TetraEthyl Ortho Silicate (TEOS) as precursors. Previous studies using the precursor molecule quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and a methacryloxy version of K21, primarily designed for use in dental healthcare, have shown inhibited growth properties against several types of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Candida albicans etc. Here we tested the effect of K21 on HSV-1, HHV-6A and HHV-7 in in vitro cell culture infection models. Our results show growth inhibitory effect of K21 on HSV-1, HHV-6A and HHV-7 infection. PMID:27181377

  13. Microbiological and serological investigations of oral lesions in Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Clerehugh, V; Drucker, D B; Seymour, G J; Bird, P S

    1996-01-01

    Microbiological and serological (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) investigations were carried out, including karyotyping, on two Asian children with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. In case 1, a girl aged four years, the most prevalent putative periodontopathogens were Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia (deciduous dentition) and Bacteroides gracilis, E corrodens and F nucleatum (permanent dentition). In case 2, a boy aged nine years, they were F nucleatum, P intermedia and P loeschii and E corrodens. Serum from case 2 showed a raised specific IgG antibody response to Actinomyces actino-mycetemcomitans serotype b. Thus, a wider range of species than hitherto reported may be associated with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, including A actino-mycetemcomitans and F nucleatum. PMID:8675741

  14. Anti-herpesviral effects of a novel broad range anti-microbial quaternary ammonium silane, K21.

    PubMed

    Gulve, Nitish; Kimmerling, Kirk; Johnston, Allen D; Krueger, Gerhard R; Ablashi, Dharam V; Prusty, Bhupesh K

    2016-07-01

    We have created a novel quaternary ammonium silane, K21 through sol-gel chemistry, using an ethoxylated version of an organosilane quaternary ammonium compound and TetraEthyl Ortho Silicate (TEOS) as precursors. Previous studies using the precursor molecule quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and a methacryloxy version of K21, primarily designed for use in dental healthcare, have shown inhibited growth properties against several types of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Candida albicans etc. Here we tested the effect of K21 on HSV-1, HHV-6A and HHV-7 in in vitro cell culture infection models. Our results show growth inhibitory effect of K21 on HSV-1, HHV-6A and HHV-7 infection.

  15. Identification of Trueperella pyogenes Isolated from Bovine Mastitis by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nagib, Samy; Rau, Jörg; Sammra, Osama; Lämmler, Christoph; Schlez, Karen; Zschöck, Michael; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Klein, Guenter; Abdulmawjood, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the potential of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to identify Trueperella (T.) pyogenes isolated from bovine clinical mastitis. FT-IR spectroscopy was applied to 57 isolates obtained from 55 cows in a period from 2009 to 2012. Prior to FT-IR spectroscopy these isolates were identified by phenotypic and genotypic properties, also including the determination of seven potential virulence factor encoding genes. The FT-IR analysis revealed a reliable identification of all 57 isolates as T. pyogenes and a clear separation of this species from the other species of genus Trueperella and from species of genus Arcanobacterium and Actinomyces. The results showed that all 57 isolates were assigned to the correct species indicating that FT-IR spectroscopy could also be efficiently used for identification of this bacterial pathogen. PMID:25133407

  16. Pulmonary actinomycosis and Hodgkin's disease: when FDG-PET may be misleading

    PubMed Central

    Weisshaupt, C; Hitz, F; Albrich, W C; Omlin, A

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with advanced Hodgkin's disease treated with escalated BEACOPP chemotherapy. The result from the interim fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with CT (PET-CT) after two cycles of chemotherapy is crucial for treatment guidance for the clinical trial HD18 from the German Hodgkin Study Group. An increase in size and standard uptake value (SUV) of a pulmonary lesion suggesting refractory Hodgkin's disease was documented. Since all other manifestations of the lymphoma responded well to the treatment, the discordant behaviour was suspicious for another reason for this progressive pulmonary lesion. Bronchoscopy revealed Actinomyces species in cultures from bronchial washings. Specific treatment was initiated and consisted of 2 weeks of intravenous penicillin followed by ceftriaxone intravenous for another 4 weeks and subsequent oral amoxicillin to complete 12 months of antibiotic therapy. For the Hodgkin's lymphoma, complete remission was documented after a total of six cycles of escalated BEACOPP. PMID:25246471

  17. A synthetic peptide adhesion epitope as a novel antimicrobial agent.

    PubMed

    Kelly, C G; Younson, J S; Hikmat, B Y; Todryk, S M; Czisch, M; Haris, P I; Flindall, I R; Newby, C; Mallet, A I; Ma, J K; Lehner, T

    1999-01-01

    The earliest step in microbial infection is adherence by specific microbial adhesins to the mucosa of the oro-intestinal, nasorespiratory, or genitourinary tract. We inhibited binding of a cell surface adhesin of Streptococcus mutans to salivary receptors in vitro, as measured by surface plasmon resonance, using a synthetic peptide (p1025) corresponding to residues 1025-1044 of the adhesin. Two residues within p1025 that contribute to binding (Q1025, E1037) were identified by site-directed mutagenesis. In an in vivo human streptococcal adhesion model, direct application of p1025 to the teeth prevented recolonization of S. mutans but not Actinomyces, as compared with a control peptide or saline. This novel antimicrobial strategy, applying competitive peptide inhibitors of adhesion, may be used against other microorganisms in which adhesins mediate colonization of mucosal surfaces.

  18. Thoracic Actinomycosis: A Rare Occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Bhumesh; Enakuaa, Souad; Raoof, Nazar; Middleton, John R.; Yousif, Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    Actinomyces israelii is a branching anaerobic bacilli microorganism that can be identified as normal flora throughout various portions of the human alimentary canal. It is crucial to establish a diagnosis as treatment will vary depending on the clinical form of the disease. We report a case of a 78-year-old man who initially presented with an acute onset of respiratory distress displayed contrast leakage on computed tomography from the site of a previously inserted esophageal stent for an unsuccessful surgical repair of an esophageal rupture. In addition to the contrast leakage, the presence of a bronchopulmonary fistula imaging prompted the need for further investigation. Our patient was empirically treated with antibiotics and obtained blood cultures, which returned positive A. israelii. PMID:27103971

  19. Microbial pathogens of public health significance in waste dumps and common sites.

    PubMed

    Achudume, A C; Olawale, J T

    2007-01-01

    Microbial pathogens of public health significance found in waste and common sites were collected from four different dumping sites and assessed for pathogenic agents. The modified methods employed were based on the classical methods and basic principles of the reactions followed by biochemical enzymatic standards described for gram negative non fermenting bacteria. The results have shown presence of bacterial species including Pseudomonas, Mirococcus, Actinomyces, Neisseria, Bacillus and Klebsiella. These pathogens can infect wounds and cause sepsis and mortality and can even occur with such organisms to cause secondary infection. These groups of organisms are almost impossible to control since they are ubitiquous. Public health may be ensured from pathogenic agents at waste sites by prompt removal of waste and proper management (mechanical sorting and excavating) methods. PMID:17718005

  20. Clinical microbiology of coryneform bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Funke, G; von Graevenitz, A; Clarridge, J E; Bernard, K A

    1997-01-01

    Coryneform bacteria are aerobically growing, asporogenous, non-partially-acid-fast, gram-positive rods of irregular morphology. Within the last few years, there has been a massive increase in the number of publications related to all aspects of their clinical microbiology. Clinical microbiologists are often confronted with making identifications within this heterogeneous group as well as with considerations of the clinical significance of such isolates. This review provides comprehensive information on the identification of coryneform bacteria and outlines recent changes in taxonomy. The following genera are covered: Corynebacterium, Turicella, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Dermabacter. Propionibacterium, Rothia, Exiguobacterium, Oerskovia, Cellulomonas, Sanguibacter, Microbacterium, Aureobacterium, "Corynebacterium aquaticum," Arcanobacterium, and Actinomyces. Case reports claiming disease associations of coryneform bacteria are critically reviewed. Minimal microbiological requirements for publications on disease associations of coryneform bacteria are proposed. PMID:8993861

  1. Empyema Necessitans Complicating Pleural Effusion Associated with Proteus Species Infection: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Yauba, M. S.; Ahmed, H.; Imoudu, I. A.; Yusuf, M. O.; Makarfi, H. U.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Empyema necessitans, a rare complication of pleural effusion, could result in significant morbidity and mortality in children. It is characterized by the dissection of pus through the soft tissues and the skin of the chest wall. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Actinomyces israelii are common causes but Gram negative bacilli could be a rare cause. However, there were challenges in differentiating between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous empyema in a resource poor setting like ours. We report a child with pleural effusion and empyema necessitans secondary to Proteus spp. infection. Methods. We describe a 12-year-old child with empyema necessitans complicating pleural effusion and highlight management challenges. Results. This case was treated with quinolones, antituberculous drugs, chest tube drainage, and nutritional rehabilitation. Conclusion. Empyema necessitatis is a rare condition that can be caused by Gram negative bacterial pathogens like Proteus species. PMID:25893125

  2. Unmineralized fossil bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, W.H.

    1963-01-01

    Unmineralized bacterial cells, mostly Micrococcus sp., but including also Streptococcus sp. and Actinomyces sp., were found in enormous numbers in lake beds of the Newark Canyon Formation of Early Cretaceous age, Eureka County, Nevada. The micrococci are black, and have an average diameter about 0.5 ??. Similar black micrococci (0.4 to 0.7 ??.) were found in profusion in the bottom mud of Green Lake, New York. About 80 percent of this mud consists of minute idiomorphic calcite crystals and about 20 percent of these contain enormous numbers of the black micrococci. It is suggested that the Early Cretaceous bacterial cells owe their preservation to occlusion in calcite crystals that grew in a black, bacterial mud in a meromictic lake in which part of the Newark Canyon Formation accumulated.

  3. [Bio-remediation techniques of crude oil contaminated soils].

    PubMed

    Li, Peijun; Guo, Shuhai; Sun, Tieheng; Tai, Peidong; Zhang, Chungui; Bai, Yuxing; Sun, Qiang; Sheng, Ping

    2002-11-01

    The bioremediation of soils contaminated by different types of petroleum were carried out with composting process in a prepared bed. By the measures of nutrient- and microbiological agent addition, and moisture- and pH control, an ideal environment for microbes were obtained. When total petroleum hydrocarbons, which consist of thin oil, high condensation oil, special viscous oil, and viscous oil, were in the range of 25.8-77.2 g.kg-1 dry soil, the petroleum removal rate could reach 38.37-56.74% by 2 months operation. The contents of aromatic hydrocarbon, asphaltum and resin were important factors controlling the degradation of petroleum. 6 fungi, 6 bacteria and 1 actinomyces were found to be the dominant strains for petroleum degradation. The results could provide theoretical bases for remediation of soil contaminated by petroleum.

  4. Microbiology of the pericoronal pouch in mandibular third molar pericoronitis.

    PubMed

    Leung, W K; Theilade, E; Comfort, M B; Lim, P L

    1993-10-01

    The microorganisms associated with mandibular third molar pericoronitis were investigated using direct microscopy and anaerobic culture method. The pericoronal pouch was sampled with paper points in A) 8 patients without mandibular third molar pericoronitis and B) 6 patients with mandibular third molar pericoronitis. Under the microscope, the microflora was found to be a complex mixture comprising gram-positive and gram-negative cocci, rods and filaments (including fusiform and curved rods), motile rods and spirochetes. Significantly higher proportions of motile, gram-negative rods were found in group B than in group A. The predominant cultivable microflora of 9 samples: A (4) and B (5) comprised several species of facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria, namely Peptostreptococcus, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Eubacterium, Propionibacterium, Veillonella, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Bacteriodes, Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus, Stomatococcus, Lactobacillus, Neisseria, Capnocytophaga, Haemophilus, Selenomonas and Centipeda species. The microflora in pericoronitis appeared similar to that of diseased periodontal pockets.

  5. Effects of intermittent aeration on pollutants removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration system.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Fei, Hexin; Song, Siyu; Yuan, Fang; Yu, Long

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the pollutant removal performances in two pilot-scale subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration were investigated. Matrix oxidation reduction potential (ORP) results showed that intermittent aeration well developed aerobic conditions in upper matrix and anoxic or anaerobic conditions in the subsequent sections, which resulted in high NH4(+)-N and TN removal. Moreover, intermittent aeration increased removal rates of COD and TP. Microbial populations and enzyme activities analysis proved that intermittent aeration not only obviously boosted the growth and reproduction of bacteria, fungus, actinomyces, nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria, but also successfully increased nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NIR) in the depth of 80 and 110 cm. The results suggest that the intermittent aeration could be a widespread research and application strategy for achieving the high removal performance in SWISs.

  6. Highly efficient antibacterial surface grafted with a triclosan-decorated poly(N-hydroxyethylacrylamide) brush.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-Xia; Tan, Lei; Tang, Zhao-Wen; Yang, Mei-Yan; Xiao, Jian-Yun; Liu, Chuan-Jun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi

    2015-04-01

    This work presented a highly efficient antibacterial Ti-surface which was grafted with poly(N-hydroxyethylacrylamide) (PHEAA) brush and further decorated with triclosan (TCS). The modified surfaces were characterized using contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared. The antibacterial performance of the modified surfaces was evaluated using the Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces naeslundii attachment test. The Ti surface with PHEAA brush (Ti-PHEAA) was able to resist the adhesion of the bacteria, while the TCS-decorated Ti surface (Ti-TCS) showed the capability of killing the bacteria adhered on the surface. As we coupled the TCS to the PHEAA brush, the surface showed highly efficient antibacterial performance due to the combination of the resistance to the bacteria adhesion and its activity of killing bacteria.

  7. The treatment of actinomycosis mimicking a retained root tip: a confusing case

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Actinomycosis is an infection caused by the actinomyces genus and is associated with trauma or previous infection. A 58-year-old male patient was referred from a private dental clinic for root extraction of the lower right molar. The x-ray showed fractured root-like material distal to the distal root of the lower right second molar. A biopsy during extraction of the root-like material was performed, which revealed a sequestrum with actinomycosis by a pathological examination. In this case, the radiopacity of the suspicious lesion was higher than that of the surrounding alveolar bone, which confused it with the root tip. The diagnosis of actinomycosis required long-term antimicrobial therapy, which is very different from simple extraction or removal of sequestrum. PMID:27595087

  8. Genetic effects of cosmic radiation on bacteriophage T4Br+ (on materials of biological experiment "Soyuz-Apollo").

    PubMed

    Yurov, S S; Akoev, I G; Akhmadieva, A K; Livanova, I A; Leont'eva, G A; Marennyi, A M; Popov, V I

    1979-01-01

    During the experiment "Spore-ring Forming Fungi Biorhythm" of the Apollo-Soyuz test project the Rhythm-1 apparatus contained a dried film culture of bacteriophage T4Br+, growing cultures of Actinomyces and plastic nuclear particle detectors. The following were studied: the frequency of induction of r mutations in the bacteriophage film per 2 X 10(4) surviving particles, the spectrum of mutant types obtained (rI, rII, rIII), and the possible molecular mechanisms for the occurrence of rII mutants with due regard to the registered tracks of heavy nuclear particles. The studies showed that the local radiation due to heavy nuclear particle tracks plays a major role in space radiation damage. PMID:12008698

  9. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized, methacrylate resin composition with antimicrobial activities and self-repair potential

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shi-qiang; Niu, Li-na; Kemp, Lisa K.; Yiu, Cynthia K.Y.; Ryou, Heonjune; Qi, Yi-pin; Blizzard, John D.; Nikonov, Sergey; Brackett, Martha G.; Messer, Regina L.W.; Wu, Christine D.; Mao, Jing; Brister, L. Bryan; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Arola, Dwayne D.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2012-01-01

    Design of antimicrobial polymers for enhancing healthcare issues and minimizing environmental problems is an important endeavor with both fundamental and practical implications. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized methacrylate (QAMS) represents an example of antimicrobial macromonomers synthesized by a sol-gel chemical route; these compounds possess flexible Si-O-Si bonds. In present work, a partially-hydrolyzed QAMS copolymerized with bis-GMA is introduced. This methacrylate resin was shown to possess desirable mechanical properties with both a high degree of conversion and minimal polymerization shrinkage. Kill-on-contact microbiocidal activities of this resin were demonstrated using single-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 36558), Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Improved mechanical properties after hydration provided the proof-of-concept that QAMS-incorporated resin exhibits self-repair potential via water-induced condensation of organic modified silicate (ormosil) phases within the polymerized resin matrix. PMID:22659173

  10. [Abdominal actinomycosis: four cases].

    PubMed

    Ghannouchi Jaafoura, N; Kaabia, N; Khalifa, M; Ben Jazia, I; Hachfi, W; Braham, A; Letaief, A; Bahri, F

    2008-12-01

    The abdominal actinomycosis (AA) is a rare and often unrecognised suppurative chronic illness. It is caused by an anaerobic Gram positive bacteria, Actinomyces israelii. Abdominal actinomycosis is responsible for pseudotumoral syndrome often leading, to a large and mutilating surgery whereas a prolonged treatment by antibiotics would have permitted to cure the disease. The diagnosis is obtained generally from anatomopathologic exam. We report four cases of abdominal actinomycosis being revealed by a pseudotumoral syndrome. The diagnosis was only made after surgery. In spite of an active treatment by antibiotics during several months, two of our patients had a relapse of the infectious process. These four observations confirm the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties previously reported by other authors.

  11. Genetic basis of coaggregation receptor polysaccharide biosynthesis in Streptococcus sanguinis and related species.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Yoshida, Y; Cisar, J O

    2014-02-01

    Interbacterial adhesion between streptococci and actinomyces promotes early dental plaque biofilm development. Recognition of coaggregation receptor polysaccharides (RPS) on strains of Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus oralis by Actinomyces spp. type 2 fimbriae is the principal mechanism of these interactions. Previous studies of genetic loci for synthesis of RPS (rps) and RPS precursors (rml, galE1 and galE2) in S. gordonii 38 and S. oralis 34 revealed differences between these strains. To determine whether these differences are strain-specific or species-specific, we identified and compared loci for polysaccharide biosynthesis in additional strains of these species and in several strains of the previously unstudied species, S. sanguinis. Genes for synthesis of RPS precursors distinguished the rps loci of different streptococci. Hence, rml genes for synthesis of TDP-L-Rha were in rps loci of S. oralis strains but at other loci in S. gordonii and S. sanguinis. Genes for two distinct galactose epimerases were also distributed differently. Hence, galE1 for epimerization of UDP-Glc and UDP-Gal was in galactose operons of S. gordonii and S. sanguinis strains but surprisingly, this gene was not present in S. oralis. Moreover, galE2 for epimerization of both UDP-Glc and UDP-Gal and UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GalNAc was at a different locus in each species, including rps operons of S. sanguinis. The findings provide insight into cell surface properties that distinguish different RPS-producing streptococci and open an approach for identifying these bacteria based on the arrangement of genes for synthesis of polysaccharide precursors.

  12. [Effects of biochar on the micro-ecology of tobacco-planting soil and physiology of flue-cured tobacco].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Chen, Wei; Lin, Ye-chun; Cheng, Jian-zhong; Pan, Wen-jie

    2015-12-01

    Biochar is one of the research hotspots in the field of the agroforestry waste utilization. A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of different amounts of tobacco stem biochar (0, 1, 10, 50 t · hm⁻²) on soil micro-ecology and physiological properties of flue-cured tobacco. The results showed that soil water content (SWC) increased at all tobacco growth stages as the amounts of biochar applications increased. There were significant differences of SWC between the treatment of 50 t · hm⁻² and other treatments at the period of tobacco vigorous growth. As the application of biochar increased, the total soil porosity and capillary porosity increased, while soil bacteria, actinomyces, fungi amount increased firstly and then decreased. The amount of soil bacteria, actinomyces, fungi reached the maximum at the treatment of 10 t · hm⁻². Soil respiration rate (SRR) at earlier stage increased with the increase of biochar application. Compared with the control, SSR under biochar treatments increased by 7.9%-36.9%, and there were significant differences of SRR between high biochar application treatments (50 t · hm⁻² and 10 t · hm⁻²) and the control. Biochar improved leaf water potential, carotenoid and chlorophyll contents. Meanwhile, the dry mass of root, shoot and total dry mass under biochar application were higher than that of the control. These results indicated that the biochar played active roles in improving tobacco-planting soil micro-ecology and regulating physiological properties of flue-cured tobacco. PMID:27112019

  13. Microbiology of early supragingival plaque development after delmopinol treatment.

    PubMed

    Collaert, B; Edwardsson, S; Attström, R; Hase, J C; Aström, M

    1993-02-01

    The aim of this double blind, cross-over, microbiological study was to compare the effect of topical application of the plaque control agent 0.5% delmopinol HCl with placebo on early supragingival plaque formation. Six subjects underwent 7 periods (0.5, 1, 2, 8 and 24 h and 3 and 7 days) of placebo and delmopinol application, respectively. At the start of each study period the teeth were professionally cleaned and 2 ml of placebo and delmopinol 0.5%, respectively, were applied on all teeth (twice daily for periods lasting 24 h or more). At the end of each period, supragingival plaque samples of one upper and one lower buccal tooth surface were collected separately and cultured on anaerobically incubated Brucella blood agar, on aerobically incubated blood agar and on selective media for the enumeration of Streptococcus spp., Haemophilus spp., Actinomyces spp., Veillonella spp., Neisseria spp. and Fusobacterium spp. The total anaerobic cultivable microflora after delmopinol use was 10-100 times lower than after placebo use. Compared with placebo, the proportion of cultivable aerobes (61.3%), Streptococcus spp. (104.8%) and Haemophilus spp. (82.3%) increased and the proportion of Actinomyces spp. (86.1%), Veillonella spp. (60.5%), Neisseria spp. (96.9%) and Fusobacterium spp. (60.6%) decreased after 7 days. Short-term application of 0.5% delmopinol HCl on supragingival dental plaque regrowth resulted in a reduction of the number of cultivable microorganisms in the plaque and produced a shift in the cultivable plaque composition.

  14. [Main infectious agents involved in the etiology of lung diseases of small ruminants in northern Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Martrenchar, A; Zoyem, N; Ngangnou, A; Bouchel, D; Ngo Tama, A C; Njoya, A

    1995-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1992, 91 necropsies of small ruminants affected with pulmonary illness led to the isolation of the following strains of Mycoplasma (M.): M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC, M. ovipneumoniae, M. agalactiae, M. sp. type D2 and M. arginini. Eleven Pasteurella multocida strains (serotypes A1, A3, A5, A7 and D2) and 11 Pasteurella haemolytica strains (serotypes 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8 and 9) were isolated. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Actinomyces pyogenes, Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Bacillus sp. and Mycobacterium sp. were also isolated. Thirty-two antibiograms were performed on Pasteurella, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Actinomyces pyogenes strains. Eighty eight p. cent were sensitive to penicillin G and oxytetracycline, and 84% to chloramphenicol; 50% were not sensitive to spiramycin and 47% to streptomycin. One Capripoxvirus strain was isolated on sheep. Pest of small ruminants (PPR) virus was detected by immunocapture ELISA test performed on some lung samples. Two serological surveys, one for contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (898 goats), between 1991 and 1993, and one for PPR (902 sheep and goats) in 1993, were conducted in the North and Far North provinces. No antibody against contagious caprine pleuropneumonia was detected. Among the animals in the sample, PPR prevalence was 64 +/- 7% in the Far North province and 14 +/- 3% in the North province. Concerning control measures, a vaccination campaign against small ruminant pasteurellosis appears to be hardly feasible because of the antigenic diversity of the isolated Pasteurella strains. PPR is endemic especially in the Far North province. The efficiency of a vaccination campaign against PPR must be estimated with a field survey.

  15. Comparisons of Subgingival Microbial Profiles of Refractory Periodontitis, Severe Periodontitis and Periodontal Health using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM)

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Ana Paula V.; Boches, Susan K.; Cotton, Sean L.; Goodson, J. Max; Kent, Ralph; Haffajee, Anne D.; Socransky, Sigmund S.; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Paster, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study compared the subgingival microbiota of subjects with refractory periodontitis (RP) to those in subjects with treatable periodontitis (GR) or periodontal health (PH) using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Methods At baseline, subgingival plaque samples were taken from 47 periodontitis and 20 PH individuals, and analyzed for the presence of 300 species by HOMIM. The periodontitis subjects were classified as RP (n=17) based on mean attachment loss (AL) and/or >3 sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after SRP, surgery and systemically administered amoxicillin and metronidazole or as GR (n=30) based on mean attachment gain and no sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after treatment. Significant differences in taxa among groups were sought using the Kruskal Wallis and Chi-square tests. Results More species were detected in diseased patients (GR or RP) than those without disease (PH). RP subjects were distinguished from GR and PH by a significantly high frequency of putative periodontal pathogens such as, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter gracilis, Eubacterium nodatum, Selenomonas noxia, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Treponema spp., Eikenella corrodens, as well as “unusual” species (Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, TM7 spp. oral taxon (OT) 346/356, Bacteroidetes spp. OT 272/274, Solobacterium moorei, Desulfobulbus sp. OT 041, Brevundimonas diminuta, Sphaerocytophaga sp. OT 337, Shuttleworthia satelles, Filifactor alocis, Dialister invisus/pneumosintes, Granulicatella adiacens, Mogibacterium tidmidum, Veillonella atypica, Mycoplasma salivarium, Synergistes sp. cluster II, Acidaminococcaceae [G-1] sp. OT 132/150/155/148/135) [p<0.05]. Species that were more prevalent in PH than in periodontitis patients included Actinomyces sp. OT 170, Actinomyces spp. cluster I, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Cardiobacterium hominis, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Lautropia mirabilis, Propionibacterium propionicum, Rothia dentocariosa

  16. Bacteria of Dental Caries in Primary and Permanent Teeth in Children and Young Adults▿

    PubMed Central

    Aas, Jørn A.; Griffen, Ann L.; Dardis, Sara R.; Lee, Alice M.; Olsen, Ingar; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Leys, Eugene J.; Paster, Bruce J.

    2008-01-01

    Although Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as a major etiological agent of dental caries, our cross-sectional preliminary study indicated that 10% of subjects with rampant caries in permanent teeth do not have detectable levels of S. mutans. Our aims were to use molecular methods to detect all bacterial species associated with caries in primary and permanent teeth and to determine the bacterial profiles associated with different disease states. Plaque was collected from 39 healthy controls and from intact enamel and white-spot lesions, dentin lesions, and deep-dentin lesions in each of 51 subjects with severe caries. 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced to determine species identities. In a reverse-capture checkerboard assay, 243 samples were analyzed for 110 prevalent bacterial species. A sequencing analysis of 1,285 16S rRNA clones detected 197 bacterial species/phylotypes, of which 50% were not cultivable. Twenty-two new phylotypes were identified. PROC MIXED tests revealed health- and disease-associated species. In subjects with S. mutans, additional species, e.g., species of the genera Atopobium, Propionibacterium, and Lactobacillus, were present at significantly higher levels than those of S. mutans. Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium dentium, and low-pH non-S. mutans streptococci were predominant in subjects with no detectable S. mutans. Actinomyces spp. and non-S. mutans streptococci were predominant in white-spot lesions, while known acid producers were found at their highest levels later in disease. Bacterial profiles change with disease states and differ between primary and secondary dentitions. Bacterial species other than S. mutans, e.g., species of the genera Veillonella, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Propionibacterium, low-pH non-S. mutans streptococci, Actinomyces spp., and Atopobium spp., likely play important roles in caries progression. PMID:18216213

  17. Comparison of human gut microbiota in control subjects and patients with colorectal carcinoma in adenoma: Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and next-generation sequencing analyses.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Chika; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Moritani, Isao; Tanaka, Junichiro; Oya, Yumi; Inoue, Hidekazu; Tameda, Masahiko; Shiraki, Katsuya; Ito, Masaaki; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Takase, Kojiro

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan. The etiology of CRC has been linked to numerous factors including genetic mutation, diet, life style, inflammation, and recently, the gut microbiota. However, CRC-associated gut microbiota is still largely unexamined. This study used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze and compare gut microbiota of Japanese control subjects and Japanese patients with carcinoma in adenoma. Stool samples were collected from 49 control subjects, 50 patients with colon adenoma, and 9 patients with colorectal cancer (3/9 with invasive cancer and 6/9 with carcinoma in adenoma) immediately before colonoscopy; DNA was extracted from each stool sample. Based on T-RFLP analysis, 12 subjects (six control and six carcinoma in adenoma subjects) were selected; their samples were used for NGS and species-level analysis. T-RFLP analysis showed no significant differences in bacterial population between control, adenoma and cancer groups. However, NGS revealed that i), control and carcinoma in adenoma subjects had different gut microbiota compositions, ii), one bacterial genus (Slackia) was significantly associated with the control group and four bacterial genera (Actinomyces, Atopobium, Fusobacterium, and Haemophilus) were significantly associated with the carcinoma-in-adenoma group, and iii), several bacterial species were significantly associated with each type (control: Eubacterium coprostanoligens; carcinoma in adenoma: Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides fragiles, Clostridium nexile, Fusobacterium varium, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Prevotella stercorea, Streptococcus gordonii, and Veillonella dispar). Gut microbial properties differ between control subjects and carcinoma-in-adenoma patients in this Japanese population, suggesting that gut microbiota is related to CRC prevention and development.

  18. [Effects of different ground clearance on soil fertility of Chinese fir stands].

    PubMed

    Xue, Li; Xiang, Wenjing; He, Yuejun; Li, Yan; Wu, Min; Xu, Yan; Qu, Ming

    2005-08-01

    The study on the soil physical properties, nutrient contents, microbial amounts and enzyme activities of clear cutting and controlled burning Chinese fir stands showed that in comparing with the control, soil non-capillary porosity of clear cutting stand increased by 23%, whereas soil natural water capacity and capillary moisture capacity decreased by 25%. In controlled burning stand, soil bulk density increased by 10%, while soil non-capillary porosity, natural water capacity and capillary moisture capacity decreased by 61%, 48% and 26%, respectively. The contents of soil organic matter, total N, total P and total K in clear cutting stand decreased by 14%, 14%, 35% and 22%, and in controlled burning stand, they decreased by 37%, 37%, 47% and 7%, respectively. Soil alkalized N and available K in clear cutting stand increased by 24% and 31%, respectively, but soil available P decreased by 15%. The contents of soil alkalized N, available P and available K in controlled burning stand decreased by 25%, 43% and 40%, respectively. In clear cutting stand, the amounts of soil bacteria, fungi and actinomyces increased by 1.4, 11.3 and 0.8 times, respectively, but in controlled burning stand, the amounts of soil bacteria decreased by 24%, while those of soil fungi and actinomyces increased by 5.0 and 0.5 times, respectively. The activities of soil urease, catalase and cellulase in clear cutting stand increased by 1.9, 1.6 and 2.1 times, and in controlled burning land, they were 35%, 90% and 106% of the control, respectively. Damp soil had higher contents of organic matter, total N and total P, whereas porous soil was favorable for the accumulation of alkalized N, available P and available K and for the increase of soil urease activity. The amount of soil fungi decreased with increasing soil capillary porosity. Aerated soil was favorable for the increase of soil catalase activity. PMID:16262051

  19. Characteristics and sites of infection of Eubacterium nodatum, Eubacterium timidum, Eubacterium brachy, and other asaccharolytic eubacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, G B; Ayers, O M; Kohan, A P

    1987-01-01

    Three new species, Eubacterium nodatum, Eubacterium timidum, and Eubacterium brachy, were described, primarily from subgingival samples taken from patients with moderate and severe adult periodontitis. Except for the isolation of E. brachy from a pleuropulmonary infection, these species have not been reported from other infected body sites. We report on the isolation of these species and an undescribed group (D-6) of asaccharolytic eubacteria also found in periodontal disease from numerous different sites of infection, mostly the head and neck. A similarity in cellular morphological properties of E. nodatum and Actinomyces sp. was noted previously. Additional similarities, particularly to Actinomyces israelii, that we found are the formation of molar tooth colonies and the isolation from cases of lumpy jaw and from the genital tract of women in association with the use of an intrauterine contraceptive device. E. timidum and E. brachy did not occur more often from any particular site outside of the head, neck, and respiratory tract. The group D-6 strains came from a variety of sites in the trunk and pelvis. These species are all obligately anaerobic, asaccharolytic, and generally nonreactive, and they grow poorly and slowly on media commonly used to isolate anaerobic bacteria. L-Lysine (0.5%) markedly stimulated the growth of E. nodatum and, to a lesser extent, another acetate- and butyrate-producing group, Eubacterium sp. group D-6, but we did not find comparable stimulants for the other species. We found the production of phenyl acetate to be a helpful marker in the identification of E. timidum and Eubacterium sp. group D-6. Although the isolation and identification of most of these species remain somewhat difficult, the evidence from dental infections and the present report suggests that these species are potential pathogens that are likely to be overlooked in infected clinical material without special attention to more prolonged incubation and use of enriched

  20. [Effects of biochar on the micro-ecology of tobacco-planting soil and physiology of flue-cured tobacco].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Chen, Wei; Lin, Ye-chun; Cheng, Jian-zhong; Pan, Wen-jie

    2015-12-01

    Biochar is one of the research hotspots in the field of the agroforestry waste utilization. A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of different amounts of tobacco stem biochar (0, 1, 10, 50 t · hm⁻²) on soil micro-ecology and physiological properties of flue-cured tobacco. The results showed that soil water content (SWC) increased at all tobacco growth stages as the amounts of biochar applications increased. There were significant differences of SWC between the treatment of 50 t · hm⁻² and other treatments at the period of tobacco vigorous growth. As the application of biochar increased, the total soil porosity and capillary porosity increased, while soil bacteria, actinomyces, fungi amount increased firstly and then decreased. The amount of soil bacteria, actinomyces, fungi reached the maximum at the treatment of 10 t · hm⁻². Soil respiration rate (SRR) at earlier stage increased with the increase of biochar application. Compared with the control, SSR under biochar treatments increased by 7.9%-36.9%, and there were significant differences of SRR between high biochar application treatments (50 t · hm⁻² and 10 t · hm⁻²) and the control. Biochar improved leaf water potential, carotenoid and chlorophyll contents. Meanwhile, the dry mass of root, shoot and total dry mass under biochar application were higher than that of the control. These results indicated that the biochar played active roles in improving tobacco-planting soil micro-ecology and regulating physiological properties of flue-cured tobacco.

  1. Multi-centre evaluation of mass spectrometric identification of anaerobic bacteria using the VITEK® MS system.

    PubMed

    Garner, O; Mochon, A; Branda, J; Burnham, C-A; Bythrow, M; Ferraro, M; Ginocchio, C; Jennemann, R; Manji, R; Procop, G W; Richter, S; Rychert, J; Sercia, L; Westblade, L; Lewinski, M

    2014-04-01

    Accurate and timely identification of anaerobic bacteria is critical to successful treatment. Classic phenotypic methods for identification require long turnaround times and can exhibit poor species level identification. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an identification method that can provide rapid identification of anaerobes. We present a multi-centre study assessing the clinical performance of the VITEK(®) MS in the identification of anaerobic bacteria. Five different test sites analysed a collection of 651 unique anaerobic isolates comprising 11 different genera. Multiple species were included for several of the genera. Briefly, anaerobic isolates were applied directly to a well of a target plate. Matrix solution (α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) was added and allowed to dry. Mass spectra results were generated with the VITEK(®) MS, and the comparative spectral analysis and organism identification were determined using the VITEK(®) MS database 2.0. Results were confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Of the 651 isolates analysed, 91.2% (594/651) exhibited the correct species identification. An additional eight isolates were correctly identified to genus level, raising the rate of identification to 92.5%. Genus-level identification consisted of Actinomyces, Bacteroides and Prevotella species. Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinomyces neuii and Bacteroides uniformis were notable for an increased percentage of no-identification results compared with the other anaerobes tested. VITEK(®) MS identification of clinically relevant anaerobes is highly accurate and represents a dramatic improvement over other phenotypic methods in accuracy and turnaround time.

  2. Characterization and in vitro properties of oral lactobacilli in breastfed infants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus species can contribute positively to general and oral health and are frequently acquired by breastfeeding in infancy. The present study aimed to identify oral lactobacilli in breast and formula-fed 4 month-old infants and to evaluate potential probiotic properties of the dominant Lactobacillus species detected. Saliva and oral swab samples were collected from 133 infants who were enrolled in a longitudinal study (n=240) examining the effect of a new infant formula on child growth and development. Saliva was cultured and Lactobacillus isolates were identified from 16S rRNA gene sequences. Five L. gasseri isolates that differed in 16S rRNA sequence were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of selected oral bacteria and for adhesion to oral tissues. Oral swab samples were analyzed by qPCR for Lactobacillus gasseri. Results 43 (32.3%) infants were breastfed and 90 (67.7%) were formula-fed with either a standard formula (43 out of 90) or formula supplemented with a milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction (47 out of 90). Lactobacilli were cultured from saliva of 34.1% breastfed infants, but only in 4.7% of the standard and 9.3% of the MFGM supplemented formula-fed infants. L. gasseri was the most prevalent (88% of Lactobacillus positive infants) of six Lactobacillus species detected. L. gasseri isolates inhibited Streptococcus mutans binding to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite, and inhibited growth of S. mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces oris, Candida albicans and Fusobacterium nucleatum in a concentration dependent fashion. L. gasseri isolates bound to parotid and submandibular saliva, salivary gp340 and MUC7, and purified MFGM, and adhered to epithelial cells. L. gasseri was detected by qPCR in 29.7% of the oral swabs. Breastfed infants had significantly higher mean DNA levels of L. gasseri (2.14 pg/uL) than infants fed the standard (0.363 pg/uL) or MFGM (0.697 pg/uL) formula. Conclusions Lactobacilli

  3. Clinical evaluation of the effect of a hydrogen peroxide mouth rinse, sodium bicarbonate dentifrice, and mouth moisturizer on oral health.

    PubMed

    Shibly, O; Ciancio, S G; Kazmierczak, M; Cohen, R E; Mather, M L; Ho, A; Bessinger, M

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this 60-day single-blind, parallel trial, using 150 subjects, was to evaluate the effect of a 20% sodium bicarbonate dentifrice, a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide solution and a mouth moisturizer on oral tissues and microflora. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups. The treatments were: 1) Sage dentifrice (sodium bicarbonate). Toothette Plus containing baking soda saturated with the hydrogen peroxide solution and use of a mouth moisturizer, 2) Crest dentifrice, Toothette Plus containing baking soda saturated with the hydrogen peroxide solution and use of a mouth moisturizer, 3) Crest dentifrice, Toothette Plus containing baking soda with a control solution and no mouth moisturizer, 4) Crest dentifrice, Toothette (without baking soda), saturated with a control solution and no mouth moisturizer, and 5) Crest dentifrice, Toothette saturated with 1.5% flavored H2O2 and no mouth moisturizer. From a subgroup of 35 patients (seven from each group) buccal smears for exfoliative cytology were taken as were supragingival microbiological samples from the mesial aspect of first molars (pooled). Buccal smears were evaluated for signs of histopathological changes. Microbiological samples from supra- and subgingival plaque for P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, A. actinomycetemcomitans. A viscosus, F. nucleatum, F. sanguis and C. albicans were evaluated. Clinical parameters measured were a stain index (SI), the modified gingival index (MGI), and a plaque index (PI). There were no adverse changes in the oral microflora and no anaplastic or other pathological changes in any subjects. Clinical parameters showed a statistically significant reduction in the MGI ranging from 26.7-29.9% with no significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05). The PI showed small reductions in all groups except group 2, but the differences were not statistically significant from each other or baseline (p > 0.05). The SI revealed slight increases in all groups and no differences

  4. Clinical evaluation of the effect of a hydrogen peroxide mouth rinse, sodium bicarbonate dentifrice, and mouth moisturizer on oral health.

    PubMed

    Shibly, O; Ciancio, S G; Kazmierczak, M; Cohen, R E; Mather, M L; Ho, A; Bessinger, M

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this 60-day single-blind, parallel trial, using 150 subjects, was to evaluate the effect of a 20% sodium bicarbonate dentifrice, a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide solution and a mouth moisturizer on oral tissues and microflora. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups. The treatments were: 1) Sage dentifrice (sodium bicarbonate). Toothette Plus containing baking soda saturated with the hydrogen peroxide solution and use of a mouth moisturizer, 2) Crest dentifrice, Toothette Plus containing baking soda saturated with the hydrogen peroxide solution and use of a mouth moisturizer, 3) Crest dentifrice, Toothette Plus containing baking soda with a control solution and no mouth moisturizer, 4) Crest dentifrice, Toothette (without baking soda), saturated with a control solution and no mouth moisturizer, and 5) Crest dentifrice, Toothette saturated with 1.5% flavored H2O2 and no mouth moisturizer. From a subgroup of 35 patients (seven from each group) buccal smears for exfoliative cytology were taken as were supragingival microbiological samples from the mesial aspect of first molars (pooled). Buccal smears were evaluated for signs of histopathological changes. Microbiological samples from supra- and subgingival plaque for P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, A. actinomycetemcomitans. A viscosus, F. nucleatum, F. sanguis and C. albicans were evaluated. Clinical parameters measured were a stain index (SI), the modified gingival index (MGI), and a plaque index (PI). There were no adverse changes in the oral microflora and no anaplastic or other pathological changes in any subjects. Clinical parameters showed a statistically significant reduction in the MGI ranging from 26.7-29.9% with no significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05). The PI showed small reductions in all groups except group 2, but the differences were not statistically significant from each other or baseline (p > 0.05). The SI revealed slight increases in all groups and no differences

  5. A cross-sectional survey of bacterial species in plaque from client owned dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ian J; Wallis, Corrin; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Milella, Lisa; Loman, Nick; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs which if left untreated results in significant pain to the pet and loss of dentition. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species in canine plaque that are significantly associated with health, gingivitis and mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss). In this survey subgingival plaque samples were collected from 223 dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis and mild periodontitis with 72 to 77 samples per health status. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. Pyrosequencing of the PCR amplicons identified a total of 274 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all disease stages, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Bergeyella. Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, and Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant genera in mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from each of these genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Principal component analysis showed distinct community profiles in health and disease. The species identified show some similarities with health and periodontal disease in humans but also major differences. In contrast to human, healthy canine plaque was found to be dominated by Gram negative bacterial species whereas Gram positive anaerobic species predominate in disease. The scale of this study surpasses previously published research and enhances our understanding of the bacterial species present in canine subgingival plaque and their associations with health and early periodontal disease.

  6. Biofouling of contaminated ground-water recovery wells: Characterization of microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.W.; Lange, C.R.; Lesold, E.A.

    1997-11-01

    The taxonomy and physiology of microorganisms isolated from contaminated ground-water recovery wells prone to biofouling are characterized for an industrial site in Rochester, New York. Principal aquifer contaminants include acetone, cyclohexane, dichloroethane, dichloromethane, 1,4-dioxane, isopropanol, methanol, and toluene. These contaminants represent a significant fraction (up to 95%) of the total organic carbon in the ground water. Ground-water samples from 12 recovery wells were used to isolate, quantify, and identify aerobic and anaerobic bacterial populations. Samples from selected wells were also characterized geochemically to assess redox conditions and availability of essential and trace nutrients. Dominant bacteria, listed in order of descending numbers, including sulfate-reducers (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans), anaerobic heterotrophs (Actinomyces, Bacteriodes, Bacillus, Agrobacterium), aerobic heterotrophs (Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Nocardia, Citrobacter), iron-oxidizers (Gallionella ferruginea, Crenothrix polyspora), iron-reducers (Shewanella), and sulfur-oxidizers (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Fungi were also recovered in low numbers. Both aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs were able to utilize all principal contaminants as sole carbon and energy sources except 1,4-dioxane. The prevalence of heterotrophic bacteria and their ability to use the available anthropogenic carbon suggests that aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs contribute to the biofouling of wells at this site, in addition to the often cited fouling due to iron-oxidizing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria.

  7. Comparison of selective staining of fungi in paraffin sections by light microscopy, SEM and BEI

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, E.L.; Laudate, A.; Carter, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    Paraffin-embedded sections from human tissues with fungi or organisms classified with fungi were studied by light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the backscatter electron imaging (BEI) mode of the SEM. The fungal organisms selected for study were those familiar to the pathologist on the basis of their appearance in paraffin-embedded material stained with the Gomori-Grocott Chromic Acid Methenamine Silver Stain (GMS). The organisms were Actinomyces, Rhizopus, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Coccidia imitis. Sections were stained with the GMS Stain and/or the Becker modification of the GMS Stain (BGMS) and examined in the secondary electron imaging mode (SEI) and BEI mode with an annular backscatter electron detector. This silver staining technique accentuated the wall of fungal organisms, in the backscatter mode. Depending on the fungal organism and type of silver stain employed, the GMS seemed the preferable stain. The advantages of SEM over LM were greater depth of focus and potential range of magnifications. BEI may also be used in conjunction with LM stain for microorganisms to establish their presence.

  8. Comparative cytotoxicity of periodontal bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.H.; Hammond, B.F.

    1988-11-01

    The direct cytotoxicity of sonic extracts (SE) from nine periodontal bacteria for human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was compared. Equivalent dosages (in terms of protein concentration) of SE were used to challenge HGF cultures. The cytotoxic potential of each SE was assessed by its ability to (1) inhibit HGF proliferation, as measured by direct cell counts; (2) inhibit 3H-thymidine incorporation in HGF cultures; or (3) cause morphological alterations of the cells in challenged cultures. The highest concentration (500 micrograms SE protein/ml) of any of the SEs used to challenge the cells was found to be markedly inhibitory to the HGFs by all three of the criteria of cytotoxicity. At the lowest dosage tested (50 micrograms SE protein/ml); only SE from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum caused a significant effect (greater than 90% inhibition or overt morphological abnormalities) in the HGFs as determined by any of the criteria employed. SE from Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eikenella corrodens, or Wolinella recta also inhibited cell proliferation and thymidine incorporation at this dosage; however, the degree of inhibition (5-50%) was consistently, clearly less than that of the first group of three organisms named above. The SE of the three other organisms tested (Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides intermedius, and Streptococcus sanguis) had little or no effect (0-10% inhibition) at this concentration. The data suggest that the outcome of the interaction between bacterial components and normal resident cells of the periodontium is, at least in part, a function of the bacterial species.

  9. Biomass, community structure and nutritional status attributes of the deep subsurface microbiota---at Idaho and Hanford sites

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C.; Ringelberg, D.B. . Center for Environmental Biotechnology Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1991-10-28

    The signature lipid biomarker technique based on phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid pattern analysis (PLFA) provides data on the total viable or potentially viable communities without the necessity of: (1) Quantitative recovery from the sediments or (2) The ability to culture the organisms. Analysis of PLFA provides evidence for the nutritional status (starvation and/or unbalanced growth) in situ. PLFA analysis of SSP samples from the INEL and PNL sites vadose zones showed higher biomass at the surface with prominent Actinomyces biomarkers with lower biomasses of stressed microbiota at progressively greater depth. The biomass and community diversity increased at the water table at both sites. Both these Western sites showed lower viable microbial biomasses than the WSRS samples. Cluster analysis of the total patterns from various sedimentary horizons showed three major consortia of microbes, with surface microbiota related at both sites, low viable biomass sites closely related at both sites, with anaerobic desaturase pathway being predominant at INEL and consortia utilizing predominantly branched saturated and the aerobic desaturase pathway at both sites. Preliminary examination of the consortia recovered from NTS show a clear relationship to water level.

  10. Dried calcium alginate/magnetite spheres: a new support for chromatographic separations and enzyme immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, M.A.; Kvesitadze, G.I.; Graves, D.J.

    1985-02-01

    Dried spheres made from an alginate solution containing magnetite particles have excellent potential as a support for enzyme immobilization and chromatographic applications. The beads were found to be much stronger than gels such as polyacrylamide and dextran, indicating that high flow rates and pressures could be used in column separations. The support withstood not only temperatures of up to 120/sup 0/C, but also most pH values and common solvents. While some solutions, such as phosphate buffers, dissolved the spheres, stabilization with Tyzor TE eliminated this problem. The physical properties of the beads include a glasslike density of 2.2 g/mL, excellent sphericity, low porosity, and a narrow size distribution. The magnetite present in the support allows the beads to be used for magnetic separations such as high gradient magnetic filtration. Their high degree of microroughness provides a large exposed surface area for enzyme and ligand binding. Mixed Actinomyces fradiae proteases and Aspergillus niger ..cap alpha..-amylase, two enzymes representative of classes which attack large substrates, were immobilized on the bead's surface with high activity and stability. A cyanuric dye which can be used in chromatographic applications (Cibacron Blue F3GA) was also readily coupled to the surface of this support with good yield.

  11. Unravelling Linkages between Plant Community Composition and the Pathogen-Suppressive Potential of Soils

    PubMed Central

    Latz, Ellen; Eisenhauer, Nico; Rall, Björn Christian; Scheu, Stefan; Jousset, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Plant diseases cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Current disease control practices can be deleterious for the environment and human health, calling for alternative and sustainable management regimes. Soils harbour microorganisms that can efficiently suppress pathogens. Uncovering mediators driving their functioning in the field still remains challenging, but represents an essential step in order to develop strategies for increased soil health. We set up plant communities of varying richness to experimentally test the potential of soils differing in plant community history to suppress the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. The results indicate that plant communities shape soil-disease suppression via changes in abiotic soil properties and the abundance of bacterial groups including species of the genera Actinomyces, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. Further, the results suggest that pairwise interactions between specific plant species strongly affect soil suppressiveness. Using structural equation modelling, we provide a pathway orientated framework showing how the complex interactions between plants, soil and microorganisms jointly shape soil suppressiveness. Our results stress the importance of plant community composition as a determinant of soil functioning, such as the disease suppressive potential of soils. PMID:27021053

  12. Using Molecular Networking for Microbial Secondary Metabolite Bioprospecting.

    PubMed

    Purves, Kevin; Macintyre, Lynsey; Brennan, Debra; Hreggviðsson, Guðmundur Ó; Kuttner, Eva; Ásgeirsdóttir, Margrét E; Young, Louise C; Green, David H; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie; Duncan, Katherine R

    2016-01-08

    The oceans represent an understudied resource for the isolation of bacteria with the potential to produce novel secondary metabolites. In particular, actinomyces are well known to produce chemically diverse metabolites with a wide range of biological activities. This study characterised spore-forming bacteria from both Scottish and Antarctic sediments to assess the influence of isolation location on secondary metabolite production. Due to the selective isolation method used, all 85 isolates belonged to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, with the majority of isolates belonging to the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces. Based on morphology, thirty-eight isolates were chosen for chemical investigation. Molecular networking based on chemical profiles (HR-MS/MS) of fermentation extracts was used to compare complex metabolite extracts. The results revealed 40% and 42% of parent ions were produced by Antarctic and Scottish isolated bacteria, respectively, and only 8% of networked metabolites were shared between these locations, implying a high degree of biogeographic influence upon secondary metabolite production. The resulting molecular network contained over 3500 parent ions with a mass range of m/z 149-2558 illustrating the wealth of metabolites produced. Furthermore, seven fermentation extracts showed bioactivity against epithelial colon adenocarcinoma cells, demonstrating the potential for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds from these understudied locations.

  13. [Effects of different organic fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-Wei; Xu, Zhi; Tang, Li; Li, Yan-Hong; Song, Jian-Qun; Xu, Jian-Qin

    2013-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying different organic fertilizers (refined organic fertilizer and bio-organic fertilizer) and their combination with 20% reduced chemical fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco, the resistance of the tobacco against bacterial wilt, and the tobacco yield and quality. As compared with conventional chemical fertilization (CK), applying refined organic fertilizer (ROF) or bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization increased the bacterial number and the total microbial number in the rhizospheric soil significantly. Applying BIO in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization also increased the actinomyces number in the rhizospheric soil significantly, with an increment of 44.3% as compared with that under the application of ROF in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization, but decreased the fungal number. As compared with CK, the ROF and BIO increased the carbon use capacity of rhizospheric microbes significantly, and the BIO also increased the capacity of rhizospheric microbes in using phenols significantly. Under the application of ROF and BIO, the disease incidence and the disease index of bacterial wilt were decreased by 4% and 8%, and 23% and 15.9%, and the proportions of high grade tobacco leaves increased significantly by 10.5% and 9.7%, respectively, as compared with those in CK. BIO increased the tobacco yield and its output value by 17.1% and 18.9% , respectively, as compared with ROF. PMID:24417114

  14. Analysis of the Microbiota of Black Stain in the Primary Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Fangfei; Liu, Ruoxi; Liu, He; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Black tooth stain is a characteristic extrinsic discoloration commonly seen on the cervical enamel following the contour of the gingiva. To investigate the relationship between black tooth stain and the oral microbiota, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to compare the microbial composition of dental plaque and saliva among caries-free children with and without black stain. Dental plaque and saliva, as well as black stain, were sampled from 10 children with and 15 children without black stain. Data were analyzed using the pipeline tool MOTHUR. Student’s t-test was used to compare alpha diversities and the Mann-Whitney U test to compare the relative abundances of the microbial taxa. A total of 10 phyla, 19 classes, 32 orders, 61 families and 102 genera were detected in these samples. Shannon and Simpson diversity were found to be significantly lower in saliva samples of children with black stain. Microbial diversity was reduced in the black stain compared to the plaque samples. Actinomyces, Cardiobacterium, Haemophilus, Corynebacterium, Tannerella and Treponema were more abundant and Campylobacter less abundant in plaque samples of children with black stain. Principal component analysis demonstrated clustering among the dental plaque samples from the control group, while the plaque samples from the black stain group were not and appeared to cluster into two subgroups. Alterations in oral microbiota may be associated with the formation of black stain. PMID:26340752

  15. [Tumor-bronchial actinomycosis simulating a recurrence of lung cancer 14 years after initial treatment: A case report].

    PubMed

    Folliet, L; Perpoint, T; Pignat, J-C; Laurent, F; Devouassoux, M; Perol, M; Nesme, P; Guerin, J-C; Ernesto, S; Odier, L; Arpin, D

    2015-05-01

    A patient with a history of squamous cell carcinoma of the right upper lung lobe treated 14 years before by concomitant chemo-radiotherapy was referred on account of dyspnea. Bronchial endoscopy revealed complete obstruction of the right main bronchus highly suggestive of a tumor recurrence. However, biopsy samples only showed inflammatory and necrotic tissue with no evidence of malignancy. Despite complete tissue resection by rigid bronchoscopy, a rapid and complete recurrence occurred requiring the placement of a Y-shaped bronchial prosthesis. Repeat histological, bacteriological and mycological analyses were negative. The patient was soon readmitted to hospital for a lung infection due to recurrence of obstruction inside and around the prosthesis. Bacterial examination of biopsy samples identified Actinomyces meyeri. Appropriate antibiotic therapy led to a complete regression of the bronchial obstruction. Unfortunately, the patient died a few months later due to massive hemoptysis after the removal of the prosthesis. Autopsy examination showed a fistula between the right main bronchus and pulmonary artery, with no evidence of neoplastic recurrence nor the persistence of lesions associated with actinomycosis. PMID:26024827

  16. Exploring the Dynamic Core Microbiome of Plaque Microbiota during Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy Using Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Jiang, Yun-tao; Ma, Rui; Tang, Zi-sheng; Liu, Zheng; Liang, Jing-ping; Huang, Zheng-wei

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy is the primary treatment modality used for patients with head-and-neck cancers, but inevitably causes microorganism-related oral complications. This study aims to explore the dynamic core microbiome of oral microbiota in supragingival plaque during the course of head-and-neck radiotherapy. Eight subjects aged 26 to 70 were recruited. Dental plaque samples were collected (over seven sampling time points for each patient) before and during radiotherapy. The V1–V3 hypervariable regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified, and the high-throughput pyrosequencing was performed. A total of 140 genera belonging to 13 phyla were found. Four phyla (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria) and 11 genera (Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Veillonella, Capnocytophaga, Derxia, Neisseria, Rothia, Prevotella, Granulicatella, Luteococcus, and Gemella) were found in all subjects, supporting the concept of a core microbiome. Temporal variation of these major cores in relative abundance were observed, as well as a negative correlation between the number of OTUs and radiation dose. Moreover, an optimized conceptual framework was proposed for defining a dynamic core microbiome in extreme conditions such as radiotherapy. This study presents a theoretical foundation for exploring a core microbiome of communities from time series data, and may help predict community responses to perturbation as caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. PMID:23437114

  17. Oral Microbiome Metabolism: From "Who Are They?" to "What Are They Doing?".

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have facilitated analyses of the oral microbiome ("Who are they?"); however, its functions (e.g., metabolic activities) are poorly understood ("What are they doing?"). This review aims to summarize our current understanding of the metabolism of the oral microbiome. Saccharolytic bacteria-including Streptococcus, Actinomyces, and Lactobacillus species-degrade carbohydrates into organic acids via the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway and several of its branch pathways, resulting in dental caries, while alkalization and acid neutralization via the arginine deiminase system, urease, and so on, counteract acidification. Proteolytic/amino acid-degrading bacteria, including Prevotella and Porphyromonas species, break down proteins and peptides into amino acids and degrade them further via specific pathways to produce short-chain fatty acids, ammonia, sulfur compounds, and indole/skatole, which act as virulent and modifying factors in periodontitis and oral malodor. Furthermore, it is suggested that ethanol-derived acetaldehyde can cause oral cancer, while nitrate-derived nitrite can aid caries prevention and systemic health. Microbial metabolic activity is influenced by the oral environment; however, it can also modify the oral environment, enhance the pathogenicity of bacteria, and induce microbial selection to create more pathogenic microbiome. Taking a metabolomic approach to analyzing the oral microbiome is crucial to improving our understanding of the functions of the oral microbiome.

  18. [Effects of intercropping peanut with medicinal plants on soil microbial community].

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Xing-Xiang; Dai, Chuan-Chao; Chen, Jia-Xin; Zhang, Tao-Lin

    2007-03-01

    With pot experiment, this paper studied the quantitative variations of bacteria, actinomyces, mould and yeast in soils of peanut intercropped with medicinal plants, aimed to test if such an intercropping pattern could remove the obstacles of peanut's continuous cropping. The results showed that Atractylodes lancea and Euphorbia pekinensis had the strongest inhibitory effect on mould. Compared with CK (mono-cropping peanut), the CFU of mould in the treatments intercropped with A. lancea and E. pekinensis was decreased by 53.87% and 29.59%, respectively during flowering-pegging stage of peanut, but increased after harvesting, which was in favor of substance circulation and nutrient returning. The CFU of bacteria in treatments intercropped with A. lancea, E. pekinensis and Pinellia ternate was all increased, and that of yeast in all five intercropping treatments was increased during the flowering-pegging stage of peanut. No familiar pathogens were found in the treatments intercropped with A. lancea, E. pekinensis and Diosoren zingiberebsis. Peanut intercropped with medicinal plants could regulate soil microbial community effectively.

  19. A three-species biofilm model for the evaluation of enamel and dentin demineralization.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Bertolini, Martinna Mendonça; da Silva, Wander José; Del-Bel-Cury, Altair Antoninha; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Although Streptococcus mutans biofilms have been useful for evaluating the cariogenic potential of dietary carbohydrates and the effects of fluoride on dental demineralization, a more appropriate biofilm should be developed to demonstrate the influence of other oral bacteria on cariogenic biofilms. This study describes the development and validation of a three-species biofilm model comprising Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Streptococcus gordonii for the evaluation of enamel and dentin demineralization after cariogenic challenges and fluoride exposure. Single- or three-species biofilms were developed on dental substrata for 96 h, and biofilms were exposed to feast and famine episodes. The three-species biofilm model produced a large biomass, mostly comprising S. mutans (41%) and S. gordonii (44%), and produced significant demineralization in the dental substrata, although enamel demineralization was decreased by fluoride treatment. The findings indicate that the three-species biofilm model may be useful for evaluating the cariogenic potential of dietary carbohydrates other than sucrose and determining the effects of fluoride on dental substrata.

  20. Axenic culture of a candidate division TM7 bacterium from the human oral cavity and biofilm interactions with other oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Soro, Valeria; Dutton, Lindsay C; Sprague, Susan V; Nobbs, Angela H; Ireland, Anthony J; Sandy, Jonathan R; Jepson, Mark A; Micaroni, Massimo; Splatt, Peter R; Dymock, David; Jenkinson, Howard F

    2014-10-01

    The diversity of bacterial species in the human oral cavity is well recognized, but a high proportion of them are presently uncultivable. Candidate division TM7 bacteria are almost always detected in metagenomic studies but have not yet been cultivated. In this paper, we identified candidate division TM7 bacterial phylotypes in mature plaque samples from around orthodontic bonds in subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment. Successive rounds of enrichment in laboratory media led to the isolation of a pure culture of one of these candidate division TM7 phylotypes. The bacteria formed filaments of 20 to 200 μm in length within agar plate colonies and in monospecies biofilms on salivary pellicle and exhibited some unusual morphological characteristics by transmission electron microscopy, including a trilaminated cell surface layer and dense cytoplasmic deposits. Proteomic analyses of cell wall protein extracts identified abundant polypeptides predicted from the TM7 partial genomic sequence. Pleiomorphic phenotypes were observed when the candidate division TM7 bacterium was grown in dual-species biofilms with representatives of six different oral bacterial genera. The TM7 bacterium formed long filaments in dual-species biofilm communities with Actinomyces oris or Fusobacterium nucleatum. However, the TM7 isolate grew as short rods or cocci in dual-species biofilms with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra, or Streptococcus gordonii, forming notably robust biofilms with the latter two species. The ability to cultivate TM7 axenically should majorly advance understanding of the physiology, genetics, and virulence properties of this novel candidate division oral bacterium.

  1. Oral biofilm architecture on natural teeth.

    PubMed

    Zijnge, Vincent; van Leeuwen, M Barbara M; Degener, John E; Abbas, Frank; Thurnheer, Thomas; Gmür, Rudolf; Harmsen, Hermie J M

    2010-02-24

    Periodontitis and caries are infectious diseases of the oral cavity in which oral biofilms play a causative role. Moreover, oral biofilms are widely studied as model systems for bacterial adhesion, biofilm development, and biofilm resistance to antibiotics, due to their widespread presence and accessibility. Despite descriptions of initial plaque formation on the tooth surface, studies on mature plaque and plaque structure below the gum are limited to landmark studies from the 1970s, without appreciating the breadth of microbial diversity in the plaque. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization to localize in vivo the most abundant species from different phyla and species associated with periodontitis on seven embedded teeth obtained from four different subjects. The data showed convincingly the dominance of Actinomyces sp., Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Spirochaetes, and Synergistetes in subgingival plaque. The latter proved to be new with a possibly important role in host-pathogen interaction due to its localization in close proximity to immune cells. The present study identified for the first time in vivo that Lactobacillus sp. are the central cells of bacterial aggregates in subgingival plaque, and that Streptococcus sp. and the yeast Candida albicans form corncob structures in supragingival plaque. Finally, periodontal pathogens colonize already formed biofilms and form microcolonies therein. These in vivo observations on oral biofilms provide a clear vision on biofilm architecture and the spatial distribution of predominant species.

  2. Concomitant Factors Leading to an Atypical Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in a Patient with Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Giménez-Rubio, Josep Anton

    2014-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a site specific osseous pathology, characterized by chronic exposed bone in the mouth, which needs to be reinforced periodically within the medical literature. ONJ is a clinical entity with many possible aetiologies and its pathogenesis is not well understood. The risk factors for ONJ include bisphosphonates treatments, head and neck radiotherapy, dental procedures involving bone surgery, and trauma. Management of ONJ has centred on efforts to eliminate or reduce severity of symptoms, to slow or prevent the progression of disease, and to eradicate diseased bone. This case describes a rare case of ONJ in a 64-year-old Caucasian male diagnosed with multiple myeloma stage III. The lesion was related to a traumatic injury during mastication. Eighteen months ago in the same area the molar 37 was extracted, achieving a complete satisfactory healing, when only 2 doses of zoledronic acid had been administered. Actinomyces bacterial aggregates were also identified in the microscopic analysis. The management of this osteonecrotic lesion included antibiotic treatment and chlorhexidine topical gel administration. The evolution was monitored every two weeks until patient's death. The authors provide a discussion of the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. This case report may shed light on the controversies about concomitant factors and mechanisms inducing ONJ. PMID:25140178

  3. Inhibition of attachment of oral bacteria to immortalized human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) by tea extracts and tea components

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tea has been suggested to promote oral health by inhibiting bacterial attachment to the oral cavity. Most studies have focused on prevention of bacterial attachment to hard surfaces such as enamel. Findings This study investigated the effect of five commercial tea (green, oolong, black, pu-erh and chrysanthemum) extracts and tea components (epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid) on the attachment of five oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 49456, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 and Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 51655) to the HGF-1 gingival cell line. Extracts of two of the teas (pu-erh and chrysanthemum) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced attachment of all the Streptococcus strains by up to 4 log CFU/well but effects of other teas and components were small. Conclusions Pu-erh and chrysanthemum tea may have the potential to reduce attachment of oral pathogens to gingival tissue and improve the health of oral soft tissues. PMID:23578062

  4. [Exogenous tooth discoloration in children: black stains].

    PubMed

    Bandon, D; Chabane-Lemboub, A; Le Gall, M

    2011-12-01

    Black-stains are a coloring frequently met in pediatric dentistry. They can be medically diagnosed as 1-mm borders or unfinished lines formed by a dark exogenous substance which follows the gingival festoon of bet coronary (in cervical third of the crown) temporary teeth and permanent, or they can appear in like points or dark spots. They are caused by bacteria anaerobic chromogenous. The dominant responsible species are actinomyces. Blacks-stains are ferrous depots, formed following a chemical interaction on the surface of the tooth between sulphide of hydrogen (under the effect of the anaerobic bacteria which are producing hydrogen) and the iron contained in the saliva (by a healthy diet) or that released by red blood corpuscles (in case of bloody gums). Black-stains are a shape of characteristic dental plaque by its flora with trend to calcify. It contains an insoluble iron salt with a content raised in calcium and in inorganic phosphor. The coloring Black-stain is a mild pathology and has no incidence on the vitality of the tooth. Certainly these spots are unsightly. The dental surgeon in current practice can deprive them. The pediatrician plays a leading role in the diagnosis and advice to parents and patients affected by these stains. PMID:21899989

  5. Adherence of oral streptococci to an immobilized antimicrobial agent.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Takatsuka, T; Kato, T; Ishihara, K; Okuda, K

    1997-08-01

    An antimicrobial agent, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride, was immobilized on silica. Interaction between the material (termed) OAIS) and various oral bacterial species were then studied. Seven species of Streptococcus and two Actinomyces were investigated for their ability to adhere to this biomaterial. Cell-surface hydrophobicity and zeta-potential were examined as well. Analysis of extracted hydrophobic proteins which adhered to OAIS revealed that the adherence of these micro-organisms was closely related to the hydrophobicity of their cell surfaces. The results of zeta-potential assays indicated that negative charge on the cell surface inhibited adherence to OAIS. Gel electrophoresis revealed that OAIS could absorb cell-surface hydrophobic proteins from all bacterial species tested. Preadsorption of hydrophobic components on the cell surface inhibited adherence of the Strep. mutans strain to OAIS in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicate that OAIS adsorption of these oral bacteria was dependent on the degree of hydrophobicity of their surfaces. A major component of this adherence was hydrophobic cell-surface proteins. PMID:9347116

  6. Activity and cellular localization of amylases of rabbit cecal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sirotek, K; Marounek, M; Suchorská, O

    2006-01-01

    Five 11-week-old rabbits, fed a commercial granulated feed, were slaughtered and cecal starch-degrading bacteria enumerated; total concentration of cultivable bacteria utilizing starch averaged 5.5 x 10(10) CFU/g. The activity and cellular localization of amylases was determined in 9 bacteria identified as Actinomyces israeli (strains AA2 and AD4), Bacteroides spp. (strain AA3), Dichelobacter nodosus (strain AA4), Mitsuokella multiacidus (strain AA6), Eubacterium spp. (strains AA7 and AB2), Clostridium spp. (strains AD1 and AA5). Four strains (AA3, AA4, AA5, AD4) produced extracellular amylases with an activity of 26-35 micromol of reducing sugars per h per mg of protein; in five strains (AA2, AA6, AA7, AB2, AD1) amylases were membrane-bound with an activity of 14-18 micromol of reducing sugars per h per mg of protein. All strains exhibited a low intracellular amylolytic activity. The pH optimum of amylases was 6.8-7.0. In strains producing extracellular amylases a substantial loss of viscosity was observed during incubations of cultivation supernatant with starch, similar to viscosity reduction in starch solutions treated with alpha-amylase; this indicates an endo-type (random cleavage) of extracellular amylase reaction in the bacteria under study. No strain possessed glucoamylase activity.

  7. Differential effects of conifer and broadleaf litter inputs on soil organic carbon chemical composition through altered soil microbial community composition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Shi-Rong; Wang, Jing-Xin; Shi, Zuo-Min; Xu, Jia; Hong, Pi-Zheng; Ming, An-Gang; Yu, Hao-Long; Chen, Lin; Lu, Li-Hua; Cai, Dao-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    A strategic selection of tree species will shift the type and quality of litter input, and subsequently magnitude and composition of the soil organic carbon (SOC) through soil microbial community. We conducted a manipulative experiment in randomized block design with leaf litter inputs of four native subtropical tree species in a Pinus massoniana plantation in southern China and found that the chemical composition of SOC did not differ significantly among treatments until after 28 months of the experiment. Contrasting leaf litter inputs had significant impacts on the amounts of total microbial, Gram-positive bacterial, and actinomycic PLFAs, but not on the amounts of total bacterial, Gram-negative bacterial, and fungal PLFAs. There were significant differences in alkyl/O-alkyl C in soils among the leaf litter input treatments, but no apparent differences in the proportions of chemical compositions (alkyl, O-alkyl, aromatic, and carbonyl C) in SOC. Soil alkyl/O-alkyl C was significantly related to the amounts of total microbial, and Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs, but not to the chemical compositions of leaf litter. Our findings suggest that changes in forest leaf litter inputs could result in changes in chemical stability of SOC through the altered microbial community composition. PMID:27256545

  8. Cultivation of a human-associated TM7 phylotype reveals a reduced genome and epibiotic parasitic lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    He, Xuesong; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Edlund, Anna; Yooseph, Shibu; Hall, Adam P.; Liu, Su-Yang; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Hunter, Ryan C.; Cheng, Genhong; Nelson, Karen E.; Lux, Renate; Shi, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    The candidate phylum TM7 is globally distributed and often associated with human inflammatory mucosal diseases. Despite its prevalence, the TM7 phylum remains recalcitrant to cultivation, making it one of the most enigmatic phyla known. In this study, we cultivated a TM7 phylotype (TM7x) from the human oral cavity. This extremely small coccus (200–300 nm) has a distinctive lifestyle not previously observed in human-associated microbes. It is an obligate epibiont of an Actinomyces odontolyticus strain (XH001) yet also has a parasitic phase, thereby killing its host. This first completed genome (705 kb) for a human-associated TM7 phylotype revealed a complete lack of amino acid biosynthetic capacity. Comparative genomics analyses with uncultivated environmental TM7 assemblies show remarkable conserved gene synteny and only minimal gene loss/gain that may have occurred as TM7x adapted to conditions within the human host. Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles provided the first indications, to our knowledge, that there is signaling interaction between TM7x and XH001. Furthermore, the induction of TNF-α production in macrophages by XH001 was repressed in the presence of TM7x, suggesting its potential immune suppression ability. Overall, our data provide intriguing insights into the uncultivability, pathogenicity, and unique lifestyle of this previously uncharacterized oral TM7 phylotype. PMID:25535390

  9. Cultivation of a human-associated TM7 phylotype reveals a reduced genome and epibiotic parasitic lifestyle.

    PubMed

    He, Xuesong; McLean, Jeffrey S; Edlund, Anna; Yooseph, Shibu; Hall, Adam P; Liu, Su-Yang; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Hunter, Ryan C; Cheng, Genhong; Nelson, Karen E; Lux, Renate; Shi, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    The candidate phylum TM7 is globally distributed and often associated with human inflammatory mucosal diseases. Despite its prevalence, the TM7 phylum remains recalcitrant to cultivation, making it one of the most enigmatic phyla known. In this study, we cultivated a TM7 phylotype (TM7x) from the human oral cavity. This extremely small coccus (200-300 nm) has a distinctive lifestyle not previously observed in human-associated microbes. It is an obligate epibiont of an Actinomyces odontolyticus strain (XH001) yet also has a parasitic phase, thereby killing its host. This first completed genome (705 kb) for a human-associated TM7 phylotype revealed a complete lack of amino acid biosynthetic capacity. Comparative genomics analyses with uncultivated environmental TM7 assemblies show remarkable conserved gene synteny and only minimal gene loss/gain that may have occurred as TM7x adapted to conditions within the human host. Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles provided the first indications, to our knowledge, that there is signaling interaction between TM7x and XH001. Furthermore, the induction of TNF-α production in macrophages by XH001 was repressed in the presence of TM7x, suggesting its potential immune suppression ability. Overall, our data provide intriguing insights into the uncultivability, pathogenicity, and unique lifestyle of this previously uncharacterized oral TM7 phylotype.

  10. Bafilolides, potent inhibitors of the motility and development of the free-living stages of parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lacey, E; Gill, J H; Power, M L; Rickards, R W; O'Shea, M G; Rothschild, J M

    1995-03-01

    Three Streptomyces isolates were identified as producing macrolide antibiotics of the bafilomycin or leucanicidin types during an evaluation of Australian actinomyces for the production of inhibitors of larval development in the parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus. Bafilomycins A1, B1, C1, and D were obtained from culture A239 and the 2-O-methyl-L-rhamnosyl derivative of bafilomycin A1, leucanicidin, from cultures A223 and A240. All these 'bafilolides' gave similar patterns of inhibition typified by an initial paralysis of newly hatched L1 larvae and a lethal toxicity within 24 h. LD50 values for inhibition of larval development of McMaster H. contortus ranged from 0.23 micrograms ml-1 for leucanicidin to 2.5 micrograms ml-1 for bafilomycin D. The bafilolides had broad spectrum nematocidal activity, being equi-potent as inhibitors of H. contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Ostertagia circumcincta larval development. Further, all bafilolides caused some inhibition of H. contortus L3 motility, with the semi-synthetic analogue, bafilomycin B2, the most potent inhibitor (LP50 against McMaster H. contortus 1.9 microgram ml-1). Nematode strains resistant to the known benzimidazole, levamisole and avermectin anthelmintics showed no cross resistance to the bafilolides, supporting the hypothesis that the bafilolides act by an independent mechanism.

  11. Effects of probiotics on the growth performance and intestinal micro flora of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Yin-bo; Xu, Qian-qian; Yang, Cun-jin; Yang, Xin; Lv, Le; Yin, Chun-hua; Liu, Xiao-lu; Yan, Hai

    2014-05-01

    Antibiotics have been used in poultry industry for decades to promote growth and protect animals from diseases, followed by various side effects. In efforts of searching for a better alternative, probiotic is of extensive attention. We investigated the effects of Bacillus subtitles, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Candida utilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus as 0.1% (W/W) feed additives on broiler growth performance and intestinal microflora. The results showed the probiotics treatments significantly improved growth of broilers. Broilers supplemented with B. subtilis and L. acidophilus weighed 18.4% and 10.1% more than birds in control group at 42 days of age. Furthermore the feed conversion ratios of the birds in the two groups were also improved, decreasing 9.1% and 12.9%, respectively. Further study indicated a significant increase of cecal Lactobacilli concentration in briolers supplemented with probiotics, expecially in L. acidophilus treatment group. Meanwhile, the count of cecal Actinomyces in birds treated with probiotics was significantly lower compared with the control group. In conclusion, probiotics such as B. subtitles and L. acidophilus are good alternatives to antibiotics in promoting growth resulting from a beneficial modulation of the intestinal micro flora, which leads to increased efficiency of intestinal digestion in the host animal. PMID:24816710

  12. Influence of propolis on hygiene, gingival condition, and oral microflora in patients with cleft lip and palate treated with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Mertas, Anna; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Dziedzic, Arkadiusz; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 3% ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) on hygiene, gingival and microbiological status of oral cavity in patients with cleft lip and palate treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The study included forty-one nonsyndromic complete unilateral of bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects with fixed appliance on at least 10 teeth. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to brush their teeth three times a day using toothpaste with propolis. Control group included twenty subjects who were asked to brush their teeth three times a day using a toothpaste without propolis. API, OPI, GI, and supragingival bacterial plaque were taken from each subject twice: baseline and after using the toothpaste for 35 days. The final examinations showed statistically significant decrease in OPI, GI, and the percentage of the Actinomyces spp. and Capnocytophaga spp. compared with baseline in propolis group subjects. The improvement in oral health in these patients confirms antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative properties of propolis. PMID:23762106

  13. Oral Microbiome Metabolism: From "Who Are They?" to "What Are They Doing?".

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have facilitated analyses of the oral microbiome ("Who are they?"); however, its functions (e.g., metabolic activities) are poorly understood ("What are they doing?"). This review aims to summarize our current understanding of the metabolism of the oral microbiome. Saccharolytic bacteria-including Streptococcus, Actinomyces, and Lactobacillus species-degrade carbohydrates into organic acids via the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway and several of its branch pathways, resulting in dental caries, while alkalization and acid neutralization via the arginine deiminase system, urease, and so on, counteract acidification. Proteolytic/amino acid-degrading bacteria, including Prevotella and Porphyromonas species, break down proteins and peptides into amino acids and degrade them further via specific pathways to produce short-chain fatty acids, ammonia, sulfur compounds, and indole/skatole, which act as virulent and modifying factors in periodontitis and oral malodor. Furthermore, it is suggested that ethanol-derived acetaldehyde can cause oral cancer, while nitrate-derived nitrite can aid caries prevention and systemic health. Microbial metabolic activity is influenced by the oral environment; however, it can also modify the oral environment, enhance the pathogenicity of bacteria, and induce microbial selection to create more pathogenic microbiome. Taking a metabolomic approach to analyzing the oral microbiome is crucial to improving our understanding of the functions of the oral microbiome. PMID:26377570

  14. Microbial population dynamics during startup of a full-scale anaerobic digester treating industrial food waste in Kyoto eco-energy project.

    PubMed

    Ike, Michihiko; Inoue, Daisuke; Miyano, Tomoki; Liu, Tong Tong; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Kadoshin, Shiro

    2010-06-01

    The microbial community in a full-scale anaerobic digester (2300m3) treating industrial food waste in the Kyoto Eco-Energy Project was analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Both thermophilic and mesophilic sludge of treated swine waste were seeded to the digestion tank. During the 150-day startup period, coffee grounds as a main food waste, along with potato, kelp and boiled beans, tofu, bean curd lees, and deep-fried bean curd were fed to the digestion process step-by-step (max. 40t/d). Finally, the methane yield reached 360m3/t-feed with 40days' retention time, although temporary accumulation of propionate was observed. Eubacterial communities that formed in the thermophilic digestion tank differed greatly from both thermophilic and mesophilic types of seed sludge. Results suggest that the Actinomyces/Thermomonospora and Ralstonia/Shewanella were contributors for hydrolyzation and degradation of food waste into volatile fatty acids. Acetate-utilizing methanogens, Methanosaeta, were dominant in seed sludges of both types, but they decreased drastically during processing in the digestion tank. Methanosarcina and Methanobrevibacter/Methanobacterium were, respectively, possible main contributors for methane production from acetate and H2 plus CO2.

  15. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in raw and biologically treated sewage and in groundwater below leaking sewers.

    PubMed

    Gallert, C; Fund, K; Winter, J

    2005-11-01

    More than 750 isolates of faecal coliforms (>200 strains), enterococci (>200 strains) and pseudomonads (>340 strains) from three wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) and from four groundwater wells in the vicinity of leaking sewers were tested for resistance against 14 antibiotics. Most, or at least some, strains of the three bacterial groups, isolated from raw or treated sewage of the three WTPs, were resistant against penicillin G, ampicillin, vancomycin, erythromycin, triple sulfa and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT). Only a few strains of pseudomonads or faecal coliforms were resistant against some of the other tested antibiotics. The antibiotic resistances of pseudomonads, faecal coliforms and enterococci from groundwater varied to a higher extent. In contrast to the faecal coliforms and enterococci, most pseudomonads from all groundwater samples, including those from non-polluted groundwater, were additionally resistant against chloramphenicol and SXT. Pseudomonads from sewage and groundwater had more multiple antibiotic resistances than the faecal coliforms or the enterococci, and many pseudomonads from groundwater were resistant to more antibiotics than those from sewage. The pseudomonads from non-polluted groundwater were the most resistant isolates of all. The few surviving faecal coliforms in groundwater seemed to gain multiple antibiotic resistances, whereas the enterococci lost antibiotic resistances. Pseudomonads, and presumably, other autochthonous soil or groundwater bacteria, such as antibiotic-producing Actinomyces sp., seem to contribute significantly to the gene pool for acquisition of resistances against antibiotics in these environments. PMID:16001254

  16. [Residue and Degradation of Roxarsone in the System of Soil-Vegetable].

    PubMed

    Shao, Ting; Yao, Chun-xia; Shen, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Yu-jie; Su, Nan-nan; Zhou, Shou-biao

    2015-08-01

    The field experiment was developed for simulating the residues, transformation and degradation in soil-vegetable system of Roxarsone contained in organic fertilizer. Under the treatment, the yield of Brassica chinensis decreased in low Roxarsone concentration with a decline by 15% to 32% compared with the control group; there had an accumulating role of vegetables to arsenic, and the root was the main part; total content of arsenic in the soil was positively correlated with the dose of the applied Roxarsone; total arsenic in soil first increased and then decreased with the planting time prolonged and peaked at 12.94 mg x kg(-1), while the level of inorganic arsenic in the soil stabilized after 30 d, which accounting for 66.75% to 98.56% of the total arsenic; there existed a positively significant correlation of total arsenic content between the Brassica chinensis and the soil as well as the arsenic enrichment factor of vegetables; the degradation rate of Roxarsone in soil was slow, there was still some Roxarsone remained in soil after 45 d when added the organic fertilizer which containing Roxarsone with the dose higher than 5 000 kg x hm(-2); Roxarsone could significantly increase the number of bacteria in the soil, and low concentration showed an inhibited role in the growth of fungi and actinomyces, while high concentration of Roxarsone promoted the growth. PMID:26592042

  17. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Norman; Medina-Garcia, Luis; Al Mohajer, Mayar; Zangeneh, Tirdad T.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s). Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli) causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation. PMID:27006841

  18. The impact on the soil microbial community and enzyme activity of two earthworm species during the bioremediation of pentachlorophenol-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhong; Zhen, Zhen; Wu, Zhihao; Yang, Jiewen; Zhong, Laiyuan; Hu, Hanqiao; Luo, Chunling; Bai, Jing; Li, Yongtao; Zhang, Dayi

    2016-01-15

    The ecological effect of earthworms on the fate of soil pentachlorophenol (PCP) differs with species. This study addressed the roles and mechanisms by which two earthworm species (epigeic Eisenia fetida and endogeic Amynthas robustus E. Perrier) affect the soil microbial community and enzyme activity during the bioremediation of PCP-contaminated soils. A. robustus removed more soil PCP than did E. foetida. A. robustus improved nitrogen utilisation efficiency and soil oxidation more than did E. foetida, whereas the latter promoted the organic matter cycle in the soil. Both earthworm species significantly increased the amount of cultivable bacteria and actinomyces in soils, enhancing the utilisation rate of the carbon source (i.e. carbohydrates, carboxyl acids, and amino acids) and improving the richness and evenness of the soil microbial community. Additionally, earthworm treatment optimized the soil microbial community and increased the amount of the PCP-4-monooxygenase gene. Phylogenic classification revealed stimulation of indigenous PCP bacterial degraders, as assigned to the families Flavobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae and Sphingobacteriacea, by both earthworms. A. robustus and E. foetida specifically promoted Comamonadaceae and Moraxellaceae PCP degraders, respectively.

  19. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Commensal Bacteria from Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Wen; Tseng, Shu-Ying; Huang, Mao-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have focused on foodborne or commensal bacteria as vehicles of antibiotic resistance. However, the antibiotic resistance of milk bacteria from healthy donors is still vague in Taiwan. For this purpose, human milk samples were obtained from randomly recruited 19 healthy women between 3 and 360 days post-partum. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacteria from milk samples was determined. About 20 bacterial species were isolated from milk samples including Staphylococcus (6 species), Streptococcus (4 species), Enterococcus (2 species), Lactobacillus (1 species), and bacteria belonging to other genera (7 species). Some opportunistic or potentially pathogenic bacteria including Kluyvera ascorbata, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Actinomyces bovis, and Staphylococcus aureus were also isolated. Intriguingly, Staphylococcus isolates (22 strains) were resistant to 2–8 of 8 antibiotics, while Streptococcus isolates (3 strains) were resistant to 3–7 of 9 antibiotics, and members of the genus Enterococcus (5 strains) were resistant to 3–8 of 9 antibiotics. Notably, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, S. aureus, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Enterococcus faecalis were resistant to vancomycin, which is considered as the last-resort antibiotic. Therefore, this study shows that most bacterial strains in human milk demonstrate mild to strong antibiotic resistance. Whether commensal bacteria in milk could serve as vehicles of antibiotic resistance should be further investigated.

  20. Apollo-Soyuz Test Project on biorhythm of zone-forming fungi: preliminary work.

    PubMed

    Akoev, I G; Akhmadieva, A K; Savel'ev, A P; Mashinsky, A L; Konshin, N I; Yurov, S S; Leonov, A A; Kubasov, V N; Filipchenko, A V; Rukavishnikov, N N; Rubin, A B; Zharikova, T G; Zarubina, A K

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the experiment was to study general and local effects of space flight factors on the rhythm of cellular activity and on the morphological and genetic properties of biological objects. The Pushchino strain, Actinomyces levoris Kras 17-225A-IBFM, isolated at the Institute of Biological Physics, Moscow, was chosen as the main biological object. Under appropriate conditions it gives distinct and continuous rings of spore formation reflecting its intrinsic high degree of synchronism in changing its reproduction forms seen with the unaided eye as transparent rings (vegetative growth) alternate with convex white rings (spore-formation growth). As an additional test object, a film culture of bacteriophage T4Br+ developed at the institute was used. The strains were placed together in one bioblock together with plastic detectors for detecting nuclear particles. The film culture of bacteriophage enabled us to amplify the area of registration of local radiation effects by studying the genetic effects of these: frequency of mutations, induced radiation, their spectrum, subsequent revertability under the action of chemical mutagens with known mechanisms of action on DNA molecules.

  1. Apollo-Soyuz Test Project on biorhythm of zone-forming fungi: results of experiments.

    PubMed

    Akoev, I G; Savel'ev, A P; Akmadieva, A K

    1977-01-01

    Biorhythmic changes in spore (correction of sport) formation in the Pushchino strain of Actinomyces levoris Kras cultures on board Soyuz and Apollo during their joint flight in July 1975 are analysed and compared with control cultures on earth. Biorhythm changes during the flight period showed up as both a slowing down (most cultures) and, in a few cases, an acceleration of the rhythm. During the post-flight period both acceleration and slowing down of the rhythm were also observed. In cultures that were exchanged during the docking of the spaceships a slowing down of the rhythm on Apollo and acceleration of the rhythm on Soyuz were observed. A pronounced ring deformation, in response to landing, was observed only in the cultures on Soyuz. It was, however, different for the cultures that had been passed from Apollo and for those constantly on Soyuz. In five places, on four rings formed during the flight, local changes in spore formation occurred. The rhythmical disturbances observed are discussed in terms of possible effects of different temperatures, the absence of usual geophysical periodicities synchronizing the rhythmicity, or their shifting after landing, local radiation and other factors.

  2. [Effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on cucumber seedlings growth and rhizosphere soil microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Shou-wei; Pan, Kai; Wu, Feng-zhi

    2013-04-01

    Taking the Chinese onion cultivars with different allelopathy potentials as the donor and cucumber as the accepter, this paper studied the effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on the seedlings growth of cucumber and the culturable microbial number and bacterial community structure in the seedlings rhizosphere soil. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars could promote the growth of cucumber seedlings, and the stimulatory effect increased with the increasing concentration of the root exudates. However, at the same concentrations of root exudates, the stimulatory effect had no significant differences between the Chinese onion cultivars with strong and weak allelopathy potential. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars increased the individual numbers of bacteria and actinomyces but decreased those of fungi and Fusarium in rhizosphere soil, being more significant for the Chinese onion cultivar with high allelopathy potential (L-06). The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars also increased the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil. The cloning and sequencing results indicated that the differential bacteria bands were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Anaerolineaceae, and Anaerolineaceae only occurred in the rhizosphere soil in the treatment of high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06). It was suggested that high concentration (10 mL per plant) of root exudates from high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06) could benefit the increase of bacterial community diversity in cucumber seedlings rhizosphere soil.

  3. Molecular detection of bacteria associated to dental caries in 4-12-year-old Tunisian children.

    PubMed

    Kouidhi, Bochra; Fdhila, Kais; Ben Slama, Rihab; Mahdouani, Kacem; Hentati, Hajer; Najjari, Fayrouz; Bakhrouf, Amina; Chaieb, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of several microbial species in the oral cavity of 4-12-year-old Tunisian children was investigated. Samples were taken from 158 children (81 caries actives and 77 caries free). Genomic DNA was extracted and analyzed for the presence of 17 microbial species using a polymerase chain reaction assay. All samples were positive for at least one of the target microbial strains. Streptococcus mutans was the most prevalent species (76.5%) detected in genomic DNA collected from carious lesions. Other prevalent species were Candida spp (63%), Streptococcus salivarius (59%) and Streptococcus oralis (42%). The frequency of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei-group in caries lesions was 29.5%, 34.5% and 22% respectively. Pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus was found in 28.5% of carious lesion samples compared to 15.5% in the control. Frequency of Porphyromonas endodontali, Actinomyces radicidentis and Treponema denticola recovery did not differ significantly between origins of samples. PCR analysis of genomic DNA detect various oral bacteria that differ between caries actives and caries-free children. In addition, the association of same aciduric bacteria (S. mutans, S. salivarius, L. acidophilus) and caries formation was noticed. PMID:24814824

  4. Differential effects of conifer and broadleaf litter inputs on soil organic carbon chemical composition through altered soil microbial community composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Shi-Rong; Wang, Jing-Xin; Shi, Zuo-Min; Xu, Jia; Hong, Pi-Zheng; Ming, An-Gang; Yu, Hao-Long; Chen, Lin; Lu, Li-Hua; Cai, Dao-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    A strategic selection of tree species will shift the type and quality of litter input, and subsequently magnitude and composition of the soil organic carbon (SOC) through soil microbial community. We conducted a manipulative experiment in randomized block design with leaf litter inputs of four native subtropical tree species in a Pinus massoniana plantation in southern China and found that the chemical composition of SOC did not differ significantly among treatments until after 28 months of the experiment. Contrasting leaf litter inputs had significant impacts on the amounts of total microbial, Gram-positive bacterial, and actinomycic PLFAs, but not on the amounts of total bacterial, Gram-negative bacterial, and fungal PLFAs. There were significant differences in alkyl/O-alkyl C in soils among the leaf litter input treatments, but no apparent differences in the proportions of chemical compositions (alkyl, O-alkyl, aromatic, and carbonyl C) in SOC. Soil alkyl/O-alkyl C was significantly related to the amounts of total microbial, and Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs, but not to the chemical compositions of leaf litter. Our findings suggest that changes in forest leaf litter inputs could result in changes in chemical stability of SOC through the altered microbial community composition. PMID:27256545

  5. Faropenem, a new oral penem: antibacterial activity against selected anaerobic and fastidious periodontal isolates.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, I; Blandino, G; Caccamo, F; Musumeci, R; Nicoletti, G; Speciale, A

    2003-03-01

    The in vitro activity of faropenem, an oral penem, was compared with those of penicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefoxitin, clindamycin, erythromycin and metronidazole against 106 isolates of anaerobic pathogens involved in systemic infections. The organisms tested comprised Porphyromonas gingivalis (29), Prevotella spp. (eight), Prevotella melaninogenica (seven), Prevotella intermedia (five), Actinomyces spp. (25), Fusobacterium nucleatum (14), Peptostreptococcus spp. (11), Bacteroides ureolyticus (five) and Bacteroides forsythus (two). The antimicrobial properties of faropenem were investigated by studying MICs, MBCs, time-kill kinetics and post-antibiotic effect (PAE). Faropenem was highly active against all the anaerobes tested (MIC(90) < or = 0.5 mg/L) and was bactericidal against both beta-lactamase-positive and -negative anaerobes, with a maximum bactericidal effect at 10 x MIC at between 12 and 24 h. In addition, faropenem had an in vitro PAE on all the tested isolates and this was not influenced by beta-lactamase production. Faropenem may be useful for treating infections caused by periodontal bacteria or oral flora. PMID:12615878

  6. Black Stain and Dental Caries: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Żyła, Tomasz; Kawala, Beata; Antoszewska-Smith, Joanna; Kawala, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Black stain is characterized as a dark line or an incomplete coalescence of dark dots localized on the cervical third of the tooth. Over the last century, the etiology of black stain has been the subject of much debate. Most of the studies concerning this issue were conducted in pediatric population. According to the reviewed articles published between 2001 and 2014, the prevalence of black stain varies from 2.4% to 18% with equal sex distribution. The majority of the authors confirm the correlation between the presence of black stain and lower caries experience. The microflora of this deposit is dominated by Actinomyces spp. and has lower cariogenic potential than nondiscolored dental plaque. Iron/copper and sulfur complexes are thought to be responsible for the dark color. In patients with black stain saliva has higher calcium concentrations and higher buffering capacity. Factors such as dietary habits, socioeconomic status, and iron supplementation may be contributing to the formation of black stain. PMID:25802850

  7. In-vivo fluorescence detection and imaging of porphyrin-producing bacteria in the human skin and in the oral cavity for diagnosis of acne vulgaris, caries, and squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Schneckenburger, Herbert; Hemmer, Joerg; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1994-05-01

    Certain bacteria are able to synthesize metal-free fluorescent porphyrins and can therefore be detected by sensitive autofluorescence measurements in the red spectral region. The porphyrin-producing bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which is involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, was localized in human skin. Spectrally resolved fluorescence images of bacteria distribution in the face were obtained by a slow-scan CCD camera combined with a tunable liquid crystal filter. The structured autofluorescence of dental caries and dental plaque in the red is caused by oral bacteria, like Bacteroides or Actinomyces odontolyticus. `Caries images' were created by time-gated imaging in the ns-region after ultrashort laser excitation. Time-gated measurements allow the suppression of backscattered light and non-porphyrin autofluorescence. Biopsies of oral squamous cell carcinoma exhibited red autofluorescence in necrotic regions and high concentrations of the porphyrin-producing bacterium Pseudomonas aerigunosa. These studies suggest that the temporal and spectral characteristics of bacterial autofluorescence can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases.

  8. Pyrosequencing analysis of oral microbiota in children with severe early childhood dental caries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui

    2013-11-01

    Severe early childhood caries are a prevalent public health problem among preschool children throughout the world. However, little is known about the microbiota found in association with severe early childhood caries. Our study aimed to explore the bacterial microbiota of dental plaques to study the etiology of severe early childhood caries through pyrosequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable regions. Forty participants were enrolled in the study, and we obtained twenty samples of supragingival plaque from caries-free subjects and twenty samples from subjects with severe early childhood caries. A total of 175,918 reads met the quality control standards, and the bacteria found belonged to fourteen phyla and sixty-three genera. Our results show the overall structure and microbial composition of oral bacterial communities, and they suggest that these bacteria may present a core microbiome in the dental plaque microbiota. Three genera, Streptococcus, Granulicatella, and Actinomyces, were increased significantly in children with severe dental cavities. These data may facilitate improvements in the prevention and treatment of severe early childhood caries.

  9. Identification of cultivable microorganisms from primary teeth with necrotic pulps.

    PubMed

    Ledezma-Rasillo, Gildardo; Flores-Reyes, Hector; Gonzalez-Amaro, Ana M; Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Ruiz-Rodriguez, M del Socorro; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury J

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify cultivable microorganisms from primary teeth with necrotic pulps. This experimental study included 21 patients of both sexes between 4 and 7 years of age with necrotic pulps in primary teeth. Twenty-one maxillary and mandibular molars containing at least 1 necrotic canal, an abscess or sinus tract, one or more radiolucent areas in the furcation or periapical region, teeth having at least two thirds of root length, and carious lesions directly exposed to the oral environment were included. After antisepsis of the oral cavity, anesthesia of the affected tooth, and isolation and disinfection of the operative field, 3 sterile absorbent paper points were sequentially placed for 30 seconds for the collection of samples. The samples were immediately processed in an anaerobic chamber, and all isolated microorganisms were identified. Anaerobic species (anaerobic facultative and moderate anaerobes) were isolated in all root canals; 68.4% of root canal samples studied showed a polymicrobial nature. Most of the isolate consisted of Bifidobacterium Spp2 and Streptococcus intermedius. Other less frequently encountered species were Actinomyces israelii, Bifidobacterium spp 1, Clostridium spp, and Candida albicans. Results indicate the existence of combinations of bacterial species in root canal infections of the primary dentition with necrotic pulps, anaerobic bacteria predominating.

  10. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. PMID:26662487

  11. Lemongrass essential oil gel as a local drug delivery agent for the treatment of periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Warad, Shivaraj B.; Kolar, Sahana S.; Kalburgi, Veena; Kalburgi, Nagaraj B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been long recognized that periodontal diseases are infections of the periodontium, comprising the bacterial etiology, an immune response, and tissue destruction. Treatment strategies aiming primarily at suppressing or eliminating specific periodontal pathogens include adjunct use of local and systemic antibiotics as part of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Unwanted side effects and resistance of microorganisms toward antibiotics due to their widespread use have modified the general perception about their efficacy. Research in phytosciences has revealed various medicinal plants offering a new choice of optional antimicrobial therapy. Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf. (lemongrass) is a popular medicinal plant. At a concentration ≤2%, lemongrass essential oil inhibits the growth of several kinds of microorganisms including periodontal pathogens, especially the reference strains Actinomyces naeslundii and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which were resistant to tetracycline hydrochloride. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil in gel form as an adjunct to scaling and root planing, as compared to scaling and root planing alone for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 2% Lemongrass essential oil gel was prepared and placed in moderate to deep periodontal pockets after scaling and root planing. Results: Statistically significant reduction in probing depth and gingival index and gain in relative attachment level were noted in the experimental group as compared to the control group at 1 and 3 months. Conclusion: Locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil gel offers a new choice of safe and effective adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontal therapy. PMID:24991068

  12. Evaluation of the Andromas Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Aerobically Growing Gram-Positive Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Farfour, E.; Leto, J.; Barritault, M.; Barberis, C.; Meyer, J.; Dauphin, B.; Le Guern, A.-S.; Leflèche, A.; Badell, E.; Guiso, N.; Leclercq, A.; Le Monnier, A.; Lecuit, M.; Rodriguez-Nava, V.; Bergeron, E.; Raymond, J.; Vimont, S.; Bille, E.; Carbonnelle, E.; Guet-Revillet, H.; Lécuyer, H.; Beretti, J.-L.; Vay, C.; Berche, P.; Ferroni, A.; Nassif, X.

    2012-01-01

    Matrix-associated laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid and simple microbial identification method. Previous reports using the Biotyper system suggested that this technique requires a preliminary extraction step to identify Gram-positive rods (GPRs), a technical issue that may limit the routine use of this technique to identify pathogenic GPRs in the clinical setting. We tested the accuracy of the MALDI-TOF MS Andromas strategy to identify a set of 659 GPR isolates representing 16 bacterial genera and 72 species by the direct colony method. This bacterial collection included 40 C. diphtheriae, 13 C. pseudotuberculosis, 19 C. ulcerans, and 270 other Corynebacterium isolates, 32 L. monocytogenes and 24 other Listeria isolates, 46 Nocardia, 75 Actinomyces, 18 Actinobaculum, 11 Propionibacterium acnes, 18 Propionibacterium avidum, 30 Lactobacillus, 21 Bacillus, 2 Rhodococcus equi, 2 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and 38 other GPR isolates, all identified by reference techniques. Totals of 98.5% and 1.2% of non-Listeria GPR isolates were identified to the species or genus level, respectively. Except for L. grayi isolates that were identified to the species level, all other Listeria isolates were identified to the genus level because of highly similar spectra. These data demonstrate that rapid identification of pathogenic GPRs can be obtained without an extraction step by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. PMID:22692743

  13. Urine Is Not Sterile: Use of Enhanced Urine Culture Techniques To Detect Resident Bacterial Flora in the Adult Female Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Hilt, Evann E.; McKinley, Kathleen; Pearce, Meghan M.; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Zilliox, Michael J.; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Brubaker, Linda; Gai, Xiaowu; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study showed that bacterial genomes can be identified using 16S rRNA sequencing in urine specimens of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who are culture negative according to standard urine culture protocols. In the present study, we used a modified culture protocol that included plating larger volumes of urine, incubation under varied atmospheric conditions, and prolonged incubation times to demonstrate that many of the organisms identified in urine by 16S rRNA gene sequencing are, in fact, cultivable using an expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) protocol. Sixty-five urine specimens (from 41 patients with overactive bladder and 24 controls) were examined using both the standard and EQUC culture techniques. Fifty-two of the 65 urine samples (80%) grew bacterial species using EQUC, while the majority of these (48/52 [92%]) were reported as no growth at 103 CFU/ml by the clinical microbiology laboratory using the standard urine culture protocol. Thirty-five different genera and 85 different species were identified by EQUC. The most prevalent genera isolated were Lactobacillus (15%), followed by Corynebacterium (14.2%), Streptococcus (11.9%), Actinomyces (6.9%), and Staphylococcus (6.9%). Other genera commonly isolated include Aerococcus, Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, and Actinobaculum. Our current study demonstrates that urine contains communities of living bacteria that comprise a resident female urine microbiota. PMID:24371246

  14. Effects of a Chlorhexidine Gluconate-Containing Mouthwash on the Vitality and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of In Vitro Oral Bacterial Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    McBain, Andrew J.; Bartolo, Robert G.; Catrenich, Carl E.; Charbonneau, Duane; Ledder, Ruth G.; Gilbert, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Oral bacterial microcosms, established using saliva inocula from three individuals, were maintained under a feast-famine regime within constant-depth film fermenters. Steady-state communities were exposed four times daily, postfeeding, to a chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate-containing mouthwash (CHXM) diluted to 0.06% (wt/vol) antimicrobial content. The microcosms were characterized by heterotrophic plate counts and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). CHXM caused significant decreases in both total anaerobe and total aerobe/facultative anaerobe counts (P < 0.05), together with lesser decreases in gram-negative anaerobes. The degree of streptococcal and actinomycete inhibition varied considerably among individuals. DGGE showed that CHXM exposure caused considerable decreases in microbial diversity, including marked reductions in Prevotella sp. and Selenomonas infelix. Pure-culture studies of 10 oral bacteria (eight genera) showed that Actinomyces naeslundii, Veillonella dispar, Prevotella nigrescens, and the streptococci were highly susceptible to CHX, while Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Neisseria subflava were the least susceptible. Determination of the MICs of triclosan, CHX, erythromycin, penicillin V, vancomycin, and metronidazole for microcosm isolates, before and after 5 days of CHXM exposure, showed that CHXM exposure altered the distribution of isolates toward those that were less susceptible to CHX (P < 0.05). Changes in susceptibility distributions for the other test agents were not statistically significant. In conclusion, population changes in plaque microcosms following repeated exposure to CHXM represented an inhibition of the most susceptible flora with a clonal expansion of less susceptible species. PMID:12902270

  15. Functionalization of titanium with chitosan via silanation: evaluation of biological and mechanical performances.

    PubMed

    Renoud, Pauline; Toury, Bérangère; Benayoun, Stéphane; Attik, Ghania; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Complications in dentistry and orthopaedic surgery are mainly induced by peri-implant bacterial infections and current implant devices do not prevent such infections. The coating of antibacterial molecules such as chitosan on its surface would give the implant bioactive properties. The major challenge of this type of coating is the attachment of chitosan to a metal substrate. In this study, we propose to investigate the functionalization of titanium with chitosan via a silanation. Firstly, the surface chemistry and mechanical properties of such coating were evaluated. We also verified if the coated chitosan retained its biocompatibility with the peri-implant cells, as well as its antibacterial properties. FTIR and Tof-SIMS analyses confirmed the presence of chitosan on the titanium surface. This coating showed great scratch resistance and was strongly adhesive to the substrate. These mechanical properties were consistent with an implantology application. The Chitosan-coated surfaces showed strong inhibition of Actinomyces naeslundii growth; they nonetheless showed a non significant inhibition against Porphyromonas gingivalis after 32 hours in liquid media. The chitosan-coating also demonstrated good biocompatibility to NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Thus this method of covalent coating provides a biocompatible material with improved bioactive properties. These results proved that covalent coating of chitosan has significant potential in biomedical device implantation.

  16. Streptomyces roseoalbus sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from soil in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Hua; Jiang, Yi; Li, Wen-Jun; Wen, Meng-Lang; Li, Ming-Gang; Jiang, Cheng-Lin

    2005-04-01

    An actinomycete strain was isolated from a soil sample collected from a secondary forest at Yongsheng of Yunnan province, China. The isolate, YIM 31634T, was identified by a polyphasic approach. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that the strain YIM 31634T belongs to the genus Streptomyces, with closest similarity to Streptomyces olivochromogenes DSM 40451T (97.66% similarity). Sequence similarities between strain YIM 31634T and other Streptomyces species in the same subclade ranged from 97.59% (with Streptomyces resistomycificus DSM 40133T) to 97.22% (with Streptomyces mirabilis ATCC 27447T). Key phenotypic characteristics as well as chemotaxonomic features of the actinomyces were congruent with the description of the genus Streptomyces. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain YIM31634T was recognized as a new species of the genus Streptomyces for which the name Streptomyces roseoalbus sp. nov. is proposed. The strain YIM 31634T has been deposited in the Chinese Center of Type Culture Collection as strain CCTCC M 203016T and in the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen (DSM 41833T).

  17. Bacterial contamination of dental unit waterlines.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Jolanta; Sitkowska, Jolanta

    2013-05-01

    Safety of patients and dental personnel requires the appropriate microbiological water quality in dental units. During treatment, patients and dental workers are exposed both to direct contact with bacteria-contaminated water in the form of splatter and with contaminated water aerosol emitted during work by unit handpieces, including rotating and ultrasonic instruments. The aim of the study was to determine the qualitative and quantitative contamination of water in dental unit reservoirs with aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. The study material included water sampled from 107 dental unit reservoirs located in dental surgeries of public health centres. Conventional microbiological methods were used to identify microorganisms. The study shows that the contamination of water in dental unit reservoirs with aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria is commonplace. The mean concentration of mesophile bacteria in dental unit reservoir water exceeded 1.1 × 10(5) cfu/ml. The prevailing species were Gram-negative bacteria of the families Burkholderiaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Ralstoniaceae and Sphingomonadaceae. The most numerous bacteria were Ralstonia pickettii, constituting 49.33 % of all the identified aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. Among Gram-positive rods, the most numerous were bacteria of the genus Brevibacterium (5.83 %), while the highest percentage shares (13.25 %) of all Gram-positive microorganisms were found for Actinomyces spp. The study confirms the necessity of regular monitoring of microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines (DUWL) and use of various water treatment procedures available to disinfect DWUL.

  18. Using Molecular Networking for Microbial Secondary Metabolite Bioprospecting

    PubMed Central

    Purves, Kevin; Macintyre, Lynsey; Brennan, Debra; Hreggviðsson, Guðmundur Ó.; Kuttner, Eva; Ásgeirsdóttir, Margrét E.; Young, Louise C.; Green, David H.; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie; Duncan, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    The oceans represent an understudied resource for the isolation of bacteria with the potential to produce novel secondary metabolites. In particular, actinomyces are well known to produce chemically diverse metabolites with a wide range of biological activities. This study characterised spore-forming bacteria from both Scottish and Antarctic sediments to assess the influence of isolation location on secondary metabolite production. Due to the selective isolation method used, all 85 isolates belonged to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, with the majority of isolates belonging to the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces. Based on morphology, thirty-eight isolates were chosen for chemical investigation. Molecular networking based on chemical profiles (HR-MS/MS) of fermentation extracts was used to compare complex metabolite extracts. The results revealed 40% and 42% of parent ions were produced by Antarctic and Scottish isolated bacteria, respectively, and only 8% of networked metabolites were shared between these locations, implying a high degree of biogeographic influence upon secondary metabolite production. The resulting molecular network contained over 3500 parent ions with a mass range of m/z 149–2558 illustrating the wealth of metabolites produced. Furthermore, seven fermentation extracts showed bioactivity against epithelial colon adenocarcinoma cells, demonstrating the potential for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds from these understudied locations. PMID:26761036

  19. A sensitive method for isolating Fusobacterium necrophorum from faeces.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. R.; Barton, S. A.; Wallace, L. M.

    1991-01-01

    The isolation of Fusobacterium necrophorum present in small numbers in heavily contaminated material such as faeces or soil is hampered by the lack of an efficient selective medium and by the high minimum infective dose of the organism. A sensitive method for the detection and isolation of faecal strains of F. necrophorum type A was based on the subcutaneous injection of faeces, suspended (5% w/v) in broth culture of Actinomyces (Corynebacterium) pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus to increase fusobacterial infectivity, into mice pretreated with clostridial antitoxins. When necrobacillosis developed F. necrophorum was identified microscopically in tissue from the advancing edge of the lesion and isolated on a partly selective medium. The enhancement of fusobacterial infectivity produced by A. pyogenes and by S. aureus was high, but the latter was slightly the more efficient, enabling as few as 80 F. necrophorum organisms/g of faeces to be detected. Use of the method showed that 3 of 16 wallabies had F. necrophorum in their faeces at the time of examination. Numerous epidemiological applications are suggested. PMID:2019300

  20. Effect of pH on acid production from sorbitol in washed cell suspensions of oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kalfas, S; Maki, Y; Birkhed, D; Edwardsson, S

    1990-01-01

    The acid production from sorbitol and glucose was studied under anaerobic conditions in resting cell suspensions of bacteria from the predominant sorbitol-fermenting human dental plaque flora, belonging to the genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Actinomyces. The acid production activity of the bacterial cells was followed by titration with alkali, at environmental pH 7.0, 6.0 and 5.0 after addition of carbohydrate solution. The metabolic end products formed in the suspensions were analyzed thereafter by isotachophoretic and enzymatic methods. The results showed that sorbitol was fermented at a slower rate than glucose. Lowering the environmental pH decreased the acid production activity from the two carbohydrates. Compared with glucose, the catabolism of sorbitol was affected to greater extent by the pH conditions. The total amount of acids formed from sorbitol was considerably less than from glucose. Lactic acid, which was the major end product in glucose-challenged suspensions, was produced only in low concentrations from sorbitol by all strains tested. The ratio strong (formic + lactic)/weak acids was moreover lower for sorbitol than for glucose. The present results further illustrate some of the mechanisms behind the low cariogenic potential of this sugar substitute.

  1. Isolation, Characterization, and Insecticidal Activity of an Endophyte of Drunken Horse Grass, Achnatherum inebrians

    PubMed Central

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

  2. In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis samples from different geographical origins against certain oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Koru, Ozgur; Toksoy, Fulya; Acikel, Cengiz Han; Tunca, Yasar Meric; Baysallar, Mehmet; Uskudar Guclu, Aylin; Akca, Eralp; Ozkok Tuylu, Asli; Sorkun, Kadriye; Tanyuksel, Mehmet; Salih, Bekir

    2007-01-01

    Propolis is an agent having antimicrobial properties, however, its composition can vary depending on the area where it is collected. In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of five propolis samples, collected from four different regions in Turkey and from Brazil, against nine anaerobic strains was evaluated. Ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP) were prepared from propolis samples and we determined minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of EEP on the growth of test microorganisms by using agar dilution method. All strains were susceptible and MIC values ranged from 4 to 512 microg/ml for propolis activity. Propolis from Kazan-Ankara showed most effective MIC values to the studied microorganisms. MBC values of Kazan-Ankara EEP samples were ranged from 8 to 512 microg/ml. Death was observed within 4 h of incubation for Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and micros and Lactobacillus acidophilus and Actinomyces naeslundii, while 8 h for Prevotella oralis and Prevotella melaninogenica and Porphyromonas gingivalis, 12 h for Fusobacterium nucleatum, 16 h for Veillonella parvula. It was shown that propolis samples were more effective against Gram positive anaerobic bacteria than Gram negative ones. The organic chemical compositions of EEPs were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds of EEPs were flavonoids such as pinobanksin, quercetin, naringenin, galangine, chrysin and aromatic acids such as cafeic acid. Because of increased antimicrobial resistance, propolis may be kept in mind in the treatment of oral cavity diseases.

  3. Influence of Propolis on Hygiene, Gingival Condition, and Oral Microflora in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate Treated with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 3% ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) on hygiene, gingival and microbiological status of oral cavity in patients with cleft lip and palate treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The study included forty-one nonsyndromic complete unilateral of bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects with fixed appliance on at least 10 teeth. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to brush their teeth three times a day using toothpaste with propolis. Control group included twenty subjects who were asked to brush their teeth three times a day using a toothpaste without propolis. API, OPI, GI, and supragingival bacterial plaque were taken from each subject twice: baseline and after using the toothpaste for 35 days. The final examinations showed statistically significant decrease in OPI, GI, and the percentage of the Actinomyces spp. and Capnocytophaga spp. compared with baseline in propolis group subjects. The improvement in oral health in these patients confirms antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative properties of propolis. PMID:23762106

  4. Effect of 308-nm excimer laser light on peri-implantitis-associated bacteria: an in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Deppe, Herbert; Horch, Hans-Henning; Schrödl, Veit; Haczek, Cornelia; Miethke, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    Dental implants are becoming increasingly important in prosthodontic rehabilitation. Bacterial infections, however, can induce bone loss and jeopardize clinical success. Recent literature has demonstrated that infrared CO(2) laser light is suitable for the decontamination of exposed implant surfaces. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of 308-nm excimer laser irradiation on peri-implantitis-associated bacteria in vitro. In this study, a XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) was used (Summit Technology, Boston, USA). Both aerobe (Streptococcus mutans, S. sanguis, Actinomyces naeslundii) and anaerobe microorganisms (A. odontolyticus, Prevotella melaninogenica) were tested. According to previous studies, a constant energy of 0.8 J/cm(2) and a constant frequency of 20 Hz were used for all irradiations. Colony-forming units after laser irradiation were counted. Excimer laser irradiation showed significant influence on the growth of all microorganisms. As compared to S. mutans and S. sanguis, A. naeslundii demonstrated higher sensitivity to laser irradiation. Anaerobe microorganisms, in contrast, demonstrated that a total of 200 pulses were sufficient to reduce the replication of these germs for more than 99.9%. Excimer laser irradiation (lambda = 308 nm) can significantly reduce both aerobe and anaerobe microorganisms. Depending on the parameters chosen, 200 pulses are sufficient for sterilization. New studies are necessary to evaluate if this wavelength is more of value in the treatment of peri-implantitis than other wavelengths or conventional therapies.

  5. A microbiological and clinical study of the safety and efficacy of baking-soda dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Zambon, J J; Mather, M L; Gonzales, Y

    1996-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study that examined the clinical and microbiological changes associated with regular use of baking-soda dentifrices. Two dentifrice formulations were examined in a 6-month longitudinal study of 101 adult subjects with assessments for plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at baseline and 3 and 6 months during the active phase of the study, and at 3 months after cessation of product use. One dentifrice contained 52% baking soda and 3% sodium percarbonate (Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare) while the other dentifrice contained 65% baking soda (Arm & Hammer Dental Care). Both dentifrices resulted in statistically significant reductions in dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at all time periods compared to baseline. Dental plaque and buccal soft-tissue samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a 50-subject subset. Microbiological assays, including bacterial culture, phase-contrast microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy, confirmed the safety of both formulations. Beneficial alterations in dental plaque bacteria were noted, including significant reductions in the levels of Actinomyces species. The data from this study indicate that dentifrices containing high levels of baking soda are clinically effective and microbiologically safe. PMID:11524866

  6. A microbiological and clinical study of the safety and efficacy of baking-soda dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Zambon, J J; Mather, M L; Gonzales, Y

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study that examined the clinical and microbiological changes associated with regular use of baking-soda dentifrices. Two dentifrice formulations were examined in a 6-month longitudinal study of 101 adult subjects with assessments for plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at baseline and 3 and 6 months during the active phase of the study, and at 3 months after cessation of product use. One dentifrice contained 52% baking soda and 3% sodium percarbonate (Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare) while the other dentifrice contained 65% baking soda (Arm & Hammer Dental Care). Both dentifrices resulted in statistically significant reductions in dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at all time periods compared to baseline. Dental plaque and buccal soft-tissue samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a 50-subject subset. Microbiological assays, including bacterial culture, phase-contrast microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy, confirmed the safety of both formulations. Beneficial alterations in dental plaque bacteria were noted, including significant reductions in the levels of Actinomyces species. The data from this study indicate that dentifrices containing high levels of baking soda are clinically effective and microbiologically safe. PMID:12017933

  7. Pyrosequencing of Plaque Microflora In Twin Children with Discordant Caries Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Chen, Yongxing; Xie, Lingzhi; Li, Yuhong; Jiang, Han; Du, Minquan

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent successes in the control of dental caries, the mechanism of caries development remains unclear. To investigate the causes of dental decay, especially in early childhood caries, the supragingival microflora composition of 20 twins with discordant caries phenotypes were analyzed using high-throughput pyrosequencing. In addition, the parents completed a lifestyle questionnaire. A total of 228,789 sequencing reads revealed 10 phyla, 84 genera, and 155 species of microflora, the relative abundances of these strains varied dramatically among the children, Comparative analysis between groups revealed that Veillonella, Corynebacterium and Actinomyces were presumed to be caries-related genera, Fusobacterium, Kingella and Leptotrichia were presumed to be healthy-related genus, yet this six genera were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Moreover, a cluster analysis revealed that the microbial composition of samples in the same group was often dissimilar but that the microbial composition observed in twins was usually similar. Although the genetic and environmental factors that strongly influence the microbial composition of dental caries remains unknown, we speculate that genetic factors primarily influence the individual's susceptibility to dental caries and that environmental factors primarily regulate the microbial composition of the dental plaque and the progression to caries. By using improved twins models and increased sample sizes, our study can be extended to analyze the specific genetic and environmental factors that affect the development of caries. PMID:26524687

  8. Culturable microbial groups and thallium-tolerant fungi in soils with high thallium contamination.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jialong; Zou, Xiao; Ning, Zengping; Sun, Min; Peng, Jingquan; Xiao, Tangfu

    2012-12-15

    Thallium (Tl) contamination in soil exerts a significant threat to the ecosystem health due to its high toxicity. However, little is known about the effect of Tl on the microbial community in soil. The present study aimed at characterizing the culturable microbial groups in soils which experience for a long time high Tl contamination and elevated Hg and As. The contamination originates from As, Hg and Tl sulfide mineralization and the associated mining activities in the Guizhou Province, Southwest China. Our investigation showed the existence of culturable bacteria, filamentous fungi and actinomyces in long-term Tl-contaminated soils. Some fungal groups grow in the presence of high Tl level up to 1000 mg kg⁻¹. We have isolated and identified nine Tl-tolerant fungal strains based on the morphological traits and ITS analysis. The dominant genera identified were Trichoderma, Penicillium and Paecilomyces. Preliminary data obtained in this study suggested that certain microbes were able to face high Tl pollution in soil and maintain their metabolic activities and resistances. The highly Tl-tolerant fungi that we have isolated are potentially useful in the remediation of Tl-contaminated sites.

  9. [Effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on cucumber seedlings growth and rhizosphere soil microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Shou-wei; Pan, Kai; Wu, Feng-zhi

    2013-04-01

    Taking the Chinese onion cultivars with different allelopathy potentials as the donor and cucumber as the accepter, this paper studied the effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on the seedlings growth of cucumber and the culturable microbial number and bacterial community structure in the seedlings rhizosphere soil. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars could promote the growth of cucumber seedlings, and the stimulatory effect increased with the increasing concentration of the root exudates. However, at the same concentrations of root exudates, the stimulatory effect had no significant differences between the Chinese onion cultivars with strong and weak allelopathy potential. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars increased the individual numbers of bacteria and actinomyces but decreased those of fungi and Fusarium in rhizosphere soil, being more significant for the Chinese onion cultivar with high allelopathy potential (L-06). The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars also increased the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil. The cloning and sequencing results indicated that the differential bacteria bands were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Anaerolineaceae, and Anaerolineaceae only occurred in the rhizosphere soil in the treatment of high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06). It was suggested that high concentration (10 mL per plant) of root exudates from high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06) could benefit the increase of bacterial community diversity in cucumber seedlings rhizosphere soil. PMID:23898672

  10. EOR by stimulated microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Svarovskaya, L.I.; Altunina, L.K.; Rozhenkova, Z.A.; Bulavin, V.D.

    1995-12-31

    A combined microbiological and physico-chemical method for EOR has been developed for flooded West Siberia oil fields with formation temperature of 45{degrees}-95{degrees}C (318-365K). Formation water includes rich and various biocenoses numbering up to 2 x 10{sup 7} cells per ml. Representatives of genera, i.e, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Sarcina, etc. were found to be the most widely distributed microorganisms. The method is based on injection of systems exhibiting high oil displacing capacity and at the same time being an additional nitrous nutrient for endemic populations of microorganisms. Their injection into formation water favors biomass growth by 4-6 orders and promotes syntheses of biosurfactants, biopolymers, acids, etc., and gaseous products. The features of residual oil displacement have been studied on laboratory models using a combined microbiological and physico-chemical method. A curve for the yield of residual oil is presented by two peaks. The first peak is stipulated by the washing action of oil displacement system, and the second one by the effect of metabolites produced at stimulation of biogenic processes. Oil displacement index increases by 15%-30%.

  11. CnaA domains in bacterial pili are efficient dissipaters of large mechanical shocks

    PubMed Central

    Echelman, Daniel J.; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Badilla, Carmen L.; Chang, Chungyu; Ton-That, Hung; Fernández, Julio M.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria adhere despite severe mechanical perturbations induced by the host, such as coughing. In Gram-positive bacteria, extracellular protein appendages termed pili are necessary for adherence under mechanical stress. However, little is known about the behavior of Gram-positive pili under force. Here, we demonstrate a mechanism by which Gram-positive pili are able to dissipate mechanical energy through mechanical unfolding and refolding of isopeptide bond-delimited polypeptide loops present in Ig-type CnaA domains. Using single-molecule force spectroscopy, we find that these loops of the pilus subunit SpaA of the SpaA-type pilus from Corynebacterium diphtheriae and FimA of the type 2 pilus from Actinomyces oris unfold and extend at forces that are the highest yet reported for globular proteins. Loop refolding is limited by the hydrophobic collapse of the polypeptide and occurs in milliseconds. Remarkably, both SpaA and FimA initially refold to mechanically weaker intermediates that recover strength with time or ligand binding. Based on the high force extensibility, CnaA-containing pili can dissipate ∼28-fold as much energy compared with their inextensible counterparts before reaching forces sufficient to cleave covalent bonds. We propose that efficient mechanical energy dissipation is key for sustained bacterial attachment against mechanical perturbations. PMID:26884173

  12. Effect of water-aging on the antimicrobial activities of an ORMOSIL-containing orthodontic acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shi-Qiang; Epasinghe, D Jeevanie; Zhou, Bin; Niu, Li-Na; Kimmerling, Kirk A; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Mao, Jing; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2013-06-01

    Quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (QAMS), an organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) functionalized with polymerizable methacrylate groups and an antimicrobial agent with a long lipophilic alkyl chain quaternary ammonium group, was synthesized through a silane-based sol-gel route. By dissolving QAMS in methyl methacrylate monomer, this ORMOSIL molecule was incorporated into an auto-polymerizing, powder/liquid orthodontic acrylic resin system, yielding QAMS-containing poly(methyl methacrylate). The QAMS-containing acrylic resin showed a predominant contact-killing effect on Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) and Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) biofilms, while inhibiting adhesion of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) on the acrylic surface. The antimicrobial activities of QAMS-containing acrylic resin were maintained after a 3month water-aging period. Bromophenol blue assay showed minimal leaching of quaternary ammonium species when an appropriate amount of QAMS (<4wt.%) was incorporated into the acrylic resin. The results suggest that QAMS is predominantly co-polymerized with the poly(methyl methacrylate) network, and only a minuscule amount of free QAMS molecules is present within the polymer network after water-aging. Acrylic resin with persistent antimicrobial activities represents a promising method for preventing bacteria- and fungus-induced stomatitis, an infectious disease commonly associated with the wearing of removable orthodontic appliances.

  13. An ORMOSIL-containing orthodontic acrylic resin with concomitant improvements in antimicrobial and fracture toughness properties.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shi-qiang; Epasinghe, Jeevani; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Niu, Li-na; Mettenberg, Donald; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Blizzard, John D; Wu, Christine D; Mao, Jing; Drisko, Connie L; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2012-01-01

    Global increase in patients seeking orthodontic treatment creates a demand for the use of acrylic resins in removable appliances and retainers. Orthodontic removable appliance wearers have a higher risk of oral infections that are caused by the formation of bacterial and fungal biofilms on the appliance surface. Here, we present the synthetic route for an antibacterial and antifungal organically-modified silicate (ORMOSIL) that has multiple methacryloloxy functionalities attached to a siloxane backbone (quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate, or QAMS). By dissolving the water-insoluble, rubbery ORMOSIL in methyl methacrylate, QAMS may be copolymerized with polymethyl methacrylate, and covalently incorporated in the pressure-processed acrylic resin. The latter demonstrated a predominantly contact-killing effect on Streptococcus mutans ATCC 36558 and Actinomyces naselundii ATCC 12104 biofilms, while inhibiting adhesion of Candida albicans ATCC 90028 on the acrylic surface. Apart from its favorable antimicrobial activities, QAMS-containing acrylic resins exhibited decreased water wettability and improved toughness, without adversely affecting the flexural strength and modulus, water sorption and solubility, when compared with QAMS-free acrylic resin. The covalently bound, antimicrobial orthodontic acrylic resin with improved toughness represents advancement over other experimental antimicrobial acrylic resin formulations, in its potential to simultaneously prevent oral infections during appliance wear, and improve the fracture resistance of those appliances.

  14. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Iauk, L; Lo Bue, A M; Milazzo, I; Rapisarda, A; Blandino, G

    2003-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Althaea officinalis L. roots, Arnica montana L. flowers, Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hamamelis virginiana L. leaves, Illicium verum Hook. fruits and Melissa officinalis L. leaves, against anaerobic and facultative aerobic periodontal bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella corrodens, Peptostreptococcus micros and Actinomyces odontolyticus. The methanol extracts of H. virginiana and A. montana and, to a lesser extent, A. officinalis were shown to possess an inhibiting activity (MIC < or = 2048 mg/L) against many of the species tested. In comparison, M. officinalis and C. officinalis extracts had a lower inhibiting activity (MIC > or = 2048 mg/L) against all the tested species with the exception of Prevotella sp. Illicium verum methanol extract was not very active though it had a particular good activity against E. corrodens. The results suggest the use of the alcohol extracts of H. virginiana, A. montana and A. officinalis for topical medications in periodontal prophylactics.

  15. Black stain and dental caries: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Żyła, Tomasz; Kawala, Beata; Antoszewska-Smith, Joanna; Kawala, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Black stain is characterized as a dark line or an incomplete coalescence of dark dots localized on the cervical third of the tooth. Over the last century, the etiology of black stain has been the subject of much debate. Most of the studies concerning this issue were conducted in pediatric population. According to the reviewed articles published between 2001 and 2014, the prevalence of black stain varies from 2.4% to 18% with equal sex distribution. The majority of the authors confirm the correlation between the presence of black stain and lower caries experience. The microflora of this deposit is dominated by Actinomyces spp. and has lower cariogenic potential than nondiscolored dental plaque. Iron/copper and sulfur complexes are thought to be responsible for the dark color. In patients with black stain saliva has higher calcium concentrations and higher buffering capacity. Factors such as dietary habits, socioeconomic status, and iron supplementation may be contributing to the formation of black stain. PMID:25802850

  16. Analysis of the Microbiota of Black Stain in the Primary Dentition.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Fangfei; Liu, Ruoxi; Liu, He; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Black tooth stain is a characteristic extrinsic discoloration commonly seen on the cervical enamel following the contour of the gingiva. To investigate the relationship between black tooth stain and the oral microbiota, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to compare the microbial composition of dental plaque and saliva among caries-free children with and without black stain. Dental plaque and saliva, as well as black stain, were sampled from 10 children with and 15 children without black stain. Data were analyzed using the pipeline tool MOTHUR. Student's t-test was used to compare alpha diversities and the Mann-Whitney U test to compare the relative abundances of the microbial taxa. A total of 10 phyla, 19 classes, 32 orders, 61 families and 102 genera were detected in these samples. Shannon and Simpson diversity were found to be significantly lower in saliva samples of children with black stain. Microbial diversity was reduced in the black stain compared to the plaque samples. Actinomyces, Cardiobacterium, Haemophilus, Corynebacterium, Tannerella and Treponema were more abundant and Campylobacter less abundant in plaque samples of children with black stain. Principal component analysis demonstrated clustering among the dental plaque samples from the control group, while the plaque samples from the black stain group were not and appeared to cluster into two subgroups. Alterations in oral microbiota may be associated with the formation of black stain. PMID:26340752

  17. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of phosphoric acid solution compared to other root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    PRADO, Maíra; da SILVA, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; DUQUE, Thais Mageste; ZAIA, Alexandre Augusto; FERRAZ, Caio Cezar Randi; de ALMEIDA, José Flávio Affonso; GOMES, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoric acid has been suggested as an irrigant due to its effectiveness in removing the smear layer. Objectives : The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of a 37% phosphoric acid solution to other irrigants commonly used in endodontics. Material and Methods : The substances 37% phosphoric acid, 17% EDTA, 10% citric acid, 2% chlorhexidine (solution and gel), and 5.25% NaOCl were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was tested against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Actinomyces meyeri, Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella nigrescens according to the agar diffusion method. The cytotoxicity of the irrigants was determined by using the MTT assay. Results : Phosphoric acid presented higher antimicrobial activity compared to the other tested irrigants. With regard to the cell viability, this solution showed results similar to those with 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine (gel and solution), whereas 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid showed higher cell viability compared to other irrigants. Conclusion : Phosphoric acid demonstrated higher antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity similar to that of 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine (gel and solution). PMID:26018307

  18. The Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Propolis with Chlorhexidine against Oral Pathogens: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Akca, Gülçin; Topçu, Fulya Toksoy; Macit, Enis; Pikdöken, Levent; Özgen, I. Şerif

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on planktonic Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces israelii, Candida albicans, and their single-species biofilms by agar dilution and broth microdilution test methods. Both agents inhibited the growth of all planktonic species. On the other hand, CHX exhibited lower minimum bactericidal concentrations than EEP against biofilms of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. aureus, and E. faecalis whereas EEP yielded a better result against Lactobacilli and P. intermedia. The bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of both agents were found to be equal against biofilms of Streptecocci, P. gingivalis, A. israelii, and C. albicans. The results of this study revealed that propolis was more effective in inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria than the Gram-negative bacteria in their planktonic state and it was suggested that EEP could be as effective as CHX on oral microorganisms in their biofilm state. PMID:26949701

  19. [Thoracic actinomycosis: three cases].

    PubMed

    Herrak, L; Msougar, Y; Ouadnouni, Y; Bouchikh, M; Benosmane, A

    2007-09-01

    Actinomycosis is a rare condition which, in the thoracic localisation, can mimic cancer or tuberculosis. We report a series of three case of thoracic actinomycosis treated in the Ibn Sina University Thoracic Surgery Unit in Rabat, Morocco. CASE N degrees 1: This 45-year-old patient presented a tumefaction on the left anterior aspect of the chest. Physical examination identified a parietal mass with fistulisation to the skin. Radiography demonstrated a left pulmonary mass. Transparietal puncture led to the pathological diagnosis of actinomycosis. The patient was given medical treatment and improved clinically and radiographically. CASE N degrees 2: This 68-year-old patient presented repeated episodes of hemoptysis. The chest x-ray revealed atelectasia of the middle lobe and bronchial fibroscopy demonstrated the presence of a bud in the middle lobar bronchus. Biopsies were negative. The patient underwent surgery and the histology examination of the operative specimen revealed pulmonary actinomycosis. The patient recovered well clinically and radiographically with antibiotic therapy. CASE N degrees 3: This 56-year-old patient presented cough and hemoptysis. Physical examination revealed a left condensation and destruction of the left lung was noted on the chest x-ray. Left pleuropulmonectomy was performed. Histological analysis of the surgical specimen identified associated Aspergillus and Actinomyces. The outcome was favorable with medical treatment. The purpose of this work was to recall the radiological, clinical, histological, therapeutic, outcome aspects of this condition and to relate the problems of differential diagnosis when can suggest other diseases. PMID:17978739

  20. Effects of xylitol on xylitol-sensitive versus xylitol-resistant Streptococcus mutans strains in a three-species in vitro biofilm.

    PubMed

    Marttinen, Aino M; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Saari, Markku A; Ihalin, Riikka A; Söderling, Eva M

    2012-09-01

    We studied the effects of xylitol on biofilms containing xylitol-resistant (Xr) and xylitol-sensitive (Xs) Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii and S. sanguinis. The biofilms were grown for 8 and 24 h on hydroxyapatite discs. The viable microorganisms were determined by plate culturing techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed using a S. mutans-specific probe. Extracellular cell-bound polysaccharides (EPS) were determined by spectrofluorometry from single-species S. mutans biofilms. In the presence of 5 % xylitol, the counts of the Xs S. mutans decreased tenfold in the young (8 h) biofilm (p < 0.05) but no effect was seen in the mature (24 h) biofilm. No decrease was observed for the Xr strains, and FISH confirmed these results. No differences were detected in the EPS production of the Xs S. mutans grown with or without xylitol, nor between Xr and Xs S. mutans strains. Thus, it seems that xylitol did not affect the EPS synthesis of the S. mutans strains. Since the Xr S. mutans strains, not inhibited by xylitol, showed no xylitol-induced decrease in the biofilms, we conclude that growth inhibition could be responsible for the decrease of the counts of the Xs S. mutans strains in the clinically relevant young biofilms.

  1. Effect of water-aging on the antimicrobial activities of an ORMOSIL-containing orthodontic acrylic resin

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shi-qiang; Epasinghe, D. Jeevanie; Zhou, Bin; Niu, Li-na; Kimmerling, Kirk A.; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Yiu, Cynthia K.Y.; Mao, Jing; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2013-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (QAMS), an organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) functionalized with polymerizable methacrylate groups and an antimicrobial agent with a long lipophilic alkyl chain quaternary ammonium group, was synthesized through a silane-based sol–gel route. By dissolving QAMS in methyl methacrylate monomer, this ORMOSIL molecule was incorporated into an auto-polymerizing, powder/liquid orthodontic acrylic resin system, yielding QAMS-containing poly (methyl methacrylate). The QAMS-containing acrylic resin showed a predominant contact-killing effect on Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) and Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) biofilms, while inhibiting adhesion of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) on the acrylic surface. The antimicrobial activities of QAMS-containing acrylic resin were maintained after a 3 month water-aging period. Bromophenol blue assay showed minimal leaching of quaternary ammonium species when an appropriate amount of QAMS (<4 wt.%) was incorporated into the acrylic resin. The results suggest that QAMS is predominantly co-polymerized with the poly(methyl methacrylate) network, and only a minuscule amount of free QAMS molecules is present within the polymer network after water-aging. Acrylic resin with persistent antimicrobial activities represents a promising method for preventing bacteria- and fungus-induced stomatitis, an infectious disease commonly associated with the wearing of removable orthodontic appliances. PMID:23485857

  2. Dissection of the genus Actinobaculum: Reclassification of Actinobaculum schaalii Lawson et al. 1997 and Actinobaculum urinale Hall et al. 2003 as Actinotignum schaalii gen. nov., comb. nov. and Actinotignum urinale comb. nov., description of Actinotignum sanguinis sp. nov. and emended descriptions of the genus Actinobaculum and Actinobaculum suis; and re-examination of the culture deposited as Actinobaculum massiliense CCUG 47753T ( = DSM 19118T), revealing that it does not represent a strain of this species.

    PubMed

    Yassin, A F; Spröer, C; Pukall, R; Sylvester, M; Siering, C; Schumann, P

    2015-02-01

    The remarkable host specificity of the species of the genus Actinobaculum led us to recharacterize these species by a polyphasic approach. A comparative chemotaxonomic study including analysis of whole-cell sugars, amino acid composition of the peptidoglycan, fatty acid methyl esters, respiratory quinones and polar lipids revealed significant differences that, in combination with molecular data, support a dissection of the genus Actinobaculum. The proposals of this study include the reclassification of Actinobaculum schaalii and Actinobaculum urinale as Actinotignum schaalii gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain DSM 15541(T) = CCUG 27420(T)) and Actinotignum urinale comb. nov. (type strain DSM 15805(T) = CCUG 46093(T)), respectively. Emended descriptions of the genus Actinobaculum and Actinomyces suis are also provided. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization also indicated that the type strain of Actinobaculum massiliense deposited as CCUG 47753(T) ( = DSM 19118(T)) should in fact be considered a member of the species Actinobaculum schaalii. In addition, comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA relatedness studies of four strains recovered from clinical materials demonstrated that three of the isolates belonged to Actinotignum schaalii; the remaining strain represents a novel species, for which the name Actinotignum sanguinis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IMMIB L-2199(T) ( = DSM 26039(T) = CCUG 64068(T)).

  3. Dissemination of Periodontal Pathogens in the Bloodstream after Periodontal Procedures: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Chambrone, Leandro; Foz, Adriana Moura; Artese, Hilana Paula Carillo; Rabelo, Mariana de Sousa; Pannuti, Cláudio Mendes; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, there is no compilation of evidence-based information associating bacteremia and periodontal procedures. This systematic review aims to assess magnitude, duration, prevalence and nature of bacteremia caused by periodontal procedures. Study Design Systematic Review Types of Studies Reviewed MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases were searched in duplicate through August, 2013 without language restriction. Observational studies were included if blood samples were collected before, during or after periodontal procedures of patients with periodontitis. The methodological quality was assessed in duplicate using the modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). Results Search strategy identified 509 potentially eligible articles and nine were included. Only four studies demonstrated high methodological quality, whereas five were of medium or low methodological quality. The study characteristics were considered too heterogeneous to conduct a meta-analysis. Among 219 analyzed patients, 106 (49.4%) had positive bacteremia. More frequent bacteria were S. viridans, A. actinomycetemcomitans P. gingivalis, M. micros and species Streptococcus and Actinomyces, although identification methods of microbiologic assays were different among studies. Clinical Implications Although half of the patients presented positive bacteremia after periodontal procedures, accurate results regarding the magnitude, duration and nature of bacteremia could not be confidentially assessed. PMID:24870125

  4. Proteomic profiling of host-biofilm interactions in an oral infection model resembling the periodontal pocket

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Kai; Belibasakis, Georgios N.; Selevsek, Nathalie; Grossmann, Jonas; Bostanci, Nagihan

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal infections cause inflammatory destruction of the tooth supporting tissues. We recently developed a dynamic, in vitro periodontal organotypic tissue model in a perfusion bioreactor system, in co-culture with an 11-species subgingival biofilm, which may recapitulate early events during the establishment of periodontal infections. This study aimed to characterize the global proteome regulations in this host-biofilm interaction model. Semi-quantitative shotgun proteomics were applied for protein identification and quantification in the co-culture supernatants (human and bacterial) and the biofilm lysates (bacterial). A total of 896 and 3363 proteins were identified as secreted in the supernatant and expressed in the biofilm lysate, respectively. Enriched gene ontology analysis revealed that the regulated secreted human tissue proteins were related to processes of cytoskeletal rearrangement, stress responses, apoptosis, and antigen presentation, all of which are commensurate with deregulated host responses. Most secreted bacterial biofilm proteins derived from their cytoplasmic domain. In the presence of the tissue, the levels of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinomyces oris and Campylobacter rectus proteins were significantly regulated. The functions of the up-regulated intracellular (biofilm lysate) proteins were associated with cytokinesis. In conclusion, the proteomic overview of regulated pathways in this host-biofilm interaction model provides insights to the early events of periodontal pathogenesis. PMID:26525412

  5. Actinomycotic Osteomyelitis of Maxilla Presenting as Oroantral Fistula: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gannepalli, Ashalata; Ayinampudi, Bhargavi Krishna; Baghirath, Pacha Venkat; Reddy, G. Venkateshwara

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Actinomyces species which may involve only soft tissue or bone or the two together. Actinomycotic osteomyelitis of maxilla is relatively rare when compared to mandible. These are normal commensals and become pathogens when they gain entry into tissue layers and bone where they establish and maintain an anaerobic environment with extensive sclerosis and fibrosis. This infection spreads contiguously, frequently ignoring tissue planes and surrounding tissues or organ. The portal of entry may be pulpal, periodontal infection, and so forth which may lead to involvement of adjacent structures as pharynx, larynx, tonsils, and paranasal sinuses and has the propensity to damage extensively. Diagnosis is often delayed and is usually based on histopathology as they are cultured in fewer cases. The chronic clinical course without regional lymphadenopathy may be essential in diagnosis. The management of actinomycotic osteomyelitis is surgical debridement of necrotic tissue combined with antibiotics for 3–6 months. The primary actinomycosis arising within the maxilla with contiguous involvement of paranasal sinus with formation of oroantral fistula is rare. Hence, we present a 50-year-old female patient with chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis of maxilla which presented as oroantral fistula with suppurative and sclerotic features. PMID:26451261

  6. Osseointegrated implants placed at supracrestal level may harbour higher counts of A. gerencseriae and S. constellatus – a randomized, controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes Rego, Mariana Ribeiro; Torres, Marcelo Ferreira; Santiago, Luiz Carlos; Lira-Junior, Ronaldo; Lourenço, Eduardo José Veras; de Moraes Telles, Daniel; Figueredo, Carlos Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed at evaluating the bacterial colonization in dental implants inserted in the crestal or supracrestal position and correlated it to radiographic bone measurements. Methods Thirty-five implants with regular platform in nine patients (mean age 62.4±11.2 years) were inserted either at the bone crest level (control group) or at a suprecrestal level (test group). Radiographic examination was performed at baseline (implant installation) and after 6 months. Clinical and microbiological data were collected after 6 months. Digital radiography was used to assess bone remodeling (marginal bone loss and optical alveolar density). Bacterial profile was analyzed by checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization, including a panel of 40 bacterial species. Results After 6 months, there were significantly higher counts of Actinomyces gerencseriae (p=0.009) and Streptococcus constellatus (p=0.05) in the test group. No significant differences between test and control groups were observed for marginal bone loss (p=0.725) and optical alveolar density (p=0.975). Probing depth was similar in both groups. Conclusion Significantly higher counts of A. gerencseriae and S. constellatus were found in implants placed at the supracrestal level compared to the ones placed at the bone level. No relation was found between the installation level of dental implants and peri-implant bone remodeling. PMID:26499108

  7. [Pelvic actinomycosis simulating adnexal malignant tumor].

    PubMed

    Benkiran, L; Gamra, L; Lamalmi, N; Essouyeh, M; Regragui, A; Amrani, M; Souadka, A; Melabbas, M A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the case of a 35-year-old patient admitted to the National Oncology Institute in Rabat, Morocco for pelvic pain and deteriorating general status ongoing for 8 months. Clinical and ultrasonographic examination showed a heterogenous mass measuring 7 cm in maximum width located inferior and lateral to the inferior aspect of the right side of the uterus. These findings were suggestive of a malignant tumor of the right ovary. Ovariectomy and omentectomy were performed. Histological examination of surgical specimens demonstrated right tubo-ovarian actinomycosis associated with peritonitis. Genital tract actinomycosis is an uncommon finding in women of childbearing age. It is due to colonization by a pyogenic bacteria (Actinomyces) usually secondary to a gastrointestinal infection, e.g. ileocecum, and sometimes in association with the presence of an intrauterine device or foreign body. Based on this case report, the authors discuss abdominopelvic actinomyocosis with emphasis on tumor-like findings that can lead to misdiagnosis by clinicians and radiologists. PMID:12038184

  8. An ORMOSIL-Containing Orthodontic Acrylic Resin with Concomitant Improvements in Antimicrobial and Fracture Toughness Properties

    PubMed Central

    Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Niu, Li-na; Mettenberg, Donald; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; Blizzard, John D.; Wu, Christine D.; Mao, Jing; Drisko, Connie L.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2012-01-01

    Global increase in patients seeking orthodontic treatment creates a demand for the use of acrylic resins in removable appliances and retainers. Orthodontic removable appliance wearers have a higher risk of oral infections that are caused by the formation of bacterial and fungal biofilms on the appliance surface. Here, we present the synthetic route for an antibacterial and antifungal organically-modified silicate (ORMOSIL) that has multiple methacryloloxy functionalities attached to a siloxane backbone (quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate, or QAMS). By dissolving the water-insoluble, rubbery ORMOSIL in methyl methacrylate, QAMS may be copolymerized with polymethyl methacrylate, and covalently incorporated in the pressure-processed acrylic resin. The latter demonstrated a predominantly contact-killing effect on Streptococcus mutans ATCC 36558 and Actinomyces naselundii ATCC 12104 biofilms, while inhibiting adhesion of Candida albicans ATCC 90028 on the acrylic surface. Apart from its favorable antimicrobial activities, QAMS-containing acrylic resins exhibited decreased water wettability and improved toughness, without adversely affecting the flexural strength and modulus, water sorption and solubility, when compared with QAMS-free acrylic resin. The covalently bound, antimicrobial orthodontic acrylic resin with improved toughness represents advancement over other experimental antimicrobial acrylic resin formulations, in its potential to simultaneously prevent oral infections during appliance wear, and improve the fracture resistance of those appliances. PMID:22870322

  9. Environmental and centrifugal factors influencing the visco-elastic properties of oral biofilms in vitro.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Brandon W; Busscher, Henk J; Sharma, Prashant K; van der Mei, Henny C

    2012-01-01

    Centrifugal compaction causes changes in the surface properties of bacterial cells. It has been shown previously that the surface properties of planktonic cells change with increasing centrifugal compaction. This study aimed to analyze the influences of centrifugal compaction and environmental conditions on the visco-elastic properties of oral biofilms. Biofilms were grown out of a layer of initially adhering streptococci, actinomyces or a combination of these. Different uni-axial deformations were induced on the biofilms and the load relaxations were measured over time. Linear-Regression-Analysis demonstrated that both the centrifugation coefficient for streptococci and induced deformation influenced the percentage relaxation. Centrifugal compaction significantly influenced relaxation only upon compression of the outermost 20% of the biofilm (p < 0.05), whereas biofilm composition became influential when 50% deformation was induced, invoking re-arrangement of the bacteria in deeper biofilm structures. In summary, the effects of centrifugal compaction of initially adhering, centrifuged bacteria extend to the visco-elastic properties of biofilms, indicating that the initial bacterial layer influences the structure of the entire biofilm.

  10. Systemic antimicrobial treatment and guided tissue regeneration. Clinical and microbiological effects in furcation defects.

    PubMed

    Mombelli, A; Zappa, U; Brägger, U; Lang, N P

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the microbiota associated with furcation-involved teeth before and after treatment by the guided tissue regeneration procedure (GTR) with non-resorbable ePTFE membranes, and to evaluate the benefit of additional systemic antimicrobial therapy (ornidazole). Each of 10 patients contributed 1 pair of bilateral mandibular molars with comparable furcation defects. 5 defects were treated with a membrane and the active drug, 5 were treated without a membrane but with the active drug, 5 were treated with a membrane and a placebo, and 5 were treated with neither a membrane nor the active drug. Considerable differences were found in the healing response of furcation defects treated with or without the antimicrobial agent. More horizontal attachment gain and increase in bone density was obtained in patients receiving the active drug than in patients receiving the placebo. With 1 exception, all sites with increasing horizontal probing depth were found in patients of the placebo group. Treatment with membrane plus ornidazole resulted in 0.7 mm mean recession and -1.2 mm mean decrease in horizontal probing depth. Sites treated with membranes generally tended to be positive for 15 target micro-organisms more often than sites treated without a membrane. This was particularly evident for Fusobacterium, Prevotella intermedia and Actinomyces odontolyticus. Whereas GTR-treated sites were often already positive upon removal of the membrane, re-emergence of target organisms seemed to be more delayed in the conventionally-treated sites.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of some Pacific Northwest woods against anaerobic bacteria and yeast.

    PubMed

    Johnston, W H; Karchesy, J J; Constantine, G H; Craig, A M

    2001-11-01

    Extracts of woods commonly used for animal bedding were tested for antimicrobial activity. Essential oils from Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) and old growth Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) as well as methanol extracts of wood from these trees plus western red cedar (Thuja plicata) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) were tested for antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria and yeast. The test microbes included Fusobacterium necrophorum, Clostridium perfringens, Actinomyces bovis and Candida albicans which are common to foot diseases and other infections in animals. The essential oils and methanol extracts were tested using a standardized broth assay. Only extracts of Alaska cedar and western juniper showed significant antimicrobial activity against each of the microbes tested. The essential oil of Douglas fir did show antimicrobial activity against A. bovis at the concentrations tested. The methanol extracts of the heartwood of Douglas fir and the sapwood of ponderosa pine showed no antimicrobial activity. The major chemical components of western juniper (cedrol and alpha- and beta-cedrene) and Alaska cedar (nootkatin) were also tested. In western juniper, alpha- and beta-cedrene were found to be active components. Nootkatin showed activity only against C. albicans. The inhibitory activity in Alaska cedar oil was high enough to justify further efforts to define the other chemical components responsible for the antimicrobial activity. PMID:11746838

  12. A Little Vacation on Mars: Mars Simulation Microbial Challenge Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, P.; Todd, P.; Van De Camp, J.; Northup, D.; Spilde, M.

    2008-06-01

    Communities of microbial organisms isolated from a variety of extreme environments were subjected to 1 to 5 weeks of simulated Martian environmental conditions using the Mars Environment Simulation Chamber at the Techshot, Inc. facility in Greenville, Indiana. The goal of the overall experiment program was to assess survival of test Earth organisms under Mars full spectrum sunlight, low-latitude daily temperature profile and various Mars-atmosphere pressures (~50 mbar to 500 mbar, 100% CO2) and low moisture content. Organisms surviving after 5 weeks at 100 mbar included those from gypsum surface fracture communities in a Permian aged evaporite basin, desert varnish on andesite lavas around a manganese mine, and iron and manganese oxidizing organisms isolated from two caves in Mew Mexico. Phylogenetic DNA analysis revealed strains of cyanobacteria, bacterial genera (present in all surviving communities) Asticacaulis, Achromobacter, Comamonas, Pantoea, Verrucomicrobium, Bacillus, Gemmatimonas, Actinomyces, and others. At least one microcolonial fungal strain from a desert varnish community and at least one strain from Utah survived simulations. Strains related to the unusual cave bacterial group Bacteroidetes are present in survivor communities that resist isolation into pure culture implying that their consortial relationships may be critical to their survival.

  13. The oral microbiome in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Struzycka, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common chronic and multifactorial diseases affecting the human population. The appearance of a caries lesion is determined by the coexistence of three main factors: acidogenic and acidophilic microorganisms, carbohydrates derived from the diet, and host factors. Socio-economic and behavioral factors also play an important role in the etiology of the disease. Caries develops as a result of an ecological imbalance in the stable oral microbiom. Oral microorganisms form dental plaque on the surfaces of teeth, which is the cause of the caries process, and shows features of the classic biofilm. Biofilm formation appears to be influenced by large scale changes in protein expression over time and under genetic control Cariogenic microorganisms produce lactic, formic, acetic and propionic acids, which are a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Their presence causes a decrease in pH level below 5.5, resulting in demineralization of enamel hydroxyapatite crystals and proteolytic breakdown of the structure of tooth hard tissues. Streptococcus mutans, other streptococci of the so-called non-mutans streptococci group, Actinomyces and Lactobacillus play a key role in this process. Dental biofilm is a dynamic, constantly active metabolically structure. The alternating processes of decrease and increase of biofilm pH occur, which are followed by the respective processes of de- and remineralisation of the tooth surface. In healthy conditions, these processes are in balance and no permanent damage to the tooth enamel surface occurs.

  14. Molecular detection of bacteria associated to dental caries in 4-12-year-old Tunisian children.

    PubMed

    Kouidhi, Bochra; Fdhila, Kais; Ben Slama, Rihab; Mahdouani, Kacem; Hentati, Hajer; Najjari, Fayrouz; Bakhrouf, Amina; Chaieb, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of several microbial species in the oral cavity of 4-12-year-old Tunisian children was investigated. Samples were taken from 158 children (81 caries actives and 77 caries free). Genomic DNA was extracted and analyzed for the presence of 17 microbial species using a polymerase chain reaction assay. All samples were positive for at least one of the target microbial strains. Streptococcus mutans was the most prevalent species (76.5%) detected in genomic DNA collected from carious lesions. Other prevalent species were Candida spp (63%), Streptococcus salivarius (59%) and Streptococcus oralis (42%). The frequency of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei-group in caries lesions was 29.5%, 34.5% and 22% respectively. Pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus was found in 28.5% of carious lesion samples compared to 15.5% in the control. Frequency of Porphyromonas endodontali, Actinomyces radicidentis and Treponema denticola recovery did not differ significantly between origins of samples. PCR analysis of genomic DNA detect various oral bacteria that differ between caries actives and caries-free children. In addition, the association of same aciduric bacteria (S. mutans, S. salivarius, L. acidophilus) and caries formation was noticed.

  15. Composition, Diversity, and Origin of the Bacterial Community in Grass Carp Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang; Angert, Esther R.; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Gut microbiota has become an integral component of the host, and received increasing attention. However, for many domestic animals, information on the microbiota is insufficient and more effort should be exerted to manage the gastrointestinal bacterial community. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of microbial community in the host alimentary canal is essential to manage or improve the microbial community composition. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of the bacterial communities in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) intestinal contents and fish culture-associated environments are performed. The results show that the fish intestinal microbiota harbors many cellulose-decomposing bacteria, including sequences related to Anoxybacillus, Leuconostoc, Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Citrobacter. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the grass carp intestinal content are those related to feed digestion. In addition, the potential pathogens and probiotics are important members of the intestinal microbiota. Further analyses show that grass carp intestine holds a core microbiota composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The comparison analyses reveal that the bacterial community in the intestinal contents is most similar to those from the culture water and sediment. However, feed also plays significant influence on the composition of gut microbiota. PMID:22363439

  16. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure of Supragingival Plaques in Adults with Dental Health or Caries Revealed by 16S Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Cuicui; Ran, Shujun; Huang, Zhengwei; Liang, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries has a polymicrobial etiology within the complex oral microbial ecosystem. However, the overall diversity and structure of supragingival plaque microbiota in adult dental health and caries are not well understood. Here, 160 supragingival plaque samples from patients with dental health and different severities of dental caries were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction, pyrosequencing by amplification of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 hypervariable regions, and bioinformatic analysis. High-quality sequences (2,261,700) clustered into 10,365 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% identity), representing 453 independent species belonging to 122 genera, 66 families, 34 orders, 21 classes, and 12 phyla. All groups shared 7522 OTUs, indicating the presence of a core plaque microbiome. α diversity analysis showed that the microbial diversity in healthy plaques exceeded that of dental caries, with the diversity decreasing gradually with the severity of caries. The dominant phyla of plaque microbiota included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and TM7. The dominant genera included Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Leptotrichia. β diversity analysis showed that the plaque microbial community structure was similar in all groups. Using LEfSe analysis, 25 differentially abundant taxa were identified as potential biomarkers. Key genera (27) that potentially contributed to the differential distributions of plaque microbiota between groups were identified by PLS-DA analysis. Finally, co-occurrence network analysis and function predictions were performed. Treatment strategies directed toward modulating microbial interactions and their functional output should be further developed. PMID:27499752

  17. [Effects of different organic fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-Wei; Xu, Zhi; Tang, Li; Li, Yan-Hong; Song, Jian-Qun; Xu, Jian-Qin

    2013-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying different organic fertilizers (refined organic fertilizer and bio-organic fertilizer) and their combination with 20% reduced chemical fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco, the resistance of the tobacco against bacterial wilt, and the tobacco yield and quality. As compared with conventional chemical fertilization (CK), applying refined organic fertilizer (ROF) or bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization increased the bacterial number and the total microbial number in the rhizospheric soil significantly. Applying BIO in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization also increased the actinomyces number in the rhizospheric soil significantly, with an increment of 44.3% as compared with that under the application of ROF in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization, but decreased the fungal number. As compared with CK, the ROF and BIO increased the carbon use capacity of rhizospheric microbes significantly, and the BIO also increased the capacity of rhizospheric microbes in using phenols significantly. Under the application of ROF and BIO, the disease incidence and the disease index of bacterial wilt were decreased by 4% and 8%, and 23% and 15.9%, and the proportions of high grade tobacco leaves increased significantly by 10.5% and 9.7%, respectively, as compared with those in CK. BIO increased the tobacco yield and its output value by 17.1% and 18.9% , respectively, as compared with ROF.

  18. Canaliculitis Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Balıkoğlu Yılmaz, Melike; Şen, Emine; Evren, Ebru; Elgin, Ufuk; Yılmazbaş, Pelin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the demographic characteristics, treatment, and results of patients with canaliculitis. Materials and Methods: Medical records including the demographic characteristics, clinical findings, and treatment outcomes of patients diagnosed and treated for canaliculitis between September 2009 and March 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The median age of the 7 canaliculitis patients consisting of 4 women and 3 men was 49 (range 8-58) years. All patients had unilateral canaliculitis (on the right side in 2 and left side in 5 patients) and the inferior canaliculus was involved more frequently (71.4%). Epiphora, chronic conjunctivitis, a palpable and thickened canaliculus, and yellow discharge from the punctum were present in all cases. Actinomyces spp. was the most frequently cultured microorganism (75%). Dacryolith was observed in 6 patients. Canaliculotomy and dacryolith removal with canalicular curettage were performed, followed by medical treatment (topical penicillin 100,000 U/ml and oral ampicillin/sulbactam) for 10 days. Patients were followed up for a mean duration of 17.0±15.2 (range 3-46) months. Signs and symptoms resolved completely within a month. Epiphora recurred in the 36th month in a single patient and was treated with daily canalicular irrigation with antibiotics and there were no further symptoms during 10 months of follow-up after the recurrence. Conclusion: Canaliculitis is often overlooked and can be misdiagnosed. Every patient with chronic conjunctivitis and lacrimal infection should be examined carefully for canaliculitis. PMID:27800254

  19. A microbiological and clinical study of the safety and efficacy of baking-soda dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Zambon, J J; Mather, M L; Gonzales, Y

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study that examined the clinical and microbiological changes associated with regular use of baking-soda dentifrices. Two dentifrice formulations were examined in a 6-month longitudinal study of 101 adult subjects with assessments for plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at baseline and 3 and 6 months during the active phase of the study, and at 3 months after cessation of product use. One dentifrice contained 52% baking soda and 3% sodium percarbonate (Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare) while the other dentifrice contained 65% baking soda (Arm & Hammer Dental Care). Both dentifrices resulted in statistically significant reductions in dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at all time periods compared to baseline. Dental plaque and buccal soft-tissue samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a 50-subject subset. Microbiological assays, including bacterial culture, phase-contrast microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy, confirmed the safety of both formulations. Beneficial alterations in dental plaque bacteria were noted, including significant reductions in the levels of Actinomyces species. The data from this study indicate that dentifrices containing high levels of baking soda are clinically effective and microbiologically safe.

  20. A microbiological and clinical study of the safety and efficacy of baking-soda dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Zambon, J J; Mather, M L; Gonzales, Y

    1996-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study that examined the clinical and microbiological changes associated with regular use of baking-soda dentifrices. Two dentifrice formulations were examined in a 6-month longitudinal study of 101 adult subjects with assessments for plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at baseline and 3 and 6 months during the active phase of the study, and at 3 months after cessation of product use. One dentifrice contained 52% baking soda and 3% sodium percarbonate (Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare) while the other dentifrice contained 65% baking soda (Arm & Hammer Dental Care). Both dentifrices resulted in statistically significant reductions in dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and stain at all time periods compared to baseline. Dental plaque and buccal soft-tissue samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a 50-subject subset. Microbiological assays, including bacterial culture, phase-contrast microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy, confirmed the safety of both formulations. Beneficial alterations in dental plaque bacteria were noted, including significant reductions in the levels of Actinomyces species. The data from this study indicate that dentifrices containing high levels of baking soda are clinically effective and microbiologically safe.

  1. [Salivary microbial flora of mentally retarded persons with rumination].

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, H

    1989-06-01

    The salivary microflora of institutionalized mentally retarded persons with chronic rumination was investigated, especially emphasizing the occurrence of the aciduric microorganisms such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and yeasts. 10 of those subjects together with 10 control subjects resident in the same institution were selected at random. The control subjects were mentally retarded but without rumination. Samples of saliva were collected about 2 hours after lunch. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Dental caries was more prevalent and advanced in those ruminating than the control subjects. 2. The mean salivary pH-value in the ruminating subjects was significantly lower than the control subjects. 3. The proportional distribution of the genera or species of salivary microorganisms cultivated on the blood agar plates was similar for both the ruminating and non-ruminating subjects. The only difference was observed in the genus of Actinomyces, which was less frequently isolated from the ruminating subjects. 4. Mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and yeasts recovered from their respective selective media were significantly predominant in those ruminating compared with control subjects. 5. Positive correlations among the cell count of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and yeasts were found in the ruminating subjects. The yeasts isolated were classified exclusively into Candida albicans. 6. The results described above suggest that long-lasting acidic milieu in the oral cavities of the ruminating subjects favors the proliferation of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and yeasts, resulting in the prevalence of dental caries in those subjects.

  2. AP-57/C10orf99 is a new type of multifunctional antimicrobial peptide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meijia; Tang, Mei; Ma, Xianjun; Yang, Lijia; He, Jiangpeng; Peng, Xirui; Guo, Gang; Zhou, Liangxue; Luo, Na; Yuan, Zhu; Tong, Aiping

    2015-02-13

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response that provides host defence at skin and mucosal surfaces. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a new type human AMPs, termed AP-57 (Antimicrobial Peptide with 57 amino acid residues), which is also known as C10orf99 (chromosome 10 open reading frame 99). AP-57 is a short basic amphiphilic peptide with four cysteines and a net charge +14 (MW = 6.52, PI = 11.28). The highest expression of AP-57 were detected in the mucosa of stomach and colon through immunohistochemical assay. Epithelium of skin and esophagus show obvious positive staining and strong positive staining were also observed in some tumor and/or their adjacent tissues, such as esophagus cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and invasive ductal carcinoma. AP-57 exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Actinomyce, and Fungi Aspergillus niger as well as mycoplasma and lentivirus. AP-57 also exhibited DNA binding capacity and specific cytotoxic effects against human B-cell lymphoma Raji. Compared with other human AMPs, AP-57 has its distinct characteristics, including longer sequence length, four cysteines, highly cationic character, cell-specific toxicity, DNA binding and tissue-specific expressing patterns. Together, AP-57 is a new type of multifunctional AMPs worthy further investigation.

  3. Milk and oral health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health.

  4. Bifidobacteria inhibit the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis but not of Streptococcus mutans in an in vitro biofilm model.

    PubMed

    Jäsberg, Heli; Söderling, Eva; Endo, Akihito; Beighton, David; Haukioja, Anna

    2016-06-01

    There is growing interest in the use of probiotic bifidobacteria for enhancement of the therapy, and in the prevention, of oral microbial diseases. However, the results of clinical studies assessing the effects of bifidobacteria on the oral microbiota are controversial, and the mechanisms of actions of probiotics in the oral cavity remain largely unknown. In addition, very little is known about the role of commensal bifidobacteria in oral health. Our aim was to study the integration of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 and of oral Bifidobacterium dentium and Bifidobacterium longum isolates in supragingival and subgingival biofilm models and their effects on other bacteria in biofilms in vitro using two different in vitro biofilms and agar-overlay assays. All bifidobacteria integrated well into the subgingival biofilms composed of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Fusobacterium nucleatum and decreased significantly only the number of P. gingivalis in the biofilms. The integration of bifidobacteria into the supragingival biofilms containing Streptococcus mutans and A. naeslundii was less efficient, and bifidobacteria did not affect the number of S. mutans in biofilms. Therefore, our results suggest that bifidobacteria may have a positive effect on subgingival biofilm and thereby potential in enhancing gingival health; however, their effect on supragingival biofilm may be limited. PMID:27061393

  5. Disulfide-Bond-Forming Pathways in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are important for the stability and function of many secreted proteins. In Gram-negative bacteria, these linkages are catalyzed by thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases (Dsb) in the periplasm. Protein oxidation has been well studied in these organisms, but it has not fully been explored in Gram-positive bacteria, which lack traditional periplasmic compartments. Recent bioinformatics analyses have suggested that the high-GC-content bacteria (i.e., actinobacteria) rely on disulfide-bond-forming pathways. In support of this, Dsb-like proteins have been identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but their functions are not known. Actinomyces oris and Corynebacterium diphtheriae have recently emerged as models to study disulfide bond formation in actinobacteria. In both organisms, disulfide bonds are catalyzed by the membrane-bound oxidoreductase MdbA. Remarkably, unlike known Dsb proteins, MdbA is important for pathogenesis and growth, which makes it a potential target for new antibacterial drugs. This review will discuss disulfide-bond-forming pathways in bacteria, with a special focus on Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:26644434

  6. Fine needle aspiration cytology of oral and pharyngeal lesions. A study of 45 cases.

    PubMed

    Das, D K; Gulati, A; Bhatt, N C; Mandal, A K; Khan, V A; Bhambhani, S

    1993-01-01

    Forty-five patients with oral or pharyngeal swellings were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the mucosal surface over eight years. The age of the patients ranged from 2 to 85 years. The male:female ratio was 25:20. The common sites of involvement were palate (16 cases), cheek (9), pharynx (7) and tonsillar/peritonsillar area (6). Tongue, maxilla, alveolus and lips were less frequently involved. FNAC played an important role in differentiating inflammatory from neoplastic lesions and also benign from malignant neoplasms. Fifteen cases were cytologically diagnosed as benign neoplasms and included pleomorphic adenoma (11 cases), schwannoma (2), odontogenic tumor (1) and benign neoplasm not otherwise specified (1). Sixteen cases were diagnosed as malignancies. There were seven cases of malignant salivary gland tumors and 6 of squamous cell carcinoma. Two cases were high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and one was malignant odontogenic tumor. Of the 11 inflammatory or reactive lesions, 4 were found to be harboring Actinomyces. The rate of inadequate sampling was 6.7%. Histopathology reports on excised tissue were available for 10 cases only. Seven of nine cases with adequate cytology (77.88%) showed complete agreement with histology.

  7. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Dawn T; HamediRad, Mohammad; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids with ethanol. The titer of microbially produced FAEEs can be greatly reduced by unbalanced metabolism and an insufficient supply of fatty acids, resulting in a commercially inviable process. Here, we report on a pathway engineering strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhancing the titer of microbially produced FAEEs by providing the cells with an orthogonal route for fatty acid synthesis. The fatty acids generated from this heterologous pathway would supply the FAEE production, safeguarding endogenous fatty acids for cellular metabolism and growth. We investigated the heterologous expression of a Type-I fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes coupled with WS/DGAT, the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme that catalyzes the transesterification reaction with ethanol. Strains harboring the orthologous fatty acid synthesis yielded a 6.3-fold increase in FAEE titer compared to strains without the heterologous FAS. Variations in fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can affect the quality of the biodiesel; therefore, we also investigated the diversity of the fatty acid production profile of FAS enzymes from other Actinomyces organisms. PMID:25594225

  8. The impact on the soil microbial community and enzyme activity of two earthworm species during the bioremediation of pentachlorophenol-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhong; Zhen, Zhen; Wu, Zhihao; Yang, Jiewen; Zhong, Laiyuan; Hu, Hanqiao; Luo, Chunling; Bai, Jing; Li, Yongtao; Zhang, Dayi

    2016-01-15

    The ecological effect of earthworms on the fate of soil pentachlorophenol (PCP) differs with species. This study addressed the roles and mechanisms by which two earthworm species (epigeic Eisenia fetida and endogeic Amynthas robustus E. Perrier) affect the soil microbial community and enzyme activity during the bioremediation of PCP-contaminated soils. A. robustus removed more soil PCP than did E. foetida. A. robustus improved nitrogen utilisation efficiency and soil oxidation more than did E. foetida, whereas the latter promoted the organic matter cycle in the soil. Both earthworm species significantly increased the amount of cultivable bacteria and actinomyces in soils, enhancing the utilisation rate of the carbon source (i.e. carbohydrates, carboxyl acids, and amino acids) and improving the richness and evenness of the soil microbial community. Additionally, earthworm treatment optimized the soil microbial community and increased the amount of the PCP-4-monooxygenase gene. Phylogenic classification revealed stimulation of indigenous PCP bacterial degraders, as assigned to the families Flavobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae and Sphingobacteriacea, by both earthworms. A. robustus and E. foetida specifically promoted Comamonadaceae and Moraxellaceae PCP degraders, respectively. PMID:26342149

  9. Similarity of the oral microbiota of pre-school children with that of their caregivers in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Tanner, A C R; Milgrom, P M; Kent, R; Mokeem, S A; Page, R C; Liao, S I A; Riedy, C A; Bruss, J B

    2002-12-01

    This study evaluated the similarity between the oral microbiota of young children and that of their adult caregivers. Oral samples from children (174 dentate and 18 pre-dentate) aged 6-36 months and their caregivers in Saipan were assayed using a DNA probe assay. Many species including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Actinomyces species, Campylobacter rectus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis were detected in dentate and pre-dentate children, whereas Bacteroides forsythus was detected only in dentate children. A higher percentage of children were positive for the detection of an individual species if the caregiver was also positive. There were significant relative risks of species detection between dentate children and their caregivers. By logistic regression, there were significant positive associations between species detection in caregiver and in child, but not between species detection and child age or maternal education level. In conclusion, dental pathogens were detected in young, including pre-dentate, children. The microbial profiles of children were strongly associated with the microbiota of their caregivers.

  10. Application of fluorescent microscopy and cascade filtration methods for analysis of soil microbial community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Konstantin; Pinchuk, Irina; Gorodnichev, Roman; Polyanskaya, Lubov

    2016-04-01

    by the availability of nutrients (glucose) and the degree of agricultural anthropogenic stress. Various combinations of factors such as stressful conditions (anaerobiosis, acidity and temperature) influenced on bacterial size. The decrease of these stress factors resulted in return to the original bacterial cell size in soil. Furthermore the modification of gram-negative bacteria quantification was performed and combined with FISH method and DNA extraction. We established the methodological comparison of gram-negative bacteria groups in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Due to absence of significant difference between the most frequent soil gram-negative bacteria groups we concluded the important ecological role of gram-negative bacteria as common group of microorganisms in natural polymer degradation. Depending on nutrient (glucose, cellulose, chitin) gram-negative bacteria competed with actinomyces for available nutrients at the different time, what explained by the ecological flexibility of this soil bacteria group. The experiments showed expressed faster chitinolytic activity of soil gram-negative bacteria compare to actinomyces. Thus our approaches to use the combination both traditional and cutting-edge methods, forms the unique basement for various research and mostly open the wide doors to design new scientific experiments in ecology of terrestrial ecosystems and especially in soil microbial ecology.

  11. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure of Supragingival Plaques in Adults with Dental Health or Caries Revealed by 16S Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Cuicui; Ran, Shujun; Huang, Zhengwei; Liang, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries has a polymicrobial etiology within the complex oral microbial ecosystem. However, the overall diversity and structure of supragingival plaque microbiota in adult dental health and caries are not well understood. Here, 160 supragingival plaque samples from patients with dental health and different severities of dental caries were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction, pyrosequencing by amplification of the 16S rDNA V1–V3 hypervariable regions, and bioinformatic analysis. High-quality sequences (2,261,700) clustered into 10,365 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% identity), representing 453 independent species belonging to 122 genera, 66 families, 34 orders, 21 classes, and 12 phyla. All groups shared 7522 OTUs, indicating the presence of a core plaque microbiome. α diversity analysis showed that the microbial diversity in healthy plaques exceeded that of dental caries, with the diversity decreasing gradually with the severity of caries. The dominant phyla of plaque microbiota included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and TM7. The dominant genera included Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Leptotrichia. β diversity analysis showed that the plaque microbial community structure was similar in all groups. Using LEfSe analysis, 25 differentially abundant taxa were identified as potential biomarkers. Key genera (27) that potentially contributed to the differential distributions of plaque microbiota between groups were identified by PLS-DA analysis. Finally, co-occurrence network analysis and function predictions were performed. Treatment strategies directed toward modulating microbial interactions and their functional output should be further developed. PMID:27499752

  12. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    PubMed

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  13. Factors affecting supragingival biofilm composition. I. Plaque mass

    PubMed Central

    Haffajee, A. D.; Teles, R.P.; Patel, M.R.; Song, X.; Veiga, N.; Socransky, S. S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between total DNA probe counts of supragingival biofilm samples, clinical parameters and supragingival biofilm composition. Methods Supragingival plaque samples were taken from 187 systemically healthy adult subjects at baseline (N samples = 4,745). All samples were individually analyzed for their content of 40 bacterial species using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. The relationship between total DNA probe counts and microbial composition was examined by sub-setting the data into 10 groups based on 10 percentile increments of the total DNA probe counts. Differences among groups in terms of species counts and proportions were sought as well as relationships of total plaque DNA probe count and clinical parameters. Results There was a wide distribution in mean total DNA probe counts among the 187 subjects. With increasing total plaque levels there was a change in the proportions of individual species and microbial complexes. “Small plaques” were characterized by high proportions of species in the yellow, orange, purple and “other” complexes; plaques of moderate mass were characterized by high proportions of Actinomyces and purple complex species, while “large plaques” exhibited increased proportions of green and orange complex species. Measures of gingival inflammation, pocket depth and recession were significantly positively associated with total DNA probe counts. Increased plaque numbers were related to increased pocket depth irrespective of presence or absence of gingival inflammation. Conclusion The proportions of individual species and microbial complexes in supragingival biofilms are influenced by the total numbers of organisms in the biofilm. PMID:18973540

  14. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses

    PubMed Central

    George, Noelle; Flamiatos, Erin; Kawasaki, Kellie; Kim, Namgu; Carriere, Charles; Phan, Brian; Joseph, Raphael; Strauss, Shay; Kohli, Richie; Choi, Dongseok; Craig Baumgartner, J.; Sedgley, Christine; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18) exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other regions. Design Endodontic abscesses were sampled from patients at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) School of Dentistry. DNA from abscess specimens was subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using 16S rRNA gene-specific primers and Cy3-dCTP labeling. Labeled DNA was then applied to microbial microarrays (280 species) generated by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray Laboratory (Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA). Results The most prevalent microorganisms, found across multiple abscess specimens, include Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Atopobium rimae, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. The most abundant microorganisms, found in highest numbers within individual abscesses, include F. nucleatum, P. micra, Streptococcus Cluster III, Solobacterium moorei, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Strong bacterial associations were identified between Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Acidaminococcaceae species clone DM071, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Actinomyces species clone EP053, and Streptococcus cristatus (all with Spearman coefficients >0.9). Conclusions Cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species have been identified in endodontic abscesses obtained from the Portland, Oregon demographic region, and taxa identifications correlated well with other published studies, with the exception of Treponema and Streptococcus cristae, which were not commonly

  15. Removal of Dental Biofilms with an Ultrasonically Activated Water Stream.

    PubMed

    Howlin, R P; Fabbri, S; Offin, D G; Symonds, N; Kiang, K S; Knee, R J; Yoganantham, D C; Webb, J S; Birkin, P R; Leighton, T G; Stoodley, P

    2015-09-01

    Acidogenic bacteria within dental plaque biofilms are the causative agents of caries. Consequently, maintenance of a healthy oral environment with efficient biofilm removal strategies is important to limit caries, as well as halt progression to gingivitis and periodontitis. Recently, a novel cleaning device has been described using an ultrasonically activated stream (UAS) to generate a cavitation cloud of bubbles in a freely flowing water stream that has demonstrated the capacity to be effective at biofilm removal. In this study, UAS was evaluated for its ability to remove biofilms of the cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans UA159, as well as Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 12104 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811, grown on machine-etched glass slides to generate a reproducible complex surface and artificial teeth from a typodont training model. Biofilm removal was assessed both visually and microscopically using high-speed videography, confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Analysis by CSLM demonstrated a statistically significant 99.9% removal of S. mutans biofilms exposed to the UAS for 10 s, relative to both untreated control biofilms and biofilms exposed to the water stream alone without ultrasonic activation (P < 0.05). The water stream alone showed no statistically significant difference in removal compared with the untreated control (P = 0.24). High-speed videography demonstrated a rapid rate (151 mm(2) in 1 s) of biofilm removal. The UAS was also highly effective at S. mutans, A. naeslundii, and S. oralis biofilm removal from machine-etched glass and S. mutans from typodont surfaces with complex topography. Consequently, UAS technology represents a potentially effective method for biofilm removal and improved oral hygiene.

  16. Influences of trans-trans farnesol, a membrane-targeting sesquiterpenoid, on Streptococcus mutans physiology and survival within mixed-species oral biofilms.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jae-Gyu; Pandit, Santosh; Xiao, Jin; Gregoire, Stacy; Falsetta, Megan L; Klein, Marlise I; Koo, Hyun

    2011-04-01

    Trans-trans farnesol (tt-farnesol) is a bioactive sesquiterpene alcohol commonly found in propolis (a beehive product) and citrus fruits, which disrupts the ability of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) to form virulent biofilms. In this study, we investigated whether tt-farnesol affects cell-membrane function, acid production and/or acid tolerance by planktonic cells and biofilms of S. mutans UA159. Furthermore, the influence of the agent on S. mutans gene expression and ability to form biofilms in the presence of other oral bacteria (Streptococcus oralis (S. oralis) 35037 and Actinomyces naeslundii (A. naeslundii) 12104) was also examined. In general, tt-farnesol (1 mmol x L(-1)) significantly increased the membrane proton permeability and reduced glycolytic activity of S. mutans in the planktonic state and in biofilms (P < 0.05). Moreover, topical applications of 1 mmol x L(-1) tt-farnesol twice daily (1 min exposure/treatment) reduced biomass accumulation and prevented ecological shifts towards S. mutans dominance within mixed-species biofilms after introduction of 1% sucrose. S. oralis (a non-cariogenic organism) became the major species after treatments with tt-farnesol, whereas vehicle-treated biofilms contained mostly S. mutans (>90% of total bacterial population). However, the agent did not affect significantly the expression of S. mutans genes involved in acidogenicity, acid tolerance or polysaccharide synthesis in the treated biofilms. Our data indicate that tt-farnesol may affect the competitiveness of S. mutans in a mixed-species environment by primarily disrupting the membrane function and physiology of this bacterium. This naturally occurring terpenoid could be a potentially useful adjunctive agent to the current anti-biofilm/anti-caries chemotherapeutic strategies.

  17. Oral microbial biofilm stimulation of epithelial cell responses.

    PubMed

    Peyyala, Rebecca; Kirakodu, Sreenatha S; Novak, Karen F; Ebersole, Jeffrey L

    2012-04-01

    Oral bacterial biofilms trigger chronic inflammatory responses in the host that can result in the tissue destructive events of periodontitis. However, the characteristics of the capacity of specific host cell types to respond to these biofilms remain ill-defined. This report describes the use of a novel model of bacterial biofilms to stimulate oral epithelial cells and profile select cytokines and chemokines that contribute to the local inflammatory environment in the periodontium. Monoinfection biofilms were developed with Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii, Actinomyces naeslundii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis on rigid gas-permeable contact lenses. Biofilms, as well as planktonic cultures of these same bacterial species, were incubated under anaerobic conditions with a human oral epithelial cell line, OKF4, for up to 24h. Gro-1α, IL1α, IL-6, IL-8, TGFα, Fractalkine, MIP-1α, and IP-10 were shown to be produced in response to a range of the planktonic or biofilm forms of these species. P. gingivalis biofilms significantly inhibited the production of all of these cytokines and chemokines, except MIP-1α. Generally, the biofilms of all species inhibited Gro-1α, TGFα, and Fractalkine production, while F. nucleatum biofilms stimulated significant increases in IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and IP-10. A. naeslundii biofilms induced elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IP-10. The oral streptococcal species in biofilms or planktonic forms were poor stimulants for any of these mediators from the epithelial cells. The results of these studies demonstrate that oral bacteria in biofilms elicit a substantially different profile of responses compared to planktonic bacteria of the same species. Moreover, certain oral species are highly stimulatory when in biofilms and interact with host cell receptors to trigger pathways of responses that appear quite divergent from individual bacteria.

  18. In vitro culture of previously uncultured oral bacterial phylotypes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hayley; Rybalka, Alexandra; Moazzez, Rebecca; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Wade, William G

    2015-12-01

    Around a third of oral bacteria cannot be grown using conventional bacteriological culture media. Community profiling targeting 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomics methods have proved valuable in revealing the complexity of the oral bacterial community. Studies investigating the role of oral bacteria in health and disease require phenotypic characterizations that are possible only with live cultures. The aim of this study was to develop novel culture media and use an in vitro biofilm model to culture previously uncultured oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis were cultured on complex mucin-containing agar plates supplemented with proteose peptone (PPA), beef extract (BEA), or Gelysate (GA) as well as on fastidious anaerobe agar plus 5% horse blood (FAA). In vitro biofilms inoculated with the subgingival plaque samples and proteose peptone broth (PPB) as the growth medium were established using the Calgary biofilm device. Specific PCR primers were designed and validated for the previously uncultivated oral taxa Bacteroidetes bacteria HOT 365 and HOT 281, Lachnospiraceae bacteria HOT 100 and HOT 500, and Clostridiales bacterium HOT 093. All agar media were able to support the growth of 10 reference strains of oral bacteria. One previously uncultivated phylotype, Actinomyces sp. HOT 525, was cultivated on FAA. Of 93 previously uncultivated phylotypes found in the inocula, 26 were detected in in vitro-cultivated biofilms. Lachnospiraceae bacterium HOT 500 was successfully cultured from biofilm material harvested from PPA plates in coculture with Parvimonas micra or Veillonella dispar/parvula after colony hybridization-directed enrichment. The establishment of in vitro biofilms from oral inocula enables the cultivation of previously uncultured oral bacteria and provides source material for isolation in coculture.

  19. Strain-specific colonization patterns and serum modulation of multi-species oral biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Biyikoğlu, Basak; Ricker, Austin; Diaz, Patricia I

    2012-08-01

    Periodontitis results from an ecological shift in the composition of subgingival biofilms. Subgingival community maturation is modulated by inter-organismal interactions and the relationship of communities with the host. In an effort to better understand this process, we evaluated biofilm formation, with oral commensal species, by three strains of the subgingivally prevalent microorganism Fusobacterium nucleatum and four strains of the periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. We also tested the effect of serum, which resembles gingival exudates, on subgingival biofilms. Biofilms were allowed to develop in flow cells using salivary medium. We found that although not all strains of F. nucleatum were able to grow in mono-species biofilms, forming a community with health-associated partners Actinomyces oris and Veillonella parvula promoted biofilm growth of all F. nucleatum strains. Strains of P. gingivalis also showed variable ability to form mono-species biofilms. P. gingivalis W50 and W83 did not form biofilms, while ATCC 33277 and 381 formed biofilm structures, but only strain ATCC 33277 grew over time. Unlike the enhanced growth of F. nucleatum with the two health-associated species, no strain of P. gingivalis grew in three-species communities with A. oris and V. parvula. However, addition of F. nucleatum facilitated growth of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 with health-associated partners. Importantly, serum negatively affected the adhesion of F. nucleatum, while it favored biofilm growth by P. gingivalis. This work highlights strain specificity in subgingival biofilm formation. Environmental factors such as serum alter the colonization patterns of oral microorganisms and could impact subgingival biofilms by selectively promoting pathogenic species.

  20. In vitro evaluation of a multispecies oral biofilm on different implant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Violant, Deborah; Galofré, Marta; Nart, José; Teles, Ricardo Patricio

    2014-06-01

    Biofilm accumulation on implant surfaces is one of the most important factors for early and late implant failure. Because of the related clinical implications, the aim of this in vitro study was to compare the bacterial cell attachment of a four-species oral biofilm on titanium discs of purity grade 2 and 4, with machined surfaces and etched-thermochemically modified with Avantblast®. The in vitro biofilm model was composed of early (Actinomyces naeslundii, Streptococcus gordonii), secondary (Veillonella parvula), and intermediate (Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum) colonizers of tooth surfaces. A total of 36 discs were divided into four groups: Tigr2-c (titanium grade 2, machined surface), Tigr2-t (titanium grade 2, modified surface with Avantblast®), Tigr4-c (titanium grade 4, machined surface), Tigr4-t (titanium grade 4, modified surface with Avantblast®). The experiment was repeated three times. Biofilm viability was tested with 1% 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride solution and bacterial cell quantification by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Descriptive analysis was performed to evaluate biofilm composition and differences between groups were checked with the Mann-Whitney test (p < 0.05). After one week, multispecies biofilms showed a similar pattern of bacterial composition on all analyzed implant surfaces. The most prevalent bacterium was V. parvula (∼50% of the total biomass), followed by S. gordonii (∼30%), F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum (∼10%) and A. naeslundii (<5%). Total bacterial biomass was significantly higher in both grade-4-titanium surfaces (p < 0.05). The results demonstrated that not only implant surface treatment, but also titanium purity, influence early bacterial colonization.

  1. In vitro method for prediction of plaque reduction by dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Bruce; Howard, Brian; Schnell, Daniel; Mills, Lisa; Xu, Jian

    2015-11-01

    An in vitro Particle Based Biofilm (PBB) model was developed to enable high throughput screening tests to predict clinical plaque reduction. Multi-species oral biofilms were cultured from pooled stimulated human saliva on continuously-colliding hydroxyapatite particles. After three days PBBs were saline washed prior to use in screening tests. Testing involved dosing PBBs for 1min followed by neutralization of test materials and rinsing. PBBs were then assayed for intact biofilm activity measured as ATP. The ranking of commercial dentifrices from most to least reduction of intact biofilm activity was Crest ProHealth Clinical Gum Protection, Crest ProHealth, Colgate Total and Crest Cavity Protection. We demonstrated five advantages of the PBB model: 1) the ATP metric had a linear response over ≥1000-fold dynamic range, 2) potential interference with the ATP assay by treatments was easily eliminated by rinsing PBBs with saline, 3) discriminating power was statistically excellent between all treatment comparisons with the negative controls, 4) screening test results were reproducible across four tests, and 5) the screening test produced the same rank order for dentifrices as clinical studies that measured plaque reduction. In addition, 454 pyrosequencing of the PBBs indicated an oral microbial consortium was present. The most prevalent genera were Neisseria, Rothia, Streptococcus, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Fusobacterium, Veillonella and Haemophilus. We conclude these in vitro methods offer an efficient, effective and relevant screening tool for reduction of intact biofilm activity by dentifrices. Moreover, dentifrice rankings by the in vitro test method are expected to predict clinical results for plaque reduction. PMID:26151407

  2. [Thoracic actinomycosis versus bronchial cancer].

    PubMed

    Brombacher-Frey, I; Wöckel, W; Kreusser, T

    1992-01-01

    We report on 4 thoracic actinomycoses; in three of these four cases a bronchial carcinoma was suspected, and in case No. 2 this carcinoma had been considered to be in a very advanced and inoperable stage. A man of 51 years of age was in a generally run-down condition. He also noticed that his sputum was tinged with blood. The x-ray film showed a large space-occupying growth at the right lung hilus. Repeated perbronchial biopsies of the focus did not yield any diagnosis. Actinomycosis was identified histologically only in the tissue samples obtained via thoracotomy. After a three-month penicillin course the hilar shadow receded. A 61-year old male patient was transferred to our Pneumological Hospital, being strongly suspected of suffering from an extensive bronchial carcinoma, and having multiple intrathoracic space-occupying growths as well as pleural effusions, a pericardial effusion, and an infiltration of the left thoracic wall with fistula formation; however, histological examination of skin biopsies revealed that he was suffering from actinomycosis. Antibiotic therapy cured him completely in a six-month course. In a man of 32 years of age who had been indulging for many years in a severe abuse of nicotin, we suspected a central bronchial carcinoma on the basis of his x-ray, but histology of the tissue taken from the space-occupying growth via diagnostic thoracotomy revealed that this patient, too, suffered from actinomycosis. Complete recession occurred after several months of antibiotic treatment. A woman of 82 years had been an inpatient for several months in another hospital because of relapsing pleuropneumonias on the right side. She was transferred to us as an outpatient after a renewed relapse. We conducted a transcutaneous fine-needle biopsy of the right indurating pleural effusion. A few actinomyces filaments were seen on histological examination of the purulent exudate. Hence, actinomycosis was confirmed. After antibiotic therapy the finding receded

  3. Bacteria isolated from dugongs (Dugong dugon) submitted for postmortem examination in Queensland, Australia, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kristen A; Owen, Helen C; Mills, Paul C; Flint, Mark; Gibson, Justine S

    2013-03-01

    Microbial infection may contribute to disease in a significant proportion of marine mammal mortalities, but little is known about infectious bacterial species and their prevalence in dugongs (Dugong dugon). This study represents a survey of the species of bacteria and fungi isolated from dugongs submitted to the University of Queensland's School of Veterinary Science for postmortem examination. Thirty-six dugongs were included in the survey, with 23 species of bacteria and four species of fungus cultured from lesions that were suspected of contributing to local infection, systemic infection, or both. The most abundant bacteria included Aeromonas spp., Clostridium spp., Vibrio spp., Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas spp. In six cases, the microorganism(s) cultured were considered to have been associated with disease. Mixed infections containing Aeromonas spp. and Vibrio spp.; Morganella morganii, Pasteurella multocida, and Serratia marcescens; and Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. were associated with pneumonia or pleuritis, and Enterococcus faecalis was associated with a multisystemic infection in a neonate. Clostridium spp. was cultured from two animals with peritonitis and likely septicemia. The significance of many of the other isolates is uncertain because the samples were taken after death, and some of the species isolated may represent postmortem overgrowth. It is also difficult to fulfil Koch's postulates through experimental infection in marine mammals. Regardless, this information will assist clinicians working with dugongs to make treatment decisions and the baseline data on the prevalence of bacterial and fungal species is of value for monitoring coastal water habitat health and risks of zoonotic disease transmission. PMID:23505701

  4. Subgingival bacterial colonization profiles correlate with gingival tissue gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by the microbiota of the periodontal pocket. We investigated the association between subgingival bacterial profiles and gene expression patterns in gingival tissues of patients with periodontitis. A total of 120 patients undergoing periodontal surgery contributed with a minimum of two interproximal gingival papillae (range 2-4) from a maxillary posterior region. Prior to tissue harvesting, subgingival plaque samples were collected from the mesial and distal aspects of each tissue sample. Gingival tissue RNA was extracted, reverse-transcribed, labeled, and hybridized with whole-genome microarrays (310 in total). Plaque samples were analyzed using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridizations with respect to 11 bacterial species. Random effects linear regression models considered bacterial levels as exposure and expression profiles as outcome variables. Gene Ontology analyses summarized the expression patterns into biologically relevant categories. Results Wide inter-species variation was noted in the number of differentially expressed gingival tissue genes according to subgingival bacterial levels: Using a Bonferroni correction (p < 9.15 × 10-7), 9,392 probe sets were differentially associated with levels of Tannerella forsythia, 8,537 with Porphyromonas gingivalis, 6,460 with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, 506 with Eikenella corrodens and only 8 with Actinomyces naeslundii. Cluster analysis identified commonalities and differences among tissue gene expression patterns differentially regulated according to bacterial levels. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the microbial content of the periodontal pocket is a determinant of gene expression in the gingival tissues and provide new insights into the differential ability of periodontal species to elicit a local host response. PMID:19835625

  5. One-step high-efficiency CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Zheng, Guosong; Jiang, Weihong; Hu, Haifeng; Lu, Yinhua

    2015-04-01

    The RNA-guided DNA editing technology CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 had been used to introduce double-stranded breaks into genomes and to direct subsequent site-specific insertions/deletions or the replacement of genetic material in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Lactobacillus reuteri. In this study, we established a high-efficiency CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing plasmid pKCcas9dO for use in Streptomyces genetic manipulation, which comprises a target-specific guide RNA, a codon-optimized cas9, and two homology-directed repair templates. By delivering pKCcas9dO series editing plasmids into the model strain Streptomyces coelicolor M145, through one-step intergeneric transfer, we achieved the genome editing at different levels with high efficiencies of 60%-100%, including single gene deletion, such as actII-orf4, redD, and glnR, and single large-size gene cluster deletion, such as the antibiotic biosynthetic clusters of actinorhodin (ACT) (21.3 kb), undecylprodigiosin (RED) (31.6 kb), and Ca(2+)-dependent antibiotic (82.8 kb). Furthermore, we also realized simultaneous deletions of actII-orf4 and redD, and of the ACT and RED biosynthetic gene clusters with high efficiencies of 54% and 45%, respectively. Finally, we applied this system to introduce nucleotide point mutations into the rpsL gene, which conferred the mutants with resistance to streptomycin. Notably, using this system, the time required for one round of genome modification is reduced by one-third or one-half of those for conventional methods. These results clearly indicate that the established CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system substantially improves the genome editing efficiency compared with the currently existing methods in Streptomyces, and it has promise for application to genome modification in other Actinomyces species.

  6. Amoxicillin Plus Metronidazole Therapy for Patients with Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes: A 2-year Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tamashiro, N S; Duarte, P M; Miranda, T S; Maciel, S S; Figueiredo, L C; Faveri, M; Feres, M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the changes occurring in subgingival biofilm composition and in the periodontal clinical parameters of subjects with periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) treated by means of scaling and root planing (SRP) only or combined with systemic metronidazole (MTZ) and amoxicillin (AMX). Fifty-eight subjects were randomly assigned to receive SRP only (n = 29) or with MTZ (400 mg/thrice a day [TID]) and AMX (500 mg/TID) (n = 29) for 14 d. Six subgingival plaque samples/subject were analyzed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization for 40 bacterial species at baseline and 3 mo, 1 y, and 2 y posttherapy. At 2 y posttherapy, the antibiotic-treated group harbored lower mean proportions (5.5%) of red complex pathogens than the control group (12.1%) (P < 0.05). The proportions of the Actinomyces species remained stable in the antibiotic group but showed a statistically significant reduction in the control group from 1 to 2 y in subjects achieving a low risk clinical profile for future disease progression (i.e., ≤4 sites with probing depth [PD] ≥5 mm). The test group also had a lower mean number of sites with PD ≥5 mm (3.5 ± 3.4) and a higher percentage of subjects reaching the low risk clinical profile (76%) than the control group (14.7 ± 13.1 and 22%, respectively) (P < 0.05) at 2 y posttreatment. MTZ + AMX intake was the only significant predictor of subjects achieving the low risk at 2 y (odds ratio, 20.9; P = 0.0000). In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the adjunctive use of MTZ + AMX improves the microbiological and clinical outcomes of SRP in the treatment of subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis and type 2 DM up to 2 y (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02135952). PMID:27013640

  7. Massive Parallel Sequencing Provides New Perspectives on Bacterial Brain Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmsen, Marianne Thulin; Skrede, Steinar; Meisal, Roger; Jakovljev, Aleksandra; Gaustad, Peter; Hermansen, Nils Olav; Vik-Mo, Einar; Solheim, Ole; Ambur, Ole Herman; Sæbø, Øystein; Høstmælingen, Christina Teisner; Helland, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development within the field of massive parallel sequencing (MPS) is about to bring this technology within reach for diagnostic microbiology laboratories. We wanted to explore its potential for improving diagnosis and understanding of polymicrobial infections, using bacterial brain abscesses as an example. We conducted a prospective nationwide study on bacterial brain abscesses. Fifty-two surgical samples were included over a 2-year period. The samples were categorized as either spontaneous intracerebral, spontaneous subdural, or postoperative. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified directly from the specimens and sequenced using Ion Torrent technology, with an average of 500,000 reads per sample. The results were compared to those from culture- and Sanger sequencing-based diagnostics. Compared to culture, MPS allowed for triple the number of bacterial identifications. Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Streptococcus intermedius or combinations of them were found in all spontaneous polymicrobial abscesses. F. nucleatum was systematically detected in samples with anaerobic flora. The increased detection rate for Actinomyces spp. and facultative Gram-negative rods further revealed several species associations. We suggest that A. aphrophilus, F. nucleatum, and S. intermedius are key pathogens for the establishment of spontaneous polymicrobial brain abscesses. In addition, F. nucleatum seems to be important for the development of anaerobic flora. MPS can accurately describe polymicrobial specimens when a sufficient number of reads is used to compensate for unequal species concentrations and principles are defined to discard contaminant bacterial DNA in the subsequent data analysis. This will contribute to our understanding of how different types of polymicrobial infections develop. PMID:24671797

  8. Laser-induced autofluorescence for medical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Koenig, K; Schneckenburger, H

    1994-03-01

    The naturally occurring autofluorescence of cells and tissues is based on biomolecules containing intrinsic fluorophores, such as porphyrins, the amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, and the coenzymes NADH, NADPH, and flavins. Coenzymes fluoresce in the blue/green spectral region (fluorecence lifetimes: 0.5-6 ns) and are highly sensitive indicators of metabolic function. Steadystate and time-resolved blue-green autofluorescence is, therefore, an appropriate measure of the function of the respiratory chain as well as of cellular and tissue damage. Autofluorescence in the yellow/red spectral region is based mainly on endogenous porphyrins and metalloporphyrins, such as coproporphyrin, protoporphyrin (fluorescence lifetime of porphyrin monomers: >10 ns), and Zn-protoporphyrin (2 ns). Various pathological microorganisms such asPropionibacterium acnes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides intermedius, andSaccharomyces cerevisiae are able to synthesize large amounts of these fluorophores and can therefore be located. This permits fluorescence-based detection of a variety of diseases, including early-stage dental caries, dental plaque, acne vulgaris, otitis externa, and squamous cell carcinoma. The sensitivity of noninvasive autofluorescence diagnostics can be enhanced by time-gated fluorescence measurements using an appropriate time delay between ultrashort laser excitation and detection. For example, videocameras with ultrafast shutters, in the nanosecond region, can be used to create "caries images" of the teeth. Alternatively, autofluorescence can be enhanced by stimulating protoporphyrin biosynthesis with the exogenously administered porphyrin precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). The fluorophore protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) is photolabile and photodynamically active. Irradiation of PP IX-containing tissue results in cytotoxic reactions which correlate with modifications in fluorescence due to photobleaching and singlet oxygen

  9. Individual growth detection of bacterial species in an in vitro oral polymicrobial biofilm model.

    PubMed

    Tabenski, L; Maisch, T; Santarelli, F; Hiller, K-A; Schmalz, G

    2014-11-01

    Most in vitro studies on the antibacterial effects of antiseptics have used planktonic bacteria in monocultures. However, this study design does not reflect the in vivo situation in oral cavities harboring different bacterial species that live in symbiotic relationships in biofilms. The aim of this study was to establish a simple in vitro polymicrobial model consisting of only three bacterial strains of different phases of oral biofilm formation to simulate in vivo oral conditions. Therefore, we studied the biofilm formation of Actinomyces naeslundii (An), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), and Enterococcus faecalis (Ef) on 96-well tissue culture plates under static anaerobic conditions using artificial saliva according to the method established by Pratten et al. that was supplemented with 1 g l(-1) sucrose. Growth was separately determined for each bacterial strain after incubation periods of up to 72 h by means of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and live/dead staining. Presence of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) was visualized by Concanavalin A staining. Increasing incubation times of up to 72 h showed adhesion and propagation of the bacterial strains with artificial saliva formulation. An and Ef had significantly higher growth rates than Fn. Live/dead staining showed a median of 49.9 % (range 46.0-53.0 %) of living bacteria after 72 h of incubation, and 3D fluorescence microscopy showed a three-dimensional structure containing EPS. An in vitro oral polymicrobial biofilm model was established to better simulate oral conditions and had the advantage of providing the well-controlled experimental conditions of in vitro testing.

  10. Bacterial flora of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle fed tylosin or no tylosin.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, T G; Beharka, A B; Chengappa, M M; Carroll, L H; Raun, A P; Laudert, S B; Parrott, J C

    1999-04-01

    Bacterial flora of liver abscesses from cattle fed tylosin or no tylosin and susceptibilities of the predominant bacterial isolates to tylosin and other antimicrobial compounds were determined. Abscessed livers were collected at slaughter from cattle originating from feedlots that had fed tylosin (n = 36) or no tylosin (n = 41) for at least 2 yr, and segments of livers with one or two intact abscesses were transported to the laboratory. Abscesses were cultured for anaerobic and facultative bacteria. Fusobacterium necrophorum, either as single culture or mixed with other bacteria, was isolated from all abscesses. The incidence of subsp. necrophorum, as part of the mixed infection, was lower (P < .05) in the tylosin group than in the no-tylosin group (33 vs 61%). However, the incidence of Actinomyces pyogenes was higher (P < .01) in the tylosin group than in the no-tylosin group (53 vs 10%). Totals of 119 F. necrophorum and 21 A. pyogenes isolates were used for determinations of susceptibilities to bacitracin, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, lasalocid, monensin, tylosin, tilmicosin, and virginiamycin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antibiotics were determined with a broth microdilution method. The mean MIC of tylosin for F. necrophorum and A. pyogenes were not different between isolates from tylosin and no-tylosin groups. We concluded that continuous feeding of tylosin did not induce resistance in F. necrophorum or A. pyogenes. Also, the higher incidence of mixed infection of F. necrophorum and A. pyogenes in liver abscesses of tylosin-fed cattle suggests a potential synergistic interaction between the two organisms in causing liver abscesses. PMID:10328365

  11. Characterization of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria by neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jaqueline M; Crispim, Verginia Reis; da Silva, Marlei Gomes; Furtado, Vanessa Rodrigues; Duarte, Rafael Da Silva

    2013-07-01

    The genus Mycobacterium shares many characteristics with Corynebacterium and Actinomyces genera, among which the genomic guanine plus cytosine content and the production of long branched-chain fatty acids, known as mycolic acids are enhanced. Growth rate and optimal temperature of mycobacteria are variable. The genus comprises more than 140 known species; however Mycobacterium fortuitum, a fast growing nontuberculous mycobacterium, is clinically significant, because it has been associated to several lesions following surgery procedures such as liposuction, silicone breast and pacemaker implants, exposure to prosthetic materials besides sporadic lesions in the skin, soft tissues and rarely lungs. The objective of the present study is to reduce the time necessary for M. fortuitum characterization based on its morphology and the use of the neutron radiography technique substituting the classical biochemical assays. We also aim to confirm the utility of dendrimers as boron carriers. The samples were sterilized through conventional protocols using 10% formaldehyde. In the incubation process, two solutions with different molar ratios (10:1 and 20:1) of sodium borate and PAMAM G4 dendrimer and also pure sodium borate were used. After doping and sterilization procedures, the samples were deposited on CR-39 sheets, irradiated with a 4.6×10(5) n/cm(2)s thermal neutron flux for 30 min, from the J-9 irradiation channel of the Argonauta IEN/CNEN reactor. The images registered in the CR-39 were visualized in a Nikon E400 optical transmission microscope and captured by a Nikon Coolpix 995 digital camera. Developing the nuclear tracks registered in the CR-39 allowed a 1000× enlargement of mycobacterium images, facilitating their characterization, the use of more sophisticated equipment not being necessary. The use of neutron radiography technique reduced the time necessary for characterization. Doping with PAMAM dendrimer improved the visualization of NTM in neutron radiography

  12. Identification of the microbiota in carious dentin lesions using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Obata, Junko; Takeshita, Toru; Shibata, Yukie; Yamanaka, Wataru; Unemori, Masako; Akamine, Akifumi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    While mutans streptococci have long been assumed to be the specific pathogen responsible for human dental caries, the concept of a complex dental caries-associated microbiota has received significant attention in recent years. Molecular analyses revealed the complexity of the microbiota with the predominance of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in carious dentine lesions. However, characterization of the dentin caries-associated microbiota has not been extensively explored in different ethnicities and races. In the present study, the bacterial communities in the carious dentin of Japanese subjects were analyzed comprehensively with molecular approaches using the16S rRNA gene. Carious dentin lesion samples were collected from 32 subjects aged 4-76 years, and the 16S rRNA genes, amplified from the extracted DNA with universal primers, were sequenced with a pyrosequencer. The bacterial composition was classified into clusters I, II, and III according to the relative abundance (high, middle, low) of Lactobacillus. The bacterial composition in cluster II was composed of relatively high proportions of Olsenella and Propionibacterium or subdominated by heterogeneous genera. The bacterial communities in cluster III were characterized by the predominance of Atopobium, Prevotella, or Propionibacterium with Streptococcus or Actinomyces. Some samples in clusters II and III, mainly related to Atopobium and Propionibacterium, were novel combinations of microbiota in carious dentin lesions and may be characteristic of the Japanese population. Clone library analysis revealed that Atopobium sp. HOT-416 and P. acidifaciens were specific species associated with dentinal caries among these genera in a Japanese population. We summarized the bacterial composition of dentinal carious lesions in a Japanese population using next-generation sequencing and found typical Japanese types with Atopobium or Propionibacterium predominating. PMID:25083880

  13. Biodecolorization and Bioremediation of Denim Industrial Wastewater by Adapted Bacterial Consortium Immobilized on Inert Polyurethane Foam (PUF) Matrix: A First Approach with Biobarrier Model.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, R; Prabhavathi, P; Karthiksundaram, S; Pattab, S; Kumar, S Dinesh; Santhanam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present experiments were studied on bioremediation of denim industry wastewater by using polyurethane foam (PU foam) immobilized bacterial cells. About 30 indigenous adapted bacterial strains were isolated from denim textile effluent out of which only four isolates were found to be efficient against crude indigo carmine degradation using broth decolorization method. The selected bacterial strains were identified as Actinomyces sp., (PK07), Pseudomonas sp., (PK18), Stenotrophomonas sp., (PK23) and Staphylococcus sp., (PK28) based on microscopic and biochemical characteristics. The bacterial immobilized cells have the highest number of viable cells (PK07, PK18, PK23 and PK28 appeared to be 1 x 10(8), 1 x 10(9), 1 x 10(6) and 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml respectively) and maximum attachment efficiency of 92% on PU foam. The complete degradation using a consortium of PU foam immobilized cells was achieved at pH 6, 27 degrees C, 100% of substrate concentration and allowed to develop biofilm for one day (1.5% W/V). In SEM analysis, it was found that immobilization of bacterial cells using PUF stably maintained the production of various extracellular enzymes at levels higher than achieved with suspended forms. Finally, isatin and anthranilic acid were found to be degradation products by NMR and TLC. The decolorized dye was not toxic to monkey kidney cell (HBL 100) at a concentration of 50 μl and 95% of cell viability was retained. A mathematical model that describes bacterial transport with biodegradation involves a set of coupled reaction equations with non-standard numerical approach based on the time step scheme.

  14. In vitro culture of previously uncultured oral bacterial phylotypes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hayley; Rybalka, Alexandra; Moazzez, Rebecca; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Wade, William G

    2015-12-01

    Around a third of oral bacteria cannot be grown using conventional bacteriological culture media. Community profiling targeting 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomics methods have proved valuable in revealing the complexity of the oral bacterial community. Studies investigating the role of oral bacteria in health and disease require phenotypic characterizations that are possible only with live cultures. The aim of this study was to develop novel culture media and use an in vitro biofilm model to culture previously uncultured oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis were cultured on complex mucin-containing agar plates supplemented with proteose peptone (PPA), beef extract (BEA), or Gelysate (GA) as well as on fastidious anaerobe agar plus 5% horse blood (FAA). In vitro biofilms inoculated with the subgingival plaque samples and proteose peptone broth (PPB) as the growth medium were established using the Calgary biofilm device. Specific PCR primers were designed and validated for the previously uncultivated oral taxa Bacteroidetes bacteria HOT 365 and HOT 281, Lachnospiraceae bacteria HOT 100 and HOT 500, and Clostridiales bacterium HOT 093. All agar media were able to support the growth of 10 reference strains of oral bacteria. One previously uncultivated phylotype, Actinomyces sp. HOT 525, was cultivated on FAA. Of 93 previously uncultivated phylotypes found in the inocula, 26 were detected in in vitro-cultivated biofilms. Lachnospiraceae bacterium HOT 500 was successfully cultured from biofilm material harvested from PPA plates in coculture with Parvimonas micra or Veillonella dispar/parvula after colony hybridization-directed enrichment. The establishment of in vitro biofilms from oral inocula enables the cultivation of previously uncultured oral bacteria and provides source material for isolation in coculture. PMID:26407883

  15. Oral biofilm models for mechanical plaque removal

    PubMed Central

    Verkaik, Martinus J.; Busscher, Henk J.; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; Slomp, Anje M.; Abbas, Frank

    2009-01-01

    In vitro plaque removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental plaque. Here, we compare contact and non-contact removal of single and dual-species biofilms as well as of biofilms grown from human whole saliva in vitro using different biofilm models. Bacteria were adhered to a salivary pellicle for 2 h or grown after adhesion for 16 h, after which, their removal was evaluated. In a contact mode, no differences were observed between the manual, rotating, or sonic brushing; and removal was on average 39%, 84%, and 95% for Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Actinomyces naeslundii, respectively, and 90% and 54% for the dual- and multi-species biofilms, respectively. However, in a non-contact mode, rotating and sonic brushes still removed considerable numbers of bacteria (24–40%), while the manual brush as a control (5–11%) did not. Single A. naeslundii and dual-species (A. naeslundii and S. oralis) biofilms were more difficult to remove after 16 h growth than after 2 h adhesion (on average, 62% and 93% for 16- and 2-h-old biofilms, respectively), while in contrast, biofilms grown from whole saliva were easier to remove (97% after 16 h and 54% after 2 h of growth). Considering the strong adhesion of dual-species biofilms and their easier more reproducible growth compared with biofilms grown from whole saliva, dual-species biofilms of A. naeslundii and S. oralis are suggested to be preferred for use in mechanical plaque removal studies in vitro. PMID:19565279

  16. Cellular fatty acid composition as an adjunct to the identification of asporogenous, aerobic gram-positive rods.

    PubMed

    Bernard, K A; Bellefeuille, M; Ewan, E P

    1991-01-01

    Cellular fatty acid (CFA) compositions of 561 asporogenous, aerobic gram-positive rods were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography as an adjunct to their identification when grown on blood agar at 35 degrees C. The organisms could be divided into two groups. In the first group (branched-chain type), which included coryneform CDC groups A-3, A-4, and A-5; some strains of B-1 and B-3; "Corynebacterium aquaticum"; Brevibacterium liquefaciens; Rothia dentocariosa; and Listeria spp., the rods had sizable quantities of antiesopentadecanoic (Ca15:0) and anteisoheptadecanoic (Ca17:0) acids. Other species with these types of CFA included B. acetylicum, which contained large amounts of isotridecanoic (Ci13:0) and anteisotridecanoic (Ca13:0) acids. CFAs useful for distinguishing among Jonesia denitrificans, Oerskovia spp., some strains of CDC groups B-1 and B-3, Kurthia spp., and Propionibacterium avidum were hexadecanoic (C 16:0) acid, isopentadecanoic (Ci15:0) acid, and Ca15:0). The second group (straight-chained type), which included Actinomyces pyogenes; Arcanobacterium haemolyticum; C. bovis; C. cystitidis; C. diphtheriae; C. flavescens, "C. gentalium"; C. jeikeium; C. kutscheri; C. matruchotii; C .minutissimum; C. mycetoides; C. pilosum; C. pseudodiphtheriticum; "C. pseudogenitalium"; C. pseudotuberculosis; C. renale; CDC groups 1, 2, ANF-1, D-2, E, F-1, F-2, G-1, G-2, and I-2; C. striatum; "C. tuberculostearicum"; C. ulcerans; C. vitarumen; C. xerosis; and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, was typified by significant quantities of hexadecanoic (C16:0) and oleic acids (C18:cis9), with differences in the amounts of linoleic acid (C18:2), stearic acid (C18:0), an unnamed peak (equivalent chain length, 14.966), and small quantities of other known saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. CFA composition of these organisms was sufficiently discriminatory to assist in classification but could not be used as the sole means of identification.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Salivary Bacterial Microbiome Diversity in Edentulous Infants and Their Mothers or Primary Care Givers Using Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Cephas, Kimberly D.; Kim, Juhee; Mathai, Rose Ann; Barry, Kathleen A.; Dowd, Scot E.; Meline, Brandon S.; Swanson, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial contribution to oral disease has been studied in young children, but there is a lack of data addressing the developmental perspective in edentulous infants. Our primary objectives were to use pyrosequencing to phylogenetically characterize the salivary bacterial microbiome of edentulous infants and to make comparisons against their mothers. Saliva samples were collected from 5 edentulous infants (mean age = 4.6±1.2 mo old) and their mothers or primary care givers (mean age = 30.8±9.5 y old). Salivary DNA was extracted, used to generate DNA amplicons of the V4–V6 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene, and subjected to 454-pyrosequencing. On average, over 80,000 sequences per sample were generated. High bacterial diversity was noted in the saliva of adults [1012 operational taxonomical units (OTU) at 3% divergence] and infants (578 OTU at 3% divergence). Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were predominant bacterial phyla present in all samples. A total of 397 bacterial genera were present in our dataset. Of the 28 genera different (P<0.05) between infants and adults, 27 had a greater prevalence in adults. The exception was Streptococcus, which was the predominant genera in infant saliva (62.2% in infants vs. 20.4% in adults; P<0.05). Veillonella, Neisseria, Rothia, Haemophilus, Gemella, Granulicatella, Leptotrichia, and Fusobacterium were also predominant genera in infant samples, while Haemophilus, Neisseria, Veillonella, Fusobacterium, Oribacterium, Rothia, Treponema, and Actinomyces were predominant in adults. Our data demonstrate that although the adult saliva bacterial microbiome had a greater OTU count than infants, a rich bacterial community exists in the infant oral cavity prior to tooth eruption. Streptococcus, Veillonella, and Neisseria are the predominant bacterial genera present in infants. Further research is required to characterize the development of oral microbiota early in life and

  18. Effect of Antimicrobial Denture Base Resin on Multi-Species Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Keke; Ren, Biao; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Chen, Yu; Han, Qi; Li, Bolei; Weir, Michael D.; Li, Mingyun; Feng, Mingye; Cheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Our aims of the research were to study the antimicrobial effect of dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) modified denture base resin on multi-species biofilms and the biocompatibility of this modified dental material. Candida albicans (C. albicans), Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis), as well as Actinomyces naeslundii (A. naeslundii) were used for biofilm formation on denture base resin. Colony forming unit (CFU) counts, microbial viability staining, and 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) array were used to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of DMADDM. C. albicans staining and Real-time PCR were used to analyze the morphology and expression of virulence genes of C. albicans in biofilm. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) array and Real-time PCR were conducted to examine the results after biofilm co-cultured with epithelial cell. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining followed by histological evaluation were used to study the biocompatibility of this modified material. We found that DMADDM containing groups reduced both biomass and metabolic activity of the biofilm significantly. DMADDM can also inhibit the virulence of C. albicans by means of inhibiting the hyphal development and downregulation of two virulence related genes. DMADDM significantly reduced the cell damage caused by multi-species biofilm according to the LDH activity and reduced the expression of IL-18 gene of the cells simultaneously. The in vivo histological evaluation proved that the addition of DMADDM less than 6.6% in denture material did not increase the inflammatory response (p > 0.05). Therefore, we proposed that the novel denture base resin containing DMADDM may be considered as a new promising therapeutic system against problems caused by microbes on denture base such as denture stomatitis. PMID:27367683

  19. Identification of the Microbiota in Carious Dentin Lesions Using 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Junko; Takeshita, Toru; Shibata, Yukie; Yamanaka, Wataru; Unemori, Masako; Akamine, Akifumi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    While mutans streptococci have long been assumed to be the specific pathogen responsible for human dental caries, the concept of a complex dental caries-associated microbiota has received significant attention in recent years. Molecular analyses revealed the complexity of the microbiota with the predominance of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in carious dentine lesions. However, characterization of the dentin caries-associated microbiota has not been extensively explored in different ethnicities and races. In the present study, the bacterial communities in the carious dentin of Japanese subjects were analyzed comprehensively with molecular approaches using the16S rRNA gene. Carious dentin lesion samples were collected from 32 subjects aged 4–76 years, and the 16S rRNA genes, amplified from the extracted DNA with universal primers, were sequenced with a pyrosequencer. The bacterial composition was classified into clusters I, II, and III according to the relative abundance (high, middle, low) of Lactobacillus. The bacterial composition in cluster II was composed of relatively high proportions of Olsenella and Propionibacterium or subdominated by heterogeneous genera. The bacterial communities in cluster III were characterized by the predominance of Atopobium, Prevotella, or Propionibacterium with Streptococcus or Actinomyces. Some samples in clusters II and III, mainly related to Atopobium and Propionibacterium, were novel combinations of microbiota in carious dentin lesions and may be characteristic of the Japanese population. Clone library analysis revealed that Atopobium sp. HOT-416 and P. acidifaciens were specific species associated with dentinal caries among these genera in a Japanese population. We summarized the bacterial composition of dentinal carious lesions in a Japanese population using next-generation sequencing and found typical Japanese types with Atopobium or Propionibacterium predominating. PMID:25083880

  20. Axenic Culture of a Candidate Division TM7 Bacterium from the Human Oral Cavity and Biofilm Interactions with Other Oral Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Soro, Valeria; Dutton, Lindsay C.; Sprague, Susan V.; Nobbs, Angela H.; Ireland, Anthony J.; Sandy, Jonathan R.; Jepson, Mark A.; Micaroni, Massimo; Splatt, Peter R.; Dymock, David

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of bacterial species in the human oral cavity is well recognized, but a high proportion of them are presently uncultivable. Candidate division TM7 bacteria are almost always detected in metagenomic studies but have not yet been cultivated. In this paper, we identified candidate division TM7 bacterial phylotypes in mature plaque samples from around orthodontic bonds in subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment. Successive rounds of enrichment in laboratory media led to the isolation of a pure culture of one of these candidate division TM7 phylotypes. The bacteria formed filaments of 20 to 200 μm in length within agar plate colonies and in monospecies biofilms on salivary pellicle and exhibited some unusual morphological characteristics by transmission electron microscopy, including a trilaminated cell surface layer and dense cytoplasmic deposits. Proteomic analyses of cell wall protein extracts identified abundant polypeptides predicted from the TM7 partial genomic sequence. Pleiomorphic phenotypes were observed when the candidate division TM7 bacterium was grown in dual-species biofilms with representatives of six different oral bacterial genera. The TM7 bacterium formed long filaments in dual-species biofilm communities with Actinomyces oris or Fusobacterium nucleatum. However, the TM7 isolate grew as short rods or cocci in dual-species biofilms with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra, or Streptococcus gordonii, forming notably robust biofilms with the latter two species. The ability to cultivate TM7 axenically should majorly advance understanding of the physiology, genetics, and virulence properties of this novel candidate division oral bacterium. PMID:25107981

  1. Soil Microbial Community Structure and Metabolic Activity of Pinus elliottii Plantations across Different Stand Ages in a Subtropical Area

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zeyan; Haack, Stacey Elizabeth; Lin, Wenxiong; Li, Bailian; Wu, Linkun; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbes play an essential role in the forest ecosystem as an active component. This study examined the hypothesis that soil microbial community structure and metabolic activity would vary with the increasing stand ages in long-term pure plantations of Pinus elliottii. The phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP) method was used to assess these characteristics in the rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii. We found that the soil microbial communities were significantly different among different stand ages of P. elliottii plantations. The PLFA analysis indicated that the bacterial biomass was higher than the actinomycic and fungal biomass in all stand ages. However, the bacterial biomass decreased with the increasing stand ages, while the fungal biomass increased. The four maximum biomarker concentrations in rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii for all stand ages were 18:1ω9c, 16:1ω7c, 18:3ω6c (6,9,12) and cy19:0, representing measures of fungal and gram negative bacterial biomass. In addition, CLPP analysis revealed that the utilization rate of amino acids, polymers, phenolic acids, and carbohydrates of soil microbial community gradually decreased with increasing stand ages, though this pattern was not observed for carboxylic acids and amines. Microbial community diversity, as determined by the Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, Richness index and McIntosh index, significantly decreased as stand age increased. Overall, both the PLFA and CLPP illustrated that the long-term pure plantation pattern exacerbated the microecological imbalance previously described in the rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii, and markedly decreased the soil microbial community diversity and metabolic activity. Based on the correlation analysis, we concluded that the soil nutrient and C/N ratio most significantly contributed to the variation of soil microbial community structure and metabolic activity in different stand ages of P

  2. Antimicrobial properties of Cocos nucifera (coconut) husk: An extrapolation to oral health

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Maji; Cyriac, Maria B; Pai, Vidya; Varghese, Ipe; Shantaram, Manjula

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Brushing the teeth with fibrous husk of Cocos nucifera (coconut) is a common oral hygiene practice among people of rural areas of South India. However, the probable antimicrobial properties of this plant material against common oral pathogens have not been proved scientifically. Therefore, the present study was designed. Materials and Methods: Alcoholic extract of the husk of Cocos nucifera was prepared and the antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens like cariogenic bacteria, periodontal pathogens, and candidal organisms were performed by the Agar Well Diffusion Method. The results obtained were then subjected to statistical analysis using One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD). Results: The alcoholic extract of Cocos nucifera showed a significant concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity, expressed as a zone of inhibition with respect to all tested organisms except Actinomyces species. The inhibitory effect was more significant, with a majority of cariogenic organisms and Candida, with a zone of inhibition ranging from 4.6 mm to 16.3 mm. However, the effect was lesser with Cocos nucifera compared to chlorhexidine. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 50 mg/ml to 75 mg/ml. Conclusion: Cocos nucifera has a significant inhibitory action against common oral pathogens, indicating the presence of highly effective antimicrobial compounds. Therefore, it is proved that its use can contribute to oral health to a great extent. Identification of these active compounds provides the scope for incorporating it into a modern oral care system, so as to control oral diseases. PMID:25097415

  3. HIV Infection and Microbial Diversity in Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R.; Phelan, Joan A.; Norman, Robert G.; Fisch, Gene S.; Corby, Patricia M.; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J.; Kokaras, Alexis S.; Malamud, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469

  4. The Effect of Smear Layer on Antimicrobial Efficacy of Three Root Canal Irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Nazanin; Dianat, Omid; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Zadsirjan, Saeede

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the main goals of endodontic treatment is to decrease the harboring bacteria within the root canal system and dentinal tubules. This experimental study attempted to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of three root canal irrigants in the presence and absence of smear layer (SL). Methods and Materials: A total of 210 sound extracted human single-rooted teeth were prepared. After creating the SL and its removal in half of the samples, they were infected with Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Actinomyces israelii (A. israelii). A total of 180 specimen were used to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the three irrigants in presence and absence of SL, 24 specimen were placed in the positive and negative controls, 2 samples were utilized for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and 2 were used for Gram staining. Then, they were exposed to irrigants including 2.61% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and 1% povidone-iodine (PI) for 5, 30 and 60 min. Presence/absence of test microorganisms was determined by incubation of specimens in test tubes containing brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth and then measuring the colony forming units (CFU) on BHI agar. A cumulative logistic model was used to analyze the ordinal response. Results: The 2.61% solution of NaOCl was significantly more effective than 0.2% CHX and the latter was more efficient than 1% PI for decreasing fungal and microbial infection of dentinal tubules in the presence and absence of SL. Conclusion: The presence of smear layer decreased the efficacy of antimicrobial irrigants. The minimum time required for elimination of fungal/microbial infection was 30 min. PMID:26213540

  5. [Soil Microorganism Characteristics and Soil Nutrients of Different Wetlands in Sanjinag Plain, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ye; Huang, Zhi-gang; Wu, Hai-tao; Lü, Xian-guo

    2015-05-01

    Four typical wetland types (i.e. wetlands with the following dominant plant species: Calamagrostis angustifolia + Salix brachypoda, Calamagrostis angustifolia, Carex lasiocarpa and Phragmites australis) of the Honghe reserve in Sanjiang Plain were studied to investigate the distribution of soil microorganism quantity and enzyme activity and their relationships with soil nutrients. The results showed that in 0-30 cm soil layer of these four wetlands: (1) Contents of soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus decreased with the increase of soil depth, while available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium did not exhibit regularly changes. Moreover, there were significantly different for soil nutrient contents among different wetland types (P < 0.05). (2) The number of soil microorganism was bacteria > actinomycetes > fungi, furthermore, the number of three microbial colonies all decreased with the increase of soil depth. Total soil microbial number of C. angustifolia wetland was the highest and that of C. lasiocarpa wetland was the lowest. (3) Soil invertase and cellulase activities decreased with soil depth, while soil catalase activity showed no consistent changes. Three kinds of enzyme activities in C. angustifolia + S. brachypoda and C. angustifolia wetlands were significantly higher than those of C. lasiocarpa and P. australis wetlands (P < 0.05). (4) The correlation analysis showed that soil bacteria, fungi and cellulose activity had a significant correlation with indicators of soil nutrients. But there was no correlation between actinomyces, invertase and available potassium, as well as between catalase and available potassium, available phosphorus. Overall, soil microorganism and enzyme activities are important indicators for reflecting the status of soil nutrients.

  6. Antibacterial effects of N-acetylcysteine against endodontic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hoi; Choi, Young-Suk; Lee, Hyeon-Woo; Heo, Jung Sun; Chang, Seok Woo; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2016-04-01

    The success of endodontic treatment depends on the eradication of microorganisms from the root canal system and the prevention of reinfection. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant mucolytic agent, as an intracanal medicament against selected endodontic pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of NAC for Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus salivarius, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis were determined using the broth microdilution method. NAC showed antibacterial activity, with MIC values of 0.78-1.56 mg/ml. The effect of NAC on biofilm formation of each bacterium and a multispecies culture consisting of the four bacterial species was assessed by crystal violet staining. NAC significantly inhibited biofilm formation by all the monospecies and multispecies bacteria at minimum concentrations of 0.78-3.13 mg/ml. The efficacy of NAC for biofilm disruption was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and ATP-bioluminescence quantification using mature multispecies biofilms. Preformed mature multispecies biofilms on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite disks were disrupted within 10 min by treatment with NAC at concentrations of 25 mg/ml or higher. After 24 h of treatment, the viability of mature biofilms was reduced by > 99% compared with the control. Moreover, the biofilm disrupting activity of NAC was significantly higher than that of saturated calcium hydroxide or 2% chlorhexidine solution. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, we conclude that NAC has excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy against endodontic pathogens and may be used as an alternative intracanal medicament in root canal therapies.

  7. Microbiota studies in the bile duct strongly suggest a role for Helicobacter pylori in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Avilés-Jiménez, F; Guitron, A; Segura-López, F; Méndez-Tenorio, A; Iwai, S; Hernández-Guerrero, A; Torres, J

    2016-02-01

    Biliary tract cancer or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECCA) represents the sixth commonest cause of cancer in the gastrointestinal tract in western countries. We aimed to characterize the microbiota and its predicted associated functions in the biliary tract of ECCA and benign biliary pathology (BBP). Samples were taken from 100 patients with ECCA and 100 patients with BBP by endoscopic cholangio-pancreatography for DNA extraction. Ten patients with ECCA and ten with BBP were selected for microbiota studies using the V4-16S rRNA gene and sequenced in Illumina platform. Microbiota analyses included sample-to-sample distance metrics, ordination/clustering and prediction of functions. Presence of Nesterenkonia sp. and Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genes were tested in the 100 ECCA and 100 BBP samples. Phylum Proteobacteria dominated all samples (60.4% average). Ordination multicomponent analyses showed significant microbiota separation between ECCA and BBP (p 0.010). Analyses of 4002 operational taxonomic units with presence variation in at least one category probed a separation of ECCA from BBP. Among these, Nesterenkonia decreased, whereas Methylophilaceae, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Novosphingobium and H. pylori increased in ECCA. Predicted associated functions showed increased abundance of H. pylori virulence genes in ECCA. cagA and vacA genes were confirmed by PCR in ECCA and BBP samples. This is the first microbiota report in ECCA and BBP to show significant changes in microbial composition. Bacterial species unusual for human flora were found: Methylophilaceae and Nesterenkonia are reported in hypersaline soils, and Mesorhizobium is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium. Enrichment of virulence genes confirms previous studies suggesting that H. pylori might be associated with ECCA. PMID:26493848

  8. Microbiota studies in the bile duct strongly suggest a role for Helicobacter pylori in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Avilés-Jiménez, F; Guitron, A; Segura-López, F; Méndez-Tenorio, A; Iwai, S; Hernández-Guerrero, A; Torres, J

    2016-02-01

    Biliary tract cancer or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECCA) represents the sixth commonest cause of cancer in the gastrointestinal tract in western countries. We aimed to characterize the microbiota and its predicted associated functions in the biliary tract of ECCA and benign biliary pathology (BBP). Samples were taken from 100 patients with ECCA and 100 patients with BBP by endoscopic cholangio-pancreatography for DNA extraction. Ten patients with ECCA and ten with BBP were selected for microbiota studies using the V4-16S rRNA gene and sequenced in Illumina platform. Microbiota analyses included sample-to-sample distance metrics, ordination/clustering and prediction of functions. Presence of Nesterenkonia sp. and Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genes were tested in the 100 ECCA and 100 BBP samples. Phylum Proteobacteria dominated all samples (60.4% average). Ordination multicomponent analyses showed significant microbiota separation between ECCA and BBP (p 0.010). Analyses of 4002 operational taxonomic units with presence variation in at least one category probed a separation of ECCA from BBP. Among these, Nesterenkonia decreased, whereas Methylophilaceae, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Novosphingobium and H. pylori increased in ECCA. Predicted associated functions showed increased abundance of H. pylori virulence genes in ECCA. cagA and vacA genes were confirmed by PCR in ECCA and BBP samples. This is the first microbiota report in ECCA and BBP to show significant changes in microbial composition. Bacterial species unusual for human flora were found: Methylophilaceae and Nesterenkonia are reported in hypersaline soils, and Mesorhizobium is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium. Enrichment of virulence genes confirms previous studies suggesting that H. pylori might be associated with ECCA.

  9. Supragingival Microbial Profiles of Permanent and Deciduous Teeth in Children with Mixed Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Weihua; Qin, Man; Chen, Feng; Xia, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study was designed to investigate the microbial profiles of teeth in different locations in mixed-dentition-stage children, and to compare the microbiomes of permanent and deciduous teeth in the same healthy oral cavity. Methods Supragingival plaque samples of teeth in various locations—the first permanent molars, deciduous molars, deciduous canines and incisors and permanent incisors—were collected from 20 healthy mixed-dentition-stage children with 10–12 permanent teeth erupted. Plaque DNA was extracted, and the V3–V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and subjected to sequencing. Results On average, 18,051 high-quality sequences per sample were generated. Permanent tooth sites tended to host more diverse bacterial communities than those of deciduous tooth sites. A total of 12 phyla, 21 classes, 38 orders, 66 families, 74 genera were detected ultimately. Five predominant phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria) were highly variable among sites. Of 26 genera with a mean relative abundance of >0.1%, 16 showed significant differences in relative abundance among the groups. More than 20% of the total operational taxonomical units were detected only in permanent or deciduous teeth. The variation in the microbial community composition was due mainly to permanent teeth being enriched in Actinomyces and deciduous teeth in Treponema. The core microbiome of supragingival plaque in mixed dentition comprised 19 genera with complex correlationships. Conclusion Our results suggest differences in microbial diversity and composition between permanent and deciduous teeth sites in mixed dentition. Moreover, the core microbiome of these sites was determined. These findings enhance our understanding of the development of the native oral microbiota with age. PMID:26752284

  10. Bacterial Diversity in a Nonsaline Alkaline Environment: Heterotrophic Aerobic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tiago, Igor; Chung, Ana Paula; Veríssimo, António

    2004-01-01

    Heterotrophic populations were isolated and characterized from an alkaline groundwater environment generated by active serpentinization, which results in a Ca(OH)2-enriched, extremely diluted groundwater with pH 11.4. One hundred eighty-five strains were isolated in different media at different pH values during two sampling periods. To assess the degree of diversity present in the environment and to select representative strains for further characterization of the populations, we screened the isolates by using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR profiles and grouped them based on similarities determined by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Phenotypic characterization, determinations of G+C content, phylogenetic analyses by direct sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and determinations of pH tolerance were performed with the selected isolates. Although 38 different populations were identified and characterized, the vast majority of the isolates were gram positive with high G+C contents and were affiliated with three distinct groups, namely, strains closely related to the species Dietzia natrolimnae (32% of the isolates), to Frigoribacterium/Clavibacter lineages (29% of the isolates), and to the type strain of Microbacterium kitamiense (20% of the isolates). Other isolates were phylogenetically related to strains of the genera Agrococcus, Leifsonia, Kytococcus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Rothia, Nesterenkonia, Citrococcus, Micrococcus, Actinomyces, Rhodococcus, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus. Only five isolates were gram negative: one was related to the Sphingobacteria lineage and the other four were related to the α-Proteobacteria lineage. Despite the pH of the environment, the vast majority of the populations were alkali tolerant, and only two strains were able to grow at pH 11. PMID:15574939

  11. L’actinomycose thoracique multiple chez l’immunocompétent

    PubMed Central

    Msougar, Yassine; Fenane, Hicham; Maidi, Mehdi; Benosman, Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    L′actinomycose est une affection bactérienne granulomateuse, suppurative, étendue et chronique provoquée par la bactérie anaérobique gram positif Actinomyces israelii. La localisation thoracique est rare, elle peut simuler une pathologie néoplasique ou une tuberculose. Il s’agit d’un patient de 54ans sans antécédents pathologiques, qui s’est présenté avec deux tuméfactions pariétales basithoarciques droites, l’une antérieure et l’autre postérieure s’accompagnant d’une altération de l’état général. L’examen clinique ainsi que le bilan radiologique ont montré deux masses de la paroi thoracique et une atteinte parenchymateuse basale droite. L’examen anatomopathologique de la biopsie de la masse antérieure a montré des foyers d’actinomycose permettant d’établir le diagnostic d’actinomycose thoraco-pulmonaire. Un bilan immunologique s’est révélé normal. Le patient est alors mis sous traitement antibiotique à base d’amoxicilline protégée avec bonne évolution clinique et radiologique. Le but de cette observation est de rappeler les aspects radio-clinique, histologiques, thérapeutiques et évolutifs ainsi que les difficultés diagnostiques de cette affection. PMID:24672630

  12. Biofiltration treatment of odors from municipal solid waste treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Li, Mi; Chen, Rong; Li, Zhengyue; Qian, Guangren; An, Taicheng; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying

    2009-07-01

    An in situ compost biofilter was established for the treatment of odors from biostabilization processing of municipal solid waste. The concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in odors and their components were measured. Biofilter media was characterized in terms of total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), organic matter (OM), pH value and determination of bacterial colony structure. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that the main components of the produced gas were benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) along with other alkanes, alkenes, terpenes, and sulphur compounds. The compost biofilter had remarkable removal ability for alkylated benzenes (>80%), but poor removal for terpenes ( approximately 30%). Total VOC concentrations in odors during the biostabilization process period ranged from 0.7 to 87 ppmv, and the VOC removal efficiency of the biofilter varied from 20% to 95%. After about 140 days operation, TN, TC, TP and OM in compost were kept almost stable, but the dissolved N, NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N experienced an increase of 44.5%, 56.2% and 76.3%, respectively. Dissolved P decreased by 27.3%. The pH value experienced an increase in the early period and finally varied from 7.38 to 8.08. Results of bacterial colony in packing material indicated that bacteria and mold colony counts increased, but yeasts and actinomyces decreased along with biofilter operation, which were respectively, 3.7, 3.4, 0.04 and 0.07 times of their initial values.

  13. Aeroallergens and viable microbes in sandstorm dust. Potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments.

    PubMed

    Kwaasi, A A; Parhar, R S; al-Mohanna, F A; Harfi, H A; Collison, K S; al-Sedairy, S T

    1998-03-01

    Aeroallergens and antigens in sandstorm dust, extracts of which were skin prick test (SPT) positive in allergic patients, were detected by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA. Fungi and bacteria isolated by agar settle plates and soil dilution and soil washing methods were enumerated and identified. Cat dander, Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chenopodium, Cladosporium, Bermuda grass, Pithecellobium, Prosopis, Rumex, cultivated rye, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detected by both methods. Viable microbes including 1892 +/- 325 colony-forming units (cfu) of bacteria, and 869 +/- 75 cfu of fungi were isolated per gram of dust by the soil dilution method. Randomly selected microbial colonies on streaking and subculture were found to consist of between two and seven mixed colonies. Fungi including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Mucor, Mycelia sterilia, Penicillium, Pythium, Ulocladium, Verticillium, and some yeasts were isolated. Actinomyces, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and mostly coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were identified, but the bulk of unidentified bacterial isolates were mainly mixed colonies of rods, cocci, coccobacilli, and some filamentous types. Six-hour agar settle-plate counts during sandstorms were 100 and 40% higher for bacteria and fungi, respectively, than without sandstorms. The most abundant aeroallergens were those of Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bermuda grass, Cladosporium, cultivated rye, Prosopis, and cat dander. Pithecellobium dulce, Rumex crispus, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detectable for the first time in Riyadh. IgE reactivities of the dust in man were demonstrated by ELISA using sera from atopic, exposed, and normal subjects. These results indicate that sandstorm dust is a prolific source of potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments, and the methods mentioned here should be routinely used for quick sampling of the environment. PMID:9542605

  14. A cross-sectional survey of bacterial species in plaque from client owned dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ian J; Wallis, Corrin; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Milella, Lisa; Loman, Nick; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs which if left untreated results in significant pain to the pet and loss of dentition. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species in canine plaque that are significantly associated with health, gingivitis and mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss). In this survey subgingival plaque samples were collected from 223 dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis and mild periodontitis with 72 to 77 samples per health status. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. Pyrosequencing of the PCR amplicons identified a total of 274 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all disease stages, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Bergeyella. Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, and Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant genera in mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from each of these genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Principal component analysis showed distinct community profiles in health and disease. The species identified show some similarities with health and periodontal disease in humans but also major differences. In contrast to human, healthy canine plaque was found to be dominated by Gram negative bacterial species whereas Gram positive anaerobic species predominate in disease. The scale of this study surpasses previously published research and enhances our understanding of the bacterial species present in canine subgingival plaque and their associations with health and early periodontal disease. PMID:24349448

  15. Antibacterial effects of N-acetylcysteine against endodontic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hoi; Choi, Young-Suk; Lee, Hyeon-Woo; Heo, Jung Sun; Chang, Seok Woo; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2016-04-01

    The success of endodontic treatment depends on the eradication of microorganisms from the root canal system and the prevention of reinfection. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant mucolytic agent, as an intracanal medicament against selected endodontic pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of NAC for Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus salivarius, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis were determined using the broth microdilution method. NAC showed antibacterial activity, with MIC values of 0.78-1.56 mg/ml. The effect of NAC on biofilm formation of each bacterium and a multispecies culture consisting of the four bacterial species was assessed by crystal violet staining. NAC significantly inhibited biofilm formation by all the monospecies and multispecies bacteria at minimum concentrations of 0.78-3.13 mg/ml. The efficacy of NAC for biofilm disruption was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and ATP-bioluminescence quantification using mature multispecies biofilms. Preformed mature multispecies biofilms on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite disks were disrupted within 10 min by treatment with NAC at concentrations of 25 mg/ml or higher. After 24 h of treatment, the viability of mature biofilms was reduced by > 99% compared with the control. Moreover, the biofilm disrupting activity of NAC was significantly higher than that of saturated calcium hydroxide or 2% chlorhexidine solution. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, we conclude that NAC has excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy against endodontic pathogens and may be used as an alternative intracanal medicament in root canal therapies. PMID:27033208

  16. Microbial Communities of the Upper Respiratory Tract and Otitis Media in Children

    PubMed Central

    Laufer, Alison S.; Metlay, Joshua P.; Gent, Janneane F.; Fennie, Kristopher P.; Kong, Yong; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae asymptomatically colonizes the upper respiratory tract of children and is a frequent cause of otitis media. Patterns of microbial colonization likely influence S. pneumoniae colonization and otitis media susceptibility. This study compared microbial communities in children with and without otitis media. Nasal swabs and clinical and demographic data were collected in a cross-sectional study of Philadelphia, PA, children (6 to 78 months) (n = 108) during the 2008-2009 winter respiratory virus season. Swabs were cultured for S. pneumoniae. DNA was extracted from the swabs; 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions (V1 and V2) were PCR amplified and sequenced by Roche/454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. Microbial communities were described using the Shannon diversity and evenness indices. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to group microbial community taxa into four factors representing correlated taxa. Of 108 children, 47 (44%) were colonized by S. pneumoniae, and 25 (23%) were diagnosed with otitis media. Microbial communities with S. pneumoniae were significantly less diverse and less even. Two PCA factors were associated with a decreased risk of pneumococcal colonization and otitis media, as follows: one factor included potentially protective flora (Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum), and the other factor included Propionibacterium, Lactococcus, and Staphylococcus. The remaining two PCA factors were associated with an increased risk of otitis media. One factor included Haemophilus, and the final factor included Actinomyces, Rothia, Neisseria, and Veillonella. Generally, these taxa are not considered otitis media pathogens but may be important in the causal pathway. Increased understanding of upper respiratory tract microbial communities will contribute to the development of otitis media treatment and prevention strategies. PMID:21285435

  17. Responses of soil microbial communities and enzyme activities to nitrogen and phosphorus additions in Chinese fir plantations of subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W. Y.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, X. Y.; Fu, X. L.; Chen, F. S.; Wang, H. M.; Sun, X. M.; Wen, X. F.

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions to forest ecosystems are known to influence various above-ground properties, such as plant productivity and composition, and below-ground properties, such as soil nutrient cycling. However, our understanding of how soil microbial communities and their functions respond to nutrient additions in subtropical plantations is still not complete. In this study, we added N and P to Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China to examine how nutrient additions influenced soil microbial community composition and enzyme activities. The results showed that most soil microbial properties were responsive to N and/or P additions, but responses often varied depending on the nutrient added and the quantity added. For instance, there were more than 30 % greater increases in the activities of β-glucosidase (βG) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in the treatments that received nutrient additions compared to the control plot, whereas acid phosphatase (aP) activity was always higher (57 and 71 %, respectively) in the P treatment. N and P additions greatly enhanced the phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) abundance especially in the N2P (100 kg ha-1 yr-1 of N +50 kg ha-1 yr-1 of P) treatment; the bacterial PLFAs (bacPLFAs), fungal PLFAs (funPLFAs) and actinomycic PLFAs (actPLFAs) were about 2.5, 3 and 4 times higher, respectively, than in the CK (control). Soil enzyme activities were noticeably higher in November than in July, mainly due to seasonal differences in soil moisture content (SMC). βG or NAG activities were significantly and positively correlated with microbial PLFAs. These findings indicate that βG and NAG would be useful tools for assessing the biogeochemical transformation and metabolic activity of soil microbes. We recommend combined additions of N and P fertilizer to promote soil fertility and microbial activity in this kind of plantation.

  18. Responses of soil microbial communities and enzyme activities to nitrogen and phosphorus additions in Chinese fir plantations of subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W. Y.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, X. Y.; Fu, X. L.; Chen, F. S.; Wang, H. M.; Sun, X. M.; Wen, X. F.

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions to forest ecosystems are known to influence various above-ground properties, such as plant productivity and composition, and below-ground properties, such as soil nutrient cycling. However, our understanding of how soil microbial communities and their functions respond to nutrient additions in subtropical plantations is still not complete. In this study, we added N and P to Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China to examine how nutrient additions influenced soil microbial community composition and enzyme activities. The results showed that most soil microbial properties were responsive to N and/or P additions, but responses often varied depending on the nutrient added and the quantity added. For instance, there were more than 30 % greater increases in the activities of β-Glucosidase (βG) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in the treatments that received nutrient additions compared to the control plot, whereas acid phosphatase (aP) activity was always higher (57 and 71 %, respectively) in the P treatment. N and P additions greatly enhanced the PLFA abundanceespecially in the N2P treatment, the bacterial PLFAs (bacPLFAs), fungal PLFAs (funPLFAs) and actinomycic PLFAs (actPLFAs) were about 2.5, 3 and 4 times higher, respectively, than in the CK. Soil enzyme activities were noticeably higher in November than in July, mainly due to seasonal differences in soil moisture content (SMC). βG or NAG activities were significantly and positively correlated with microbial PLFAs. There were also significant relationships between gram-positive (G+) bacteria and all three soil enzymes. These findings indicate that G+ bacteria is the most important microbial community in C, N, and P transformations in Chinese fir plantations, and that βG and NAG would be useful tools for assessing the biogeochemical transformation and metabolic activity of soil microbes. We recommend combined additions of N and P fertilizer to promote soil

  19. The Cultivable Human Oral Gluten-Degrading Microbiome and its Potential Implications in Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Feo, Martin; Wei, Guoxian; Blumenkranz, Gabriel; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Schuppan, Detlef; Oppenheim, Frank G.; Helmerhorst, Eva J.

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease is characterized by intestinal inflammation caused by gluten, proteins which are widely contained in the Western diet. Mammalian digestive enzymes are only partly capable of cleaving gluten, and fragments remain that induce toxic responses in celiac patients. We found that the oral microbiome is a novel and rich source of gluten degrading enzymes. Here we report on the isolation and characterization of the cultivable resident oral microbes that are capable of cleaving gluten, with special emphasis on its immunogenic domains. Bacteria were obtained by a selective culturing approach and enzyme activities were characterised by: 1) Hydrolysis of paranitroanilide-derivatised gliadin-derived tripeptide substrates; 2) Gliadin degradation in-gel (gliadin zymography); 3) Gliadin degradation in solution; 4) Proteolysis of the highly immunogenic α-gliadin-derived 33-mer. For select strains pH activity profiles were determined. The culturing strategy yielded 87 aerobic and 63 anaerobic strains. Species with activity in at least two of the four assays were typed as: Rothia mucilaginosa HOT-681, Rothia aeria HOT-188, Actinomyces odontolyticus HOT-701, Streptococcus mitis HOT-677, Streptococcus sp. HOT-071, Neisseria mucosa HOT-682 and Capnocytophaga sputigena HOT-775, with Rothia species being active in all four assays. Cleavage specificities and substrate preferences differed among the strains identified. The approximate molecular weights of the enzymes were ~75 kD (Rothia spp.), ~60 kD (A. odontolyticus) and ~150 kD (Streptococcus spp.). In conclusion, this study identified new gluten-degrading microorganisms in the upper gastro-intestinal tract. A cocktail of the most active oral bacteria, or their isolated enzymes, may offer promising new treatment modalities for celiac disease. PMID:23714165

  20. Bacterial detachment from salivary conditioning films by dentifrice supernates.

    PubMed

    van der Mei, Henny C; White, Donald J; Cox, Ed R; Geertsema-Doornbusch, Gesinda I; Busscher, Henk J

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the detachment by supernates of nine different dentifrices of four oral bacterial strains adhering to a salivary pellicle in a parallel plate flow chamber. Ultra-thin bovine enamel slabs were coated for 1.5 h with human whole saliva. Following buffer rinsing, a bacterial suspension of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans or Actinomyces naeslundii was perfused through the flow chamber at a shear rate of 30 s-1 for four hours, and the number of adhering bacteria n4h was enumerated by image analysis after buffer rinsing at the same shear rate. Then, a 25 wt%-dentifrice/water supernate was perfused through the flow chamber for four minutes, followed by eight minutes of buffer rinsing and another enumeration of the number of bacteria that had remained adhering nad. Finally, an air-bubble was passed through the flow chamber to mimic the occasionally high detachment forces occurring in the oral cavity, and the adhering bacteria nab were counted again. On average, S. sanguis was the easiest to detach (73% averaged over all dentifrice supernates), while A. naeslundii was the most difficult (22% on average). The combined detachment of bacteria by dentifrice supernates and air-bubble ranged from a low of 16% to a high of 80%. Dentifrices containing pyrophosphate and polymeric polyphosphate (hexametaphosphate) surface active ingredients appeared to produce the most consistent and strongest desorption effects on plaque bacteria. Factors apparently important to bacterial detachment from pellicle-covered tooth surfaces by dentifrice formulations include the nature of adhesion of bacterial strains and chemical composition of the dentifrice formulations, including pH, surfactant system and the effect of added ingredients (dispersants, metal ions, peroxides, baking soda). PMID:11507932

  1. Influence of topography and hydrophilicity on initial oral biofilm formation on microstructured titanium surfaces in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Almaguer-Flores, A.; Olivares-Navarrete, R.; Wieland, M.; Ximénez-Fyvie, L. A.; Schwartz, Z.; Boyan, B. D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of the microtopography and hydrophilicity of titanium (Ti) substrates on initial oral biofilm formation. Materials and methods Nine bacterial species belonging to the normal oral microbiota, including: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Actinomyces israelii, Campylobacter rectus, Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Streptococcus sanguinis were tested on Ti surfaces: pretreatment (PT [Ra<0.2 μm]), acid-etched (A [Ra<0.8 μm]), A modified to be hydrophilic (modA), sand-blasted/acid-etched (SLA [Ra = 4 μm]), and hydrophilic SLA (modSLA). Disks were incubated for 24 h in anaerobic conditions using a normal culture medium (CM) or human saliva (HS). The total counts of bacteria and the proportion of each bacterial species were analysed by checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization. Results: Higher counts of bacteria were observed on all surfaces incubated with CM compared with the samples incubated with HS. PT, SLA, and modSLA exhibited higher numbers of attached bacteria in CM, whereas SLA and modSLA had a significant increase in bacterial adhesion in HS. The proportion of the species in the initial biofilms was also influenced by the surface properties and the media used: SLA and modSLA increased the proportion of species like A. actinomycetemcomitans and S. sanguinis in both media, while the adhesion of A. israelii and P. gingivalis on the same surfaces was affected in the presence of saliva. Conclusions The initial biofilm formation and composition were affected by the microtopography and hydrophilicity of the surface and by the media used. PMID:21492236

  2. A Consortium of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Filifactor alocis Is Present in Sites Prior to Bone Loss in a Longitudinal Study of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Tischio-Bereski, Debbie; Ferrendiz, Javier; Furgang, David; Paster, Bruce J.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) in African-American adolescents has been documented but is poorly understood. Two thousand fifty-eight adolescents aged 11 to 17 years were screened for their periodontal status and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in their oral cavity. Seventy-one A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative and 63 A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive periodontally healthy subjects were enrolled, sampled, examined, and radiographed yearly for 3 years. Gingival and periodontal pocket depth and attachment levels were recorded. Disease presentation was characterized by bone loss (BL). Subgingival sites were sampled every 6 months to assess (i) the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans in BL and (ii) the association of A. actinomycetemcomitans and other microbes in their relationships to BL. Sixteen of 63 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans developed BL (the other 47 subjects with A. actinomycetemcomitans had no BL). No A. actinomycetemcomitans-negative subjects developed BL. Human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) was used for subgingival microbial assessment. On a subject level, pooled data from A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects who remained healthy had higher prevalences of Streptococcus and Actinomyces species, while A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive subjects with BL had higher prevalences of Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Peptostreptococcus sp. human oral taxon 113 (HOT-113). At vulnerable sites, A. actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and F. alocis levels were elevated prior to BL. In cases where the three-organism consortium (versus A. actinomycetemcomitans alone) was detected, the specificity for detecting sites of future BL increased from 62% to 99%, with a sensitivity of 89%. We conclude that detecting the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. parasanguinis, and F. alocis together indicates sites of future BL in LAP. A

  3. Effect of Antimicrobial Denture Base Resin on Multi-Species Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Keke; Ren, Biao; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H K; Chen, Yu; Han, Qi; Li, Bolei; Weir, Michael D; Li, Mingyun; Feng, Mingye; Cheng, Lei

    2016-06-29

    Our aims of the research were to study the antimicrobial effect of dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) modified denture base resin on multi-species biofilms and the biocompatibility of this modified dental material. Candida albicans (C. albicans), Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis), as well as Actinomyces naeslundii (A. naeslundii) were used for biofilm formation on denture base resin. Colony forming unit (CFU) counts, microbial viability staining, and 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) array were used to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of DMADDM. C. albicans staining and Real-time PCR were used to analyze the morphology and expression of virulence genes of C. albicans in biofilm. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) array and Real-time PCR were conducted to examine the results after biofilm co-cultured with epithelial cell. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining followed by histological evaluation were used to study the biocompatibility of this modified material. We found that DMADDM containing groups reduced both biomass and metabolic activity of the biofilm significantly. DMADDM can also inhibit the virulence of C. albicans by means of inhibiting the hyphal development and downregulation of two virulence related genes. DMADDM significantly reduced the cell damage caused by multi-species biofilm according to the LDH activity and reduced the expression of IL-18 gene of the cells simultaneously. The in vivo histological evaluation proved that the addition of DMADDM less than 6.6% in denture material did not increase the inflammatory response (p > 0.05). Therefore, we proposed that the novel denture base resin containing DMADDM may be considered as a new promising therapeutic system against problems caused by microbes on denture base such as denture stomatitis.

  4. Coryneform bacteria in human semen: inter-assay variability in species composition detection and biofilm production ability

    PubMed Central

    Türk, Silver; Mazzoli, Sandra; Štšepetova, Jelena; Kuznetsova, Julia; Mändar, Reet

    2014-01-01

    Background Coryneform bacteria constitute an important segment of male urogenital microbiota. They have been generally considered as saprophytes, although some species have been associated with prostatitis as well. At the same time, biofilm infections have been suspected as a cause of prostatitis. Objective To identify a set of coryneform bacteria isolated from semen of either healthy men or prostatitis patients applying different methods to reveal inter-assay variability and to determine their ability of adhesion and biofilm production. Design Coryneform bacteria were identified by API Coryne 2.0 biochemical identification system and 16S rDNA sequencing using different primer sets. Quantitative assessment of biofilm production was performed using crystal violet binding assay method. Results The most common species were Corynebacterium seminale, C. minutissimum, and Dermabacter hominis. Altogether 14 species and related genera were found. We observed the best inter-assay agreement when identifying C. seminale. Biofilm was observed in 7 out of 24 strains. The biofilm-producing strains belonged to Arthrobacter cumminsii, Dermabacter hominis, C. minutissimum, and Actinomyces neuii. No differences were found between the strains originating from prostatitis patients and healthy men. Dermabacter hominis strains were more potent biofilm producers than C. seminale strains (p=0.048). Conclusions We can conclude that a wide variety of coryneform bacteria can be found from the male genital tract, although their exact identification is problematic due to insufficient representation in databases. Nearly one third of the strains are able to form biofilm that may give them an advantage for surviving several host- and treatment-related conditions. PMID:24563649

  5. In Vitro Culture of Previously Uncultured Oral Bacterial Phylotypes

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Hayley; Rybalka, Alexandra; Moazzez, Rebecca; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2015-01-01

    Around a third of oral bacteria cannot be grown using conventional bacteriological culture media. Community profiling targeting 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomics methods have proved valuable in revealing the complexity of the oral bacterial community. Studies investigating the role of oral bacteria in health and disease require phenotypic characterizations that are possible only with live cultures. The aim of this study was to develop novel culture media and use an in vitro biofilm model to culture previously uncultured oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis were cultured on complex mucin-containing agar plates supplemented with proteose peptone (PPA), beef extract (BEA), or Gelysate (GA) as well as on fastidious anaerobe agar plus 5% horse blood (FAA). In vitro biofilms inoculated with the subgingival plaque samples and proteose peptone broth (PPB) as the growth medium were established using the Calgary biofilm device. Specific PCR primers were designed and validated for the previously uncultivated oral taxa Bacteroidetes bacteria HOT 365 and HOT 281, Lachnospiraceae bacteria HOT 100 and HOT 500, and Clostridiales bacterium HOT 093. All agar media were able to support the growth of 10 reference strains of oral bacteria. One previously uncultivated phylotype, Actinomyces sp. HOT 525, was cultivated on FAA. Of 93 previously uncultivated phylotypes found in the inocula, 26 were detected in in vitro-cultivated biofilms. Lachnospiraceae bacterium HOT 500 was successfully cultured from biofilm material harvested from PPA plates in coculture with Parvimonas micra or Veillonella dispar/parvula after colony hybridization-directed enrichment. The establishment of in vitro biofilms from oral inocula enables the cultivation of previously uncultured oral bacteria and provides source material for isolation in coculture. PMID:26407883

  6. Microbial communities of the upper respiratory tract and otitis media in children.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Alison S; Metlay, Joshua P; Gent, Janneane F; Fennie, Kristopher P; Kong, Yong; Pettigrew, Melinda M

    2011-02-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae asymptomatically colonizes the upper respiratory tract of children and is a frequent cause of otitis media. Patterns of microbial colonization likely influence S. pneumoniae colonization and otitis media susceptibility. This study compared microbial communities in children with and without otitis media. Nasal swabs and clinical and demographic data were collected in a cross-sectional study of Philadelphia, PA, children (6 to 78 months) (n=108) during the 2008-2009 winter respiratory virus season. Swabs were cultured for S. pneumoniae. DNA was extracted from the swabs; 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions (V1 and V2) were PCR amplified and sequenced by Roche/454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. Microbial communities were described using the Shannon diversity and evenness indices. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to group microbial community taxa into four factors representing correlated taxa. Of 108 children, 47 (44%) were colonized by S. pneumoniae, and 25 (23%) were diagnosed with otitis media. Microbial communities with S. pneumoniae were significantly less diverse and less even. Two PCA factors were associated with a decreased risk of pneumococcal colonization and otitis media, as follows: one factor included potentially protective flora (Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum), and the other factor included Propionibacterium, Lactococcus, and Staphylococcus. The remaining two PCA factors were associated with an increased risk of otitis media. One factor included Haemophilus, and the final factor included Actinomyces, Rothia, Neisseria, and Veillonella. Generally, these taxa are not considered otitis media pathogens but may be important in the causal pathway. Increased understanding of upper respiratory tract microbial communities will contribute to the development of otitis media treatment and prevention strategies.

  7. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    PubMed

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  8. Microbial analysis of bone collected during implant surgery: a clinical and laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Young, M P; Carter, D H; Worthington, H; Korachi, M; Drucker, D B

    2001-04-01

    Dental implant surgery produces bone debris which can be used to correct bone defects in the "simultaneous-augmentation" technique. However, this debris is potentially contaminated with oral bacteria. Therefore, this study examined bone debris collected during dental implant surgery in order 1) to identify the microbial contaminants and 2) to compare the effects of two different aspiration protocols on the levels of microbial contamination. Twenty-four partially dentate patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups and underwent bone collection using the Frios Bone Collector during surgery to insert two endosseous dental implants. In group S (using a stringent aspiration protocol), bone collection occurred within the surgical site only. In group NS (utilizing a non-stringent aspiration protocol), bone collection and tissue fluid control was achieved using the same suction tip. Bone samples were immediately transported for microbial analysis. Colonial and microscopic morphology, gaseous requirements and identification kits were utilized for identification of the isolated microbes. Twenty-eight species were identified including a number associated with disease, in particular, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis as well as the anaerobes Actinomyces odontolyticus, Eubacterium sp., Prevotella intermedia, Propionibacterium propionicum and Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus. In group S (stringent aspiration protocol), significantly fewer organisms were found than in group NS, the non-stringent aspiration protocol (P=0.001). Gram-positive cocci dominated the isolates from both groups. It is concluded that if bone debris is collected for implantation around dental implants, it should be collected with a stringent aspiration protocol (within the surgical site only) to minimize bacterial contaminants.

  9. The effects of an immediately pre-surgical chlorhexidine oral rinse on the bacterial contaminants of bone debris collected during dental implant surgery.

    PubMed

    Young, Malcolm P J; Korachi, May; Carter, Duncan H; Worthington, Helen V; McCord, James F; Drucker, David B

    2002-02-01

    Dental implant surgery produces bone debris that can be used in the "simultaneous augmentation" technique. Although this debris is contaminated with oral bacteria, a stringent aspiration protocol has been shown to reduce the levels of contamination. Chlorhexidine mouthrinse is a well-proven antibacterial rinse that has been shown to reduce infectious complications associated with dental implants. This study examined the effect of pre-operative rinsing with a 0.1% chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinse on the bacterial contaminants present in collected bone debris bone (CBD). Twenty partially edentate patients were randomly allocated into equal groups and underwent bone collection using the Frios Bone Collector (FBC) during the insertion of two dental implants. In group T a pre-operative chlorhexidine rinse was used, whilst in group C sterile water was used. For both groups, a stringent bone collection protocol was used. Bone samples were immediately transported for microbial analysis. Colonial and microscopic morphology, gaseous requirements and identification kits were utilised for identification of the isolated microbes. Thirty-nine species were identified including a number associated with disease, in particular Actinomyces odontolyticus, Clostridium bifermentans, Prevotella intermedia, and Propionibacterium propionicum. Samples from group T (chlorhexidine mouthrinse) yielded significantly fewer organisms (P < 0.001) than in group C (sterile water mouthrinse). Gram-positive cocci dominated the isolates from both groups. It is concluded that if bone debris is to be used for the purpose of immediate simultaneous augmentation, a preoperative chlorhexidine mouthrinse should be utilised in conjunction with a stringent aspiration protocol to reduce further the bacterial contamination of CBD.

  10. Insertional inactivation of genes responsible for the D-alanylation of lipoteichoic acid in Streptococcus gordonii DL1 (Challis) affects intrageneric coaggregations.

    PubMed

    Clemans, D L; Kolenbrander, P E; Debabov, D V; Zhang, Q; Lunsford, R D; Sakone, H; Whittaker, C J; Heaton, M P; Neuhaus, F C

    1999-05-01

    Most human oral viridans streptococci participate in intrageneric coaggregations, the cell-to-cell adherence among genetically distinct streptococci. Two genes relevant to these intrageneric coaggregations were identified by transposon Tn916 mutagenesis of Streptococcus gordonii DL1 (Challis). A 626-bp sequence flanking the left end of the transposon was homologous to dltA and dltB of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 (formerly called Lactobacillus casei). A 60-kb probe based on this flanking sequence was used to identify the homologous DNA in a fosmid library of S. gordonii DL1. This DNA encoded D-alanine-D-alanyl carrier protein ligase that was expressed in Escherichia coli from the fosmid clone. The cloned streptococcal dltA was disrupted by inserting an ermAM cassette, and then it was linearized and transformed into S. gordonii DL1 for allelic replacement. Erythromycin-resistant transformants containing a single insertion in dltA exhibited a loss of D-alanyl esters in lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and a loss of intrageneric coaggregation. This phenotype was correlated with the loss of a 100-kDa surface protein reported previously to be involved in mediating intrageneric coaggregation (C. J. Whittaker, D. L. Clemans, and P. E. Kolenbrander, Infect. Immun. 64:4137-4142, 1996). The mutants retained the parental ability to participate in intergeneric coaggregation with human oral actinomyces, indicating the specificity of the mutation in altering intrageneric coaggregations. The mutants were altered morphologically and exhibited aberrant cell septa in a variety of pleomorphs. The natural DNA transformation frequency was reduced 10-fold in these mutants. Southern analysis of chromosomal DNAs from various streptococcal species with the dltA probe revealed the presence of this gene in most viridans streptococci. Thus, it is hypothesized that D-alanyl LTA may provide binding sites for the putative 100-kDa adhesin and scaffolding for the proper presentation of this adhesin to

  11. The Natural Antimicrobial Subtilosin A Synergizes with Lauramide Arginine Ethyl Ester (LAE), ε-Poly-L-lysine (Polylysine), Clindamycin Phosphate and Metronidazole, Against the Vaginal Pathogen Gardnerella vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Cavera, Veronica L; Volski, Anna; Chikindas, Michael L

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common, recurrent vaginal infection linked to increased chances of preterm delivery, incidence of sexually transmitted infections and fertility problems. BV is caused by a shift of the vaginal ecosystem from predominately Lactobacillus to a multispecies Actinomyces biofilm with the most common representatives identified as Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella spp. Current treatments have been associated with increased resistance as well as negative effects on healthy microbiota. The objective of this study was to evaluate the synergistic potential of ten two-antimicrobial combinations against G. vaginalis and four representative lactobacilli. The four tested antimicrobials were lauramide arginine ethyl ester, ε-poly-L-lysine, clindamycin phosphate, metronidazole and the bacteriocin subtilosin A. The use of bacteriocins as either synergist or alternative treatment positions bacteriocins as an excellent alternative to current antibiotics. The microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each of the antimicrobials individually, and the checkerboard assay was used to evaluate these MICs in combination. Clindamycin and subtilosin (CS), and metronidazole and subtilosin were synergistic against G. vaginalis in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). All tested combinations were found to have Bliss synergy. The combination of clindamycin and polylysine (CP) was identified as antagonistic against L. acidophilus in terms of both FICI and Bliss synergy. The combination of clindamycin and metronidazole (CM) was antagonistic against L. vaginalis for both FICI and Bliss synergy. The combinations of CP, clindamycin and LAE, CS, and LAE and polylysine were identified as Bliss antagonistic against L. vaginalis but did not indicate FICI antagonism.

  12. Salivary Microbiota and Metabolome Associated with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Francavilla, Ruggiero; Ercolini, Danilo; Piccolo, Maria; Vannini, Lucia; Siragusa, Sonya; De Filippis, Francesca; De Pasquale, Ilaria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Di Toma, Michele; Gozzi, Giorgia; Serrazanetti, Diana I.; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the salivary microbiota and metabolome of 13 children with celiac disease (CD) under a gluten-free diet (treated celiac disease [T-CD]). The same number of healthy children (HC) was used as controls. The salivary microbiota was analyzed by an integrated approach using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Metabolome analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry–solid-phase microextraction. Compared to HC, the number of some cultivable bacterial groups (e.g., total anaerobes) significantly (P < 0.05) differed in the saliva samples of the T-CD children. As shown by community-level catabolic profiles, the highest Shannon's diversity and substrate richness were found in HC. Pyrosequencing data showed the highest richness estimator and diversity index values for HC. Levels of Lachnospiraceae, Gemellaceae, and Streptococcus sanguinis were highest for the T-CD children. Streptococcus thermophilus levels were markedly decreased in T-CD children. The saliva of T-CD children showed the largest amount of Bacteroidetes (e.g., Porphyromonas sp., Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Prevotella nanceiensis), together with the smallest amount of Actinobacteria. T-CD children were also characterized by decreased levels of some Actinomyces species, Atopobium species, and Corynebacterium durum. Rothia mucilaginosa was the only Actinobacteria species found at the highest level in T-CD children. As shown by multivariate statistical analyses, the levels of organic volatile compounds markedly differentiated T-CD children. Some compounds (e.g., ethyl-acetate, nonanal, and 2-hexanone) were found to be associated with T-CD children. Correlations (false discovery rate [FDR], <0.05) were found between the relative abundances of bacteria and some volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The findings of this study indicated that CD is associated with oral dysbiosis that could affect the oral metabolome. PMID:24657864

  13. Rapid and Sensitive PCR-Dipstick DNA Chromatography for Multiplex Analysis of the Oral Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Niwa, Kousuke; Kawase, Mitsuo; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    A complex of species has been associated with dental caries under the ecological hypothesis. This study aimed to develop a rapid, sensitive PCR-dipstick DNA chromatography assay that could be read by eye for multiplex and semiquantitative analysis of plaque bacteria. Parallel oligonucleotides were immobilized on a dipstick strip for multiplex analysis of target DNA sequences of the caries-associated bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Scardovia wiggsiae, Actinomyces species, and Veillonella parvula. Streptavidin-coated blue-colored latex microspheres were to generate signal. Target DNA amplicons with an oligonucleotide-tagged terminus and a biotinylated terminus were coupled with latex beads through a streptavidin-biotin interaction and then hybridized with complementary oligonucleotides on the strip. The accumulation of captured latex beads on the test and control lines produced blue bands, enabling visual detection with the naked eye. The PCR-dipstick DNA chromatography detected quantities as low as 100 pg of DNA amplicons and demonstrated 10- to 1000-fold higher sensitivity than PCR-agarose gel electrophoresis, depending on the target bacterial species. Semiquantification of bacteria was performed by obtaining a series of chromatograms using serial 10-fold dilution of PCR-amplified DNA extracted from dental plaque samples. The assay time was less than 3 h. The semiquantification procedure revealed the relative amounts of each test species in dental plaque samples, indicating that this disposable device has great potential in analysis of microbial composition in the oral cavity and intestinal tract, as well as in point-of-care diagnosis of microbiota-associated diseases. PMID:25485279

  14. Bacterial detachment from salivary conditioning films by dentifrice supernates.

    PubMed

    van der Mei, Henny C; White, Donald J; Cox, Ed R; Geertsema-Doornbusch, Gesinda I; Busscher, Henk J

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the detachment by supernates of nine different dentifrices of four oral bacterial strains adhering to a salivary pellicle in a parallel plate flow chamber. Ultra-thin bovine enamel slabs were coated for 1.5 h with human whole saliva. Following buffer rinsing, a bacterial suspension of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans or Actinomyces naeslundii was perfused through the flow chamber at a shear rate of 30 s-1 for four hours, and the number of adhering bacteria n4h was enumerated by image analysis after buffer rinsing at the same shear rate. Then, a 25 wt%-dentifrice/water supernate was perfused through the flow chamber for four minutes, followed by eight minutes of buffer rinsing and another enumeration of the number of bacteria that had remained adhering nad. Finally, an air-bubble was passed through the flow chamber to mimic the occasionally high detachment forces occurring in the oral cavity, and the adhering bacteria nab were counted again. On average, S. sanguis was the easiest to detach (73% averaged over all dentifrice supernates), while A. naeslundii was the most difficult (22% on average). The combined detachment of bacteria by dentifrice supernates and air-bubble ranged from a low of 16% to a high of 80%. Dentifrices containing pyrophosphate and polymeric polyphosphate (hexametaphosphate) surface active ingredients appeared to produce the most consistent and strongest desorption effects on plaque bacteria. Factors apparently important to bacterial detachment from pellicle-covered tooth surfaces by dentifrice formulations include the nature of adhesion of bacterial strains and chemical composition of the dentifrice formulations, including pH, surfactant system and the effect of added ingredients (dispersants, metal ions, peroxides, baking soda).

  15. [Soil Microorganism Characteristics and Soil Nutrients of Different Wetlands in Sanjinag Plain, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ye; Huang, Zhi-gang; Wu, Hai-tao; Lü, Xian-guo

    2015-05-01

    Four typical wetland types (i.e. wetlands with the following dominant plant species: Calamagrostis angustifolia + Salix brachypoda, Calamagrostis angustifolia, Carex lasiocarpa and Phragmites australis) of the Honghe reserve in Sanjiang Plain were studied to investigate the distribution of soil microorganism quantity and enzyme activity and their relationships with soil nutrients. The results showed that in 0-30 cm soil layer of these four wetlands: (1) Contents of soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus decreased with the increase of soil depth, while available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium did not exhibit regularly changes. Moreover, there were significantly different for soil nutrient contents among different wetland types (P < 0.05). (2) The number of soil microorganism was bacteria > actinomycetes > fungi, furthermore, the number of three microbial colonies all decreased with the increase of soil depth. Total soil microbial number of C. angustifolia wetland was the highest and that of C. lasiocarpa wetland was the lowest. (3) Soil invertase and cellulase activities decreased with soil depth, while soil catalase activity showed no consistent changes. Three kinds of enzyme activities in C. angustifolia + S. brachypoda and C. angustifolia wetlands were significantly higher than those of C. lasiocarpa and P. australis wetlands (P < 0.05). (4) The correlation analysis showed that soil bacteria, fungi and cellulose activity had a significant correlation with indicators of soil nutrients. But there was no correlation between actinomyces, invertase and available potassium, as well as between catalase and available potassium, available phosphorus. Overall, soil microorganism and enzyme activities are important indicators for reflecting the status of soil nutrients. PMID:26314138

  16. Development of emission factors for particulate matter in a school

    SciTech Connect

    Scheff, P.A.; Paulius, V.; Conroy, L.M.

    1999-07-01

    room and lobby, respectively. Respirable particle concentrations ranged from 13 to 38 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the art room and lobby, respectively. The most abundant fungi identified were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Yeasts. Gram +, gram {minus} and actinomyces were also quantified. A strong relationship between occupancy and corresponding carbon dioxide and particle concentrations was seen. Use of a one compartment mass balance model applied to each room is shown to be a useful method for evaluating and pollutant emission rates. Emission factors represented by the slope of emission rate versus occupancy were the best estimate of occupancy based emissions.

  17. Final report. (This is a conference support, no publications were delivered)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.; Hill, R.; Zohar, Y.

    2004-05-01

    International Symposium on the Biology of Actinomyces, December, 2003, Australia; (2) Ocean Research Conference Hawaii, February 16-20, 2004; (3) World Aquaculture Conference Hawaii, March 1-5, 2004; and (4) The 10th International Symposium of Microbial Ecology, Cancun, Mexico, August, 2004. The remaining funds will be used to assist partial traveling cost for the graduate students who participate and present in the meetings mentioned above. The amount of support and number of awardees will be decided by PIs Drs. Feng Chen, Russell Hill, and Yonathan Zohar. The original grant (DE-FG02-03ER63563) ended by December 31, 2003, Dr. Palmisano suggested to us to contact DOE operations at Chicago for a no cost extension. Please let us know if more information is needed.

  18. Changes in the Microflora of Haddock Fillets and Shucked Soft-Shelled Clams After Irradiation with Co60 Gamma Rays and Storage at 0 C and 6 C

    PubMed Central

    Masurovsky, E. B.; Voss, J. S.; Goldblith, S. A.

    1963-01-01

    Frequency distribution patterns of aerobic-facultative microflora, obtained by random selection of macrocolonies from samples of haddock fillets and shucked soft-shelled clams before and after treatment with doses of from 50,000 to 800,000 rad of Co60 gamma rays, are presented, with analyses and interpretation. The data showed that a decided change occurred in the constitution of the microbial populations of both products: from a mixed gram-negative—gram-positive flora to a predominantly gram-positive flora immediately after irradiation. The great majority of these surviving microorganisms were micrococci, sporeforming bacilli, and certain yeasts, molds, and actinomyces. During storage at refrigeration temperatures above freezing, the microflora changed from the descendants of the more radioresistant gram-positive species to the more prolific gram-negative psychrophilic species that flourish at these low temperatures. Micrococci and gram-positive rods declined somewhat during the rise of the actively proteolytic-lipolytic pseudomonads and related species, but still remained at high enough levels to contribute significantly to the spoilage observed at different times in storage. The eventual spoilage of haddock fillets was characterized by discoloration of the cream-white tissue with water-soluble yellow, green, and red bacterial pigments; degradation of the tissue, by proteolytic and other microbial enzymes, to a watery, flaccid mass; and formation of volatile compounds that smelled putrid, rancid, and generally foul and pungent. Shucked soft-shelled clams displayed a different spoilage pattern, changing to a variegated brown-gray and forming a matted or loose gelatinous mass from which arose stale, acrid, putrid, sulfurous odors. These differences are believed to be attributable to the varied biochemical nature of the tissues involved, the Eh potential within the tissues, the time sequence of microfloral change, and the species and types of microorganisms

  19. Microbiological basis of oral infections and sensitivity to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Prieto, José; Calvo, Almudena

    2004-01-01

    Because oral infections are common, the physician must understand the underlying etiology, pathogeny, and other variables that determine how these processes evolve in order to choose the most appropriate antibiotic drug. The special characteristics of the oral cavity determine the make-up of the microflora that lives there. Different anaerobic species belonging to the Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, Gemella, and Porphyromonas genera are of particular interest, as are the aerobic species Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Corynebacterium. Each of these microorganisms occupies a different microniche within the oral cavity, and the prevailing balance is upset when conditions become modified as a result of illness or due to dental interventions such as tooth extraction or tooth scaling and polishing. Pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria (Actinomyces, Prevotella intermedia species, etc.) can develop in these conditions, as can yeasts (Candida sp., Histoplasma capsulatum), virus (herpes simplex, papilomavirus), and parasites (Entamoeba gingivalis, Trichomonas tenax). When infection occurs, the patients s immune system reacts by means of inborn immunity (non-specific) and acquired immunity (specific). Empirical treatment is administered that should be based on etiological data and on the antimicrobial sensitivity of the pathogen that is causing the infection. However, oral microflora sensitivity to different antibiotics is currently declining and there is a noticeable trend towards resistances. As a consequence of all this, the treatment of oral infections must also aim to restore the ecological balance of the oral cavity and to minimize the emergence of resistance in the microorganisms present in the mouth. Hence, epidemiological oral pathogen sensitivity studies must be conducted, fostering the administration of appropriate antibiotics at proper doses and keeping specialists abreast of the latest trends. In recent decades, oral infections comprise one of

  20. The exopolysaccharide matrix modulates the interaction between 3D architecture and virulence of a mixed-species oral biofilm.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jin; Klein, Marlise I; Falsetta, Megan L; Lu, Bingwen; Delahunty, Claire M; Yates, John R; Heydorn, Arne; Koo, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Virulent biofilms are responsible for a range of infections, including oral diseases. All biofilms harbor a microbial-derived extracellular-matrix. The exopolysaccharides (EPS) formed on tooth-pellicle and bacterial surfaces provide binding sites for microorganisms; eventually the accumulated EPS enmeshes microbial cells. The metabolic activity of the bacteria within this matrix leads to acidification of the milieu. We explored the mechanisms through which the Streptococcus mutans-produced EPS-matrix modulates the three-dimensional (3D) architecture and the population shifts during morphogenesis of biofilms on a saliva-coated-apatitic surface using a mixed-bacterial species system. Concomitantly, we examined whether the matrix influences the development of pH-microenvironments within intact-biofilms using a novel 3D in situ pH-mapping technique. Data reveal that the production of the EPS-matrix helps to create spatial heterogeneities by forming an intricate network of exopolysaccharide-enmeshed bacterial-islets (microcolonies) through localized cell-to-matrix interactions. This complex 3D architecture creates compartmentalized acidic and EPS-rich microenvironments throughout the biofilm, which triggers the dominance of pathogenic S. mutans within a mixed-species system. The establishment of a 3D-matrix and EPS-enmeshed microcolonies were largely mediated by the S. mutans gtfB/gtfC genes, expression of which was enhanced in the presence of Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis. Acidic pockets were found only in the interiors of bacterial-islets that are protected by EPS, which impedes rapid neutralization by buffer (pH 7.0). As a result, regions of low pH (<5.5) were detected at specific locations along the surface of attachment. Resistance to chlorhexidine was enhanced in cells within EPS-microcolony complexes compared to those outside such structures within the biofilm. Our results illustrate the critical interaction between matrix architecture and p

  1. Salivary microbiomes of indigenous Tsimane mothers and infants are distinct despite frequent premastication

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Cliff S.; Martin, Melanie Ann; Dichosa, Armand E. K.; Daughton, Ashlynn R.; Frietze, Seth; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael D.; Alcock, Joe

    2016-11-03

    Premastication, the transfer of pre-chewed food, is a common infant and young child feeding practice among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists living in the Bolivian Amazon. Research conducted primarily with Western populations has shown that infants harbor distinct oral microbiota from their mothers. Premastication, which is less common in these populations, may influence the colonization and maturation of infant oral microbiota, including via transmission of oral pathogens. We collected premasticated food and saliva samples from Tsimane mothers and infants (9–24 months of age) to test for evidence of bacterial transmission in premasticated foods and overlap in maternal and infant salivary microbiota.more » We extracted bacterial DNA from two premasticated food samples and 12 matched salivary samples from maternal-infant pairs. DNA sequencing was performed with MiSeq (Illumina). We evaluated maternal and infant microbial composition in terms of relative abundance of specific taxa, alpha and beta diversity, and dissimilarity distances. The bacteria in saliva and premasticated food were mapped to 19 phyla and 400 genera and were dominated by Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The oral microbial communities of Tsimane mothers and infants who frequently share premasticated food were well-separated in a non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordination (NMDS) plot. Infant microbiotas clustered together, with weighted Unifrac distances significantly differing between mothers and infants. Infant saliva contained more Firmicutes ( p  < 0.01) and fewer Proteobacteria ( p  < 0.05) than did maternal saliva. Many genera previously associated with dental and periodontal infections, e.g.  Neisseria , Gemella , Rothia , Actinomyces , Fusobacterium , and Leptotrichia , were more abundant in mothers than in infants. Salivary microbiota of Tsimane infants and young children up to two years of age do not appear closely related to those of their

  2. Streptococcus mutans Protein Synthesis during Mixed-Species Biofilm Development by High-Throughput Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Marlise I.; Xiao, Jin; Lu, Bingwen; Delahunty, Claire M.; Yates, John R.; Koo, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms formed on tooth surfaces are comprised of mixed microbiota enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Oral biofilms are constantly exposed to environmental changes, which influence the microbial composition, matrix formation and expression of virulence. Streptococcus mutans and sucrose are key modulators associated with the evolution of virulent-cariogenic biofilms. In this study, we used a high-throughput quantitative proteomics approach to examine how S. mutans produces relevant proteins that facilitate its establishment and optimal survival during mixed-species biofilms development induced by sucrose. Biofilms of S. mutans, alone or mixed with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis, were initially formed onto saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surface under carbohydrate-limiting condition. Sucrose (1%, w/v) was then introduced to cause environmental changes, and to induce biofilm accumulation. Multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) approach detected up to 60% of proteins encoded by S. mutans within biofilms. Specific proteins associated with exopolysaccharide matrix assembly, metabolic and stress adaptation processes were highly abundant as the biofilm transit from earlier to later developmental stages following sucrose introduction. Our results indicate that S. mutans within a mixed-species biofilm community increases the expression of specific genes associated with glucan synthesis and remodeling (gtfBC, dexA) and glucan-binding (gbpB) during this transition (P<0.05). Furthermore, S. mutans up-regulates specific adaptation mechanisms to cope with acidic environments (F1F0-ATPase system, fatty acid biosynthesis, branched chain amino acids metabolism), and molecular chaperones (GroEL). Interestingly, the protein levels and gene expression are in general augmented when S. mutans form mixed-species biofilms (vs. single-species biofilms) demonstrating fundamental differences in the matrix assembly, survival and biofilm maintenance in the

  3. pH Landscapes in a Novel Five-Species Model of Early Dental Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Raarup, Merete K.; Meyer, Rikke L.; Sutherland, Duncan S.; Dige, Irene; Nyengaard, Jens R.; Nyvad, Bente

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite continued preventive efforts, dental caries remains the most common disease of man. Organic acids produced by microorganisms in dental plaque play a crucial role for the development of carious lesions. During early stages of the pathogenetic process, repeated pH drops induce changes in microbial composition and favour the establishment of an increasingly acidogenic and aciduric microflora. The complex structure of dental biofilms, allowing for a multitude of different ecological environments in close proximity, remains largely unexplored. In this study, we designed a laboratory biofilm model that mimics the bacterial community present during early acidogenic stages of the caries process. We then performed a time-resolved microscopic analysis of the extracellular pH landscape at the interface between bacterial biofilm and underlying substrate. Methodology/Principal Findings Strains of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus downei and Actinomyces naeslundii were employed in the model. Biofilms were grown in flow channels that allowed for direct microscopic analysis of the biofilms in situ. The architecture and composition of the biofilms were analysed using fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Both biofilm structure and composition were highly reproducible and showed similarity to in-vivo-grown dental plaque. We employed the pH-sensitive ratiometric probe C-SNARF-4 to perform real-time microscopic analyses of the biofilm pH in response to salivary solutions containing glucose. Anaerobic glycolysis in the model biofilms created a mildly acidic environment. Decrease in pH in different areas of the biofilms varied, and distinct extracellular pH-microenvironments were conserved over several hours. Conclusions/Significance The designed biofilm model represents a promising tool to determine the effect of potential therapeutic agents on biofilm growth, composition and

  4. Results of microbiological Investigations of Orbital Station MIR Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, N.

    15-year experience of orbital station MIR service demonstrated that specifically modified space vehicle environment allows to consider spaceship habitats as a certain ecological niche of microbial community development and functioning, which was formed from the organisms of different physiological and taxonomical groups. As a result of on-board experiments and revision of interior and equipment more than 234 microorganisms were identified. They were represented by technophylic specia, which cause material damage, as well as potential pathogens (bacteria, actinomyces spp, fungi), which capable to grow on artificial substrates. Resident colonization of interior and equipment of space habitat by bacterial and fungal associations, taking place during long-term microbiota exposure on cosmophysic, physic-chemical and biological factors, which is accompanied by appearance of technological and medical risks, capable to provide significant influence on safety of humans and reliability of space equipment. These risks are due to such processes: biodestruction of synthetic and organic polymeres, biocorrosion of metals, biofoulding of surfaces (biofilms), formation of obturation in vital activity support system, occurrence of biodisturbances resulting in devise and equipment failure, occurrence and development of supertolerants and other variants with unpredictable attributes, which are expressed as a result of phenotypical and genotypical modifications. Based on the information from results of in-flight and laboratory microbiological investigations, the following suppositions can be made to characterize evolution of the microbial community aboard long-operating space vehicle: - environment of a long-operating piloted space vehicle may be a peculiar kind of ecological niche for development and reproduction of bacilli and fungi belonging to particular species, - bacteriofungal associations primarily reside on decorative-finish and structural materials of space interior and

  5. Subgingival microbiota in squirrel monkeys with naturally occurring periodontal diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Beem, J E; Hurley, C G; Magnusson, I; McArthur, W P; Clark, W B

    1991-01-01

    The squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) has been proposed as an in vivo model for the study of subgingival colonization by suspected periodontopathogens, such as black-pigmented porphyromonads and prevotellas (BP/P). However, the indigenous microbiota of the squirrel monkey has not been well described. Therefore, in order to more fully characterize the oral microbiota of these animals, we studied two groups of squirrel monkeys from widely different sources. Group I consisted of 50 breeding colony monkeys ranging in age from 9 months to over 6 years which had been raised in captivity; group II consisted of 16 young sexually mature monkeys recently captured in the wild in Guyana. Group I animals in captivity had developed moderate to severe gingivitis, with a mean gingival index (GI) of 2.6; 52% of the sites bled, 26% had detectable calculus, and 83% had detectable BP/P. A group I subset (six animals), for which predominant cultivable microbiota was described, had a mean GI of 2.4. Colony morphology enumeration revealed that five of the six subset animals were detectably colonized with BP/P (range, 0 to 16.9%) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (range, 0 to 3.9%); all subset animals were colonized with Fusobacterium species (range, 0.8 to 3.6%), Actinomyces species (range, 2.3 to 11%), and gram-positive cocci (range, 1.4 to 21.4%). Predominant cultivable microbiota results revealed the presence of many bacterial species commonly found in the human gingival sulcus. At baseline, group II animals were clinically healthy and had a mean GI of 1.4; 67% of the sites bled and 2.1% had calculus, and none of the animals had detectable BP/P. Neisseriae were very common in noninflamed sites. Subsequently, when inflamed sites were compared with noninflamed sites in group II animals after they had been maintained in captivity for 6 months, inflamed sites exhibited a more complex microbiota and increased proportions of gram-negative rods and asaccharolytic bacteria. PMID

  6. Microbiota of radish plants, cultivated in closed and open ecological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    It is common knowledge that microorganisms respond to environmental changes faster than other representatives of the living world. The major aim of this work was to examine and analyze the characteristics of the microbiota of radish culture, cultivated in the closed ecological system of human life-support Bios-3 and in an open system in different experiments. Microbial community of near-root, root zone and phyllosphere of radish were studied at the phases of seedlings, root formation, technical ripeness—by washing-off method—like microbiota of the substrate (expanded clay aggregate) and of the seeds of radish culture. Inoculation on appropriate media was made to count total quantity of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, bacteria of coliform group, spore-forming, Proteus group, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria, growing on Fermi medium, yeasts, microscopic fungi, Actinomyces. It was revealed that formation of the microbiota of radish plants depends on the age, plant cultivation technology and the specific conditions of the closed system. Composition of microbial conveyor-cultivated in phytotrons varied in quality and in quantity with plant growth phases—in the same manner as cultivation of even-aged soil and hydroponics monocultures which was determined by different qualitative and quantitative composition of root emissions in the course of plant vegetation. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of radish. We registered the changes in the species composition and microorganism quantity during plant cultivation in the closed system on a long-used solution. It was demonstrated that during the short-term (7 days) use of the nutrient solution in the experiments without system closing, the species composition of the microbiota of radish plants was more diverse in a multiple-aged vegetable polyculture (61

  7. Defining the healthy "core microbiome" of oral microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Most studies examining the commensal human oral microbiome are focused on disease or are limited in methodology. In order to diagnose and treat diseases at an early and reversible stage an in-depth definition of health is indispensible. The aim of this study therefore was to define the healthy oral microbiome using recent advances in sequencing technology (454 pyrosequencing). Results We sampled and sequenced microbiomes from several intraoral niches (dental surfaces, cheek, hard palate, tongue and saliva) in three healthy individuals. Within an individual oral cavity, we found over 3600 unique sequences, over 500 different OTUs or "species-level" phylotypes (sequences that clustered at 3% genetic difference) and 88 - 104 higher taxa (genus or more inclusive taxon). The predominant taxa belonged to Firmicutes (genus Streptococcus, family Veillonellaceae, genus Granulicatella), Proteobacteria (genus Neisseria, Haemophilus), Actinobacteria (genus Corynebacterium, Rothia, Actinomyces), Bacteroidetes (genus Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Porphyromonas) and Fusobacteria (genus Fusobacterium). Each individual sample harboured on average 266 "species-level" phylotypes (SD 67; range 123 - 326) with cheek samples being the least diverse and the dental samples from approximal surfaces showing the highest diversity. Principal component analysis discriminated the profiles of the samples originating from shedding surfaces (mucosa of tongue, cheek and palate) from the samples that were obtained from solid surfaces (teeth). There was a large overlap in the higher taxa, "species-level" phylotypes and unique sequences among the three microbiomes: 84% of the higher taxa, 75% of the OTUs and 65% of the unique sequences were present in at least two of the three microbiomes. The three individuals shared 1660 of 6315 unique sequences. These 1660 sequences (the "core microbiome") contributed 66% of the reads. The overlapping OTUs contributed to 94% of the reads, while nearly all

  8. Bioremediation of β-cypermethrin and 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde contaminated soils using Streptomyces aureus HP-S-01.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaohua; Geng, Peng; Xiao, Ying; Hu, Meiying

    2012-04-01

    Using laboratory and field experiments, the ability of Streptomyces aureus HP-S-01 to eliminate β-cypermethrin (β-CP) and its metabolite 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde (3-PBA) in soils was investigated. In the laboratory, 80.5% and 73.1% of the initial dose of β-CP and 3-PBA (50 mg kg(-1)) was removed in sterilized soils within 10 days, respectively, while in the same period, disappearance rate of β-CP and 3-PBA in non-sterilized soils was higher and reached 87.8% and 79.3%, respectively. Furthermore, the disappearance process followed the first-order kinetics and the half-life (T (1/2)) for β-CP and 3-PBA reduced by 20.3-52.9 and 133.7-186.8 days, respectively, as compared to the controls. The addition of sucrose to the soils enhanced the ability of strain HP-S-01 to eliminate β-CP and 3-PBA. Similar results were observed in the field experiments. The introduced strain HP-S-01 quickly adapted to the environment and rapidly removed β-CP and 3-PBA without any lag phases in the field experiments. Compared with the controls, 47.9% and 67.0% of applied dose of β-CP and 3-PBA was removed from the soils without extra carbon sources and 52.5% and 73.3% of β-CP and 3-PBA was eliminated in soils supplemented with sucrose within 10 days, respectively. Analysis of β-CP degradation products in soil indicated that the tested strain transform β-CP to 3-PBA and α-hydroxy-3-phenoxy-benzeneacetonitrile. However, both intermediates were transient and they disappeared after 10 days. Therefore, the selected actinomyces strain HP-S-01 is suitable for the efficient and rapid bioremediation of β-CP contaminated soils.

  9. A New Screen for Tuberculosis Drug Candidates Utilizing a Luciferase-Expressing Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guéren

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Masayuki; Doe, Matsumi; Tamaru, Aki; Kinoshita, Naoko; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Sawa, Ryuichi; Umekita, Maya; Enany, Shymaa; Nishiuchi, Yukiko; Osada-Oka, Mayuko; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Niki, Mamiko; Tateishi, Yoshitaka; Hatano, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease caused by a bacterial pathogen. Mortality from tuberculosis was estimated at 1.5 million deaths worldwide in 2013. Development of new TB drugs is needed to not only to shorten the medication period but also to treat multi-drug resistant and extensively drug-resistant TB. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) grows slowly and only multiplies once or twice per day. Therefore, conventional drug screening takes more than 3 weeks. Additionally, a biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) facility is required. Thus, we developed a new screening method to identify TB drug candidates by utilizing luciferase-expressing recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guéren (rBCG). Using this method, we identified several candidates in 4 days in a non-BSL-3 facility. We screened 10,080 individual crude extracts derived from Actinomyces and Streptomyces and identified 137 extracts which possessed suppressive activity to the luciferase of rBCG. Among them, 41 compounds inhibited the growth of both Mtb H37Rv and the extensively drug-resistant Mtb (XDR-Mtb) strains. We purified the active substance of the 1904–1 extract, which possessed strong activity toward rBCG, Mtb H37Rv, and XDR-Mtb but was harmless to the host eukaryotic cells. The MIC of this substance was 0.13 μg/ml, 0.5 μg/ml, and 2.0–7.5 μg/ml against rBCG, H37Rv, and 2 XDR-strains, respectively. Its efficacy was specific to acid-fast bacterium except for the Mycobacterium avium intracellular complex. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses revealed that the active substance of 1904–1 was cyclomarin A. To confirm the mode of action of the 1904-1-derived compound, resistant BCG clones were used. Whole genome DNA sequence analysis showed that these clones contained a mutation in the clpc gene which encodes caseinolytic protein, an essential component of an ATP-dependent proteinase, and the likely target of the active substance of 1904–1. Our method provides a

  10. [Pelvic actinomycosis in Tunisia: five cases].

    PubMed

    Chelli, Dalenda; Hassini, Abdelwahed; Aloui, Fadhel; Sfar, Ezzeddine; Zouaoui, Béchir; Chelli, Héla; Chanoufi, Badis

    2008-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a rare suppurative disease due to Actinomyces species. These Gram-positive, non-acid fast anaerobic filamentous bacteria are normal inhabitants of the human body, tending to reside in the oropharynx and bowel but are occasionally found in the vagina. Pelvic actinomycosis is a rare bacterial disease in women. Clinical manifestations are various and non specific and may be acute or chronic. No consensus exists for treatment. We reviewed files and identified all five cases of pelvic actinomycosis managed at Obstetrics and Gynaecology department "A" at the Maternity Center of Tunis over an eight-year period (1998-2005). The women's average age was 39.2 years. One patient was menopausal and consulted for bleeding. The other four patients were younger and had all been using an intrauterine device (IUD) for contraception. They presented with acute clinical manifestations. Their main symptom was pelvic pain. Three women had fever, and two presented with urinary tract obstruction. All patients had surgery. A pelvic abscess was found in four cases. Laparoscopic management was possible in only one case. Laparotomy was necessary in the other four. Four women had adnexectomies, two with hysterectomy. Digestive complications occurred in three cases. Actinomycosis was diagnosed only after surgery, by the histological examination. This series confirms the difficulties encountered in the management of pelvic actinomycosis. We review the recent literature and describe the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures currently recommended. The relationship between pelvic actinomycosis and IUDs, the most common method of contraception in Tunisia, is clearly established. Clinical diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis is difficult because the symptoms are non-specific. Laboratory tests can help by showing serious inflammation, however. Imaging findings are also non-specific and may suggest an abscess or an inflammatory or neoplastic process. Interventional radiology, specifically

  11. Effect of a Novel Quaternary Ammonium Methacrylate Polymer (QAMP) on Adhesion and Antibacterial Properties of Dental Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Yasmine M.; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Nadal, Jessica M.; Simão, Luzia C.; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; Gomes, Osnara M. M.; Gomes, João Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the resin–dentin bond strength (μTBS), degree of conversion (DC), and antibacterial potential of an innovative adhesive system containing a quaternary ammonium methacrylate polymer (QAMP) using in situ and in vitro assays. Forty-two human third molars were flattened until the dentin was exposed and were randomly distributed into three groups of self-etching adhesive systems: Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP (experimental group), Clearfil™ Protect Bond (positive control) and Clearfil™ SE Bond (negative control). After light curing, three 1 mm-increments of composite resin were bonded to each dentin surface. A total of thirty of these bonded teeth (10 teeth per group) was sectioned to obtain stick-shaped specimens and tested under tensile stress immediately, and after 6 and 12 months of storage in distilled water. Twelve bonded teeth (4 teeth per group) were longitudinally sectioned in a mesio-to-distal direction to obtain resin-bonded dentin slabs. In situ DC was evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. In vitro DC of thin films of each adhesive system was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro susceptibility tests of these three adhesive systems were performed by the minimum inhibitory/minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) assays against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces naeslundii. No statistically significant difference in μTBS was observed between Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP and Clearfil™ SE Bond (p > 0.05) immediately, and after 6 and 12 months of water storage. However Clearfil™ Protect Bond showed a significant reduction of μTBS after 12 months of storage (p = 0.039). In addition, QAMP provided no significant change in DC after incorporating into Clearfil™ SE Bond (p > 0.05). Clearfil™ SE Bond containing 5% QAMP demonstrated MIC/MBC values similar to the positive control against L. casei and A. naeslundii and higher than the negative control for

  12. Fluorescent microscopy approaches of quantitative soil microbial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Konstantin; Polyanskaya, Lubov

    2015-04-01

    Classical fluorescent microscopy method was used during the last decades in various microbiological studies of terrestrial ecosystems. The method provides representative results and simple application which is allow to use it both as routine part of amplitudinous research and in small-scaled laboratories. Furthermore, depending on research targets a lot of modifications of fluorescent microscopy method were established. Combination and comparison of several approaches is an opportunity of quantitative estimation of microbial community in soil. The first analytical part of the study was dedicated to soil bacterial density estimation by fluorescent microscopy in dynamic of several 30-days experiments. The purpose of research was estimation of changes in soil bacterial community on the different soil horizons under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with adding nutrients in two experimental sets: cellulose and chitin. Was modified the nalidixic acid method for inhibition of DNA division of gram-negative bacteria, and the method provides the quantification of this bacterial group by fluorescent microscopy. Established approach allowed to estimate 3-4 times more cells of gram-negative bacteria in soil. The functions of actinomyces in soil polymer destruction are traditionally considered as dominant in comparison to gram-negative bacterial group. However, quantification of gram-negative bacteria in chernozem and peatland provides underestimation of classical notion for this bacterial group. Chitin introduction had no positive effect to gram-negative bacterial population density changes in chernozem but concurrently this nutrient provided the fast growing dynamics at the first 3 days of experiment both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This is confirming chitinolytic activity of gram-negative bacteria in soil organic matter decomposition. At the next part of research modified method for soil gram-negative bacteria quantification was compared to fluorescent in situ

  13. Analysis of bacterial community structure in sulfurous-oil-containing soils and detection of species carrying dibenzothiophene desulfurization (dsz) genes.

    PubMed

    Duarte, G F; Rosado, A S; Seldin, L; de Araujo, W; van Elsas, J D

    2001-03-01

    The selective effects of sulfur-containing hydrocarbons, with respect to changes in bacterial community structure and selection of desulfurizing organisms and genes, were studied in soil. Samples taken from a polluted field soil (A) along a concentration gradient of sulfurous oil and from soil microcosms treated with dibenzothiophene (DBT)-containing petroleum (FSL soil) were analyzed. Analyses included plate counts of total bacteria and of DBT utilizers, molecular community profiling via soil DNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and detection of genes that encode enzymes involved in the desulfurization of hydrocarbons, i.e., dszA, dszB, and dszC. Data obtained from the A soil showed no discriminating effects of oil levels on the culturable bacterial numbers on either medium used. Generally, counts of DBT degraders were 10- to 100-fold lower than the total culturable counts. However, PCR-DGGE showed that the numbers of bands detected in the molecular community profiles decreased with increasing oil content of the soil. Analysis of the sequences of three prominent bands of the profiles generated with the highly polluted soil samples suggested that the underlying organisms were related to Actinomyces sp., Arthrobacter sp., and a bacterium of uncertain affiliation. dszA, dszB, and dszC genes were present in all A soil samples, whereas a range of unpolluted soils gave negative results in this analysis. Results from the study of FSL soil revealed minor effects of the petroleum-DBT treatment on culturable bacterial numbers and clear effects on the DBT-utilizing communities. The molecular community profiles were largely stable over time in the untreated soil, whereas they showed a progressive change over time following treatment with DBT-containing petroleum. Direct PCR assessment revealed the presence of dszB-related signals in the untreated FSL soil and the apparent selection of dszA- and dszC-related sequences by the petroleum-DBT treatment

  14. Rice to vegetables: short- versus long-term impact of land-use change on the indigenous soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Dong, Zhi-Xing; Zhang, Xue-Xian; Li, Yun; Cao, Hui; Cui, Zong-Li

    2011-08-01

    Land-use change is known to have a significant effect on the indigenous soil microbial community, but it is unknown if there are any general trends regarding how this effect varies over time. Here, we describe a comparative analysis of microbial communities from three adjacent agricultural fields: one-century-old paddy field (OP) and two vegetable fields (new vegetable field (NV) and old vegetable field (OV)) that were established on traditional paddy fields 10 and 100 years ago, respectively. Soil chemical and physical analysis showed that both vegetable fields were more nutrient rich than the paddy field in terms of organic C, total N, total P, and available K. The vegetable fields possessed relatively higher abundance of culturable bacteria, fungi, and specific groups of bacteria (Actinomyces, nitrifying bacteria, and cellulose-decomposing bacteria) but lower levels of microbial biomass C and N. Notably, the decrease of biomass was further confirmed by analysis of seven additional soils in chronosequence sampled from the same area. Next we examined the metabolic diversity of the microbial community using the EcoPlate(TM) system from Biolog Inc. (Hayward, CA, USA). The utilization patterns of 31 unique C substrates (i.e., community-level physiological profile) showed that microorganisms in vegetable soil and paddy soil prefer to use different C substrates (polymeric compounds for NV and OV soils, phenolic acids for OP soil). Principal component analysis and the average well color development data showed that the NV is metabolically more distinct from the OV and OP. The effect was likely attributable to the elevated soil pH in NV soil. Furthermore, we assessed the diversity of soil bacterial populations using the cultivation-independent technology of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Results showed that levels of bacterial diversity in OP and NV soils were similar (Shannon's diversity index H = 4.83 and 4.79, respectively), whereas bacteria in

  15. Characterisation of prototype Nurmi cultures using culture-based microbiological techniques and PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Waters, Sinéad M; Murphy, Richard A; Power, Ronan F G

    2006-08-01

    Undefined Nurmi-type cultures (NTCs) have been used successfully to prevent salmonella colonisation in poultry for decades. Such cultures are derived from the caecal contents of specific-pathogen-free birds and are administered via drinking water or spray application onto eggs in the hatchery. These cultures consist of many non-culturable and obligately anaerobic bacteria. Due to their undefined nature it is difficult to obtain approval from regulatory agencies to use these preparations as direct fed microbials for poultry. In this study, 10 batches of prototype NTCs were produced using an identical protocol over a period of 2 years. Traditional microbiological techniques and a molecular culture-independent methodology, polymerase chain reaction combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), were applied to characterise these cultures and also to examine if the constituents of the NTCs were identical. Culture-dependent analysis of these cultures included plating on a variety of selective and semi-selective agars, examination of colony morphology, Gram-staining and a series of biochemical tests (API, BioMerieux, France). Two sets of PCR-DGGE studies were performed. These involved the amplification of universal and subsequently lactic acid bacteria (LAB)-specific hypervariable regions of a 16S rRNA gene by PCR. Resultant amplicons were subjected to DGGE. Sequence analysis was performed on subsequent bands present in resultant DGGE profiles using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). Microbiological culturing techniques tended to isolate common probiotic bacterial species from the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Clostridium, Escherichia, Pediococcus and Enterobacterium as well as members of the genera, Actinomyces, Bacteroides, Propionibacterium, Capnocytophaga, Proteus, and Klebsiella. Bacteroides, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Brevibacterium, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Bacillus, Eubacterium