Science.gov

Sample records for actinomycetales mce operons

  1. A phylogenomic analysis of the Actinomycetales mce operons

    PubMed Central

    Casali, Nicola; Riley, Lee W

    2007-01-01

    Background The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis harbors four copies of a cluster of genes termed mce operons. Despite extensive research that has demonstrated the importance of these operons on infection outcome, their physiological function remains obscure. Expanding databases of complete microbial genome sequences facilitate a comparative genomic approach that can provide valuable insight into the role of uncharacterized proteins. Results The M. tuberculosis mce loci each include two yrbE and six mce genes, which have homology to ABC transporter permeases and substrate-binding proteins, respectively. Operons with an identical structure were identified in all Mycobacterium species examined, as well as in five other Actinomycetales genera. Some of the Actinomycetales mce operons include an mkl gene, which encodes an ATPase resembling those of ABC uptake transporters. The phylogenetic profile of Mkl orthologs exactly matched that of the Mce and YrbE proteins. Through topology and motif analyses of YrbE homologs, we identified a region within the penultimate cytoplasmic loop that may serve as the site of interaction with the putative cognate Mkl ATPase. Homologs of the exported proteins encoded adjacent to the M. tuberculosis mce operons were detected in a conserved chromosomal location downstream of the majority of Actinomycetales operons. Operons containing linked mkl, yrbE and mce genes, resembling the classic organization of an ABC importer, were found to be common in Gram-negative bacteria and appear to be associated with changes in properties of the cell surface. Conclusion Evidence presented suggests that the mce operons of Actinomycetales species and related operons in Gram-negative bacteria encode a subfamily of ABC uptake transporters with a possible role in remodeling the cell envelope. PMID:17324287

  2. An insight into the regulation of mce4 operon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rathor, Nisha; Chandolia, Amita; Saini, Neeraj Kumar; Sinha, Rajesh; Pathak, Rakesh; Garima, Kushal; Singh, Satendra; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Bose, Mridula

    2013-07-01

    The mce4 operon is reported to be involved in cholesterol utilization and intracellular survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). The regulatory mechanism of this important operon was unknown so far. Here we report detection of the promoter region and regulatory factors of the mce4 operon. The in silico analyzed putative promoter region was cloned in promoter selection vector and promoter strength was measured by O-Nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranosidase (ONPG) assay. The transcription start site was determined by 5' Rapid amplification of C terminal end (5'RACE). Surface stress, hypoxia and presence of cholesterol, were found to be stimulatory for mce4 operon promoter induction. Pull down assay coupled with 2D gel electrophoresis resolved many proteins; few prominent spots were processed for identification. MALDI TOF-TOF identified proteins of M. tuberculosis which supported the regulatory function of the identified promoter region and cholesterol utilization of mce4 operon. Since mce4 operon is involved in cholesterol utilization and intracellular survival of M. tuberculosis in the later phase of infection, identification of the promoter sequence as reported in the present communication may facilitate development of effective inhibitors to regulate expression of mce4 operon which may prove to be a good drug target to prevent latency in tuberculosis.

  3. Comparative metabolic profiling of mce1 operon mutant vs wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Adriano; Medina-Cleghorn, Daniel; Marjanovic, Olivera; Nomura, Daniel K; Riley, Lee W

    2015-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis disrupted in a 13-gene operon (mce1) accumulates free mycolic acids (FM) in its cell wall and causes accelerated death in mice. Here, to more comprehensively analyze differences in their cell wall lipid composition, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to compare the lipid profiles of wild-type and mce1 operon mutant strains. By liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified >400 distinct lipids significantly altered in the mce1 mutant compared to wild type. These lipids included decreased levels of saccharolipids and glycerophospholipids, and increased levels of alpha-, methoxy- and keto mycolic acids (MA), and hydroxyphthioceranic acid. The mutant showed reduced expression of mmpL8, mmpL10, stf0, pks2 and papA2 genes involved in transport and metabolism of lipids recognized to induce proinflammatory response; these lipids were found to be decreased in the mutant. In contrast, the transcripts of mmpL3, fasI, kasA, kasB, acpM and RV3451 involved in MA transport and metabolism increased; MA inhibits inflammatory response in macrophages. Since the mce1 operon is known to be regulated in intracellular M. tuberculosis, we speculate that the differences we observed in cell wall lipid metabolism and composition may affect host response to M. tuberculosis infection and determine the clinical outcome of such an infection.

  4. Free mycolic acid accumulation in the cell wall of the mce1 operon mutant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Sally A; Leavell, Michael D; Marjanovic, Olivera; Iavarone, Anthony T; Leary, Julie A; Riley, Lee W

    2013-10-01

    The lipid-rich cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the agent of tuberculosis, serves as an effective barrier against many chemotherapeutic agents and toxic host cell effector molecules, and it may contribute to the mechanism of persistence. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains mutated in a 13-gene operon called mce1, which encodes a putative ABC lipid transporter, induce aberrant granulomatous response in mouse lungs. Because of the postulated role of the mce1 operon in lipid importation, we compared the cell wall lipid composition of wild type and mce1 operon mutant M. tuberculosis H37Rv strains. High resolution mass spectrometric analyses of the mce1 mutant lipid extracts showed unbound mycolic acids to accumulate in the cell wall. Quantitative analysis revealed a 10.7 fold greater amount of free mycolates in the mutant compared to that of the wild type strain. The free mycolates were comprised of alpha, methoxy and keto mycolates in the ratio 1:0.9:0.6, respectively. Since the mce1 operon is regulated in vivo, the free mycolates that accumulate during infection may serve as a barrier for M. tuberculosis against toxic products and contribute to the pathogen's persistence.

  5. Cloning, Expression, Invasion, and Immunological Reactivity of a Mammalian Cell Entry Protein Encoded by the mce1 Operon of Nocardia farcinica

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xingzhao; Tan, Xiaoluo; Hou, Xuexin; Si, Chenchen; Xu, Shuai; Tang, Lu; Yuan, Xiuqin; Li, Zhenjun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial mammalian cell entry (Mce) proteins have been implicated in pathogen invasion of mammalian host cells. The aim of this study was to examine the invasion-conferring ability of mce1E operon-encoded proteins, in vivo expression of Mce1E in cells from infected mice and rabbits, and Mce1E immunogenicity. Nocardia farcinica mce1E was cloned into pet30a(+) vectors, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. Invasion assays, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunoblots, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection of cytokines were conducted. TEM confirmed the invasion of HeLa cells by Mce1E-coated beads. The antigenicity of E. coli-expressed recombinant Mce1E was confirmed in immunoblots with sera from N. farcinica-infected mouse and rabbit sera. Co-incubation of Mce1E with splenocytes of N. farcinica-infected mice demonstrated upregulation of interferon (IFN-γ), but not interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-10, in the cultural supernatant. These findings demonstrate that Mce1E may facilitate N. farcinica interactions with and invasion of mammalian cells. Notably, Mce1E are expressed and elicited antibody responses in mice and rabbits during infection. Besides, it may play a role in cell-mediated immune reactions and cause host inflammation responses to N. farcinica infection. PMID:28275374

  6. Cloning of mce1 locus of Mycobacterium leprae in Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155 SMR5 and evaluation of expression of mce1 genes in M. smegmatis and M. leprae.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Ramachandran Sarojini; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Lini, Nirmala; Shabaana, Abdul Khader; Nagavardhini, Avuthu; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu

    2005-08-01

    Plasmid pSET152 is a broad host range mobilizable vector which integrates into streptomyces chromosome utilizing att site and int function of slashed circleC31. Transformation of this plasmid into Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155 SMR5 gave stable transformants carrying the pSET152 as an integrated copy. Integration occurred at the cross over sequence 5'TTG disrupting the gatA gene (Glu-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunitA), which is non-essential under conditions used. Recombinant pSET152 plasmids carrying mce1 locus of Mycobacterium leprae were used to construct M. smegmatis transformants carrying the mce1 locus in their chromosome. RT-PCR analysis revealed specific transcripts of M. leprae mce in M. smegmatis. The transcribed mRNA carried intergenic regions between genes of mce1 locus indicating that mce1 locus is an operon. Examination of M. leprae specific mRNA from lepromatous leprosy patient's biopsy showed that mce locus is transcribed as an operon in the pathogen also.

  7. Mce4A protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces pro inflammatory cytokine response leading to macrophage apoptosis in a TNF-α dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Saini, Neeraj Kumar; Sinha, Rajesh; Singh, Pooja; Sharma, Monika; Pathak, Rakesh; Rathor, Nisha; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Bose, Mridula

    2016-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis subverts the host immune response through numerous immune-evasion strategies. Apoptosis has been identified as one such mechanism and has been well studied in M. tuberculosis infection. Here, we demonstrate that the Mce4A protein of mce4 operon is involved in the induction of host cell apoptosis. Earlier we have shown that the Mce4A was required for the invasion and survival of M. tuberculosis. In this report we present evidence to establish a role for Mce4A in the modulation of THP-1 cell survival. Recombinant Mce4A was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies and then refolded. Viability of THP-1 cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner when treated with Mce4A. The secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) or interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and enhanced nitric oxide release was observed when the THP-1 cells, were treated with Mce4A protein. The Mce4A induced apoptosis of the THP-1 cells was TNF-α dependent since blocking with anti TNF-α antibody abrogated this phenomenon. Collectively, these data suggest that Mce4A can induce the THP-1 cells to undergo apoptosis which primarily follows a TNF- α dependent pathway.

  8. Production of β-Lactamase by Non-Streptomyces Actinomycetales

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jeffrey L.; Schwartz, Surya P.

    1979-01-01

    Supernatants and whole cells from fermentation broths of Micromonospora, Nocardia, Oerskovia, and other genera of the Actinomycetales were examined for the presence of β-lactamase activity by using the chromogenic cephalosporin 87/312. Nearly 60% of the 250 isolates examined produced detectable levels of β-lactamase. All enzyme preparations were active over a range of pH values from 6.5 to 8.2, with maximum activity occurring between 7.0 and 7.8. The preparations varied in their stability at 60°C. An examination of selected enzyme preparations revealed a similarity between substrate specificities of the non-Streptomyces Actinomycetales and gram-negative-bacterial β-lactamases. PMID:311614

  9. Kitasatosporia, a new genus of the order Actinomycetales.

    PubMed

    Omura, S; Takahashi, Y; Iwai, Y; Tanaka, H

    1982-08-01

    The morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics of a new actinomycete strain producing a new antibiotic, setamycin are described. The strain forms aerial mycelia. There is no fragmentation of vegetative mycelia. Since the cell wall type is a new one containing both LL- and meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid, glycine and galactose, strain KM-6054 could not be classified in any previously named genera of the order Actinomycetales. Thus, it is considered to be a member of a new genus, for which the name Kitasatosporia is proposed. The type species (monotype) of this genus is K. setalba. The type strain of K. setalba is strain KM-6054 (ATCC 33774).

  10. Polysaccharide Degradation Capability of Actinomycetales Soil Isolates from a Semiarid Grassland of the Colorado Plateau.

    PubMed

    Yeager, Chris M; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Dunbar, John; Hesse, Cedar N; Daligault, Hajnalka; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2017-03-15

    Among the bacteria, members of the order Actinomycetales are considered quintessential degraders of complex polysaccharides in soils. However, studies examining complex polysaccharide degradation by Actinomycetales (other than Streptomyces spp.) in soils are limited. Here, we examine the lignocellulolytic and chitinolytic potential of 112 Actinomycetales strains, encompassing 13 families, isolated from a semiarid grassland of the Colorado Plateau in Utah. Members of the Streptomycetaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Micromonosporaceae, and Promicromonosporaceae families exhibited robust activity against carboxymethyl cellulose, xylan, chitin, and pectin substrates (except for low/no pectinase activity by the Micromonosporaceae). When incubated in a hydrated mixture of blended Stipa and Hilaria grass biomass over a 5-week period, Streptomyces and Saccharothrix (a member of the Pseudonocardiaceae) isolates produced high levels of extracellular enzyme activity, such as endo- and exocellulase, glucosidase, endo- and exoxylosidase, and arabinofuranosidase. These characteristics make them well suited to degrade the cellulose and hemicellulose components of grass cell walls. On the basis of the polysaccharide degradation profiles of the isolates, relative abundance of Actinomycetales sequences in 16S rRNA gene surveys of Colorado Plateau soils, and analysis of genes coding for polysaccharide-degrading enzymes among 237 Actinomycetales genomes in the CAZy database and 5 genomes from our isolates, we posit that Streptomyces spp. and select members of the Pseudonocardiaceae and Micromonosporaceae likely play an important role in the degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose, and chitin substances in dryland soils.IMPORTANCE Shifts in the relative abundance of Actinomycetales taxa have been observed in soil microbial community surveys during large, manipulated climate change field studies. However, our limited understanding of the ecophysiology of diverse Actinomycetales taxa in soil

  11. 42 CFR 457.955 - Conditions necessary to contract as a managed care entity (MCE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... entity (MCE). 457.955 Section 457.955 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... care entity (MCE). (a) The State must assure that any entity seeking to contract as an MCE under a... paragraph (a) of this section— (1) Enforce MCE compliance with all applicable Federal and State...

  12. Is the lower atmosphere a readily accessible reservoir of culturable, antimicrobial compound-producing Actinomycetales?

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Carolyn F.; Werth, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent metagenomic studies have revealed that microbial diversity in the atmosphere rivals that of surface environments. This indicates that the atmosphere may be worth bioprospecting in for novel microorganisms, especially those selected for by harsh atmospheric conditions. This is interesting in light of the antibiotic resistance crisis and renewed interests in bioprospecting for members of the Actinomycetales, which harbor novel secondary metabolite-producing pathways and produce spores that make them well suited for atmospheric travel. The latter leads to the hypothesis that the atmosphere may be a promising environment in which to search for novel Actinomycetales. Although ubiquitous in soils, where bioprospecting efforts for Actinomycetales have been and are largely still focused, we present novel data indicating that culturable members of this taxonomic order are 3–5.6 times more abundant in air samples collected at 1.5, 4.5, 7.5, and 18 m above the ground, than in the underlying soil. These results support the hypothesis that mining the vast and readily accessible lower atmosphere for novel Actinomycetales in the search for undescribed secondary metabolites could prove fruitful. PMID:26300868

  13. Optimization, purification, and characterization of L-asparaginase from Actinomycetales bacterium BkSoiiA.

    PubMed

    Dash, Chitrangada; Mohapatra, Sukanti Bala; Maiti, Prasanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacteria are promising source of a wide range of important enzymes, some of which are produced in industrial scale, with others yet to be harnessed. L-Asparaginase is used as an antineoplastic agent. The present work deals with the production and optimization of L-asparaginase from Actinomycetales bacterium BkSoiiA using submerged fermentation in M9 medium. Production optimization resulted in a modified M9 medium with yeast extract and fructose as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, at pH 8.0, incubated for 120 hr at 30 ± 2 °C. The crude enzyme was purified to near homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation following dialysis, ion-exchange column chromatography, and finally gel filtration. The sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) revealed an apparent molecular weight of 57 kD. The enzyme was purified 95.06-fold and showed a final specific activity of 204.37 U/mg with 3.49% yield. The purified enzyme showed maximum activity at a pH 10.0 and was stable at pH 7.0 to 9.0. The enzyme was activated by Mn(2+) and strongly inhibited by Ba(2+). All these preliminary characterization suggests that the L-asparaginase from the source may be a tool useful to pharmaceutical industries after further research.

  14. Measuring mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter mass under variable humidity conditions.

    PubMed

    Bogen, Kenneth T; Brorby, Greg; Berman, D Wayne; Sheehan, Pat; Floyd, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filters, used routinely to collect dust samples from air for fiber analysis, are the only filter type that can be prepared for both phased contrast microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses. However, whenever fiber counts require collecting dust masses <100 μg on a single filter under variable relative humidity (RH) conditions, historically noted effects of humidity on MCE filter mass can hinder accurate estimates of dust mass, measured as loaded minus unloaded filter mass (M). In this study, a baseline set of hundreds of paired measures of change in RH versus M over different time intervals were obtained over a 5-day period for replicate series of 40 unloaded 37-mm MCE filters under varying RH conditions at a nearly constant temperature. Similar baseline data were obtained for 25-mm MCE filters. Linear regressions fit to these data allow improved estimates of dust mass loaded onto MCE filters from measures of M and RH made before and after loading occurs. Using established theory, these relationships were generalized to address temperature variation as well, and examples of numerical applications are provided.

  15. Operon prediction in Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thao T.; Dam, Phuongan; Su, Zhengchang; Poole, Farris L.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Zhou, G. Tong; Xu, Ying

    2007-01-01

    Identification of operons in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus represents an important step to understanding the regulatory mechanisms that enable the organism to adapt and thrive in extreme environments. We have predicted operons in P.furiosus by combining the results from three existing algorithms using a neural network (NN). These algorithms use intergenic distances, phylogenetic profiles, functional categories and gene-order conservation in their operon prediction. Our method takes as inputs the confidence scores of the three programs, and outputs a prediction of whether adjacent genes on the same strand belong to the same operon. In addition, we have applied Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway information to improve the accuracy of our algorithm. The parameters of this NN predictor are trained on a subset of all experimentally verified operon gene pairs of Bacillus subtilis. It subsequently achieved 86.5% prediction accuracy when applied to a subset of gene pairs for Escherichia coli, which is substantially better than any of the three prediction programs. Using this new algorithm, we predicted 470 operons in the P.furiosus genome. Of these, 349 were validated using DNA microarray data. PMID:17148478

  16. The Life-cycle of Operons

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2005-11-18

    Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, but how and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidate the life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichia coli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed and destroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operons form, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findings suggest that operon evolution is driven by selection on gene expression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destruction lead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, the removal of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essential genes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNA damage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone accelerated evolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period. Third, although most operons are closely spaced because of a neutral bias towards deletion and because of selection against large overlaps, highly expressed operons tend to be widely spaced because of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Although operon evolution seems to be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operons often comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already in proximity before the operon formed.

  17. Allostery and the lac Operon.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mitchell

    2013-07-10

    The ability to regulate gene expression is essential for controlling metabolic events in a cell. Proteins that function like molecular switches respond to fluctuations in the environment to maintain homeostasis. The operon model, proposed by Jacob and Monod, provides a cogent depiction for how gene expression is regulated. A molecular mechanism for the regulation followed shortly with the theory for allosteric transition. Over the past half-century, the details of the lac operon and the allosteric model have been tested using genetic, biochemical, and structural techniques. Remarkably, the principles originally put forward 50 years ago remain essentially unchanged. Models for the operon and the theory of allosteric transitions are two of the most profound discoveries of molecular biology.

  18. Computational identification of operons in microbial genomes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Szustakowski, Joseph D; Fortnow, Lance; Roberts, Richard J; Kasif, Simon

    2002-08-01

    By applying graph representations to biochemical pathways, a new computational pipeline is proposed to find potential operons in microbial genomes. The algorithm relies on the fact that enzyme genes in operons tend to catalyze successive reactions in metabolic pathways. We applied this algorithm to 42 microbial genomes to identify putative operon structures. The predicted operons from Escherichia coli were compared with a selected metabolism-related operon dataset from the RegulonDB database, yielding a prediction sensitivity (89%) and specificity (87%) relative to this dataset. Several examples of detected operons are given and analyzed. Modular gene cluster transfer and operon fusion are observed. A further use of predicted operon data to assign function to putative genes was suggested and, as an example, a previous putative gene (MJ1604) from Methanococcus jannaschii is now annotated as a phosphofructokinase, which was regarded previously as a missing enzyme in this organism. GC content changes in the operon region and nonoperon region were examined. The results reveal a clear GC content transition at the boundaries of putative operons. We looked further into the conservation of operons across genomes. A trp operon alignment is analyzed in depth to show gene loss and rearrangement in different organisms during operon evolution.

  19. The Life-cycle of Operons

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-03-15

    Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, buthow and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidatethe life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichiacoli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed anddestroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operonsform, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findingssuggest that operon evolution may be driven by selection on geneexpression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destructionlead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, theremoval of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essentialgenes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNAdamage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone acceleratedevolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period.Third, although genes within operons are usually closely spaced becauseof a neutral bias toward deletion and because of selection against largeoverlaps, genes in highly expressed operons tend to be widely spacedbecause of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Althoughoperon evolution may be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operonsoften comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already inproximity before the operon formed.

  20. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  1. Detecting uber-operons in prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Che, Dongsheng; Li, Guojun; Mao, Fenglou; Wu, Hongwei; Xu, Ying

    2006-01-01

    We present a study on computational identification of uber-operons in a prokaryotic genome, each of which represents a group of operons that are evolutionarily or functionally associated through operons in other (reference) genomes. Uber-operons represent a rich set of footprints of operon evolution, whose full utilization could lead to new and more powerful tools for elucidation of biological pathways and networks than what operons have provided, and a better understanding of prokaryotic genome structures and evolution. Our prediction algorithm predicts uber-operons through identifying groups of functionally or transcriptionally related operons, whose gene sets are conserved across the target and multiple reference genomes. Using this algorithm, we have predicted uber-operons for each of a group of 91 genomes, using the other 90 genomes as references. In particular, we predicted 158 uber-operons in Escherichia coli K12 covering 1830 genes, and found that many of the uber-operons correspond to parts of known regulons or biological pathways or are involved in highly related biological processes based on their Gene Ontology (GO) assignments. For some of the predicted uber-operons that are not parts of known regulons or pathways, our analyses indicate that their genes are highly likely to work together in the same biological processes, suggesting the possibility of new regulons and pathways. We believe that our uber-operon prediction provides a highly useful capability and a rich information source for elucidation of complex biological processes, such as pathways in microbes. All the prediction results are available at our Uber-Operon Database: http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/uber, the first of its kind.

  2. Siting MSW landfills using MCE methodology in GIS environment (Case study: Birjand plain, Iran).

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Zeynab Karimzadeh; Sayadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-12-01

    The rapid municipal solid waste growth of Birjand plain causes to find an appropriate site selection for the landfill. In order to reduce the negative impacts of waste, the use of novel tools and technologies to gain a suitable site for landfill seems imperative. The present paper aimed to exhibits the Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) for the landfill site selection of the Birjand plain because till date a suitable action has not been implicated. In the present research, the parameters such as environmental and socio-economical factors have been used. The factors like slope, water resources, soil parameters, landuse, fault and protected areas in the model of effective environmental criteria and the factors viz. distance from road, urban areas, village, airport, historical place, and industries in the model of socio-economic criteria were investigated and with the use of Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and Analytical Network Process (ANP) models were compounded and according to the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) and Fuzzy Linguistic Quantifier (LQ) were aggregated. The paper focuses on the OWA method as well as an approach for integrating Geographic Information System (GIS) and OWA. OWA has been developed as a generalization of multi-criteria combination. In this study we attained comparable data via the technique of ANP and five scenarios of OWA method were used. The results of field studies, fifth scenario for the study area proposed. Based on the research findings, OWA method had a great potential and flexibility in the modeling of the complex decision-making problems.

  3. The lac operon galactoside acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Steven L

    2005-06-01

    Of the proteins encoded by the three structural genes of the lac operon, the galactoside acetyltransferase (thiogalactoside transacetylase, LacA, GAT) encoded by lacA is the only protein whose biological role remains in doubt. Here, we briefly note the classical literature that led to the identification and initial characterization of GAT, and focus on more recent results which have revealed its chemical mechanism of action and its membership in a large superfamily of structurally similar acyltransferases. The structural and sequence similarities of several members of this superfamily confirm the original claim for GAT as a CoA-dependent acetyltransferase specific for the 6-hydroxyl group of certain pyranosides, but do not yet point to the identity of the natural substrate(s) of the enzyme.

  4. Operon and non-operon gene clusters in the C. elegans genome.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Thomas; Davis, Paul; Garrido-Lecca, Alfonso

    2015-04-28

    Nearly 15% of the ~20,000 C. elegans genes are contained in operons, multigene clusters controlled by a single promoter. The vast majority of these are of a type where the genes in the cluster are ~100 bp apart and the pre-mRNA is processed by 3' end formation accompanied by trans-splicing. A spliced leader, SL2, is specialized for operon processing. Here we summarize current knowledge on several variations on this theme including: (1) hybrid operons, which have additional promoters between genes; (2) operons with exceptionally long (> 1 kb) intercistronic regions; (3) operons with a second 3' end formation site close to the trans-splice site; (4) alternative operons, in which the exons are sometimes spliced as a single gene and sometimes as two genes; (5) SL1-type operons, which use SL1 instead of SL2 to trans-splice and in which there is no intercistronic space; (6) operons that make dicistronic mRNAs; and (7) non-operon gene clusters, in which either two genes use a single exon as the 3' end of one and the 5' end of the next, or the 3' UTR of one gene serves as the outron of the next. Each of these variations is relatively infrequent, but together they show a remarkable variety of tight-linkage gene arrangements in the C. elegans genome.

  5. GIS and Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) for landform geodiversity assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najwer, Alicja; Reynard, Emmanuel; Zwoliński, Zbigniew

    2014-05-01

    In geomorphology, at the contemporary stage of methodology and methodological development, it is very significant to undertake new research problems, from theoretical and application point of view. As an example of applying geoconservation results in landscape studies and environmental conservation one can refer to the problem of the landform geodiversity. The concept of geodiversity was created relatively recently and, therefore, little progress has been made in its objective assessment and mapping. In order to ensure clarity and coherency, it is recommended that the evaluation process to be rigorous. Multi-criteria evaluation meets these criteria well. The main objective of this presentation is to demonstrate a new methodology for the assessment of the selected natural environment components in response to the definition of geodiversity, as well as visualization of the landforms geodiversity, using the opportunities offered by the geoinformation environment. The study area consists of two peculiar alpine valleys: Illgraben and Derborence, located in the Swiss Alps. Apart from glacial and fluvial landforms, the morphology of these two sites is largely due to the extreme phenomena(rockslides, torrential processes). Both valleys are recognized as geosites of national importance. The basis of the assessment is the selection of the geographical environment features. Firstly, six factor maps were prepared for each area: the landform energy, the landform fragmentation, the contemporary landform preservation, geological settings and hydrographic elements (lakes and streams). Input maps were then standardized and resulted from map algebra operations carried out by multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) with GIS-based Weighted Sum technique. Weights for particular classes were calculated using pair-comparison matrixes method. The final stage of deriving landform geodiversity maps was the reclassification procedure with the use of natural breaks method. The final maps of landform

  6. Teaching the Big Ideas of Biology with Operon Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an activity that engages students in model-based reasoning, requiring them to predict the behavior of the trp and lac operons under different environmental conditions. Students are presented six scenarios for the "trp" operon and five for the "lac" operon. In most of the scenarios, specific mutations have…

  7. Origin of bistability in the lac Operon.

    PubMed

    Santillán, M; Mackey, M C; Zeron, E S

    2007-06-01

    Multistability is an emergent dynamic property that has been invoked to explain multiple coexisting biological states. In this work, we investigate the origin of bistability in the lac operon. To do this, we develop a mathematical model for the regulatory pathway in this system and compare the model predictions with other experimental results in which a nonmetabolizable inducer was employed. We investigate the effect of lactose metabolism using this model, and show that it greatly modifies the bistable region in the external lactose (Le) versus external glucose (Ge) parameter space. The model also predicts that lactose metabolism can cause bistability to disappear for very low Ge. We have also carried out stochastic numerical simulations of the model for several values of Ge and Le. Our results indicate that bistability can help guarantee that Escherichia coli consumes glucose and lactose in the most efficient possible way. Namely, the lac operon is induced only when there is almost no glucose in the growing medium, but if Le is high, the operon induction level increases abruptly when the levels of glucose in the environment decrease to very low values. We demonstrate that this behavior could not be obtained without bistability if the stability of the induced and uninduced states is to be preserved. Finally, we point out that the present methods and results may be useful to study the emergence of multistability in biological systems other than the lac operon.

  8. Origin of Bistability in the lac Operon

    PubMed Central

    Santillán, M.; Mackey, M. C.; Zeron, E. S.

    2007-01-01

    Multistability is an emergent dynamic property that has been invoked to explain multiple coexisting biological states. In this work, we investigate the origin of bistability in the lac operon. To do this, we develop a mathematical model for the regulatory pathway in this system and compare the model predictions with other experimental results in which a nonmetabolizable inducer was employed. We investigate the effect of lactose metabolism using this model, and show that it greatly modifies the bistable region in the external lactose (Le) versus external glucose (Ge) parameter space. The model also predicts that lactose metabolism can cause bistability to disappear for very low Ge. We have also carried out stochastic numerical simulations of the model for several values of Ge and Le. Our results indicate that bistability can help guarantee that Escherichia coli consumes glucose and lactose in the most efficient possible way. Namely, the lac operon is induced only when there is almost no glucose in the growing medium, but if Le is high, the operon induction level increases abruptly when the levels of glucose in the environment decrease to very low values. We demonstrate that this behavior could not be obtained without bistability if the stability of the induced and uninduced states is to be preserved. Finally, we point out that the present methods and results may be useful to study the emergence of multistability in biological systems other than the lac operon. PMID:17351004

  9. Applicability of a modified MCE filter method with Button Inhalable Sampler for monitoring personal bioaerosol inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Xu, Hong; Yao, Maosheng

    2013-05-01

    In this study, a "modified" mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter culturing method (directly placing filter on agar plate for culturing without extraction) was investigated in enumerating airborne culturable bacterial and fungal aerosol concentration and diversity both in different environments. A Button Inhalable Sampler loaded with a MCE filter was operated at a flow rate of 5 L/min to collect indoor and outdoor air samples using different sampling times: 10, 20, and 30 min in three different time periods of the day. As a comparison, a BioStage impactor, regarded as the gold standard, was operated in parallel at a flow rate of 28.3 L/min for all tests. The air samples collected by the Button Inhalable Sampler were directly placed on agar plates for culturing, and those collected by the BioStage impactor were incubated directly at 26 °C. The colony forming units (CFUs) were manually counted and the culturable concentrations were calculated both for bacterial and fungal aerosols. The bacterial CFUs developed were further washed off and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for diversity analysis. For fungal CFUs, microscopy method was applied to studying the culturable fungal diversity obtained using different methods. Experimental results showed that the performance of two investigated methods varied with sampling environments and microbial types (culturable bacterial and fungal aerosols). For bacterial aerosol sampling, both methods were shown to perform equally well, and in contrast the "modified" MCE filter method was demonstrated to enumerate more culturable fungal aerosols than the BioStage impactor. In general, the microbial species richness (number of gel bands) was observed to increase with increasing collection time. For both methods, the DGGE gel patterns were observed to vary with sampling time and environment despite of similar number of gel bands. In addition, an increase in sampling time from 20 to 30 min

  10. A global analysis of adaptive evolution of operons in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Memon, Danish; Singh, Abhay K; Pakrasi, Himadri B; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2013-02-01

    Operons are an important feature of prokaryotic genomes. Evolution of operons is hypothesized to be adaptive and has contributed significantly towards coordinated optimization of functions. Two conflicting theories, based on (i) in situ formation to achieve co-regulation and (ii) horizontal gene transfer of functionally linked gene clusters, are generally considered to explain why and how operons have evolved. Furthermore, effects of operon evolution on genomic traits such as intergenic spacing, operon size and co-regulation are relatively less explored. Based on the conservation level in a set of diverse prokaryotes, we categorize the operonic gene pair associations and in turn the operons as ancient and recently formed. This allowed us to perform a detailed analysis of operonic structure in cyanobacteria, a morphologically and physiologically diverse group of photoautotrophs. Clustering based on operon conservation showed significant similarity with the 16S rRNA-based phylogeny, which groups the cyanobacterial strains into three clades. Clade C, dominated by strains that are believed to have undergone genome reduction, shows a larger fraction of operonic genes that are tightly packed in larger sized operons. Ancient operons are in general larger, more tightly packed, better optimized for co-regulation and part of key cellular processes. A sub-clade within Clade B, which includes Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, shows a reverse trend in intergenic spacing. Our results suggest that while in situ formation and vertical descent may be a dominant mechanism of operon evolution in cyanobacteria, optimization of intergenic spacing and co-regulation are part of an ongoing process in the life-cycle of operons.

  11. Escherichia coli fliAZY operon.

    PubMed Central

    Mytelka, D S; Chamberlin, M J

    1996-01-01

    We have cloned the Escherichia coli fliAZY operon, which contains the fliA gene (the alternative sigma factor sigma F) and two novel genes, fliZ and fliY. Transcriptional mapping of this operon shows two start sites, one of which is preceded by a canonical E sigma F-dependent consensus and is dependent on sigma F for expression in vivo and in vitro. We have overexpressed and purified sigma F and demonstrated that it can direct core polymerase to E sigma F-dependent promoters. FliZ and FliY are not required for motility but may regulate sigma F activity, perhaps in response to a putative cell density signal that may be detected by FliY, a member of the bacterial extracellular solute-binding protein family 3. PMID:8550423

  12. Spatial extent of potential habitats of the Mesophotic Coral Ecosystem (MCE, 20-80 m) in the tropical North Atlantic (TNA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, R. N.

    2012-12-01

    The Mesophotic Coral Ecosystem is the deeper-water extension of the much-studied, shallow reef community. It occurs on steep slopes and shelf areas, in the TNA off Belize, the Bahamas, the US Virgin Islands, and the Flower Garden Banks. Framework-building corals at these depths are primarily platy montastraeids and agariciids, with lesser amounts of massive encrusting species. The closely-spaced, platy colonies, expanding up to nearly two meters in diameter have up to 50% live coral cover. The colonies are elevated above the substrate. Their growth creates a thicket-like structure with large, open spaces for mobile species (fish and crustaceans) and extensive habitat for attached and grazing invertebrates. The MCE includes genera or species of zooxanthellate corals, invertebrates and fish, some of which are the same as those in shallow water. Given, the widespread, recent declines of TNA coral communities at depth less than 20 m, it is essential to know the total regional extent of the MCE. To determine the likely depth locations of these deeper coral communities we used methods pioneered by REEFS AT RISK,1998 that incorporates data from the Danish Hydrological Institute (DHI), "MIKE C-MAP" depth points and data on coastline location *NASA, "Sea WiFS" and NIMA, "VMAP," 1997. The results for the larger areas of reef development and for shelf areas are below:Potential MCE shelf habitats.t; Potential MCE platform margin habitats.t;

  13. ProOpDB: Prokaryotic Operon DataBase.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Blanca; Ciria, Ricardo; Martinez-Guerrero, Cristian E; Merino, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The Prokaryotic Operon DataBase (ProOpDB, http://operons.ibt.unam.mx/OperonPredictor) constitutes one of the most precise and complete repositories of operon predictions now available. Using our novel and highly accurate operon identification algorithm, we have predicted the operon structures of more than 1200 prokaryotic genomes. ProOpDB offers diverse alternatives by which a set of operon predictions can be retrieved including: (i) organism name, (ii) metabolic pathways, as defined by the KEGG database, (iii) gene orthology, as defined by the COG database, (iv) conserved protein domains, as defined by the Pfam database, (v) reference gene and (vi) reference operon, among others. In order to limit the operon output to non-redundant organisms, ProOpDB offers an efficient method to select the most representative organisms based on a precompiled phylogenetic distances matrix. In addition, the ProOpDB operon predictions are used directly as the input data of our Gene Context Tool to visualize their genomic context and retrieve the sequence of their corresponding 5' regulatory regions, as well as the nucleotide or amino acid sequences of their genes.

  14. Optimal gene partition into operons correlates with gene functional order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslaver, Alon; Mayo, Avi; Ronen, Michal; Alon, Uri

    2006-09-01

    Gene arrangement into operons varies between bacterial species. Genes in a given system can be on one operon in some organisms and on several operons in other organisms. Existing theories explain why genes that work together should be on the same operon, since this allows for advantageous lateral gene transfer and accurate stoichiometry. But what causes the frequent separation into multiple operons of co-regulated genes that act together in a pathway? Here we suggest that separation is due to benefits made possible by differential regulation of each operon. We present a simple mathematical model for the optimal distribution of genes into operons based on a balance of the cost of operons and the benefit of regulation that provides 'just-when-needed' temporal order. The analysis predicts that genes are arranged such that genes on the same operon do not skip functional steps in the pathway. This prediction is supported by genomic data from 137 bacterial genomes. Our work suggests that gene arrangement is not only the result of random historical drift, genome re-arrangement and gene transfer, but has elements that are solutions of an evolutionary optimization problem. Thus gene functional order may be inferred by analyzing the operon structure across different genomes.

  15. Structure of the lac operon galactoside acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Guo; Olsen, Laurence R; Roderick, Steven L

    2002-04-01

    The galactoside acetyltransferase (thiogalactoside transacetylase) of Escherichia coli (GAT, LacA, EC 2.3.1.18) is a gene product of the classical lac operon. GAT may assist cellular detoxification by acetylating nonmetabolizable pyranosides, thereby preventing their reentry into the cell. The structure of GAT has been solved in binary complexes with acetyl-CoA or CoA and in ternary complexes with CoA and the nonphysiological acceptor substrates isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) or p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside (PNPbetaGal). A hydrophobic cleft that binds the thioisopropyl and p-nitrophenyl aglycones of IPTG and PNPbetaGal may discriminate against substrates with hydrophilic substituents at this position, such as lactose, or inducers of the lac operon. An extended loop projecting from the left-handed parallel beta helix domain contributes His115, which is in position to facilitate attack of the C6-hydroxyl group of the substrate on the thioester.

  16. Genomic rearrangements at rrn operons in Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Helm, R Allen; Lee, Alison G; Christman, Harry D; Maloy, Stanley

    2003-11-01

    Most Salmonella serovars are general pathogens that infect a variety of hosts. These "generalist" serovars cause disease in many animals from reptiles to mammals. In contrast, a few serovars cause disease only in a specific host. Host-specific serovars can cause a systemic, often fatal disease in one species yet remain avirulent in other species. Host-specific Salmonella frequently have large genomic rearrangements due to recombination at the ribosomal RNA (rrn) operons while the generalists consistently have a conserved chromosomal arrangement. To determine whether this is the result of an intrinsic difference in recombination frequency or a consequence of lifestyle difference between generalist and host-specific Salmonella, we determined the frequency of rearrangements in vitro. Using lacZ genes as portable regions of homology for inversion analysis, we found that both generalist and host-specific serovars of Salmonella have similar tolerances to chromosomal rearrangements in vitro. Using PCR and genetic selection, we found that generalist and host-specific serovars also undergo rearrangements at rrn operons at similar frequencies in vitro. These observations indicate that the observed difference in genomic stability between generalist and host-specific serovars is a consequence of their distinct lifestyles, not intrinsic differences in recombination frequencies.

  17. Natural Selection for Operons Depends on Genome Size

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, Pablo A.; Romero, Héctor; Farber, Marisa D.; Rocha, Eduardo P.C.

    2013-01-01

    In prokaryotes, genome size is associated with metabolic versatility, regulatory complexity, effective population size, and horizontal transfer rates. We therefore analyzed the covariation of genome size and operon conservation to assess the evolutionary models of operon formation and maintenance. In agreement with previous results, intraoperonic pairs of essential and of highly expressed genes are more conserved. Interestingly, intraoperonic pairs of genes are also more conserved when they encode proteins at similar cell concentrations, suggesting a role of cotranscription in diminishing the cost of waste and shortfall in gene expression. Larger genomes have fewer and smaller operons that are also less conserved. Importantly, lower conservation in larger genomes was observed for all classes of operons in terms of gene expression, essentiality, and balanced protein concentration. We reached very similar conclusions in independent analyses of three major bacterial clades (α- and β-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes). Operon conservation is inversely correlated to the abundance of transcription factors in the genome when controlled for genome size. This suggests a negative association between the complexity of genetic networks and operon conservation. These results show that genome size and/or its proxies are key determinants of the intensity of natural selection for operon organization. Our data fit better the evolutionary models based on the advantage of coregulation than those based on genetic linkage or stochastic gene expression. We suggest that larger genomes with highly complex genetic networks and many transcription factors endure weaker selection for operons than smaller genomes with fewer alternative tools for genetic regulation. PMID:24201372

  18. Electron microscopic visualization of trp operon expression in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    French, S; Martin, K; Patterson, T; Bauerle, R; Miller, O L

    1985-07-01

    Transcriptional activity of plasmids carrying wild-type and mutant trp operons was visualized in cell lysates of Salmonella typhimurium. Plasmid and transcription-unit sizes varied with the size of the cloned operon. Following 3-(3-indolyl)acrylic acid derepression, all operons of a particular type exhibited the same high level of transcriptional activity. An estimated 11-14 transcripts must be initiated each minute to maintain the 190-base-pair spacing of RNA polymerases observed on the promoter-proximal half of the wild-type trp operon. A decline in RNA polymerase density was observed on promoter-distal portions of cloned trp operons, which may be attributable to premature transcription termination accompanying translation inhibition due to indolylacrylic acid's interference with normal tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase activity.

  19. High accuracy operon prediction method based on STRING database scores.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Blanca; Verde, Cristina; Merino, Enrique

    2010-07-01

    We present a simple and highly accurate computational method for operon prediction, based on intergenic distances and functional relationships between the protein products of contiguous genes, as defined by STRING database (Jensen,L.J., Kuhn,M., Stark,M., Chaffron,S., Creevey,C., Muller,J., Doerks,T., Julien,P., Roth,A., Simonovic,M. et al. (2009) STRING 8-a global view on proteins and their functional interactions in 630 organisms. Nucleic Acids Res., 37, D412-D416). These two parameters were used to train a neural network on a subset of experimentally characterized Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis operons. Our predictive model was successfully tested on the set of experimentally defined operons in E. coli and B. subtilis, with accuracies of 94.6 and 93.3%, respectively. As far as we know, these are the highest accuracies ever obtained for predicting bacterial operons. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the predictable accuracy of our model when using an organism's data set for the training procedure, and a different organism's data set for testing, we repeated the E. coli operon prediction analysis using a neural network trained with B. subtilis data, and a B. subtilis analysis using a neural network trained with E. coli data. Even for these cases, the accuracies reached with our method were outstandingly high, 91.5 and 93%, respectively. These results show the potential use of our method for accurately predicting the operons of any other organism. Our operon predictions for fully-sequenced genomes are available at http://operons.ibt.unam.mx/OperonPredictor/.

  20. Structure of the Escherichia coli S10 ribosomal protein operon.

    PubMed Central

    Zurawski, G; Zurawski, S M

    1985-01-01

    The complete structure of the Escherichia coli S10 ribosomal protein operon is presented. Based on the DNA sequence, the deduced order of the 11 genes in the operon is rpsJ, rplC, rplD, rplW, rplB, rpsS, rplV, rpsC, rplP, rpmC, rpsQ. The estimated transcribed length of the operon is 5181 base pairs. Putative sequences involved in ribosome binding are discussed. The DNA sequence data corrects several errors in previously determined protein sequence data. PMID:3892488

  1. Evolution and Biophysics of the Escherichia coli lac Operon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, J. Christian; Igoshin, Oleg; Quan, Selwyn; Monds, Russell; Cooper, Tim; Balázsi, Gábor

    2011-03-01

    To understand, predict, and control the evolution of living organisms, we consider biophysical effects and molecular network architectures. The lactose utilization system of E. coli is among the most well-studied molecular networks in biology, making it an ideal candidate for such studies. Simulations show how the genetic architecture of the wild-type operon attenuates large metabolic intermediate fluctuations that are predicted to occur in an equivalent system with the component genes on separate operons. Quantification of gene expression in the lac operon evolved in growth conditions containing constant lactose, alternating with glucose, or constant glucose, shows characteristic gene expression patterns depending on conditions. We are simulating these conditions to show context-dependent biophysical sources and costs of different lac operon architectures.

  2. Bacterial cells carrying synthetic dual-function operon survived starvation.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yuki; Ito, Yoichiro; Tsuru, Saburo; Ying, Bei-Wen; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    A synthetic dual-function operon with a bistable structure was designed and successfully integrated into the bacterial genome. Bistability was generated by the mutual inhibitory structure comprised of the promoters P(tet) and P(lac) and the repressors LacI and TetR. Dual function essential for cell growth was introduced by replacing the genes (i.e., hisC and leuB) encoding proteins involved in the biosynthesis of histidine and leucine from their native chromosomal locations to the synthetic operon. Both colony formation and population dynamics of the cells carrying this operon showed that the cells survived starvation and the newly formed population transited between the two stable states, representing the induced hisC and leuB levels, in accordance with the nutritional status. The results strongly suggested that the synthetic design of proto-operons sensitive to external perturbations is practical and functional in native cells.

  3. Assessment of the Immune Responses Induced in Cattle after Inoculation of a Mycobacterium bovis Strain Deleted in Two mce2 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Federico Carlos; Soria, Marcelo; Gravisaco, María José; Bianco, María Verónica; Meikle, Virginia; Garbaccio, Sergio; Vagnoni, Lucas; Cataldi, Angel Adrián; Bigi, Fabiana

    2012-01-01

    The generation of efficient candidate vaccines against bovine tuberculosis will contribute to the control of this zoonotic disease. Rationally attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strains generated by knockout of virulence genes are promising candidate vaccines. However, to be effective, these candidate vaccines should at least maintain the immunological properties of their virulent parental M. bovis strains. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain an M. bovis strain deleted in the mce2 genes and evaluate the effect of the mutation on the immunological profile elicited by the bacteria in cattle. We showed that the activation of CD4+ T cells in cattle inoculated with the mutant strain was equivalent to that in animals inoculated with the parental strain. Moreover, after in vitro stimulation, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from animals inoculated with the mutant produced higher levels of mRNA Th-1 cytokines than the parental strain. Therefore, these results indicate that the mce2 mutant is a promising candidate vaccine against bovine tuberculosis. PMID:22719207

  4. A-Site (MCe) Substitution Effects on the Structures and Properties of CaBi4Ti4O15 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haixue; Li, Chengen; Zhou, Jiaguang; Zhu, Weimin; He, Lianxin; Song, Yuxin

    2000-11-01

    We investigated the effect of A-site compound substitution on the structures and properties of Ca0.8(MCe)0.1Bi4Ti4O15 (M denotes Li, Na and K) ceramics. The samples were prepared by the conventional ceramic technique. Sintering characteristics of Ca0.8(MCe)0.1Bi4Ti4O15 and CaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics were discussed. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the three modified CBT-based compounds show a single phase of bismuth oxide layer type structure with m=4. The hysteresis loops of polarization versus electric field of the four compounds were also measured. A-site compound substitution improves the piezoelectric properties and the high-temperature resistivity of these materials. A-site (LiCe) and (KCe) substitution not only improves the Curie temperature but also decreases the temperature coefficient of dielectric constant (TK\\varepsilon). Among the three modified ceramics, only the Curie temperature of Ca0.8(NaCe)0.1Bi4Ti4O15 is lower than that of CaBi4Ti4O15; however, its TK\\varepsilon is the lowest. As a result, all the three modified CBT-based ceramics were found to be excellent high-temperature piezoelectric materials.

  5. Boolean models can explain bistability in the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Stigler, Brandilyn

    2011-06-01

    The lac operon in Escherichia coli has been studied extensively and is one of the earliest gene systems found to undergo both positive and negative control. The lac operon is known to exhibit bistability, in the sense that the operon is either induced or uninduced. Many dynamical models have been proposed to capture this phenomenon. While most are based on complex mathematical formulations, it has been suggested that for other gene systems network topology is sufficient to produce the desired dynamical behavior. We present a Boolean network as a discrete model for the lac operon. Our model includes the two main glucose control mechanisms of catabolite repression and inducer exclusion. We show that this Boolean model is capable of predicting the ON and OFF steady states and bistability. Further, we present a reduced model which shows that lac mRNA and lactose form the core of the lac operon, and that this reduced model exhibits the same dynamics. This work suggests that the key to model qualitative dynamics of gene systems is the topology of the network and Boolean models are well suited for this purpose.

  6. Operon Gene Order Is Optimized for Ordered Protein Complex Assembly.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan N; Bergendahl, L Therese; Marsh, Joseph A

    2016-02-02

    The assembly of heteromeric protein complexes is an inherently stochastic process in which multiple genes are expressed separately into proteins, which must then somehow find each other within the cell. Here, we considered one of the ways by which prokaryotic organisms have attempted to maximize the efficiency of protein complex assembly: the organization of subunit-encoding genes into operons. Using structure-based assembly predictions, we show that operon gene order has been optimized to match the order in which protein subunits assemble. Exceptions to this are almost entirely highly expressed proteins for which assembly is less stochastic and for which precisely ordered translation offers less benefit. Overall, these results show that ordered protein complex assembly pathways are of significant biological importance and represent a major evolutionary constraint on operon gene organization.

  7. Cost-benefit tradeoffs in engineered lac operons.

    PubMed

    Eames, Matt; Kortemme, Tanja

    2012-05-18

    Cells must balance the cost and benefit of protein expression to optimize organismal fitness. The lac operon of the bacterium Escherichia coli has been a model for quantifying the physiological impact of costly protein production and for elucidating the resulting regulatory mechanisms. We report quantitative fitness measurements in 27 redesigned operons that suggested that protein production is not the primary origin of fitness costs. Instead, we discovered that the lac permease activity, which relates linearly to cost, is the major physiological burden to the cell. These findings explain control points in the lac operon that minimize the cost of lac permease activity, not protein expression. Characterizing similar relationships in other systems will be important to map the impact of cost/benefit tradeoffs on cell physiology and regulation.

  8. Genome Data from DOOR: a Database for prOkaryotic OpeRons

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOOR (Database of prOkaryotic OpeRons) is an operon database developed by Computational Systems Biology Lab (CSBL) at University of Georgia. Although the operons in the database are based on prediction, there are some unique features. These are: • A algorithm is consistently best at all aspects including sensitivity and specificity for both true positives and true negatives, and the overall accuracy reaches 90 percent. The prediction algorithm is based on this paper: P. Dam, V. Olman, K. Harris, Z. Su, Y. Xu., Operon prediction using both genome-specific and general genomic information, Nucleic Acids Res., 35(1):288-98, 2007 • DOOR provides one of the largest data sets of operon information available to the public. DOOR provides operons for 675 prokaryotic genomes. Although most of operons in DOOR are not verified by experiments, the creators are also trying to provide some limited literature information, which is extracted from ODB. They emphasize that if the users are looking for strictly experimentally verified operons, they should look into DBTBS and RegulonDB first. • Operons which include RNA genes, which are rarely seen in other operon databases especially for predicted operon databases • Defined the similarity scores between operons, which is based on weighted maximum matching between operons. Similar operon groups can be used to predict accurate orthologous genes,and their upstream regions can be used to find the consensus binding motifs. • Integration of two motif finding programs in the database: MEME and CUBIC. DOOR provides an Organism View for browsing, a gene search tool, an operon search tool, and the operon prediction interface.[Text taken and edited from http://csbl1.bmb.uga.edu/OperonDB/tutorial.php

  9. Dynamic model of gene regulation for the lac operon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, Maia; Ben-Halim, Asma

    2011-03-01

    Gene regulatory network is a collection of DNA which interact with each other and with other matter in the cell. The lac operon is an example of a relatively simple genetic network and is one of the best-studied structures in the Escherichia coli bacteria. In this work we consider a deterministic model of the lac operon with a noise term, representing the stochastic nature of the regulation. The model is written in terms of a system of simultaneous first order differential equations with delays. We investigate an analytical and numerical solution and analyse the range of values for the parameters corresponding to a stable solution.

  10. Characterization of the Cobalamin and Fep Operons in Methylobium petrolphilum PM1

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, J

    2005-09-06

    The bacterium Methylobium petroleophilum PM1 is economically important due to its ability to degrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a fuel additive. Because PM1 is a representative of all MTBE degraders, it is important to understand the transport pathways critical for the organism to survive in its particular environment. In this study, the cobalamin pathway and select iron transport genes will be characterized to help further understand all metabolic pathways in PM1. PM1 contains a total of four cobalamin operons. A single operon is located on the chromosome. Located on the megaplasmid are two tandem repeats of cob operons and a very close representative of the cob operon located on the chromosome. The fep operon, an iron transport mechanism, lies within the multiple copies of the cob operon. The cob operon and the fep operon appear to be unrelated except for a shared need for the T-on-B-dependent energy transduction complex to assist the operons in moving large molecules across the outer membrane of the cell. A genomic study of the cob and the fep operons with that of phylogenetically related organisms helped to confirm the identity of the cob and fep operons and to represent the pathways. More study of the pathways should be done to find the relationship that positions the two seemingly unrelated cob and fep genes together in what appears to be one operon.

  11. Operon Formation is Driven by Co-Regulation and Not by Horizontal Gene Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Huang, Katherine H.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2005-04-12

    Although operons are often subject to horizontal gene transfer (HGT), non-HGT genes are particularly likely to be in operons. To resolve this apparent discrepancy and to determine whether HGT is involved in operon formation, we examined the evolutionary history of the genes and operons in Escherichia coli K12. We show that genes that have homologs in distantly related bacteria but not in close relatives of E. coli (indicating HGTi) form new operons at about the same rates as native genes. Furthermore, genes in new operons are no more likely than other genes to have phylogenetic trees that are inconsistent with the species tree. In contrast, essential genes and ubiquitous genes without paralogs (genes believed to undergo HGT rarely) often form new operons. We conclude that HGT is not associated with operon formation, but instead promotes the prevalence of pre-existing operons. To explain operon formation, we propose that new operons reduce the amount of regulatory information required to specify optimal expression patterns. Consistent with this hypothesis, operons have greater amounts of conserved regulatory sequences than do individually transcribed genes.

  12. Horizontally acquired glycosyltransferase operons drive salmonellae lipopolysaccharide diversity.

    PubMed

    Davies, Mark R; Broadbent, Sarah E; Harris, Simon R; Thomson, Nicholas R; van der Woude, Marjan W

    2013-06-01

    The immunodominant lipopolysaccharide is a key antigenic factor for Gram-negative pathogens such as salmonellae where it plays key roles in host adaptation, virulence, immune evasion, and persistence. Variation in the lipopolysaccharide is also the major differentiating factor that is used to classify Salmonella into over 2600 serovars as part of the Kaufmann-White scheme. While lipopolysaccharide diversity is generally associated with sequence variation in the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis operon, extraneous genetic factors such as those encoded by the glucosyltransferase (gtr) operons provide further structural heterogeneity by adding additional sugars onto the O-antigen component of the lipopolysaccharide. Here we identify and examine the O-antigen modifying glucosyltransferase genes from the genomes of Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori serovars. We show that Salmonella generally carries between 1 and 4 gtr operons that we have classified into 10 families on the basis of gtrC sequence with apparent O-antigen modification detected for five of these families. The gtr operons localize to bacteriophage-associated genomic regions and exhibit a dynamic evolutionary history driven by recombination and gene shuffling events leading to new gene combinations. Furthermore, evidence of Dam- and OxyR-dependent phase variation of gtr gene expression was identified within eight gtr families. Thus, as O-antigen modification generates significant intra- and inter-strain phenotypic diversity, gtr-mediated modification is fundamental in assessing Salmonella strain variability. This will inform appropriate vaccine and diagnostic approaches, in addition to contributing to our understanding of host-pathogen interactions.

  13. Development of a Lac Operon Concept Inventory (LOCI)

    PubMed Central

    Stefanski, Katherine M.; Gardner, Grant E.; Seipelt-Thiemann, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Concept inventories (CIs) are valuable tools for educators that assess student achievement and identify misconceptions held by students. Results of student responses can be used to adjust or develop new instructional methods for a given topic. The regulation of gene expression in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is an important concept in genetics and one that is particularly challenging for undergraduate students. As part of a larger study examining instructional methods related to gene regulation, the authors developed a 12-item CI assessing student knowledge of the lac operon. Using an established protocol, the authors wrote open-ended questions and conducted in-class testing with undergraduate microbiology and genetics students to discover common errors made by students about the lac operon and to determine aspects of item validity. Using these results, we constructed a 12-item multiple-choice lac operon CI called the Lac Operon Concept Inventory (LOCI), The LOCI was reviewed by two experts in the field for content validity. The LOCI underwent item analysis and was assessed for reliability with a sample of undergraduate genetics students (n = 115). The data obtained were found to be valid and reliable (coefficient alpha = 0.994) with adequate discriminatory power and item difficulty. PMID:27252300

  14. Development of a Lac Operon Concept Inventory (LOCI).

    PubMed

    Stefanski, Katherine M; Gardner, Grant E; Seipelt-Thiemann, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Concept inventories (CIs) are valuable tools for educators that assess student achievement and identify misconceptions held by students. Results of student responses can be used to adjust or develop new instructional methods for a given topic. The regulation of gene expression in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is an important concept in genetics and one that is particularly challenging for undergraduate students. As part of a larger study examining instructional methods related to gene regulation, the authors developed a 12-item CI assessing student knowledge of the lac operon. Using an established protocol, the authors wrote open-ended questions and conducted in-class testing with undergraduate microbiology and genetics students to discover common errors made by students about the lac operon and to determine aspects of item validity. Using these results, we constructed a 12-item multiple-choice lac operon CI called the Lac Operon Concept Inventory (LOCI), The LOCI was reviewed by two experts in the field for content validity. The LOCI underwent item analysis and was assessed for reliability with a sample of undergraduate genetics students (n = 115). The data obtained were found to be valid and reliable (coefficient alpha = 0.994) with adequate discriminatory power and item difficulty.

  15. Modeling network dynamics: the lac operon, a case study.

    PubMed

    Vilar, José M G; Guet, Călin C; Leibler, Stanislas

    2003-05-12

    We use the lac operon in Escherichia coli as a prototype system to illustrate the current state, applicability, and limitations of modeling the dynamics of cellular networks. We integrate three different levels of description (molecular, cellular, and that of cell population) into a single model, which seems to capture many experimental aspects of the system.

  16. Fucose-Mediated Transcriptional Activation of the fcs Operon by FcsR in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Irfan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Afzal, Muhammad; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explore the impact of fucose on the transcriptome of S. pneumoniae D39. The expression of various genes and operons, including the fucose uptake PTS and utilization operon (fcs operon) was altered in the presence of fucose. By means of quantitative RT-PCR and β-galactosidase analysis, we demonstrate the role of the transcriptional regulator FcsR, present upstream of the fcs operon, as a transcriptional activator of the fcs operon. We also predict a 19-bp putative FcsR regulatory site (5'-ATTTGAACATTATTCAAGT-3') in the promoter region of the fcs operon. The functionality of this predicted FcsR regulatory site was further confirmed by promoter-truncation experiments, where deletion of half of the FscR regulatory site or full deletion led to the abolition of expression of the fcs operon.

  17. Design and characterisation of synthetic operons for biohydrogen technology.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Ciaran M; Sargent, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Biohydrogen is produced by a number of microbial systems and the commonly used host bacterium Escherichia coli naturally produces hydrogen under fermentation conditions. One approach to engineering additional hydrogen production pathways is to introduce non-native hydrogenases into E. coli. An attractive candidate is the soluble [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha, which has been shown to link NADH/NAD(+) biochemistry directly to hydrogen metabolism, an activity that E. coli does not perform. In this work, three synthetic operons were designed that code for the soluble hydrogenase and two different enzyme maturase systems. Interestingly, using this system, the recombinant soluble hydrogenase was found to be assembled by the native E. coli [NiFe]-hydrogenase assembly machinery, and, vice versa, the synthetic maturase operons were able to complement E. coli mutants defective in hydrogenase biosynthesis. The heterologously expressed soluble hydrogenase was found to be active and was shown to produce biohydrogen in vivo.

  18. [UV-inducibility of the LT-toxin operon].

    PubMed

    Tiganova, I G; Rusina, O Iu; Andreeva, I V; Demkin, V V; Brukhanskiĭ, G V; Aleshkin, G I; Skavronskaia, A G

    1989-07-01

    The plasmid elt-operon pVZ14 was constructed by fusing of the eltoperon of the plasmid pVZ357 with the lac-gene of the bacteriophage Mud1 (Amp, Lac). lacZ gene has been proven to be fused with an elt-promoter by the loss of toxin production coded by pVZ357 and acquiring of Lac+ phenotype by pVZ14 containing cells, as well as by HindIII fragments hybridization of pVZ357 and pVZ14 with the labelled elt-probe. The kinetics of beta-galactosidase synthesis in E. coli cells harboring pVZ14 shows an elt-operon promoter to have expressed constitutive activity and to be activated by a SOS-inducing agent, UV-light.

  19. Positive and Negative Control of the Lac Operon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaddour, Jihad S.; Werman, Steven D.; Misra, Prasanta K.

    1997-03-01

    We present a mathematical model for the positive and negative control of lac operon. We investigate a steady state solution for the coupled nonlinear differential equations representing the dynamic behaviors of the repressor-inducer components of negative control as well as the cyclic AMP receptor components of the positive control. A dimensionless derivation of the lac operon system is employed to produce singularly perturbed models. The first model represents the dynamical behavior of the operator while the slow model represents the dynamical behaviors of the inducer and the repressor. We use the singular perturbation theory to show that the behavior of the system can be described as a rapid on-off switch of structural gene transformation.

  20. Elucidation of operon structures across closely related bacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuan; Ma, Qin; Li, Guojun

    2014-01-01

    About half of the protein-coding genes in prokaryotic genomes are organized into operons to facilitate co-regulation during transcription. With the evolution of genomes, operon structures are undergoing changes which could coordinate diverse gene expression patterns in response to various stimuli during the life cycle of a bacterial cell. Here we developed a graph-based model to elucidate the diversity of operon structures across a set of closely related bacterial genomes. In the constructed graph, each node represents one orthologous gene group (OGG) and a pair of nodes will be connected if any two genes, from the corresponding two OGGs respectively, are located in the same operon as immediate neighbors in any of the considered genomes. Through identifying the connected components in the above graph, we found that genes in a connected component are likely to be functionally related and these identified components tend to form treelike topology, such as paths and stars, corresponding to different biological mechanisms in transcriptional regulation as follows. Specifically, (i) a path-structure component integrates genes encoding a protein complex, such as ribosome; and (ii) a star-structure component not only groups related genes together, but also reflects the key functional roles of the central node of this component, such as the ABC transporter with a transporter permease and substrate-binding proteins surrounding it. Most interestingly, the genes from organisms with highly diverse living environments, i.e., biomass degraders and animal pathogens of clostridia in our study, can be clearly classified into different topological groups on some connected components.

  1. Horizontally Acquired Glycosyltransferase Operons Drive Salmonellae Lipopolysaccharide Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Mark R.; Broadbent, Sarah E.; Harris, Simon R.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; van der Woude, Marjan W.

    2013-01-01

    The immunodominant lipopolysaccharide is a key antigenic factor for Gram-negative pathogens such as salmonellae where it plays key roles in host adaptation, virulence, immune evasion, and persistence. Variation in the lipopolysaccharide is also the major differentiating factor that is used to classify Salmonella into over 2600 serovars as part of the Kaufmann-White scheme. While lipopolysaccharide diversity is generally associated with sequence variation in the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis operon, extraneous genetic factors such as those encoded by the glucosyltransferase (gtr) operons provide further structural heterogeneity by adding additional sugars onto the O-antigen component of the lipopolysaccharide. Here we identify and examine the O-antigen modifying glucosyltransferase genes from the genomes of Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori serovars. We show that Salmonella generally carries between 1 and 4 gtr operons that we have classified into 10 families on the basis of gtrC sequence with apparent O-antigen modification detected for five of these families. The gtr operons localize to bacteriophage-associated genomic regions and exhibit a dynamic evolutionary history driven by recombination and gene shuffling events leading to new gene combinations. Furthermore, evidence of Dam- and OxyR-dependent phase variation of gtr gene expression was identified within eight gtr families. Thus, as O-antigen modification generates significant intra- and inter-strain phenotypic diversity, gtr-mediated modification is fundamental in assessing Salmonella strain variability. This will inform appropriate vaccine and diagnostic approaches, in addition to contributing to our understanding of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23818865

  2. Structure of the E. coli hisT Operon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO ArintoV 221-50061153N IRRO41-05 ]RR041-O5-Oj NR204-123 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) (U) STRUCTURE OF THE E ... Coli hisT OPERON ritpe C., Arps, Peggy J. and Winkler, Malcolm E. 13 YE OF RAPORT 13b. TIME CO VEE 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year Month. Day) 15. PAGE

  3. Structural characterization of the Salmonella typhimurium LT2 umu operon

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.M.; Crowne, H.M.; Pidsley, S.C.; Sedgwick, S.G. )

    1990-09-01

    The umuDC operon of Escherichia coli encodes functions required for mutagenesis induced by radiation and a wide variety of chemicals. The closely related organism Salmonella typhimurium is markedly less mutable than E. coli, but a umu homolog has recently been identified and cloned from the LT2 subline. In this study the nucleotide sequence and structure of the S. typhimurium LT2 umu operon have been determined and its gene products have been identified so that the molecular basis of umu activity might be understood more fully. S. typhimurium LT2 umu consists of a smaller 417-base-pair (bp) umuD gene ending 2 bp upstream of a larger 1,266-bp umuC gene. The only apparent structural difference between the two operons is the lack of gene overlap. An SOS box identical to that found in E. coli is present in the promoter region upstream of umuD. The calculated molecular masses of the umuD and umuC gene products were 15.3 and 47.8 kilodaltons, respectively, which agree with figures determined by transpositional disruption and maxicell analysis. The S. typhimurium and E. coli umuD sequences were 68% homologous and encoded products with 71% amino acid identity; the umuC sequences were 71% homologous and encoded products with 83% amino acid identity. Furthermore, the potential UmuD cleavage site and associated catalytic sites could be identified. Thus the very different mutagenic responses of S. typhimurium LT2 and E. coli cannot be accounted for by gross differences in operon structure or gene products. Rather, the ability of the cloned S. typhimurium umuD gene to give stronger complementation of E. coli umuD77 mutants in the absence of a functional umuC gene suggests that Salmonella UmuC protein normally constrains UmuD protein activity.

  4. Growth and sporulation defects in Bacillus subtilis mutants with a single rrn operon can be suppressed by amplification of the rrn operon.

    PubMed

    Yano, Koichi; Masuda, Kenta; Akanuma, Genki; Wada, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Takashi; Shiwa, Yuh; Ishige, Taichiro; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Niki, Hironori; Inaoka, Takashi; Kawamura, Fujio

    2016-01-01

    The genome of Bacillus subtilis strain 168 encodes ten rRNA (rrn) operons. We previously reported that strains with only a single rrn operon had a decreased growth and sporulation frequency. We report here the isolation and characterization of suppressor mutants from seven strains that each have a single rrn operon (rrnO, A, J, I, E, D or B). The suppressor mutants for strain RIK656 with a single rrnO operon had a higher frequency of larger colonies. These suppressor mutants had not only increased growth rates, but also increased sporulation frequencies and ribosome levels compared to the parental mutant strain RIK656. Quantitative PCR analyses showed that all these suppressor mutants had an increased number of copies of the rrnO operon. Suppressor mutants were also isolated from the six other strains with single rrn operons (rrnA, J, I, E, D or B). Next generation and capillary sequencing showed that all of the suppressor mutants had tandem repeats of the chromosomal locus containing the remaining rrn operon (amplicon). These amplicons varied in size from approximately 9 to 179 kb. The amplifications were likely to be initiated by illegitimate recombination between non- or micro-homologous sequences, followed by unequal crossing-over during DNA replication. These results are consistent with our previous report that rrn operon copy number has a major role in cellular processes such as cell growth and sporulation.

  5. The transcription of the cbb operon in Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xueming; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A; Arp, Daniel J

    2004-06-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea is an aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacterium that participates in the C and N cycles. N. europaea utilizes CO(2) as its predominant carbon source, and is an obligate chemolithotroph, deriving all the reductant required for energy and biosynthesis from the oxidation of ammonia (NH(3)) to nitrite (). This bacterium fixes carbon via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle via a type I ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). The RubisCO operon is composed of five genes, cbbLSQON. This gene organization is similar to that of the operon for 'green-like' type I RubisCOs in other organisms. The cbbR gene encoding the putative regulatory protein for RubisCO transcription was identified upstream of cbbL. This study showed that transcription of cbb genes was upregulated when the carbon source was limited, while amo, hao and other energy-harvesting-related genes were downregulated. N. europaea responds to carbon limitation by prioritizing resources towards key components for carbon assimilation. Unlike the situation for amo genes, NH(3) was not required for the transcription of the cbb genes. All five cbb genes were only transcribed when an external energy source was provided. In actively growing cells, mRNAs from the five genes in the RubisCO operon were present at different levels, probably due to premature termination of transcription, rapid mRNA processing and mRNA degradation.

  6. The use of GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) to identify agricultural land management practices which cause surface water pollution in drinking water supply catchments.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Richard; Kay, Paul; Foulger, Miles

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse pollution poses a threat to water quality and results in the need for treatment for potable water supplies which can prove costly. Within the Yorkshire region, UK, nitrates, pesticides and water colour present particular treatment problems. Catchment management techniques offer an alternative to 'end of pipe' solutions and allow resources to be targeted to the most polluting areas. This project has attempted to identify such areas using GIS based modelling approaches in catchments where water quality data were available. As no model exists to predict water colour a model was created using an MCE method which is capable of predicting colour concentrations at the catchment scale. CatchIS was used to predict pesticide and nitrate N concentrations and was found to be generally capable of reliably predicting nitrate N loads at the catchment scale. The pesticides results did not match the historic data possibly due to problems with the historic pesticide data and temporal and spatially variability in pesticide usage. The use of these models can be extended to predict water quality problems in catchments where water quality data are unavailable and highlight areas of concern.

  7. Characterization of genes in the cellulose-synthesizing operon (acs operon) of Acetobacter xylinum: implications for cellulose crystallization.

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, I M; Kudlicka, K; Okuda, K; Brown, R M

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis of an extracellular ribbon of cellulose in the bacterium Acetobacter xylinum takes place from linearly arranged, membrane-localized, cellulose-synthesizing and extrusion complexes that direct the coupled steps of polymerization and crystallization. To identify the different components involved in this process, we isolated an Acetobacter cellulose-synthesizing (acs) operon from this bacterium. Analysis of DNA sequence shows the presence of three genes in the acs operon, in which the first gene (acsAB) codes for a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 168 kDa, which was identified as the cellulose synthase. A single base change in the previously reported DNA sequence of this gene, resulting in a frameshift and synthesis of a larger protein, is described in the present paper, along with the sequences of the other two genes (acsC and acsD). The requirement of the acs operon genes for cellulose production was determined using site-determined TnphoA/Kanr GenBlock insertion mutants. Mutant analysis showed that while the acsAB and acsC genes were essential for cellulose production in vivo, the acsD mutant produced reduced amounts of two cellulose allomorphs (cellulose I and cellulose II), suggesting that the acsD gene is involved in cellulose crystallization. The role of the acs operon genes in determining the linear array of intramembranous particles, which are believed to be sites of cellulose synthesis, was investigated for the different mutants; however, this arrangement was observed only in cells that actively produced cellulose microfibrils, suggesting that it may be influenced by the crystallization of the nascent glucan chains. Images PMID:8083166

  8. The effector overlap between the lac and mel operons of Escherichia coli: Induction of the mel operon with β-galactosides.

    PubMed

    Narang, Atul; Oehler, Stefan

    2017-02-13

    The lac (lactose) operon (processes β-galactosides) and the mel (melibiose) operon (processes α-galactosides) of Escherichia coli have a close historical connection. A number of shared substrates and effectors of the permeases and regulatory proteins has been reported over the years. Up to now, β-thiogalactosides like TMG (methyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside) and IPTG (isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside) are generally not considered inducers of the mel operon. The same is true for β-galactosides like lactose (β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-D-glucose), which is a substrate, but itself not an inducer of the lac operon. This report shows that all three sugars can induce the mel operon significantly, when they are accumulated in the cell by Lac permease. Strong induction by the gratuitous β-thiogalactosides is observed in the presence of Lac permease and strong induction by lactose (more than 200-fold) in the absence of β-galactosidase. This finding calls for re-evaluation of TMG uptake experiments as assays for Lac permease that were performed with mel(+) strains.IMPORTANCE The typical textbook picture of bacterial operons is that of stand-alone units of genetic information that perform, in a regulated manner, well-defined cellular functions. Less attention is given to the extensive interactions that can be found between operons. One well-described example of such interactions are the effector molecules shared by the lac and mel operons. It is here shown that this set has to be extended to include β-galactosides, which have been, until now, considered not to effect expression of the mel operon. That they can be inducers of the mel as well as the lac operon has not been noticed in decades of research, because of the E. coli genetic background used in previous studies.

  9. Interplay of Noisy Gene Expression and Dynamics Explains Patterns of Bacterial Operon Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igoshin, Oleg

    2011-03-01

    Bacterial chromosomes are organized into operons -- sets of genes co-transcribed into polycistronic messenger RNA. Hypotheses explaining the emergence and maintenance of operons include proportional co-regulation, horizontal transfer of intact ``selfish'' operons, emergence via gene duplication, and co-production of physically interacting proteins to speed their association. We hypothesized an alternative: operons can reduce or increase intrinsic gene expression noise in a manner dependent on the post-translational interactions, thereby resulting in selection for or against operons in depending on the network architecture. We devised five classes of two-gene network modules and show that the effects of operons on intrinsic noise depend on class membership. Two classes exhibit decreased noise with co-transcription, two others reveal increased noise, and the remaining one does not show a significant difference. To test our modeling predictions we employed bioinformatic analysis to determine the relationship gene expression noise and operon organization. The results confirm the overrepresentation of noise-minimizing operon architectures and provide evidence against other hypotheses. Our results thereby suggest a central role for gene expression noise in selecting for or maintaining operons in bacterial chromosomes. This demonstrates how post-translational network dynamics may provide selective pressure for organizing bacterial chromosomes, and has practical consequences for designing synthetic gene networks. This work is supported by National Institutes of Health grant 1R01GM096189-01.

  10. Engineered ribosomal RNA operon copy-number variants of E. coli reveal the evolutionary trade-offs shaping rRNA operon number.

    PubMed

    Gyorfy, Zsuzsanna; Draskovits, Gabor; Vernyik, Viktor; Blattner, Frederick F; Gaal, Tamas; Posfai, Gyorgy

    2015-02-18

    Ribosomal RNA (rrn) operons, characteristically present in several copies in bacterial genomes (7 in E. coli), play a central role in cellular physiology. We investigated the factors determining the optimal number of rrn operons in E. coli by constructing isogenic variants with 5-10 operons. We found that the total RNA and protein content, as well as the size of the cells reflected the number of rrn operons. While growth parameters showed only minor differences, competition experiments revealed a clear pattern: 7-8 copies were optimal under conditions of fluctuating, occasionally rich nutrient influx and lower numbers were favored in stable, nutrient-limited environments. We found that the advantages of quick adjustment to nutrient availability, rapid growth and economic regulation of ribosome number all contribute to the selection of the optimal rrn operon number. Our results suggest that the wt rrn operon number of E. coli reflects the natural, 'feast and famine' life-style of the bacterium, however, different copy numbers might be beneficial under different environmental conditions. Understanding the impact of the copy number of rrn operons on the fitness of the cell is an important step towards the creation of functional and robust genomes, the ultimate goal of synthetic biology.

  11. Transcriptional autoregulation of the Salmonella typhimurium phoPQ operon.

    PubMed

    Soncini, F C; Véscovi, E G; Groisman, E A

    1995-08-01

    The Salmonella typhimurium PhoP-PhoQ two-component regulatory system controls the expression of several genes, some of which are necessary for virulence. During a screening for PhoP-regulated genes, we identified the phoPQ operon as a PhoP-activated locus. beta-Galactosidase activity originating from phoPQ-lac transcriptional fusions required the presence of both the transcriptional regulator PhoP and its cognate sensor-kinase PhoQ. At low concentrations, PhoQ stimulated expression of phoPQ-lac transcriptional fusions. However, larger amounts of PhoQ protein without a concomitant increase in PhoP failed to activate phoPQ-lac fusions. Two different transcripts are produced from the phoPQ operon during exponential growth. These transcripts define two promoters: phoPp1, which requires both PhoP and PhoQ for activity and which is environmentally regulated, and phoPp2, which remains active in the absence of PhoP and PhoQ but which is slightly stimulated by these proteins. The pattern of transcriptional autoregulation was also observed at the protein level with anti-PhoP antibodies. In sum, autoregulation of the phoPQ operon provides several levels of control for the PhoP-PhoQ regulon. First, environmental signals would stimulate PhoQ to phosphorylate the PhoP protein that is produced at basal levels from the PhoP-PhoQ-independent promoter. Then, phospho-PhoP would activate transcription of phoPp1, resulting in larger amounts of PhoP and PhoQ and increased expression of PhoP-activated genes. A return to basal levels could be mediated by a posttranscriptional mechanism by which translation of the mRNA produced from phoPp1 is inhibited.

  12. Expression of a synthetic pertussis toxin operon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pozza, T D; Yan, H; Walker, M J

    1997-06-01

    Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough, a severe disease of infants characterised by repeated of paroxysmal coughing. Pertussis toxin (PT) is a major virulence factor of B. pertussis and is a typical A/B bacterial toxin consisting of five subunits S1-S5 in a ratio of 1:1:1:2:1. The PT subunit genes are organized into an operon which is not expressed in Escherichia coli, thus hampering the use of this organism for vaccine production. We have expressed the five PT subunits individually in E. coli by replacing the wild-type transcriptional and translational signals, and in the case of the S4 subunit the leader peptide has been exchanged with a modified E. coli beta-lactamase leader sequence. We have developed a stepwise cloning method to construct a synthetic PT operon which simultaneously expresses the five PT subunits in E. coli. Western blot analysis indicated that in E. coli KS476 containing the synthetic PT operon, S4 and S5 were completely processed, S1 was partially processed, whilst the majority of S2 and S3 remained unprocessed. Periplasmic extracts contained soluble S1 and S3; however, the processed form of S2, S4 and S5 were not detected, suggesting that these subunits may be membrane associated or in an insoluble form. This work should allow an investigation of the potential of E. coli to produce detoxified PT in a background free of other pertussis virulence factors that may contribute to the side-effects of some vaccine preparations currently in use.

  13. An inducible tellurite-resistance operon in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Toptchieva, Anna; Sisson, Gary; Bryden, Louis J; Taylor, Diane E; Hoffman, Paul S

    2003-05-01

    Tellurite resistance (Te(r)) is widespread in nature and it is shown here that the natural resistance of Proteus mirabilis to tellurite is due to a chromosomally located orthologue of plasmid-borne ter genes found in enteric bacteria. The P. mirabilis ter locus (terZABCDE) was identified in a screen of Tn5lacZ-generated mutants of which one contained an insertion in terC. The P. mirabilis terC mutant displayed increased susceptibility to tellurite (Te(s)) and complementation with terC carried on a multicopy plasmid restored high-level Te(r). Primer extension analysis revealed a single transcriptional start site upstream of terZ, but only with RNA harvested from bacteria grown in the presence of tellurite. Northern blotting and reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses confirmed that the ter operon was inducible by tellurite and to a lesser extent by oxidative stress inducers such as hydrogen peroxide and methyl viologen (paraquat). Direct and inverted repeat sequences were identified in the ter promoter region as well as motifs upstream of the -35 hexamer that resembled OxyR-binding sequences. Finally, the 390 bp intergenic promoter region located between orf3 and terZ showed no DNA sequence identity with any other published ter sequences, whereas terZABCDE genes exhibited 73-85 % DNA sequence identity. The ter operon was present in all clinical isolates of P. mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris tested and is inferred for Morganella and Providencia spp. based on screening for high level Te(r) and preliminary PCR analysis. Thus, a chromosomally located inducible tellurite resistance operon appears to be a common feature of the genus Proteus.

  14. Operon required for fruiting body development in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohee; Chung, Jinwoo; Hyun, Hyesook; Lee, Chayul; Lee, Kyoung; Cho, Kyungyun

    2009-11-01

    We have used mutational analysis to identify four genes, MXAN3553, MXAN3554, MXAN3555, and MXAN3556, constituting an operon that is essential for normal fruiting body development in Myxococcus xanthus. Deletion of MXAN3553, which encoded a hypothetical protein, resulted in delayed fruiting body development. MXAN3554 was predicted to encode a metallopeptidase, and its deletion caused fruiting body formation to fail. Inactivation of MXAN3555, which encoded a putative NtrC-type response regulator, resulted in delayed aggregation and a severe reduction in sporulation. Fruiting bodies also failed to develop with the deletion of MXAN3556, another gene encoding a hypothetical protein.

  15. Dynamic behavior in mathematical models of the tryptophan operon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillán, Moisés; Mackey, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    This paper surveys the general theory of operon regulation as first formulated by Goodwin and Griffith, and then goes on to consider in detail models of regulation of tryptophan production by Bliss, Sinha, and Santillán and Mackey, and the interrelationships between them. We further give a linear stability analysis of the Santillán and Mackey model for wild type E. coli as well as three different mutant strains that have been previously studied in the literature. This stability analysis indicates that the tryptophan production systems should be stable, which is in accord with our numerical results.

  16. Regulation of the L-arabinose operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schleif, R

    2000-12-01

    Over forty years of research on the L-arabinose operon of Escherichia coli have provided insights into the mechanism of positive regulation of gene activity. This research also discovered DNA looping and the mechanism by which the regulatory protein changes its DNA-binding properties in response to the presence of arabinose. As is frequently seen in focused research on biological subjects, the initial studies were primarily genetic. Subsequently, the genetic approaches were augmented by physiological and then biochemical studies. Now biophysical studies are being conducted at the atomic level, but genetics still has a crucial role in the study of this system.

  17. Unprecedented high-resolution view of bacterial operon architecture revealed by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Conway, Tyrrell; Creecy, James P; Maddox, Scott M; Grissom, Joe E; Conkle, Trevor L; Shadid, Tyler M; Teramoto, Jun; San Miguel, Phillip; Shimada, Tomohiro; Ishihama, Akira; Mori, Hirotada; Wanner, Barry L

    2014-07-08

    We analyzed the transcriptome of Escherichia coli K-12 by strand-specific RNA sequencing at single-nucleotide resolution during steady-state (logarithmic-phase) growth and upon entry into stationary phase in glucose minimal medium. To generate high-resolution transcriptome maps, we developed an organizational schema which showed that in practice only three features are required to define operon architecture: the promoter, terminator, and deep RNA sequence read coverage. We precisely annotated 2,122 promoters and 1,774 terminators, defining 1,510 operons with an average of 1.98 genes per operon. Our analyses revealed an unprecedented view of E. coli operon architecture. A large proportion (36%) of operons are complex with internal promoters or terminators that generate multiple transcription units. For 43% of operons, we observed differential expression of polycistronic genes, despite being in the same operons, indicating that E. coli operon architecture allows fine-tuning of gene expression. We found that 276 of 370 convergent operons terminate inefficiently, generating complementary 3' transcript ends which overlap on average by 286 nucleotides, and 136 of 388 divergent operons have promoters arranged such that their 5' ends overlap on average by 168 nucleotides. We found 89 antisense transcripts of 397-nucleotide average length, 7 unannotated transcripts within intergenic regions, and 18 sense transcripts that completely overlap operons on the opposite strand. Of 519 overlapping transcripts, 75% correspond to sequences that are highly conserved in E. coli (>50 genomes). Our data extend recent studies showing unexpected transcriptome complexity in several bacteria and suggest that antisense RNA regulation is widespread. Importance: We precisely mapped the 5' and 3' ends of RNA transcripts across the E. coli K-12 genome by using a single-nucleotide analytical approach. Our resulting high-resolution transcriptome maps show that ca. one-third of E. coli operons are

  18. Unprecedented High-Resolution View of Bacterial Operon Architecture Revealed by RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Creecy, James P.; Maddox, Scott M.; Grissom, Joe E.; Conkle, Trevor L.; Shadid, Tyler M.; Teramoto, Jun; San Miguel, Phillip; Shimada, Tomohiro; Ishihama, Akira; Mori, Hirotada

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We analyzed the transcriptome of Escherichia coli K-12 by strand-specific RNA sequencing at single-nucleotide resolution during steady-state (logarithmic-phase) growth and upon entry into stationary phase in glucose minimal medium. To generate high-resolution transcriptome maps, we developed an organizational schema which showed that in practice only three features are required to define operon architecture: the promoter, terminator, and deep RNA sequence read coverage. We precisely annotated 2,122 promoters and 1,774 terminators, defining 1,510 operons with an average of 1.98 genes per operon. Our analyses revealed an unprecedented view of E. coli operon architecture. A large proportion (36%) of operons are complex with internal promoters or terminators that generate multiple transcription units. For 43% of operons, we observed differential expression of polycistronic genes, despite being in the same operons, indicating that E. coli operon architecture allows fine-tuning of gene expression. We found that 276 of 370 convergent operons terminate inefficiently, generating complementary 3′ transcript ends which overlap on average by 286 nucleotides, and 136 of 388 divergent operons have promoters arranged such that their 5′ ends overlap on average by 168 nucleotides. We found 89 antisense transcripts of 397-nucleotide average length, 7 unannotated transcripts within intergenic regions, and 18 sense transcripts that completely overlap operons on the opposite strand. Of 519 overlapping transcripts, 75% correspond to sequences that are highly conserved in E. coli (>50 genomes). Our data extend recent studies showing unexpected transcriptome complexity in several bacteria and suggest that antisense RNA regulation is widespread. PMID:25006232

  19. The molybdenum formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase operon and the tungsten formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase operon from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Structures and transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Hochheimer, A; Linder, D; Thauer, R K; Hedderich, R

    1996-11-15

    Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum contains a tungsten formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase (FwdABCD) and a molybdenum formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase (FmdABC). The fwdHFGDACB operon encoding the tungsten enzyme has recently been characterized. We report here on the structure and expression of the gene cluster encoding the molybdenum enzyme. This gene cluster is composed of three open reading frames (fmdECB). The fmdB gene was found to encode the molybdopterin-dinucleotide-binding subunit harboring the enzyme's active site; FmdB is thus functionally equivalent to FwdB. fmdC encodes a protein with sequence similarity to FwdC in its N-terminal part and with sequence similarity to FwdD in its C-terminal part; FmdC is thus functionally equivalent to FwdC and FwdD. Interestingly, the fmd operon lacks a gene fmdA encoding the subunit FmdA of the molybdenum enzyme. FmdA has the same apparent molecular mass and the same N-terminal amino acid sequence as FwdA and only one DNA sequence encoding for this N-terminal amino acid sequence was found in the M. thermoautotrophicum genome. It is therefore proposed that FmdA and FwdA are encoded by the same gene namely fwdA in the fwd operon. In agreement with this proposal is the finding that fwdA is expressed constitutively: northern-blot analysis of RNA from tungstate- and molybdate-grown cells of M. thermo-autotrophicum revealed that the fwdHFGDACB gene cluster is transcribed in the presence of either molybdate or tungstate in the growth medium whereas the fmdECB gene cluster was only transcribed when molybdate was present.

  20. The D-allose operon of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C; Song, S; Park, C

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 can utilize D-allose, an all-cis hexose, as a sole carbon source. The operon responsible for D-allose metabolism was localized at 92.8 min of the E. coli linkage map. It consists of six genes, alsRBACEK, which are inducible by D-allose and are under the control of the repressor gene alsR. This operon is also subject to catabolite repression. Three genes, alsB, alsA, and alsC, appear to be necessary for transport of D-allose. D-Allose-binding protein, encoded by alsB, is a periplasmic protein that has an affinity for D-allose, with a Kd of 0.33 microM. As was found for other binding-protein-mediated ABC transporters, the allose transport system includes an ATP-binding component (AlsA) and a transmembrane protein (AlsC). It was found that AlsE (a putative D-allulose-6-phosphate 3-epimerase), but not AlsK (a putative D-allose kinase), is necessary for allose metabolism. During this study, we observed that the D-allose transporter is partially responsible for the low-affinity transport of D-ribose and that strain W3110, an E. coli prototroph, has a defect in the transport of D-allose mediated by the allose permease. PMID:9401019

  1. Wrapped-around models for the lac operon complex.

    PubMed

    La Penna, Giovanni; Perico, Angelo

    2010-06-16

    The protein-DNA complex, involved in the lac operon of enteric bacteria, is paradigmatic in understanding the extent of DNA bending and plasticity due to interactions with protein assemblies acting as DNA regulators. For the lac operon, two classes of structures have been proposed: 1), with the protein tetramer lying away from the DNA loop (wrapped-away model); and 2), with the protein tetramer lying inside the DNA loop (wrapped-around model). A recently developed electrostatic analytical model shows that the size and net charge of the Lac protein tetramer allow the bending of DNA, which is consistent with another wrapped-around model from the literature. Coarse-grained models, designed based on this observation, are extensively investigated and show three kinds of wrapped-around arrangements of DNA and a lower propensity for wrapped-away configurations. Molecular dynamics simulations of an all-atom model, built on the basis of the most tightly collapsed coarse-grained model, show that most of the DNA double-helical architecture is maintained in the region between O3 and O1 DNA operators, that the DNA distortion is concentrated in the chain beyond the O1 operator, and that the protein tetramer can adapt the N-terminal domains to the DNA tension.

  2. Vulnerabilities in Yersinia pestis caf operon are unveiled by a Salmonella vector.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ling; Lim, Timothy; Jun, SangMu; Thornburg, Theresa; Avci, Recep; Yang, Xinghong

    2012-01-01

    During infection, Yersinia pestis uses its F1 capsule to enhance survival and cause virulence to mammalian host. Since F1 is produced in large quantities and secreted into the host tissues, it also serves as a major immune target. To hold this detrimental effect under proper control, Y. pestis expresses the caf operon (encoding the F1 capsule) in a temperature-dependent manner. However, additional properties of the caf operon limit its expression. By overexpressing the caf operon in wild-type Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under a potent promoter, virulence of Salmonella was greatly attenuated both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, expression of the caf operon under the regulation of its native promoter exhibited negligible impairment of Salmonellae virulence. In-depth investigation revealed all individual genes in the caf operon attenuated Salmonella when overexpressed. The deleterious effects of caf operon and the caf individual genes were further confirmed when they were overexpressed in Y. pestis KIM6+. This study suggests that by using a weak inducible promoter, the detrimental effects of the caf operon are minimally manifested in Y. pestis. Thus, through tight regulation of the caf operon, Y. pestis precisely balances its capsular anti-phagocytic properties with the detrimental effects of caf during interaction with mammalian host.

  3. The mbo operon is specific and essential for biosynthesis of mangotoxin in Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Víctor J; Arrebola, Eva; Cazorla, Francisco M; Murillo, Jesús; de Vicente, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Mangotoxin is an antimetabolite toxin produced by certain Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains. This toxin is an oligopeptide that inhibits ornithine N-acetyl transferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ornithine and arginine. Previous studies have reported the involvement of the putative nonribosomal peptide synthetase MgoA in virulence and mangotoxin production. In this study, we analyse a new chromosomal region of P. syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158, which contains six coding sequences arranged as an operon (mbo operon). The mbo operon was detected in only mangotoxin-producing strains, and it was shown to be essential for the biosynthesis of this toxin. Mutants in each of the six ORFs of the mbo operon were partially or completely impaired in the production of the toxin. In addition, Pseudomonas spp. mangotoxin non-producer strains transformed with the mbo operon gained the ability to produce mangotoxin, indicating that this operon contains all the genetic information necessary for mangotoxin biosynthesis. The generation of a single transcript for the mbo operon was confirmed and supported by the allocation of a unique promoter and Rho-independent terminator. The phylogenetic analysis of the P. syringae strains harbouring the mbo operon revealed that these strains clustered together.

  4. Characterization of the RRN Operons in the Channel Catfish Pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To advance diagnostics and phylogenetics of Edwardsiella ictaluri by sequencing and characterizing its rrn operons. Methods and Results: The Edw. ictaluri rrn operons were identified from a 5-7 kb insert lambda library and from Edw. ictaluri fosmid clones. We present the complete sequences...

  5. A predictive biophysical model of translational coupling to coordinate and control protein expression in bacterial operons

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Tian; Salis, Howard M.

    2015-01-01

    Natural and engineered genetic systems require the coordinated expression of proteins. In bacteria, translational coupling provides a genetically encoded mechanism to control expression level ratios within multi-cistronic operons. We have developed a sequence-to-function biophysical model of translational coupling to predict expression level ratios in natural operons and to design synthetic operons with desired expression level ratios. To quantitatively measure ribosome re-initiation rates, we designed and characterized 22 bi-cistronic operon variants with systematically modified intergenic distances and upstream translation rates. We then derived a thermodynamic free energy model to calculate de novo initiation rates as a result of ribosome-assisted unfolding of intergenic RNA structures. The complete biophysical model has only five free parameters, but was able to accurately predict downstream translation rates for 120 synthetic bi-cistronic and tri-cistronic operons with rationally designed intergenic regions and systematically increased upstream translation rates. The biophysical model also accurately predicted the translation rates of the nine protein atp operon, compared to ribosome profiling measurements. Altogether, the biophysical model quantitatively predicts how translational coupling controls protein expression levels in synthetic and natural bacterial operons, providing a deeper understanding of an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism and offering the ability to rationally engineer operons with desired behaviors. PMID:26117546

  6. Functional Operons in Secondary Metabolic Gene Clusters in Glarea lozoyensis (Fungi, Ascomycota, Leotiomycetes)

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Qun; Chen, Li; Li, Yan; Bills, Gerald F.; Zhang, Xinyu; Xiang, Meichun; Li, Shaojie; Che, Yongsheng; Niu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Operons are multigene transcriptional units which occur mostly in prokaryotes but rarely in eukaryotes. Protein-coding operons have not been reported in the Fungi even though they represent a very diverse kingdom of organisms. Here, we report a functional operon involved in the secondary metabolism of the fungus Glarea lozoyensis belonging to Leotiomycetes (Ascomycota). Two contiguous genes, glpks3 and glnrps7, encoding polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase, respectively, are cotranscribed into one dicistronic mRNA under the control of the same promoter, and the mRNA is then translated into two individual proteins, GLPKS3 and GLNRPS7. Heterologous expression in Aspergillus nidulans shows that the GLPKS3-GLNRPS7 enzyme complex catalyzes the biosynthesis of a novel pyrrolidinedione-containing compound, xenolozoyenone (compound 1), which indicates the operon is functional. Although it is structurally similar to prokaryotic operons, the glpks3-glnrps7 operon locus has a monophylogenic origin from fungi rather than having been horizontally transferred from prokaryotes. Moreover, two additional operons, glpks28-glnrps8 and glpks29-glnrps9, were verified at the transcriptional level in the same fungus. This is the first report of protein-coding operons in a member of the Fungi. PMID:26081635

  7. Thermodynamic modeling of variations in the rate of RNA chain elongation of E. coli rrn operons.

    PubMed

    Fange, David; Mellenius, Harriet; Dennis, Patrick P; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2014-01-07

    Previous electron-microscopic imaging has shown high RNA polymerase occupation densities in the 16S and 23S encoding regions and low occupation densities in the noncoding leader, spacer, and trailer regions of the rRNA (rrn) operons in E. coli. This indicates slower transcript elongation within the coding regions and faster elongation within the noncoding regions of the operon. Inactivation of four of the seven rrn operons increases the transcript initiation frequency at the promoters of the three intact operons and reduces the time for RNA polymerase to traverse the operon. We have used the DNA sequence-dependent standard free energy variation of the transcription complex to model the experimentally observed changes in the elongation rate along the rrnB operon. We also model the stimulation of the average transcription rate over the whole operon by increasing rate of transcript initiation. Monte Carlo simulations, taking into account initiation of transcription, translocation, and backward and forward tracking of RNA polymerase, partially reproduce the observed transcript elongation rate variations along the rrn operon and fully account for the increased average rate in response to increased frequency of transcript initiation.

  8. In silico evolved lac operons exhibit bistability for artificial inducers, but not for lactose.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, M J A; Hogeweg, P

    2006-10-15

    Bistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli has been widely studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, bistability has been observed when E. coli is induced by an artificial, nonmetabolizable, inducer. However, if the lac operon is induced with lactose, the natural inducer, bistability has not been demonstrated. We derive an analytical expression that can predict the occurrence of bistability both for artificial inducers and lactose. We find very different conditions for bistability in the two cases. Indeed, for artificial inducers bistability is predicted, but for lactose the condition for bistability is much more difficult to satisfy. Moreover, we demonstrate that in silico evolution of the lac operon generates an operon that avoids bistability with respect to lactose, but does exhibit bistability with respect to artificial inducers. The activity of this evolved operon strikingly resembles the experimentally observed activity of the operon. Thus our computational experiments suggest that the wild-type lac operon, which regulates lactose metabolism, is not a bistable switch. Nevertheless, for engineering purposes, this operon can be used as a bistable switch with artificial inducers.

  9. A portable lab-on-a-chip instrument based on MCE with dual top-bottom capacitive coupled contactless conductivity detector in replaceable cell cartridge.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Kambiz; Ying, Jasmine Yuen Shu; Hauser, Peter C; de Rooij, Nico F; Rodriguez, Isabel

    2013-05-01

    A new design for a compact portable lab-on-a-chip instrument based on MCE and dual capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (dC(4) D) is described. The instrument is battery powered with total dimension of 14 × 25 × 8 cm(3) (w × l × h), and weighs 1.2 kg. The device consists of a front electrophoresis compartment which has the chip holder and the chip, the associated high-voltage electrodes for electrophoresis injection and separation and the detector. The detection cell is integrated into the device housing with an exchangeable plug-and-play cartridge format. The design of the dC(4) D cell has been optimized for maximum performance. The cartridge includes the top-bottom excitation and pick up electrodes incorporated into the cell and connected to push-pull self-latching pins that are insulated with plastic. The metal frame of the cartridge is grounded completely to eliminate electronic interferences. The cartridge is designed to clamp a thin fluidic chip at the detection point. The cartridges are replaceable whereby different cartridges have different detection electrode configurations to employ according to the sensitivity or resolution needed in the specific analytical application. The second compartment consists of all the electronics, data acquisition card, high-voltage modules of up to ±5 kV both polarity, and batteries for 10 h of operation. The improved detector performance is illustrated by the electrophoresis analysis of six cations (NH4 (+) , K(+) , Ca(2+) , Na(+) , Mg(2+) , Li(+) ) with a detection limit of approximately 5 μM and the analysis of the anions (Br(-) , Cl(-) , NO2 (-) , NO3 (-) , SO4 (2-) , F(-) ) with a detection limit of about 3 μM. Analytical capabilities of the instrument for food and medical applications were evaluated by simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic acids in fruit juice and inorganic cations and anions in rabbit blood samples and human urine samples are also demonstrated.

  10. The htpAB operon of Legionella pneumophila cannot be deleted in the presence of the groE chaperonin operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Gagnon, Elizabeth; Orton, Dennis J; Garduño, Rafael A

    2011-11-01

    HtpB, the chaperonin of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila , displays several virulence-related functions in vitro. To confirm HtpB's role in vivo, host infections with an htpB deletion mutant would be required. However, we previously reported that the htpAB operon (encoding co-chaperonin and chaperonin) is essential. We attempted here to delete htpAB in a L. pneumophila strain carrying the groE operon (encoding the Escherichia coli co-chaperonin and chaperonin). The groE operon was inserted into the chromosome of L. pneumophila Lp02, and then allelic replacement of htpAB with a gentamicin resistance cassette was attempted. Although numerous potential postallelic replacement transformants showed a correct selection phenotype, we still detected htpAB by PCR and full-size HtpB by immunoblot. Southern blot and PCR analysis indicated that the gentamicin resistance cassette had apparently integrated in a duplicated htpAB region. However, we showed by Southern blot that strain Lp02, and the Lp02 derivative carrying the groE operon, have only one copy of htpAB. These results confirmed that the htpAB operon cannot be deleted, not even in the presence of the groE operon, and suggested that attempts to delete htpAB under strong phenotypic selection result in aberrant genetic recombinations that could involve duplication of the htpAB locus.

  11. narI region of the Escherichia coli nitrate reductase (nar) operon contains two genes.

    PubMed Central

    Sodergren, E J; DeMoss, J A

    1988-01-01

    In previous studies it has been established that in Escherichia coli the three known subunits of anaerobic nitrate reductase are encoded by the narGHI operon. From the nucleotide sequence of the narI region of the operon we conclude that, in addition to the narG and narH genes, the nar operon contains two other open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 and ORF2, that encode proteins of 26.5 and 25.5 kilodaltons, respectively. Protein fusions to each of the genes in the operon showed that expression of all four genes was similarly regulated. The reading frames of ORF1 and ORF2 were verified, and the N-terminal sequence for the ORF1 fusion protein was determined. The nar operon therefore contains four genes designated and ordered as narGHJI. Images PMID:2832376

  12. Priority of pentose utilization at the level of transcription: arabinose, xylose, and ribose operons.

    PubMed

    Kang, H Y; Song, S; Park, C

    1998-06-30

    When E. coli cells were grown in minimal medium supplemented with D-ribose and D-xylose, a diauxic growth preferring D-xylose was observed. Transcription of the ribose (rbs) operon was repressed in the presence of D-xylose, phenotypically similar to catabolite repression by D-glucose, although D-ribose did not affect transcription of the xylose (xyl) operon. Complementation analysis with xylR revealed that the repression of the rbs operon by D-xylose is exerted at the transcriptional level through XylR, suggesting a novel mechanism for catabolite repression. Furthermore, it was shown that L-arabinose reduced transcriptions of both xyl and rbs operons, whereas the arabinose operon was not affected by D-xylose or D-ribose, suggesting a priority mechanism for pentose utilization.

  13. Insights into arsenic multi-operons expression and resistance mechanisms in Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chungui; Zhang, Yi; Chan, Zhuhua; Chen, Shicheng; Yang, Suping

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is widespread in the environment and causes numerous health problems. Rhodopseudomonas palustris has been regarded as a good model organism for studying arsenic detoxification since it was first demonstrated to methylate environmental arsenic by conversion to soluble or gaseous methylated species. However, the detailed arsenic resistance mechanisms remain unknown though there are at least three arsenic-resistance operons (ars1, ars2, and ars3) in R. palustris. In this study, we investigated how arsenic multi-operons contributed to arsenic detoxification in R. palustris. The expression of ars2 or ars3 operons increased with increasing environmental arsenite (As(III)) concentrations (up to 1.0 mM) while transcript of ars1 operon was not detected in the middle log-phase (55 h). ars2 operon was actively expressed even at the low concentration of As(III) (0.01 μM), whereas the ars3 operon was expressed at 1.0 μM of As(III), indicating that there was a differential regulation mechanism for the three arsenic operons. Furthermore, ars2 and ars3 operons were maximally transcribed in the early log-phase where ars2 operon was 5.4-fold higher than that of ars3 operon. A low level of ars1 transcript was only detected at 43 h (early log-phase). Arsenic speciation analysis demonstrated that R. palustris could reduce As(V) to As(III). Collectively, strain CGA009 detoxified arsenic by using arsenic reduction and methylating arsenic mechanism, while the latter might occur with the presence of higher concentrations of arsenic. PMID:26441915

  14. Evolution of mal ABC transporter operons in the Thermococcales and Thermotogales

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The mal genes that encode maltose transporters have undergone extensive lateral transfer among ancestors of the archaea Thermococcus litoralis and Pyrococcus furiosus. Bacterial hyperthermophiles of the order Thermotogales live among these archaea and so may have shared in these transfers. The genome sequence of Thermotoga maritima bears evidence of extensive acquisition of archaeal genes, so its ancestors clearly had the capacity to do so. We examined deep phylogenetic relationships among the mal genes of these hyperthermophiles and their close relatives to look for evidence of shared ancestry. Results We demonstrate that the two maltose ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter operons now found in Tc. litoralis and P. furiosus (termed mal and mdx genes, respectively) are not closely related to one another. The Tc. litoralis and P. furiosus mal genes are most closely related to bacterial mal genes while their respective mdx genes are archaeal. The genes of the two mal operons in Tt. maritima are not related to genes in either of these archaeal operons. They are highly similar to one another and belong to a phylogenetic lineage that includes mal genes from the enteric bacteria. A unique domain of the enteric MalF membrane spanning proteins found also in these Thermotogales MalF homologs supports their relatively close relationship with these enteric proteins. Analyses of genome sequence data from other Thermotogales species, Fervidobacterium nodosum, Thermosipho melanesiensis, Thermotoga petrophila, Thermotoga lettingae, and Thermotoga neapolitana, revealed a third apparent mal operon, absent from the published genome sequence of Tt. maritima strain MSB8. This third operon, mal3, is more closely related to the Thermococcales' bacteria-derived mal genes than are mal1 and mal2. F. nodosum, Ts. melanesiensis, and Tt. lettingae have only one of the mal1-mal2 paralogs. The mal2 operon from an unknown species of Thermotoga appears to have been horizontally

  15. RNA polymerase structure and function at lac operon.

    PubMed

    Borukhov, Sergei; Lee, Jookyung

    2005-06-01

    Transcription of E. coli lac operon by RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a classic example of how the basic functions of this enzyme, specifically the ability to recognize/bind promoters, melt the DNA and initiate RNA synthesis, is positively regulated by transcription activators, such as cyclic AMP-receptor protein, CRP, and negatively regulated by lac-repressor, LacI. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in structural and biochemical studies of RNAP and its binary and ternary complexes with CRP and lac promoter. With structural information now available for RNAP and models of binary and ternary elongation complexes, the interaction between these factors and RNAP can be modeled, and possible molecular mechanisms of their action can be inferred.

  16. Engineering adherent bacteria by creating a single synthetic curli operon.

    PubMed

    Drogue, Benoît; Thomas, Philippe; Balvay, Laurent; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Dorel, Corinne

    2012-11-16

    The method described here consists in redesigning E. coli adherence properties by assembling the minimum number of curli genes under the control of a strong and metal-overinducible promoter, and in visualizing and quantifying the resulting gain of bacterial adherence. This method applies appropriate engineering principles of abstraction and standardization of synthetic biology, and results in the BBa_K540000 Biobrick (Best new Biobrick device, engineered, iGEM 2011). The first step consists in the design of the synthetic operon devoted to curli overproduction in response to metal, and therefore in increasing the adherence abilities of the wild type strain. The original curli operon was modified in silico in order to optimize transcriptional and translational signals and escape the "natural" regulation of curli. This approach allowed to test with success our current understanding of curli production. Moreover, simplifying the curli regulation by switching the endogenous complex promoter (more than 10 transcriptional regulators identified) to a simple metal-regulated promoter makes adherence much easier to control. The second step includes qualitative and quantitative assessment of adherence abilities by implementation of simple methods. These methods are applicable to a large range of adherent bacteria regardless of biological structures involved in biofilm formation. Adherence test in 24-well polystyrene plates provides a quick preliminary visualization of the bacterial biofilm after crystal violet staining. This qualitative test can be sharpened by the quantification of the percentage of adherence. Such a method is very simple but more accurate than only crystal violet staining as described previously with both a good repeatability and reproducibility. Visualization of GFP-tagged bacteria on glass slides by fluorescence or laser confocal microscopy allows to strengthen the results obtained with the 24-well plate test by direct observation of the phenomenon.

  17. Engineering Adherent Bacteria by Creating a Single Synthetic Curli Operon

    PubMed Central

    Drogue, Benoît; Thomas, Philippe; Balvay, Laurent; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Dorel, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    The method described here consists in redesigning E. coli adherence properties by assembling the minimum number of curli genes under the control of a strong and metal-overinducible promoter, and in visualizing and quantifying the resulting gain of bacterial adherence. This method applies appropriate engineering principles of abstraction and standardization of synthetic biology, and results in the BBa_K540000 Biobrick (Best new Biobrick device, engineered, iGEM 2011). The first step consists in the design of the synthetic operon devoted to curli overproduction in response to metal, and therefore in increasing the adherence abilities of the wild type strain. The original curli operon was modified in silico in order to optimize transcriptional and translational signals and escape the "natural" regulation of curli. This approach allowed to test with success our current understanding of curli production. Moreover, simplifying the curli regulation by switching the endogenous complex promoter (more than 10 transcriptional regulators identified) to a simple metal-regulated promoter makes adherence much easier to control. The second step includes qualitative and quantitative assessment of adherence abilities by implementation of simple methods. These methods are applicable to a large range of adherent bacteria regardless of biological structures involved in biofilm formation. Adherence test in 24-well polystyrene plates provides a quick preliminary visualization of the bacterial biofilm after crystal violet staining. This qualitative test can be sharpened by the quantification of the percentage of adherence. Such a method is very simple but more accurate than only crystal violet staining as described previously 1 with both a good repeatability and reproducibility. Visualization of GFP-tagged bacteria on glass slides by fluorescence or laser confocal microscopy allows to strengthen the results obtained with the 24-well plate test by direct observation of the phenomenon. PMID

  18. Identification and characterization of the fis operon in enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Beach, M B; Osuna, R

    1998-11-01

    The small DNA binding protein Fis is involved in several different biological processes in Escherichia coli. It has been shown to stimulate DNA inversion reactions mediated by the Hin family of recombinases, stimulate integration and excision of phage lambda genome, regulate the transcription of several different genes including those of stable RNA operons, and regulate the initiation of DNA replication at oriC. fis has also been isolated from Salmonella typhimurium, and the genomic sequence of Haemophilus influenzae reveals its presence in this bacteria. This work extends the characterization of fis to other organisms. Very similar fis operon structures were identified in the enteric bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Erwinia carotovora, and Proteus vulgaris but not in several nonenteric bacteria. We found that the deduced amino acid sequences for Fis are 100% identical in K. pneumoniae, S. marcescens, E. coli, and S. typhimurium and 96 to 98% identical when E. carotovora and P. vulgaris Fis are considered. The deduced amino acid sequence for H. influenzae Fis is about 80% identical and 90% similar to Fis in enteric bacteria. However, in spite of these similarities, the E. carotovora, P. vulgaris, and H. influenzae Fis proteins are not functionally identical. An open reading frame (ORF1) preceding fis in E. coli is also found in all these bacteria, and their deduced amino acid sequences are also very similar. The sequence preceding ORF1 in the enteric bacteria showed a very strong similarity to the E. coli fis P region from -53 to +27 and the region around -116 containing an ihf binding site. Both beta-galactosidase assays and primer extension assays showed that these regions function as promoters in vivo and are subject to growth phase-dependent regulation. However, their promoter strengths vary, as do their responses to Fis autoregulation and integration host factor stimulation.

  19. Gene components responsible for discrete substrate specificity in the metabolism of biphenyl (bph operon) and toluene (tod operon).

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, K; Hirose, J; Suyama, A; Zaiki, T; Hayashida, S

    1993-01-01

    bph operons coding for biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation in Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 and Pseudomonas putida KF715 and tod operons coding for toluene-benzene metabolism in P. putida F1 are very similar in gene organization as well as size and homology of the corresponding enzymes (G. J. Zylstra and D. T. Gibson, J. Biol. Chem. 264:14940-14946, 1989; K. Taira, J. Hirose, S. Hayashida, and K. Furukawa, J. Biol. Chem. 267:4844-4853, 1992), despite their discrete substrate ranges for metabolism. The gene components responsible for substrate specificity between the bph and tod operons were investigated. The large subunit of the terminal dioxygenase (encoded by bphA1 and todC1) and the ring meta-cleavage compound hydrolase (bphD and todF) were critical for their discrete metabolic specificities, as shown by the following results. (i) Introduction of todC1C2 (coding for the large and small subunits of the terminal dioxygenase in toluene metabolism) or even only todC1 into biphenyl-utilizing P. pseudoalcaligenes KF707 and P. putida KF715 allowed them to grow on toluene-benzene by coupling with the lower benzoate meta-cleavage pathway. Introduction of the bphD gene (coding for 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoate hydrolase) into toluene-utilizing P. putida F1 permitted growth on biphenyl. (ii) With various bph and tod mutant strains, it was shown that enzyme components of ferredoxin (encoded by bphA3 and todB), ferredoxin reductase (bphA4 and todA), and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (bphB and todD) were complementary with one another. (iii) Escherichia coli cells carrying a hybrid gene cluster of todClbphA2A3A4BC (constructed by replacing bphA1 with todC1) converted toluene to a ring meta-cleavage 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-hepta-2,4-dienoic acid, indicating that TodC1 formed a functional multicomponent dioxygenase associated with BphA2 (a small subunit of the terminal dioxygenase in biphenyl metabolism), BphA3, and BphA4. PMID:8349562

  20. Regulation of gene expression: cryptic β-glucoside (bgl) operon of Escherichia coli as a paradigm.

    PubMed

    Harwani, Dharmesh

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to extract utilizable substrates from available resources and consequently acquire fitness advantage over competitors. One of the strategies is the exploitation of cryptic cellular functions encoded by genetic systems that are silent under laboratory conditions, such as the bgl (β-glucoside) operon of E. coli. The bgl operon of Escherichia coli, involved in the uptake and utilization of aromatic β-glucosides salicin and arbutin, is maintained in a silent state in the wild type organism by the presence of structural elements in the regulatory region. This operon can be activated by mutations that disrupt these negative elements. The fact that the silent bgl operon is retained without accumulating deleterious mutations seems paradoxical from an evolutionary view point. Although this operon appears to be silent, specific physiological conditions might be able to regulate its expression and/or the operon might be carrying out function(s) apart from the utilization of aromatic β-glucosides. This is consistent with the observations that the activated operon confers a Growth Advantage in Stationary Phase (GASP) phenotype to Bgl(+) cells and exerts its regulation on at least twelve downstream target genes.

  1. Evolution of the capsular operon of Streptococcus iniae in response to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Millard, Candice M; Baiano, Justice C F; Chan, Candy; Yuen, Benedict; Aviles, Fabian; Landos, Matt; Chong, Roger S M; Benedict, Suresh; Barnes, Andrew C

    2012-12-01

    Streptococcus iniae causes severe septicemia and meningitis in farmed fish and is also occasionally zoonotic. Vaccination against S. iniae is problematic, with frequent breakdown of protection in vaccinated fish. The major protective antigens in S. iniae are the polysaccharides of the capsule, which are essential for virulence. Capsular biosynthesis is driven and regulated by a 21-kb operon comprising up to 20 genes. In a long-term study, we have sequenced the capsular operon of strains that have been used in autogenous vaccines across Australia and compared it with the capsular operon sequences of strains subsequently isolated from infected vaccinated fish. Intriguingly, strains isolated from vaccinated fish that subsequently become infected have coding mutations that are confined to a limited number of genes in the cps operon, with the remainder of the genes in the operon remaining stable. Mutations in strains in diseased vaccinated fish occur in key genes in the capsular operon that are associated with polysaccharide configuration (cpsG) and with regulation of biosynthesis (cpsD and cpsE). This, along with high ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations within the cps genes, suggests that immune response directed predominantly against capsular polysaccharide may be driving evolution in a very specific set of genes in the operon. From these data, it may be possible to design a simple polyvalent vaccine with a greater operational life span than the current monovalent killed bacterins.

  2. Evolution of the Capsular Operon of Streptococcus iniae in Response to Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Candice M.; Baiano, Justice C. F.; Chan, Candy; Yuen, Benedict; Aviles, Fabian; Landos, Matt; Chong, Roger S. M.; Benedict, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus iniae causes severe septicemia and meningitis in farmed fish and is also occasionally zoonotic. Vaccination against S. iniae is problematic, with frequent breakdown of protection in vaccinated fish. The major protective antigens in S. iniae are the polysaccharides of the capsule, which are essential for virulence. Capsular biosynthesis is driven and regulated by a 21-kb operon comprising up to 20 genes. In a long-term study, we have sequenced the capsular operon of strains that have been used in autogenous vaccines across Australia and compared it with the capsular operon sequences of strains subsequently isolated from infected vaccinated fish. Intriguingly, strains isolated from vaccinated fish that subsequently become infected have coding mutations that are confined to a limited number of genes in the cps operon, with the remainder of the genes in the operon remaining stable. Mutations in strains in diseased vaccinated fish occur in key genes in the capsular operon that are associated with polysaccharide configuration (cpsG) and with regulation of biosynthesis (cpsD and cpsE). This, along with high ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations within the cps genes, suggests that immune response directed predominantly against capsular polysaccharide may be driving evolution in a very specific set of genes in the operon. From these data, it may be possible to design a simple polyvalent vaccine with a greater operational life span than the current monovalent killed bacterins. PMID:23001668

  3. The role of FIS in trans activation of stable RNA operons of E. coli.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, L; Vanet, A; Vijgenboom, E; Bosch, L

    1990-03-01

    The thrU(tufB) operon of Escherichia coli is endowed with a cis-acting region upstream of the promoter, designated UAS for Upstream Activator Sequence. A protein fraction has been isolated that binds specifically to DNA fragments of the UAS, thus forming three protein-DNA complexes corresponding to three binding sites on the UAS. It stimulates in vitro transcription of the operon by facilitating the binding of the RNA polymerase to the promoter. All three protein-DNA complexes contain one and the same protein. Dissociation constants for the three complexes have been determined, the lowest being in the sub-nanomolar range. The protein also binds to the UAS of the tyrT operon and to the UAS upstream of the P1 promoter of the rrnB operon, suggesting that transcription of the three operons, if not of more stable RNA operons, is activated by a common trans activator. We demonstrate that the E.coli protein FIS (Factor for Inversion Stimulation) also binds to the UAS of the thrU(tufB) operon forming three protein-DNA complexes. A burst of UAS- and FIS-dependent promoter activity is observed after reinitiation of growth of stationary cultures in fresh medium.

  4. Interplay of gene expression noise and ultrasensitive dynamics affects bacterial operon organization.

    PubMed

    Ray, J Christian J; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomes are organized into polycistronic cotranscribed operons, but the evolutionary pressures maintaining them are unclear. We hypothesized that operons alter gene expression noise characteristics, resulting in selection for or against maintaining operons depending on network architecture. Mathematical models for 6 functional classes of network modules showed that three classes exhibited decreased noise and 3 exhibited increased noise with same-operon cotranscription of interacting proteins. Noise reduction was often associated with a decreased chance of reaching an ultrasensitive threshold. Stochastic simulations of the lac operon demonstrated that the predicted effects of transcriptional coupling hold for a complex network module. We employed bioinformatic analysis to find overrepresentation of noise-minimizing operon organization compared with randomized controls. Among constitutively expressed physically interacting protein pairs, higher coupling frequencies appeared at lower expression levels, where noise effects are expected to be dominant. Our results thereby suggest an important role for gene expression noise, in many cases interacting with an ultrasensitive switch, in maintaining or selecting for operons in bacterial chromosomes.

  5. Structural analysis of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-RTX-toxin I (ApxI) operon.

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, R; Briaire, J; Kamp, E M; Gielkens, A L; Smits, M A

    1993-01-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-RTX-toxin I (ApxI), an important virulence factor, is secreted by serotypes 1, 5, 9, 10, and 11 of A. pleuropneumoniae. However, sequences homologous to the secretion genes apxIBD of the ApxI operon are present in all 12 serotypes except serotype 3. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the structures of the ApxI operons of the 12 A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes. We focused on the nucleotide sequence comparison of the ApxI-coding genes, the structures of the ApxI operons, and the transcription of the ApxI operons. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the toxin-encoding apxICA genes of serotype 9 and found that the gene for the structural toxin, apxIA, was almost identical to the apxIA gene of serotype 1. The toxin-encoding genes of the other serotypes are also similar for the main part; nevertheless, two variants were identified, one in serotypes 1, 9, and 11 and one in serotypes 5 and 10. The two apxIA variants differ mainly within the distal 110 nucleotides. Structural analysis demonstrated that intact ApxI operons, consisting of the four contiguous genes apxICABD, are present in serotypes 1, 5, 9, 10, and 11. ApxI operons with a major deletion in the apxICA genes are present in serotypes 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 12. Serotype 3 does not contain ApxI operon sequences. We found that all ApxI operons are transcriptionally active despite the partial deletion of the operon in some serotypes. The implications of these data for the expression and secretion of ApxI and the other Apx-toxins, ApxII and ApxIII, as well as for the development of a subunit vaccine against A. pleuropneumoniae will be discussed. Images PMID:8359891

  6. Ancient Origin of the Tryptophan Operon and the Dynamics of Evolutionary Change†

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gary; Keyhani, Nemat O.; Bonner; Jensen, Roy A.

    2003-01-01

    The seven conserved enzymatic domains required for tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis are encoded in seven genetic regions that are organized differently (whole-pathway operons, multiple partial-pathway operons, and dispersed genes) in prokaryotes. A comparative bioinformatics evaluation of the conservation and organization of the genes of Trp biosynthesis in prokaryotic operons should serve as an excellent model for assessing the feasibility of predicting the evolutionary histories of genes and operons associated with other biochemical pathways. These comparisons should provide a better understanding of possible explanations for differences in operon organization in different organisms at a genomics level. These analyses may also permit identification of some of the prevailing forces that dictated specific gene rearrangements during the course of evolution. Operons concerned with Trp biosynthesis in prokaryotes have been in a dynamic state of flux. Analysis of closely related organisms among the Bacteria at various phylogenetic nodes reveals many examples of operon scission, gene dispersal, gene fusion, gene scrambling, and gene loss from which the direction of evolutionary events can be deduced. Two milestone evolutionary events have been mapped to the 16S rRNA tree of Bacteria, one splitting the operon in two, and the other rejoining it by gene fusion. The Archaea, though less resolved due to a lesser genome representation, appear to exhibit more gene scrambling than the Bacteria. The trp operon appears to have been an ancient innovation; it was already present in the common ancestor of Bacteria and Archaea. Although the operon has been subjected, even in recent times, to dynamic changes in gene rearrangement, the ancestral gene order can be deduced with confidence. The evolutionary history of the genes of the pathway is discernible in rough outline as a vertical line of descent, with events of lateral gene transfer or paralogy enriching the analysis as interesting

  7. Cloning and sequencing of part of the S10 operon from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans FDC Y4.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, H; Hotokezaka, H; Ohara, N; Kimura, M; Takagi, O; Yamada, T

    1997-06-01

    We have cloned and sequenced the 5.2 kb EcoRI fragment that contained part of the S10 operon from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans FDC Y4. The order of the ribosomal protein genes was identical to that of the S10 operon of Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli. The deduced amino acid sequences of ribosomal proteins in this operon displayed significant homologies (65.3%-100%) to those of H. influenzae, E. coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Phylogenetic trees obtained for these ribosomal proteins were similar to that obtained for 16S rRNA.

  8. Physiological control and regulation of the Rhodobacter capsulatus cbb operons.

    PubMed

    Paoli, G C; Vichivanives, P; Tabita, F R

    1998-08-01

    The genes encoding enzymes of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) reductive pentose phosphate pathway in Rhodobacter capsulatus are organized in at least two operons, each preceded by a separate cbbR gene, encoding potential LysR-type transcriptional activators. As a prelude to studies of cbb gene regulation in R. capsulatus, the nucleotide sequence of a 4,537-bp region, which included cbbRII, was determined. This region contained the following open reading frames: a partial pgm gene (encoding phosphoglucomutase) and a complete qor gene (encoding NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase), followed by cbbRII, cbbF (encoding fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase), cbbP (encoding phosphoribulokinase), and part of cbbT (encoding transketolase). Physiological control of the CBB pathway and regulation of the R. capsulatus cbb genes were studied by using a combination of mutant strains and promoter fusion constructs. Characterization of mutant strains revealed that either form I or form II ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), encoded by the cbbLS and cbbM genes, respectively, could support photoheterotrophic and autotrophic growth. A strain with disruptions in both cbbL and cbbM could not grow autotrophically and grew photoheterotrophically only when dimethyl sulfoxide was added to the culture medium. Disruption of cbbP resulted in a strain that did not synthesize form II RubisCO and had a phenotype similar to that observed in the RubisCO-minus strain, suggesting that there is only one cbbP gene in R. capsulatus and that this gene is cotranscribed with cbbM. Analysis of RubisCO activity and synthesis in strains with disruptions in either cbbRI or cbbRII, and beta-galactosidase determinations from wild-type and mutant strains containing cbbIp- and cbbIIp-lacZ fusion constructs, indicated that the cbbI and cbbII operons of R. capsulatus are within separate CbbR regulons.

  9. An overlap between operons involved in carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Young, D A; Rudzik, M B; Marrs, B L

    1992-08-15

    A new example of superoperonal gene arrangement has been documented in the Rhodobacter capsulatus photosynthetic gene cluster. The promoter for the operon initiated by the bchI gene is embedded within an upstream operon for carotenoid synthesis. The stop codon for the crtA gene, the only gene in the first operon, overlaps the start codon of the downstream bchI gene. As a consequence of this overlap, the promoter(s) for the bch operon must be located within the crtA structural gene. The bchI gene is shown here for the first time to be required for the conversion of protoporphyrin IX to subsequent intermediates in bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis.

  10. Parallel Evolution and Horizontal Gene Transfer of the pst Operon in Firmicutes from Oligotrophic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Olmedo, Gabriela; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Martinez-Castilla, Leon; Souza, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The high affinity phosphate transport system (pst) is crucial for phosphate uptake in oligotrophic environments. Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB) has extremely low P levels and its endemic Bacillus are closely related to oligotrophic marine Firmicutes. Thus, we expected the pst operon of CCB to share the same evolutionary history and protein similarity to marine Firmicutes. Orthologs of the pst operon were searched in 55 genomes of Firmicutes and 13 outgroups. Phylogenetic reconstructions were performed for the pst operon and 14 concatenated housekeeping genes using maximum likelihood methods. Conserved domains and 3D structures of the phosphate-binding protein (PstS) were also analyzed. The pst operon of Firmicutes shows two highly divergent clades with no correlation to the type of habitat nor a phylogenetic congruence, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. Despite sequence divergence, the PstS protein had a similar 3D structure, which could be due to parallel evolution after horizontal gene transfer events. PMID:21461370

  11. Quantitative approaches to the study of bistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Santillán, Moisés; Mackey, Michael C

    2008-08-06

    In this paper, the history and importance of the lac operon in the development of molecular and systems biology are briefly reviewed. We start by presenting a description of the regulatory mechanisms in this operon, taking into account the most recent discoveries. Then we offer a survey of the history of the lac operon, including the discovery of its main elements and the subsequent influence on the development of molecular and systems biology. Next the bistable behaviour of the operon is discussed, both with respect to its discovery and its molecular origin. A review of the literature in which this bistable phenomenon has been studied from a mathematical modelling viewpoint is then given. We conclude with some brief remarks.

  12. A Novel Method for Accurate Operon Predictions in All SequencedProkaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Huang, Katherine H.; Alm, Eric J.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2004-12-01

    We combine comparative genomic measures and the distance separating adjacent genes to predict operons in 124 completely sequenced prokaryotic genomes. Our method automatically tailors itself to each genome using sequence information alone, and thus can be applied to any prokaryote. For Escherichia coli K12 and Bacillus subtilis, our method is 85 and 83% accurate, respectively, which is similar to the accuracy of methods that use the same features but are trained on experimentally characterized transcripts. In Halobacterium NRC-1 and in Helicobacterpylori, our method correctly infers that genes in operons are separated by shorter distances than they are in E.coli, and its predictions using distance alone are more accurate than distance-only predictions trained on a database of E.coli transcripts. We use microarray data from sixphylogenetically diverse prokaryotes to show that combining intergenic distance with comparative genomic measures further improves accuracy and that our method is broadly effective. Finally, we survey operon structure across 124 genomes, and find several surprises: H.pylori has many operons, contrary to previous reports; Bacillus anthracis has an unusual number of pseudogenes within conserved operons; and Synechocystis PCC6803 has many operons even though it has unusually wide spacings between conserved adjacent genes.

  13. Solving a discrete model of the lac operon using Z3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Natalia A.

    2014-05-01

    A discrete model for the Lcac Operon is solved using the SMT-solver Z3. Traditionally the Lac Operon is formulated in a continuous math model. This model is a system of ordinary differential equations. Here, it was considerated as a discrete model, based on a Boolean red. The biological problem of Lac Operon is enunciated as a problem of Boolean satisfiability, and it is solved using an STM-solver named Z3. Z3 is a powerful solver that allows understanding the basic dynamic of the Lac Operon in an easier and more efficient way. The multi-stability of the Lac Operon can be easily computed with Z3. The code that solves the Boolean red can be written in Python language or SMT-Lib language. Both languages were used in local version of the program as online version of Z3. For future investigations it is proposed to solve the Boolean red of Lac Operon using others SMT-solvers as cvc4, alt-ergo, mathsat and yices.

  14. Evolution of a tRNA operon in gamma purple bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Giroux, S; Cedergren, R

    1989-01-01

    Genomic DNA from eubacteria belonging to the gamma-3 subdivision of purple bacteria, as classified by Woese (C.R. Woese, Microbiol. Rev. 51:221-271, 1987), were probed with the argT operon of Escherichia coli encoding 5'-tRNA(Arg)-tRNA(His)-tRNA(Leu)-tRNA(Pro)-3'. The homologous operon from Vibrio harveyi was isolated and sequenced. Comparison of the five available sequences of this tRNA cluster from members of the families Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Vibrionaceae led to the conclusion that variations in different versions of this operon arose not only by point mutations but also by duplication and addition-deletion of entire tRNA genes. This data base permitted the formulation of a proposal dealing with the evolutionary history of this operon and suggested that DNA regions containing tRNA genes are active centers (hot spots) of recombination. Finally, since the operon from V. harveyi was not highly repetitive and did not contain tRNA pseudogenes, as in the Photobacterium phosphoreum operon, hybridization of genomic DNAs from different photobacterial strains with probes specific for the repeated pseudogene element was performed. We conclude that the phylogenetic distribution of the repetitive DNA is restricted to strains of P. phosphoreum. Images PMID:2687235

  15. Alternative DNA loops regulate the arabinose operon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Huo, L; Martin, K J; Schleif, R

    1988-08-01

    The araCBAD regulatory region of Escherichia coli contains two divergently oriented promoters and three sites to which AraC, the regulatory protein of the operon, can bind. This paper presents the results of in vivo dimethyl sulfate "footprinting" experiments to monitor occupancy of the three AraC sites and measurements of activity of the two promoters. These measurements were made both in the absence of the inducer arabinose and at various times after arabinose addition to growing cells containing the wild-type ara regulatory region or the regulatory region containing various deletions and point mutations. The data lead to the conclusion that two different DNA loops can form in the ara regulatory region. These loops are generated by AraC protein molecules binding to two different DNA sites and binding to each other. One of these loops predominates in the absence of arabinose and plays a major role in repressing activity of one of the promoters. Upon the addition of arabinose the amount of the first loop type, the repression loop, decreases and the amount of a second loop increases. Formation of this second loop precludes the counterproductive formation of the repression loop.

  16. Exploiting Bacterial Operons To Illuminate Human Iron-Sulfur Proteins.

    PubMed

    Andreini, Claudia; Banci, Lucia; Rosato, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Organisms from all kingdoms of life use iron-sulfur proteins (FeS-Ps) in a multitude of functional processes. We applied a bioinformatics approach to investigate the human portfolio of FeS-Ps. Sixty-one percent of human FeS-Ps bind Fe4S4 clusters, whereas 39% bind Fe2S2 clusters. However, this relative ratio varies significantly depending on the specific cellular compartment. We compared the portfolio of human FeS-Ps to 12 other eukaryotes and to about 700 prokaryotes. The comparative analysis of the organization of the prokaryotic homologues of human FeS-Ps within operons allowed us to reconstruct the human functional networks involving the conserved FeS-Ps common to prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These functional networks have been maintained during evolution and thus presumably represent fundamental cellular processes. The respiratory chain and the ISC machinery for FeS-P biogenesis are the two conserved processes that involve the majority of human FeS-Ps. Purine metabolism is another process including several FeS-Ps, in which BOLA proteins possibly have a regulatory role. The analysis of the co-occurrence of human FeS-Ps with other proteins highlighted numerous links between the iron-sulfur cluster machinery and the response mechanisms to cell damage, from repair to apoptosis. This relationship probably relates to the production of reactive oxygen species within the biogenesis and degradation of FeS-Ps.

  17. Upgrading bioluminescent bacterial bioreporter performance by splitting the lux operon.

    PubMed

    Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon

    2011-05-01

    Bioluminescent bacterial bioreporters harbor a fusion of bacterial bioluminescence genes (luxCDABE), acting as the reporting element, to a stress-response promoter, serving as the sensing element. Upon exposure to conditions that activate the promoter, such as an environmental stress or the presence of an inducing chemical, the promoter::reporter fusion generates a dose-dependent bioluminescent signal. In order to improve bioluminescent bioreporter performance we have split the luxCDABE genes of Photorhabdus luminescens into two smaller functional units: luxAB, that encode for the luciferase enzyme, which catalyzes the luminescence reaction, and luxCDE that encode for the enzymatic complex responsible for synthesis of the reaction's substrate, a long-chain aldehyde. The expression of each subunit was put under the control of either an inducible stress-responsive promoter or a synthetic constitutive promoter, and different combinations of the two units were tested for their response to selected chemicals in Escherichia coli. In all cases tested, the split combinations proved to be superior to the native luxCDABE configuration, suggesting an improved efficiency in the transcription and/or translation of two small gene units instead of a larger one with the same genes. The best combination was that of an inducible luxAB and a constitutive luxCDE, indicating that aldehyde availability is limited when the five genes are expressed together in E. coli, and demonstrating that improved biosensor performance may be achieved by rearrangement of the lux operon genes.

  18. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products and functions

    PubMed Central

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating expression of biosynthesis apparatus, export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of the resulting biofilm, which is particularly important for interactions of bacteria with higher organisms that lead to rhizosphere colonization and modulate virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. Here we review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operons found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode likely components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms formed by a variety of free-living and pathogenic bacteria and, for the latter, in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  19. Anaerobically expressed Escherichia coli genes identified by operon fusion techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Choe, M; Reznikoff, W S

    1991-01-01

    Genes that are expressed under anaerobic conditions were identified by operon fusion techniques with a hybrid bacteriophage of lambda and Mu, lambda placMu53, which creates transcriptional fusions to lacZY. Cells were screened for anaerobic expression on XG medium. Nine strains were selected, and the insertion point of the hybrid phage in each strain was mapped on the Escherichia coli chromosome linkage map. The anaerobic and aerobic expression levels of these genes were measured by beta-galactosidase assays in different medium conditions and in the presence of three regulatory mutations (fnr, narL, and rpoN). The anaerobically expressed genes (aeg) located at minute 99 (aeg-99) and 75 (aeg-75) appeared to be partially regulated by fnr, and aeg-93 is tightly regulated by fnr. aeg-60 requires a functional rpoN gene for its anaerobic expression. aeg-46.5 is repressed by narL. aeg-65A and aeg-65C are partially controlled by fnr but only in media containing nitrate or fumarate. aeg-47.5 and aeg-48.5 were found to be anaerobically induced only in rich media. The effects of a narL mutation on aeg-46.5 expression were observed in all medium conditions regardless of the presence or absence of nitrate. This suggests that narL has a regulatory function in the absence of exogenously added nitrate. PMID:1917846

  20. Comparative functional analysis of the lac operons in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Loughman, Jennifer A; Caparon, Michael G

    2007-04-01

    Having no known environmental reservoir, Streptococcus pyogenes, a bacterium responsible for a wider variety of human diseases than any other bacterial species, must rely on its host for metabolic substrates. Although a streptococcal aldolase, LacD.1, has been adapted to virulence gene regulation, both LacD.1 and a paralogous protein, LacD.2, are predicted to function in the tagatose 6-phosphate pathway for lactose and galactose utilization. In order to gain insight into the mechanism of the LacD.1 regulatory pathway and the role of genome context in the emergence of LacD.1's novel regulatory functions, we compared the function and regulation of the Lac.1 and Lac.2 loci. The Lac.1 operon is not inducible, and regulation by LacD.1 is independent of a functional tagatose 6-phosphate pathway and enhanced by the conserved truncation of upstream Lac.1 genes. In contrast, Lac.2 expression is sensitive to environmental carbohydrates, and LacD.2, not LacD.1, contributes to growth on galactose. Thus, we conclude that the Lac.1 locus has been specialized to participate in regulation, leaving efficient utilization of carbohydrate sources to the Lac.2 locus. The adaptation of LacD for transcription regulation may be an underappreciated strategy among prokaryotes, as homologues of this multifaceted enzyme are present in a broad range of species.

  1. Nucleotide sequence and functional analysis of regulatory region of the lumP and the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Lin, J W; Chao, Y F; Weng, S F

    1995-05-25

    The lumP gene is linked to the lux operon, but runs in the opposite direction in Photobacterium leiognathi PL741. The gene order of the lumP and the lux operon is < -lumP-R & R-luxC-luxD-luxA-luxB-luxN-luxE- > (R & R: regulatory region). The nucleotide sequence of the regulatory region (827-bp) between the lumP and the lux operon was determined. Sequence analysis illustrates that the regulatory region includes two divergent promoter systems, PR-promoter system for the lux operon (R-operon) and PL-promoter system for the lumP or lum operon (L-operon). Functional analysis of the regulatory region shows that the PR- and PL-promoter systems both are able to lead the gene expression. The deletion experiment result elicits that the PR- and PL-promoter are coordinatively and negatively regulated; the PR- and PL-promoter might be competing for recognition by RNA polymerase to initiate transcription. The fact of the LumP responsible for the spectral blue shift in P. leiognathi implied that the lumP gene closedly linked to the lux operon is for coordinative regulation with the lux operon. In addition, the glucose repression on the PR-promoter system shows that the expression of the lux operon is regulated by cAMP-CRP induction in E. coli.

  2. FIS-dependent trans activation of stable RNA operons of Escherichia coli under various growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, L; Verbeek, H; Vijgenboom, E; van Drunen, C; Vanet, A; Bosch, L

    1992-02-01

    In Escherichia coli transcription of the tRNA operon thrU (tufB) and the rRNA operon rrnB is trans-activated by the protein FIS. This protein, which stimulates the inversion of various viral DNA segments, binds specifically to a cis-acting sequence (designated UAS) upstream of the promoter of thrU (tufB) and the P1 promoter of the rrnB operon. There are indications that this type of regulation is representative for the regulation of more stable RNA operons. In the present investigation we have studied UAS-dependent transcription activation of the thrU (tufB) operon in the presence and absence of FIS during a normal bacterial growth cycle and after a nutritional shift-up. In early log phase the expression of the operon rises steeply in wild-type cells, whereafter it declines. Concomitantly, a peak of the cellular FIS concentration is observed. Cells in the stationary phase are depleted of FIS. The rather abrupt increase of transcription activation depends on the nutritional quality of the medium. It is not seen in minimal medium. After a shift from minimal to rich medium, a peak of transcription activation and of FIS concentration is measured. This peak gets higher as the medium gets more strongly enriched. We conclude that a correlation between changes of the UAS-dependent activation of the thrU (tufB) operon and changes of the cellular FIS concentration under a variety of experimental conditions exists. This correlation strongly suggests that the production of FIS responds to environmental signals, thereby trans-activating the operon. Cells unable to produce FIS (fis cells) also show an increase of operon transcription in the early log phase and after a nutritional shift-up, albeit less pronounced than that wild-type cells. Presumably it is controlled by the ribosome feedback regulatory system. cis activation of the operon by the upstream activator sequence is apparent in the absence of FIS. This activation is constant throughout the entire growth cycle and is

  3. Label-free Quantitative Proteomics Reveals a Role for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis SecA2 Pathway in Exporting Solute Binding Proteins and Mce Transporters to the Cell Wall.

    PubMed

    Feltcher, Meghan E; Gunawardena, Harsha P; Zulauf, Katelyn E; Malik, Seidu; Griffin, Jennifer E; Sassetti, Christopher M; Chen, Xian; Braunstein, Miriam

    2015-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an example of a bacterial pathogen with a specialized SecA2-dependent protein export system that contributes to its virulence. Our understanding of the mechanistic basis of SecA2-dependent export and the role(s) of the SecA2 pathway in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis has been hindered by our limited knowledge of the proteins exported by the pathway. Here, we set out to identify M. tuberculosis proteins that use the SecA2 pathway for their export from the bacterial cytoplasm to the cell wall. Using label-free quantitative proteomics involving spectral counting, we compared the cell wall and cytoplasmic proteomes of wild type M. tuberculosis to that of a ΔsecA2 mutant. This work revealed a role for the M. tuberculosis SecA2 pathway in the cell wall localization of solute binding proteins that work with ABC transporters to import solutes. Another discovery was a profound effect of SecA2 on the cell wall localization of the Mce1 and Mce4 lipid transporters, which contribute to M. tuberculosis virulence. In addition to the effects on solute binding proteins and Mce transporter export, our label-free quantitative analysis revealed an unexpected relationship between SecA2 and the hypoxia-induced DosR regulon, which is associated with M. tuberculosis latency. Nearly half of the transcriptionally controlled DosR regulon of cytoplasmic proteins were detected at higher levels in the ΔsecA2 mutant versus wild type M. tuberculosis. By increasing the list of M. tuberculosis proteins known to be affected by the SecA2 pathway, this study expands our appreciation of the types of proteins exported by this pathway and guides our understanding of the mechanism of SecA2-dependent protein export in mycobacteria. At the same time, the newly identified SecA2-dependent proteins are helpful for understanding the significance of this pathway to M. tuberculosis virulence and physiology.

  4. Energetic methods to study bifunctional biotin operon repressor.

    PubMed

    Beckett, D

    1998-01-01

    measurements. The results of quantitative studies of the biotin regulatory system can be interpreted in the context of the biological function of the system. The biotin holoenzyme ligases are a class of enzymes found across the evolutionary spectrum. Only a subset of these enzymes, including BirA, also function as transcriptional repressors. The tight binding of the allosteric effector may be understood in light of the bifunctional nature of the BirA-bio-5'-AMP complex. It is possible that the unusually high thermodynamic and kinetic stability of the complex ensures that the most probable state of the protein in vivo is the adenylate-bound form. This complex, not the unliganded protein, is active in both enzymatic transfer of biotin and site-specific DNA binding. This ensures that on depletion of the intracellular pool of apoBCCP, BirA-bio-5'-AMP accumulates and binds to bioO to repress transcription of the biotin biosynthesis operon. The intracellular demand for and synthesis of biotin are, consequently, tightly coupled in the system. The dimerization that accompanies adenylate binding to BirA appears to be significant for site-specific binding of the protein to bioO. Functionally, the simultaneous binding of the two monomers to the two operator half-sites, regardless of the kinetic mechanism by which it occurs, ensures coordinate regulation of transcription initiation from both biotin operon promoters. The multifaceted approach utilized in studies of the biotin regulatory system can serve as a model for studies of any complex transcriptional regulatory system. It is critical in elucidating the functional energetics of any of these systems that the assembly first be dissected into the constituent interactions and that each of these interactions be studied in isolation. This is not only critical for understanding the physicochemical properties of each individual contributing interaction, but is also a necessary precursor to studies of thermodynamic linkage in the system. (AB

  5. Kinetic approaches to lactose operon induction and bimodality.

    PubMed

    Michel, Denis

    2013-05-21

    The quasi-equilibrium approximation is acceptable when molecular interactions are fast enough compared to circuit dynamics, but is no longer allowed when cellular activities are governed by rare events. A typical example is the lactose operon (lac), one of the most famous paradigms of transcription regulation, for which several theories still coexist to describe its behaviors. The lac system is generally analyzed by using equilibrium constants, contradicting single-event hypotheses long suggested by Novick and Weiner (1957). Enzyme induction as an all-or-none phenomenon. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 43, 553-566) and recently refined in the study of (Choi et al., 2008. A stochastic single-molecule event triggers phenotype switching of a bacterial cell. Science 322, 442-446). In the present report, a lac repressor (LacI)-mediated DNA immunoprecipitation experiment reveals that the natural LacI-lac DNA complex built in vivo is extremely tight and long-lived compared to the time scale of lac expression dynamics, which could functionally disconnect the abortive expression bursts and forbid using the standard modes of lac bistability. As alternatives, purely kinetic mechanisms are examined for their capacity to restrict induction through: (i) widely scattered derepression related to the arrival time variance of a predominantly backward asymmetric random walk and (ii) an induction threshold arising in a single window of derepression without recourse to nonlinear multimeric binding and Hill functions. Considering the complete disengagement of the lac repressor from the lac promoter as the probabilistic consequence of a transient stepwise mechanism, is sufficient to explain the sigmoidal lac responses as functions of time and of inducer concentration. This sigmoidal shape can be misleadingly interpreted as a phenomenon of equilibrium cooperativity classically used to explain bistability, but which has been reported to be weak in this system.

  6. Diverse pathways for salicin utilization in Shigella sonnei and Escherichia coli carrying an impaired bgl operon.

    PubMed

    Desai, Stuti K; Nandimath, Krithi; Mahadevan, S

    2010-10-01

    Utilization of the aryl-β-glucosides salicin or arbutin in most wild-type strains of E. coli is achieved by a single-step mutational activation of the bgl operon. Shigella sonnei, a branch of the diverse E. coli strain tree, requires two sequential mutational steps for achieving salicin utilization as the bglB gene, encoding the phospho-β-glucosidase B, harbors an inactivating insertion. We show that in a natural isolate of S. sonnei, transcriptional activation of the gene SSO1595, encoding a phospho-β-glucosidase, enables salicin utilization with the permease function being provided by the activated bgl operon. SSO1595 is absent in most commensal strains of E. coli, but is present in extra-intestinal pathogens as bgcA, a component of the bgc operon that enables β-glucoside utilization at low temperature. Salicin utilization in an E. coli bglB laboratory strain also requires a two-step activation process leading to expression of BglF, the PTS-associated permease encoded by the bgl operon and AscB, the phospho-β-glucosidase B encoded by the silent asc operon. BglF function is needed since AscF is unable to transport β-glucosides as it lacks the IIA domain involved in phopho-relay. Activation of the asc operon in the Sal(+) mutant is by a promoter-up mutation and the activated operon is subject to induction. The pathway to achieve salicin utilization is therefore diverse in these two evolutionarily related organisms; however, both show cooperation between two silent genetic systems to achieve a new metabolic capability under selection.

  7. The alr-groEL1 operon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an interplay of multiple regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Aadil H.; Pathak, Deepika; Rao, Alka

    2017-01-01

    Threonylcarbamoyladenosine is a universally conserved essential modification of tRNA that ensures translational fidelity in cellular milieu. TsaD, TsaB and TsaE are identified as tRNA-A37-threonylcarbamoyl (t6A)-transferase enzymes that have been reconstituted in vitro, in few bacteria recently. However, transcriptional organization and regulation of these genes are not known in any of these organisms. This study describes the intricate architecture of a complex multicistronic alr-groEL1 operon, harboring essential genes, namely tsaD, tsaB, tsaE, groES, groEL1, and alr (required for cell wall synthesis), and rimI encoding an N-α- acetyltransferase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Using northern blotting, RT-PCR and in vivo fluorescence assays, genes alr to groEL1 were found to constitute an ~6.3 kb heptacistronic operon with multiple internal promoters and an I-shaped intrinsic hairpin-like cis-regulatory element. A strong promoter PtsaD within the coding sequence of rimI gene is identified in M. tuberculosis, in addition. The study further proposes an amendment in the known bicistronic groESL1 operon annotation by providing evidence that groESL1 is co-transcribed as sub-operon of alr-groEL1 operon. The architecture of alr-groEL1 operon, conservation of the genetic context and a mosaic transcriptional profile displayed under various stress conditions convincingly suggest the involvement of this operon in stress adaptation in M. tuberculosis. PMID:28256563

  8. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment.

  9. Burkholderia contaminans Biofilm Regulating Operon and Its Distribution in Bacterial Genomes.

    PubMed

    Voronina, Olga L; Kunda, Marina S; Ryzhova, Natalia N; Aksenova, Ekaterina I; Semenov, Andrey N; Romanova, Yulia M; Gintsburg, Alexandr L

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Burkholderia spp. is a principal cause of lung chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients. A "lacking biofilm production" (LBP) strain B. contaminans GIMC4587:Bct370-19 has been obtained by insertion modification of clinical strain with plasposon mutagenesis. It has an interrupted transcriptional response regulator (RR) gene. The focus of our investigation was a two-component signal transduction system determination, including this RR. B. contaminans clinical and LBP strains were analyzed by whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics resources. A four-component operon (BiofilmReg) has a key role in biofilm formation. The relative location (i.e., by being separated by another gene) of RR and histidine kinase genes is unique in BiofilmReg. Orthologs were found in other members of the Burkholderiales order. Phylogenetic analysis of strains containing BiofilmReg operons demonstrated evidence for earlier inheritance of a three-component operon. During further evolution one lineage acquired a fourth gene, whereas others lost the third component of the operon. Mutations in sensor domains have created biodiversity which is advantageous for adaptation to various ecological niches. Different species Burkholderia and Achromobacter strains all demonstrated similar BiofilmReg operon structure. Therefore, there may be an opportunity to develop a common drug which is effective for treating all these causative agents.

  10. A novel marRAB operon contributes to the rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiwei; Gao, Long; Zhang, Jiaoling; Li, Weihui; Yang, Min; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Chunhui; He, Zheng-Guo

    2014-01-01

    The multiple-antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) plays an important role in modulating bacterial antibiotic resistance. However, the regulatory model of the marRAB operon in mycobacteria remains to be characterized. Here we report that a MarR, encoded by Ms6508, and its marRAB operon specifically contribute to rifampicin (RIF) resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis. We show that the MarR recognizes a conserved 21-bp palindromic motif and negatively regulates the expression of two ABC transporters in the operon, encoded by Ms6509-6510. Unlike other known drug efflux pumps, overexpression of these two ABC transporters unexpectedly increased RIF sensitivity and deletion of these two genes increased mycobacterial resistance to the antibiotic. No change can be detected for the sensitivity of recombinant mycobacterial strains to three other anti-TB drugs. Furthermore, HPLC experiments suggested that Ms6509-Ms6510 could pump RIF into the mycobacterial cells. These findings indicated that the mycobacterial MarR functions as a repressor and constitutively inhibits the expression of the marRAB operon, which specifically contributes to RIF resistance in M. smegmatis. Therefore, our data suggest a new regulatory mechanism of RIF resistance and also provide the new insight into the regulatory model of a marRAB operon in mycobacteria.

  11. Regulation of fatty acid degradation in Escherichia coli: analysis by operon fusion.

    PubMed

    Clark, D

    1981-11-01

    Fusion of the lacZ gene coding for beta-galactosidase to the fadA,B and fadE operons was accomplished by using the phage Mu d (Apr lac). In such fusion strains, beta-galactosidase was induced by long-chain fatty acids and repressed by glucose, as is the normal pattern of control for the enzymes of the fad regulon. The level of induction seen was approximately 10-fold for both the fadA and fadE operons. These results demonstrate that the previously observed regulation of both the fadA and fadE operons is at the transcriptional level. When an insertion mutation in the fadR (repressor) gene was introduced into the fusion strains, beta-galactosidase was produced constitutively. A series of fatty acids of different chain lengths were tested as inducers. Acids of chain lengths of 10 carbon atoms or less failed to induce, those of 12 carbon atoms induced partly, and those of 14 or more carbon atoms induced fully. Imidazole was found to counteract the glucose repression of the fadA operon as recently demonstrated for the ara operon.

  12. High-affinity L-arabinose transport operon. Gene product expression and mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Horazdovsky, B F; Hogg, R W

    1987-09-05

    Various portions of the "high-affinity" L-arabinose transport operon were cloned into the plasmid expression vector pKK223-3 and the operon-encoded protein products were identified. The results indicate that three proteins are encoded by this operon. The first is a 33,000 Mr protein that is the product of the promoter-proximal L-arabinose binding protein coding sequence, araF. A 52,000 Mr protein is encoded by sequence 3' to araF and has been assigned to the araG locus. The sequence 3' to araG encodes a 31,000 Mr protein that has been assigned to the araH locus. Both the araG and araH gene products are localized in the membrane fraction of the cell, implying a role in the membrane-associated complex of the high-affinity L-arabinose transport system. Nuclease S1 protection studies indicate that two operon message populations are present in the cell, a full-length operon transcript and a seven- to tenfold more abundant binding protein-specific message. The relative abundance of these two message populations correlates with the differential expression of the binding protein and the membrane-associated proteins of the transport system.

  13. Burkholderia contaminans Biofilm Regulating Operon and Its Distribution in Bacterial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Semenov, Andrey N.; Gintsburg, Alexandr L.

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Burkholderia spp. is a principal cause of lung chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients. A “lacking biofilm production” (LBP) strain B. contaminans GIMC4587:Bct370-19 has been obtained by insertion modification of clinical strain with plasposon mutagenesis. It has an interrupted transcriptional response regulator (RR) gene. The focus of our investigation was a two-component signal transduction system determination, including this RR. B. contaminans clinical and LBP strains were analyzed by whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics resources. A four-component operon (BiofilmReg) has a key role in biofilm formation. The relative location (i.e., by being separated by another gene) of RR and histidine kinase genes is unique in BiofilmReg. Orthologs were found in other members of the Burkholderiales order. Phylogenetic analysis of strains containing BiofilmReg operons demonstrated evidence for earlier inheritance of a three-component operon. During further evolution one lineage acquired a fourth gene, whereas others lost the third component of the operon. Mutations in sensor domains have created biodiversity which is advantageous for adaptation to various ecological niches. Different species Burkholderia and Achromobacter strains all demonstrated similar BiofilmReg operon structure. Therefore, there may be an opportunity to develop a common drug which is effective for treating all these causative agents. PMID:28070515

  14. Identification of an operon, Pil-Chp, that controls twitching motility and virulence in Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Cursino, Luciana; Galvani, Cheryl D; Athinuwat, Dusit; Zaini, Paulo A; Li, Yaxin; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2011-10-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is an important phytopathogenic bacterium that causes many serious plant diseases, including Pierce's disease of grapevines. Disease manifestation by X. fastidiosa is associated with the expression of several factors, including the type IV pili that are required for twitching motility. We provide evidence that an operon, named Pil-Chp, with genes homologous to those found in chemotaxis systems, regulates twitching motility. Transposon insertion into the pilL gene of the operon resulted in loss of twitching motility (pilL is homologous to cheA genes encoding kinases). The X. fastidiosa mutant maintained the type IV pili, indicating that the disrupted pilL or downstream operon genes are involved in pili function, and not biogenesis. The mutated X. fastidiosa produced less biofilm than wild-type cells, indicating that the operon contributes to biofilm formation. Finally, in planta the mutant produced delayed and less severe disease, indicating that the Pil-Chp operon contributes to the virulence of X. fastidiosa, presumably through its role in twitching motility.

  15. Salmonella enteritidis agfBAC operon encoding thin, aggregative fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Collinson, S K; Clouthier, S C; Doran, J L; Banser, P A; Kay, W W

    1996-02-01

    Salmonella enteritidis produces thin, aggregative fimbriae, named SEF17, which are composed of polymerized AgfA fimbrin proteins. DNA sequence analysis of a 2-kb region of S. enteritidis DNA revealed three contiguous genes, agfBAC. The 453-bp agfA gene encodes the AgfA fimbrin, which was predicted to be 74% identical and 86% similar in primary sequence to the Escherichia coli curli structural protein, CsgA. pHAG, a pUC18 derivative containing a 3.0-kb HindIII fragment encoding agfBAC, directed the in vitro expression of the major AgfA fimbrin, with an M(r) of 17,000, and a minor AgfB protein, with an M(r) of 16,000, encoded by the 453-bp agfB gene. AgfA was not expressed from pDAG, a pUC18 derivative containing a 3.1-kb DraI DNA fragment encoding agfA but not agfB. Primer extension analysis identified two adjacent transcription start sites located immediately upstream of agfB in positions analogous to those of the E. coli curlin csgBA operon. No transcription start sites were located immediately upstream of agfA or agfC. Northern (RNA) blot analysis confirmed that transcription of agfA was initiated from the agfB promoter region. Secondary-structure analysis of the putative mRNA transcript for agfBAC predicted the formation of a stem-loop structure (delta Gzero, -22 kcal/mol [-91 kJ/mol]) in the intercistronic region between agfA and agfC, which may be involved in stabilization of the agfBA portion of the agfBAC transcript. agfBAC and flanking regions had a high degree of sequence similarity with those counterparts of the E. coli curlin csgBA region for which sequence data are available. These data are demonstrative of the high degree of similarity between S. enteritidis SEF17 fimbriae and E. coli curli with respect to fimbrin amino acid sequence and genetic organization and, therefore, are indicative of a common and relatively recent ancestry.

  16. An Escherichia coli chromosomal ars operon homolog is functional in arsenic detoxification and is conserved in gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Diorio, C; Cai, J; Marmor, J; Shinder, R; DuBow, M S

    1995-04-01

    Arsenic is a known toxic metalloid, whose trivalent and pentavalent ions can inhibit many biochemical processes. Operons which encode arsenic resistance have been found in multicopy plasmids from both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The resistance mechanism is encoded from a single operon which typically consists of an arsenite ion-inducible repressor that regulates expression of an arsenate reductase and inner membrane-associated arsenite export system. Using a lacZ transcriptional gene fusion library, we have identified an Escherichia coli operon whose expression is induced by cellular exposure to sodium arsenite at concentrations as low as 5 micrograms/liter. This chromosomal operon was cloned, sequenced, and found to consist of three cistrons which we named arsR, arsB, and arsC because of their strong homology to plasmid-borne ars operons. Mutants in the chromosomal ars operon were found to be approximately 10- to 100-fold more sensitive to sodium arsenate and arsenite exposure than wild-type E. coli, while wild-type E. coli that contained the operon cloned on a ColE1-based plasmid was found to be at least 2- to 10-fold more resistant to sodium arsenate and arsenite. Moreover, Southern blotting and high-stringency hybridization of this operon with chromosomal DNAs from a number of bacterial species showed homologous sequences among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, and hybridization was detectable even in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These results suggest that the chromosomal ars operon may be the evolutionary precursor of the plasmid-borne operon, as a multicopy plasmid location would allow the operon to be amplified and its products to confer increased resistance to this toxic metalloid.

  17. Unusual organization, complexity and redundancy at the Escherichia coli hcp-hcr operon promoter.

    PubMed

    Chismon, David L; Browning, Douglas F; Farrant, Gregory K; Busby, Stephen J W

    2010-08-15

    Expression from the Escherichia coli hcp-hcr operon promoter is optimally induced during anaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrite. This expression depends on transcription activation by FNR (fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator), which binds to a target centred at position -72.5 upstream of the transcript start site. Mutational analysis was exploited to identify the corresponding -10 and -35 hexamer elements. A DNA site for NarL and NarP, located at position -104.5, plays only a minor role, whereas NsrR binding to a DNA target centred at position +6 plays a major role in induction of the hcp-hcr operon promoter. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays show that NsrR binds to this target. The consequences of this for the kinetics of induction of the hcp-hcr operon are discussed.

  18. Footprints of Optimal Protein Assembly Strategies in the Operonic Structure of Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, Jan; Kötzing, Martin; Bartl, Martin; Kaleta, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigate optimality principles behind synthesis strategies for protein complexes using a dynamic optimization approach. We show that the cellular capacity of protein synthesis has a strong influence on optimal synthesis strategies reaching from a simultaneous to a sequential synthesis of the subunits of a protein complex. Sequential synthesis is preferred if protein synthesis is strongly limited, whereas a simultaneous synthesis is optimal in situations with a high protein synthesis capacity. We confirm the predictions of our optimization approach through the analysis of the operonic organization of protein complexes in several hundred prokaryotes. Thereby, we are able to show that cellular protein synthesis capacity is a driving force in the dissolution of operons comprising the subunits of a protein complex. Thus, we also provide a tested hypothesis explaining why the subunits of many prokaryotic protein complexes are distributed across several operons despite the presumably less precise co-regulation. PMID:25927816

  19. Molecular analysis of the UV-inducible pili operon from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    van Wolferen, Marleen; Ajon, Małgorzata; Driessen, Arnold J M; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2013-12-01

    Upon ultraviolet (UV) stress, hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus species show a highly induced transcription of a gene cluster responsible for pili biogenesis: the UV-inducible pili operon (ups operon). This operon is involved in UV-induced pili assembly, cellular aggregation, and subsequent DNA exchange between cells. As the system increases the fitness of Sulfolobus cells after UV light exposure, we assume that transfer of DNA takes place in order to repair UV-induced DNA damages via homologous recombination. Here, we studied all genes present in the ups cluster via gene deletion analysis with a focus on UpsX, a protein that shows no identifiable functional domains. UspX does not seem to be structurally essential for UV-induced pili formation and cellular aggregation, but appears to be important for efficient DNA transfer. In addition, we could show that pilin subunits UpsA and UpsB probably both function as major pilin subunits in the ups pili.

  20. Footprints of optimal protein assembly strategies in the operonic structure of prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Jan; Kötzing, Martin; Bartl, Martin; Kaleta, Christoph

    2015-04-28

    In this work, we investigate optimality principles behind synthesis strategies for protein complexes using a dynamic optimization approach. We show that the cellular capacity of protein synthesis has a strong influence on optimal synthesis strategies reaching from a simultaneous to a sequential synthesis of the subunits of a protein complex. Sequential synthesis is preferred if protein synthesis is strongly limited, whereas a simultaneous synthesis is optimal in situations with a high protein synthesis capacity. We confirm the predictions of our optimization approach through the analysis of the operonic organization of protein complexes in several hundred prokaryotes. Thereby, we are able to show that cellular protein synthesis capacity is a driving force in the dissolution of operons comprising the subunits of a protein complex. Thus, we also provide a tested hypothesis explaining why the subunits of many prokaryotic protein complexes are distributed across several operons despite the presumably less precise co-regulation.

  1. Growth rate regulation of lac operon expression in Escherichia coli is cyclic AMP dependent.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jong-Tar; Chang, Yu-Jen; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2003-10-23

    In contrast to the ribosomal RNA gene expression increasing with growth rate, transcription of the lac operon is downregulated by cell growth rate. In continuous culture, growth rate regulation of lac promoter was independent of carbon substrate used and its location on the chromosome. Since the lac operon is activated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which decreases with increasing cell growth rate, expression of plac-lacZ reporter fusion was analyzed in cya mutant under various growth conditions. The results demonstrated that expression of plac-lacZ in cya mutant was both lower and growth rate independent. In addition, ppGpp (guanosine tetraphosphate) was not involved in the mechanism of growth rate regulation of the lac promoter. Thus, the results of this study indicate that cAMP mediates the growth rate-dependent regulation of lac operon expression in Escherichia coli.

  2. Fine-Tuned Transcriptional Regulation of Malate Operons in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Mortera, Pablo; Espariz, Martín; Suárez, Cristian; Repizo, Guillermo; Deutscher, Josef; Alarcón, Sergio; Blancato, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    In Enterococcus faecalis, the mae locus is constituted by two putative divergent operons, maePE and maeKR. The first operon encodes a putative H+/malate symporter (MaeP) and a malic enzyme (MaeE) previously shown to be essential for malate utilization in this bacterium. The maeKR operon encodes two putative proteins with significant similarity to two-component systems involved in sensing malate and activating its assimilation in bacteria. Our transcriptional and genetic assays showed that maePE and maeKR are induced in response to malate by the response regulator MaeR. In addition, we observed that both operons were partially repressed in the presence of glucose. Accordingly, the cometabolism of this sugar and malate was detected. The binding of the complex formed by CcpA and its corepressor P-Ser-HPr to a cre site located in the mae region was demonstrated in vitro and explains the carbon catabolite repression (CCR) observed for the maePE operon. However, our results also provide evidence for a CcpA-independent CCR mechanism regulating the expression of both operons. Finally, a biomass increment of 40 or 75% was observed compared to the biomass of cells grown only on glucose or malate, respectively. Cells cometabolizing both carbon sources exhibit a higher rate of glucose consumption and a lower rate of malate utilization. The growth improvement achieved by E. faecalis during glucose-malate cometabolism might explain why this microorganism employs different regulatory systems to tightly control the assimilation of both carbon sources. PMID:22247139

  3. Expression and regulation of the ery operon of Brucella melitensis in human trophoblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Dou, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jing; Guo, Fei; Wang, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhen; Li, Tiansen; Gu, Xinli; Chen, Chuangfu

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is primarily a disease of domestic animals in which the bacteria localizes to fetal tissues such as embryonic trophoblast cells and fluids containing erythritol, which stimulates Brucella spp. growth. The utilization of erythritol is a characteristic of the genus Brucella. The ery operon contains four genes (eryA, eryB, eryC and eryD) for the utilization of erythritol, and plays a major role in the survival and multiplication of Brucella spp. The objective of the present study was to conduct a preliminary characterization of differential genes expression of the ery operon at several time points after Brucella infected embryonic trophoblast cells (HPT-8 cells). The result showed that the ery operon expression was higher in HPT-8 cells compared with the medium. The relative expression of eryA, eryB and eryC peaked at 2 h post-infection in HPT-8 cells, and eryD expression peaked at 3 h post-infection. The expression of eryA, eryB and eryC may be inhibited by increased eryD expression. However, the expression of the ery operon was stable in the presence of erythritol in cells. 2308Δery and 027Δery mutants of the ery operon were successfully constructed by homologous recombination, which were attenuated in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. The characterization of the ery operon genes and their expression profiles in response to Brucella infection further contributes to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of infection and the pathogenesis of brucellosis. PMID:27698777

  4. Regulation of microcin C51 operon expression: the role of global regulators of transcription.

    PubMed

    Fomenko, D; Veselovskii, A; Khmel, I

    2001-06-01

    Expression of the microcin C51 operon in Escherichia coli cells is regulated as a function of the phase of growth; it is stimulated during the decelerating phase of growth. Using single-copy P(mcc)-lac transcriptional fusion (the promoter region of the microcin C51 operon fused to a promoterless lac operon in lambda phage), we showed that transcription from the microcin operon promoter is dependent on sigma(s) (RpoS) factor. However, some level of P(mcc)-lac expression is possible in rpoS null mutants, indicating that another sigma factor might be involved in transcription of the microcin C51 operon. Overproduction of sigma70 decreased Pmcc-directed transcription, presumably as a result of competition of sigma factors for the limited amount of core RNA polymerase. The cyclic AMP-CRP complex was shown to stimulate transcription from Pmcc: the absence of CRP or cAMP in crp or cya mutant cells strongly decreased the level of P(mcc)-lac expression. The production of C51 microcin decreased or was absent in rpoS, crp and cya mutant cells. Leucine-responsive protein Lrp and histone-like protein H-NS repressed P(mcc)-lac expression in the exponential and decelerating phases of growth. In studies of P(mcc)-lac expression in double mutant cells, we showed that proteins CRP, Lrp and H-NS acted in rpoS-dependent and rpoS-independent ways in transcription of the microcin C51 operon. Mutation hns(-) resulted in an increase in P(mcc)-lac expression in crp, rpoS and lrp mutant cells, as in wild-type cells.

  5. The mangotoxin biosynthetic operon (mbo) is specifically distributed within Pseudomonas syringae genomospecies 1 and was acquired only once during evolution.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Víctor J; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A; Arrebola, Eva; Bardaji, Leire; Codina, Juan C; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M; Murillo, Jesús

    2013-02-01

    Mangotoxin production was first described in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strains. A phenotypic characterization of 94 P. syringae strains was carried out to determine the genetic evolution of the mangotoxin biosynthetic operon (mbo). We designed a PCR primer pair specific for the mbo operon to examine its distribution within the P. syringae complex. These primers amplified a 692-bp DNA fragment from 52 mangotoxin-producing strains and from 7 non-mangotoxin-producing strains that harbor the mbo operon, whereas 35 non-mangotoxin-producing strains did not yield any amplification. This, together with the analysis of draft genomes, allowed the identification of the mbo operon in five pathovars (pathovars aptata, avellanae, japonica, pisi, and syringae), all of which belong to genomospecies 1, suggesting a limited distribution of the mbo genes in the P. syringae complex. Phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences from housekeeping genes differentiated three groups within genomospecies 1. All of the strains containing the mbo operon clustered in groups I and II, whereas those lacking the operon clustered in group III; however, the relative branching order of these three groups is dependent on the genes used to construct the phylogeny. The mbo operon maintains synteny and is inserted in the same genomic location, with high sequence conservation around the insertion point, for all the strains in groups I and II. These data support the idea that the mbo operon was acquired horizontally and only once by the ancestor of groups I and II from genomospecies 1 within the P. syringae complex.

  6. Improved system for construction and analysis of single-copy beta-galactosidase operon fusions in Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Maxson, Michelle E; Darwin, Andrew J

    2005-09-01

    We report a significantly improved system for studying single-copy lacZ operon fusions in Yersinia enterocolitica: a simple procedure for the stable integration of lacZ operon fusions into the ara locus and a strain with a deletion mutation that abolishes the low level of endogenous beta-galactosidase activity.

  7. Thermodynamic Modeling of Variations in the Rate of RNA Chain Elongation of E. coli rrn Operons

    PubMed Central

    Fange, David; Mellenius, Harriet; Dennis, Patrick P.; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2014-01-01

    Previous electron-microscopic imaging has shown high RNA polymerase occupation densities in the 16S and 23S encoding regions and low occupation densities in the noncoding leader, spacer, and trailer regions of the rRNA (rrn) operons in E. coli. This indicates slower transcript elongation within the coding regions and faster elongation within the noncoding regions of the operon. Inactivation of four of the seven rrn operons increases the transcript initiation frequency at the promoters of the three intact operons and reduces the time for RNA polymerase to traverse the operon. We have used the DNA sequence-dependent standard free energy variation of the transcription complex to model the experimentally observed changes in the elongation rate along the rrnB operon. We also model the stimulation of the average transcription rate over the whole operon by increasing rate of transcript initiation. Monte Carlo simulations, taking into account initiation of transcription, translocation, and backward and forward tracking of RNA polymerase, partially reproduce the observed transcript elongation rate variations along the rrn operon and fully account for the increased average rate in response to increased frequency of transcript initiation. PMID:24411237

  8. Lines of evidence for horizontal gene transfer of a phenazine producing operon into multiple bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, David A

    2009-02-01

    Phenazines are secondary metabolites with broad-spectrum antibiotic activity against bacteria, fungi, and eukaryotes. In pseudomonad species, a conserved seven-gene phenazine operon (phzABCDEFG) is required for the conversion of chorismic acid to the broad-spectrum antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylate. Previous analyses of genes involved in phenazine production from nonpseudomonad species uncovered a high degree of sequence similarity to pseudomonad homologues. The analyses undertaken in this study wished to eluciadate the evolutionary history of genes involved in the production of phenazines. Furthermore, I wanted to determine if the phenazine operon has been transferred through horizontal gene transfer. Analyses of GC content, codon usage patterns, frequency of 3:1 dinucleotides, sequence similarities, and phylogenetic reconstructions were undertaken to map the evolutionary history of phenazine genes from multiple bacterial species. Patchy phyletic distribution, high sequence similarities, and phylogenetic evidence infer that pseudomonad, Streptomyces cinnamonensis, Pantoea agglomerans, Burkholderia cepacia, Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Brevibacterium linens, and Mycobacterium abscessus species all contain a phenazine operon which has most likely been transferred among these species through horizontal gene transfer. The acquisition of an antibiotic-associated operon is significant, as it may increase the relative fitness of the recipient species.

  9. Klebsiella pneumoniae yfiRNB operon affects biofilm formation, polysaccharide production and drug susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Huertas, Mónica G; Zárate, Lina; Acosta, Iván C; Posada, Leonardo; Cruz, Diana P; Lozano, Marcela; Zambrano, María M

    2014-12-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen important in hospital-acquired infections, which are complicated by the rise of drug-resistant strains and the capacity of cells to adhere to surfaces and form biofilms. In this work, we carried out an analysis of the genes in the K. pneumoniae yfiRNB operon, previously implicated in biofilm formation. The results indicated that in addition to the previously reported effect on type 3 fimbriae expression, this operon also affected biofilm formation due to changes in cellulose as part of the extracellular matrix. Deletion of yfiR resulted in enhanced biofilm formation and an altered colony phenotype indicative of cellulose overproduction when grown on solid indicator media. Extraction of polysaccharides and treatment with cellulase were consistent with the presence of cellulose in biofilms. The enhanced cellulose production did not, however, correlate with virulence as assessed using a Caenorhabditis elegans assay. In addition, cells bearing mutations in genes of the yfiRNB operon varied with respect to the WT control in terms of susceptibility to the antibiotics amikacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem and meropenem. These results indicated that the yfiRNB operon is implicated in the production of exopolysaccharides that alter cell surface characteristics and the capacity to form biofilms--a phenotype that does not necessarily correlate with properties related with survival, such as resistance to antibiotics.

  10. Identification and characterization of an iron ABC transporter operon in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal 5.

    PubMed

    Urzúa, Lucia Soto; Vázquez-Candanedo, Ada P; Sánchez-Espíndola, Adriana; Ramírez, Carlos Ávila; Baca, Beatriz E

    2013-06-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium and endophyte of sugarcane. We have cloned and sequenced the genes coding for the components of the iron ABC-type acquisition system of G. diazotrophicus. Sequence analysis revealed three ORFs, (feuA, feuB, and feuC) organized as an operon and encoding polypeptides of 346 (38 kDa), 342 (34.2 kDa), and 240 (26 kDa) amino acids, respectively. The deduced translation products of the feu operon showed similarity with a periplasmic solute-binding protein (FeuA), permease (FeuB), and ATPase (FeuC) involved in Fe transport. The role of FeuB in the survival of G. diazotrophicus under iron depletion was evaluated by comparing the ability of wild-type and FeuB-Km(R) -mutant strains in a medium without iron supplementation and in a medium containing 2, 2'-dipyridyl (DP). Growth of the mutant was affected in the medium containing DP. The operon was expressed at higher levels in cells depleted for iron than in those that contained the metal. A decrease in nitrogenase activity was observed with the FeuB-Km(R) -mutant strain that with the wild-type under iron deficiency conditions, suggesting that the Feu operon play role in Fe nutrition of G. diazotrophicus.

  11. Nucleotide sequence and analysis of the mgl operon of Escherichia coli K12.

    PubMed

    Hogg, R W; Voelker, C; Von Carlowitz, I

    1991-10-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli K12 beta-methylgalactoside transport operon, mgl, was determined. Primer extension analysis indicated that the synthesis of mRNA initiates at guanine residue 145 of the determined sequence. The operon contains three open reading frames (ORF). The operator proximal ORF, mglB, encodes the galactose binding protein, a periplasmic protein of 332 amino acids including the 23 residue amino-terminal signal peptide. Following a 62 nucleotide spacer, the second ORF, mglA, is capable of encoding a protein of 506 amino acids. The amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal halves of this protein are homologous to each other and each half contains a putative nucleotide binding site. The third ORF, mglC, is capable of encoding a hydrophobic protein of 336 amino acids which is thought to generate the transmembrane pore. The overall organization of the mglBAC operon and its potential to encode three proteins is similar to that of the ara FGH high affinity transport operon, located approximately 1 min away on the E. coli K12 chromosome.

  12. In vitro activation of the transcription of araBAD operon by araC activator.

    PubMed

    Lee, N; Wilcox, G; Gielow, W; Arnold, J; Cleary, P; Englesberg, E

    1974-03-01

    The transcription of araBAD operon requires araC activator and cyclic AMP. D-Fucose inhibits ara mRNA synthesis. Our results indicate that the positive control by araC activator is exerted at the level of transcription.

  13. Using the TxtAB Operon to Quantify Pathogenic Streptomyces in Potato Tubers and Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytotoxin thaxtomin, produced by plant pathogenic Streptomyces species, is a pathogenicity determinant for common scab. In this study a SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR assay using primers targeted on the txtAB operon of Streptomyces was developed to quantify pathogenic bacterial populati...

  14. Decreases in average bacterial community rRNA operon copy number during succession.

    PubMed

    Nemergut, Diana R; Knelman, Joseph E; Ferrenberg, Scott; Bilinski, Teresa; Melbourne, Brett; Jiang, Lin; Violle, Cyrille; Darcy, John L; Prest, Tiffany; Schmidt, Steven K; Townsend, Alan R

    2016-05-01

    Trait-based studies can help clarify the mechanisms driving patterns of microbial community assembly and coexistence. Here, we use a trait-based approach to explore the importance of rRNA operon copy number in microbial succession, building on prior evidence that organisms with higher copy numbers respond more rapidly to nutrient inputs. We set flasks of heterotrophic media into the environment and examined bacterial community assembly at seven time points. Communities were arrayed along a geographic gradient to introduce stochasticity via dispersal processes and were analyzed using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, and rRNA operon copy number was modeled using ancestral trait reconstruction. We found that taxonomic composition was similar between communities at the beginning of the experiment and then diverged through time; as well, phylogenetic clustering within communities decreased over time. The average rRNA operon copy number decreased over the experiment, and variance in rRNA operon copy number was lowest both early and late in succession. We then analyzed bacterial community data from other soil and sediment primary and secondary successional sequences from three markedly different ecosystem types. Our results demonstrate that decreases in average copy number are a consistent feature of communities across various drivers of ecological succession. Importantly, our work supports the scaling of the copy number trait over multiple levels of biological organization, ranging from cells to populations and communities, with implications for both microbial ecology and evolution.

  15. ISOLATION OF AN OPERON INVOLVED IN XYLITOL METABOLISM FROM PANTOEA ANANATIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An operon involved in xylitol metabolism in a xylitol-utilizing Pantoea ananatis mutant was cloned by the transposon tagging method. Sequencing analysis revealed that seven consecutive open reading frames (ORFs) are located in the same strand (xytA-G). Sequence homology search suggested that the o...

  16. RNA polymerase supply and flux through the lac operon in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sendy, Bandar; Lee, David J.; Bryant, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation, followed by quantification of immunoprecipitated DNA, can be used to measure RNA polymerase binding to any DNA segment in Escherichia coli. By calibrating measurements against the signal from a single RNA polymerase bound at a single promoter, we can calculate both promoter occupancy levels and the flux of transcribing RNA polymerase through transcription units. Here, we have applied the methodology to the E. coli lactose operon promoter. We confirm that promoter occupancy is limited by recruitment and that the supply of RNA polymerase to the lactose operon promoter depends on its location in the E. coli chromosome. Measurements of RNA polymerase binding to DNA segments within the lactose operon show that flux of RNA polymerase through the operon is low, with, on average, over 18 s elapsing between the passage of transcribing polymerases. Similar low levels of flux were found when semi-synthetic promoters were used to drive transcript initiation, even when the promoter elements were changed to ensure full occupancy of the promoter by RNA polymerase. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The new bacteriology’. PMID:27672157

  17. Transcription termination Within the iron transport-biosynthesis operon of Vibrio anguillarum requires an antisense RNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iron transport-biosynthesis (ITB) operon in Vibrio anguillarum includes four genes for ferric-siderophore transport, fatD,C,B,A, and two genes for siderophorebiosynthesis, angR and angT and plays an important role in the virulence mechanism of this bacterium. Despite being part of the same polyc...

  18. Modeling feedback loops in the H-NS-mediated regulation of the Escherichia coli bgl operon.

    PubMed

    Radde, Nicole; Gebert, Jutta; Faigle, Ulrich; Schrader, Rainer; Schnetz, Karin

    2008-01-21

    The histone-like nucleoid-associated protein H-NS is a global transcriptional repressor that controls approximately 5% of all genes in Escherichia coli and other enterobacteria. H-NS binds to DNA with low specificity. Nonetheless, repression of some loci is exceptionally specific. Experimental data for the E. coli bgl operon suggest that highly specific repression is caused by regulatory feedback loops. To analyze whether such feedback loops can account for the observed specificity of repression, here a model was built based on expression data. The model includes several regulatory interactions, which are synergy of repression by binding of H-NS to two regulatory elements, an inverse correlation of the rate of repression by H-NS and transcription, and a threshold for positive regulation by anti-terminator BglG, which is encoded within the operon. The latter two regulatory interactions represent feedback loops in the model. The resulting system of equations was solved for the expression level of the operon and analyzed with respect to different promoter activities. This analysis demonstrates that a small (3-fold) increase of the bgl promoter activity results in a strong (80-fold) enhancement of bgl operon expression. Thus, the parameters included into the model are sufficient to simulate specific repression by H-NS.

  19. Gene expression of the arsenic resistance operon in Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Juliana Simão Nina de; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Artur; Peixe Carepo, Marta Sofia; Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula

    2008-02-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 presents an arsRCB-type operon, which is involved in arsenic resistance. The regulating protein of this resistance system (ArsR) does not have the small conserved site (ELCVDCL) to link to the metalloid, as observed in Escherichia coli, and is thus considered to be an atypical ArsR protein, like that observed in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. In the present study, the gene expression profile of the ars operon under induction at different concentrations of arsenite - As(III) - was obtained via real-time PCR (TaqMan), by correlating the threshold cycle (Ct) values of induced and uninduced (control) samples. Through linear regression analysis (R2 = 0.9926), the gene expression profile of the ars operon showed clearly that the 0.125 micromol/L concentration of As(III) was sufficient to provoke a 4-fold increase in the resistance system, and a further increase in concentration resulted in an increase of up to 53-fold in transcription rates. The relation between resistance and induction of the ars operon indicates that the increased resistance to As(III) is associated with the increase in the number of transcripts.

  20. Analysis of a ribosomal RNA operon (rrn) from “Candiatus Liberibacter asiaticus”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 5,005 bp DNA sequence containing a nearly complete rrn operon of “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus”, a bacterium associated with citrus Huanglongbing (yellow shoot disease), was obtained by PCR using sequences conserved for Rhizobiaceae in the alpha-proteobacteria as primers. The rrn locus consis...

  1. Nonhemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates That Lack Large Regions of the sag Operon Mediating Streptolysin S Production▿

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Miho; Murayama, Somay Y.; Sunaoshi, Katsuhiko; Wajima, Takeaki; Takahashi, Miki; Masaki, Junko; Kurokawa, Iku; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2010-01-01

    Among nonhemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) strains (n = 9) isolated from patients with pharyngitis or acute otitis media, we identified three deletions in the region from the epf gene, encoding the extracellular matrix binding protein, to the sag operon, mediating streptolysin S production. PMID:20018818

  2. The lumazine protein-encoding gene in Photobacterium leiognathi is linked to the lux operon.

    PubMed

    Lin, J W; Chao, Y F; Weng, S F

    1993-04-15

    The nucleotide (nt) sequence of the lumP (EMBL accession No. X65612) gene of Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 was determined and the amino acid (aa) sequence deduced. The encoded aa sequence of lumP was identified as that of the lumazine protein (LumP) by homology with that of Photobacterium phosphoreum (56%). This small protein has a calculated M(r) of 19,997 and comprises 186 aa residues. Biochemical studies suggested that LumP is the protein which, when combined with luciferase, is responsible for the bioluminescent spectrum shift from blue-green light (490-505 nm) to blue (470 nm) in P. leiognathi. The nt sequence of the flanking region showed that lumP is linked to the lux operon but runs in the opposite direction. The gene order of the lumP and lux operon is as follows: <--lumP-R&R-luxC-luxD-luxA-luxB-luxN-lu xE-->; the R&R regulatory region sequence included two promoter systems, PR for the lux operon and PL for the lumP or the lum operon.

  3. msaABCR operon positively regulates biofilm development by repressing proteases and autolysis in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Sahukhal, Gyan S; Batte, Justin L; Elasri, Mohamed O

    2015-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that causes nosocomial and community-acquired infections. One of the most important aspects of staphylococcal infections is biofilm development within the host, which renders the bacterium resistant to the host's immune response and antimicrobial agents. Biofilm development is very complex and involves several regulators that ensure cell survival on surfaces within the extracellular polymeric matrix. Previously, we identified the msaABCR operon as an additional positive regulator of biofilm formation. In this study, we define the regulatory pathway by which msaABCR controls biofilm formation. We demonstrate that the msaABCR operon is a negative regulator of proteases. The control of protease production mediates the processing of the major autolysin, Atl, and thus regulates the rate of autolysis. In the absence of the msaABCR operon, Atl is processed by proteases at a high rate, leading to increased cell death and a defect in biofilm maturation. We conclude that the msaABCR operon plays a key role in maintaining the balance between autolysis and growth within the staphylococcal biofilm.

  4. DNA supercoiling, a critical signal regulating the basal expression of the lac operon in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fulcrand, Geraldine; Dages, Samantha; Zhi, Xiaoduo; Chapagain, Prem; Gerstman, Bernard S.; Dunlap, David; Leng, Fenfei

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli lac repressor (LacI) is a paradigmatic transcriptional factor that controls the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon. This tetrameric protein specifically binds to the O1, O2 and O3 operators of the lac operon and forms a DNA loop to repress transcription from the adjacent lac promoter. In this article, we demonstrate that upon binding to the O1 and O2 operators at their native positions LacI constrains three (−) supercoils within the 401-bp DNA loop of the lac promoter and forms a topological barrier. The stability of LacI-mediated DNA topological barriers is directly proportional to its DNA binding affinity. However, we find that DNA supercoiling modulates the basal expression from the lac operon in E. coli. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that LacI functions as a topological barrier to constrain free, unconstrained (−) supercoils within the 401-bp DNA loop of the lac promoter. These constrained (−) supercoils enhance LacI’s DNA-binding affinity and thereby the repression of the promoter. Thus, LacI binding is superhelically modulated to control the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon under varying growth conditions. PMID:26763930

  5. Decreases in average bacterial community rRNA operon copy number during succession

    PubMed Central

    Nemergut, Diana R; Knelman, Joseph E; Ferrenberg, Scott; Bilinski, Teresa; Melbourne, Brett; Jiang, Lin; Violle, Cyrille; Darcy, John L; Prest, Tiffany; Schmidt, Steven K; Townsend, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Trait-based studies can help clarify the mechanisms driving patterns of microbial community assembly and coexistence. Here, we use a trait-based approach to explore the importance of rRNA operon copy number in microbial succession, building on prior evidence that organisms with higher copy numbers respond more rapidly to nutrient inputs. We set flasks of heterotrophic media into the environment and examined bacterial community assembly at seven time points. Communities were arrayed along a geographic gradient to introduce stochasticity via dispersal processes and were analyzed using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, and rRNA operon copy number was modeled using ancestral trait reconstruction. We found that taxonomic composition was similar between communities at the beginning of the experiment and then diverged through time; as well, phylogenetic clustering within communities decreased over time. The average rRNA operon copy number decreased over the experiment, and variance in rRNA operon copy number was lowest both early and late in succession. We then analyzed bacterial community data from other soil and sediment primary and secondary successional sequences from three markedly different ecosystem types. Our results demonstrate that decreases in average copy number are a consistent feature of communities across various drivers of ecological succession. Importantly, our work supports the scaling of the copy number trait over multiple levels of biological organization, ranging from cells to populations and communities, with implications for both microbial ecology and evolution. PMID:26565722

  6. clpC operon regulates cell architecture and sporulation in Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lalit K; Dhasmana, Neha; Sajid, Andaleeb; Kumar, Prasun; Bhaduri, Asani; Bharadwaj, Mitasha; Gandotra, Sheetal; Kalia, Vipin C; Das, Taposh K; Goel, Ajay K; Pomerantsev, Andrei P; Misra, Richa; Gerth, Ulf; Leppla, Stephen H; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-03-01

    The clpC operon is known to regulate several processes such as genetic competence, protein degradation and stress survival in bacteria. Here, we describe the role of clpC operon in Bacillus anthracis. We generated knockout strains of the clpC operon genes to investigate the impact of CtsR, McsA, McsB and ClpC deletion on essential processes of B. anthracis. We observed that growth, cell division, sporulation and germination were severely affected in mcsB and clpC deleted strains, while none of deletions affected toxin secretion. Growth defect in these strains was pronounced at elevated temperature. The growth pattern gets restored on complementation of mcsB and clpC in respective mutants. Electron microscopic examination revealed that mcsB and clpC deletion also causes defect in septum formation leading to cell elongation. These vegetative cell deformities were accompanied by inability of mutant strains to generate morphologically intact spores. Higher levels of polyhydroxybutyrate granules accumulation were also observed in these deletion strains, indicating a defect in sporulation process. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the vital role played by McsB and ClpC in physiology of B. anthracis and open up further interest on this operon, which might be of importance to success of B. anthracis as pathogen.

  7. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of Bacillus sp. CDB3 arsenic-resistance operon ars1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuefei; Zheng, Wei; Bhat, Somanath; Aquilina, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus sp. CDB3 possesses a novel eight-gene ars cluster (ars1, arsRYCDATorf7orf8) with some unusual features in regard to expression regulation. This study demonstrated that the cluster is a single operon but can also produce a short three-gene arsRYC transcript. A hairpin structure formed by internal inverted repeats between arsC and arsD was shown to diminish the expression of the full operon, thereby probably acting as a transcription attenuator. A degradation product of the arsRYC transcript was also identified. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis demonstrated that ArsR interacts with the ars1 promoter forming a protein-DNA complex that could be impaired by arsenite. However, no interaction was detected between ArsD and the ars1 promoter, suggesting that the CDB3 ArsD protein may not play a regulatory role. Compared to other ars gene clusters, regulation of the Bacillus sp. CDB3 ars1 operon is more complex. It represents another example of specific mRNA degradation in the transporter gene region and possibly the first case of attenuator-mediated regulation of ars operons. PMID:26355338

  8. The inhibition of Escherichia coli lac operon gene expression by antigene oligonucleotides-mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Cheng, B; Fournier, R L; Relue, P A

    2000-11-20

    Gene transcription is regulated by transcription factors that can bind to specific regions on DNA. Antigene oligonucleotides (oligos) can bind to specific regions on DNA and form a triplex with the double-stranded DNA. The triplex can competitively inhibit the binding of transcription factors and, as a result, transcription can be inhibited. A genetically structured model has been developed to quantitatively describe the inhibition of the Escherichia coli lac operon gene expression by triplex-forming oligos. The model predicts that the effect of triplex-forming oligos on the lac operon gene expression depends on their target sites. Oligonucleotides targeted to the operator are much more effective than those targeted to other regulatory sites on the lac operon. In some cases, the effect of oligo binding is similar to that of a mutation in the lac operon. The model provides insight as to the specific binding site to be targeted to achieve the most effective inhibition of gene expression. The model is also capable of predicting the oligo concentration needed to inhibit gene expression, which is in general agreement with results reported by other investigators.

  9. Bistable behavior in a model of the lac operon in Escherichia coli with variable growth rate.

    PubMed

    Santillán, M

    2008-03-15

    This work is a continuation from another study previously published in this journal. Both the former and the present works are dedicated to investigating the bistable behavior of the lac operon in Escherichia coli from a mathematical modeling point of view. In the previous article, we developed a detailed mathematical model that accounts for all of the known regulatory mechanisms in this system, and studied the effect of inducing the operon with lactose instead of an artificial inducer. In this article, the model is improved to account, in a more detailed way, for the interaction of the repressor molecules with the three lac operators. A recently discovered cooperative interaction between the CAP molecule (an activator of the lactose operon) and Operator 3 (which influences DNA folding) is also included in this new version of the model. The growth rate dependence on the rate of energy entering the bacteria (in the form of transported glucose molecules and of metabolized lactose molecules) is also considered. A large number of numerical experiments is carried out with this improved model. The results are discussed in regard to the bistable behavior of the lactose operon. Special attention is paid to the effect that a variable growth rate has on the system dynamics.

  10. Lack of evidence for horizontal transfer of the lac operon into Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Stoebel, Daniel M

    2005-03-01

    The idea that Escherichia coli gained the lac operon via horizontal transfer, allowing it to invade a new niche and form a new species, has become a paradigmatic example of bacterial nonpathogenic adaptation and speciation catalyzed by horizontal transfer. Surprisingly, empirical evidence for this event is essentially nonexistent. To see whether horizontal transfer occurred, I compared a phylogeny of 14 Enterobacteriaceae based on two housekeeping genes to a phylogeny of a part of their lac operon. Although several species in this clade appear to have acquired some or all of the operon via horizontal transfer, there is no evidence of horizontal transfer into E. coli. It is not clear whether the horizontal transfer events for which there is evidence were adaptive because those species which have acquired the operon are not thought to live in high lactose environments. I propose that vertical transmission from the common ancestor of the Enterobacteriaceae, with subsequent loss of these genes in many species can explain much of the patchy distribution of lactose use in this clade. Finally, I argue that we need new, well-supported examples of horizontal transfer spurring niche expansion and speciation, particularly in nonpathogenic cases, before we can accept claims that horizontal transfer is a hallmark of bacterial adaptation.

  11. DNA supercoiling, a critical signal regulating the basal expression of the lac operon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fulcrand, Geraldine; Dages, Samantha; Zhi, Xiaoduo; Chapagain, Prem; Gerstman, Bernard S; Dunlap, David; Leng, Fenfei

    2016-01-14

    Escherichia coli lac repressor (LacI) is a paradigmatic transcriptional factor that controls the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon. This tetrameric protein specifically binds to the O1, O2 and O3 operators of the lac operon and forms a DNA loop to repress transcription from the adjacent lac promoter. In this article, we demonstrate that upon binding to the O1 and O2 operators at their native positions LacI constrains three (-) supercoils within the 401-bp DNA loop of the lac promoter and forms a topological barrier. The stability of LacI-mediated DNA topological barriers is directly proportional to its DNA binding affinity. However, we find that DNA supercoiling modulates the basal expression from the lac operon in E. coli. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that LacI functions as a topological barrier to constrain free, unconstrained (-) supercoils within the 401-bp DNA loop of the lac promoter. These constrained (-) supercoils enhance LacI's DNA-binding affinity and thereby the repression of the promoter. Thus, LacI binding is superhelically modulated to control the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon under varying growth conditions.

  12. Determining the bistability parameter ranges of artificially induced lac operon using the root locus method.

    PubMed

    Avcu, N; Alyürük, H; Demir, G K; Pekergin, F; Cavas, L; Güzeliş, C

    2015-06-01

    This paper employs the root locus method to conduct a detailed investigation of the parameter regions that ensure bistability in a well-studied gene regulatory network namely, lac operon of Escherichia coli (E. coli). In contrast to previous works, the parametric bistability conditions observed in this study constitute a complete set of necessary and sufficient conditions. These conditions were derived by applying the root locus method to the polynomial equilibrium equation of the lac operon model to determine the parameter values yielding the multiple real roots necessary for bistability. The lac operon model used was defined as an ordinary differential equation system in a state equation form with a rational right hand side, and it was compatible with the Hill and Michaelis-Menten approaches of enzyme kinetics used to describe biochemical reactions that govern lactose metabolism. The developed root locus method can be used to study the steady-state behavior of any type of convergent biological system model based on mass action kinetics. This method provides a solution to the problem of analyzing gene regulatory networks under parameter uncertainties because the root locus method considers the model parameters as variable, rather than fixed. The obtained bistability ranges for the lac operon model parameters have the potential to elucidate the appearance of bistability for E. coli cells in in vivo experiments, and they could also be used to design robust hysteretic switches in synthetic biology.

  13. RNA polymerase supply and flux through the lac operon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sendy, Bandar; Lee, David J; Busby, Stephen J W; Bryant, Jack A

    2016-11-05

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation, followed by quantification of immunoprecipitated DNA, can be used to measure RNA polymerase binding to any DNA segment in Escherichia coli By calibrating measurements against the signal from a single RNA polymerase bound at a single promoter, we can calculate both promoter occupancy levels and the flux of transcribing RNA polymerase through transcription units. Here, we have applied the methodology to the E. coli lactose operon promoter. We confirm that promoter occupancy is limited by recruitment and that the supply of RNA polymerase to the lactose operon promoter depends on its location in the E. coli chromosome. Measurements of RNA polymerase binding to DNA segments within the lactose operon show that flux of RNA polymerase through the operon is low, with, on average, over 18 s elapsing between the passage of transcribing polymerases. Similar low levels of flux were found when semi-synthetic promoters were used to drive transcript initiation, even when the promoter elements were changed to ensure full occupancy of the promoter by RNA polymerase.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'.

  14. Tryptophan inhibits Proteus vulgaris TnaC leader peptide elongation, activating tna operon expression.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vera, Luis R; Yang, Rui; Yanofsky, Charles

    2009-11-01

    Expression of the tna operon of Escherichia coli and of Proteus vulgaris is induced by L-tryptophan. In E. coli, tryptophan action is dependent on the presence of several critical residues (underlined) in the newly synthesized TnaC leader peptide, WFNIDXXL/IXXXXP. These residues are conserved in TnaC of P. vulgaris and of other bacterial species. TnaC of P. vulgaris has one additional feature, distinguishing it from TnaC of E. coli; it contains two C-terminal lysine residues following the conserved proline residue. In the present study, we investigated L-tryptophan induction of the P. vulgaris tna operon, transferred on a plasmid into E. coli. Induction was shown to be L-tryptophan dependent; however, the range of induction was less than that observed for the E. coli tna operon. We compared the genetic organization of both operons and predicted similar folding patterns for their respective leader mRNA segments. However, additional analyses revealed that L-tryptophan action in the P. vulgaris tna operon involves inhibition of TnaC elongation, following addition of proline, rather than inhibition of leader peptide termination. Our findings also establish that the conserved residues in TnaC of P. vulgaris are essential for L-tryptophan induction, and for inhibition of peptide elongation. TnaC synthesis is thus an excellent model system for studies of regulation of both peptide termination and peptide elongation, and for studies of ribosome recognition of the features of a nascent peptide.

  15. Regulatory properties of araC(c) mutants in the L-arabinose operon of escherichia coliB/r.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, K R; Sheppard, D E; Falgout, B

    1978-01-01

    Merodiploids containing a high-constitutive and a low-constitutive araC(c) allele were assayed for constitutive expression of the ara operon. Low-constitutive araC(c) alleles either were unable to repress the constitutive rate of ara operon expression exhibited by by high-constitutive araC(c) alleles or achieved a partial repression of the high-constitutive rate of operon expression. Either mutation to a low-constitutive araC(c) mutant resulted in a partial or complete loss of repressor function, or subunit mixing between the two araC(c) mutant proteins resulted in a partial or complete dominance of the high-constitutive araC(c) allele. Five of the six araC(c) alleles tested allowed a partial induction of the ara operon in cya crp background. In general, a higher level of ara operon induction was achieved in the cya crp background by high araC(c) alleles than by low araC(c) alleles. Furthermore, several araC(c) mutants exhibited decreased sensitivity to catabolite repression, particularly in the presence of inducer. The results suggest a model in which certain araC(c) gene products can achieve ara operon induction in the presence of either arabinose (inducer) or catabolite activator protein-cyclic adenosine monophosphate, whereas the wild-type araC gene product requires the presence of both of these factors for operon expression.

  16. rRNA (rrn) Operon-Engineered Bacillus subtilis as a Feasible Test Organism for Antibiotic Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yukinori; Nanamiya, Hideaki; Yano, Koichi; Kakugawa, Koji; Kawamura, Fujio

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis contains 10 rRNA (rrn) operons. We found that rRNA operon-engineered B. subtilis strain RIK543, with only the rrnO operon, is specifically hypersensitive to RNA polymerase inhibitors such as rifamycin SV and rifampin (80-fold and 20-fold, respectively). In pilot screening experiments, we found actinomycete isolates successfully at an incidence of 1.9% (18/945) that produced antibacterials that were detectable only with RIK543 as the test organism. Strain RIK543 may be a feasible test organism for the discovery of novel RNA polymerase inhibitors. PMID:23335737

  17. [UV-induction of the LT-toxin operon depending on genes lexA, recA, and umuD].

    PubMed

    Tiganova, I G; Rusina, O Iu; Andreeva, I V; Brukhanskiĭ, G V; Skavronskaia, A G

    1994-06-01

    UV induction of the elt operon (the LT-toxin operon in Escherichia coli) was demonstrated in experiments using fusion of elt::lac operons with the help of Mud1(Ap lac) phage. UV induction of the elt operon is lexA-dependent; thus, the possibility of SOS regulation of this process may be assumed. However, UV induction of the elt operon turned out to be recA-independent, which makes it impossible to consider this induction as a typical SOS response. UV induction of the elt operon is also observed in Salmonella typhimurium, which differs from E. coli in the product of umuD, which suggests that the UV induction of the elt operon is umuD independent.

  18. High Sensitivity Proteomics Assisted Discovery of a Novel Operon Involved in the Assembly of Photosystem II, a Membrane Protein Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Wegener, Kimberly M.; Welsh, Eric A.; Thornton, Leeann E.; Keren, Nir S.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Hixson, Kim K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2008-10-10

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large membrane protein complex that performs the water oxidation reactions of the photosynthetic electron transport chain in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Utilizing a high-throughput proteomic analysis of isolated PSII complexes from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, we have identified four PSII associated proteins that are encoded by the cofactor integration operon (cio). This operon contains genes with putative binding domains for chlorophyll, iron-sulfur centers, and bilins. Protein levels of this operon are more abundant in several PSII lumenal mutants, suggesting an accumulation of cio products in partially assembled PSII complexes. This provides a rare example of a bacterial operon whose protein products are translationally coordinated and associated with a single protein complex. Genetic deletion of cio results in decreased oxygen evolution by PSII, suggesting that cio products may function as regulators of PSII complex assembly or degradation, maybe facilitating an uncharacterized step in PSII assembly.

  19. Gene inactivation of a chemotaxis operon in the pathogen Leptospira interrogans.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Ambroise; Wong Ng, Jérôme; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis may have an important role in the infection process of pathogenic Leptospira spp.; however, little is known about the regulation of flagellar-based motility in these atypical bacteria. We generated a library of random transposon mutants of the pathogen L. interrogans, which included a mutant with insertion in the first gene of an operon containing the chemotaxis genes cheA, cheW, cheD, cheB, cheY and mcp. The disrupted gene encodes a putative histidine kinase (HK). The HK mutant was motile and virulent, but swarm plate and capillary assays suggested that chemotaxis was reduced in this mutant. Further analysis of bacterial trajectories by videomicroscopy showed that the ability of this mutant to reverse was significantly impaired in comparison to wild-type strain. Our data therefore show that this operon is required for full chemotaxis of Leptospira spp.

  20. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of the tetrameric form of SorC sorbitol operon regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sanctis, Daniele de; Rêgo, Ana T.; Marçal, David; McVey, Colin E.; Carrondo, Maria A.; Enguita, Francisco J.

    2008-01-01

    The sorbitol operon regulator from K. pneumoniae has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 3.2 Å. The sorbitol operon regulator (SorC) regulates the metabolism of l-sorbose in Klebsiella pneumonia. SorC was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified, and crystals were obtained of a tetrameric form. A single crystal showed X-ray diffraction to 3.20 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 91.6, b = 113.3, c = 184.1 Å. Analysis of the molecular-replacement solution indicates the presence of four SorC molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  1. Crystal Structure of the Lactose Operon Repressor and Its Complexes with DNA and Inducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Mitchell; Chang, Geoffrey; Horton, Nancy C.; Kercher, Michele A.; Pace, Helen C.; Schumacher, Maria A.; Brennan, Richard G.; Lu, Ponzy

    1996-03-01

    The lac operon of Escherichia coli is the paradigm for gene regulation. Its key component is the lac repressor, a product of the lacI gene. The three-dimensional structures of the intact lac repressor, the lac repressor bound to the gratuitous inducer isopropyl-β-D-1-thiogalactoside (IPTG) and the lac repressor complexed with a 21-base pair symmetric operator DNA have been determined. These three structures show the conformation of the molecule in both the induced and repressed states and provide a framework for understanding a wealth of biochemical and genetic information. The DNA sequence of the lac operon has three lac repressor recognition sites in a stretch of 500 base pairs. The crystallographic structure of the complex with DNA suggests that the tetrameric repressor functions synergistically with catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) and participates in the quaternary formation of repression loops in which one tetrameric repressor interacts simultaneously with two sites on the genomic DNA.

  2. [Heterologous genes expression on Escherichia coli chromosome lac operon using Red recombination].

    PubMed

    Li, Shanhu; Shi, Qingguo; Huang, Cuifen; Zhou, Jianguang

    2008-04-01

    To achieve efficient and stable expression of heterologous exogenetic protein or antigen in E. coli chromosome, the luciferase report gene was knocked in lacZ site of chromosome lac operon by using Red recombination system and selection-counterselection kan/sacB technology. The quantitative analysis of exogenous gene expression indicated that the target gene could be efficiently expressed at lacZ site of lac operon. The results confirmed the efficient screening and stable expression of heterologous protein or antigen on chromosome by using the recombinant engineering technique. This study demonstrated that the chromosome could be used as a vector for heterologous protein or antigen and the stable expression of exogenous gene on E. coli chromosome had no side effect on the bacterial growth and propagation.

  3. Identification of regulatory elements that control expression of the tbpBA operon in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Vélez Acevedo, Rosuany N; Ronpirin, Chalinee; Kandler, Justin L; Shafer, William M; Cornelissen, Cynthia Nau

    2014-08-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for survival and establishment of infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The neisserial transferrin binding proteins (Tbps) comprise a bipartite system for iron acquisition from human transferrin. TbpA is the TonB-dependent transporter that accomplishes iron internalization. TbpB is a surface-exposed lipoprotein that makes the iron uptake process more efficient. Previous studies have shown that the genes encoding these proteins are arranged in a bicistronic operon, with the tbpB gene located upstream of tbpA and separated from it by an inverted repeat. The operon is under the control of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur); however, promoter elements necessary for regulated expression of the genes have not been experimentally defined. In this study, putative regulatory motifs were identified and confirmed by mutagenesis. Further examination of the sequence upstream of these promoter/operator motifs led to the identification of several novel repeats. We hypothesized that these repeats are involved in additional regulation of the operon. Insertional mutagenesis of regions upstream of the characterized promoter region resulted in decreased tbpB and tbpA transcript levels but increased protein levels for both TbpA and TbpB. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology, we determined that a long RNA was produced from the region upstream of tbpB. We localized the 5' endpoint of this transcript to between the two upstream insertions by qualitative RT-PCR. We propose that expression of this upstream RNA leads to optimized expression of the gene products from within the tbpBA operon.

  4. Structural Insight into the Gene Expression Profiling of the hcn Operon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Nilkanta; Bagchi, Angshuman

    2017-01-07

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common opportunistic human pathogen. It generally attacks immunosuppressed patients like AIDS, cancer, cystic fibrosis, etc. The virulence of P. aeruginosa is mediated by various virulence factors. One of such potential virulence factors is HCN synthesized by HCN synthase enzyme, which is encoded by the hcnABC operon. The expressions of the genes of this operon are regulated by three transcriptional regulators, viz., LasR, ANR, and RhlR. In our previous work, we analyzed the molecular details of the functionalities of LasR. In this work, we focused on ANR. ANR is a regulatory protein which belongs to the FNR family and works in anaerobic condition. ANR binds to the promoter DNA, named ANR box, as a dimer. The dimerization of this ANR protein is regulated by Fe4S4, an iron-sulfur cluster. This dimer of ANR (ANR-Fe4S4/ANR-Fe4S4) recognizes and binds the promoter DNA sequence and regulates the transcription of this hcnABC operon. Till date, the biomolecular details of the interactions of ANR dimer with the promoter DNA are not fully understood. Thus, we built the molecular model of ANR-Fe4S4/ANR-Fe4S4. We docked the complex with the corresponding promoter DNA region. We analyzed the mode of interactions with the promoter DNA under different conditions. Thus, we tried to analyze the functionality of the ANR protein during the expressions of the genes of the hcnABC operon. So far, this is the first report to detail the molecular mechanism of the gene expression in P. aeruginosa.

  5. The Bacillus subtilis L-arabinose (ara) operon: nucleotide sequence, genetic organization and expression.

    PubMed

    Sá-Nogueira, I; Nogueira, T V; Soares, S; de Lencastre, H

    1997-03-01

    The Bacillus subtilis L-arabinose metabolic genes araA, araB and araD, encoding L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase, respectively, have been cloned previously and the products of araB and araD were shown to be functionally homologous to their Escherichia coli counterparts by complementation experiments. Here we report that araA, araB and araD, whose inactivation leads to an Ara- phenotype, are the first three ORFs of a nine cistron transcriptional unit with a total length of 11 kb. This operon, called ara, is located at about 256 degrees on the B. subtilis genetic map and contains six new genes named araL, araM, araN, araP, araQ and abfA. Expression of the ara operon is directed by a strong sigma A-like promoter identified within a 150 bp DNA fragment upstream from the translation start site of araA. Analysis of the sequence of the ara operon showed that the putative products of araN, araP and araQ are homologous to bacterial components of binding-protein-dependent transport systems and abfA most probably encodes an alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase. The functions of araL and araM are unknown. An in vitro-constructed insertion-deletion mutation in the region downstream from araD allowed us to demonstrate that araL, araM, araN, araP, araQ and abfA are not essential for L-arabinose utilization. Studies with strains bearing transcriptional fusions of the operon to the E. coli lacZ gene revealed that expression from the ara promoter is induced by L-arabinose and repressed by glucose.

  6. Identification of nah-1 genes of the Pseudomonas putida naphthalene-degrading NPL-41 plasmid operon.

    PubMed

    Serebriiskaya, T S; Lenets, A A; Goldenkova, I V; Kobets, N S; Piruzian, E S

    1999-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida BS202 degrades naphthalene via a plasmid-encoded catabolic pathway. The nucleotide sequence of the nahC gene encoding one of this pathway enzymes, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase, has been determined. Analysis of nucleotide sequence of its flanking regions identified partially the nahF and putative nahQ genes. Comparison of these three genes with corresponding ones in the NAH7 plasmid and DOX operon showed a high degree of homology.

  7. Influence of catabolite repression and inducer exclusion on the bistable behavior of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Santillán, Moisés; Mackey, Michael C

    2004-03-01

    A mathematical model of the lac operon which includes all of the known regulatory mechanisms, including external-glucose-dependent catabolite repression and inducer exclusion, as well as the time delays inherent to transcription and translation, is presented. With this model we investigate the influence of external glucose, by means of catabolite repression and the regulation of lactose uptake, on the bistable behavior of this system.

  8. Organization and post-transcriptional processing of the psb B operon from chloroplasts of Populus deltoides.

    PubMed

    Dixit, R; Trivedi, P K; Nath, P; Sane, P V

    1999-09-01

    Chloroplast genes are typically organized into polycistronic transcription units that give rise to complex sets of mono- and oligo-cistronic overlapping RNAs through a series of processing steps. The psbB operon contains genes for the PSII (psbB, psbT, psbH) and cytochrome b(6)f (petB and petD) complexes which are needed in different amounts during chloroplast biogenesis. The functional significance of gene organization in this polycistronic unit, containing information for two different complexes, is not known and is of interest. To determine the organization and expression of these complexes, studies have been carried out on crop plants by different groups, but not much information is known about trees. We present the nucleotide sequences of PSII genes and RNA profiles of the genes located in the psbB operon from Populus deltoides, a tree species. Although the gene organization of this operon in P. deltoides is similar to that in other species, a few variations have been observed in the processing scheme.

  9. Artificial citrate operon confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to diverse fluorescent pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B; Macwan, Silviya R; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200-1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration.

  10. Structural and physiological studies of the Escherichia coli histidine operon inserted into plasmid vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, C B; Musti, A M; Frunzio, R; Blasi, F

    1980-01-01

    A fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid 5,300 base paris long and containing the promoter-proximal portion of the histidine operon of Escherichia coli K-12, has been cloned in plasmid pBR313 (plasmids pCB2 and pCB3). Restriction mapping, partial nucleotide sequencing, and studies on functional expression in vivo and on protein synthesis in minicells have shown that the fragment contains the regulatory region of the operon, the hisG, hisD genes, and part of the hisC gene. Another plasmid (pCB5) contained the hisG gene and part of the hisD gene. Expression of the hisG gene in the latter plasmid was under control of the tetracycline promoter of the pBR313 plasmid. The in vivo expression of the two groups of plasmids described above, as well as their effect on the expression of the histidine genes not carried by the plasmids but present on the host chromosome, has been studied. The presence of multiple copies of pCB2 or pCB3, but not of pCB5, prevented derepression of the chromosomal histidine operon. Possible interpretations of this phenomenon are discussed. Images PMID:6246067

  11. Cloning and properties of the Salmonella typhimurium tricarboxylate transport operon in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Widenhorn, K.A.; Boos, W.; Somers, J.M.; Kay, W.W.

    1988-02-01

    The tricarboxylate transport operon (tctI) was cloned in Escherichia coli as a 12-kilobase (kb) fragment from an EcoRI library of the Salmonella typhimurium chromosome in lambdagtWES. It was further subcloned as a 12-kb fragment into pACYC184 and as an 8-kb fragment into pBR322. By insertional mutagenesis mediated by lambdaTn5, restriction mapping, and phenotypic testing, the tctI operon was localized to a 4.5-kb region. The tctC gene which encodes a periplasmic binding protein (C-protein) was located near the center of the insert. E. coli/tctI clones on either multicopy or single-copy vectors grew on the same tricarboxylates as S. typhimurium, although unusually long growth lags were observed. E. coli/tctI clones exhibited similar (/sup 14/C) fluorocitrate transport kinetics to those of S. typhimurium, whereas E. coli alone was virtually impermeable to (/sup 14/C) fluorocitrate. The periplasmic C proteins (C1 and C2 isoelectric forms) were produced in prodigious quantities from the cloned strains. Motile E. coli/tctI clones were not chemotactic toward citrate, whereas tctI deletion mutants of S. typhimurium were. Taken together, these observations indicate that tctI is not an operon involved in chemotaxis.

  12. Bacterial clade with the ribosomal RNA operon on a small plasmid rather than the chromosome.

    PubMed

    Anda, Mizue; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Okubo, Takashi; Sugawara, Masayuki; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Mitsui, Hisayuki

    2015-11-17

    rRNA is essential for life because of its functional importance in protein synthesis. The rRNA (rrn) operon encoding 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNAs is located on the "main" chromosome in all bacteria documented to date and is frequently used as a marker of chromosomes. Here, our genome analysis of a plant-associated alphaproteobacterium, Aureimonas sp. AU20, indicates that this strain has its sole rrn operon on a small (9.4 kb), high-copy-number replicon. We designated this unusual replicon carrying the rrn operon on the background of an rrn-lacking chromosome (RLC) as the rrn-plasmid. Four of 12 strains close to AU20 also had this RLC/rrn-plasmid organization. Phylogenetic analysis showed that those strains having the RLC/rrn-plasmid organization represented one clade within the genus Aureimonas. Our finding introduces a previously unaddressed viewpoint into studies of genetics, genomics, and evolution in microbiology and biology in general.

  13. Role of a Tannerella forsythia exopolysaccharide synthesis operon in biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Honma, Kiyonobu; Inagaki, Satoru; Okuda, Katsuji; Kuramitsu, Howard K; Sharma, Ashu

    2007-04-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a Gram-negative oral anaerobe implicated in the development of periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease induced by bacterial infections which leads to tooth loss if untreated. Since biofilms formed by periodontal bacteria are considered important in disease progression and pose difficulties in treatment, we sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms of T. forsythia biofilm formation. This was carried out by screening random insertion mutants of T. forsythia for alterations in biofilm development. This approach lead to the identification of an operon involved in exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis. An isogenic mutant of one of the genes, wecC, contained within the operon was constructed. The isogenic wecC mutant showed increased ability to form biofilms as compared to the parent strain. The wecC mutant also formed aggregated microcolonies and showed increased cell-surface associated hydrophobicity as compared to the parent strain. Moreover, biochemical characterization of the wecC mutant indicated that glycosylation of surface glycoproteins was reduced. Therefore, our results suggest that the wecC operon is associated with glycosylation of surface-glycoprotein expression and likely plays an inhibitory role in T. forsythia biofilm formation.

  14. Structure and regulation of the Escherichia coli ruv operon involved in DNA repair and recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Shinagawa, H; Makino, K; Amemura, M; Kimura, S; Iwasaki, H; Nakata, A

    1988-01-01

    The ruv gene of Escherichia coli, which is involved in DNA repair and recombination, was cloned on a plasmid vector. The DNA of the ruv region was sequenced; it had two open reading frames in tandem that could code for 22- and 37-kilodalton proteins. The proteins encoded by these open reading frames were identified by the maxicell method. The two genes were aligned in the same orientation and regulated by the SOS system, so the two genes probably constitute an operon. The distal one complemented the ruv mutations. Transcription of the operon was studied both in vivo and in vitro. Two transcription initiation sites were identified upstream of the coding frames, and the transcription from both sites was repressed by the LexA repressor. A DNA sequence that is homologous to the SOS box and bound by LexA protein was found in the regulatory region of the operon. The amino acid sequence of Ruv protein deduced from the DNA sequence shows a high degree of homology to the consensus sequence shared by ATP-binding proteins. Images PMID:2842314

  15. Amplification of the groESL operon in Pseudomonas putida increases siderophore gene promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Venturi, V; Wolfs, K; Leong, J; Weisbeek, P J

    1994-10-17

    Pseudobactin 358 is the yellow-green fluorescent siderophore [microbial iron(III) transport agent] produced by Pseudomonas putida WCS358 under iron-limiting conditions. The genes encoding pseudobactin 358 biosynthesis are iron-regulated at the level of transcription. In this study, the molecular characterization is reported of a cosmid clone of WCS358 DNA that can stimulate, in an iron-dependent manner, the activity of a WCS358 siderophore gene promoter in the heterologous Pseudomonas strain A225. The functional region in the clone was identified by subcloning, transposon mutagenesis and DNA sequencing as the groESL operon of strain WCS358. This increase in promoter activity was not observed when the groESL genes of strain WCS358 were integrated via a transposon vector into the genome of Pseudomonas A225, indicating that multiple copies of the operon are necessary for the increase in siderophore gene promoter activity. Amplification of the Escherichia coli and WCS358 groESL genes also increased iron-regulated promoter activity in the parent strain WCS358. The groESL operon codes for the chaperone proteins GroES and GroEL, which are responsible for mediating the folding and assembly of many proteins.

  16. OpWise: Operons aid the identification of differentially expressedgenes in bacterial microarray experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2005-11-23

    Differentially expressed genes are typically identified by analyzing the variation between replicate measurements. These procedures implicitly assume that there are no systematic errors in the data even though several sources of systematic error are known. Results-OpWise estimates the amount of systematic error in bacterial microarray data by assuming that genes in the same operon have matching expression patterns. OpWise then performs a Bayesian analysis of a linear model to estimate significance. In simulations, OpWise corrects for systematic error and is robust to deviations from its assumptions. In several bacterial data sets, significant amounts of systematic error are present, and replicate-based approaches overstate the confidence of the changers dramatically, while OpWise does not. Finally, OpWise can identify additional changers by assigning genes higher confidence if they are consistent with other genes in the same operon. Although microarray data can contain large amounts of systematic error, operons provide an external standard and allow for reasonable estimates of significance. OpWise is available at http://microbesonline.org/OpWise.

  17. The cytochrome c maturation operon is involved in manganese oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    SciTech Connect

    Vrind, J.P.M. de; Brouwers, G.J.; Corstijens, P.L.A.M.; Dulk, J. den; Vrind-de Jong, E.W. de

    1998-10-01

    A Pseudomonas putida strain, strain GB-1, oxidizes Mn{sup 2+} to Mn oxide in the early stationary growth phase. It also secretes a siderophore (identified as pyoverdine) when it is subjected to iron limitation. After transposon (Tn5) mutagenesis several classes of mutants with differences in Mn{sup 2+} oxidation and/or secretion of the Mn{sup 2+}-oxidizing activity were identified. Preliminary analysis of the Tn5 insertion site in one of the nonoxidizing mutants suggested that a multicopper oxidase-related enzyme is involved in Mn{sup 2+} oxidation. The insertion site in another mutant was preliminarily identified as a gene involved in the general protein secretion pathway. Two mutants defective in Mn{sup 2+}-oxidizing activity also secreted porphyrins into the medium and appeared to be derepressed for pyoverdine production. These strains were chosen for detailed analysis. Both mutants were shown to contain Tn5 insertions in the ccmF gene, which is part of the cytochrome c maturation operon. They were cytochrome oxidase negative and did not contain c-type cytochromes. Complementation with part of the ccm operon isolated from the wild type restored the phenotype of the parent strain. These results indicate that a functional ccm operon is required for Mn{sup 2+} oxidation in P. putida GB-1. A possible relationship between porphyrin secretion resulting from the ccm mutation and stimulation of pyoverdine production is discussed.

  18. Comparison of deterministic and stochastic models of the lac operon genetic network.

    PubMed

    Stamatakis, Michail; Mantzaris, Nikos V

    2009-02-01

    The lac operon has been a paradigm for genetic regulation with positive feedback, and several modeling studies have described its dynamics at various levels of detail. However, it has not yet been analyzed how stochasticity can enrich the system's behavior, creating effects that are not observed in the deterministic case. To address this problem we use a comparative approach. We develop a reaction network for the dynamics of the lac operon genetic switch and derive corresponding deterministic and stochastic models that incorporate biological details. We then analyze the effects of key biomolecular mechanisms, such as promoter strength and binding affinities, on the behavior of the models. No assumptions or approximations are made when building the models other than those utilized in the reaction network. Thus, we are able to carry out a meaningful comparison between the predictions of the two models to demonstrate genuine effects of stochasticity. Such a comparison reveals that in the presence of stochasticity, certain biomolecular mechanisms can profoundly influence the region where the system exhibits bistability, a key characteristic of the lac operon dynamics. For these cases, the temporal asymptotic behavior of the deterministic model remains unchanged, indicating a role of stochasticity in modulating the behavior of the system.

  19. Transcription termination within the iron transport-biosynthesis operon of Vibrio anguillarum requires an antisense RNA.

    PubMed

    Stork, Michiel; Di Lorenzo, Manuela; Welch, Timothy J; Crosa, Jorge H

    2007-05-01

    The iron transport-biosynthesis (ITB) operon in Vibrio anguillarum includes four genes for ferric siderophore transport, fatD, -C, -B, and -A, and two genes for siderophore biosynthesis, angR and angT. This cluster plays an important role in the virulence mechanisms of this bacterium. Despite being part of the same polycistronic mRNA, the relative levels of transcription for the fat portion and for the whole ITB message differ profoundly, the levels of the fat transcript being about 17-fold higher. Using S1 nuclease mapping, lacZ transcriptional fusions, and in vitro studies, we were able to show that the differential gene expression within the ITB operon is due to termination of transcription between the fatA and angR genes, although a few transcripts proceeded beyond the termination site to the end of this operon. This termination process requires a 427-nucleotide antisense RNA that spans the intergenic region and acts as a novel transcriptional terminator.

  20. A powerful hybrid puc operon promoter tightly regulated by both IPTG and low oxygen level.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zongli; Zhao, Zhiping; Pan, Yu; Tu, Yun; Chen, Guoping

    2010-04-01

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides has been intensively studied and provides an excellent model for studying both photosynthesis and membrane development. The photosynthetic apparatus (LH2 and LH1-RC complexes) can be synthesized in large scale and integrated into the intracytoplasmic membrane system under specific conditions, which thus provides us insight to utilize the puc or(and) puf operon to heterologously express recombinant proteins in the intracytoplasmic membrane using Rb. sphaeroides as a novel expression system. However, basal level of expression of puc and puf promoter is uncontrolled. We report the construction of LH2 polypeptide expression vector that contains a reengineered lacI(q)-puc promoter-lac operator hybrid promoter, which allows the puc operon to be regulated by both IPTG and low oxygen level. Synthesis of LH2 complexes was completely repressed in the absence of isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG), and the degree of induction was controlled by varying the concentration of IPTG. The optimal concentration of IPTG was determined. SDS-PAGE and Western blot were employed for further analysis. Our results suggest that the reengineered hybrid promoter is efficient to tightly regulate the expression of the puc operon, and our strategy can open up a new approach in the study of the membrane protein expression system.

  1. Nucleotide sequence and functional analysis of cbbR, a positive regulator of the Calvin cycle operons of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, J L; Tabita, F R

    1993-01-01

    Structural genes encoding Calvin cycle enzymes in Rhodobacter sphaeroides are duplicated and organized within two physically distinct transcriptional units, the form I and form II cbb operons. Nucleotide sequence determination of the region upstream of the form I operon revealed a divergently transcribed open reading frame, cbbR, that showed significant similarity to the LysR family of transcriptional regulatory proteins. Mutants containing an insertionally inactivated cbbR gene were impaired in photoheterotrophic growth and completely unable to grow photolithoautotrophically with CO2 as the sole carbon source. In the cbbR strain, expression of genes within the form I operon was completely abolished and that of the form II operon was reduced to about 30% of the wild-type level. The cloned cbbR gene complemented the mutant for wild-type growth characteristics, and normal levels of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) were observed. However, rocket immunoelectrophoresis revealed that the wild-type level of RubisCO was due to overexpression of the form II enzyme, whereas expression of the form I RubisCO was 10% of that of the wild-type strain. The cbbR insertional inactivation did not appear to affect aerobic expression of either CO2 fixation operon, but preliminary evidence suggests that the constitutive expression of the form II operon observed in the cbbR strain may be subject to repression during aerobic growth. PMID:8376325

  2. The Xis2d protein of CTnDOT binds to the intergenic region between the mob and tra operons

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, Crystal M.; Gardner, Jeffrey F.; Salyers, Abigail A.

    2015-01-01

    CTnDOT is a 65kbp integrative and conjugative element (ICE) that carries genes encoding both tetracycline and erythromycin resistances. The Excision operon of this element encodes Xis2c, Xis2d, and Exc proteins involved in the excision of CTnDOT from host chromosomes. These proteins are also required in the complex transcriptional regulation of the divergently transcribed transfer (tra) and mobilization (mob) operons of CTnDOT. Transcription of the tra operon is positively regulated by Xis2c and Xis2d, whereas, transcription of the mob operon is positively regulated by Xis2d and Exc. Xis2d is the only protein that is involved in the excision reaction, as well as the transcriptional regulation of both the mob and tra operons. This paper helps establish how Xis2d binds the DNA in the mob and tra region. Unlike other excisionase proteins, Xis2d binds a region of dyad symmetry. The binding site is located in the intergenic region between the mob and tra promoters, and once bound Xis2d induces a bend in the DNA. Xis2d binding to this region could be the preliminary step for the activation of both operons. Then the other proteins, like Exc, can interact with Xis2d and form higher order complexes. PMID:26212728

  3. Nebulon: a system for the inference of functional relationships of gene products from the rearrangement of predicted operons

    PubMed Central

    Janga, Sarath Chandra; Collado-Vides, Julio; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Since operons are unstable across Prokaryotes, it has been suggested that perhaps they re-combine in a conservative manner. Thus, genes belonging to a given operon in one genome might re-associate in other genomes revealing functional relationships among gene products. We developed a system to build networks of functional relationships of gene products based on their organization into operons in any available genome. The operon predictions are based on inter-genic distances. Our system can use different kinds of thresholds to accept a functional relationship, either related to the prediction of operons, or to the number of non-redundant genomes that support the associations. We also work by shells, meaning that we decide on the number of linking iterations to allow for the complementation of related gene sets. The method shows high reliability benchmarked against knowledge-bases of functional interactions. We also illustrate the use of Nebulon in finding new members of regulons, and of other functional groups of genes. Operon rearrangements produce thousands of high-quality new interactions per prokaryotic genome, and thousands of confirmations per genome to other predictions, making it another important tool for the inference of functional interactions from genomic context. PMID:15867197

  4. Hyperinducibility as a result of mutation in structural genes and self-catabolite repression in the ara operon.

    PubMed

    Katz, L; Englesberg, E

    1971-07-01

    Mutations in gene araB producing an l-arabinose-negative phenotype cause either an increase (hyperinducible), decrease (polar), or have no effect at all on the inducible rate of expression of the l-arabinose operon. Fourteen araB gene mutants exhibiting such effects were shown to be the result of: nonsense, frameshift, or missense mutations. All missense mutants were hyperinducible, exhibiting approximately a twofold increase in rate of l-arabinose isomerase production. All frameshift and most nonsense mutants exhibited polar effect. One nonsense mutant was hyperinducible. The cis-dominant polar effect of nonsense and frameshift mutants (as compared to induced wild type) were more pronounced in arabinose-utilizing merodiploids and in araBaraC(c) double mutants where inducible and constitutive enzyme levels are respectively determined. On the other hand, in arabinose-utilizing merodiploids, missense mutations no longer exhibited hyperinducibility but displayed a wild-type level of operon expression. Increases in the wild type-inducible rate of expression of the operon were found when growth rate was dependent on the concentration of l-arabinose. Cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate also stimulated expression of the operon with the wild type in a mineral l-arabinose medium. These observations are explained on the basis that the steady-state expression of the l-arabinose operon OIBAD is dependent on the concentration of (i) l-arabinose, the effector of this system, which stimulates the expression of the operon, and (ii) catabolite repressors, produced from l-arabinose, which dampen the expression of the operon. We have termed the latter phenomenon "self-catabolite" repression.

  5. Characterization of the Operon Encoding the Alternative ςB Factor from Bacillus anthracis and Its Role in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Fouet, Agnès; Namy, Olivier; Lambert, Guillaume

    2000-01-01

    The operon encoding the general stress transcription factor ςB and two proteins of its regulatory network, RsbV and RsbW, was cloned from the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis by PCR amplification of chromosomal DNA with degenerate primers, by inverse PCR, and by direct cloning. The gene cluster was very similar to the Bacillus subtilis sigB operon both in the primary sequences of the gene products and in the order of its three genes. However, the deduced products of sequences upstream and downstream from this operon showed no similarity to other proteins encoded by the B. subtilis sigB operon. Therefore, the B. anthracis sigB operon contains three genes rather than eight as in B. subtilis. The B. anthracis operon is preceded by a ςB-like promoter sequence, the expression of which depends on an intact ςB transcription factor in B. subtilis. It is followed by another open reading frame that is also preceded by a promoter sequence similarly dependent on B. subtilis ςB. We found that in B. anthracis, both these promoters were induced during the stationary phase and induction required an intact sigB gene. The sigB operon was induced by heat shock. Mutants from which sigB was deleted were constructed in a toxinogenic and a plasmidless strain. These mutants differed from the parental strains in terms of morphology. The toxinogenic sigB mutant strain was also less virulent than the parental strain in the mouse model. B. anthracis ςB may therefore be a minor virulence factor. PMID:10960085

  6. A Fluorescent Bioreporter for Acetophenone and 1-Phenylethanol derived from a Specifically Induced Catabolic Operon

    PubMed Central

    Muhr, Enrico; Leicht, Oliver; González Sierra, Silvia; Thanbichler, Martin; Heider, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The β-proteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum degrades the aromatic ketone acetophenone, a key intermediate of anaerobic ethylbenzene metabolism, either aerobically or anaerobically via a complex ATP-dependent acetophenone carboxylase and a benzoylacetate-CoA ligase. The genes coding for these enzymes (apcABCDE and bal) are organized in an apparent operon and are expressed in the presence of the substrate acetophenone. To study the conditions under which this operon is expressed in more detail, we constructed a reporter strain by inserting a gene fusion of apcA, the first gene of the apc-bal operon, with the gene for the fluorescent protein mCherry into the chromosome of A. aromaticum. The fusion protein indeed accumulated consistently with the expression pattern of the acetophenone-metabolic enzymes under various growth conditions. After evaluating and quantifying the data by fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence-based flow cytometry and immunoblot analysis, mCherry production was found to be proportional to the applied acetophenone concentrations. The reporter strain allowed quantification of acetophenone within a concentration range of 50 μM (detection limit) to 250 μM after 12 and 24 h. Moreover, production of the Apc-mCherry fusion protein in the reporter strain was highly specific and responded to acetophenone and both enantiomers of 1-phenylethanol, which are easily converted to acetophenone. Other analogous substrates showed either a significantly weaker response or none at all. Therefore, the reporter strain provides a basis for the development of a specific bioreporter system for acetophenone with an application potential reaching from environmental monitoring to petroleum prospecting. PMID:26858693

  7. A Novel lux Operon in the Cryptically Bioluminescent Fish Pathogen Vibrio salmonicida Is Associated with Virulence▿

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Eric J.; Tunsjø, Hege S.; Fidopiastis, Pat M.; Sørum, Henning; Ruby, Edward G.

    2007-01-01

    The cold-water-fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida expresses a functional bacterial luciferase but produces insufficient levels of its aliphatic-aldehyde substrate to be detectably luminous in culture. Our goals were to (i) better explain this cryptic bioluminescence phenotype through molecular characterization of the lux operon and (ii) test whether the bioluminescence gene cluster is associated with virulence. Cloning and sequencing of the V. salmonicida lux operon revealed that homologs of all of the genes required for luminescence are present: luxAB (luciferase) and luxCDE (aliphatic-aldehyde synthesis). The arrangement and sequence of these structural lux genes are conserved compared to those in related species of luminous bacteria. However, V. salmonicida strains have a novel arrangement and number of homologs of the luxR and luxI quorum-sensing regulatory genes. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis suggests that this novel arrangement of quorum-sensing genes generates antisense transcripts that may be responsible for the reduced production of bioluminescence. In addition, infection with a strain in which the luxA gene was mutated resulted in a marked delay in mortality among Atlantic salmon relative to infection with the wild-type parent in single-strain challenge experiments. In mixed-strain competition between the luxA mutant and the wild type, the mutant was attenuated up to 50-fold. It remains unclear whether the attenuation results from a direct loss of luciferase or a polar disturbance elsewhere in the lux operon. Nevertheless, these findings document for the first time an association between a mutation in a structural lux gene and virulence, as well as provide a new molecular system to study Vibrio pathogenesis in a natural host. PMID:17277225

  8. arc-dependent thermal regulation and extragenic suppression of the Escherichia coli cytochrome d operon.

    PubMed

    Wall, D; Delaney, J M; Fayet, O; Lipinska, B; Yamamoto, T; Georgopoulos, C

    1992-10-01

    In a screen for Escherichia coli genes whose products are required for high-temperature growth, we identified and characterized a mini-Tn10 insertion that allows the formation of wild-type-size colonies at 30 degrees C but results in microcolony formation at 36 degrees C and above (Ts- phenotype). Mapping, molecular cloning, and DNA sequencing analyses showed that the mini-Tn10 insertion resides in the cydB gene, the distal gene of the cydAB operon (cytochrome d). The Ts- growth phenotype was also shown to be associated with previously described cyd alleles. In addition, all cyd mutants were found to be extremely sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Northern (RNA) blot analysis showed that cyd-specific mRNA levels accumulate following a shift to high temperature. Interestingly, this heat shock induction of the cyd operon was not affected in an rpoH delta background but was totally absent in an arcA or arcB mutant background. Extragenic suppressors of the Cyd Ts- phenotype are found at approximately 10(-3). Two extragenic suppressors were shown to be null alleles in either arcA or arcB. One interpretation of our results is that in the absence of ArcA or ArcB, which are required for the repression of the cyo operon (cytochrome o), elevated levels of Cyo are produced, thus compensating for the missing cytochrome d function. Consistent with this interpretation, the presence of the cyo gene on a multicopy plasmid suppressed the Ts- and hydrogen peroxide-sensitive phenotypes of cyd mutants.

  9. The effect of stochasticity on the lac operon: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, Milan; Hogeweg, Paulien

    2007-06-01

    The role of stochasticity on gene expression is widely discussed. Both potential advantages and disadvantages have been revealed. In some systems, noise in gene expression has been quantified, in among others the lac operon of Escherichia coli. Whether stochastic gene expression in this system is detrimental or beneficial for the cells is, however, still unclear. We are interested in the effects of stochasticity from an evolutionary point of view. We study this question in the lac operon, taking a computational approach: using a detailed, quantitative, spatial model, we evolve through a mutation-selection process the shape of the promoter function and therewith the effective amount of stochasticity. We find that noise values for lactose, the natural inducer, are much lower than for artificial, nonmetabolizable inducers, because these artificial inducers experience a stronger positive feedback. In the evolved promoter functions, noise due to stochasticity in gene expression, when induced by lactose, only plays a very minor role in short-term physiological adaptation, because other sources of population heterogeneity dominate. Finally, promoter functions evolved in the stochastic model evolve to higher repressed transcription rates than those evolved in a deterministic version of the model. This causes these promoter functions to experience less stochasticity in gene expression. We show that a high repression rate and hence high stochasticity increases the delay in lactose uptake in a variable environment. We conclude that the lac operon evolved such that the impact of stochastic gene expression is minor in its natural environment, but happens to respond with much stronger stochasticity when confronted with artificial inducers. In this particular system, we have shown that stochasticity is detrimental. Moreover, we demonstrate that in silico evolution in a quantitative model, by mutating the parameters of interest, is a promising way to unravel the functional

  10. Determinants of bistability in induction of the Escherichia coli lac operon.

    PubMed

    Dreisigmeyer, D W; Stajic, J; Nemenman, I; Hlavacek, W S; Wall, M E

    2008-09-01

    The authors have developed a mathematical model of regulation of expression of the Escherichia coli lac operon, and have investigated bistability in its steady-state induction behaviour in the absence of external glucose. Numerical analysis of equations describing regulation by artificial inducers revealed two natural bistability parameters that can be used to control the range of inducer concentrations over which the model exhibits bistability. By tuning these bistability parameters, the authors found a family of biophysically reasonable systems that are consistent with an experimentally determined bistable region for induction by thio-methylgalactoside (TMG) (in Ozbudak et al. Nature, 2004, 427; p. 737). To model regulation by lactose, the authors developed similar equations in which allolactose, a metabolic intermediate in lactose metabolism and a natural inducer of lac, is the inducer. For biophysically reasonable parameter values, these equations yield no bistability in response to induction by lactose - only systems with an unphysically small permease-dependent export effect can exhibit small amounts of bistability for limited ranges of parameter values. These results cast doubt on the relevance of bistability in the lac operon within the natural context of E. coli, and help shed light on the controversy among existing theoretical studies that address this issue. The results also motivate a deeper experimental characterisation of permease-independent transport of lac inducers, and suggest an experimental approach to address the relevance of bistability in the lac operon within the natural context of E. coli. The sensitivity of lac bistability to the type of inducer emphasises the importance of metabolism in determining the functions of genetic regulatory networks.

  11. Involvement of the ribose operon repressor RbsR in regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tomohiro; Kori, Ayako; Ishihama, Akira

    2013-07-01

    Escherichia coli is able to utilize d-ribose as its sole carbon source. The genes for the transport and initial-step metabolism of d-ribose form a single rbsDACBK operon. RbsABC forms the ABC-type high-affinity d-ribose transporter, while RbsD and RbsK are involved in the conversion of d-ribose into d-ribose 5-phosphate. In the absence of inducer d-ribose, the ribose operon is repressed by a LacI-type transcription factor RbsR, which is encoded by a gene located downstream of this ribose operon. At present, the rbs operon is believed to be the only target of regulation by RbsR. After Genomic SELEX screening, however, we have identified that RbsR binds not only to the rbs promoter but also to the promoters of a set of genes involved in purine nucleotide metabolism. Northern blotting analysis indicated that RbsR represses the purHD operon for de novo synthesis of purine nucleotide but activates the add and udk genes involved in the salvage pathway of purine nucleotide synthesis. Taken together, we propose that RbsR is a global regulator for switch control between the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides and its salvage pathway.

  12. Identification of a protein glycosylation operon from Campylobacter jejuni JCM 2013 and its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Srichaisupakit, Akkaraphol; Ohashi, Takao; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human enteropathogenic bacterium possessing an N-glycosylation system. In this work, a protein glycosylation (pgl) operon conferring prokaryotic N-glycosylation in C. jejuni JCM 2013 was cloned and identified. Fourteen open reading frames (ORFs) were found in the pgl operon. The operon organization was similar to that of C. jejuni NCTC 11168, with 98% and 99% identities in overall nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence, respectively. The pgl operon was heterologously co-expressed with model protein CmeA in the Escherichia coli BL21 ΔwaaL mutant. The immuno- and lectin-blotting analysis indicated the protein glycosylation on the recombinant CmeA. In addition, to analyze the glycan composition, the recombinant CmeA was purified and subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion followed by mass spectrometry analysis. The mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of the N-acetylhexosamine residue at the reducing end but not the predicted di-N-acetylbacillosamine (diNAcBac) residue. Further glycan structural study using the conventional fluorophore-labeling method revealed the GalNAcα-GalNAcα-(Hex-)HexNAc-HexNAc-HexNAc-HexNAc structure. Transcriptional analysis showed that UDP-diNAcBac synthases and diNAcBac transferase are transcribed but might not function in the constructed system. In conclusion, a pgl operon from C. jejuni JCM 2013 successfully functioned in E. coli, resulting in the observed prokaryotic glycosylation.

  13. UlaR activates expression of the ula operon in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the presence of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Shafeeq, Sulman; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the regulatory mechanism of the ula (utilization of l-ascorbic acid) operon, putatively responsible for transport and utilization of ascorbic acid in Streptococcus pneumoniae strain D39, is studied. β-Galactosidase assay data demonstrate that expression of the ula operon is increased in the presence of ascorbic acid as compared with the effects of other sugar sources including glucose. The ula operon consists of nine genes, including a transcriptional regulator UlaR, and is transcribed as a single transcriptional unit. We demonstrate the role of the transcriptional regulator UlaR as a transcriptional activator of the ula operon in the presence of ascorbic acid and show that activation of the ula operon genes by UlaR is CcpA-independent. Furthermore, we predict a 16 bp regulatory site (5'-AACAGTCCGCTGTGTA-3') for UlaR in the promoter region of ulaA. Deletion of the half or full UlaR regulatory site in PulaA confirmed that the UlaR regulatory site present in PulaA is functional.

  14. Mutations in the L-arabinose operon of Escherichia coli B-r that result in hypersensitivity to catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Gendron, R P; Sheppard, D E

    1974-02-01

    Two independent mutants resistant to l-arabinose inhibition only in the presence of d-glucose were isolated from an l-arabinose-sensitive strain containing the araD139 mutation. Preliminary mapping studies indicate that these mutations are closely linked to the araIOC region. Addition of d-glucose to growing cultures of these mutants results in a 95 to 98% repression of ara operon expression, as compared to a 50% repression of the parental control. Since cultures of both mutant and parental strains undergo a 50% repression of lac operon expression upon addition of glucose, the hypersensitivity to catabolite repression exhibited by these mutants is specific for the ara operon. Addition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate reverses the catabolite repression of the ara operon in both mutant and parent strains to 70 to 80% of the control. It is suggested that in these mutants the affinity of the ara operon initiator region for the cAMP-catabolite-activator protein complex may have been altered.

  15. Loss of the lac operon contributes to Salmonella invasion of epithelial cells through derepression of flagellar synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lingyan; Ni, Zhiwei; Wang, Lei; Feng, Lu; Liu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella, a genus that is closely related to Escherichia coli, includes many pathogens of humans and other animals. A notable feature that distinguishes Salmonella from E. coli is lactose negativity, because the lac operon is lost in most Salmonella genomes. Here, we expressed the lac operon in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and compared the virulence of the Lac(+) strain to that of the wild-type strain in a murine model, invasion assays, and macrophage replication assays. We showed that the Lac(+) strain is attenuated in vivo and the attenuation of virulence is caused by its defect in epithelial cell invasion. However, the invasion-defective phenotype is unrelated to lactose utilization. Through sequencing and the comparison of the transcriptome profile between the Lac(+) and wild-type strains during invasion, we found that most flagellar genes were markedly downregulated in the Lac(+) strain, while other genes associated with invasion, such as the majority of genes encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1, were not differentially expressed. Moreover, we discovered that lacA is the major repressor of flagellar gene expression in the lac operon. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the lac operon decreases Salmonella invasion of epithelial cells through repression of flagellar biosynthesis. As the ability to invade epithelial cells is a critical virulence determinant of Salmonella, our results provide important evidence that the loss of the lac operon contributes to the evolution of Salmonella pathogenicity.

  16. Hopf Bifurcation and Delay-Induced Turing Instability in a Diffusive lac Operon Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xin; Song, Yongli; Zhang, Tonghua

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a lac operon model with delayed feedback and diffusion effect. If the system is without delay or the delay is small, the positive equilibrium is stable so that there are no spatial patterns formed; while the time delay is large enough the equilibrium becomes unstable so that rich spatiotemporal dynamics may occur. We have found that time delay can not only incur temporal oscillations but also induce imbalance in space. With different initial values, the system may have different spatial patterns, for instance, spirals with one head, four heads, nine heads, and even microspirals.

  17. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of pst2 operon expression in Vibrio cholerae O1.

    PubMed

    da C Leite, Daniel M; Barbosa, Livia C; Mantuano, Nathalia; Goulart, Carolina L; Veríssimo da Costa, Giovani C; Bisch, Paulo M; von Krüger, Wanda M A

    2017-02-27

    One of the most abundant proteins in V. cholerae O1 cells grown under inorganic phosphate (Pi) limitation is PstS, the periplasmic Pi-binding component of the high-affinity Pi transport system Pst2 (PstSCAB), encoded in pst2 operon (pstS-pstC2-pstA2-pstB2). Besides its role in Pi uptake, Pst2 has been also associated with V. cholerae virulence. However, the mechanisms regulating pst2 expression and the non-stoichiometric production of the Pst2 components under Pi-limitation are unknown. A computational-experimental approach was used to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms behind pst2 expression in V. cholerae O1. Bioinformatics analysis of pst2 operon nucleotide sequence revealed start codons for pstS and pstC genes distinct from those originally annotated, a regulatory region upstream pstS containing potential PhoB-binding sites and a pstS-pstC intergenic region longer than predicted. Analysis of nucleotide sequence between pstS-pstC revealed inverted repeats able to form stem-loop structures followed by a potential RNAse E-cleavage site. Another putative RNase E recognition site was identified within the pstA-pstB intergenic sequence. In silico predictions of pst2 operon expression regulation were subsequently tested using cells grown under Pi limitation by promoter-lacZ fusion, gel electrophoresis mobility shift assay and quantitative RT-PCR. The experimental and in silico results matched very well and led us to propose a pst2 promoter sequence upstream of pstS gene distinct from the previously annotated. Furthermore, V. cholerae O1 pst2 operon transcription is PhoB-dependent and generates a polycistronic mRNA molecule that is rapidly processed into minor transcripts of distinct stabilities. The most stable was the pstS-encoding mRNA, which correlates with PstS higher levels relative to other Pst2 components in Pi-starved cells. The relatively higher stability of pstS and pstB transcripts seems to rely on the secondary structures at their 3' untranslated regions

  18. The Mercury Resistance Operon: From an Origin in a Geothermal Environment to an Efficient Detoxification Machine

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Eric S.; Barkay, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Mercuric mercury (Hg[II]) is a highly toxic and mobile element that is likely to have had a pronounced and adverse effect on biology since Earth’s oxygenation ∼2.4 billion years ago due to its high affinity for protein sulfhydryl groups, which upon binding destabilize protein structure and decrease enzyme activity, resulting in a decreased organismal fitness. The central enzyme in the microbial mercury detoxification system is the mercuric reductase (MerA) protein, which catalyzes the reduction of Hg(II) to volatile Hg(0). In addition to MerA, mer operons encode for proteins involved in regulation, Hg binding, and organomercury degradation. Mer-mediated approaches have had broad applications in the bioremediation of mercury-contaminated environments and industrial waste streams. Here, we examine the composition of 272 individual mer operons and quantitatively map the distribution of mer-encoded functions on both taxonomic SSU rRNA gene and MerA phylogenies. The results indicate an origin and early evolution of MerA among thermophilic bacteria and an overall increase in the complexity of mer operons through evolutionary time, suggesting continual gene recruitment and evolution leading to an improved efficiency and functional potential of the Mer detoxification system. Consistent with a positive relationship between the evolutionary history and topology of MerA and SSU rRNA gene phylogenies (Mantel R = 0.81, p < 0.01), the distribution of the majority of mer functions, when mapped on these phylograms, indicates an overall tendency to inherit mer-encoded functions through vertical descent. However, individual mer functions display evidence of a variable degree of vertical inheritance, with several genes exhibiting strong evidence for acquisition via lateral gene transfer and/or gene loss. Collectively, these data suggest that (i) mer has evolved from a simple system in geothermal environments to a widely distributed and more complex and efficient

  19. Involvement of an inducible fructose phosphotransferase operon in Streptococcus gordonii biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Loo, C Y; Mitrakul, K; Voss, I B; Hughes, C V; Ganeshkumar, N

    2003-11-01

    Oral streptococci, such as Streptococcus gordonii, are the predominant early colonizers that initiate biofilm formation on tooth surfaces. Investigation of an S. gordonii::Tn917-lac biofilm-defective mutant isolated by using an in vitro biofilm formation assay showed that the transposon insertion is near the 3' end of an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein homologous to Streptococcus mutans FruK. Three genes, fruR, fruK, and fruI, were predicted to encode polypeptides that are part of the fructose phosphotransferase system (PTS) in S. gordonii. These proteins, FruR, FruK, and FruI, are homologous to proteins encoded by the inducible fruRKI operon of S. mutans. In S. mutans, FruR is a transcriptional repressor, FruK is a fructose-1-phosphate kinase, and FruI is the fructose-specific enzyme II (fructose permease) of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar PTS. Reverse transcription-PCR confirmed that fruR, fruK, and fruI are cotranscribed as an operon in S. gordonii, and the transposon insertion in S. gordonii fruK::Tn917-lac resulted in a nonpolar mutation. Nonpolar inactivation of either fruK or fruI generated by allelic replacement resulted in a biofilm-defective phenotype, whereas a nonpolar mutant with an inactivated fruR gene retained the ability to form a biofilm. Expression of fruK, as measured by the beta-galactosidase activity of the fruK::Tn917-lac mutant, was observed to be growth phase dependent and was enhanced when the mutant was grown in media with high levels of fructose, sucrose, xylitol, and human serum, indicating that the fructose PTS operon was fructose and xylitol inducible, similar to the S. mutans fructose PTS. The induction by fructose was inhibited by the presence of glucose, indicating that glucose is able to catabolite repress fruK expression. Nonpolar inactivation of the fruR gene in the fruK::Tn917-lac mutant resulted in a greater increase in beta-galactosidase activity when the organism was grown in media supplemented with

  20. Structure and function of the internal promoter (hisBp) of the Escherichia coli K-12 histidine operon.

    PubMed Central

    Grisolia, V; Riccio, A; Bruni, C B

    1983-01-01

    The entire histidine operon of Escherichia coli K-12 was cloned in the vector plasmid pBR313, and a complete restriction map of the operon was determined. By using subclones, complementation tests, and enzyme assays, we were able to make a correlation between the physical map and the genetic map of the operon. We determined the sequence of a fragment of DNA 665 base pairs long, comprising the distal portion of the hisC gene, the proximal portion of the hisB gene, and the internal transcription initiation site hisBp. The efficiency of this promoter was assessed under different physiological conditions by cloning the DNA fragment in a recombinant vector system used to study transcriptional regulatory signals. The precise point at which transcription initiates was determined by S1 nuclease mapping. Images PMID:6309747

  1. Benzyl derivative facilitation of transcription in Escherichia coli at the ara and lac operon promoters: metabolite gene regulation (MGR).

    PubMed

    Kline, E L; West, R W; Ink, B S; Kline, P M; Rodriguez, R L

    1984-01-01

    A number of benzyl derivatives have been tested for their ability to induce the expression of the araBAD operon in an Escherichia coli K-12 strain. Those derivatives shown to be stimulatory include: benzoic acid (BA), para-amino benzoic acid (PABA), para-hydroxy benzoic acid (PHBA), ortho-amino benzoic acid (OABA), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy phenylethylamine (MTA), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenol acetic acid (HVA). The araC gene product was necessary to facilitate the induction. To further characterize if the inductive effect was mediated at the level of transcription, an araBAD-tetracycline resistant (Tcr) operon fusion plasmid (pAP-B) was employed. Benzyl derivatives which induce expression of the araBAD operon in situ also induced a Tcr phenotype with pAP-B. Both indole acetic acid (IAA) and imidazole (IM), which were previously shown to circumvent the necessity for cAMP in the induction of the araBAD operon, also induced a Tcr phenotype with pAP-B. Induction of lac or other cAMP responding operons with the inducing molecules at the chromosomal level was not detectable when assessed by carbon utilization. However, a lacZYA-Tcr operon fusion plasmid (pLPI) did respond to IAA and several of the inducing benzyl derivatives. Catabolite repression of chromosomal araBAD expression was reversed when the exogenous concentration of OABA was elevated. Similar effects on the Tcr phenotypes conferred by pAP-B and pLP1 were observed when OABA or several other inducing benzyl derivatives were present exogenously.

  2. Complex RNA maturation pathway for a chloroplast ribosomal protein operon with an internal tRNA cistron.

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, D A; Hallick, R B

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the expression of a large chloroplast ribosomal protein operon from Euglena gracilis that resembles the Escherichia coli S10 and spc ribosomal protein operons. We present evidence that 11 ribosomal protein genes, a tRNA gene, and a new locus, orf214/orf302, are expressed as a single transcription unit. The primary transcript also contains at least 15 group II and group III introns. Gene-specific probes for each ribosomal protein gene, orf214/orf302, and for trnl hybridized to a common pre-mRNA of an estimated size of 8.3 kilobases. This is the RNA size predicted for a full-length transcript of the entire operon after splicing of all 15 introns. Polycistronic ribosomal protein mRNAs accumulated primarily as spliced hepta-, hexa-, penta-, tetra-, tri-, and dicistronic mRNAs, which were presumed to arise by stepwise processing of the 8.3-kilobase pre-mRNA. A novel finding was the cotranscription of the trnl gene as an internal cistron within the ribosomal protein operon. Several combined mRNA/tRNA molecules, such as the pentacistronic rpl5-rps8-rpl36-trnl-rps14, were characterized. The occurrence of the orf214/orf302 is a unique feature of the Euglena operon, distinguishing it from all chloroplast and prokaryotic ribosomal protein operons characterized to date. The orf214/orf302 are not similar to any known genes but are cotranscribed with the ribosomal protein loci and encode stable RNA species of 2.4, 1.8, and 1.4 kilobases. PMID:2136640

  3. The lumQ gene is linked to the lumP gene and the lux operon in Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Lin, J W; Yu, K Y; Chao, Y F; Weng, S F

    1995-12-14

    The nucleotide sequence of the designated lumQ gene (EMBL accession No. U35231) from Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 has been determined, and the encoded amino acid sequence is deduced. The LumQ protein has a calculated M(r) of 28,416 and comprises 248 amino acid residues. The lumQ gene is identified as the envY-like gene by significant similarity of the encoded protein with the EnvY and AdiY proteins of E. coli; there the envY gene encodes the porin thermoregulatory protein EnvY, and the adiY gene encodes the putative transcriptional regulator protein AdiY. It suggests that the lumQ gene of P. leiognathi is orthologous to the envY and adiY genes of E. coli. The function of the protein encoded by the lumQ gene from P. leiognathi is not really defined yet, it is likely to be the DNA-binding protein related to the araC and xylS family of transcriptional regulators. The lumQ and lumP genes form the lum operon which linked to the lux operon, but run in the opposite direction. The gene order of the lum and the lux operon is < -ter-lumQ-lumP-R&R-luxC-luxD-luxA-luxB- luxN-luxE- > (R&R: regulatory region; ter: transcriptional terminator); whereas the regulatory region (R&R) includes two promoter systems, PR-promoter for the lux operon and PL-promoter for the lum operon; ter is the transcriptional terminator of the lum operon.

  4. Multiple promoters control expression of the Yersinia enterocolitica phage-shock-protein A (pspA) operon.

    PubMed

    Maxson, Michelle E; Darwin, Andrew J

    2006-04-01

    The widely conserved phage-shock-protein A (pspA) operon encodes an extracytoplasmic stress response system that is essential for virulence in Yersinia enterocolitica, and has been linked to other important phenotypes in Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Shigella flexneri. Regulation of pspA operon expression is mediated through a promoter upstream of pspA that depends on sigma factor RpoN (sigma(54)) and the enhancer binding protein PspF. PspA, PspB and PspC, encoded within the pspA operon, also regulate expression by participating in a putative signal transduction pathway that probably serves to modulate PspF activity. All of this suggests that appropriate expression of the pspA operon is critical. Previous genetic analysis of the Y. enterocolitica pspA operon suggested that an additional level of complexity might be mediated by PspF/RpoN-independent expression of some psp genes. Here, an rpoN null mutation and interposon analysis were used to confirm that PspF/RpoN-independent gene expression does originate within the psp locus. Molecular genetic approaches were used to systematically analyse the two large non-coding regions within the psp locus. Primer extension, control region deletion and site-directed mutagenesis experiments led to the identification of RpoN-independent promoters both upstream and downstream of pspA. The precise location of the PspF/RpoN-dependent promoter upstream of pspA was also determined. The discovery of these RpoN-independent promoters reveals yet another level of transcriptional complexity for the Y. enterocolitica pspA operon that may function to allow low-level constitutive expression of psp genes and/or additional regulation under some conditions.

  5. The mechanistic-holistic divide revisited: The case of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Racine, Valérie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, I revisit the development of the repression model of genetic regulation in the lac operon to challenge a common application of a conceptual framework in the history of biology. I take Allen's (1978) account of the changes in the life sciences during the early and mid-twentieth century as an example of a common application of a framework based on the dichotomy between a mechanistic, or reductionist, approach to science and a holistic one. From this conceptual framework, Allen infers two general claims about the process of science and its goals: (1) that "mechanistic materialism" has often presented a more practical way to begin the study of complex phenomena in the life sciences, and (2) that the approach described as "holistic materialism" provides a more complete or accurate description of the natural world. The development of the lac operon model does not fit Allen's generalizations about scientific developments, and it can be used to cast some doubt on the scope of application of that conceptual framework. I argue that a better framework to interpret particular episodes in the history of molecular biology is to consider the ways in which biologists prioritize and track different aspects of the phenomena under study, rather than to focus on whether certain scientific practices are best described as developing from mechanistic to more holistic approaches. I end with some implications for the historiography of science by considering the appropriateness of different conceptual frameworks for different grains of resolution in the history of biology.

  6. Expression, purification and functional characterization of AmiA of acetamidase operon of Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Sundararaman, Balaji; Palaniyandi, Kannan; Venkatesan, Arunkumar; Narayanan, Sujatha

    2014-11-01

    Regulation of gene expression is one of the mechanisms of virulence in pathogenic organisms. In this context, we would like to understand the gene regulation of acetamidase enzyme of Mycobacterium smegmatis, which is the first reported inducible enzyme in mycobacteria. The acetamidase is highly inducible and the expression of this enzyme is increased 100-fold when the substrate acetamide is added. The acetamidase structural gene (amiE) is found immediately downstream of three predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Three of these genes along with a divergently expressed ORF are predicted to form an operon and involved in the regulation of acetamidase enzyme. Here we report expression, purification and functional characterization of AmiA which is one of these predicted ORFs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that AmiA binds to the region between the amiA and amiD near the predicted promoter (P2). Over-expression of AmiA significantly lowered the expression of acetamidase compared to the wild type as demonstrated by qRT-PCR and SDS-PAGE. We conclude that AmiA binds near P2 promoter and acts as a repressor in the regulation of acetamidase operon. The described work is a further step forward toward broadening the knowledge on understanding of the complex gene regulatory mechanism of Mycobacterium sp.

  7. Toward Bioremediation of Methylmercury Using Silica Encapsulated Escherichia coli Harboring the mer Operon.

    PubMed

    Kane, Aunica L; Al-Shayeb, Basem; Holec, Patrick V; Rajan, Srijay; Le Mieux, Nicholas E; Heinsch, Stephen C; Psarska, Sona; Aukema, Kelly G; Sarkar, Casim A; Nater, Edward A; Gralnick, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic heavy metal and the ability of the neurotoxin methylmercury to biomagnify in the food chain is a serious concern for both public and environmental health globally. Because thousands of tons of mercury are released into the environment each year, remediation strategies are urgently needed and prompted this study. To facilitate remediation of both organic and inorganic forms of mercury, Escherichia coli was engineered to harbor a subset of genes (merRTPAB) from the mercury resistance operon. Protein products of the mer operon enable transport of mercury into the cell, cleavage of organic C-Hg bonds, and subsequent reduction of ionic mercury to the less toxic elemental form, Hg(0). E. coli containing merRTPAB was then encapsulated in silica beads resulting in a biological-based filtration material. Performing encapsulation in aerated mineral oil yielded silica beads that were smooth, spherical, and similar in diameter. Following encapsulation, E. coli containing merRTPAB retained the ability to degrade methylmercury and performed similarly to non-encapsulated cells. Due to the versatility of both the engineered mercury resistant strain and silica bead technology, this study provides a strong foundation for use of the resulting biological-based filtration material for methylmercury remediation.

  8. Dynamics and bistability in a reduced model of the lac operon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Necmettin; Santillán, Moisés; Horike, Daisuke; Mackey, Michael C.

    2004-06-01

    It is known that the lac operon regulatory pathway is capable of showing bistable behavior. This is an important complex feature, arising from the nonlinearity of the involved mechanisms, which is essential to understand the dynamic behavior of this molecular regulatory system. To find which of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the lac operon is the origin of bistability, we take a previously published model which accounts for the dynamics of mRNA, lactose, allolactose, permease and β-galactosidase involvement and simplify it by ignoring permease dynamics (assuming a constant permease concentration). To test the behavior of the reduced model, three existing sets of data on β-galactosidase levels as a function of time are simulated and we obtain a reasonable agreement between the data and the model predictions. The steady states of the reduced model were numerically and analytically analyzed and it was shown that it may indeed display bistability, depending on the extracellular lactose concentration and growth rate.

  9. Specificity of attenuation control in the ilvGMEDA operon of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J W; Bennett, D C; Umbarger, H E

    1991-01-01

    Three different approaches were used to examine the regulatory effects of the amino acids specified by the peptide-coding region of the leader transcript of the ilvGMEDA operon of Escherichia coli K-12. Gene expression was examined in strains carrying an ilvGMED'-lac operon fusion. In one approach, auxotrophic derivatives were starved of single amino acids for brief periods, and the burst of beta-galactosidase synthesis upon adding the missing amino acid was determined. Auxotrophic derivatives were also grown for brief periods with a limited supply of one amino acid (derepression experiments). Finally, prototrophic strains were grown in minimal medium supplemented with single and multiple supplements of the chosen amino acids. Although codons for arginine, serine, and proline are interspersed among the codons for the three branched-chain (regulatory) amino acids, they appeared to have no effect when added in excess to prototrophs or when supplied in restricted amounts to auxotrophs. Deletions removing the terminator stem from the leader removed all ilv-specific control, indicating that the attenuation mechanism is the sole mechanism for ilv-specific control. PMID:1706705

  10. IHF is required for the transcriptional regulation of the Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough orp operons.

    PubMed

    Fiévet, Anouchka; Cascales, Eric; Valette, Odile; Dolla, Alain; Aubert, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional activation of σ(54)-dependent promoters is usually tightly regulated in response to environmental cues. The high abundance of potential σ(54)-dependent promoters in the anaerobe bacteria, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, reflects the high versatility of this bacteria suggesting that σ(54) factor is the nexus of a large regulatory network. Understanding the key players of σ(54)-regulation in this organism is therefore essential to gain insights into the adaptation to anaerobiosis. Recently, the D. vulgaris orp genes, specifically found in anaerobe bacteria, have been shown to be transcribed by the RNA polymerase coupled to the σ(54) alternative sigma factor. In this study, using in vitro binding experiments and in vivo reporter fusion assays in the Escherichia coli heterologous host, we showed that the expression of the divergent orp promoters is strongly dependent on the integration host factor IHF. Bioinformatic and mutational analysis coupled to reporter fusion activities and mobility shift assays identified two functional IHF binding site sequences located between the orp1 and orp2 promoters. We further determined that the D. vulgaris DVU0396 (IHFα) and DVU1864 (IHFβ) subunits are required to control the expression of the orp operons suggesting that they form a functionally active IHF heterodimer. Interestingly results obtained from the in vivo inactivation of DVU0396, which is required for orp operons transcription, suggest that several functionally IHF active homodimer or heterodimer are present in D. vulgaris.

  11. Functional Analysis of the Fructooligosaccharide Utilization Operon in Lactobacillus paracasei 1195▿

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Yong Jun; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Hutkins, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The fosABCDXE operon encodes components of a putative fructose/mannose phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system and a β-fructosidase precursor (FosE) that are involved in the fructooligosaccharide (FOS) utilization pathway of Lactobacillus paracasei 1195. The presence of an N-terminal signal peptide sequence and an LPQAG cell wall anchor motif in the C-terminal region of the deduced FosE precursor amino acid sequence predicted that the enzyme is cell wall associated, indicating that FOS may be hydrolyzed extracellularly. In this study, cell fractionation experiments demonstrated that the FOS hydrolysis activity was present exclusively in the cell wall extract of L. paracasei previously grown on FOS. In contrast, no measurable FOS hydrolysis activity was detected in the cell wall extract from the isogenic fosE mutant. Induction of β-fructosidase activity was observed when cells were grown on FOS, inulin, sucrose, or fructose but not when cells were grown on glucose. A diauxic growth pattern was observed when cells were grown on FOS in the presence of limiting glucose (0.1%). Analysis of the culture supernatant revealed that glucose was consumed first, followed by the longer-chain FOS species. Transcription analysis further showed that the fos operon was expressed only after glucose was depleted in the medium. Expression of fosE in a non-FOS-fermenting strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, enabled the recombinant strain to metabolize FOS, inulin, sucrose, and levan. PMID:17644636

  12. Functional and comparative genomic analyses of an operon involved in fructooligosaccharide utilization by Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Altermann, Eric; Hutkins, Robert; Cano, Raul; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2003-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus is a probiotic organism that displays the ability to use prebiotic compounds such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which stimulate the growth of beneficial commensals in the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about the mechanisms and genes involved in FOS utilization by Lactobacillus species. Analysis of the L. acidophilus NCFM genome revealed an msm locus composed of a transcriptional regulator of the LacI family, a four-component ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system, a fructosidase, and a sucrose phosphorylase. Transcriptional analysis of this operon demonstrated that gene expression was induced by sucrose and FOS but not by glucose or fructose, suggesting some specificity for nonreadily fermentable sugars. Additionally, expression was repressed by glucose but not by fructose, suggesting catabolite repression via two cre-like sequences identified in the promoter–operator region. Insertional inactivation of the genes encoding the ABC transporter substrate-binding protein and the fructosidase reduced the ability of the mutants to grow on FOS. Comparative analysis of gene architecture within this cluster revealed a high degree of synteny with operons in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, the association between a fructosidase and an ABC transporter is unusual and may be specific to L. acidophilus. This is a description of a previously undescribed gene locus involved in transport and catabolism of FOS compounds, which can promote competition of beneficial microorganisms in the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:12847288

  13. Features of dnaK operon genes of the obligate thermophile Bacillus thermoglucosidasius KP1006.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Iwashiro, T; Suzuki, Y

    2000-04-01

    The dnaK gene was cloned from the obligate thermophile Bacillus thermoglucosidasius KP1006, together with the grpE and dnaJ genes in the same operon. The dnaK, grpE and dnaJ genes showed high identity with those of other bacterial strains, particularly with those of Bacillus stearothermophilus NUB36, despite an extremely low homology for the corresponding total genomic DNA. There were significant differences in the proline content of the DnaK operon proteins which is closely correlated with the thermostability of enzyme proteins. The proline content was higher in the GrpE, DnaK and DnaJ proteins of the thermophilic as opposed to the mesophilic strains. The overexpression of the B. thermoglucosidasius DnaK protein in Escherichia coli MV1184 results in extreme filamentation without inhibition on cell growth. The B. thermoglucosidasius DnaK protein seemed to exclusively disturb septation in E. coli cells which suggests that it interacts with key protein(s) involved in cell septation.

  14. Toward Bioremediation of Methylmercury Using Silica Encapsulated Escherichia coli Harboring the mer Operon

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Aunica L.; Al-Shayeb, Basem; Holec, Patrick V.; Rajan, Srijay; Le Mieux, Nicholas E.; Heinsch, Stephen C.; Psarska, Sona; Aukema, Kelly G.; Sarkar, Casim A.; Nater, Edward A.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic heavy metal and the ability of the neurotoxin methylmercury to biomagnify in the food chain is a serious concern for both public and environmental health globally. Because thousands of tons of mercury are released into the environment each year, remediation strategies are urgently needed and prompted this study. To facilitate remediation of both organic and inorganic forms of mercury, Escherichia coli was engineered to harbor a subset of genes (merRTPAB) from the mercury resistance operon. Protein products of the mer operon enable transport of mercury into the cell, cleavage of organic C-Hg bonds, and subsequent reduction of ionic mercury to the less toxic elemental form, Hg(0). E. coli containing merRTPAB was then encapsulated in silica beads resulting in a biological-based filtration material. Performing encapsulation in aerated mineral oil yielded silica beads that were smooth, spherical, and similar in diameter. Following encapsulation, E. coli containing merRTPAB retained the ability to degrade methylmercury and performed similarly to non-encapsulated cells. Due to the versatility of both the engineered mercury resistant strain and silica bead technology, this study provides a strong foundation for use of the resulting biological-based filtration material for methylmercury remediation. PMID:26761437

  15. The Brucella suis virB operon is induced intracellularly in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Foulongne, Vincent; Michaux-Charachon, Sylvie; Bourg, Gisele; Allardet-Servent, Annick; Cazevieille, Chantal; Liautard, Jean Pierre; Ramuz, Michel; O'Callaghan, David

    2002-01-01

    A type IV secretion system similar to the VirB system of the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens is essential for the intracellular survival and multiplication of the mammalian pathogen Brucella. Reverse transcriptase–PCR showed that the 12 genes encoding the Brucella suis VirB system form an operon. Semiquantitative measurements of virB mRNA levels by slot blotting showed that transcription of the virB operon, but not the flanking genes, is regulated by environmental factors in vitro. Flow cytometry used to measure green fluorescent protein expression from the virB promoter confirmed the data from slot blots. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and fluorescence microscopy showed that the virB promoter is induced in macrophages within 3 h after infection. Induction only occurred once the bacteria were inside the cells, and phagosome acidification was shown to be the major signal inducing intracellular expression. Because phagosome acidification is essential for the intracellular multiplication of Brucella, we suggest that it is the signal that triggers the secretion of unknown effector molecules. These effector molecules play a role in the remodeling of the phagosome to create the unique intracellular compartment in which Brucella replicates. PMID:11830669

  16. Derepression and repression of the histidine operon: role of the feedback site of the first enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, V M; Martíndelrío, R; Tébar, A R; Guisán, J M; Ballesteros, A O

    1975-01-01

    Thiazolealanine, a false feedback inhibitor, causes transient repression of the his operon previously derepressed by a severe histidine limitation in strains with a wild-type or feedback-hypersensitive first enzyme but not in feedback-resistant mutants. Since experiments reported here clearly demonstrate that thiazolealanine is not transferred to tRNAHis, it is proposed that this "transient repression" is effected through the interaction of thiazolealanine with the feedback site of the enzyme. Experiments in the presence of rifampin indicate that this thiazolealanine-mediated effect is exerted at the level of translation. We conclude that histidine (free), in addition to forming co-repressor, also represses the operon at the level of translation through feedback interaction with the first enzyme of the pathway (adenosine 5'-triphosphate phosphoribosyltransferase). Rates of derepression in feedback-resistant strains are roughly half of those observed in controls, suggesting a positive role played by a first enzyme with a normal but unoccupied feedback site. Some feedback-resistant mutants, in contrast to the wild type, were unable to exhibit derepression under histidine limitation caused by aminotriazole. PMID:1104584

  17. Activation of ara operons by a truncated AraC protein does not require inducer.

    PubMed

    Menon, K P; Lee, N L

    1990-05-01

    The araC gene of Escherichia coli encodes a protein that binds the inducer L-arabinose to activate the transcription of three ara operons. In a study to determine the functional domains within the AraC protein, we have generated a set of overlapping deletions from the proximal end of the araC gene. We found that the removal of up to nearly 60% of the coding sequence of this protein still allows transcriptional activation of the ara operons in vivo, up to 27% that of the wild type. These truncated proteins, however, no longer require arabinose for induction. The ligand-induced conformational change apparently either releases or unmasks an existing functional domain within AraC, rather than generating a new conformation that is required for activation of the promoter of araBAD. Since the truncated protein of the mutant C154 (which lacks 153 amino acid residues from the N terminus) retains DNA binding specificity, the DNA-recognition domain is localized in the C-terminal half of the AraC protein. Truncated proteins were unable to repress araBAD or araC in vivo, even though they were able to bind all ara operators. We propose that the N-terminal half of AraC is essential for the formation of the DNA loops that are responsible for repression of araBAD and for autoregulation of araC.

  18. Structure of Intergenic Spacer IGS1 of Ribosomal Operon from Schistidium Mosses.

    PubMed

    Milyutina, I A; Ignatova, E A; Ignatov, M S; Goryunov, D V; Troitsky, A V

    2015-11-01

    The structure of the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) of the ribosomal operon from 12 species of Schistidium mosses was studied. In the IGS1 sequences of these species, three conserved regions and two areas of GC- and A-enriched repeats were identified. All of the studied mosses have a conserved pyrimidine-enriched motif at the 5'-end of IGS1. Species-specific nucleotide substitutions and insertions were found in the conserved areas. The repeated units contain single nucleotide substitutions that make unique the majority of repeated units. The positions of such repeats in IGS1 are species-specific, but their number can vary within the species and among operons of the same specimen. The comparison of IGS1 sequences from the Schistidium species and from representatives of ten other moss genera revealed the presence of common conserved motifs with similar localization. Presumably, these motifs are elements of termination of the pre-rRNA transcription and processing of rRNA.

  19. Relationship between the persistence of mer operon sequences in Escherichia coli and their resistance to mercury.

    PubMed

    Murtaza, Imtiyaz; Dutt, Amit; Ali, Arif

    2002-03-01

    Studies related to geographic distribution of E. coli carrying mer operon sequences were carried out on the Indian subcontinent. Out of the 80 E. coli isolates, collected from five geographically distinct regions of India, 68 were found to be resistant to one or the other heavy metal used in the study. Among these isolates, 36 were found to be resistant to the inorganic form (HgCl2) and only 5 to resist both the inorganic and organic forms of mercury. Colony hybridization studies revealed 35 isolates out of 68 to hybridize with the probe. Interestingly, some of the mercury-sensitive isolates (Hgs), especially from the Dal Lake, were found positive in hybridization studies. These findings, supported by mercury volatilization studies, indicate the presence of nonfunctional/vestigial mer sequences in the isolates collected from different environments. On the other hand, few of the mercury-resistant isolates (Hgr) from the Yamuna River did not show any sign of hybridization. Further, volatilization studies also indicated an alternate mode of resistance mechanism operating in them. The studies demonstrate that the mer operon sequences share very high homology among the E. coli isolates collected from different geographical locations, and this metal resistance may be a genetic character that arose from a common ancestral background.

  20. A functional glycogen biosynthesis pathway in Lactobacillus acidophilus: expression and analysis of the glg operon.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2013-09-01

    Glycogen metabolism contributes to energy storage and various physiological functions in some prokaryotes, including colonization persistence. A role for glycogen metabolism is proposed on the survival and fitness of Lactobacillus acidophilus, a probiotic microbe, in the human gastrointestinal environment. L. acidophilus NCFM possesses a glycogen metabolism (glg) operon consisting of glgBCDAP-amy-pgm genes. Expression of the glg operon and glycogen accumulation were carbon source- and growth phase-dependent, and were repressed by glucose. The highest intracellular glycogen content was observed in early log-phase cells grown on trehalose, which was followed by a drastic decrease of glycogen content prior to entering stationary phase. In raffinose-grown cells, however, glycogen accumulation gradually declined following early log phase and was maintained at stable levels throughout stationary phase. Raffinose also induced an overall higher temporal glg expression throughout growth compared with trehalose. Isogenic ΔglgA (glycogen synthase) and ΔglgB (glycogen-branching enzyme) mutants are glycogen-deficient and exhibited growth defects on raffinose. The latter observation suggests a reciprocal relationship between glycogen synthesis and raffinose metabolism. Deletion of glgB or glgP (glycogen phosphorylase) resulted in defective growth and increased bile sensitivity. The data indicate that glycogen metabolism is involved in growth maintenance, bile tolerance and complex carbohydrate utilization in L. acidophilus.

  1. Characterization of a Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Operon Associated with Virulence and Drug Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Viale, Mariana Noelia; Imperiale, Belén; Gioffre, Andrea Karina; Colombatti Olivieri, María Alejandra; Moyano, Roberto Damián; Morcillo, Nora; Santangelo, María de la Paz; Davis, William; Romano, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The lprG-p55 operon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis is involved in the transport of toxic compounds. P55 is an efflux pump that provides resistance to several drugs, while LprG is a lipoprotein that modulates the host's immune response against mycobacteria. The knockout mutation of this operon severely reduces the replication of both mycobacterial species during infection in mice and increases susceptibility to toxic compounds. In order to gain insight into the function of LprG in the Mycobacterium avium complex, in this study, we assayed the effect of the deletion of lprG gene in the D4ER strain of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. The replacement of lprG gene with a hygromycin cassette caused a polar effect on the expression of p55. Also, a twofold decrease in ethidium bromide susceptibility was observed and the resistance to the antibiotics rifampicin, amikacin, linezolid, and rifabutin was impaired in the mutant strain. In addition, the mutation decreased the virulence of the bacteria in macrophages in vitro and in a mice model in vivo. These findings clearly indicate that functional LprG and P55 are necessary for the correct transport of toxic compounds and for the survival of MAA in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24967408

  2. Dynamics and bistability in a reduced model of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Necmettin; Santillan, Moises; Horike, Daisuke; Mackey, Michael C

    2004-06-01

    It is known that the lac operon regulatory pathway is capable of showing bistable behavior. This is an important complex feature, arising from the nonlinearity of the involved mechanisms, which is essential to understand the dynamic behavior of this molecular regulatory system. To find which of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the lac operon is the origin of bistability, we take a previously published model which accounts for the dynamics of mRNA, lactose, allolactose, permease and beta-galactosidase involvement and simplify it by ignoring permease dynamics (assuming a constant permease concentration). To test the behavior of the reduced model, three existing sets of data on beta-galactosidase levels as a function of time are simulated and we obtain a reasonable agreement between the data and the model predictions. The steady states of the reduced model were numerically and analytically analyzed and it was shown that it may indeed display bistability, depending on the extracellular lactose concentration and growth rate.

  3. From binary to multivalued to continuous models: the lac operon as a case study.

    PubMed

    Franke, Raimo; Theis, Fabian J; Klamt, Steffen

    2010-12-14

    Using the lac operon as a paradigmatic example for a gene regulatory system in prokaryotes, we demonstrate how qualitative knowledge can be initially captured using simple discrete (Boolean) models and then stepwise refined to multivalued logical models and finally to continuous (ODE) models. At all stages, signal transduction and transcriptional regulation is integrated in the model description. We first show the potential benefit of a discrete binary approach and discuss then problems and limitations due to indeterminacy arising in cyclic networks. These limitations can be partially circumvented by using multilevel logic as generalization of the Boolean framework enabling one to formulate a more realistic model of the lac operon. Ultimately a dynamic description is needed to fully appreciate the potential dynamic behavior that can be induced by regulatory feedback loops. As a very promising method we show how the use of multivariate polynomial interpolation allows transformation of the logical network into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which then enables the analysis of key features of the dynamic behavior.

  4. Repression and catabolite gene activation in the araBAD operon.

    PubMed

    Lichenstein, H S; Hamilton, E P; Lee, N

    1987-02-01

    Catabolite gene activation of the araBAD operon was examined by using catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) site deletion mutants. A high-affinity CAP-binding site between the divergently orientated araBAD and araC operons has been previously identified by DNase I footprinting techniques. Subsequent experiments disagreed as to whether this site is directly involved in stimulating araBAD expression. In this paper, we present data showing that deletions generated by in vitro mutagenesis of the CAP site led to a five- to sixfold reduction in single-copy araBAD promoter activity in vivo. We concluded that catabolite gene activation of araBAD involves this CAP site. The hypothesis that CAP stimulates the araBAD promoter primarily by relieving repression was then tested. The upstream operator araO2 was required for repression, but we observed that the magnitude of CAP stimulation was unaffected by the presence or absence of araO2. We concluded that CAP plays no role in relieving repression. Other experiments showed that when CAP binds it induces a bend in the ara DNA; similar bending has been reported upon CAP binding to lac DNA. This conformational change in the DNA may be essential to the mechanism of CAP activation.

  5. Crystal structure of the lactose operon repressor and its complexes with DNA and inducer

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.; Chang, G.; Horton, N.C.

    1996-03-01

    The lac operon of Escherichia coli is the paradigm for gene regulation. Its key component is the lac repressor a product of the lacl gene. The three-dimensional structures of the intact lac repressor, the lac repressor bound to the gratuitous inducer isopropyl-B-D-1thiogalactoside (IPTG) and the lac repressor complexed with a 21 base pair symmetric operator DNA have been determined. These three structures show the conformation of the molecule in both the induced and the repressed states and provide a framework for understanding a wealth of biochemical and genetic information. The DNA sequence of the lac operon has three lac repressor recognition sites in stretch of 500 base pairs. The crystallographic structure of the complex with DNA suggests that the tetrameric repressor functions synergistically with catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) and participates in the quarternary formation of repression loops in which one tetrameric repressor interacts simultaneously with two sites in the genomic DNA. 76 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Operon mRNAs are organized into ORF-centric structures that predict translation efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, David H; Rouskin, Silvi; Zhang, Yan; Li, Gene-Wei; Weissman, Jonathan S; Gross, Carol A

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial mRNAs are organized into operons consisting of discrete open reading frames (ORFs) in a single polycistronic mRNA. Individual ORFs on the mRNA are differentially translated, with rates varying as much as 100-fold. The signals controlling differential translation are poorly understood. Our genome-wide mRNA secondary structure analysis indicated that operonic mRNAs are comprised of ORF-wide units of secondary structure that vary across ORF boundaries such that adjacent ORFs on the same mRNA molecule are structurally distinct. ORF translation rate is strongly correlated with its mRNA structure in vivo, and correlation persists, albeit in a reduced form, with its structure when translation is inhibited and with that of in vitro refolded mRNA. These data suggest that intrinsic ORF mRNA structure encodes a rough blueprint for translation efficiency. This structure is then amplified by translation, in a self-reinforcing loop, to provide the structure that ultimately specifies the translation of each ORF. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22037.001 PMID:28139975

  7. Organization, Structure, and Variability of the rRNA Operon of the Whipple's Disease Bacterium (Tropheryma whippelii)

    PubMed Central

    Maiwald, Matthias; von Herbay, Axel; Lepp, Paul W.; Relman, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Whipple's disease is a systemic disorder associated with a cultivation-resistant, poorly characterized actinomycete, Tropheryma whippelii. We determined a nearly complete rRNA operon sequence of T. whippelii from specimens from 3 patients with Whipple's disease, as well as partial operon sequences from 43 patients. Variability was observed in the 16S-23S rRNA spacer sequences, leading to the description of five distinct sequence types. One specimen contained two spacer sequence types, raising the possibility of a double infection. Secondary structure models for the primary rRNA transcript and mature rRNAs revealed rare or unique features. PMID:10809715

  8. Differential expression of two members of Rv1922-LipD operon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Does rv1923 qualify for membership?

    PubMed

    Dogra, Nandita; Arya, Stuti; Singh, Kashmir; Kaur, Jagdeep

    2015-07-01

    rv1922 and rv1923 (lipD) are members of Rv1922-LipD operon in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. rv1922 was expressed under aerobic and stress conditions, whereas rv1923 was not expressed in aerobically grown bacteria but expressed moderately under oxidative stress conditions. Different expression of both the operonic genes under normal and stress conditions posed apprehensions for the inclusion of rv1922 and rv1923 in the same operon. The results from this study indicated that although the genes were expressed in an operonic manner, there existed the possibility of differential regulation for rv1923 which has been supported by in silico analysis for the presence of putative internal regulatory sites in the operon.

  9. Cross-Regulation between the phz1 and phz2 Operons Maintain a Balanced Level of Phenazine Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bei; Xiao, Bo; Liu, Linde; Ge, Yihe; Hu, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication often provides selective advantages for the survival of microorganisms in adapting to varying environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa PAO1 possesses two seven-gene operons [phz1 (phzA1B1C1D1E1F1G1) and phz2 (phzA2B2C2D2E2F2G2)] that are involved in the biosynthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and its derivatives. Although the two operons are highly homologous and their functions are well known, it is unclear how the two phz operons coordinate their expressions to maintain the phenazine biosynthesis. By constructing single and double deletion mutants of the two phz operons, we found that the phz1-deletion mutant produced the same or less amount of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin in GA medium than the phz2-knockout mutant while the phz1-phz2 double knockout mutant did not produce any phenazines. By generating phzA1 and phzA2 translational and transcriptional fusions with a truncated lacZ reporter, we found that the expression of the phz1 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and did not alter at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz2 operon. Surprisingly, the expression the phz2 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and only moderately at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz1 operon. Our findings suggested that a complex cross-regulation existed between the phz1 and phz2 operons. By mediating the upregulation of one phz operon expression while the other was deleted, this crosstalk would maintain the homeostatic balance of phenazine biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:26735915

  10. Role of the ganSPQAB Operon in Degradation of Galactan by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Watzlawick, Hildegard; Morabbi Heravi, Kambiz; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2016-10-15

    Bacillus subtilis possesses different enzymes for the utilization of plant cell wall polysaccharides. This includes a gene cluster containing galactan degradation genes (ganA and ganB), two transporter component genes (ganQ and ganP), and the sugar-binding lipoprotein-encoding gene ganS (previously known as cycB). These genes form an operon that is regulated by GanR. The degradation of galactan by B. subtilis begins with the activity of extracellular GanB. GanB is an endo-β-1,4-galactanase and is a member of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 53. This enzyme was active on high-molecular-weight arabinose-free galactan and mainly produced galactotetraose as well as galactotriose and galactobiose. These galacto-oligosaccharides may enter the cell via the GanQP transmembrane proteins of the galactan ABC transporter. The specificity of the galactan ABC transporter depends on the sugar-binding lipoprotein, GanS. Purified GanS was shown to bind galactotetraose and galactotriose using thermal shift assay. The energy for this transport is provided by MsmX, an ATP-binding protein. The transported galacto-oligosaccharides are further degraded by GanA. GanA is a β-galactosidase that belongs to GH family 42. The GanA enzyme was able to hydrolyze short-chain β-1,4-galacto-oligosaccharides as well as synthetic β-galactopyranosides into galactose. Thermal shift assay as well as electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that galactobiose is the inducer of the galactan operon regulated by GanR. DNase I footprinting revealed that the GanR protein binds to an operator overlapping the -35 box of the σ(A)-type promoter of Pgan, which is located upstream of ganS IMPORTANCE: Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive soil bacterium that utilizes different types of carbohydrates, such as pectin, as carbon sources. So far, most of the pectin degradation systems and enzymes have been thoroughly studied in B. subtilis Nevertheless, the B. subtilis utilization system of galactan, which is

  11. Effect of DNA looping on the induction kinetics of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Narang, Atul

    2007-08-21

    The induction of the lac operon follows cooperative kinetics. The first mechanistic model of these kinetics is the de facto standard in the modeling literature [Yagil, G., Yagil, E., 1971. On the relation between effector concentration and the rate of induced enzyme synthesis. Biophys. J. 11, 11-17]. Yet, subsequent studies have shown that the model is based on incorrect assumptions. Specifically, the repressor is a tetramer with four (not two) inducer-binding sites, and the operon contains two auxiliary operators (in addition to the main operator). Furthermore, these structural features are crucial for the formation of DNA loops, the key determinants of lac repression and induction. Indeed, the repression is determined almost entirely (>95%) by the looped complexes [Oehler, S., Eismann, E.R., Krämer, H., Müller-Hill, B., 1990. The three operators of the lac operon cooperate in repression. EMBO J. 9(4), 973-979], and the pronounced cooperativity of the induction curve hinges upon the existence of the looped complexes [Oehler, S., Alberti, S., Müller-Hill, B., 2006. Induction of the lac promoter in the absence of DNA loops and the stoichiometry of induction. Nucleic Acids Res. 34(2), 606-612]. Here, we formulate a model of lac induction taking due account of the tetrameric structure of the repressor and the existence of looped complexes. We show that: (1) The kinetics are significantly more cooperative than those predicted by the Yagil and Yagil model. The cooperativity is higher because the formation of looped complexes is easily abolished by repressor-inducer binding. (2) The model provides good fits to the repression data for cells containing wild-type tetrameric or mutant dimeric repressor, as well as the induction curves for 6 different strains of Escherichia coli. It also implies that the ratios of certain looped and non-looped complexes are independent of inducer and repressor levels, a conclusion that can be rigorously tested by gel electrophoresis. (3

  12. [Antimicrobial activity of Actinomycetale isolated from the lagoon in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Alliouch-Kerboua, Chérifa; Gacemi Kirane, Djamila; La Scola, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In the aim of the study of the taxonomy and the antimicrobial activity, a strain of actinomycete SM2/2GF which was isolated from sediment of the lagoon El-Mellah which is situated in the city of El-Kala in the Northeast of Algeria, was tested against diverse pathogenic microorganisms and against a Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas alcaliphila which was isolated from water of the lagoon El-Mellah. The phenotypic and the molecular characteristics show that the isolate SM2/2GF belongs to the kind Streptomyces. This strain showed an antimicrobial activity against a Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas alcaliphila and the positive-Gram bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, as well as the yeast Candida albicans. It has no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The interesting antimicrobial activity of the strain SM2/2GF against the pathogenic microorganisms could encourage further researches on one or several bioactive molecules which it secretes.

  13. A Quantitative bgl Operon Model for E. coli Requires BglF Conformational Change for Sugar Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Paras; Bender, Andreas

    The bgl operon is responsible for the metabolism of β-glucoside sugars such as salicin or arbutin in E. coli. Its regulatory system involves both positive and negative feedback mechanisms and it can be assumed to be more complex than that of the more closely studied lac and trp operons. We have developed a quantitative model for the regulation of the bgl operon which is subject to in silico experiments investigating its behavior under different hypothetical conditions. Upon administration of 5mM salicin as an inducer our model shows 80-fold induction, which compares well with the 60-fold induction measured experimentally. Under practical conditions 5-10mM inducer are employed, which is in line with the minimum inducer concentration of 1mM required by our model. The necessity of BglF conformational change for sugar transport has been hypothesized previously, and in line with those hypotheses our model shows only minor induction if conformational change is not allowed. Overall, this first quantitative model for the bgl operon gives reasonable predictions that are close to experimental results (where measured). It will be further refined as values of the parameters are determined experimentally. The model was developed in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and it is available from the authors and from the Biomodels repository [www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels].

  14. Cyanobacterial flv4-2 Operon-Encoded Proteins Optimize Light Harvesting and Charge Separation in Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Chukhutsina, Volha; Bersanini, Luca; Aro, Eva-Mari; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2015-05-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) complexes drive the water-splitting reaction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. However, too much light can damage and disrupt PSII. In cyanobacteria, the flv4-2 operon encodes three proteins (Flv2, Flv4, and Sll0218), which safeguard PSII activity under air-level CO2 and in high light conditions. However, the exact mechanism of action of these proteins has not been clarified yet. We demonstrate that the PSII electron transfer properties are influenced by the flv4-2 operon-encoded proteins. Accelerated secondary charge separation kinetics was observed upon expression/overexpression of the flv4-2 operon. This is likely induced by docking of the Flv2/Flv4 heterodimer in the vicinity of the QB pocket of PSII, which, in turn, increases the QB redox potential and consequently stabilizes forward electron transfer. The alternative electron transfer route constituted by Flv2/Flv4 sequesters electrons from QB(-) guaranteeing the dissipation of excess excitation energy in PSII under stressful conditions. In addition, we demonstrate that in the absence of the flv4-2 operon-encoded proteins, about 20% of the phycobilisome antenna becomes detached from the reaction centers, thus decreasing light harvesting. Phycobilisome detachment is a consequence of a decreased relative content of PSII dimers, a feature observed in the absence of the Sll0218 protein.

  15. Functional conservation of the capacity for ent-kaurene biosynthesis and an associated operon in certain rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Hershey, David M; Lu, Xuan; Zi, Jiachen; Peters, Reuben J

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial interactions with plants are accompanied by complex signal exchange processes. Previously, the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic (rhizo)bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum was found to carry adjacent genes encoding two sequentially acting diterpene cyclases that together transform geranylgeranyl diphosphate to ent-kaurene, the olefin precursor to the gibberellin plant hormones. Species from the three other major genera of rhizobia were found to have homologous terpene synthase genes. Cloning and functional characterization of a representative set of these enzymes confirmed the capacity of each genus to produce ent-kaurene. Moreover, comparison of their genomic context revealed that these diterpene synthases are found in a conserved operon which includes an adjacent isoprenyl diphosphate synthase, shown here to produce the geranylgeranyl diphosphate precursor, providing a critical link to central metabolism. In addition, the rest of the operon consists of enzymatic genes that presumably lead to a more elaborated diterpenoid, although the production of gibberellins was not observed. Nevertheless, it has previously been shown that the operon is selectively expressed during nodulation, and the scattered distribution of the operon via independent horizontal gene transfer within the symbiotic plasmid or genomic island shown here suggests that such diterpenoid production may modulate the interaction of these particular symbionts with their host plants.

  16. QapR (PA5506) represses an operon that negatively affects the Pseudomonas quinolone signal in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Kyle A; Coleman, James P; Pesci, Everett C

    2013-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that can cause disease in varied sites within the human body and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in those afflicted with cystic fibrosis. P. aeruginosa is able to coordinate group behaviors, such as virulence factor production, through the process of cell-to-cell signaling. There are three intercellular signaling systems employed by P. aeruginosa, and one of these systems utilizes the small molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS]). PQS is required for virulence in multiple infection models and has been found in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients colonized by P. aeruginosa. In this study, we have identified an RpiR family transcriptional regulator, QapR, which is an autoregulatory repressor. We found that mutation of qapR caused overexpression of the qapR operon. We characterized the qapR operon to show that it contains genes qapR, PA5507, PA5508, and PA5509 and that QapR directly controls the transcription of these genes in a negative manner. We also show that derepression of this operon greatly reduces PQS concentration in P. aeruginosa. Our results suggest that qapR affects PQS concentration by repressing an enzymatic pathway that acts on PQS or a PQS precursor to lower the PQS concentration. We believe that this operon comprises a novel mechanism to regulate PQS concentration in P. aeruginosa.

  17. Organization and regulation of the arsenite oxidase operon of the moderately acidophilic and facultative chemoautotrophic Thiomonas arsenitoxydans.

    PubMed

    Slyemi, Djamila; Moinier, Danielle; Talla, Emmanuel; Bonnefoy, Violaine

    2013-11-01

    Thiomonas arsenitoxydans is an acidophilic and facultatively autotrophic bacterium that can grow by oxidizing arsenite to arsenate. A comparative genomic analysis showed that the T. arsenitoxydans aioBA cluster encoding the two subunits of arsenite oxidase is distinct from the other clusters, with two specific genes encoding a cytochrome c and a metalloregulator belonging to the ArsR/SmtB family. These genes are cotranscribed with aioBA, suggesting that these cytochromes c are involved in arsenite oxidation and that this operon is controlled by the metalloregulator. The growth of T. arsenitoxydans in the presence of thiosulfate and arsenite, or arsenate, is biphasic. Real-time PCR experiments showed that the operon is transcribed during the second growth phase in the presence of arsenite or arsenate, whereas antimonite had no effect. These results suggest that the expression of the aioBA operon of T. arsenitoxydans is regulated by the electron donor present in the medium, i.e., is induced in the presence of arsenic but is repressed by more energetic substrates. Our data indicate that the genetic organization and regulation of the aioBA operon of T. arsenitoxydans differ from those of the other arsenite oxidizers.

  18. Functional Conservation of the Capacity for ent-Kaurene Biosynthesis and an Associated Operon in Certain Rhizobia

    PubMed Central

    Hershey, David M.; Lu, Xuan; Zi, Jiachen

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial interactions with plants are accompanied by complex signal exchange processes. Previously, the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic (rhizo)bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum was found to carry adjacent genes encoding two sequentially acting diterpene cyclases that together transform geranylgeranyl diphosphate to ent-kaurene, the olefin precursor to the gibberellin plant hormones. Species from the three other major genera of rhizobia were found to have homologous terpene synthase genes. Cloning and functional characterization of a representative set of these enzymes confirmed the capacity of each genus to produce ent-kaurene. Moreover, comparison of their genomic context revealed that these diterpene synthases are found in a conserved operon which includes an adjacent isoprenyl diphosphate synthase, shown here to produce the geranylgeranyl diphosphate precursor, providing a critical link to central metabolism. In addition, the rest of the operon consists of enzymatic genes that presumably lead to a more elaborated diterpenoid, although the production of gibberellins was not observed. Nevertheless, it has previously been shown that the operon is selectively expressed during nodulation, and the scattered distribution of the operon via independent horizontal gene transfer within the symbiotic plasmid or genomic island shown here suggests that such diterpenoid production may modulate the interaction of these particular symbionts with their host plants. PMID:24142247

  19. Mutations in the L-arabinose operon of Escherichia coli B/r with reduced initiator function.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, I L; Sheppard, D E

    1977-05-01

    Partial reversion mutants derived from a strain containing a strongly polar initiator-defective mutation (araI1036) in the L-arabinose operon were found to have several characteristics expected of mutants with reduced initiator function. These reversion mutations are cotransduced with the ara region and are probably within the araI region. Furthermore, they permit induction of the L-arabinose operon to a level only one-third of the normal wild-type level. These partially functional initiator regions reduce the expression of structural genes in the cis position only; they function quite independently of wild-type or defective initiator regions in the trans position. These mutants exhibit a two- to threefold increase in the rate of expression of ara operon genes within one-tenth of a generation after a shift of the growth temperature from 28 to 42 degrees C. This suggests that the temperature optimum for initiation of operon expression is higher for the partial revertant strains than it is for strains containing a wild-type initiator region.

  20. Horizontal transfer of iturin A operon, itu, to Bacillus subtilis 168 and conversion into an iturin A producer.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Kenji; Inoue, Satoka; Ano, Takashi; Itaya, Mitsuhiro; Shoda, Makoto

    2005-11-01

    Iturin A and its derivatives are lipopeptide antibiotics produced by Bacillus subtilis and several closely related bacteria. Three iturin group operons (i.e., iturin A, mycosubtilin, and bacillomycin D) of those antibiotic-producing strains have been cloned and sequenced thus far, strongly implying the horizontal transfer of these operons. To examine the nature of such horizontal transfer in terms of antibiotic production, a 42-kb region of the B. subtilis RB14 genome, which contains a complete 38-kb iturin A operon, was transferred via competent cell transformation to the genome of a non-iturin A producer, B. subtilis 168, using a method based on double-crossover homologous recombination with two short landing pad sequences (LPSs) in the genome. The recombinant was positively selected by confirming the elimination of the cI repressor gene, which was localized between the two LPSs and substituted by the transferred segment. The iturin A operon-transferred strain 168 was then converted into an iturin A producer by the introduction of an sfp gene, which encodes 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase and is mutated in strain 168. By inserting the pleiotropic regulator degQ, the productivity of iturin A increased sevenfold and was restored to about half that of the donor strain RB14, without the transfer of additional genes, such as regulatory or self-resistance genes.

  1. QapR (PA5506) Represses an Operon That Negatively Affects the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Tipton, Kyle A.; Coleman, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that can cause disease in varied sites within the human body and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in those afflicted with cystic fibrosis. P. aeruginosa is able to coordinate group behaviors, such as virulence factor production, through the process of cell-to-cell signaling. There are three intercellular signaling systems employed by P. aeruginosa, and one of these systems utilizes the small molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS]). PQS is required for virulence in multiple infection models and has been found in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients colonized by P. aeruginosa. In this study, we have identified an RpiR family transcriptional regulator, QapR, which is an autoregulatory repressor. We found that mutation of qapR caused overexpression of the qapR operon. We characterized the qapR operon to show that it contains genes qapR, PA5507, PA5508, and PA5509 and that QapR directly controls the transcription of these genes in a negative manner. We also show that derepression of this operon greatly reduces PQS concentration in P. aeruginosa. Our results suggest that qapR affects PQS concentration by repressing an enzymatic pathway that acts on PQS or a PQS precursor to lower the PQS concentration. We believe that this operon comprises a novel mechanism to regulate PQS concentration in P. aeruginosa. PMID:23708133

  2. Transformation and characterization of an arsenic gene operon from urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, M; Kuribayashi, T; Yamamoto, S; Millar, B C; Moore, J E

    2016-01-01

    An arsenate susceptibility test was performed with transformed and cultured Escherichia coli DH5α cells, which carried recombinant DNA of full-length arsenic (ars) operon, namely a putative membrane permease, ArsP; a transcriptional repressor, ArsR; an arsenate reductase, ArsC; and an arsenical-resistance membrane transporter, Acr3, from the Japanese urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter lari (UPTC) CF89-12. The E. coli DH5α transformant showed reduced susceptibility to arsenate (~1536 μg/mL), compared to the control. Thus, these ars four-genes from the UPTC CF89-12 strain cells could confer a reduced susceptibility to arsenate in the transformed and E. coli DH5α cells. E. coli transformants with truncated ars operons, acr3 (acr3) and arsC-acr3 (∆arsC-acr3), of the ars operon, showed an MIC value of 384 μg/mL (~384 μg/mL), similar to the E. coli cells which carried the pGEM-T vector (control). Reverse transcription PCR confirmed in vivo transcription of recombinant full-length ars operon and deletion variants (∆acr3 and ∆arsC-acr3) in the transformed E. coli cells.

  3. Influence of the feedback loops in the trp operon of B. subtilis on the system dynamic response and noise amplitude.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Chimal, Criseida; Santillán, Moisés; Rodríguez-González, Jesús

    2012-10-07

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model for the tryptophan operon regulatory pathway in Bacillus subtilis. This model considers the transcription-attenuation, and the enzyme-inhibition regulatory mechanisms. Special attention is paid to the estimation of all the model parameters from reported experimental data. With the aid of this model we investigate, from a mathematical-modeling point of view, whether the existing multiplicity of regulatory feedback loops is advantageous in some sense, regarding the dynamic response and the biochemical noise in the system. The tryptophan operon dynamic behavior is studied by means of deterministic numeric simulations, while the biochemical noise is analyzed with the aid of stochastic simulations. The model feasibility is tested comparing its stochastic and deterministic results with experimental reports. Our results for the wildtype and for a couple of mutant bacterial strains suggest that the enzyme-inhibition feedback loop, dynamically accelerates the operon response, and plays a major role in the reduction of biochemical noise. Also, the transcription-attenuation feedback loop makes the trp operon sensitive to changes in the endogenous tryptophan level, and increases the amplitude of the biochemical noise.

  4. [Activation of the expression of the microcin C51 operon upon glucose starvation of cells at the exponential growth phase].

    PubMed

    Veselovskiĭ, A M; Metlitskaia, A Z; Lipasova, V A; Bass, I A; Khmel', I A

    2005-01-01

    It was earlier shown that expression of the microcin C51 operon in Escherichia coli cells is activated upon decelerated growth of cells during their transition to the stationary growth phase and depends on the sigmaS subunit of RNA polymerase. Using a single-copy construct containing the cloned promoter region of the microcin C51 operon and a promoterless lac operon (P(mcc)-lac), it was shown that the promoter of the microcin operon was also induced by stress caused by the transition of cells at the exponential growth phase into the medium without glucose as a sole carbon source. Activation of P(mcc)-lac expression upon severe glucose starvation occurred in rpoS+ and rpoS- strains. In cells carrying the rpoD800 mutation that renders the sigma70 subunit of RNA polymerase temperature-sensitive, an activation of P(mcc)-lac expression was observed at nonpermissive temperature, in contrast to its complete inhibition in E. coli cells at the phase of delayed growth. Other stressors-nitrogen starvation, high temperatures, osmotic shock, tetracycline and chloramphenicol-did not activate P(mcc)-lac expression in cells at the exponential growth phase.

  5. Transcriptional control in the L-arabinose operon of Escherichia coli B-r.

    PubMed

    Cleary, P P; Englesberg, E

    1974-04-01

    The structural genes involved in l-arabinose metabolism are regulated by the protein product of the araC gene. This protein functions as both an activator and repressor of enzyme synthesis in this gene complex. Using lambdah80dara deoxyribonucleic acid in hybridization studies, we have shown that the ara operon, including structural genes araB, araA, and araD, is transcribed in the direction araB to araD and that initiation of transcription of these genes requires an active araC gene. The half-life of this message, approximately 3 min at 30 C, is the same in the presence or absence of the araC protein in the activator state. However, an unexplained 2-min lag in decay of ara messenger ribonucleic acid that does not occur in decay of lac messenger ribonucleic acid is observed. This lag period requires activated araC protein.

  6. Induction of the ara operon of Escherichia coli B-r.

    PubMed

    Doyle, M E; Brown, C; Hogg, R W; Helling, R B

    1972-04-01

    The inducer specificity and kinetics of induction of the ara operon were examined in Escherichia coli B/r. A difference in the kinetics of induction was found between our B/r strains and the K-12 strain previously described by Schleif. The roles of active transport and metabolism of inducer, and of cell density, in induction were studied. d-Fucose and beta-methyl-l-arabinoside were competitive inhibitors of induction. No inducer of the wild-type strain other than l-arabinose was found. However, a procedure for selecting mutants with altered inducer affinity or specificity was developed. The properties of one such mutant (inducible by d-fucose) are described.

  7. Fine-structure deletion map of the Escherichia coli L-arabinose operon.

    PubMed

    Schleif, R

    1972-11-01

    A fine-structure deletion map of the L-arabinose operon of E. coli was constructed by mapping deletion endpoints against point mutations. Of 350 independent deletions with average endpoint separation of ten nucleotides, 51 ended in the control region between the C and B genes, and the rest ended in the structural genes A, B, C, and D. If deletion endpoints are randomly distributed, the C and B genes are separated by about 510 nucleotides. Deletion endpoints and locations of point mutations in fact do appear randomly interspersed in the C and B genes, but no point mutations were found in the control region between them. Deletions were isolated with the aid of a heat-inducible lambda phage inserted into leucine genes adjacent to the arabinose genes. A high-capacity mating technique was developed for rapidly generating fine structure maps from many deletions and point mutations.

  8. Induction kinetics of the L-arabinose operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schleif, R; Hess, W; Finkelstein, S; Ellis, D

    1973-07-01

    After addition of l-arabinose to growing Escherichia coli, the l-ribulokinase (EC 2.7.1.16) and l-arabinose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.4) first appear at about 0.7 and 1.4 min, respectively. These times are consistent with the distances of the genes from the ribonucleic acid polymerase initiation site in the operon. The kinetics of appearance of these enzymes as well as those of beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) in the same strain are consistent with a peptide elongation rate of no less than 14 amino acids per second. A measurement of the average peptide elongation rate made by measuring the kinetics of radioactive amino acid appearance in completed polypeptides yielded a rate of about 12 amino acids per s. Convenient assays of the arabinose isomerase and ribulokinase are also given.

  9. Orf5/SolR: a transcriptional repressor of the sol operon of Clostridium acetobutylicum?

    PubMed

    Thormann, K; Dürre, P

    2001-11-01

    The gene of Orf5 (SolR) of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 was subcloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was purified with Ni-NTA agarose and used for DNA binding assays. No DNA binding of Orf5 to regions upstream of the sol operon from C. acetobutylicum was observed. Overexpression of Orf5 in C. acetobutylicum led to a change in the organism's pattern of glycosylated exoproteins. The Orf5 protein was localized in the cell membrane fraction and to a small extent in the supernatant medium. Based on these results Orf5 (SolR) appears not to act as a transcriptional repressor in C. acetobutylicum, but instead may be an enzyme involved in glycosylation or deglycosylation.

  10. Analysis of the alcABC operon encoding alcaligin biosynthesis enzymes in Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed

    Giardina, P C; Foster, L A; Toth, S I; Roe, B A; Dyer, D W

    1997-07-18

    We previously cloned a B. bronchiseptica (Bb) genomic DNA fragment that complements a Bb alcaligin biosynthesis mutant, and reported the identification of a gene, alcA, with predicted protein sequence similarity to siderophore biosynthesis enzymes from other organisms. In the present study we show that further nt sequencing of this region revealed two open reading frames (ORFs) 3' to alcA that encode putative proteins AlcB and AlcC, with significant sequence similarity to the aerobactin biosynthesis enzymes IucB and IucC, respectively. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the three ORFs are encoded on a single transcript, and that this operon is repressed at the transcriptional level by Fe. Primer extension analysis placed the transcriptional start point (tsp) 35 nt from the 5' end of the Fur consensus sequence and 188 nt from the putative start of translation of AlcA.

  11. Sequence of the luxD gene encoding acyltransferase of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Chao, Y F; Weng, S F; Lin, J W

    1993-04-15

    The nucleotide sequence of luxD (EMBL accession No. X65611), encoding acyltransferase (ACT), of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 was determined, and the amino acid (aa) sequence was deduced. ACT is a component of the fatty acid reductase complex, which is responsible for converting fatty acid to aldehyde that serves as the substrate in the luciferase-catalyzed bioluminescent reactions. The protein has a calculated M(r) of 34,384 and comprises 305 aa residues. Alignment and comparison of the ACT of P. leiognathi with that of Vibrio fischeri ATCC7744, V. harveyi B392 and Xenorhabdus luminescens Hm shows that there is 66%, 59% and 61% aa identity, respectively.

  12. The fas operon of Rhodococcus fascians encodes new genes required for efficient fasciation of host plants.

    PubMed

    Crespi, M; Vereecke, D; Temmerman, W; Van Montagu, M; Desomer, J

    1994-05-01

    Three virulence loci (fas, att, and hyp) of Rhodococcus fascians D188 have been identified on a 200-kb conjugative linear plasmid (pFiD188). The fas locus was delimited to a 6.5-kb DNA fragment by insertion mutagenesis, single homologous disruptive recombination, and in trans complementation of different avirulent insertion mutants. The locus is arranged as a large operon containing six open reading frames whose expression is specifically induced during the interaction with host plants. One predicted protein is homologous to P-450 cytochromes from actinomycetes. The putative ferredoxin component is of a novel type containing additional domains homologous to transketolases from chemoautotrophic, photosynthetic, and methylotrophic microorganisms. Genetic analysis revealed that fas encodes, in addition to the previously identified ipt, at least two new genes that are involved in fasciation development, one of which is only required on older tobacco plants.

  13. Modelling gene expression control using P systems: The Lac Operon, a case study.

    PubMed

    Romero-Campero, Francisco José; Pérez-Jiménez, Mario J

    2008-03-01

    In this paper P systems are used as a formal framework for the specification and simulation of biological systems. In particular, we will deal with gene regulation systems consisting of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions that take place in different compartments of the hierarchical structure of the living cell or in different individual cells from a colony. We will explicitly model transcription and translation as concurrent and discrete processes using rewriting rules on multisets of objects and strings. Our approach takes into account the discrete character of the components of the system, its random behaviour and the key role played by membranes in processes involving signalling at the cell surface and selective uptake of substances from the environment. Our systems will evolve according to an extension of Gillespie's algorithm, called Multicompartmental Gillespie's Algorithm. The well known gene regulation system in the Lac Operon in Escherichia coli will be modelled as a case study to benchmark our approach.

  14. Programmed translational frameshift in the bacteriophage P2 FETUD tail gene operon.

    PubMed

    Christie, Gail E; Temple, Louise M; Bartlett, Becky A; Goodwin, Tina S

    2002-12-01

    The major structural components of the P2 contractile tail are encoded in the FETUD tail gene operon. The sequences of genes F(I) and F(II), encoding the major tail sheath and tail tube proteins, have been reported previously (L. M. Temple, S. L. Forsburg, R. Calendar, and G. E. Christie, Virology 181:353-358, 1991). Sequence analysis of the remainder of this operon and the locations of amber mutations Eam30, Tam5, Tam64, Tam215, Uam25, Uam77, Uam92, and Dam6 and missense mutation Ets55 identified the coding regions for genes E, T, U, and D, completing the sequence determination of the P2 genome. Inspection of the DNA sequence revealed a new open reading frame overlapping the end of the essential tail gene E. Lack of an apparent translation initiation site and identification of a putative sequence for a programmed translational frameshift within the E gene suggested that this new reading frame (E') might be translated as an extension of gene E, following a -1 translational frameshift. Complementation analysis demonstrated that E' was essential for P2 lytic growth. Analysis of fusion polypeptides verified that this reading frame was translated as a -1 frameshift extension of gpE, with a frequency of approximately 10%. The arrangement of these two genes within the tail gene cluster of phage P2 and their coupling via a translational frameshift appears to be conserved among P2-related phages. This arrangement shows a striking parallel to the organization in the tail gene cluster of phage lambda, despite a lack of amino acid sequence similarity between the tail gene products of these phage families.

  15. The presence of the glycolysis operon in SAR11 genomes is positively correlated with ocean productivity.

    PubMed

    Schwalbach, M S; Tripp, H J; Steindler, L; Smith, D P; Giovannoni, S J

    2010-02-01

    Bacteria in the SAR11 clade are highly abundant in marine surface waters, but currently little is known about the carbon compounds that support these large heterotrophic populations. To better understand the carbon requirements of these organisms, we conducted a multiphasic exploration of carbohydrate utilization among SAR11 isolates from the Northeast Pacific Ocean and the Sargasso Sea. A comparison of three SAR11 genomes showed they all lacked a recognizable PTS system, the oxidative portion of the pentose phosphate shunt (zwf-, pgl-), genes for the Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas (pfk-, pyk-) and Entner-Doudoroff (eda-) pathways of glycolysis. Strain HTCC7211, isolated from an ocean gyre, was missing other glycolysis genes as well. Growth assays, radioisotopes, metagenomics and microarrays were used to test the hypothesis that these isolates might be limited in their abilities to transport and oxidize exogenous carbohydrates. Galactose, fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, ribose and mannose could not serve as carbon sources for the isolates tested. However, differences in glucose utilization were detected between coastal and ocean gyre isolates, with the coastal isolates capable of transporting, incorporating and oxidizing glucose while the open ocean isolate could not. Subsequent microarray analysis of a coastal isolate suggested that an operon encoding a variant of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway is likely responsible for the observed differences in glucose utilization. Metagenomic analysis indicated this operon is more commonly found in coastal environments and is positively correlated with chlorophyll a concentrations. Our results indicated that glycolysis is a variable metabolic property of SAR11 metabolism and suggest that glycolytic SAR11 are more common in productive marine environments.

  16. A mutant crp allele that differentially activates the operons of the fuc regulon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Lin, E C

    1988-05-01

    L-Fucose is used by Escherichia coli through an inducible pathway mediated by a fucP-encoded permease, a fucI-encoded isomerase, a fucK-encoded kinase, and a fucA-encoded aldolase. The adolase catalyzes the formation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and L-lactaldehyde. Anaerobically, lactaldehyde is converted by a fucO-encoded oxidoreductase to L-1,2-propanediol, which is excreted. The fuc genes belong to a regulon comprising four linked operons: fucO, fucA, fucPIK, and fucR. The positive regulator encoded by fucR responds to fuculose 1-phosphate as the effector. Mutants serially selected for aerobic growth on propanediol became constitutive in fucO and fucA [fucO(Con) fucA(Con)], but noninducible in fucPIK [fucPIK(Non)]. An external suppressor mutation that restored growth on fucose caused constitutive expression of fucPIK. Results from this study indicate that this suppressor mutation occurred in crp, which encodes the cyclic AMP-binding (or receptor) protein. When the suppressor allele (crp-201) was transduced into wild-type strains, the recipient became fucose negative and fucose sensitive (with glycerol as the carbon and energy source) because of impaired expression of fucA. The fucPIK operon became hyperinducible. The growth rate on maltose was significantly reduced, but growth on L-rhamnose, D-galactose, L-arabinose, glycerol, or glycerol 3-phosphate was close to normal. Lysogenization of fuc+ crp-201 cells by a lambda bacteriophage bearing crp+ restored normal growth ability on fucose. In contrast, lysogenization of [fucO(Con)fucA(Con)fucPIK(Non)crp-201] cells by the same phage retarded their growth on fucose.

  17. HIV-1 Tat regulates the expression of the dcw operon and stimulates the proliferation of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jinsong; Zhang, Yumin; Knapp, Pamela E; Zhao, Tianyong

    2016-01-01

    Infections of pathogenic bacteria are very common in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. However, the biological effects of HIV-1 Tat on bacteria are incompletely understood. In this study, HIV-1 Tat was expressed in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01) to investigate its biological effects on bacteria. Bacterial cells expressing either HIV-1 Tat1-86 (Tat1-86) or HIV-1 Tat1-72 (Tat1-72) grow significantly faster than those with either only an empty vector or an unrelated control (GFP or Rluc). Supplementation of purified HIV-1 Tat1-86 or Tat1-101 protein into bacterial culture medium stimulated the growth of both E. coli and PA01. The expression profile of certain cell division-associated genes, such as those in the division cell wall (dcw) operon (ftsA, ftsQ, ftsW and ftsZ), yafO and zipA, was altered in HIV-1 Tat1-86 expressing E. coli BL21(DE3). Furthermore, the expression of firefly luciferase (Fluc) reporter gene, when engineered for control by the dcw promoter and terminator, was enhanced by HIV-1 Tat in E. coli, confirming that HIV-1 Tat transcriptionally regulates the expression of the dcw operon. The finding that HIV-1 Tat stimulates bacterial growth whether it is produced intracellularly or applied extracellularly may have relevance for HIV patients who are highly susceptible to opportunistic bacterial infections. Contents category: Viruses -Retroviruses. The GenBank accession number for the sequence of HIV-1 Tat1-86 is AF324439.1.

  18. Role of Operon aaoSo-mutT in Antioxidant Defense in Streptococcus oligofermentans

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peng; Liu, Lei; Tong, Huichun; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we have found that an insertional inactivation of aaoSo, a gene encoding L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), causes marked repression of the growth of Streptococcus oligofermentans. Here, we found that aaoSo and mutT, a homolog of pyrophosphohydrolase gene of Escherichia coli, constituted an operon. Deletion of either gene did not impair the growth of S. oligofermentans, but double deletion of both aaoSo and mutT was lethal. Quantitative PCR showed that the transcript abundance of mutT was reduced for 13-fold in the aaoSo insertional mutant, indicating that gene polarity derived from the inactivation of aaoSo attenuated the expression of mutT. Enzymatic assays were conducted to determine the biochemical functions of LAAO and MutT of S. oligofermentans. The results indicated that LAAO functioned as an aminoacetone oxidase [47.75 nmol H2O2 (min·mg protein)–1]; and MutT showed the pyrophosphohydrolase activity, which removed mutagens such as 8-oxo-dGTP. Like paraquat, aaoSo mutations increased the expression of SOD, and addition of aminoacetone (final concentration, 5 mM) decreased the mutant’s growth by 11%, indicating that the aaoSo mutants are under ROS stress. HPLC did reveal elevated levels of cytoplasmic aminoacetone in both the deletion and insertional gene mutants of aaoSo. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy showed increased hydroxyl radicals in both types of aaoSo mutant. This demonstrated that inactivation of aaoSo caused the elevation of the prooxidant aminoacetone, resulting the cellular ROS stress. Our study indicates that the presence of both LAAO and MutT can prevent endogenous metabolites-generated ROS and mutagens. In this way, we were able to determine the role of the aaoSo-mutT operon in antioxidant defense in S. oligofermentans. PMID:22666463

  19. Staphylococcus aureus ArcR controls expression of the arginine deiminase operon.

    PubMed

    Makhlin, Julia; Kofman, Tzili; Borovok, Ilya; Kohler, Christian; Engelmann, Susanne; Cohen, Gerald; Aharonowitz, Yair

    2007-08-01

    We identified a single open reading frame that is strongly similar to ArcR, a member of the Crp/Fnr family of bacterial transcriptional regulators, in all sequenced Staphylococcus aureus genomes. The arcR gene encoding ArcR forms an operon with the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway genes arcABDC that enable the utilization of arginine as a source of energy for growth under anaerobic conditions. In this report, we show that under anaerobic conditions, S. aureus growth is subject to glucose catabolic repression and is enhanced by arginine. Likewise, glucose and arginine have reciprocal effects on the transcription of the arcABDCR genes. Furthermore, we show using a mutant deleted for arcR that the transcription of the arc operon under anaerobic conditions depends strictly on a functional ArcR. These findings are supported by proteome analyses, which showed that under anaerobic conditions the expression of the ADI catabolic proteins depends on ArcR. Bioinformatic analysis of S. aureus ArcR predicts an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain and a C-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif. ArcR binds to a conserved Crp-like sequence motif, TGTGA-N(6)-TCACA, present in the arc promoter region and thereby activates the expression of the ADI pathway genes. Crp-like sequence motifs were also found in the regulatory regions of some 30 other S. aureus genes mostly encoding anaerobic enzymatic systems, virulence factors, and regulatory systems. ArcR was tested and found to bind to the regulatory regions of four such genes, adh1, lctE, srrAB, and lukM. In one case, for lctE, encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase, ArcR was able to bind only in the presence of cyclic AMP. These observations suggest that ArcR is likely to play an important role in the expression of numerous genes required for anaerobic growth.

  20. Genetic analysis of transcriptional activation and repression in the Tn21 mer operon. [Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.; Park, S.J.; Summers, A.O. )

    1989-07-01

    Transcription of the Tn21 mercury resistance operon (mer) is controlled by the toxic metal cation Hg(II). This control is mediated by the product of the merR gene, a 144-amino-acid protein which represses transcription of the structural genes (merTPCAD) in the absence of Hg(II) and activates transcription in the presence of Hg(II). We have used a mer-lac transcriptional fusion to obtain regulatory mutants in this metal-responsive system. Some mutants were defective in Hg(II)-induced activation while retaining repression function, others were defective in repression but not activation, and some had lost both functions. Mutations in three of the four cysteine residues of merR resulted in complete loss of Hg(II)-inducible activation but retention of the repressor function. Other lesions adjacent to or very near these cysteines exhibited severely reduced activation and also retained repressor function. There were two putative helix-turn-helix (HTH) domains in merR, and mutants in each had very different phenotypes. A partially dominant mutation in the more amino-terminal region of the two putative HTH regions resulted in loss of both activation and repression, consistent with a role for this region in DNA binding. Mutations in the more centrally located HTH region resulted only in loss of Hg(II)-induced activation. Lesions in the central and in the carboxy-terminal regions of merR exhibited both Hg(II)-independent and Hg(II)-dependent transcriptional activation. The sole cis-acting mutant obtained with this operon fusion strategy, a down-promoter mutation, lies in a highly conserved base in the -35 region of the merTPCAD promoter.

  1. The use of amino sugars by Bacillus subtilis: presence of a unique operon for the catabolism of glucosamine.

    PubMed

    Gaugué, Isabelle; Oberto, Jacques; Putzer, Harald; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    B. subtilis grows more rapidly using the amino sugar glucosamine as carbon source, than with N-acetylglucosamine. Genes for the transport and metabolism of N-acetylglucosamine (nagP and nagAB) are found in all the sequenced Bacilli (except Anoxybacillus flavithermus). In B. subtilis there is an additional operon (gamAP) encoding second copies of genes for the transport and catabolism of glucosamine. We have developed a method to make multiple deletion mutations in B. subtilis employing an excisable spectinomycin resistance cassette. Using this method we have analysed the contribution of the different genes of the nag and gam operons for their role in utilization of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Faster growth on glucosamine is due to the presence of the gamAP operon, which is strongly induced by glucosamine. Although the gamA and nagB genes encode isozymes of GlcN6P deaminase, catabolism of N-acetylglucosamine relies mostly upon the gamA gene product. The genes for use of N-acetylglucosamine, nagAB and nagP, are repressed by YvoA (NagR), a GntR family regulator, whose gene is part of the nagAB yvoA(nagR) operon. The gamAP operon is repressed by YbgA, another GntR family repressor, whose gene is expressed divergently from gamAP. The nagAB yvoA synton is found throughout the Bacilli and most firmicutes. On the other hand the ybgA-gamAP synton, which includes the ybgB gene for a small protein of unknown provenance, is only found in B. subtilis (and a few very close relatives). The origin of ybgBA-gamAP grouping is unknown but synteny analysis suggests lateral transfer from an unidentified donor. The presence of gamAP has enabled B. subtilis to efficiently use glucosamine as carbon source.

  2. RepA and RepB exert plasmid incompatibility repressing the transcription of the repABC operon.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Oseguera, Angeles; Cevallos, Miguel A

    2013-11-01

    Rhizobium etli CFN42 has a multipartite genome composed of one chromosome and six large plasmids with low copy numbers, all belonging to the repABC plasmid family. All elements essential for replication and segregation of these plasmids are encoded within the repABC operon. RepA and RepB direct plasmid segregation and are involved in the transcriptional regulation of the operon, and RepC is the initiator protein of the plasmid. Here we show that in addition to RepA (repressor) and RepB (corepressor), full transcriptional repression of the operon located in the symbiotic plasmid (pRetCFN42d) of this strain requires parS, the centromere-like sequence, and the operator sequence. However, the co-expression of RepA and RepB is sufficient to induce the displacement of the parental plasmid. RepA is a Walker-type ATPase that self associates in vivo and in vitro and binds specifically to the operator region in its RepA-ADP form. In contrast, RepA-ATP is capable of binding to non-specific DNA. RepA and RepB form high molecular weight DNA-protein complexes in the presence of ATP and ADP. RepA carrying ATP-pocket motif mutations induce full repression of the repABC operon without the participation of RepB and parS. These mutants specifically bind the operator sequence in their ATP or ADP bound forms. In addition, their expression in trans exerts plasmid incompatibility against the parental plasmid. RepA and RepB expressed in trans induce plasmid incompatibility because of their ability to repress the repABC operon and not only by their capacity to distort the plasmid segregation process.

  3. Comparative analysis of the mechanisms of sulfur anion oxidation and reduction by dsr operon to maintain environmental sulfur balance.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Semanti; Bagchi, Angshuman

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur metabolism is one of the oldest known redox geochemical cycles in our atmosphere. These redox processes utilize different sulfur anions and the reactions are performed by the gene products of dsr operon from phylogenetically diverse sets of microorganisms. The operon is involved in the maintenance of environmental sulfur balance. Interestingly, the dsr operon is found to be present in both sulfur anion oxidizing and reducing microorganisms and in both types of organisms DsrAB protein complex plays a vital role. Though there are various reports regarding the genetics of dsr operon there are practically no reports dealing with the structural aspects of sulfur metabolism by dsr operon. In our present study, we tried to compare the mechanisms of sulfur anion oxidation and reduction by Allochromatium vinosum and Desulfovibrio vulgaris respectively through DsrAB protein complex. We analyzed the modes of bindings of sulfur anions to the DsrAB protein complex and observed that for sulfur anion oxidizers, sulfide and thiosulfate are the best substrates whereas for reducers sulfate and sulfite have the best binding abilities. We analyzed the binding interaction pattern of the DsrA and DsrB proteins while forming the DsrAB protein complexes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Allochromatium vinosum. To our knowledge this is the first report that analyzes the differences in binding patterns of sulfur substrates with DsrAB protein from these two microorganisms. This study would therefore be essential to predict the biochemical mechanism of sulfur anion oxidation and reduction by these two microorganisms i.e., Desulfovibrio vulgaris (sulfur anion reducer) and Allochromatium vinosum (sulfur anion oxidizer). Our observations also highlight the mechanism of sulfur geochemical cycle which has important implications in future study of sulfur metabolism as it has a huge application in waste remediation and production of industrial bio-products viz. vitamins, bio-polyesters and bio-hydrogen.

  4. Plasmid-Encoded asp Operon Confers a Proton Motive Metabolic Cycle Catalyzed by an Aspartate-Alanine Exchange Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Keietsu; Ohnishi, Fumito; Yagi, Kyoko; Nakajima, Tasuku; Higuchi, Takeshi; Sano, Motoaki; Machida, Masayuki; Sarker, Rafiquel I.; Maloney, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    Tetragenococcus halophila D10 catalyzes the decarboxylation of l-aspartate with nearly stoichiometric release of l-alanine and CO2. This trait is encoded on a 25-kb plasmid, pD1. We found in this plasmid a putative asp operon consisting of two genes, which we designated aspD and aspT, encoding an l-aspartate-β-decarboxylase (AspD) and an aspartate-alanine antiporter (AspT), respectively, and determined the nucleotide sequences. The sequence analysis revealed that the genes of the asp operon in pD1 were in the following order: promoter → aspD → aspT. The deduced amino acid sequence of AspD showed similarity to the sequences of two known l-aspartate-β-decarboxylases from Pseudomonas dacunhae and Alcaligenes faecalis. Hydropathy analyses suggested that the aspT gene product encodes a hydrophobic protein with multiple membrane-spanning regions. The operon was subcloned into the Escherichia coli expression vector pTrc99A, and the two genes were cotranscribed in the resulting plasmid, pTrcAsp. Expression of the asp operon in E. coli coincided with appearance of the capacity to catalyze the decarboxylation of aspartate to alanine. Histidine-tagged AspD (AspDHis) was also expressed in E. coli and purified from cell extracts. The purified AspDHis clearly exhibited activity of l-aspartate-β-decarboxylase. Recombinant AspT was solubilized from E. coli membranes and reconstituted in proteoliposomes. The reconstituted AspT catalyzed self-exchange of aspartate and electrogenic heterologous exchange of aspartate with alanine. Thus, the asp operon confers a proton motive metabolic cycle consisting of the electrogenic aspartate-alanine antiporter and the aspartate decarboxylase, which keeps intracellular levels of alanine, the countersubstrate for aspartate, high. PMID:12003930

  5. Plasmid-encoded asp operon confers a proton motive metabolic cycle catalyzed by an aspartate-alanine exchange reaction.

    PubMed

    Abe, Keietsu; Ohnishi, Fumito; Yagi, Kyoko; Nakajima, Tasuku; Higuchi, Takeshi; Sano, Motoaki; Machida, Masayuki; Sarker, Rafiquel I; Maloney, Peter C

    2002-06-01

    Tetragenococcus halophila D10 catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-aspartate with nearly stoichiometric release of L-alanine and CO(2). This trait is encoded on a 25-kb plasmid, pD1. We found in this plasmid a putative asp operon consisting of two genes, which we designated aspD and aspT, encoding an L-aspartate-beta-decarboxylase (AspD) and an aspartate-alanine antiporter (AspT), respectively, and determined the nucleotide sequences. The sequence analysis revealed that the genes of the asp operon in pD1 were in the following order: promoter --> aspD --> aspT. The deduced amino acid sequence of AspD showed similarity to the sequences of two known L-aspartate-beta-decarboxylases from Pseudomonas dacunhae and Alcaligenes faecalis. Hydropathy analyses suggested that the aspT gene product encodes a hydrophobic protein with multiple membrane-spanning regions. The operon was subcloned into the Escherichia coli expression vector pTrc99A, and the two genes were cotranscribed in the resulting plasmid, pTrcAsp. Expression of the asp operon in E. coli coincided with appearance of the capacity to catalyze the decarboxylation of aspartate to alanine. Histidine-tagged AspD (AspDHis) was also expressed in E. coli and purified from cell extracts. The purified AspDHis clearly exhibited activity of L-aspartate-beta-decarboxylase. Recombinant AspT was solubilized from E. coli membranes and reconstituted in proteoliposomes. The reconstituted AspT catalyzed self-exchange of aspartate and electrogenic heterologous exchange of aspartate with alanine. Thus, the asp operon confers a proton motive metabolic cycle consisting of the electrogenic aspartate-alanine antiporter and the aspartate decarboxylase, which keeps intracellular levels of alanine, the countersubstrate for aspartate, high.

  6. An experimental and theoretical study of the inhibition of Escherichia coli lac operon gene expression by antigene oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Cheng, B; Fournier, R L; Relue, P A; Schisler, J

    2001-08-05

    Previously, we have developed a genetically structured mathematical model to describe the inhibition of Escherichia coli lac operon gene expression by antigene oligos. Our model predicted that antigene oligos targeted to the operator region of the lac operon would have a significant inhibitory effect on beta-galactosidase production. In this investigation, the E. coli lac operon gene expression in the presence of antigene oligos was studied experimentally. A 21-mer oligo, which was designed to form a triplex with the operator, was found to be able to specifically inhibit beta-galactosidase production in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to the 21-mer triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO), several control oligos showed no inhibitory effect. The ineffectiveness of the various control oligos, along with the fact that the 21-mer oligo has no homology sequence with lacZYA, and no mRNA is transcribed from the operator, suggests that the 21-mer oligo inhibits target gene expression by an antigene mechanism. To simulate the kinetics of lac operon gene expression in the presence of antigene oligos, a genetically structured kinetic model, which includes transport of oligo into the cell, growth of bacteria cells, and lac operon gene expression, was developed. Predictions of the kinetic model fit the experimental data quite well after adjustment of the value of the oligonucleotide transport rate constant (9.0 x 10(-)(3) min(-)(1)) and oligo binding affinity constant (1.05 x 10(6) M(-)(1)). Our values for these two adjusted parameters are in the range of reported literature values.

  7. Mercuric ion-resistance operons of plasmid R100 and transposon Tn501: the beginning of the operon including the regulatory region and the first two structural genes.

    PubMed Central

    Misra, T K; Brown, N L; Fritzinger, D C; Pridmore, R D; Barnes, W M; Haberstroh, L; Silver, S

    1984-01-01

    The mercuric ion-resistance operons of plasmid R100 (originally from Shigella) and transposon Tn501 (originally from a plasmid isolated in Pseudomonas) have been compared by DNA sequence analysis. The sequences for the first 1340 base pairs of Tn501 are given with the best alignment with the comparable 1319 base pairs of R100. The homology between the two sequences starts at base 58 after the end of the insertion sequence IS-1 of R100. The sequences include the transcriptional regulatory region, and the homology is particularly strong in regions just upstream from potential transcriptional initiation sites. The trans-acting regulatory gene merR consists of 180 base pairs in both cases and codes for a highly basic polypeptide of 60 amino acids, which is also rich in serine. The Tn501 and R100 merR genes differ in 25 of the 180 base positions, and the resulting polypeptides differ in seven amino acids. The regulatory region before the major transcription initiation site contains potential -35 and -10 sequences and dyad symmetrical sequences, which may be the merR binding sites for transcriptional regulation. The first structural gene, merT, encodes a highly hydrophobic polypeptide of 116 amino acids. The R100 and Tn501 merT genes differ in 17% of their positions, leading to 14 (12%) amino acid changes. This region had previously been shown to encode a protein governing membrane transport of mercuric ions. The second structural gene, merC, would give a 91 amino acid polypeptide with a hydrophobic amino-terminal segment. The Tn501 and R100 merC genes differ at 37 base positions, leading to 10 amino acid changes. PMID:6091128

  8. Targeted deletion of the ara operon of Salmonella typhimurium enhances L-arabinose accumulation and drives PBAD-promoted expression of anti-cancer toxins and imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyun; Lim, Daejin; Kim, Geun-Joong; Park, Seung-Hwan; Sik Kim, Hyeon; Hong, Yeongjin; Choy, Hyon E; Min, Jung-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-specific expression of antitumor drugs can be achieved using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium harboring the PBAD promoter, which is induced by L-arabinose. However, L-arabinose does not accumulate because it is metabolized to D-xylulose-5-P by enzymes encoded by the ara operon in Salmonellae. To address this problem, we developed an engineered strain of S. typhimurium in which the ara operon is deleted. Linear DNA transformation was performed using λ red recombinase to exchange the ara operon with linear DNA carrying an antibiotic-resistance gene with homology to regions adjacent to the ara operon. The ara operon-deleted strain and its parental strain were transformed with a plasmid encoding Renilla luciferase variant 8 (RLuc8) or cytolysin A (clyA) under the control of the PBAD promoter. Luciferase assays demonstrated that RLuc8 expression was 49-fold higher in the ara operon-deleted S. typhimurium than in the parental strain after the addition of L-arabinose. In vivo bioluminescence imaging showed that the tumor tissue targeted by the ara operon-deleted Salmonella had a stronger imaging signal (~30-fold) than that targeted by the parental strain. Mice with murine colon cancer (CT26) that had been injected with the ara operon-deleted S. typhimurium expressing clyA showed significant tumor suppression. The present report demonstrates that deletion of the ara operon of S. typhimurium enhances L-arabinose accumulation and thereby drives PBAD-promoted expression of cytotoxic agents and imaging agents. This is a promising approach for tumor therapy and imaging.

  9. AraC protein, regulation of the l-arabinose operon in Escherichia coli, and the light switch mechanism of AraC action.

    PubMed

    Schleif, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This review covers the physiological aspects of regulation of the arabinose operon in Escherichia coli and the physical and regulatory properties of the operon's controlling gene, araC. It also describes the light switch mechanism as an explanation for many of the protein's properties. Although many thousands of homologs of AraC exist and regulate many diverse operons in response to many different inducers or physiological states, homologs that regulate arabinose-catabolizing genes in response to arabinose were identified. The sequence similarities among them are discussed in light of the known structure of the dimerization and DNA-binding domains of AraC.

  10. Histidine Operon Deattenuation in dnaA Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium Correlates with a Decrease in the Gene Dosage Ratio between tRNAHis and Histidine Biosynthetic Loci

    PubMed Central

    Blanc-Potard, Anne-Beatrice; Figueroa-Bossi, Nara; Bossi, Lionello

    1999-01-01

    Expression of the histidine operon of Salmonella typhimurium is increased in dnaA(Ts) mutants at 37°C. This effect requires an intact his attenuator and can be suppressed by increasing the gene copy number of the hisR locus, which encodes the tRNAHis. We present data which suggest that the his deattenuation defect in dnaA(Ts) mutants results from the loss of a gene dosage gradient between the hisR locus, close to oriC, and the his operon, far from oriC. Some of the conclusions drawn here may apply to other operons as well. PMID:10217789

  11. Natural merodiploidy of the lux-rib operon of Photobacterium leiognathi from coastal waters of Honshu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ast, Jennifer C; Urbanczyk, Henryk; Dunlap, Paul V

    2007-09-01

    Sequence analysis of the bacterial luminescence (lux) genes has proven effective in helping resolve evolutionary relationships among luminous bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis using lux genes, however, is based on the assumptions that the lux genes are present as single copies on the bacterial chromosome and are vertically inherited. We report here that certain strains of Photobacterium leiognathi carry multiple phylogenetically distinct copies of the entire operon that codes for luminescence and riboflavin synthesis genes, luxCDABEG-ribEBHA. Merodiploid lux-rib strains of P. leiognathi were detected during sequence analysis of luxA. To define the gene content, organization, and sequence of each lux-rib operon, we constructed a fosmid library of genomic DNA from a representative merodiploid strain, lnuch.13.1. Sequence analysis of fosmid clones and genomic analysis of lnuch.13.1 defined two complete, physically separate, and apparently functional operons, designated lux-rib1 and lux-rib2. P. leiognathi strains lelon.2.1 and lnuch.21.1 were also found to carry lux-rib1 and lux-rib2, whereas ATCC 25521T apparently carries only lux-rib1. In lnuch.13.1, lelon.2.1, lnuch.21.1, and ATCC 25521T, lux-rib1 is flanked upstream by lumQ and putA and downstream by a gene for a hypothetical multidrug efflux pump. In contrast, transposase genes flank lux-rib2 of lnuch.13.1, and the chromosomal location of lux-rib2 apparently differs in lnuch.13.1, lelon.2.1, and lnuch.21.1. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that lux-rib1 and lux-rib2 are more closely related to each other than either one is to the lux and rib genes of other bacterial species, which rules out interspecies lateral gene transfer as the origin of lux-rib2 in P. leiognathi; lux-rib2 apparently arose within a previously unsampled or extinct P. leiognathi lineage. Analysis of 170 additional strains of P. leiognathi, for a total of 174 strains examined from coastal waters of Japan, Taiwan, the Philippine Islands, and

  12. Natural Merodiploidy of the lux-rib Operon of Photobacterium leiognathi from Coastal Waters of Honshu, Japan▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ast, Jennifer C.; Urbanczyk, Henryk; Dunlap, Paul V.

    2007-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the bacterial luminescence (lux) genes has proven effective in helping resolve evolutionary relationships among luminous bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis using lux genes, however, is based on the assumptions that the lux genes are present as single copies on the bacterial chromosome and are vertically inherited. We report here that certain strains of Photobacterium leiognathi carry multiple phylogenetically distinct copies of the entire operon that codes for luminescence and riboflavin synthesis genes, luxCDABEG-ribEBHA. Merodiploid lux-rib strains of P. leiognathi were detected during sequence analysis of luxA. To define the gene content, organization, and sequence of each lux-rib operon, we constructed a fosmid library of genomic DNA from a representative merodiploid strain, lnuch.13.1. Sequence analysis of fosmid clones and genomic analysis of lnuch.13.1 defined two complete, physically separate, and apparently functional operons, designated lux-rib1 and lux-rib2. P. leiognathi strains lelon.2.1 and lnuch.21.1 were also found to carry lux-rib1 and lux-rib2, whereas ATCC 25521T apparently carries only lux-rib1. In lnuch.13.1, lelon.2.1, lnuch.21.1, and ATCC 25521T, lux-rib1 is flanked upstream by lumQ and putA and downstream by a gene for a hypothetical multidrug efflux pump. In contrast, transposase genes flank lux-rib2 of lnuch.13.1, and the chromosomal location of lux-rib2 apparently differs in lnuch.13.1, lelon.2.1, and lnuch.21.1. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that lux-rib1 and lux-rib2 are more closely related to each other than either one is to the lux and rib genes of other bacterial species, which rules out interspecies lateral gene transfer as the origin of lux-rib2 in P. leiognathi; lux-rib2 apparently arose within a previously unsampled or extinct P. leiognathi lineage. Analysis of 170 additional strains of P. leiognathi, for a total of 174 strains examined from coastal waters of Japan, Taiwan, the Philippine Islands, and

  13. Differential regulation of the leukotoxin operon in highly leukotoxic and minimally leukotoxic strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Hritz, M; Fisher, E; Demuth, D R

    1996-01-01

    The expression of the leukotoxin (ltx) operon varies significantly among Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans strains. The dual promoters driving ltx expression in the highly toxic strain JP2 have been previously characterized (J. M. Brogan, E. T. Lally, K. Poulsen, M. Kilian, and D. R. Demuth, Infect. Immun. 62:501-508, 1994), and genetic analyses of A. actinomycetemcomitans suggest that highly toxic strains like JP2 arose from minimally toxic strains, presumably by deletion of a 530-bp domain within the ltx promoter region (K. Poulsen, E. Theilade, E.T. Lally, D. R. Demuth, and M. Kilian, Microbiology 140:2049-2060, 1994). However, the ltx promoter of minimally toxic A. actinomycetemcomitans strains has not been well characterized. In this study, deletion and primer extension analyses showed that the ltx promoter of A. actinomycetemcomitans 652 is situated approximately 150 bp upstream of the ltxC gene and initiates transcription 138 nucleotides upstream of ltxC. In contrast to strain JP2, only a single promoter appears to drive ltx expression in 652. The 652 promoter resides within the 530-bp region that is absent from the JP2 promoter sequence, suggesting that the specific sequences controlling ltx expression differ in highly toxic and minimally toxic A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. In addition, ltx expression in strain 652 was shown to be induced three- to fourfold when cells were grown under anaerobic conditions. The induction of whole cell leukotoxicity, was accompanied by increases in the levels of Ltx polypeptide and the steady-state levels of ltx mRNA, suggesting that regulation occurred at the level of transcription. In contrast, the levels of leukotoxicity, Ltx polypeptide, and fix mRNA in strain JP2 were unaffected by anaerobic growth. These results suggest that the ltx operon is differentially regulated in highly toxic and minimally toxic A. actinomycetemcomitans strains and that the sequences controlling the oxygen-dependent regulation of ltx

  14. Bistability of the lac operon during growth of Escherichia coli on lactose and lactose+glucose.

    PubMed

    Narang, Atul; Pilyugin, Sergei S

    2008-05-01

    The lac operon of Escherichia coli can exhibit bistability. Early studies showed that bistability occurs during growth on TMG/succinate and lactose+glucose, but not during growth on lactose. More recently, studies with lacGFP-transfected cells show bistability during growth on TMG/succinate, but not during growth on lactose and lactose+glucose. In the literature, these results are invariably attributed to variations in the destabilizing effect of the positive feedback generated by induction. Specifically, during growth on TMG/succinate, lac induction generates strong positive feedback because the permease stimulates the accumulation of intracellular TMG, which in turn, promotes the synthesis of even more permease. This positive feedback is attenuated during growth on lactose because hydrolysis of intracellular lactose by beta-galactosidase suppresses the stimulatory effect of the permease. It is attenuated even more during growth on lactose + glucose because glucose inhibits the uptake of lactose. But it is clear that the stabilizing effect of dilution also changes dramatically as a function of the medium composition. For instance, during growth on TMG/succinate, the dilution rate of lac permease is proportional to its activity, e, because the specific growth rate is independent of e (it is completely determined by the concentration of succinate). However, during growth on lactose, the dilution rate of the permease is proportional to e2 because the specific growth rate is proportional to the specific lactose uptake rate, which in turn, proportional to e. We show that: (a) This dependence on e2 creates such a strong stabilizing effect that bistability is virtually impossible during growth on lactose, even in the face of the intense positive feedback generated by induction. (b) This stabilizing effect is weakened during growth on lactose+glucose because the specific growth rate on glucose is independent of e, so that the dilution rate once again contains a term that

  15. A cis/trans Test of the Effect of the First Enzyme for Histidine Biosynthesis on Regulation of the Histidine Operon

    PubMed Central

    Kovach, John S.; Ballesteros, Antonio O.; Meyers, Marilyn; Soria, Marco; Goldberger, Robert F.

    1973-01-01

    Previous studies showed that when triazolalanine was added to a derepressed culture of a histidine auxotroph, repression of the histidine operon occurred as though histidine had been added (6). However, when triazolalanine was added to a derepressed culture of a strain with a mutation in the first gene of the histidine operon which rendered the first enzyme for histidine biosynthesis resistant to inhibition by histidine, repression did not occur. The studies reported here represent a cis/trans test of this effect of mutations to feedback resistance. Using specially constructed merodiploid strains, we were able to show that the wild-type allele is dominant to the mutant (feedback resistant) allele and that the effect operates in trans. We conclude that the enzyme encoded by the first gene of the histidine operon exerts its regulatory effect on the operon not by acting locally at its site of synthesis, but by acting as a freely diffusible protein. PMID:4572718

  16. Five mutations in the promoter region of the araBAD operon of Escherichia coli B/r.

    PubMed

    Miyada, C G; Sheppard, D E; Wilcox, G

    1983-11-01

    Five mutations that result in reduced expression of the araBAD operon were cloned onto the plasmid pBR322. The position of each mutation was determined by DNA sequence analysis. Three of the mutations were located in the RNA polymerase binding site of the araBAD promoter. The first, ara-1016, was a one-base-pair deletion at position -35; the second, ara-1036, was a transversion at position -13; the third, ara-1027, was a nine-base-pair deletion from +5 to +13. S1 nuclease mapping showed that mutations ara-1016 and ara-1036 greatly reduced transcription and that mutation ara-1027 had little, if any, effect on transcription. Two other mutations resulted from the transposition of the insertion element, IS1, downstream from the transcriptional start site of the operon. Molecular mechanisms for all of the mutations are discussed.

  17. Constructing a recombinant hyaluronic acid biosynthesis operon and producing food-grade hyaluronic acid in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Juzheng; Ling, Peixue; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-02-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural high molecular weight polysaccharide, is produced by Streptococcus zooepidemicus. However, Streptococcus has several drawbacks including its potential to produce exotoxins, so there is demand for an alternative HA source. Here, a recombinant HA biosynthesis operon, as well as the HA biosynthesis operon of S. zooepidemicus were introduced into L. lactis using the nisin-controlled expression system, respectively. HA was successfully synthesized by recombinant L. lactis. Furthermore, overexpression of the endogenous enzymes directing the synthesis of precursor sugars was effective at increasing HA production, and increasing the supply of UDP-activated monosaccharide donors aided synthesis of monodisperse HA polysaccharides. Besides GRAS host strain (L. lactis) and NICE system, the selecting marker (lacF gene) of the recombinant strain is also food grade. Therefore, HA produced by recombinant L. lactis overcomes the problems associated with Streptococcus and provides a source of food-grading HA appropriate for widespread biotechnological applications.

  18. Simple whole-cell biodetection and bioremediation of heavy metals based on an engineered lead-specific operon.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Liu, Xiangzhi; Sun, Peiqing; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Hong; Hong, Mei; Mao, Zong-Wan; Zhao, Jing

    2014-03-18

    A lead-specific binding protein, PbrR, and promoter pbr from the lead resistance operon, pbr, of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 was incorporated into E. coli in conjunction with an engineered downstream RFP (red fluorescence protein), which allowed for highly sensitive and selective whole-cell detection of lead ions. The subsequent display of PbrR on the E. coli cell surface permitted selective adsorption of lead ions from solution containing various heavy metal ions. The surface-engineered E. coli bacteria effectively protected Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination from the toxicity of lead ions at high concentrations. Engineering the E. coli bacteria harboring these lead-specific elements from the pbr operon may potentially be a valuable general strategy for biodetection and bioremediation of toxic heavy metal ions in the environment.

  19. Bistable behavior of the lac operon in E. coli when induced with a mixture of lactose and TMG.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Hernández, Orlando; Santillán, Moisés

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigate multistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli when it is induced by a mixture of lactose and the non-metabolizable thiomethyl galactoside (TMG). In accordance with previously published experimental results and computer simulations, our simulations predict that: (1) when the system is induced by TMG, the system shows a discernible bistable behavior while, (2) when the system is induced by lactose, bistability does not disappear but excessively high concentrations of lactose would be required to observe it. Finally, our simulation results predict that when a mixture of lactose and TMG is used, the bistability region in the extracellular glucose concentration vs. extracellular lactose concentration parameter space changes in such a way that the model predictions regarding bistability could be tested experimentally. These experiments could help to solve a recent controversy regarding the existence of bistability in the lac operon under natural conditions.

  20. Bistable Behavior of the Lac Operon in E. Coli When Induced with a Mixture of Lactose and TMG

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Hernández, Orlando; Santillán, Moisés

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigate multistability in the lac operon of Escherichia coli when it is induced by a mixture of lactose and the non-metabolizable thiomethyl galactoside (TMG). In accordance with previously published experimental results and computer simulations, our simulations predict that: (1) when the system is induced by TMG, the system shows a discernible bistable behavior while, (2) when the system is induced by lactose, bistability does not disappear but excessively high concentrations of lactose would be required to observe it. Finally, our simulation results predict that when a mixture of lactose and TMG is used, the bistability region in the extracellular glucose concentration vs. extracellular lactose concentration parameter space changes in such a way that the model predictions regarding bistability could be tested experimentally. These experiments could help to solve a recent controversy regarding the existence of bistability in the lac operon under natural conditions. PMID:21423364

  1. Regulation of the dnaK operon of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is governed by HspR, an autoregulatory repressor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Bucca, G; Hindle, Z; Smith, C P

    1997-01-01

    The dnaK operon of Streptomyces coelicolor contains four genes (5'-dnaK-grpE-dnaJ-hspR). The fourth gene encodes a novel heat shock protein, HspR, which appears so far to be unique to the high-G+C actinomycete group of bacteria. HspR binds with high specificity to three inverted repeat sequences in the promoter region of the S. coelicolor dnaK operon, strongly suggesting a direct role for HspR in heat shock gene regulation. Here we present genetic and biochemical evidence that HspR is the repressor of the dnaK operon. Disruption of hspR leads to high-level constitutive transcription of the dnaK operon. Parallel transcriptional analyses of groESL1 and groEL2 expression demonstrated that heat shock regulation of the groE genes was essentially unaffected in an hspR null mutant, although the basal (uninduced) level of groEL2 transcription was slightly elevated compared with the wild type. The results of HspR titration experiments, where the dnaK operon promoter region was cloned at ca. 50 copies per chromosome, were consistent with the prediction that HspR functions as a negative autoregulator. His-tagged HspR, overproduced and purified from Escherichia coli, was shown to repress transcription from the dnaK operon promoter in vitro, providing additional evidence for the proposal that HspR directly regulates transcription of the dnaK operon. These studies indicate that there are at least two transcriptional mechanisms for controlling heat shock genes in S. coelicolor--one controlling the dnaK operon and another controlling the groE genes. PMID:9324243

  2. Characterization of PaxA and Its Operon: a Cohemolytic RTX Toxin Determinant from Pathogenic Pasteurella aerogenes

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnert, Peter; Heyberger-Meyer, Bénédicte; Nicolet, Jacques; Frey, Joachim

    2000-01-01

    Pasteurella aerogenes is known as a commensal bacterium or as an opportunistic pathogen, as well as a primary pathogen found to be involved in abortion cases of humans, swine, and other mammals. Using broad-range DNA probes for bacterial RTX toxin genes, we cloned and subsequently sequenced a new operon named paxCABD encoding the RTX toxin PaxA in P. aerogenes. The pax operon is organized analogous to the classical RTX operons containing the activator gene paxC upstream of the structural toxin gene paxA, which is followed by the secretion protein genes paxB and paxD. The highest sequence similarity of paxA with known RTX toxin genes is found with apxIIIA (82%). PaxA is structurally similar to ApxIIIA and also shows functional analogy to ApxIIIA, since it shows cohemolytic activity with the sphingomyelinase of Staphylococcus aureus, known as the CAMP effect, but is devoid of direct hemolytic activity. In addition, it shows to some extent immunological cross-reactions with ApxIIIA. P. aerogenes isolated from various specimens showed that the pax operon was present in about one-third of the strains. All of the pax-positive strains were specifically related to swine abortion cases or septicemia of newborn piglets. These strains were also shown to produce the PaxA toxin as determined by the CAMP phenomenon, whereas none of the pax-negative strains did. This indicated that the PaxA toxin is involved in the pathogenic potential of P. aerogenes. The examined P. aerogenes isolates were phylogenetically analyzed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs) sequencing in order to confirm their species. Only a small heterogeneity (<0.5%) was observed between the rrs genes of the strains originating from geographically distant farms and isolated at different times. PMID:10603361

  3. Deoxyribonucleic acid-ribonucleic acid hybridization studies on the L-Arabinose operon of Escherichia coli B-r.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, G; Singer, J; Heffernan, L

    1971-10-01

    An increase in the rate of synthesis of ara-specific messenger ribonucleic acid as measured by deoxyribonucleic acid-ribonucleic acid hybridization has been detected in the induced wild-type (ara(+)) strain of Escherichia coli B/r as compared with the uninduced control, thus providing evidence that regulation of the positively controlled l-arabinose operon is at the level of transcription.

  4. Role of hha and ler in transcriptional regulation of the esp operon of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vijay K; Zuerner, Richard L

    2004-11-01

    The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which includes five major operons (LEE1 through LEE4 and tir), enables enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 to produce attaching and effacing lesions on host cells. Expression of LEE2, LEE3, and tir is positively regulated by ler, a gene located in LEE1. Transcriptional regulation of the esp operon (LEE4), however, is not well defined. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify transcriptional regulators of the esp operon by screening for mutants with increased beta-galactosidase activity in an EHEC O157:H7 strain harboring an esp::lac transcriptional fusion. All mutants with significant increases in beta-galactosidase activity had transposon insertions in hha (hha::Tn). Specific complementation of the hha::Tn mutation with a plasmid-encoded copy of hha reduced beta-galactosidase activity to the level expressed in the parental esp::lac strain. Purified Hha, however, bound poorly to the esp promoter, suggesting that Hha might repress the transcription of a positive regulator of esp. Transposon mutagenesis of a Deltahha esp::lac strain expressing elevated levels of beta-galactosidase resulted in ler mutants with reduced beta-galactosidase activity. Purified Hha bound to the ler promoter with a higher affinity, and complementation of a Deltahha mutation in a Deltahha ler::lac strain repressed beta-galactosidase activity to the level expressed in a ler::lac strain. A positive regulatory role of ler in esp expression was demonstrated by specific binding of Ler to the esp promoter, reduced expression of beta-galactosidase in Deltaler esp::lac strains with and without hha, and severalfold-increased transcription of ler and espA in strains lacking hha. These results indicate that hha-mediated repression of ler causes reduced expression of the esp operon.

  5. BadR and BadM Proteins Transcriptionally Regulate Two Operons Needed for Anaerobic Benzoate Degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Hidetada; Hirakawa, Yuko; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris grows with the aromatic acid benzoate and the alicyclic acid cyclohexanecarboxylate (CHC) as sole carbon sources. The enzymatic steps in an oxygen-independent pathway for CHC degradation have been elucidated, but it was unknown how the CHC operon (badHI aliAB badK) encoding the enzymes for CHC degradation was regulated. aliA and aliB encode enzymes for the conversion of CHC to cyclohex-1-enecarboxyl–coenzyme A (CHene-CoA). At this point, the pathway for CHC degradation merges with the pathway for anaerobic benzoate degradation, as CHene-CoA is an intermediate in both degradation pathways. Three enzymes, encoded by badK, badH, and badI, prepare and cleave the alicyclic ring of CHene-CoA to yield pimelyl-CoA. Here, we show that the MarR transcription factor family member, BadR, represses transcription of the CHC operon by binding near the transcription start site of badH. 2-Ketocyclohexane-1-carboxyl–CoA, an intermediate of CHC and benzoate degradation, interacts with BadR to abrogate repression. We also present evidence that the transcription factor BadM binds to the promoter of the badDEFGAB (Bad) operon for the anaerobic conversion of benzoate to CHene-CoA to repress its expression. Contrary to previous reports, BadR does not appear to control expression of the Bad operon. These data enhance our view of the transcriptional regulation of anaerobic benzoate degradation by R. palustris. PMID:25888170

  6. A tricistronic heat shock operon is important for stress tolerance of Pseudomonas putida and conserved in many environmental bacteria.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Stefanie S; Joswig, Matthias; Nagel, Miriam; Narberhaus, Franz

    2014-06-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) including the well-studied IbpA protein from Escherichia coli are molecular chaperones that bind to non-native proteins and prevent them from aggregation. We discovered an entirely unexplored tricistronic small heat shock gene cluster in Pseudomonas putida. The genes pp3314, pp3313 and pp3312 (renamed to hspX, hspY and hspZ respectively) are transcribed in a single transcript. In addition to σ(32) -dependent transcriptional control, translation of the first and second gene of the operon is controlled by RNA thermometers with novel architectures. Biochemical analysis of HspY, HspZ and P. putida IbpA demonstrated that they assemble into homo-oligomers of different sizes whose quaternary structures alter in a temperature-dependent manner. IbpA and HspY are able to prevent the model substrate citrate synthase from thermal aggregation in vitro. Increased stress sensitivity of a P. putida strain lacking HspX, HspY and HspZ revealed an important role of these sHsps in stress adaptation. The hspXYZ operon is conserved among metabolically related bacteria that live in hostile environments including polluted soils. This heat shock operon might act as a protective system to promote survival in such ecological niches.

  7. Expression of the Escherichia coli malPQ operon remains unaffected after drastic alteration of its promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Débarbouillé, M; Raibaud, O

    1983-01-01

    The malPQ operon, one of the three operons of the maltose regulon, is positively controlled by the product of gene malT. The starting point for malPQ transcription was deduced from experiments which involved a hybridization of in vivo-synthesized malPQ mRNA with adequate DNA probes, followed either by a digestion of nonhybridized DNA (S1 nuclease mapping) or by an extension of the hybridized probe (reverse transcriptase mapping). In the wild-type strain, this starting point was 37 nucleotides upstream from the initiation codon for malP. This analysis was also performed on a double mutant which contained both a 13-base pair deletion and a 3-base pair insertion in the promoter region. This double mutant expressed the malPQ operon exactly as the wild-type strain did, in a maltose-inducible manner. In this strain, the starting point for malPQ transcription was shifted 11 nucleotides downstream from the wild-type location. An analysis of these results suggests that (i) the binding site for the malT product is located upstream from the region which is severely altered in the double mutant, i.e., upstream from position -31; and (ii) the 30-base pair sequence which precedes the transcription starting point contains very few positions which are essential for promoter activity. Images PMID:6186658

  8. Effects of transcription induction homogeneity and transcript stability on expression of two genes in a constructed operon.

    PubMed

    Smolke, C D; Khlebnikov, A; Keasling, J D

    2001-12-01

    A synthetic operon was constructed using the reporter genes gfp and lacZ and the arabinose-inducible araBAD promoter. DNA cassettes encoding mRNA secondary structures were placed at the 3' and 5' ends of the genes and a putative RNase E site was placed between the genes. These mRNA control elements have been shown to affect transcript processing and decay, resulting in altered protein levels. These constructs were transformed into cells harboring the native arabinose-inducible araE gene encoding the arabinose transport protein and engineered cells harboring a constitutively expressed araE. In the strains with arabinose-dependent transport the linear response in the production of both reporter proteins to inducer concentration occurred over a narrow range of arabinose concentrations. In the strains with constitutive transport the linear range of gene expression occurred over a much larger arabinose concentration range than in strains with the arabinose-inducible transport. Strains with the arabinose-inducible transport harboring different operon constructs produced the two reporter proteins at very different levels at low arabinose concentrations; as inducer concentrations increased, differences in relative expression levels decreased. In contrast, strains with constitutive transport harboring different operon constructs produced the reporter proteins at very different levels across the entire range of inducer concentrations, pointing to the importance of optimizing gene expression control at various levels to control the production of heterologous proteins.

  9. A distinct alleles and genetic recombination of pmrCAB operon in species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2015-07-01

    To investigate pmrCAB sequence divergence in 5 species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex, a total of 80 isolates from a Korean hospital were explored. We evaluated nucleotide and amino acid polymorphisms of pmrCAB operon, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for each gene of prmCAB operon. Colistin and polymyxin B susceptibility was determined for all isolates, and multilocus sequence typing was also performed for A. baumannii isolates. Our results showed that each species of A. baumannii complex has divergent pmrCAB operon sequences. We identified a distinct pmrCAB allele allied with Acinetobacter nosocomialis in gene trees. Different grouping in each gene tree suggests sporadic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes among Acinetobacter species. Sequence polymorphisms among Acinetobacter species might not be associated with colistin resistance. We revealed that a distinct pmrCAB allele may be widespread across the continents such as North America and Asia and that sporadic genetic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes might occur.

  10. Supra-operonic clusters of functionally related genes (SOCs) are a source of horizontal gene co-transfers

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Tin Yau; Lercher, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of bacteria occurs predominantly via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). While it is widely recognized that horizontal acquisitions frequently encompass multiple genes, it is unclear what the size distribution of successfully transferred DNA segments looks like and what evolutionary forces shape this distribution. Here, we identified 1790 gene family pairs that were consistently co-gained on the same branches across a phylogeny of 53 E. coli strains. We estimated a lower limit of their genomic distances at the time they were transferred to their host genomes; this distribution shows a sharp upper bound at 30 kb. The same gene-pairs can have larger distances (up to 70 kb) in other genomes. These more distant pairs likely represent recent acquisitions via transduction that involve the co-transfer of excised prophage genes, as they are almost always associated with intervening phage-associated genes. The observed distribution of genomic distances of co-transferred genes is much broader than expected from a model based on the co-transfer of genes within operons; instead, this distribution is highly consistent with the size distribution of supra-operonic clusters (SOCs), groups of co-occurring and co-functioning genes that extend beyond operons. Thus, we propose that SOCs form a basic unit of horizontal gene transfer. PMID:28067311

  11. Nucleotide sequences and operon structure of plasmid-borne genes mediating uptake and utilization of raffinose in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidis, C; Schmid, K; Schmitt, R

    1989-01-01

    The plasmid-borne raf operon encodes functions required for inducible uptake and utilization of raffinose by Escherichia coli. Raf functions include active transport (Raf permease), alpha-galactosidase, and sucrose hydrolase, which are negatively controlled by the Raf repressor. We have defined the order and extent of the three structural genes, rafA, rafB, and rafD; these are contained in a 5,284-base-pair nucleotide sequence. By comparisons of derived primary structures with known subunit molecular weights and an N-terminal peptide sequence, rafA was assigned to alpha-galactosidase (708 amino acids), rafB was assigned to Raf permease (425 amino acids), and rafD was assigned to sucrose hydrolase (476 amino acids). Transcription was shown to initiate 13 nucleotides upstream of rafA; a putative promoter, a ribosome-binding site, and a transcription termination signal were identified. Striking similarities between Raf permease and lacY-encoded lactose permease, revealed by high sequence conservation (76%), overlapping substrate specificities, and similar transport kinetics, suggest a common origin of these transport systems. alpha-Galactosidase and sucrose hydrolase are not related to host enzymes but have their counterparts in other species. We propose a modular origin of the raf operon and discuss selective forces that favored the given gene organization also found in the E. coli lac operon. Images PMID:2556373

  12. Synthetic operon for (R,R)-2,3-butanediol production in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rafael R; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2016-01-01

    To reduce dependence on petroleum, an alternative route to production of the chemical feedstock 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from renewable lignocellulosic sources is desirable. In this communication, the genes encoding the pathway from pyruvate to 2,3-BD (alsS, alsD, and bdhA encoding acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and butanediol dehydrogenase, respectively) from Bacillus subtilis were engineered into a single tricistronic operon under control of the isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible Pspac promoter in a shuttle plasmid capable of replication and expression in either B. subtilis or Escherichia coli. We describe the construction and performance of a shuttle plasmid carrying the IPTG-inducible synthetic operon alsSDbdhA coding for 2,3-BD pathway capable of (i) expression in two important representative model microorganisms, the gram-positive B. subtilis and the gram-negative E. coli; (ii) increasing 2,3-BD production in B. subtilis; and (iii) successfully introducing the B. subtilis 2,3-BD pathway into E. coli. The synthetic alsSDbdhA operon constructed using B. subtilis native genes not only increased the 2,3-BD production in its native host but also efficiently expressed the pathway in the heterologous organism E. coli. Construction of an efficient shuttle plasmid will allow investigation of 2,3-BD production performance in related organisms with industrial potential for production of bio-based chemicals.

  13. An operon for production of bioactive gibberellin A4 phytohormone with wide distribution in the bacterial rice leaf streak pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Raimund; Turrini, Paula C G; Nett, Ryan S; Leach, Jan E; Verdier, Valérie; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Peters, Reuben J

    2017-01-30

    Phytopathogens have developed elaborate mechanisms to attenuate the defense response of their host plants, including convergent evolution of complex pathways for production of the GA phytohormones, which were actually first isolated from the rice fungal pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi. The rice bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) has been demonstrated to contain a biosynthetic operon with cyclases capable of producing the universal GA precursor ent-kaurene. Genetic (knock-out) studies indicate that the derived diterpenoid serves as a virulence factor for this rice leaf streak pathogen, serving to reduce the jasmonic acid-mediated defense response. Here the functions of the remaining genes in the Xoc operon are elucidated and the distribution of the operon in X. oryzae is investigated in over 100 isolates. The Xoc operon leads to production of the bioactive GA4 , an additional step beyond production of the penultimate precursor GA9 mediated by the homologous operons recently characterized from rhizobia. Moreover, this GA biosynthetic operon was found to be widespread in Xoc (> 90%), but absent in the other major X. oryzae pathovar. These results indicate selective pressure for production of GA4 in the distinct lifestyle of Xoc, and the importance of GA to both fungal and bacterial pathogens of rice.

  14. Comparative genomics provides a timeframe for Wolbachia evolution and exposes a recent biotin synthesis operon transfer.

    PubMed

    Gerth, Michael; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2016-12-22

    The genus Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria) comprises the most abundant inherited intracellular bacteria(1). Despite their relevance as manipulators of human pathogen transmission(2) and arthropod reproduction(3), many aspects of their evolutionary history are not well understood(4). In arthropods, Wolbachia infections are typically transient on evolutionary timescales(5,6) and co-divergence between hosts and Wolbachia is supposedly rare. Consequently, much of our knowledge of Wolbachia genome evolution derives from very recently diverged strains, and a timescale for Wolbachia is lacking. Here, we investigated the genomes of four Wolbachia strains that have persisted within and co-diverged with their host lineage for ∼2 million years. Although the genomes showed very little evolutionary change on a nucleotide level, we found evidence for a recent lateral transfer of a complete biotin synthesis operon that has the potential to transform Wolbachia-host relationships(7). Furthermore, this evolutionary snapshot enabled us to calibrate the divergence times of the supergroup A and B Wolbachia lineages using genome-wide data sets and relaxed molecular clock models. We estimated the origin of Wolbachia supergroups A and B to be ∼200 million years ago (Ma), which is considerably older than previously appreciated. This age coincides with the diversification of many insect lineages(8) that represent most of Wolbachia's host spectrum.

  15. Riboflavin synthesis genes are linked with the lux operon of Photobacterium phosphoreum.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C Y; O'Kane, D J; Meighen, E A

    1994-01-01

    Four genes immediately downstream of luxG in the Photobacterium phosphoreum lux operon (ribEBHA) have been sequenced and shown to be involved in riboflavin synthesis. Sequence analyses and complementation of Escherichia coli riboflavin auxotrophs showed that the gene products of ribB and ribA are 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate (DHBP) synthetase and GTP cyclohydrolase II, respectively. By expression of P. phosphoreum ribE in E. coli using the bacteriophage T7 promoter-RNA polymerase system, ribE was shown to code for riboflavin synthetase, which catalyzes the conversion of lumazine to riboflavin. Increased thermal stability of RibE on expression with RibH indicated that ribH coded for lumazine synthetase. The organization of the rib genes in P. phosphoreum is quite distinct, with ribB and ribA being linked but separated by ribH, whereas in E. coli, they are unlinked and in Bacillus subtilis, RibB and RibA functions are coded by a single gene. Images PMID:8144477

  16. Discoordinate gene expression in the dnaA-dnaN operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, A; Messer, W

    1988-07-01

    The dnaN gene of Escherichia coli encodes the beta-subunit of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. Previous work has established that dnaN lies immediately downstream of dnaA and that both genes may be cotranscribed from the dnaA promoters; no promoter for dnaN has been described. We investigated the in vivo regulation of transcription of the dnaN gene by transcriptional fusions to the galK gene, translational fusion to the lacZ gene and S1 mapping analysis. We found that there are at least three dnaN promoters residing entirely in the reading frame of the preceding dnaA gene, and that transcription from these promoters can occur independently of dnaA transcription which, however, extends at least up to dnaN. Furthermore, we found evidence for the inducibility of the dnaN promoters in a dam background under conditions of simultaneously reduced dnaA transcription. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that although dnaA and dnaN are organized in an operon considerable discoordinate transcription can occur, thus uncoupling dnaN and dnaA regulation, when needed.

  17. Expression, purification, and functional analysis of novel RelE operon from X. nematophila.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Jitendra Singh; Gautam, Lalit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) complexes induce programmed cell death and also function to relieve cell from stress by various response mechanisms. Escherichia coli RelB-RelE TA complex consists of a RelE toxin functionally counteracted by RelB antitoxin. In the present study, a novel homolog of RelE toxin designated as Xn-relE toxin from Xenorhabdus nematophila possessing its own antitoxin designated as Xn-relEAT has been identified. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins under native conditions with GST and Ni-NTA chromatography prove the existence of novel TA module. The expression of recombinant Xn-relE under tightly regulated ara promoter in E. coli Top 10 cells confirms its toxic nature in endogenous toxicity assay. The neutralization activity in endogenous toxicity assay by Xn-relEAT antitoxin confirms its antidote nature when studying the whole TA operon under ara regulated promoter. This study promotes newly discovered TA module to be regarded as important as other proteins of type II toxin-antitoxin system.

  18. Cloning and Expression of Poly 3-Hydroxybutyrate Operon Into Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jari, Maryam; Khatami, Saeid Reza; Galehdari, Hamid; Shafiei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poly 3-Hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a class of Poly Hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), is a group of bacterial storage polymers, produced by various microorganisms in response to nutrient limitation. PHAs are biodegradable polymers which could be a good substitute for current petrochemical plastics. PHB has been synthesized during three enzymatic steps including three genes. Objectives: Our aim was PHB production from recombinant bacteria. Materials and Methods: Ralstonia eutropha was cultured and its genomic DNA was extracted. The phbCAB operon was amplified using designed primers. The fragment was cloned into pET-28a expression vector and then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21. Sudan black staining was used to show the production of PHB. Results: The extracted recombinant plasmid was digested with restriction enzymes. Separation of the desired fragment from the vector was performed to prove the correct insertion of the PCR products into the vector. The colony PCR and sequencing results confirmed the successful transformation. The production of PHB was confirmed by Sudan Black B staining under a light microscope. Conclusions: Various metabolic and fermentation methods have been used in some bacterial strains for PHB production. The use of a recombinant system harboring PHB synthesis genes can produce PHB in higher concentrations compare to natural PHA-producing bacteria. The present study was one of the most important and basic steps of designing a recombinant E. coli that can produce PHB. PMID:25834710

  19. Biofilm formation of ica operon-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis from different sources.

    PubMed

    Argudín, Maria Angeles; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Vandendriessche, Stien; Vandecandelaere, Ilse; Denis, Olivier; Coenye, Tom; Butaye, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Information on the prevalence of biofilm-related factors (PIA, Bhp, Aap, Embp) in Staphylococcus epidermidis of animal origin is scarce. In this study, 263 S. epidermidis isolates of diverse origin (animal, farmers, patients, and laboratory staff) were investigated for the presence of the ica operon (icaRADBC). The icaRADBC-positive isolates were further characterized by means of biofilm formation, presence of other biofilm-related genes, antimicrobial resistance, and population structure. Of all isolates, 28.5% (n = 75) were icaRADBC-positive, including 16.5% of animal origin, 29.1% farmer isolates, and 44.6% hospital-associated isolates (including patients and laboratory staff isolates). Most icaRADBC-positive isolates carried embp (n = 73), aap (n = 57), bhp (n = 22), and IS256 (n = 29). Statistical differences were found between animal and patient isolates for the presence of icaRADBC, bhp, and aap. No statistically significant relation was found between the presence of one or more genes and the level of biofilm formation. Most icaRADBC-positive isolates belonged to the clonal complex 5 (formerly 2) and most sequence types corresponded to types previously observed in community and nosocomial S. epidermidis populations. Although the prevalence of S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity of bovines and poultry is low, some isolates belong to STs related to ica-positive clinical strains.

  20. Gene position in a long operon governs motility development in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Cozy, Loralyn M.; Kearns, Daniel B.

    2010-01-01

    Growing cultures of Bacillus subtilis bifurcate into subpopulations of motile individuals and non-motile chains of cells that are differentiated at the level of gene expression. The motile cells are ON and the chaining cells are OFF for transcription that depends on RNA polymerase and the alternative sigma factor σD. Here we show that chaining cells were OFF for σD-dependent gene expression because σD levels fell below a threshold, and σD activity was inhibited by the anti-sigma factor FlgM. The probability that σD exceeded the threshold was governed by the position of the sigD genes. The proportion of ON cells increased when sigD was artificially moved forward in the 27kb fla/che operon. In addition, we identified a new σD-dependent promoter that increases sigD expression and may provide positive feedback to stabilize the ON state. Finally, we demonstrate that ON/OFF motility states in B. subtilis are a form of development because mosaics of stable and differentiated epigenotypes were evident when the normally dispersed bacteria were forced to grow in one dimension. PMID:20233303

  1. Mutations in the lux Operon of Natural Dark Mutants in the Genus Vibrio▿

    PubMed Central

    O'Grady, Elizabeth A.; Wimpee, Charles F.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial bioluminescence can display a wide range of intensities among strains, from very bright to undetectable, and it has been shown previously that there are nonluminous vibrios that possess lux genes. In this paper, we report the isolation and characterization of completely dark natural mutants in the genus Vibrio. Screening of over 600 Vibrio isolates with a luxA gene probe revealed that approximately 5% carried the luxA gene. Bioluminescence assays of the luxA-positive isolates, followed by repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR fingerprinting, showed three unique genotypes that are completely dark. The dark mutants show a variety of lesions, including an insertion sequence, point mutations, and deletions. Strain BCB451 has an IS10 insertion sequence in luxA, a mutated luxE stop codon, and a truncated luxH. Strain BCB494 has a 396-bp deletion in luxC, and strain BCB440 has a frameshift in luxC. This paper represents the first molecular characterization of natural dark mutants and the first demonstration of incomplete lux operons in natural isolates. PMID:17981944

  2. The excision proteins of CTnDOT positively regulate the transfer operon.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Carolyn M; Park, Jiyeon; Wang, Gui-Rong; Hopp, Crystal M; Shoemaker, Nadja B; Gardner, Jeffrey F; Salyers, Abigail A

    2013-03-01

    The Bacteroides conjugative transposon, CTnDOT, is an integrated conjugative element (ICE), found in many human colonic Bacteroides spp. strains. It has a complex regulatory system for both excision from the chromosome and transfer and mobilization into a new host. It was previously shown that a cloned DNA segment encoding the xis2c, xis2d, orf3, and exc genes was required for tetracycline dependent activation of the P(tra) promoter. The Xis2c and Xis2d proteins are required for excision while the Exc protein stimulates excision. We report here that neither the Orf3 nor the Exc proteins are involved in activation of the P(tra) promoter. Deletion analysis and electromobility shift assays showed that the Xis2c and Xis2d proteins bind to the P(tra) promoter to activate the tra operon. Thus, the recombination directionality factors of CTnDOT excision also function as activator proteins of the P(tra) promoter.

  3. Structure of Salmonella FlhE, conserved member of a flagellar Type III secretion operon

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jaemin; Monzingo, Arthur F.; Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T.; ...

    2014-12-26

    In this paper, the bacterial flagellum is assembled by a multicomponent transport apparatus categorized as a type III secretion system. The secretion of proteins that assemble into the flagellum is driven by the proton motive force. The periplasmic protein FlhE is a member of the flhBAE operon in the majority of bacteria where FlhE is found. FlhA and FlhB are established components of the flagellar type III secretion system. The absence of FlhE results in a proton leak through the flagellar system, inappropriate secretion patterns, and cell death, indicating that FlhE regulates an important aspect of proper flagellar biosynthesis. Wemore » isolated FlhE from the periplasm of Salmonella and solved its structure to 1.5 Å resolution. The structure reveals a β-sandwich fold, with no close structural homologs. Finally, possible roles of FlhE, including that of a chaperone, are discussed.« less

  4. The Legionella pneumophila kai operon is implicated in stress response and confers fitness in competitive environments

    PubMed Central

    Loza-Correa, Maria; Sahr, Tobias; Rolando, Monica; Daniels, Craig; Petit, Pierre; Skarina, Tania; Valero, Laura Gomez; Dervins-Ravault, Delphine; Honoré, Nadine; Savchenko, Aleksey; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Summary Legionella pneumophila uses aquatic protozoa as replication niche and protection from harsh environments. Although L. pneumophila is not known to have a circadian clock, it encodes homologues of the KaiBC proteins of Cyanobacteria that regulate circadian gene expression. We show that L. pneumophila kaiB, kaiC and the downstream gene lpp1114, are transcribed as a unit under the control of the stress sigma factor RpoS. KaiC and KaiB of L. pneumophila do not interact as evidenced by yeast and bacterial two-hybrid analyses. Fusion of the C-terminal residues of cyanobacterial KaiB to Legionella KaiB restores their interaction. In contrast, KaiC of L. pneumophila conserved autophosphorylation activity, but KaiB does not trigger the dephosphorylation of KaiC like in Cyanobacteria. The crystal structure of L. pneumophila KaiB suggests that it is an oxidoreductase-like protein with a typical thioredoxin fold. Indeed, mutant analyses revealed that the kai operon-encoded proteins increase fitness of L. pneumophila in competitive environments, and confer higher resistance to oxidative and sodium stress. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that L. pneumophila KaiBC resemble Synechosystis KaiC2B2 and not circadian KaiB1C1. Thus, the L. pneumophila Kai proteins do not encode a circadian clock, but enhance stress resistance and adaption to changes in the environments. PMID:23957615

  5. The Rhizobium etli bioMNY operon is involved in biotin transport.

    PubMed

    Guillén-Navarro, Karina; Araíza, Gisela; García-de los Santos, Alejandro; Mora, Yolanda; Dunn, Michael F

    2005-09-15

    Because Rhizobium etli CE3 is normally dependent on an external source of biotin and lacks orthodox biotin biosynthesis genes, we undertook an analysis of biotin uptake in this organism. By complementation of a Sinorhizobium meliloti bioM mutant we isolated an R. etli chromosomal region encoding homologs of the S. meliloti bioMNB genes, whose products have been implicated in intracellular biotin retention in that organism. Disruption of the R. etli bioM resulted in a mutant which took up biotin at a lower rate and accumulated significantly less biotin than the wild type. As in S. meliloti, the R. etli bioMN gene-products resemble the ATPase and permease components, respectively, of an ABC-type transporter. The bioB gene product is in fact similar to members of the BioY family, which has been postulated to function in biotin transport, and we refer to this gene as bioY. An R. etli bioY mutant exhibited lower biotin uptake than the wild-type, providing the first experimental evidence for a role of BioY in biotin transport. We show that the bioMNY operon is transcriptionally repressed by biotin. An analysis of the competitiveness of the wild-type strain versus the bioM mutant showed that the mutant had a diminished capacity to form nodules on bean plants.

  6. Secrets of the lac operon. Glucose hysteresis as a mechanism in dietary restriction, aging and disease.

    PubMed

    Mobbs, Charles V; Mastaitis, Jason W; Zhang, Minhua; Isoda, Fumiko; Cheng, Hui; Yen, Kelvin

    2007-01-01

    Elevated blood glucose associated with diabetes produces progressive and apparently irreversible damage to many cell types. Conversely, reduction of glucose extends life span in yeast, and dietary restriction reduces blood glucose. Therefore it has been hypothesized that cumulative toxic effects of glucose drive at least some aspects of the aging process and, conversely, that protective effects of dietary restriction are mediated by a reduction in exposure to glucose. The mechanisms mediating cumulative toxic effects of glucose are suggested by two general principles of metabolic processes, illustrated by the lac operon but also observed with glucose-induced gene expression. First, metabolites induce the machinery of their own metabolism. Second, induction of gene expression by metabolites can entail a form of molecular memory called hysteresis. When applied to glucose-regulated gene expression, these two principles suggest a mechanism whereby repetitive exposure to postprandial excursions of glucose leads to an age-related increase in glycolytic capacity (and reduction in beta-oxidation of free fatty acids), which in turn leads to an increased generation of oxidative damage and a decreased capacity to respond to oxidative damage, independent of metabolic rate. According to this mechanism, dietary restriction increases life span and reduces pathology by reducing exposure to glucose and therefore delaying the development of glucose-induced glycolytic capacity.

  7. Repression of the pyr operon in Lactobacillus plantarum prevents its ability to grow at low carbon dioxide levels.

    PubMed

    Nicoloff, Hervé; Elagöz, Aram; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Kammerer, Benoît; Martinussen, Jan; Bringel, Françoise

    2005-03-01

    Carbamoyl phosphate is a precursor for both arginine and pyrimidine biosynthesis. In Lactobacillus plantarum, carbamoyl phosphate is synthesized from glutamine, ATP, and carbon dioxide by two sets of identified genes encoding carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPS). The expression of the carAB operon (encoding CPS-A) responds to arginine availability, whereas pyrAaAb (encoding CPS-P) is part of the pyrR1BCAaAbDFE operon coding for the de novo pyrimidine pathway repressed by exogenous uracil. The pyr operon is regulated by transcription attenuation mediated by a trans-acting repressor that binds to the pyr mRNA attenuation site in response to intracellular UMP/phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate pools. Intracellular pyrimidine triphosphate nucleoside pools were lower in mutant FB335 (carAB deletion) harboring only CPS-P than in the wild-type strain harboring both CPS-A and CPS-P. Thus, CPS-P activity is the limiting step in pyrimidine synthesis. FB335 is unable to grow in the presence of uracil due to a lack of sufficient carbamoyl phosphate required for arginine biosynthesis. Forty independent spontaneous FB335-derived mutants that have lost regulation of the pyr operon were readily obtained by their ability to grow in the presence of uracil and absence of arginine; 26 harbored mutations in the pyrR1-pyrB loci. One was a prototroph with a deletion of both pyrR1 and the transcription attenuation site that resulted in large amounts of excreted pyrimidine nucleotides and increased intracellular UTP and CTP pools compared to wild-type levels. Low pyrimidine-independent expression of the pyr operon was obtained by antiterminator site-directed mutagenesis. The resulting AE1023 strain had reduced UTP and CTP pools and had the phenotype of a high-CO2-requiring auxotroph, since it was able to synthesize sufficient arginine and pyrimidines only in CO2-enriched air. Therefore, growth inhibition without CO2 enrichment may be due to low carbamoyl phosphate pools from lack of CPS activity.

  8. The role of the Staphylococcal VraTSR regulatory system on vancomycin resistance and vanA operon expression in vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Nadia K; Yin, Shaohui; Boyle-Vavra, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin is often the preferred treatment for invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. With the increase in incidence of MRSA infections, the use of vancomycin has increased and, as feared, isolates of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) have emerged. VRSA isolates have acquired the entercoccal vanA operon contained on transposon (Tn) 1546 residing on a conjugal plasmid. VraTSR is a vancomycin and β-lactam-inducible three-component regulatory system encoded on the S. aureus chromosome that modulates the cell-wall stress response to cell-wall acting antibiotics. Mutation in vraTSR has shown to increase susceptibility to β-lactams and vancomycin in clinical VISA strains and in recombinant strain COLVA-200 which expresses a plasmid borne vanA operon. To date, the role of VraTSR in vanA operon expression in VRSA has not been demonstrated. In this study, the vraTSR operon was deleted from the first clinical VRSA strain (VRS1) by transduction with phage harvested from a USA300 vraTSR operon deletion strain. The absence of the vraTSR operon and presence of the vanA operon were confirmed in the transductant (VRS1Δvra) by PCR. Broth MIC determinations, demonstrated that the vancomycin MIC of VRS1Δvra (64 µg/ml) decreased by 16-fold compared with VRS1 (1024 µg/ml). The effect of the vraTSR operon deletion on expression of the van gene cluster (vanA, vanX and vanR) was examined by quantitative RT-PCR using relative quantification. A 2-5-fold decreased expression of the vanA operon genes occured in strain VRS1Δvra at stationary growth phase compared with the parent strain, VRS1. Both vancomycin resistance and vancomycin-induced expression of vanA and vanR were restored by complementation with a plasmid harboring the vraTSR operon. These findings demonstrate that expression in S. aureus of the horizontally acquired enterococcal vanA gene cluster is enhanced by the staphylococcal three-component cell wall stress regulatory

  9. Biomolecular Mechanisms of Mercury Transfers and Transformations by Proteins of the Mer Operon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. M.; Hong, B.; Nauss, R.; Momany, C.; Summers, A. O.; Feng, X.; Harwood, I.; Stroud, R.

    2008-12-01

    Aerobic bacteria exhibiting resistance to the toxic effects of Hg(II) and organomercurials [RHg(I), e.g. MeHg(I)] and are widely found in both pristine and mercury contaminated environments. Resistance, afforded by a plasmid- or transposon-associated mer operon, involves an unusual pathway where Hg(II) and organomercurials [RHg(I)] undergo facilitated entry into the bacterial cytoplasm via an integral membrane transport protein (MerT) and are then "detoxified" by the concerted effort of two enzymes, organomercurial lyase (MerB), which catalyzes dealkylation (i.e., demethylation) of RHg(I) to Hg(II) and a hydrocarbon, and mercuric ion reductase (MerA), which catalyzes reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) as the ultimate detoxification for the organism. With a widespread distribution, these bacterial transformations play a significant role in the fate of mercury in the environment. Our focus is on elucidation of the molecular mechanisms for the transport and catalytic transformations of RHg(I) and Hg(II) by these proteins and the factors that influence the overall efficiency of the process. Current efforts are focused primarily on elucidating details of RHg(I) binding and dealkylation by MerB as well as the mechanism for transfer of the Hg(II) product to MerA. Key findings include the demonstration of a non-cysteine residue as essential for the catalytic activity and demonstration that direct transfer of Hg(II) to MerA proceeds more rapidly and more completely than transfer to small MW thiols such as cysteines or glutathione. Reuslts of these studies as well as an overview of our current understanding of the whole system will be presented.

  10. Regulation of the Escherichia coli L-arabinose operon studied by gel electrophoresis DNA binding assay.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, W; Schleif, R F

    1984-09-25

    DNA binding properties of the proteins required for induction of the Escherichia coli L-arabinose operon were measured using a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis assay. The mechanisms of induction and repression were studied by observing the multiple interactions of RNA polymerase, cyclic AMP receptor protein and araC protein with short DNA fragments containing either the araC or araBAD promoter regions. These studies show that binding of araC protein to the operator site, araO1, directly blocks RNA polymerase binding at the araC promoter, pC. We find that cyclic AMP receptor protein and araC protein do not bind co-operatively at their respective sites to linear DNA fragments containing the pBAD promoter. Nevertheless, both these positive effectors must be present on the DNA to stimulate binding of RNA polymerase. Additionally, binding of the proteins to the DNA is not sufficient; araC protein must also be in the inducing state, for RNA polymerase to bind. Equilibrium binding constraints and kinetics were determined for araC protein binding to the araI and the araO1 sites. In the presence of inducer, L-arabinose, araC protein binds with equal affinity to DNA fragments containing either of these sites. In the presence of anti-inducer, D-fucose, the affinity for both sites is reduced 40-fold. The apparent equilibrium binding constants for both states of the protein vary in parallel with the buffer salt concentration. This result suggests that the inducing and repressing forms of araC protein displace a similar number of cations upon binding DNA.

  11. Exploiting rRNA Operon Copy Number to Investigate Bacterial Reproductive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Roller, Benjamin R.K.; Stoddard, Steven F.; Schmidt, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The potential for rapid reproduction is a hallmark of microbial life, but microbes in nature must also survive and compete when growth is constrained by resource availability. Successful reproduction requires different strategies when resources are scarce compared to when they are abundant1,2, but a systematic framework for predicting these reproductive strategies in bacteria has not been available. Here we show that the number of ribosomal RNA operons (rrn) in bacterial genomes predicts two important components of reproduction – growth rate and growth efficiency – which are favored under contrasting regimes of resource availability3,4. We find that the maximum reproductive rate of bacteria doubles with a doubling of rrn copy number, while the efficiency of carbon use is inversely related to maximal growth rate and rrn copy number. We also identify a feasible explanation for these patterns: the rate and yield of protein synthesis mirror the overall pattern in maximum growth rate and growth efficiency. Furthermore, comparative analysis of genomes from 1,167 bacterial species reveals that rrn copy number predicts traits associated with resource availability, including chemotaxis and genome streamlining. Genome-wide patterns of orthologous gene content covary with rrn copy number, suggesting convergent evolution in response to resource availability. Our findings indicate that basic cellular processes adapt in contrasting ways to long-term differences in resource availability. They also establish a basis for predicting changes in bacterial community composition in response to resource perturbations using rrn copy number measurements5 or inferences6,7. PMID:27617693

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of the lux operon distinguishes two evolutionarily distinct clades of Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Ast, Jennifer C; Dunlap, Paul V

    2004-05-01

    The luminous marine bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis was synonymized several years ago with Photobacterium leiognathi based on a high degree of phenotypic and genetic similarity. To test the possibility that P. leiognathi as now formulated, however, actually contains two distinct bacterial groups reflecting the earlier identification of P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi as separate species, we compared P. leiognathi strains isolated from light-organ symbiosis with leiognathid fishes (i.e., ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1) with strains from seawater originally described as P. mandapamensis and later synonymized as P. leiognathi (i.e., ATCC 27561(T) and ATCC 33981) and certain strains initially identified as P. leiognathi (i.e., PL-721, PL-741, 554). Analysis of the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes did not resolve distinct clades, affirming a close relationship among these strains. However, strains ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554 were found to bear a luxF gene in the lux operon ( luxABFE), whereas ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1 lack this gene ( luxABE). Phylogenetic analysis of the luxAB(F)E region confirmed this distinction. Furthermore, ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554 all produced a higher level of luminescence on high-salt medium, as previously described for PL-721, whereas ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1 all produced a higher level of luminescence on low-salt medium, a characteristic of P. leiognathi from leiognathid fish light organs. These results demonstrate that P. leiognathi contains two evolutionarily and phenotypically distinct clades, P. leiognathi subsp. leiognathi (strains ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1), and P. leiognathi subsp. mandapamensis (strains ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554).

  13. Gene sequences of the pil operon reveal relationships between symbiotic strains of Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Browne-Silva, J.; Nishiguchi, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiosis between the bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) and Vibrio fischeri bacteria has been a well-studied model for understanding the molecular mechanisms of colonization and adherence to host cells. For example, pilin expression has been observed to cause subtle variation in colonization for a number of Gram-negative bacteria with eukaryotic hosts. To investigate variation amongst pil genes of closely related strains of vibrios, we amplified pil genes A, B, C and D to determine orientation and sequence similarity to other symbiotic vibrios. The pilA gene was found to be upstream from all other pil genes, and not contiguous with the rest of the operon. The pilB, pilC and pilD loci were flanked at the 3′ end by yacE, followed by a conserved hypothetical gene. DNA sequences of each pil gene were aligned and analysed phylogenetically using parsimony for both individual and combined gene trees. Results demonstrate that certain pil loci (pilB and pilD) are conserved among strains of V. fischeri, but pilC differs in sequence between symbiotic and free-living strains. Phylogenetic analysis of all pil genes gives better resolution of Indo-west Pacific V. fischeri symbionts compared with analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Hawaiian and Australian symbiotic strains form one monophyletic tree, supporting the hypothesis that V. fischeri strain specificity is selected by the geographical location of their hosts and is not related to specific squid species. PMID:18523167

  14. Interplay of protein and DNA structure revealed in simulations of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Czapla, Luke; Grosner, Michael A; Swigon, David; Olson, Wilma K

    2013-01-01

    The E. coli Lac repressor is the classic textbook example of a protein that attaches to widely spaced sites along a genome and forces the intervening DNA into a loop. The short loops implicated in the regulation of the lac operon suggest the involvement of factors other than DNA and repressor in gene control. The molecular simulations presented here examine two likely structural contributions to the in-vivo looping of bacterial DNA: the distortions of the double helix introduced upon association of the highly abundant, nonspecific nucleoid protein HU and the large-scale deformations of the repressor detected in low-resolution experiments. The computations take account of the three-dimensional arrangements of nucleotides and amino acids found in crystal structures of DNA with the two proteins, the natural rest state and deformational properties of protein-free DNA, and the constraints on looping imposed by the conformation of the repressor and the orientation of bound DNA. The predicted looping propensities capture the complex, chain-length-dependent variation in repression efficacy extracted from gene expression studies and in vitro experiments and reveal unexpected chain-length-dependent variations in the uptake of HU, the deformation of repressor, and the folding of DNA. Both the opening of repressor and the presence of HU, at levels approximating those found in vivo, enhance the probability of loop formation. HU affects the global organization of the repressor and the opening of repressor influences the levels of HU binding to DNA. The length of the loop determines whether the DNA adopts antiparallel or parallel orientations on the repressor, whether the repressor is opened or closed, and how many HU molecules bind to the loop. The collective behavior of proteins and DNA is greater than the sum of the parts and hints of ways in which multiple proteins may coordinate the packaging and processing of genetic information.

  15. Development of an enhanced chromosomal expression system based on porin synthesis operon for halophile Halomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jin; Fu, Xiao-Zhi; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Jin-Chun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-11-01

    Since halophile Halomonas spp. can grow contamination free in seawater under unsterile and continuous conditions, it holds great promise for industrial biotechnology to produce low-cost chemicals in an economic way. Yet, metabolic engineering methods are urgently needed for Halomonas spp. It is commonly known that chromosomal expression is more stable yet weaker than plasmid one is. To overcome this challenge, a novel chromosomal expression method was developed for halophile Halomonas TD01 and its derivatives based on a strongly expressed porin gene as a site for external gene integration. The gene of interest was inserted downstream the porin gene, forming an artificial operon porin-inserted gene. This chromosome expression system was proven functional by some examples: First, chromosomal expression of heterologous polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthase gene phaC Re from Ralstonia eutropha completely restored the PHB accumulation level in endogenous phaC knockout mutant of Halomonas TD01. The integrated phaC Re was expressed at the highest level when inserted at the locus of porin compared with insertions in other chromosome locations. Second, an inducible expression system was constructed in phaC-deleted Halomonas TD01 by integrating the lac repressor gene (lacI) into the porin site in the host chromosome. The native porin promoter was inserted with the key 21 bp DNA of lac operator (lacO) sequence to become an inducible promoter encoded in a plasmid. This inducible system allowed on-off switch of gene expression in Halomonas TD strains. Thus, the stable and strong chromosomal expression method in Halomonas TD spp. was established.

  16. Operon for Biosynthesis of Lipstatin, the Beta-Lactone Inhibitor of Human Pancreatic Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Tingli; Zhang, Daozhong; Lin, Shuangjun; Long, Qingshan; Wang, Yemin; Ou, Hongyu; Kang, Qianjin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Lipstatin, isolated from Streptomyces toxytricini as a potent and selective inhibitor of human pancreatic lipase, is a precursor for tetrahydrolipstatin (also known as orlistat, Xenical, and Alli), the only FDA-approved antiobesity medication for long-term use. Lipstatin features a 2-hexyl-3,5-dihydroxy-7,10-hexadecadienoic-β-lactone structure with an N-formyl-l-leucine group attached as an ester to the 5-hydroxy group. It has been suggested that the α-branched 3,5-dihydroxy fatty acid β-lactone moiety of lipstatin in S. toxytricini is derived from Claisen condensation between two fatty acid substrates, which are derived from incomplete oxidative degradation of linoleic acid based on feeding experiments. In this study, we identified a six-gene operon (lst) that was essential for the biosynthesis of lipstatin by large-deletion, complementation, and single-gene knockout experiments. lstA, lstB, and lstC, which encode two β-ketoacyl–acyl carrier protein synthase III homologues and an acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetase homologue, were indicated to be responsible for the generation of the α-branched 3,5-dihydroxy fatty acid backbone. Subsequently, the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene lstE and the putative formyltransferase gene lstF were involved in decoration of the α-branched 3,5-dihydroxy fatty acid chain with an N-formylated leucine residue. Finally, the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-homologous gene lstD might be responsible for the reduction of the β-keto group of the biosynthetic intermediate, thereby facilitating the formation of the unique β-lactone ring. PMID:25239907

  17. Molecular level biodegradation of phenol and its derivatives through dmp operon of Pseudomonas putida: A bio-molecular modeling and docking analysis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sujay; Banerjee, Arundhati

    2015-10-01

    Participation of Pseudomonas putida-derived methyl phenol (dmp) operon and DmpR protein in the biodegradation of phenol or other harmful, organic, toxic pollutants was investigated at a molecular level. Documentation documents that P. putida has DmpR protein which positively regulates dmp operon in the presence of inducers; like phenols. From the operon, phenol hydroxylase encoded by dmpN gene, participates in degrading phenols after dmp operon is expressed. For the purpose, the 3-D models of the four domains from DmpR protein and of the DNA sequences from the two Upstream Activation Sequences (UAS) present at the promoter region of the operon were demonstrated using discrete molecular modeling techniques. The best modeled structures satisfying their stereo-chemical properties were selected in each of the cases. To stabilize the individual structures, energy optimization was performed. In the presence of inducers, probable interactions among domains and then the two independent DNA structures with the fourth domain were perused by manifold molecular docking simulations. The complex structures were made to be stable by minimizing their overall energy. Responsible amino acid residues, nucleotide bases and binding patterns for the biodegradation, were examined. In the presence of the inducers, the biodegradation process is initiated by the interaction of phe50 from the first protein domain with the inducers. Only after the interaction of the last domain with the DNA sequences individually, the operon is expressed. This novel residue level study is paramount for initiating transcription in the operon; thereby leading to expression of phenol hydroxylase followed by phenol biodegradation.

  18. Detection of pap, sfa and afa adhesin-encoding operons in uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains: relationship with expression of adhesins and production of toxins.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; Blanco, J E; Alonso, M P; Mora, A; Balsalobre, C; Muñoa, F; Juárez, A; Blanco, J

    1997-12-01

    A total of 243 Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTI) were investigated for the presence of pap, sfa and afa adhesin-encoding operons by using the polymerase chain reaction. It was found that 54%, 53% and 2% of the strains exhibited the pap, sfa and afa genotypes, respectively. Pap+ and/or sfa+ strains were more frequent in cases of acute pyelonephritis (94%) than in cases of cystitis (67%) (P < 0.001) and asymptomatic bacteriuria (57%) (P < 0.001). The pap and/or sfa operons were found in 90% of strains expressing mannose-resistant haemagglutination (MRHA) versus 37% of MRHA-negative strains (P < 0.001). The presence of pap and sfa operons was especially significant in strains belonging to MRHA types III (100%) (without P adhesins) and IVa (97%) (expressing the specific Gal-Gal binding typical of P adhesins). Both pap and sfa operons were closely associated with toxigenic E. coli producing alpha-haemolysin (Hly+) and/or the cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1. There was an apparent correlation between the pap and sfa operons and the O serogroups of the strains. Thus, 93% of strains belonging to O1, O2, O4, O6, O7, O14, O15, O18, O22, O75 and O83 possessed pap and/or sfa operons, versus only 32% of strains belonging to other serogroups (P < 0.001). The results obtained in this study confirm the usefulness of our MRHA typing system for presumptive identification of pathogenic E. coli exhibiting different virulence factors. Thus, 85% of strains that possessed both pap and sfa adhesin-encoding operons showed MRHA types III or IVa previously associated with virulence of E. coli strains that cause UTI and bacteraemia.

  19. Prediction of operon-like gene clusters in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome based on co-expression analysis of neighboring genes.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Nakamura, Kensuke; Hirai, Masami Y; Ohta, Daisaku; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2012-07-15

    Operon-like arrangements of genes occur in eukaryotes ranging from yeasts and filamentous fungi to nematodes, plants, and mammals. In plants, several examples of operon-like gene clusters involved in metabolic pathways have recently been characterized, e.g. the cyclic hydroxamic acid pathways in maize, the avenacin biosynthesis gene clusters in oat, the thalianol pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana, and the diterpenoid momilactone cluster in rice. Such operon-like gene clusters are defined by their co-regulation or neighboring positions within immediate vicinity of chromosomal regions. A comprehensive analysis of the expression of neighboring genes therefore accounts a crucial step to reveal the complete set of operon-like gene clusters within a genome. Genome-wide prediction of operon-like gene clusters should contribute to functional annotation efforts and provide novel insight into evolutionary aspects acquiring certain biological functions as well. We predicted co-expressed gene clusters by comparing the Pearson correlation coefficient of neighboring genes and randomly selected gene pairs, based on a statistical method that takes false discovery rate (FDR) into consideration for 1469 microarray gene expression datasets of A. thaliana. We estimated that A. thaliana contains 100 operon-like gene clusters in total. We predicted 34 statistically significant gene clusters consisting of 3 to 22 genes each, based on a stringent FDR threshold of 0.1. Functional relationships among genes in individual clusters were estimated by sequence similarity and functional annotation of genes. Duplicated gene pairs (determined based on BLAST with a cutoff of E<10(-5)) are included in 27 clusters. Five clusters are associated with metabolism, containing P450 genes restricted to the Brassica family and predicted to be involved in secondary metabolism. Operon-like clusters tend to include genes encoding bio-machinery associated with ribosomes, the ubiquitin/proteasome system, secondary

  20. Variability of rRNA Operon Copy Number and Growth Rate Dynamics of Bacillus Isolated from an Extremely Oligotrophic Aquatic Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia-Anistro, Jorge A.; Eguiarte-Fruns, Luis E.; Delgado-Sapién, Gabriela; Márquez-Zacarías, Pedro; Gasca-Pineda, Jaime; Learned, Jennifer; Elser, James J.; Olmedo-Alvarez, Gabriela; Souza, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    The ribosomal RNA (rrn) operon is a key suite of genes related to the production of protein synthesis machinery and thus to bacterial growth physiology. Experimental evidence has suggested an intrinsic relationship between the number of copies of this operon and environmental resource availability, especially the availability of phosphorus (P), because bacteria that live in oligotrophic ecosystems usually have few rrn operons and a slow growth rate. The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is a complex aquatic ecosystem that contains an unusually high microbial diversity that is able to persist under highly oligotrophic conditions. These environmental conditions impose a variety of strong selective pressures that shape the genome dynamics of their inhabitants. The genus Bacillus is one of the most abundant cultivable bacterial groups in the CCB and usually possesses a relatively large number of rrn operon copies (6–15 copies). The main goal of this study was to analyze the variation in the number of rrn operon copies of Bacillus in the CCB and to assess their growth-related properties as well as their stoichiometric balance (N and P content). We defined 18 phylogenetic groups within the Bacilli clade and documented a range of from six to 14 copies of the rrn operon. The growth dynamic of these Bacilli was heterogeneous and did not show a direct relation to the number of operon copies. Physiologically, our results were not consistent with the Growth Rate Hypothesis, since the copies of the rrn operon were decoupled from growth rate. However, we speculate that the diversity of the growth properties of these Bacilli as well as the low P content of their cells in an ample range of rrn copy number is an adaptive response to oligotrophy of the CCB and could represent an ecological mechanism that allows these taxa to coexist. These findings increase the knowledge of the variability in the number of copies of the rrn operon in the genus Bacillus and give insights about the

  1. Variability of rRNA Operon Copy Number and Growth Rate Dynamics of Bacillus Isolated from an Extremely Oligotrophic Aquatic Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Valdivia-Anistro, Jorge A; Eguiarte-Fruns, Luis E; Delgado-Sapién, Gabriela; Márquez-Zacarías, Pedro; Gasca-Pineda, Jaime; Learned, Jennifer; Elser, James J; Olmedo-Alvarez, Gabriela; Souza, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    The ribosomal RNA (rrn) operon is a key suite of genes related to the production of protein synthesis machinery and thus to bacterial growth physiology. Experimental evidence has suggested an intrinsic relationship between the number of copies of this operon and environmental resource availability, especially the availability of phosphorus (P), because bacteria that live in oligotrophic ecosystems usually have few rrn operons and a slow growth rate. The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is a complex aquatic ecosystem that contains an unusually high microbial diversity that is able to persist under highly oligotrophic conditions. These environmental conditions impose a variety of strong selective pressures that shape the genome dynamics of their inhabitants. The genus Bacillus is one of the most abundant cultivable bacterial groups in the CCB and usually possesses a relatively large number of rrn operon copies (6-15 copies). The main goal of this study was to analyze the variation in the number of rrn operon copies of Bacillus in the CCB and to assess their growth-related properties as well as their stoichiometric balance (N and P content). We defined 18 phylogenetic groups within the Bacilli clade and documented a range of from six to 14 copies of the rrn operon. The growth dynamic of these Bacilli was heterogeneous and did not show a direct relation to the number of operon copies. Physiologically, our results were not consistent with the Growth Rate Hypothesis, since the copies of the rrn operon were decoupled from growth rate. However, we speculate that the diversity of the growth properties of these Bacilli as well as the low P content of their cells in an ample range of rrn copy number is an adaptive response to oligotrophy of the CCB and could represent an ecological mechanism that allows these taxa to coexist. These findings increase the knowledge of the variability in the number of copies of the rrn operon in the genus Bacillus and give insights about the

  2. The ancestor of the Paulinella chromatophore obtained a carboxysomal operon by horizontal gene transfer from a Nitrococcus-like γ-proteobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Birger; Nowack, Eva CM; Glöckner, Gernot; Melkonian, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background Paulinella chromatophora is a freshwater filose amoeba with photosynthetic endosymbionts (chromatophores) of cyanobacterial origin that are closely related to free-living Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus species (PS-clade). Members of the PS-clade of cyanobacteria contain a proteobacterial form 1A RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) that was acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of a carboxysomal operon. In rDNA-phylogenies, the Paulinella chromatophore diverged basal to the PS-clade, raising the question whether the HGT occurred before or after the split of the chromatophore ancestor. Results Phylogenetic analyses of the almost complete rDNA operon with an improved taxon sampling containing most known cyanobacterial lineages recovered the Paulinella chromatophore as sister to the complete PS-clade. The sequence of the complete carboxysomal operon of Paulinella was determined. Analysis of RubisCO large subunit (rbcL) sequences revealed that Paulinella shares the proteobacterial form 1A RubisCO with the PS-clade. The γ-proteobacterium Nitrococcus mobilis was identified as sister of the Paulinella chromatophore and the PS-clade in the RubisCO phylogeny. Gene content and order in the carboxysomal operon correlates well with the RubisCO phylogeny demonstrating that the complete carboxysomal operon was acquired by the common ancestor of the Paulinella chromatophore and the PS-clade through HGT. The carboxysomal operon shows a significantly elevated AT content in Paulinella, which in the rbcL gene is confined to third codon positions. Combined phylogenies using rbcL and the rDNA-operon resulted in a nearly fully resolved tree of the PS-clade. Conclusion The HGT of the carboxysomal operon predated the divergence of the chromatophore ancestor from the PS-clade. Following HGT and divergence of the chromatophore ancestor, diversification of the PS-clade into at least three subclades occurred. The γ-proteobacterium Nitrococcus mobilis

  3. Combinatorial regulation of the dev operon by MrpC2 and FruA during Myxococcus xanthus development.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ashleigh; Viswanathan, Poorna; Barrett, Terry; Son, Bongjun; Saha, Shreya; Kroos, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Proper expression of the dev operon is important for normal development of Myxococcus xanthus. When starved, these bacteria coordinate their gliding movements to build mounds that become fruiting bodies as some cells differentiate into spores. Mutations in the devTRS genes impair sporulation. Expression of the operon occurs within nascent fruiting bodies and depends in part on C signaling. Here, we report that expression of the dev operon, like that of several other C-signal-dependent genes, is subject to combinatorial control by the transcription factors MrpC2 and FruA. A DNA fragment upstream of the dev promoter was bound by a protein in an extract containing MrpC2, protecting the region spanning positions -77 to -54. Mutations in this region impaired binding of purified MrpC2 and abolished developmental expression of reporter fusions. The association of MrpC2 and/or its longer form, MrpC, with the dev promoter region depended on FruA in vivo, based on chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, and purified FruA appeared to bind cooperatively with MrpC2 to DNA just upstream of the dev promoter in vitro. We conclude that cooperative binding of the two proteins to this promoter-proximal site is crucial for dev expression. 5' deletion analysis implied a second upstream positive regulatory site, which corresponded to a site of weak cooperative binding of MrpC2 and FruA and boosted dev expression 24 h into development. This site is unique among the C-signal-dependent genes studied so far. Deletion of this site in the M. xanthus chromosome did not impair sporulation under laboratory conditions.

  4. Functional characterization of a conserved archaeal viral operon revealing single-stranded DNA binding, annealing and nuclease activities.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang; Kragelund, Birthe B; White, Malcolm F; Peng, Xu

    2015-06-19

    The majority of archaeal viral genes are of unknown function hindering our understanding of the virus life cycle and viral interactions with their host. Here, we first describe functional characterization of ORF131b (gp17) and ORF436 (gp18) of Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2), both encoding proteins of unknown function and forming an operon with ORF207 (gp19). SIRV2 gp17 was found to be a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein different in structure from all previously characterized ssDNA binding proteins. Mutagenesis of a few conserved basic residues suggested a U-shaped binding path for ssDNA. The recombinant gp18 showed an ssDNA annealing activity often associated with helicases and recombinases. To gain insight into the biological role of the entire operon, we characterized SIRV2 gp19 and showed it to possess a 5' → 3' ssDNA exonuclease activity, in addition to the previously demonstrated ssDNA endonuclease activity. Further, in vitro pull-down assay demonstrated interactions between gp17 and gp18 and between gp18 and gp19 with the former being mediated by the intrinsically disordered C-terminus of gp17. The strand-displacement replication mode proposed previously for rudiviruses and the close interaction among the ssDNA binding, annealing and nuclease proteins strongly point to a role of the gene operon in genome maturation and/or DNA recombination that may function in viral DNA replication/repair.

  5. Role of the gerI Operon of Bacillus cereus 569 in the Response of Spores to Germinants

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Mark O.; Moir, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Bacillus cereus 569 (ATCC 10876) germinates in response to inosine or to l-alanine, but the most rapid germination response is elicited by a combination of these germinants. Mutants defective in their germination response to either inosine or to l-alanine were isolated after Tn917-LTV1 mutagenesis and enrichment procedures; one class of mutant could not germinate in response to inosine as a sole germinant but still germinated in response to l-alanine, although at a reduced rate; another mutant germinated normally in response to inosine but was slowed in its germination response to l-alanine. These mutants demonstrated that at least two signal response pathways are involved in the triggering of germination. Stimulation of germination in l-alanine by limiting concentrations of inosine and stimulation of germination in inosine by low concentrations of l-alanine were still detectable in these mutants, suggesting that such stimulation is not dependent on complete functionality of both these germination loci. Two transposon insertions that affected inosine germination were found to be located 2.2 kb apart on the chromosome. This region was cloned and sequenced, revealing an operon of three open reading frames homologous to those in the gerA and related operons of Bacillus subtilis. The individual genes of this gerI operon have been named gerIA, gerIB, and gerIC. The GerIA protein is predicted to possess an unusually long, charged, N-terminal domain containing nine tandem copies of a 13-amino-acid glutamine- and serine-rich sequence. PMID:9852021

  6. Biofilm plasmids with a rhamnose operon are widely distributed determinants of the ‘swim-or-stick' lifestyle in roseobacters

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Victoria; Frank, Oliver; Bartling, Pascal; Scheuner, Carmen; Göker, Markus; Brinkmann, Henner; Petersen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Alphaproteobacteria of the metabolically versatile Roseobacter group (Rhodobacteraceae) are abundant in marine ecosystems and represent dominant primary colonizers of submerged surfaces. Motility and attachment are the prerequisite for the characteristic ‘swim-or-stick' lifestyle of many representatives such as Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395. It has recently been shown that plasmid curing of its 65-kb RepA-I-type replicon with >20 genes for exopolysaccharide biosynthesis including a rhamnose operon results in nearly complete loss of motility and biofilm formation. The current study is based on the assumption that homologous biofilm plasmids are widely distributed. We analyzed 33 roseobacters that represent the phylogenetic diversity of this lineage and documented attachment as well as swimming motility for 60% of the strains. All strong biofilm formers were also motile, which is in agreement with the proposed mechanism of surface attachment. We established transposon mutants for the four genes of the rhamnose operon from P. inhibens and proved its crucial role in biofilm formation. In the Roseobacter group, two-thirds of the predicted biofilm plasmids represent the RepA-I type and their physiological role was experimentally validated via plasmid curing for four additional strains. Horizontal transfer of these replicons was documented by a comparison of the RepA-I phylogeny with the species tree. A gene content analysis of 35 RepA-I plasmids revealed a core set of genes, including the rhamnose operon and a specific ABC transporter for polysaccharide export. Taken together, our data show that RepA-I-type biofilm plasmids are essential for the sessile mode of life in the majority of cultivated roseobacters. PMID:26953602

  7. The site for catabolite deactivation in the L-arabinose BAD operon in Escherichia coli B/r.

    PubMed

    Bass, R; Heffernan, L; Sweadner, K; Englesberg, E

    1976-10-11

    A series of deletions beginning in the leu operon and continuing into the araC gene and also into the ara controlling site region were analyzed in reciprocal merodiploids, e.g., F' A2Cc67/B24delta719, F' B24delta719/A2Cc67, for their effects on catabolite deactivation (CD). The results of these experiments are consistent with placing the catabolite gene activator-cyclic AMP sensitive site in the controlling site region between araB and araO. With a deletion mutant, delta1109, that places araBAD under leu control when transcription begins at leuP, the araBAD operon is immune to CD even though araCGA, araP and araI are intact and functional. To focus attention on the fine structure and related functions of this region we propose that the three proteins that function therein have separate sites of action: araI (initiator-site for activator), araP (promoter-site for RNA polymerase) and ara(CGA) (catabolite gene activator-site for CGA-cAMP). None of the eighteen initiator constitutive mutants (Ic) tested have any significant effect on catabolite derepression or on the maximal level of expression of the operon supporting the view that the araI site may be distinct from araP and ARA(CGA). A series of constitutive mutants in the araC gene (Cc) also have no pronounced effect on catabolite deactivation.

  8. The Euglena gracilis chloroplast rpoB gene. Novel gene organization and transcription of the RNA polymerase subunit operon.

    PubMed Central

    Yepiz-Plascencia, G M; Radebaugh, C A; Hallick, R B

    1990-01-01

    The rpoB gene coding for a beta-like subunit of the chloroplast DNA-dependent RNA polymerase has been located on the chloroplast genome of Euglena gracilis distal to the rrnC ribosomal RNA operon. We have determined 5760 base-pairs of DNA sequence, including 97 bp of the 5S rRNA gene, an intergenic spacer of 1264 bp, the rpoB gene of 4249 bp, 84 bp spacer and 67 bp of the rpoC1 gene. The rpoB gene is of the same polarity as the rRNA operons. The organization of the rpoB and rpoC genes resembles the E. coli rpoB-rpoC and higher plant chloroplast rpoB-rpoC1-rpoC2 operons. The Euglena rpoB gene (1082 codons) encodes a polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 124,288. The rpoB gene is interrupted by seven Group III introns of 93, 95, 94, 99, 101, 110 and 99 bp respectively and a Group II intron of 309 bp. All other known rpoB genes lack introns. All the exon-exon junctions were experimentally determined by cDNA cloning and sequencing or direct primer extension RNA sequencing. Transcripts from the rpoB locus were characterized by Northern hybridization. Fully-spliced, monocistronic rpoB mRNA, as well as rpoB-rpoC1 and rpoB1-rpoC1-rpoC2 mRNAs were identified. Images PMID:2110656

  9. The Euglena gracilis chloroplast rpoB gene. Novel gene organization and transcription of the RNA polymerase subunit operon.

    PubMed

    Yepiz-Plascencia, G M; Radebaugh, C A; Hallick, R B

    1990-04-11

    The rpoB gene coding for a beta-like subunit of the chloroplast DNA-dependent RNA polymerase has been located on the chloroplast genome of Euglena gracilis distal to the rrnC ribosomal RNA operon. We have determined 5760 base-pairs of DNA sequence, including 97 bp of the 5S rRNA gene, an intergenic spacer of 1264 bp, the rpoB gene of 4249 bp, 84 bp spacer and 67 bp of the rpoC1 gene. The rpoB gene is of the same polarity as the rRNA operons. The organization of the rpoB and rpoC genes resembles the E. coli rpoB-rpoC and higher plant chloroplast rpoB-rpoC1-rpoC2 operons. The Euglena rpoB gene (1082 codons) encodes a polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 124,288. The rpoB gene is interrupted by seven Group III introns of 93, 95, 94, 99, 101, 110 and 99 bp respectively and a Group II intron of 309 bp. All other known rpoB genes lack introns. All the exon-exon junctions were experimentally determined by cDNA cloning and sequencing or direct primer extension RNA sequencing. Transcripts from the rpoB locus were characterized by Northern hybridization. Fully-spliced, monocistronic rpoB mRNA, as well as rpoB-rpoC1 and rpoB1-rpoC1-rpoC2 mRNAs were identified.

  10. Dynamic in vivo mutations within the ica operon during persistence of Staphylococcus aureus in the airways of cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Langhanki, Lars; Kale, Devika; Kahl, Janina; Hirschhausen, Nina; Neumann, Claudia; Lee, Jean C.; Götz, Friedrich; Rohde, Holger; Küster, Peter; Peters, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with chronic bacterial airway infections leading to lung insufficiency and decreased life expectancy. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens isolated from the airways of CF patients. Mucoid colony morphology has been described for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the most common pathogen in CF, but not for S. aureus. From the airways of 8 of 313 CF patients (2.5%) mucoid S. aureus isolates (n = 115) were cultured with a mean persistence of 29 months (range 1 month, 126 months). In contrast to non-mucoid S. aureus, mucoid isolates were strong biofilm formers. The upstream region of the ica operon, which encodes the proteins responsible for the synthesis of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), of mucoid isolates was sequenced. Spa-types of mucoid and non-mucoid strains were identical, but differed between patients. Mucoid isolates carried a 5 bp deletion in the intergenic region between icaR and icaA. During long-term persistence, from two patients subsequent non-mucoid isolates (n = 12) with 5 bp deletions were cultured, which did not produce biofilm. Sequencing of the entire ica operon identified compensatory mutations in various ica-genes including icaA (n = 7), icaD (n = 3) and icaC (n = 2). Six sequential isolates of each of these two patients with non-mucoid and mucoid phenotypes were subjected to whole genome sequencing revealing a very close relationship of the individual patient’s isolates. Transformation of strains with vectors expressing the respective wild-type genes restored mucoidy. In contrast to the non-mucoid phenotype, mucoid strains were protected against neutrophilic killing and survived better under starvation conditions. In conclusion, the special conditions present in CF airways seem to facilitate ongoing mutations in the ica operon during S. aureus persistence. PMID:27902784

  11. Combinatorial Regulation of the dev Operon by MrpC2 and FruA during Myxococcus xanthus Development

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ashleigh; Viswanathan, Poorna; Barrett, Terry; Son, Bongjun; Saha, Shreya

    2014-01-01

    Proper expression of the dev operon is important for normal development of Myxococcus xanthus. When starved, these bacteria coordinate their gliding movements to build mounds that become fruiting bodies as some cells differentiate into spores. Mutations in the devTRS genes impair sporulation. Expression of the operon occurs within nascent fruiting bodies and depends in part on C signaling. Here, we report that expression of the dev operon, like that of several other C-signal-dependent genes, is subject to combinatorial control by the transcription factors MrpC2 and FruA. A DNA fragment upstream of the dev promoter was bound by a protein in an extract containing MrpC2, protecting the region spanning positions −77 to −54. Mutations in this region impaired binding of purified MrpC2 and abolished developmental expression of reporter fusions. The association of MrpC2 and/or its longer form, MrpC, with the dev promoter region depended on FruA in vivo, based on chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, and purified FruA appeared to bind cooperatively with MrpC2 to DNA just upstream of the dev promoter in vitro. We conclude that cooperative binding of the two proteins to this promoter-proximal site is crucial for dev expression. 5′ deletion analysis implied a second upstream positive regulatory site, which corresponded to a site of weak cooperative binding of MrpC2 and FruA and boosted dev expression 24 h into development. This site is unique among the C-signal-dependent genes studied so far. Deletion of this site in the M. xanthus chromosome did not impair sporulation under laboratory conditions. PMID:25349159

  12. An Inducible Operon Is Involved in Inulin Utilization in Lactobacillus plantarum Strains, as Revealed by Comparative Proteogenomics and Metabolic Profiling.

    PubMed

    Buntin, Nirunya; Hongpattarakere, Tipparat; Ritari, Jarmo; Douillard, François P; Paulin, Lars; Boeren, Sjef; Shetty, Sudarshan A; de Vos, Willem M

    2017-01-15

    The draft genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Asian fermented foods, infant feces, and shrimp intestines were sequenced and compared to those of well-studied strains. Among 28 strains of L. plantarum, variations in the genomic features involved in ecological adaptation were elucidated. The genome sizes ranged from approximately 3.1 to 3.5 Mb, of which about 2,932 to 3,345 protein-coding sequences (CDS) were predicted. The food-derived isolates contained a higher number of carbohydrate metabolism-associated genes than those from infant feces. This observation correlated to their phenotypic carbohydrate metabolic profile, indicating their ability to metabolize the largest range of sugars. Surprisingly, two strains (P14 and P76) isolated from fermented fish utilized inulin. β-Fructosidase, the inulin-degrading enzyme, was detected in the supernatants and cell wall extracts of both strains. No activity was observed in the cytoplasmic fraction, indicating that this key enzyme was either membrane-bound or extracellularly secreted. From genomic mining analysis, a predicted inulin operon of fosRABCDXE, which encodes β-fructosidase and many fructose transporting proteins, was found within the genomes of strains P14 and P76. Moreover, pts1BCA genes, encoding sucrose-specific IIBCA components involved in sucrose transport, were also identified. The proteomic analysis revealed the mechanism and functional characteristic of the fosRABCDXE operon involved in the inulin utilization of L. plantarum The expression levels of the fos operon and pst genes were upregulated at mid-log phase. FosE and the LPXTG-motif cell wall anchored β-fructosidase were induced to a high abundance when inulin was present as a carbon source.

  13. HosA, a MarR Family Transcriptional Regulator, Represses Nonoxidative Hydroxyarylic Acid Decarboxylase Operon and Is Modulated by 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ajit; Ranjan, Akash

    2016-02-23

    Members of the Multiple antibiotic resistance Regulator (MarR) family of DNA binding proteins regulate transcription of a wide array of genes required for virulence and pathogenicity of bacteria. The present study reports the molecular characterization of HosA (Homologue of SlyA), a MarR protein, with respect to its target gene, DNA recognition motif, and nature of its ligand. Through a comparative genomics approach, we demonstrate that hosA is in synteny with nonoxidative hydroxyarylic acid decarboxylase (HAD) operon and is present exclusively within the mutS-rpoS polymorphic region in nine different genera of Enterobacteriaceae family. Using molecular biology and biochemical approach, we demonstrate that HosA binds to a palindromic sequence downstream to the transcription start site of divergently transcribed nonoxidative HAD operon and represses its expression. Furthermore, in silico analysis showed that the recognition motif for HosA is highly conserved in the upstream region of divergently transcribed operon in different genera of Enterobacteriaceae family. A systematic chemical search for the physiological ligand revealed that 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) interacts with HosA and derepresses HosA mediated repression of the nonoxidative HAD operon. Based on our study, we propose a model for molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of nonoxidative HAD operon by HosA in Enterobacteriaceae family.

  14. D-Fucose as a gratuitous inducer of the L-arabinose operon in strains of Escherichia coli B-r mutant in gene araC.

    PubMed

    Beverin, S; Sheppard, D E; Park, S S

    1971-07-01

    d-Fucose, a nonmetabolizable analogue of l-arabinose, prevents growth of Escherichia coli B/r on a mineral salts medium plus l-arabinose by inhibiting induction of the l-arabinose operon. Mutations giving rise to d-fucose resistance map in gene araC and result in constitutive expression of the l-arabinose operon. Most of these mutations also permit d-fucose to serve as a gratuitous inducer. It is concluded that d-fucose-resistant mutants produce an araC gene product with an altered inducer specificity. Addition of l-arabinose to cells induced with the gratuitous inducer, d-fucose, resulted in severe transient repression of operon expression followed by permanent catabolite repression. Transient repression but no permanent catabolite repression was obtained when cells unable to metabolize l-arabinose were employed. It is concluded that transport of l-arabinose alone is sufficient to achieve transient repression of its own operon, but that metabolism of l-arabinose must occur to achieve permanent catabolite repression of the l-arabinose operon. This general effect has been termed "self-catabolite repression."

  15. Nucleotide sequencing and characterization of Pseudomonas putida catR: a positive regulator of the catBC operon is a member of the LysR family.

    PubMed Central

    Rothmel, R K; Aldrich, T L; Houghton, J E; Coco, W M; Ornston, L N; Chakrabarty, A M

    1990-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida utilizes the catBC operon for growth on benzoate as a sole carbon source. This operon is positively regulated by the CatR protein, which is encoded from a gene divergently oriented from the catBC operon. The catR gene encodes a 32.2-kilodalton polypeptide that binds to the catBC promoter region in the presence or absence of the inducer cis-cis-muconate, as shown by gel retardation studies. However, the inducer is required for transcriptional activation of the catBC operon. The catR promoter has been localized to a 385-base-pair fragment by using the broad-host-range promoter-probe vector pKT240. This fragment also contains the catBC promoter whose -35 site is separated by only 36 nucleotides from the predicted CatR translational start. Dot blot analysis suggests that CatR binding to this dual promoter-control region, in addition to inducing the catBC operon, may also regulate its own expression. Data from a computer homology search using the predicted amino acid sequence of CatR, deduced from the DNA sequence, showed CatR to be a member of a large class of procaryotic regulatory proteins designated the LysR family. Striking homology was seen between CatR and a putative regulatory protein, TfdS. Images FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:1688844

  16. The Naphthalene Catabolic (nag) Genes of Ralstonia sp. Strain U2 Are an Operon That Is Regulated by NagR, a LysR-Type Transcriptional Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rheinallt M.; Britt-Compton, Bethan; Williams, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    In Ralstonia sp. strain U2, the nag catabolic genes, which encode the enzymes for the pathway that catabolizes naphthalene via the alternative ring cleavage gentisate pathway, are transcribed as an operon under the same promoter. nagR, which encodes a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, is divergently transcribed compared to the nag catabolic genes. A 4-bp frameshift deletion in nagR demonstrated that NagR is required for expression of the nag operon. The transcriptional start of the nag operon was mapped, and a putative −10, −35 σ70-type promoter binding site was identified. Further upstream, a site proximal to the promoter was identified as a site that has bases which have been found to be conserved in the activator-binding motif of other naphthalene pathways. Transcriptional fusion studies demonstrated that NagR regulates the expression of the nag operon positively in the presence of salicylate and to a lesser extent in the presence of 2-nitrobenzoate. Mutation of the LysR-type activator-binding motif in the nag promoter-proximal region resulted in a loss of inducibility of a lacZ reporter gene transcriptionally fused to nagAa, the first gene of the operon. However, other mutations in the region increased the effectiveness of salicylate as an inducer. PMID:13129957

  17. The use of a hands-on model in learning the regulation of an inducible operon and the development of a gene regulation concept inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanski, Katherine M.

    A central concept in genetics is the regulation of gene expression. Inducible gene expression is often taught in undergraduate biology courses using the lac operon of Escherichia coli (E. coli ). With national calls for reform in undergraduate biology education and a body of literature that supports the use of active learning techniques including hands-on learning and analogies we were motivated to develop a hands-on analogous model of the lac operon. The model was developed over two iterations and was administered to genetics students. To determine the model's worth as a learning tool a concept inventory (CI) was developed using rigorous protocols. Concept inventories are valuable tools which can be used to assess students' understanding of a topic and pinpoint commonly held misconceptions as well as the value of educational tools. Through in-class testing (n =115) the lac operon concept inventory (LOCI) was demonstrated to be valid, predictive, and reliable (? coefficient = 0.994). LOCI scores for students who participated in the hands-on activity (n = 67) were 7.5% higher (t = -2.281, P < 0.05) than students who did not ( n = 62). Use of the model is also supported by student feedback from two surveys. This study provides an effective activity that aids students' understanding of the lac operon. We were able to determine the efficacy of the activity and identify misconceptions held by students about the lac operon because of the use of a valid and reliable CI.

  18. Pre-induced Lac Operon Effect on Non Specific Sugars: Pre-culture Effect is Dependent on Strength of Induction, Exponential Phase and Substrate Concentration.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Pushkar

    2015-01-01

    The source and history of the cell plays an important role in influencing the phenotypic properties of the organism in a particular environmental condition. Pre-induced lac operon provides benefit on lactose environment. During metabolism lactose is broken down into glucose and galactose. The fate of cells with pre-induced lac operon on glucose and galactose milieu is not known. The influence of nutritional status of the medium, level of pre-induction and growth phase on pre-culture effect is not investigated. Effect of pre-induced lac operon on non specific sugars along with the factors that influence this effect was enumerated in the present study. Results of this present study indicate that pre-induced lac operon provide benefit in terms of growth on galactose milieu. This study also suggests that Pre induced lac operon effect depends on the (i) strength of induction in the pre-culture, (ii) nutritional content of the environment and (iii) exponential growth phase of the organism. The above study will help in the better characterization of the pre culture effect. It will also help in the better understanding of the relation between gene expression and growth physiology.

  19. The structure and evolution of the ribosomal proteins encoded in the spc operon of the archaeon (Crenarchaeota) Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Yang, D; Kusser, I; Köpke, A K; Koop, B F; Matheson, A T

    1999-07-01

    The genes for nine ribosomal proteins, L24, L5, S14, S8, L6, L18, S5, L30, and L15, have been isolated and sequenced from the spc operon in the archaeon (Crenarchaeota) Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, and the putative amino acid sequence of the proteins coded by these genes has been determined. In addition, three other genes in the spc operon, coding for ribosomal proteins S4E, L32E, and L19E (equivalent to rat ribosomal proteins S4, L32, and L19), were sequenced and the structure of the putative proteins was determined. The order of the ribosomal protein genes in the spc operon of the Crenarchaeota kingdom of Archaea is identical to that present in the Euryarchaeota kingdom of Archaea and also identical to that found in bacteria, except for the genes for r-proteins S4E, L32E, and L19E, which are absent in bacteria. Although AUG is the initiation codon in most of the spc genes, GUG (val) and UUG (leu) are also used as initiation codons in S. acidocaldarius. Over 70% of the codons in the Sulfolobus spc operon have A or U in the third position, reflecting the low GC content of Sulfolobus DNA. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the archaeal r-proteins are a sister group of their eucaryotic counterparts but did not resolve the question of whether the Archaea is monophyletic, as suggested by the L6P, L15P, and L18P trees, or the question of whether the Crenarchaeota is separate from the Euryarchaeota and closer to the Eucarya, as suggested by the S8P, S5P, and L24P trees. In the case of the three Sulfolobus r-proteins that do not have a counterpart in the bacterial ribosome (S4E, L32E, and L19E), the archaeal r-proteins showed substantial identity to their eucaryotic equivalents, but in all cases the archaeal proteins formed a separate group from the eucaryotic proteins.

  20. Molecular characterization of a large Borrelia burgdorferi motility operon which is initiated by a consensus sigma70 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Y; Old, I G; Saint Girons, I; Charon, N W

    1997-01-01

    A large motility operon, referred to as the flgB operon, was identified, characterized, and mapped at 310 to 320 kb on the linear chromosome of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. This is the first report that a sigma70-like promoter rather than a sigma28-like promoter is involved in the transcription of a major motility operon in bacteria. From these results in conjunction with results from a previous study (Y. Ge and N. W. Charon, Gene, in press), we have identified 26 genes in this operon that are relevant to motility and flagellar synthesis. With few exceptions, the gene order and deduced gene products were most similar to those of other spirochetes and Bacillus subtilis. Primer extension analysis indicated that transcription initiated from a conserved sigma70-like promoter immediately upstream of flgB; this promoter mapped within the heat-shock-induced protease gene hslU. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis indicated that a single transcript of 21 kb initiated at this promoter and extended through flgE and (with our previous results) onto the putative motility gene flbE. The flgB promoter element had strong activity in both Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. As expected, a mutant of S. typhimurium with an inactivated flagellum-specific sigma28 factor did not affect the function of this promoter. Western blot analysis indicated that B. burgdorferi recombinant FliG and FliI were antigenically similar to those of E. coli and other spirochetes. Although complementation of E. coli or S. typhimurium fliG or fliI mutants with the B. burgdorferi genes was unsuccessful, B. burgdorferi recombinant FliI completely inhibited flagellar synthesis and motility of wild-type E. coli and S. typhimurium. These results show that spirochete motility genes can influence flagellar synthesis in other species of bacteria. Finally, Western blot analysis with sera from infected humans and animals indicated a weak or nondetectable response to recombinant FliG and FliI. These

  1. High-affinity L-arabinose transport operon. Nucleotide sequence and analysis of gene products.

    PubMed

    Scripture, J B; Voelker, C; Miller, S; O'Donnell, R T; Polgar, L; Rade, J; Horazdovsky, B F; Hogg, R W

    1987-09-05

    The nucleotide sequence of the "high-affinity" L-arabinose transport operon has been determined 3' from the regulatory region and found to contain three open reading frames designated araF, araG and araH. The first gene 3' to the regulatory region, araF, encodes the 23-residue signal peptide and the 306-residue mature form of the L-arabinose binding protein (33,200 Mr). The binding protein, which has been described elsewhere, is hydrophilic, soluble and found in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. This gene is followed by an intragenic space of 72 nucleotides, which contains a region of dyad symmetry 23 nucleotides long capable of forming an 11-member stem-loop. The second gene, designated araG, contains an open reading frame capable of encoding an equally hydrophilic protein containing 504 residues (55,000 Mr). Following a 14-nucleotide spacer, which does not appear to have any secondary structure, the third open reading frame, herein designated araH, is capable of encoding a hydrophobic protein containing 329 residues (34,000 Mr) that can only be envisioned as having an integral membrane location. 3' to araH there is a T-rich region containing a 24-nucleotide area of dyad symmetry centered 55 nucleotides from the termination codon. Analysis of the derived primary sequences of the araG and araH products indicates the nature and potential features of these components. The araG protein was found to possess internal homology between its amino and carboxyl-terminal halves, suggesting a common origin. The araG gene product has been shown to be homologous to the rbsA gene product, the hisP product, the ptsB product and the malK product, all of which presumably play similar roles in their respective transport systems. Putative ATP binding sites are observed within the regions of homology. The araH gene product has been shown to be homologous to the rbsC gene product, which is the first observed homology between two purported membrane proteins.

  2. Characterization of TRAP-mediated regulation of the B. subtilis trp operon using in vitro transcription and transcriptional reporter fusions in vivo.

    PubMed

    McAdams, Natalie M; Gollnick, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, transcription of the tryptophan biosynthetic operon is regulated by an attenuation mechanism involving two alternative RNA secondary structures in the 5' leader region upstream of the structural genes. Regulation is accomplished, at least in part, by controlling which RNA structure forms during transcription of the operon. When intracellular tryptophan levels are high, the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) binds to the nascent trp mRNA to promote formation of a transcription terminator structure so as to induce transcription termination prior to the structural genes. In limiting tryptophan, TRAP does not bind, the alternative antiterminator RNA structure forms, and the operon is transcribed. Several in vitro and in vivo assays have been utilized to study TRAP-mediated regulation of both transcription and translation. Here, we describe using in vitro transcription attenuation assays and in vivo trp-lacZ fusions to examine TRAP-mediated regulation of the trp genes.

  3. Metabolite gene regulation: imidazole and imidazole derivatives which circumvent cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in induction of the Escherichia coli L-arabinose operon.

    PubMed

    Kline, E L; Bankaitis, V A; Brown, C S; Montefiori, D C

    1980-02-01

    Imidazole, histidine, histamine, histidinol phosphate, urocanic acid, or imidazolepropionic acid were shown to induce the L-arabinose operon in the absence of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate. Induction was quantitated by measuring the increased differential rate of synthesis of L-arabinose isomerase in Escherichia coli strains which carried a deletion of the adenyl cyclase gene. The crp gene product (cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate receptor protein) and the araC gene product (P2) were essential for induction of the L-arabinose operon by imidazole and its derivatives. These compounds were unable to circumvent the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in the induction of the lactose or the maltose operons. The L-arabinose regulon was catabolite repressed upon the addition of glucose to a strain carrying an adenyl cyclase deletion growing in the presence of L-arabinose with imidazole. These results demonstrated that several imidazole derivatives may be involved in metabolite gene regulation (23).

  4. The 60-kilodalton protein encoded by orf2 in the cry19A operon of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan functions like a C-terminal crystallization domain.

    PubMed

    Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar; Park, Hyun-Woo; Bideshi, Dennis K; Federici, Brian A

    2012-03-01

    The cry19A operon of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan encodes two proteins, mosquitocidal Cry19A (ORF1; 75 kDa) and an ORF2 (60 kDa) of unknown function. Expression of the cry19A operon in an acrystalliferous strain of B. thuringiensis (4Q7) yielded one small crystal per cell, whereas no crystals were produced when cry19A or orf2 was expressed alone. To determine the function of the ORF2 protein, different combinations of Cry19A, ORF2, and the N- or C-terminal half of Cry1C were synthesized in strain 4Q7. Stable crystalline inclusions of these fusion proteins similar in shape to those in the strain harboring the wild-type operon were observed in sporulating cells. Comparative analysis showed that ORF2 shares considerable amino acid sequence identity with the C-terminal region of large Cry proteins. Together, these results suggest that ORF2 assists in synthesis and crystallization of Cry19A by functioning like the C-terminal domain characteristic of Cry protein in the 130-kDa mass range. In addition, to determine whether overexpression of the cry19A operon stabilized its shape and increased Cry19A yield, it was expressed under the control of the strong chimeric cyt1A-p/STAB-SD promoter. Interestingly, in contrast to the expression seen with the native promoter, overexpression of the operon yielded uniform bipyramidal crystals that were 4-fold larger on average than the wild-type crystal. In bioassays using the 4th instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the strain producing the larger Cry19A crystal showed moderate larvicidal activity that was 4-fold (95% lethal concentration [LC(95)] = 1.9 μg/ml) more toxic than the activity produced in the strain harboring the wild-type operon (LC(95) = 8.2 μg/ml).

  5. Evaluation of the Role of the opgGH Operon in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Its Deletion during the Emergence of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Quintard, Kévin; Dewitte, Amélie; Reboul, Angéline; Madec, Edwige; Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Dondeyne, Jacqueline; Marceau, Michaël; Simonet, Michel; Lacroix, Jean-Marie; Sebbane, Florent

    2015-09-01

    The opgGH operon encodes glucosyltransferases that synthesize osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) from UDP-glucose, using acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a cofactor. OPGs are required for motility, biofilm formation, and virulence in various bacteria. OpgH also sequesters FtsZ in order to regulate cell size according to nutrient availability. Yersinia pestis (the agent of flea-borne plague) lost the opgGH operon during its emergence from the enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. When expressed in OPG-negative strains of Escherichia coli and Dickeya dadantii, opgGH from Y. pseudotuberculosis restored OPGs synthesis, motility, and virulence. However, Y. pseudotuberculosis did not produce OPGs (i) under various growth conditions or (ii) when overexpressing its opgGH operon, its galUF operon (governing UDP-glucose), or the opgGH operon or Acp from E. coli. A ΔopgGH Y. pseudotuberculosis strain showed normal motility, biofilm formation, resistance to polymyxin and macrophages, and virulence but was smaller. Consistently, Y. pestis was smaller than Y. pseudotuberculosis when cultured at ≥ 37°C, except when the plague bacillus expressed opgGH. Y. pestis expressing opgGH grew normally in serum and within macrophages and was fully virulent in mice, suggesting that small cell size was not advantageous in the mammalian host. Lastly, Y. pestis expressing opgGH was able to infect Xenopsylla cheopis fleas normally. Our results suggest an evolutionary scenario whereby an ancestral Yersinia strain lost a factor required for OPG biosynthesis but kept opgGH (to regulate cell size). The opgGH operon was presumably then lost because OpgH-dependent cell size control became unnecessary.

  6. Evaluation of the Role of the opgGH Operon in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Its Deletion during the Emergence of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Quintard, Kévin; Dewitte, Amélie; Reboul, Angéline; Madec, Edwige; Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Dondeyne, Jacqueline; Marceau, Michaël; Simonet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The opgGH operon encodes glucosyltransferases that synthesize osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) from UDP-glucose, using acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a cofactor. OPGs are required for motility, biofilm formation, and virulence in various bacteria. OpgH also sequesters FtsZ in order to regulate cell size according to nutrient availability. Yersinia pestis (the agent of flea-borne plague) lost the opgGH operon during its emergence from the enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. When expressed in OPG-negative strains of Escherichia coli and Dickeya dadantii, opgGH from Y. pseudotuberculosis restored OPGs synthesis, motility, and virulence. However, Y. pseudotuberculosis did not produce OPGs (i) under various growth conditions or (ii) when overexpressing its opgGH operon, its galUF operon (governing UDP-glucose), or the opgGH operon or Acp from E. coli. A ΔopgGH Y. pseudotuberculosis strain showed normal motility, biofilm formation, resistance to polymyxin and macrophages, and virulence but was smaller. Consistently, Y. pestis was smaller than Y. pseudotuberculosis when cultured at ≥37°C, except when the plague bacillus expressed opgGH. Y. pestis expressing opgGH grew normally in serum and within macrophages and was fully virulent in mice, suggesting that small cell size was not advantageous in the mammalian host. Lastly, Y. pestis expressing opgGH was able to infect Xenopsylla cheopis fleas normally. Our results suggest an evolutionary scenario whereby an ancestral Yersinia strain lost a factor required for OPG biosynthesis but kept opgGH (to regulate cell size). The opgGH operon was presumably then lost because OpgH-dependent cell size control became unnecessary. PMID:26150539

  7. Riboflavin synthesis genes ribE, ribB, ribH, ribA reside in the lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Lin, J W; Chao, Y F; Weng, S F

    2001-06-15

    Nucleotide sequence of the riboflavin synthesis genes ribE, ribB, ribH, ribA (GenBank Accession No. AF364106) resided in the lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 has been determined, and the amino acid sequences of riboflavin synthetase (RibE), DHBP synthetase (RibB), lumazine synthetase (RibH), GTP cyclohydrolase II (RibA) encoded by the riboflavin synthesis genes are deduced. Nucleotide sequence reveals that the ribE gene encodes the riboflavin synthetase responsible for converting lumazine to riboflavin, the ribB gene encodes the DHBP synthetase responsible for 3,4-dihydroxyl-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthesis, the ribH gene encodes the lumazine synthetase responsible for lumazine synthesis, and the ribA gene encodes the GTP cyclohydrolase II responsible for lumazine synthesis. Functional analysis illustrates that the specific segments lay behind the ribH and ribA genes might form potential loops Omega(oT) and Omega(TI)--Omega(TII); Omega(oT) is functioned as mRNA stability loop or/and for subregulation by alternative modulation, and Omega(TI)--Omega(TII) could be the transcriptional terminator of the lux operon. The gene order of the ribE, ribB, ribH, ribA genes resided in the lux operon and linked to the lum operon is <--ter*-lumQ-lumP-R&R-luxC-luxD-luxA-luxB-luxN-luxE-luxG-ribE-ribB-ribH-ribA-ter--> (R&R: regulatory region; ter: transcriptional terminator), whereas the R&R is the regulatory region for the lum and the lux operons, and ter and ter* are the transcriptional terminators for the lux and lum operons.

  8. Characteristic analysis of the luxG gene encoding the probable flavin reductase that resides in the lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Lin, J W; Chao, Y F; Weng, S F

    1998-05-19

    Nucleotide sequence of the luxG gene (GenBank Accession No. AF053227) from Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 has been determined, and the encoded probable flavin reductase is deduced. The probable flavin reductase encoded by the luxG gene has a calculated M(r) 26,544 and comprises 235 amino acid residues. The probable flavin reductase like the NAD(P)H-flavin reductase might catalyze the reduction of flavins. Alignment and comparison of the probable flavin reductases from P. leiognathi PL741, ATCC 25521, P. phosphoreum, Vibrio fischeri, and V. harveyi show that they are homologous; there is 66% homologous (29.4% identity and 36.6% similarity). Also, the probable flavin reductase is homologous to the NAD(P)H-flavin reductase; it is perceived that the probable flavin reductase and the NAD(P)H-flavin reductase could be enzyme isoforms encoded by two genes of a multigene family for differential response functions. Functional analysis illustrates that the specific segment sequence lay inside and behind the luxG gene might form the potential hairpin loops omega gI, omega gII, omega o, and omega oT as mRNA stability loop or/and as the attenuator-like loop or the dynamic terminator-like block for sub-regulation in the lux operon. The gene order of the luxG gene in the lux operon and the lum operon is <--ter-lumQ-lumP-R&R-luxC-luxD-luxA-luxB-+ ++luxN-luxE-luxG--> (R&R: regulatory region; ter: transcriptional terminator), whereas the R&R is the regulatory region for the lum operon and the lux operon, and ter is the transcriptional terminator for the lum operon.

  9. The 60-Kilodalton Protein Encoded by orf2 in the cry19A Operon of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan Functions Like a C-Terminal Crystallization Domain

    PubMed Central

    Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Park, Hyun-Woo; Bideshi, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    The cry19A operon of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan encodes two proteins, mosquitocidal Cry19A (ORF1; 75 kDa) and an ORF2 (60 kDa) of unknown function. Expression of the cry19A operon in an acrystalliferous strain of B. thuringiensis (4Q7) yielded one small crystal per cell, whereas no crystals were produced when cry19A or orf2 was expressed alone. To determine the function of the ORF2 protein, different combinations of Cry19A, ORF2, and the N- or C-terminal half of Cry1C were synthesized in strain 4Q7. Stable crystalline inclusions of these fusion proteins similar in shape to those in the strain harboring the wild-type operon were observed in sporulating cells. Comparative analysis showed that ORF2 shares considerable amino acid sequence identity with the C-terminal region of large Cry proteins. Together, these results suggest that ORF2 assists in synthesis and crystallization of Cry19A by functioning like the C-terminal domain characteristic of Cry protein in the 130-kDa mass range. In addition, to determine whether overexpression of the cry19A operon stabilized its shape and increased Cry19A yield, it was expressed under the control of the strong chimeric cyt1A-p/STAB-SD promoter. Interestingly, in contrast to the expression seen with the native promoter, overexpression of the operon yielded uniform bipyramidal crystals that were 4-fold larger on average than the wild-type crystal. In bioassays using the 4th instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the strain producing the larger Cry19A crystal showed moderate larvicidal activity that was 4-fold (95% lethal concentration [LC95] = 1.9 μg/ml) more toxic than the activity produced in the strain harboring the wild-type operon (LC95 = 8.2 μg/ml). PMID:22247140

  10. Essential role of the plasmid hik31 operon in regulating central metabolism in the dark in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Sowmya; Srivastava, Sanvesh; Sherman, Louis A

    2014-01-01

    The plasmid hik31 operon (P3, slr6039-slr6041) is located on the pSYSX plasmid in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. A P3 mutant (ΔP3) had a growth defect in the dark and a pigment defect that was worsened by the addition of glucose. The glucose defect was from incomplete metabolism of the substrate, was pH dependent, and completely overcome by the addition of bicarbonate. Addition of organic carbon and nitrogen sources partly alleviated the defects of the mutant in the dark. Electron micrographs of the mutant revealed larger cells with division defects, glycogen limitation, lack of carboxysomes, deteriorated thylakoids and accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate and cyanophycin. A microarray experiment over two days of growth in light-dark plus glucose revealed downregulation of several photosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, energy metabolism genes; and an upregulation of cell envelope and transport and binding genes in the mutant. ΔP3 had an imbalance in carbon and nitrogen levels and many sugar catabolic and cell division genes were negatively affected after the first dark period. The mutant suffered from oxidative and osmotic stress, macronutrient limitation, and an energy deficit. Therefore, the P3 operon is an important regulator of central metabolism and cell division in the dark.

  11. LOV Histidine Kinase Modulates the General Stress Response System and Affects the virB Operon Expression in Brucella abortus.

    PubMed

    Sycz, Gabriela; Carrica, Mariela Carmen; Tseng, Tong-Seung; Bogomolni, Roberto A; Briggs, Winslow R; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Paris, Gastón

    2015-01-01

    Brucella is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease brucellosis, and its success as an intracellular pathogen relies on its ability to adapt to the harsh environmental conditions that it encounters inside the host. The Brucella genome encodes a sensor histidine kinase containing a LOV domain upstream from the kinase, LOVHK, which plays an important role in light-regulated Brucella virulence. In this report we study the intracellular signaling pathway initiated by the light sensor LOVHK using an integrated biochemical and genetic approach. From results of bacterial two-hybrid assays and phosphotransfer experiments we demonstrate that LOVHK functionally interacts with two response regulators: PhyR and LovR, constituting a functional two-component signal-transduction system. LOVHK contributes to the activation of the General Stress Response (GSR) system in Brucella via PhyR, while LovR is proposed to be a phosphate-sink for LOVHK, decreasing its phosphorylation state. We also show that in the absence of LOVHK the expression of the virB operon is down-regulated. In conclusion, our results suggest that LOVHK positively regulates the GSR system in vivo, and has an effect on the expression of the virB operon. The proposed regulatory network suggests a similar role for LOVHK in other microorganisms.

  12. Differential regulation of the hmsCDE operon in Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by the Rcs phosphorelay system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Peng; Ren, Gai-Xian; Zhu, Hui; Mao, Xu-Jian; Sun, Yi-Cheng

    2015-02-12

    Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, forms a biofilm in its flea vector to enhance transmission. Y. pestis biofilm development is positively regulated by hmsT and hmsD, encoding diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) involved in synthesis of the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP. rcsA, encoding an auxiliary protein in Rcs phosphorelay, is nonfunctional in Y. pestis, while in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, rcsA is functional and represses biofilms. Previously we showed that Rcs phosphorelay negatively regulates transcription of hmsT in Y. pestis and its ancestor Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. In this study, we show that Rcs positively regulates hmsCDE operon (encoding HmsD) in Y. pestis; while in the presence of functional rcsA, Rcs represses hmsCDE operon in Y. pseudotuberculosis. Loss of rcsA's function in Y. pestis not only causes derepression of hmsT but also causes activation of hmsD, which may account for the increased biofilm formation in Y. pestis. In addition, differential regulation of the two DGCs, HmsT and HmsD by Rcs may help Y. pestis to adapt to different environment.

  13. pQuattro vectors allow one-step multigene metabolic engineering and auto-selection of quattrocistronic artificial mammalian operons.

    PubMed

    Fussenegger, M; Moser, S; Bailey, J E

    1998-11-01

    Based on internal ribosomal entry sites (IRES) of picornaviral origin we constructed a novel family of mammalian expression vectors. pQuattro vectors contain quattrocistronic artificial eukaryotic operons which link, in a single transcript, the simultaneous and coordinated as well as adjustable expression of up to three independent genes of interest to a terminal neomycin (neo) resistance marker. Due to the strict genetic linkage of the transgenes and the terminal selection marker, this genetic configuration enables, by the selection on neomycin, multigene metabolic engineering of mammalian cells in a single step (one-step metabolic engineering). Furthermore, selection on the terminal cistron of multicistronic expression units enforces cocistronic expression of all upstream encoded genes and maximises genetic integrity of the eukaryotic operon in stable mammalian cell lines, since clones harbouring damaged multicistronic expression units become neomycin-sensitive and are automatically counterselected (auto-selection). The modular set-up and the abundance of restriction sites in pQuattro vectors facilitate the movement of individual genes between multicistronic expression vectors and guarantees high compatibility with genetic elements of a wide variety of existing mammalian expression vectors.

  14. Operon flv4-flv2 Provides Cyanobacterial Photosystem II with Flexibility of Electron Transfer[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Eisenhut, Marion; Brandt, Anna-Maria; Carmel, Dalton; Silén, Henna M.; Vass, Imre; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Salminen, Tiina A.; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2012-01-01

    Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 has four genes encoding flavodiiron proteins (FDPs; Flv1 to Flv4). Here, we investigated the flv4-flv2 operon encoding the Flv4, Sll0218, and Flv2 proteins, which are strongly expressed under low inorganic carbon conditions (i.e., air level of CO2) but become repressed at elevated CO2 conditions. Different from FDP homodimers in anaerobic microbes, Synechocystis Flv2 and Flv4 form a heterodimer. It is located in cytoplasm but also has a high affinity to membrane in the presence of cations. Sll0218, on the contrary, resides in the thylakoid membrane in association with a high molecular mass protein complex. Sll0218 operates partially independently of Flv2/Flv4. It stabilizes the photosystem II (PSII) dimers, and according to biophysical measurements opens up a novel electron transfer pathway to the Flv2/Flv4 heterodimer from PSII. Constructed homology models suggest efficient electron transfer in heterodimeric Flv2/Flv4. It is suggested that Flv2/Flv4 binds to thylakoids in light, mediates electron transfer from PSII, and concomitantly regulates the association of phycobilisomes with PSII. The function of the flv4-flv2 operon provides many β-cyanobacteria with a so far unknown photoprotection mechanism that evolved in parallel with oxygen-evolving PSII. PMID:22570444

  15. Improvement of lichenysin production in Bacillus licheniformis by replacement of native promoter of lichenysin biosynthesis operon and medium optimization.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yimin; Xiao, Fang; Wei, Xuetuan; Wen, Zhiyou; Chen, Shouwen

    2014-11-01

    Lichenysin is a biodegradable surfactant with huge potential for recovering crude oil from the oil reservoir. The current production of lichenysin is made through fermentation from wild strain of Bacillus licheniformis, which is limited by low yield. The aim of this work was to improve lichenysin-producing capability of a wide strain B. licheniformis WX-02. Lichenysin produced from WX-02 was first extracted, purified, and identified. Through the substitution of the promoter of lichenysin biosynthesis operon, the mutants B. licheniformis WX02-P43lch, WX02-Pxyllch, and WX02-Psrflch were constructed with the constitutive promoter (P43), the xylose-inducible promoter (P xyl ), and the surfactin operon promoter (P srf ), respectively. A consistent change trend was observed between lichenysin production and lchAA gene transcription, confirming the strength of the promoters as an important factor for lichenysin synthesis. Among the three mutants, WX02-Psrflch produced the highest lichenysin yield. The production by the mutant WX02-Psrflch was further improved with the optimization of the major medium components including glucose, NH4NO3, and Na2HPO4/KH2PO4. Under 30 g/L glucose, 5 g/L NH4NO3, and 80 mM/60 mM Na2HPO4/KH2PO4, the strain WX02-Psrflch produced 2,149 mg/L lichenysin, a 16.8-fold improvement compared to that of wild strain WX-02.

  16. Nucleotide sequence of the 5' end of araBAD operon messenger RNA in Escherichia coli B/r.

    PubMed

    Lee, N; Carbon, J

    1977-01-01

    The transcription reaction in vitro provides a means of analyzing the nucleotide sequence of the mRNA of the araBAD operon. By controlling the time of synthesis, we obtained araBAD mRNA of varying lengths beginning from the 5' end. These 5' fragments were freed of lambda RNA transcripts by successive hybridizations to the sense strands of a pair of lambda ara transducing phages that carry ara genes in opposite orientations. The purified 5' fragments were ordered by their times of appearance during synchronized RNA elongation and by nearest neighbor analyses. The results, when combined with the knowledge of the NH2-terminal sequence of the product of the first cistron (L-ribulokinase gene araB), establish the nucleotide sequence of the first 69 bases at the 5' end of the araBAD operon mRNA. The AUG starter codon for L-ribulokinase is located at positions 29-31. The sequence is: 5' A-C-C-C-G-U-U-U-U-U-U-U-U-G-G-A-U-G-G-A-G-U-G-A-A-A-C-G-A-U-G-G-C-G-A-U-U-G-C-A-A-U-U-G-G-C-C-U-C-G-A-U-U-U-U-G-C-A-G-U-G-A-U-U-C-U-G-(U)-. . .3'.

  17. Identification of ribosomal protein S7 as a repressor of translation within the str operon of E. coli.

    PubMed

    Dean, D; Yates, J L; Nomura, M

    1981-05-01

    A DNA-directed in vitro protein-synthesizing system was used to demonstrate that r protein S7 has the capacity to inhibit the translation of mRNA for the second and third gene products of the str operon (S7 and EF-G) but not for the first gene product (S12). Translation of mRNA of the last gene product in the operon (EF-Tu) is also probably not inhibited by S7. In addition, we localized the target site for S7 repressor action on the polycistronic str mRNA by examining the repressor activity of S7 in vitro using various template DNAs that contain the gene. The target site was found not to include a promoter-proximal portion of the mRNA for S12. To test for regulatory properties of S7 in vivo, we inserted the S7 gene into a plasmid vector containing the ara regulatory elements such that S7 synthesis was placed under ara control. A specific increase in S7 synthesis caused by stimulation in transcription originating from the arabinose promoter decreased the synthetic rate for EF-G but had no effect on S12 or EF-Tu synthesis.

  18. Interaction between mutant alleles of araC of the Escherichia coli B/r L-arabinose operon.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D E; Eleuterio, M; Falgout, B

    1979-09-01

    Strains were constructed that contain mutational alterations affecting two distinct functional domains within the araC gene protein. The araCi (catabolite repression insensitivity) and araCh (catabolite repression hypersensitivity) mutations were used to alter the catabolite repression sensitivity domain, and mutation to D-fucose resistance was used to alter the inducer binding domain. araCh, D-fucose-resistant double mutants never exhibited constitutive ara operon expression, whereas all of the araCi, D-fucose-resistant double mutants did exhibit constitutivity. When L-arabinose was used as an inducer, most of the double mutants exhibited the sensitivity to catabolite repression associated with the araCi or araCh mutation. However, when D-fucose was used as an inducer, changes in sensitivity to catabolite repression were observed that were attributed to interactions between the two protein domains. The roles of catabolite activator protein and araC gene protein in the induction of the araBAD operon were discussed.

  19. Polarity in gene araB of the l-Arabinose operon in Escherichia coli B/r.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D E; Walker, D A

    1969-11-01

    A series of mutations are described which map in the araB gene of the l-arabinose operon and exert a polar effect on gene araA, the structural gene for the l-arabinose isomerase. Ten of the 20 araB point mutants examined exhibited absolute polarity and may represent insertions of genetic material into the araB gene. The remaining 10 point mutants exhibit strong polarity (less than 10% of the normal wild-type inducible level of isomerase) and may represent a class of externally suppressible polar mutations other than amber or ochre. Seven of the 12 araB deletion mutants examined, or 58%, exhibit polarity, suggesting that a shift in the reading frame has been generated in the polycistronic message for the l-arabinose operon. The remaining, presumably in-phase, deletion mutants exhibit hyperinducible levels of isomerase, an effect that is eliminated when an araB(+) gene is introduced in the trans position. The hyperinducibility effect is discussed in terms of a model for self-catabolite repression, originally proposed by Katz and Englesberg.

  20. Metabolite gene regulation of the L-arabinose operon in Escherichia coli with indoleacetic acid and other indole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kline, E L; Brown, C S; Bankaitis, V; Montefiori, D C; Craig, K

    1980-04-01

    The ability of indole derivatives to facilitate RNA polymerase transcription of the L-arabinose operon in Escherichia coli was shown to require the catabolite activator protein (CAP) as well as the araC gene product. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) was not obligatory for araBAD transcription when the cells were grown in the presence of 1 mM indole-3-acetic acid or in the presence of indole-3-acetamide, indole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, or 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid. However, these indole derivatives were unable to circumvent the cAMP requirement for the induction of the lactose and the maltose operons. Catabolic repression occurred when glucose was added to cells grown in the presence of L-arabinose and 1 mM indoleacetic acid or 1 mM cAMP. This effect was reversed at higher concentrations of indoleacetic acid or cAMP. The induction and the catabolite repression phenomena were quantitated by measuring the differential rate of synthesis of L-arabinose isomerase (the araA gene product). These results indicated that indole metabolites from various living systems may regulate gene expression and may be involved in "metabolite gene regulation."

  1. Effects of chromosomal deletion of the operon encoding the multiple resistance and pH-related antiporter in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Aagesen, Alisha M; Schubiger, Carla B; Hobson, Eric C; Dibrov, Pavel; Häse, Claudia C

    2016-12-01

    To examine the possible physiological significance of Mrp, a multi-subunit cation/proton antiporter from Vibrio cholerae, a chromosomal deletion Δmrp of V. cholerae was constructed and characterized. The resulting mutant showed a consistent early growth defect in LB broth that became more evident at elevated pH of the growth medium and increasing Na+ or K+ loads. After 24 h incubation, these differences disappeared likely due to the concerted effort of other cation pumps in the mrp mutant. Phenotype MicroArray analyses revealed an unexpected systematic defect in nitrogen utilization in the Δmrp mutant that was complemented by using the mrpA'-F operon on an arabinose-inducible expression vector. Deletion of the mrp operon also led to hypermotility, observable on LB and M9 semi-solid agar. Surprisingly, Δmrp mutation resulted in wild-type biofilm formation in M9 despite a growth defect but the reverse was true in LB. Furthermore, the Δmrp strain exhibited higher susceptibility to amphiphilic anions. These pleiotropic phenotypes of the Δmrp mutant demonstrate how the chemiosmotic activity of Mrp contributes to the survival potential of V. cholerae despite the presence of an extended battery of cation/proton antiporters of varying ion selectivity and pH profile operating in the same membrane.

  2. Novel twin streptolysin S-like peptides encoded in the sag operon homologue of beta-hemolytic Streptococcus anginosus.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Atsushi; Nakano, Kota; Ohkura, Kazuto; Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Kikuchi, Ken; Whiley, Robert A; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2013-03-01

    Streptococcus anginosus is a member of the anginosus group streptococci, which form part of the normal human oral flora. In contrast to the pyogenic group streptococci, our knowledge of the virulence factors of the anginosus group streptococci, including S. anginosus, is not sufficient to allow a clear understanding of the basis of their pathogenicity. Generally, hemolysins are thought to be important virulence factors in streptococcal infections. In the present study, a sag operon homologue was shown to be responsible for beta-hemolysis in S. anginosus strains by random gene knockout. Interestingly, contrary to pyogenic group streptococci, beta-hemolytic S. anginosus was shown to have two tandem sagA homologues, encoding streptolysin S (SLS)-like peptides, in the sag operon homologue. Gene deletion and complementation experiments revealed that both genes were functional, and these SLS-like peptides were essential for beta-hemolysis in beta-hemolytic S. anginosus. Furthermore, the amino acid sequence of these SLS-like peptides differed from that of the typical SLS of S. pyogenes, especially in their propeptide domain, and an amino acid residue indicated to be important for the cytolytic activity of SLS in S. pyogenes was deleted in both S. anginosus homologues. These data suggest that SLS-like peptides encoded by two sagA homologues in beta-hemolytic S. anginosus may be potential virulence factors with a different structure essential for hemolytic activity and/or the maturation process compared to the typical SLS present in pyogenic group streptococci.

  3. Characterization of the genes of the 2,3-butanediol operons from Klebsiella terrigena and Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Blomqvist, K; Nikkola, M; Lehtovaara, P; Suihko, M L; Airaksinen, U; Stråby, K B; Knowles, J K; Penttilä, M E

    1993-01-01

    The genes involved in the 2,3-butanediol pathway coding for alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase, alpha-acetolactate synthase (alpha-ALS), and acetoin (diacetyl) reductase were isolated from Klebsiella terrigena and shown to be located in one operon. This operon was also shown to exist in Enterobacter aerogenes. The budA gene, coding for alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase, gives in both organisms a protein of 259 amino acids. The amino acid similarity between these proteins is 87%. The K. terrigena genes budB and budC, coding for alpha-ALS and acetoin reductase, respectively, were sequenced. The 559-amino-acid-long alpha-ALS enzyme shows similarities to the large subunits of the Escherichia coli anabolic alpha-ALS enzymes encoded by the genes ilvB, ilvG, and ilvI. The K. terrigena alpha-ALS is also shown to complement an anabolic alpha-ALS-deficient E. coli strain for valine synthesis. The 243-amino-acid-long acetoin reductase has the consensus amino acid sequence for the insect-type alcohol dehydrogenase/ribitol dehydrogenase family and has extensive similarities with the N-terminal and internal regions of three known dehydrogenases and one oxidoreductase. Images PMID:8444801

  4. Structure and organization of rRNA operons in the region of the replication origin of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, N; Moriya, S; Yoshikawa, H

    1983-01-01

    Structure and organization of two complete ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sets, rrnO and rrnA, were determined for the first time in Bacillus subtilis. They are located at the region of the replication origin of the chromosome. Each set constitutes a single operon of: two tandem promoters - leader sequence - 16S rRNA gene - Ile-tRNA gene - Ala-tRNA gene - 23S rRNA gene - 5S rRNA gene - termination signal. The first promoter (P1) of rrnO differs from that of rrnA in sequence and function. P1 of rrnO was used very little for transcription either in vivo or in vitro while P1 was predominantly used in rrnA. A putative transcript of the entire operon was determined and constructed into a secondary structure. Analysis of in vivo transcripts by S1 mapping revealed primary processing sites at the loop and stem structure of 16S rRNA in rrnO and rrnA. A unique sequence in the leader region of rrnO can be formed into a highly complexed secondary structure and affects processing of mature 16S rRNA. The sequences of the two spacer tRNA genes are highly conserved between B. subtilis and Escherichia coli. Images PMID:6312418

  5. rRNA operons and genome size of 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus', a bacterium associated with citrus huanglongbing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wulff, N A; Eveillard, S; Foissac, X; Ayres, A J; Bové, J-M

    2009-08-01

    Huanglongbing is one of the most severe diseases of citrus worldwide and is associated with 'Candidatus (Ca.) Liberibacter africanus' in Africa, 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' in Asia and the Americas (Brazil, USA and Cuba) and 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus' (Lam) in Brazil. In the absence of axenic cultures, genetic information on liberibacters is scarce. The sequences of the entire 23S rRNA and 5S rRNA genes from Lam have now been obtained, using a consensus primer designed on known tRNAMet sequences of rhizobia. The size of the Lam genome was determined by PFGE, using Lam-infected periwinkle plants for bacterial enrichment, and was found to be close to 1.31 Mbp. In order to determine the number of ribosomal operons on the Lam genome, probes designed to detect the 16S rRNA gene and the 3' end of the 23S rRNA gene were developed and used for Southern hybridization with I-CeuI-treated genomic DNA. Our results suggest that there are three ribosomal operons in a circular genome. Lam is the first liberibacter species for which such data are available.

  6. Novel Twin Streptolysin S-Like Peptides Encoded in the sag Operon Homologue of Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus anginosus

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Atsushi; Nakano, Kota; Ohkura, Kazuto; Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Kikuchi, Ken; Whiley, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus anginosus is a member of the anginosus group streptococci, which form part of the normal human oral flora. In contrast to the pyogenic group streptococci, our knowledge of the virulence factors of the anginosus group streptococci, including S. anginosus, is not sufficient to allow a clear understanding of the basis of their pathogenicity. Generally, hemolysins are thought to be important virulence factors in streptococcal infections. In the present study, a sag operon homologue was shown to be responsible for beta-hemolysis in S. anginosus strains by random gene knockout. Interestingly, contrary to pyogenic group streptococci, beta-hemolytic S. anginosus was shown to have two tandem sagA homologues, encoding streptolysin S (SLS)-like peptides, in the sag operon homologue. Gene deletion and complementation experiments revealed that both genes were functional, and these SLS-like peptides were essential for beta-hemolysis in beta-hemolytic S. anginosus. Furthermore, the amino acid sequence of these SLS-like peptides differed from that of the typical SLS of S. pyogenes, especially in their propeptide domain, and an amino acid residue indicated to be important for the cytolytic activity of SLS in S. pyogenes was deleted in both S. anginosus homologues. These data suggest that SLS-like peptides encoded by two sagA homologues in beta-hemolytic S. anginosus may be potential virulence factors with a different structure essential for hemolytic activity and/or the maturation process compared to the typical SLS present in pyogenic group streptococci. PMID:23292771

  7. Regulation and sequence of the Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 groESL operon, encoding a cyanobacterial chaperonin.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, R; Reddy, K J; Sherman, L A

    1990-01-01

    The molecular chaperonins such as GroEL are now widely regarded as essential components for the stabilization of integral membrane or secretory proteins before membrane insertion or translocation, as well as for the assembly of macromolecular complexes such as ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase. The groESL operon of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 was cloned as two independent lacZ-groEL translational fusions by immunoscreening a lambda ZAP genomic expression library and then sequenced. The derived amino acid sequences of the GroES and GroEL proteins demonstrated very high levels of amino acid identity with cognate chaperonins from bacteria and chloroplasts. The bicistronic 2.4-kilobase transcript from this operon, barely detectable in RNA preparations from cells grown at 30 degrees C, accumulated approximately 120-fold in preparations from cells grown for 20 min at 45 degrees C. Under these conditions, GroEL protein accumulated to 10-fold-higher levels. Primer extension analysis was used to identify a cyanobacterial heat shock promoter located at -81 base pairs from the groES initiation codon. The transcriptional -10 and -35 sequences differ slightly from Escherichia coli consensus heat shock promoter sequences. Images PMID:1975581

  8. [Structural organization and control of expression of the sop-operon of linear plasmid prophage N15].

    PubMed

    Ravin, N V; Dorokhov, B D; Lane, D

    2004-01-01

    Stable inheritance of bacterial chromosomes and low-copy-number plasmids depends on the active partition of replicated molecules between daughter cells. The partition mechanism is well known for circular plasmids F and P1. The mechanism of partition of linear replicons was studied with the example of bacteriophage N15, which persists as a linear plasmid with covalently closed ends on lysogeny, rather than integrating into the Escherichia coli chromosome. Since stable inheritance of N15 is due to the sop operon homologous to sop of the F plasmid, the control of expression of the N15 sop genes was analyzed. The sop promoter (Psop) contains a binding site for bacterial IHF and five CTTTGC copies, which overlap the -35 and -10 elements. The Sop proteins were shown to interact with a Psop-containing DNA fragment in vitro. Transcription of the sop operon is regulated by the Sop proteins: SopA represses Psop, and SopB enhances the repression, having no effect on the promoter activity in the absence of SopA. In N15 lysogenic cells, Psop proved to be repressed. This regulatory mechanism was assumed to ensure production of SopA and SopB in amounts required for the segregation stability of N15 and to neutralize occasional fluctuations of their concentration in the cell.

  9. Cloning and sequencing of a putative Escherichia coli [NiFe] hydrogenase-1 operon containing six open reading frames.

    PubMed Central

    Menon, N K; Robbins, J; Peck, H D; Chatelus, C Y; Choi, E S; Przybyla, A E

    1990-01-01

    DNA encompassing the structural genes of an Escherichia coli [NiFe] hydrogenase has been cloned and sequenced. The genes were identified as those encoding the large and small subunits of hydrogenase isozyme 1 based on NH2-terminal sequences of purified subunits (kindly provided by K. Francis and K. T. Shanmugam). The structural genes formed part of a putative operon that contained four additional open reading frames. We have designated the operon hya and the six open reading frames hyaA through F. hyaA and hyaB encode the small and large structural subunits, respectively. The nucleotide-derived amino acid sequence of hyaC has a calculated molecular mass of 27.6 kilodaltons, contains 20% aromatic residues, and has four potential membrane-spanning regions. Open reading frames hyaD through F could encode polypeptides of 21.5, 14.9, and 31.5 kilodaltons, respectively. These putative peptides have no homology to other reported protein sequences, and their functions are unknown. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:2180913

  10. Prevalence of the ica operon and insertion sequence IS256 among Staphylococcus epidermidis prosthetic joint infection isolates.

    PubMed

    Koskela, A; Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, A; Persson, L; Söderquist, B

    2009-06-01

    Joint replacement surgery has improved the quality of life for hundreds of thousands of patients. However, the infection of a joint implant is an important and serious complication, though the prevalence is low. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most important pathogen involved in foreign-body infections. S. epidermidis is also a commensal that comprises a substantial part of the normal skin flora of humans. The possibility to demonstrate potential specific virulence markers may facilitate the interpretation of the bacteriological findings, as well as the clinical decision. The prevalence of the ica locus and insertion sequence IS256 by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) among 32 clinical S. epidermidis isolates from prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) and 24 commensal isolates from nares and skin was investigated. Sixteen (50%) of the 32 PJI isolates harbored the ica operon compared with one-third of the commensal isolates obtained from the samples of the skin and nares of healthy individuals. The IS256 was demonstrated in 26 (81%) out of 32 PJI isolates. By contrast, IS256 was found in one of 24 commensal isolates. In conclusion, IS256 may be superior to the ica operon as a marker of the invasive capacity of S. epidermidis, since it was found in most of the PJI isolates, but rarely among commensals.

  11. RegulonDB (version 5.0): Escherichia coli K-12 transcriptional regulatory network, operon organization, and growth conditions

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Heladia; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Peralta-Gil, Martín; Díaz-Peredo, Edgar; Sánchez-Solano, Fabiola; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Martínez-Flores, Irma; Jiménez-Jacinto, Verónica; Bonavides-Martínez, César; Segura-Salazar, Juan; Martínez-Antonio, Agustino; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2006-01-01

    RegulonDB is the internationally recognized reference database of Escherichia coli K-12 offering curated knowledge of the regulatory network and operon organization. It is currently the largest electronically-encoded database of the regulatory network of any free-living organism. We present here the recently launched RegulonDB version 5.0 radically different in content, interface design and capabilities. Continuous curation of original scientific literature provides the evidence behind every single object and feature. This knowledge is complemented with comprehensive computational predictions across the complete genome. Literature-based and predicted data are clearly distinguished in the database. Starting with this version, RegulonDB public releases are synchronized with those of EcoCyc since our curation supports both databases. The complex biology of regulation is simplified in a navigation scheme based on three major streams: genes, operons and regulons. Regulatory knowledge is directly available in every navigation step. Displays combine graphic and textual information and are organized allowing different levels of detail and biological context. This knowledge is the backbone of an integrated system for the graphic display of the network, graphic and tabular microarray comparisons with curated and predicted objects, as well as predictions across bacterial genomes, and predicted networks of functionally related gene products. Access RegulonDB at . PMID:16381895

  12. Reliable prediction of complex phenotypes from a modular design in free energy space: an extensive exploration of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Jose M G; Saiz, Leonor

    2013-10-18

    The basic methodology for designing, altering, and constructing biological systems is increasingly relying on well-established engineering principles to move forward from trial and error approaches to reliably predicting the system behavior from the properties of the components and their interactions. The inherent complexity of even the simplest biological systems, however, often precludes achieving such predictive power. A prototypical example is the lac operon, one of the best-characterized genetic systems, which still poses serious challenges for understanding the results of combining its parts into novel setups. The reason is the pervasive complex hierarchy of events involved in gene regulation that extend from specific protein-DNA interactions to the combinatorial assembly of nucleoprotein complexes. Here, we integrate such complexity into a few-parameter model to accurately predict gene expression from a few simple rules to connect the parts. The model accurately reproduces the observed transcriptional activity of the lac operon over a 10,000-fold range for 21 different operator setups, different repressor concentrations, and tetrameric and dimeric forms of the repressor. Incorporation of the calibrated model into more complex scenarios accurately captures the induction curves for key operator configurations and the temporal evolution of the β-galactosidase activity of cell populations.

  13. Identification and characterization of an operon of Helicobacter pylori that is involved in motility and stress adaptation.

    PubMed Central

    Beier, D; Spohn, G; Rappuoli, R; Scarlato, V

    1997-01-01

    We identified a novel stress-responsive operon (sro) of Helicobacter pylori that contains seven genes which are likely to be involved in cellular functions as diverse as chemotaxis, heat shock response, ion transport, and posttranslational protein modification. The products of three of these genes show amino acid homologies to known proteins, such as the flagellar motor switch protein CheY, a class of heat shock proteins, and the ribosomal protein L11 methyltransferase, and to a phosphatidyltransferase. In addition to containing an open reading frame of unknown function, the product of which is predicted to be membrane associated, the sro locus contains three open reading frames that have previously been described as constituting two separate loci, the ftsH gene and the copAP operon of H. pylori. Knockout mutants showed that CheY is essential for bacterial motility and that CopA, but not CopP, relieves copper toxicity. Transcriptional analyses indicated that this locus is regulated by a single promoter and that a positive effect on transcription is exerted by the addition of copper to the medium and by temperature upshift from 37 to 45 degrees C. The possible role of this locus in H. pylori virulence is discussed. PMID:9244252

  14. Participation of S. Typhimurium cysJIH Operon in the H2S-mediated Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Presence of Sulfate as Sulfur Source

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Ricardo; Frávega, Jorge; Rodas, Paula I.; Fuentes, Juan A.; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Calderón, Iván L.; Gil, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    H2S production has been proposed as a mechanism to explain bacterial resistance to antibiotics. In this work, we present evidence for the role of the cysJIH operon in resistance to ciprofloxacin mediated by H2S production with different sulfate as the only sulfur source. We found that the products of the cysJIH operon are involved in ciprofloxacin resistance by increasing both, the levels of H2S and reduced thiols apparently counteracting antimicrobial-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). This protective effect was observed only when bacteria were cultured in the presence of sulfate, but not with cysteine, as the sole sulfur source.

  15. The copYAZ Operon Functions in Copper Efflux, Biofilm Formation, Genetic Transformation, and Stress Tolerance in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamna; Senadheera, Dilani B.; Lévesque, Céline M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bacteria, copper homeostasis is closely monitored to ensure proper cellular functions while avoiding cell damage. Most Gram-positive bacteria utilize the copYABZ operon for copper homeostasis, where copA and copB encode copper-transporting P-type ATPases, whereas copY and copZ regulate the expression of the cop operon. Streptococcus mutans is a biofilm-forming oral pathogen that harbors a putative copper-transporting copYAZ operon. Here, we characterized the role of copYAZ operon in the physiology of S. mutans and delineated the mechanisms of copper-induced toxicity in this bacterium. We observed that copper induced toxicity in S. mutans cells by generating oxidative stress and disrupting their membrane potential. Deletion of the copYAZ operon in S. mutans strain UA159 resulted in reduced cell viability under copper, acid, and oxidative stress relative to the viability of the wild type under these conditions. Furthermore, the ability of S. mutans to form biofilms and develop genetic competence was impaired under copper stress. Briefly, copper stress significantly reduced cell adherence and total biofilm biomass, concomitantly repressing the transcription of the gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, and gbpC genes, whose products have roles in maintaining the structural and/or functional integrity of the S. mutans biofilm. Furthermore, supplementation with copper or loss of copYAZ resulted in significant reductions in transformability and in the transcription of competence-associated genes. Copper transport assays revealed that the ΔcopYAZ strain accrued significantly large amounts of intracellular copper compared with the amount of copper accumulation in the wild-type strain, thereby demonstrating a role for CopYAZ in the copper efflux of S. mutans. The complementation of the CopYAZ system restored copper expulsion, membrane potential, and stress tolerance in the copYAZ-null mutant. Taking these results collectively, we have established the function of the S. mutans

  16. Molecular evidence for the coordination of nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, revealed by a study on the transcriptional regulation of the agl3EFG operon that encodes a putative carbohydrate transporter in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Cen, Xu-Feng; Wang, Jing-Zhi; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Wang, Ying; Wang, Jin

    2016-03-18

    In the agl3EFGXYZ operon (SCO7167-SCO7162, abbreviated as agl3 operon) of Streptomyces coelicolor M145, agl3EFG genes encode a putative ABC-type carbohydrate transporter. The transcription of this operon has been proved to be repressed by Agl3R (SCO7168), a neighboring GntR-family regulator, and this repression can be released by growth on poor carbon sources. Here in this study, we prove that the transcription of agl3 operon is also directly repressed by GlnR, a central regulator governing the nitrogen metabolism in S. coelicolor. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) employing the agl3 promoter and mixtures of purified recombinant GlnR and Agl3R indicates that GlnR and Agl3R bind to different DNA sequences within the promoter region of agl3 operon, which is further confirmed by the DNase I footprinting assay. As Agl3R and GlnR have been demonstrated to sense the extracellular carbon and nitrogen supplies, respectively, it is hypothesized that the transcription of agl3 operon is stringently governed by the availabilities of extracellular carbon and nitrogen sources. Consistent with the hypothesis, the agl3 operon is further found to be derepressed only under the condition of poor carbon and rich nitrogen supplies, when both regulators are inactivated. It is believed that activation of the expression of agl3 operon may facilitate the absorption of extracellular carbohydrates to balance the ratio of intracellular carbon to nitrogen.

  17. Transcriptional regulation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lsrACDBFG and lsrRK operons and their role in biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Lamont, Richard J; Demuth, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is required for biofilm formation and virulence of the oral pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and we previously showed that lsrB codes for a receptor for AI-2. The lsrB gene is expressed as part of the lsrACDBFG operon, which is divergently transcribed from an adjacent lsrRK operon. In Escherichia coli, lsrRK encodes a repressor and AI-2 kinase that function to regulate lsrACDBFG. To determine if lsrRK controls lsrACDBFG expression and influences biofilm growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans, we first defined the promoters for each operon. Transcriptional reporter plasmids containing the 255-bp lsrACDBFG-lsrRK intergenic region (IGR) fused to lacZ showed that essential elements of lsrR promoter reside 89 to 255 bp upstream from the lsrR start codon. Two inverted repeat sequences that represent potential binding sites for LsrR and two sequences resembling the consensus cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) binding site were identified in this region. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), purified LsrR and CRP proteins were shown to bind probes containing these sequences. Surprisingly, the 255-bp IGR did not contain the lsrA promoter. Instead, a fragment encompassing nucleotides +1 to +159 of lsrA together with the 255-bp IGR was required to promote lsrA transcription. This suggests that a region within the lsrA coding sequence influences transcription, or alternatively that the start codon of A. actinomycetemcomitans lsrA has been incorrectly annotated. Transformation of ΔlsrR, ΔlsrK, ΔlsrRK, and Δcrp deletion mutants with lacZ reporters containing the lsrA or lsrR promoter showed that LsrR negatively regulates and CRP positively regulates both lsrACDBFG and lsrRK. However, in contrast to what occurs in E. coli, deletion of lsrK had no effect on the transcriptional activity of the lsrA or lsrR promoters, suggesting that another kinase may be capable of phosphorylating AI-2 in A. actinomycetemcomitans. Finally, biofilm

  18. Differential transcriptional regulation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lsrACDBFG and lsrRK operons by integration host factor protein.

    PubMed

    Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Demuth, Donald R

    2014-04-01

    We previously showed that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lsrACDBFG and lsrRK operons are regulated by LsrR and cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) and that proper regulation of the lsr locus is required for optimal biofilm growth by A. actinomycetemcomitans. Here, we identified sequences that reside immediately upstream from both the lsrA and lsrR start codons that closely resemble the consensus recognition sequence of Escherichia coli integration host factor (IHF) protein. A. actinomycetemcomitans IHFα and IHFβ were expressed and purified as hexahistidine fusion proteins, and using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), the IHFα-IHFβ protein complex was shown to bind to probes containing the putative IHF recognition sequences. In addition, single-copy chromosomal insertions of lsrR promoter-lacZ and lsrA promoter-lacZ transcriptional fusions in wild-type A. actinomycetemcomitans and ΔihfA and ΔihfB mutant strains showed that IHF differentially regulates the lsr locus and functions as a negative regulator of lsrRK and a positive regulator of lsrACDBFG. Deletion of ihfA or ihfB also reduced biofilm formation and altered biofilm architecture relative to the wild-type strain, and these phenotypes were partially complemented by a plasmid-borne copy of ihfA or ihfB. Finally, using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), two transcriptional start sites (TSSs) and two putative promoters were identified for lsrRK and three TSSs and putative promoters were identified for lsrACDBFG. The function of the two lsrRK promoters and the positive regulatory role of IHF in regulating lsrACDBFG expression were confirmed with a series of lacZ transcriptional fusion constructs. Together, our results highlight the complex transcriptional regulation of the lsrACDBFG and lsrRK operons and suggest that multiple promoters and the architecture of the lsrACDBFG-lsrRK intergenic region may control the expression of these operons.

  19. Toxicogenomic analysis incorporating operon-transcriptional coupling and toxicant concentration-expression response: analysis of MX-treated Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Ward, William O; Swartz, Carol D; Porwollik, Steffen; Warren, Sarah H; Hanley, Nancy M; Knapp, Geremy W; McClelland, Michael; DeMarini, David M

    2007-01-01

    Background Deficiencies in microarray technology cause unwanted variation in the hybridization signal, obscuring the true measurements of intracellular transcript levels. Here we describe a general method that can improve microarray analysis of toxicant-exposed cells that uses the intrinsic power of transcriptional coupling and toxicant concentration-expression response data. To illustrate this approach, we characterized changes in global gene expression induced in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 by 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), the primary mutagen in chlorinated drinking water. We used the co-expression of genes within an operon and the monotonic increases or decreases in gene expression relative to increasing toxicant concentration to augment our identification of differentially expressed genes beyond Bayesian-t analysis. Results Operon analysis increased the number of altered genes by 95% from the list identified by a Bayesian t-test of control to the highest concentration of MX. Monotonic analysis added 46% more genes. A functional analysis of the resulting 448 differentially expressed genes yielded functional changes beyond what would be expected from only the mutagenic properties of MX. In addition to gene-expression changes in DNA-damage response, MX induced changes in expression of genes involved in membrane transport and porphyrin metabolism, among other biological processes. The disruption of porphyrin metabolism might be attributable to the structural similarity of MX, which is a chlorinated furanone, to ligands indigenous to the porphyrin metabolism pathway. Interestingly, our results indicate that the lexA regulon in Salmonella, which partially mediates the response to DNA damage, may contain only 60% of the genes present in this regulon in E. coli. In addition, nanH was found to be highly induced by MX and contains a putative lexA regulatory motif in its regulatory region, suggesting that it may be regulated by lex

  20. Inter-genomic displacement via lateral gene transfer of bacterial trp operons in an overall context of vertical genealogy

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gary; Bonner, Carol A; Song, Jian; Keyhani, Nemat O; Jensen, Roy A

    2004-01-01

    Background The growing conviction that lateral gene transfer plays a significant role in prokaryote genealogy opens up a need for comprehensive evaluations of gene-enzyme systems on a case-by-case basis. Genes of tryptophan biosynthesis are frequently organized as whole-pathway operons, an attribute that is expected to facilitate multi-gene transfer in a single step. We have asked whether events of lateral gene transfer are sufficient to have obscured our ability to track the vertical genealogy that underpins tryptophan biosynthesis. Results In 47 complete-genome Bacteria, the genes encoding the seven catalytic domains that participate in primary tryptophan biosynthesis were distinguished from any paralogs or xenologs engaged in other specialized functions. A reliable list of orthologs with carefully ascertained functional roles has thus been assembled and should be valuable as an annotation resource. The protein domains associated with primary tryptophan biosynthesis were then concatenated, yielding single amino-acid sequence strings that represent the entire tryptophan pathway. Lateral gene transfer of several whole-pathway trp operons was demonstrated by use of phylogenetic analysis. Lateral gene transfer of partial-pathway trp operons was also shown, with newly recruited genes functioning either in primary biosynthesis (rarely) or specialized metabolism (more frequently). Conclusions (i) Concatenated tryptophan protein trees are congruent with 16S rRNA subtrees provided that the genomes represented are of sufficiently close phylogenetic spacing. There are currently seven tryptophan congruency groups in the Bacteria. Recognition of a succession of others can be expected in the near future, but ultimately these should coalesce to a single grouping that parallels the 16S rRNA tree (except for cases of lateral gene transfer). (ii) The vertical trace of evolution for tryptophan biosynthesis can be deduced. The daunting complexities engendered by paralogy, xenology

  1. Modified nucleotides m(2)G966/m(5)C967 of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA are required for attenuation of tryptophan operon.

    PubMed

    Prokhorova, Irina V; Osterman, Ilya A; Burakovsky, Dmitry E; Serebryakova, Marina V; Galyamina, Maria A; Pobeguts, Olga V; Altukhov, Ilya; Kovalchuk, Sergey; Alexeev, Dmitry G; Govorun, Vadim M; Bogdanov, Alexey A; Sergiev, Petr V; Dontsova, Olga A

    2013-11-18

    Ribosomes contain a number of modifications in rRNA, the function of which is unclear. Here we show--using proteomic analysis and dual fluorescence reporter in vivo assays--that m(2)G966 and m(5)C967 in 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli ribosomes are necessary for correct attenuation of tryptophan (trp) operon. Expression of trp operon is upregulated in the strain where RsmD and RsmB methyltransferases were deleted, which results in the lack of m(2)G966 and m(5)C967 modifications. The upregulation requires the trpL attenuator, but is independent of the promotor of trp operon, ribosome binding site of the trpE gene, which follows trp attenuator and even Trp codons in the trpL sequence. Suboptimal translation initiation efficiency in the rsmB/rsmD knockout strain is likely to cause a delay in translation relative to transcription which causes misregulation of attenuation control of trp operon.

  2. An ArsR/SmtB family member is involved in the regulation by arsenic of the arsenite oxidase operon in Thiomonas arsenitoxydans.

    PubMed

    Moinier, Danielle; Slyemi, Djamila; Byrne, Deborah; Lignon, Sabrina; Lebrun, Régine; Talla, Emmanuel; Bonnefoy, Violaine

    2014-10-01

    The genetic organization of the aioBA operon, encoding the arsenite oxidase of the moderately acidophilic and facultative chemoautotrophic bacterium Thiomonas arsenitoxydans, is different from that of the aioBA operon in the other arsenite oxidizers, in that it encodes AioF, a metalloprotein belonging to the ArsR/SmtB family. AioF is stabilized by arsenite, arsenate, or antimonite but not molybdate. Arsenic is tightly attached to AioF, likely by cysteine residues. When loaded with arsenite or arsenate, AioF is able to bind specifically to the regulatory region of the aio operon at two distinct positions. In Thiomonas arsenitoxydans, the promoters of aioX and aioB are convergent, suggesting that transcriptional interference occurs. These results indicate that the regulation of the aioBA operon is more complex in Thiomonas arsenitoxydans than in the other aioBA containing arsenite oxidizers and that the arsenic binding protein AioF is involved in this regulation. On the basis of these data, a model to explain the tight control of aioBA expression by arsenic in Thiomonas arsenitoxydans is proposed.

  3. Decaffeination and measurement of caffeine content by addicted Escherichia coli with a refactored N-demethylation operon from Pseudomonas putida CBB5.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Erik M; Hammerling, Michael J; Summers, Ryan M; Otoupal, Peter B; Slater, Ben; Alnahhas, Razan N; Dasgupta, Aurko; Bachman, James L; Subramanian, Mani V; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2013-06-21

    The widespread use of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) and other methylxanthines in beverages and pharmaceuticals has led to significant environmental pollution. We have developed a portable caffeine degradation operon by refactoring the alkylxanthine degradation (Alx) gene cluster from Pseudomonas putida CBB5 to function in Escherichia coli. In the process, we discovered that adding a glutathione S-transferase from Janthinobacterium sp. Marseille was necessary to achieve N 7 -demethylation activity. E. coli cells with the synthetic operon degrade caffeine to the guanine precursor, xanthine. Cells deficient in de novo guanine biosynthesis that contain the refactored operon are ″addicted″ to caffeine: their growth density is limited by the availability of caffeine or other xanthines. We show that the addicted strain can be used as a biosensor to measure the caffeine content of common beverages. The synthetic N-demethylation operon could be useful for reclaiming nutrient-rich byproducts of coffee bean processing and for the cost-effective bioproduction of methylxanthine drugs.

  4. Detection of pap, sfa, afa, foc, and fim Adhesin-Encoding Operons in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates Collected From Patients With Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rahdar, Masoud; Rashki, Ahmad; Miri, Hamid Reza; Rashki Ghalehnoo, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) with its virulence factors is the most prevalent cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Objectives; This study aimed to determine the occurrence of fim, pap, sfa, and afa genes among 100 UPEC isolates collected from patients diagnosed with UTI. Materials and Methods A total of 100 UPEC isolates were obtained from urine samples of patients with UTI. The prevalence of 5 virulence genes encoding type 1 fimbriae (fimH), pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap), S and F1C fimbriae (sfa and foc) and afimbrial adhesins (afa) were determined through PCR method. We also investigated the phylogenetic background of all isolates. In addition, the distribution of adhesin-encoding operons between the phylogroups was assessed. Results: The prevalence of genes encoding for fimbrial adhesive systems was 95% for fim, 57% for pap, 16% for foc, and 81% for sfa. The operons encoding for afa afimbrial adhesins were identified in 12% of isolates. The various combinations of detected genes were designated as virulence patterns. The fim gene, which occurred in strains from all phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) was evaluated and no significant differences were found among these groups. Conversely, significant differences were observed in relation to pap, afa, foc, and sfa operons. Conclusions: These results indicate that the PCR method is a powerful genotypic assay for the detection of adhesin-encoding operons. Thus, this assay can be recommended for clinical use to detect virulent urinary E. coli strains, as well as epidemiological studies. PMID:26464770

  5. Proteomic pleiotropy of OpgGH, an operon necessary for efficient growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under low-osmotic conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica, a bacterial, food-borne pathogen of humans, can contaminate raw fruits and vegetables. Causing much public concern, the bacteria can survive in water used to wash produce. The ability to survive the low-osmolarity of the wash waters is attributed to the OpgGH operon that leads...

  6. Constitutive mutations in the controlling site region of the araBAD operon of Escherichia coli B/r that decrease sensitivity to catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Colomé, J; Wilcox, G; Englesberg, E

    1977-02-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli B/r containing a deletion of the regulatory gene araC are Ara-. Slow-growing revertants of these strains were isolated and designated aralc because they contain a second mutation in a controlling site, aral, that allows for a low level of constitutive expression of the araBAD operon (Englesbert et al., 1969). We mutagenized aralc delta C strains and selected mutants that grow faster in mineral L-arabinose medium. The new mutations, called araXc, map very close to the original aralc mutations and are in the controlling site region between araB and araC. The aralcXc delta C strains have a higher constitutive level of expression of the araBAD operon than the aralc delta C parents. The araXc mutations are cis acting and decrease the araBAD operon's sensitivity to catabolite repression. The araBAD operon is expressed equally well in ara delta C and ara C cya crp backgrounds. The repressor form of ara C protein is able to repress the constitutive synthesis due to the ara Xc allele.

  7. A method for constructing single-copy lac fusions in Salmonella typhimurium and its application to the hemA-prfA operon.

    PubMed

    Elliott, T

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a set of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium strains that permits the reversible transfer of lac fusions between a plasmid and either bacterial chromosome. The system relies on homologous recombination in an E. coli recD host for transfer from plasmid to chromosome. This E. coli strain carries the S. typhimurium put operon inserted into trp, and the resulting fusions are of the form trp::put::[Kanr-X-lac], where X is the promoter or gene fragment under study. The put homology flanks the lac fusion segment, so that fusions can be transduced into S. typhimurium, replacing the resident put operon. Subsequent transduction into an S. typhimurium strain with a large chromosomal deletion covering put allows selection for recombinants that inherit the fusion on a plasmid. A transposable version of the put operon was constructed and used to direct lac fusions to novel locations, including the F plasmid and the ara locus. Transductional crosses between strains with fusions bearing different segments of the hemA-prfA operon were used to determine the contribution of the hemA promoter region to expression of the prfA gene and other genes downstream of hemA in S. typhimurium.

  8. Regulatory region with putA gene of proline dehydrogenase that links to the lum and the lux operons in Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Lin, J W; Yu, K Y; Chen, H Y; Weng, S F

    1996-02-27

    Nucleotide sequence of regulatory region (R & R) with putA gene (EMBL Accession No. U39227) from Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 has been determined, and the putA gene encoded amino acid sequence of proline dehydrogenase is deduced. Alignment and comparison of proline dehydrogenase of P. leiognathi with the proline dehydrogenase domain in the PutA protein of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium show that they are homologous. Nucleotide sequence reveals that regulatory region with the putA gene is linked to the lum and lux operons in genome; the gene order is <--putA--R & R(I)<--ter-lumQ-lumP-R & R-luxC-luxD-luxA-luxB-luxE--> (R & R: regulatory region; ter:transcriptional terminator), whereas the R & R is the regulatory region for the lum and the lux operons, ter is the transcriptional terminator for the lum operon, and R & R(I) apparently is the regulatory region for the putA and related genes. Nucleotide sequence analysis illustrates the specific inverted repeat (SIR), cAMP-CRP consensus sequence, canonical -10/-35 promoter, putative operator and Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence on the regulatory region R & R(I) for the putA and related genes; it suggests that the putA and related genes are simply linked to the lum and the lux operons in genome, the regulatory region R & R(I) is independent for the putA and related genes.

  9. Characterization of the rrnB operon of the plant pathogen Rhodococcus fascians and targeted integrations of exogenous genes at rrn loci.

    PubMed

    Pisabarro, A; Correia, A; Martín, J F

    1998-04-01

    A 6.0-kb SalI DNA fragment containing an entire rRNA operon (rrnB) was cloned from a cosmid gene bank of the phytopathogenic strain Rhodococcus fascians D188. The nucleotide sequence of the 6-kb fragment was determined and had the organization 16S rRNA-spacer-23S rRNA-spacer-5S rRNA without tRNA-encoding genes in the spacer regions. The 5' and 3' ends of the mature 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNAs were determined by alignment with the rrn operons of Bacillus subtilis and other gram-positive bacteria. Four copies of the rrn operons were identified by hybridization with an rrnB probe in R. fascians type strain ATCC 12974 and in the virulent strain R. fascians D188. However, another isolate, CECT 3001 (= NRRL B15096), also classified as R. fascians, produced five rrn-hybridizing bands. An integrative vector containing a 2.5-kb DNA fragment internal to rrnB was constructed for targeted integration of exogenous genes at the rrn loci. Transformants carrying the exogenous chloramphenicol resistance gene (cmr) integrated in different rrn operons were obtained. These transformants had normal growth rates in complex medium and minimal medium and were fully stable for the integrated marker.

  10. Transcriptional regulation of nitrate assimilation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs via transcriptional antitermination within the nirBD-PA1779-cobA operon.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Alessandra; Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Sorger-Domenigg, Theresa; Nakano, Masayuki; Eisenhaber, Birgit; Bläsi, Udo

    2012-06-01

    Bioinformatic approaches employed to analyse intergenic regions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa O1 (PAO1) for small RNAs (sRNAs) revealed a putative RNA gene encoded upstream of the nitrate assimilation operon nirBD-PA1779-cobA. Here, we show that this RNA, termed nitrogen assimilation leader A (NalA), represents the leader RNA of the nirBD-PA1779-cobA operon, and that nalA transcription is σ(54)- and NtrC-dependent. A PAO1 nalA deletion strain and a strain bearing a deletion in ORF PA1785 failed to grow on nitrate. PA1785 was identified as a homologue of the Azotobacter vinelandii nasT gene, the product of which is required for transcription of the A. vinelandii nitrite/nitrate reductase operon. Collectively, these studies reveal that transcriptional antitermination of the leader RNA NalA is required for expression of the PAO1 nitrate assimilation operon, and that this process is governed by conserved functions in PAO1 and A. vinelandii.

  11. An ArsR/SmtB Family Member Is Involved in the Regulation by Arsenic of the Arsenite Oxidase Operon in Thiomonas arsenitoxydans

    PubMed Central

    Moinier, Danielle; Slyemi, Djamila; Byrne, Deborah; Lignon, Sabrina; Lebrun, Régine; Talla, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The genetic organization of the aioBA operon, encoding the arsenite oxidase of the moderately acidophilic and facultative chemoautotrophic bacterium Thiomonas arsenitoxydans, is different from that of the aioBA operon in the other arsenite oxidizers, in that it encodes AioF, a metalloprotein belonging to the ArsR/SmtB family. AioF is stabilized by arsenite, arsenate, or antimonite but not molybdate. Arsenic is tightly attached to AioF, likely by cysteine residues. When loaded with arsenite or arsenate, AioF is able to bind specifically to the regulatory region of the aio operon at two distinct positions. In Thiomonas arsenitoxydans, the promoters of aioX and aioB are convergent, suggesting that transcriptional interference occurs. These results indicate that the regulation of the aioBA operon is more complex in Thiomonas arsenitoxydans than in the other aioBA containing arsenite oxidizers and that the arsenic binding protein AioF is involved in this regulation. On the basis of these data, a model to explain the tight control of aioBA expression by arsenic in Thiomonas arsenitoxydans is proposed. PMID:25107975

  12. An Escherichia coli strain with all chromosomal rRNA operons inactivated: complete exchange of rRNA genes between bacteria.

    PubMed

    Asai, T; Zaporojets, D; Squires, C; Squires, C L

    1999-03-02

    Current global phylogenies are built predominantly on rRNA sequences. However, an experimental system for studying the evolution of rRNA is not readily available, mainly because the rRNA genes are highly repeated in most experimental organisms. We have constructed an Escherichia coli strain in which all seven chromosomal rRNA operons are inactivated by deletions spanning the 16S and 23S coding regions. A single E. coli rRNA operon carried by a multicopy plasmid supplies 16S and 23S rRNA to the cell. By using this strain we have succeeded in creating microorganisms that contain only a foreign rRNA operon derived from either Salmonella typhimurium or Proteus vulgaris, microorganisms that have diverged from E. coli about 120-350 million years ago. We also were able to replace the E. coli rRNA operon with an E. coli/yeast hybrid one in which the GTPase center of E. coli 23S rRNA had been substituted by the corresponding domain from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results suggest that, contrary to common belief, coevolution of rRNA with many other components in the translational machinery may not completely preclude the horizontal transfer of rRNA genes.

  13. Three of four GlnR binding sites are essential for GlnR-mediated activation of transcription of the Amycolatopsis mediterranei nas operon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Jing-Zhi; Shao, Zhi-Hui; Yuan, Hua; Lu, Yin-Hua; Jiang, Wei-Hong; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Wang, Jin

    2013-06-01

    In Amycolatopsis mediterranei U32, genes responsible for nitrate assimilation formed one operon, nasACKBDEF, whose transcription is induced by the addition of nitrate. Here, we characterized GlnR as a direct transcriptional activator for the nas operon. The GlnR-protected DNA sequences in the promoter region of the nas operon were characterized by DNase I footprinting assay, the previously deduced Streptomyces coelicolor double 22-bp GlnR binding consensus sequences comprising a1, b1, a2, and b2 sites were identified, and the sites were then mutated individually to test their roles in both the binding of GlnR in vitro and the GlnR-mediated transcriptional activation in vivo. The results clearly showed that only three GlnR binding sites (a1, b1, and b2 sites) were required by GlnR for its specific binding to the nas promoter region and efficient activation of the transcription of the nas operon in U32, while the a2 site seemed unnecessary.

  14. Modified nucleotides m2G966/m5C967 of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA are required for attenuation of tryptophan operon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorova, Irina V.; Osterman, Ilya A.; Burakovsky, Dmitry E.; Serebryakova, Marina V.; Galyamina, Maria A.; Pobeguts, Olga V.; Altukhov, Ilya; Kovalchuk, Sergey; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Govorun, Vadim M.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Sergiev, Petr V.; Dontsova, Olga A.

    2013-11-01

    Ribosomes contain a number of modifications in rRNA, the function of which is unclear. Here we show - using proteomic analysis and dual fluorescence reporter in vivo assays - that m2G966 and m5C967 in 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli ribosomes are necessary for correct attenuation of tryptophan (trp) operon. Expression of trp operon is upregulated in the strain where RsmD and RsmB methyltransferases were deleted, which results in the lack of m2G966 and m5C967 modifications. The upregulation requires the trpL attenuator, but is independent of the promotor of trp operon, ribosome binding site of the trpE gene, which follows trp attenuator and even Trp codons in the trpL sequence. Suboptimal translation initiation efficiency in the rsmB/rsmD knockout strain is likely to cause a delay in translation relative to transcription which causes misregulation of attenuation control of trp operon.

  15. Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Hiraku; Shimada, Tomohiro; Dey, Debashish; Quyyum, M. Zuhaib; Nakano, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Akira; Yoshida, Hideji; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Sen, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order) and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3’ proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma, a strong binding site was identified within 16S rRNA gene in each of all seven rRNA operons. The binding in vitro of RNAP RpoD holoenzyme to an internal promoter, referred to the promoter of riRNA (an internal RNA of the rRNA operon), within each 16S rRNA gene was confirmed by gel shift assay and AFM observation. Using this riRNA promoter within the rrnD operon as a representative, transcription in vitro was detected with use of the purified RpoD holoenzyme, confirming the presence of a constitutive promoter in this region. LacZ reporter assay indicated that this riRNA promoter is functional in vivo. The location of riRNA promoter in vivo as identified using a set of reporter plasmids agrees well with that identified in vitro. Based on transcription profile in vitro and Northern blot analysis in vivo, the majority of transcript initiated from this riRNA promoter was estimated to terminate near the beginning of 23S rRNA gene, indicating that riRNA leads to produce the spacer-coded tRNA. Under starved conditions, transcription of the rRNA operon is markedly repressed to reduce the intracellular level of ribosomes, but the levels of both riRNA and its processed tRNAGlu stayed unaffected, implying that riRNA plays a role in the continued steady-state synthesis of tRNAs from the spacers of rRNA operons. We then propose that the tRNA genes organized within the spacers of rRNA-tRNA composite operons are expressed

  16. Nucleotide sequence of the luxC gene encoding fatty acid reductase of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Lin, J W; Chao, Y F; Weng, S F

    1993-02-26

    The nucleotide sequence of the luxC gene (EMBL Accession No. 65156) encoding fatty acid reductase (FAR) of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 was determined and the encoded amino acid sequence deduced. The fatty acid reductase is a component of the fatty acid reductase complex. The complex is responsible for converting fatty acid to aldehyde which serves as the substrate in the luciferase-catalyzed bioluminescent reaction. The protein comprises 478 amino acid residues and has a calculated M(r) of 53,858. Alignment and comparison of the fatty acid reductase of P. leiognathi with that of Vibrio harveyi B392 and Vibrio fischeri ATCC 7744 shows that there is 70% and 59% amino acid residues identity, respectively.

  17. Cloning of the cnr operon into a strain of Bacillaceae bacterium for the development of a suitable biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Fosso-Kankeu, Elvis; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine F; Piater, Lizelle A; Tlou, Matsobane G

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a potential microbial biosorbent was engineered to improve its capacity to remediate heavy metal contaminated water resources. A Bacillaceae bacterium isolated from a mining area was transformed with a plasmid carrying the (pECD312)-based cnr operon that encodes nickel and cobalt resistance. The bioadsorption ability of the transformed strain was evaluated for removal of nickel from metallurgical water relative to the wildtype strain. Results showed that transformation improved the adsorption capacity of the bacterium by 37 % at nickel concentrations equivalent to 150 mg/L. Furthermore it was possible to apply prediction modelling to study the bioadsorption behaviour of the transformed strain. As such, this work may be extended to the design of a nickel bioremediation plant utilising the newly developed Bacillaceae bacterium as a biosorbent.

  18. Increased dipicolinic acid production with an enhanced spoVF operon in Bacillus subtilis and medium optimization.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumikazu; Sumitomo, Nobuyuki; Hagihara, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Dipicolinic acid (DPA) is a multi-functional agent for cosmetics, antimicrobial products, detergents, and functional polymers. The aim of this study was to design a new method for producing DPA from renewable material. The Bacillus subtilis spoVF operon encodes enzymes for DPA synthase and the part of lysine biosynthetic pathway. However, DPA is only synthesized in the sporulation phase, so the productivity of DPA is low level. Here, we report that DPA synthase was expressed in vegetative cells, and DPA was produced in the culture medium by replacement of the spoVFA promoter with other highly expressed promoter in B. subtilis vegetative cells, such as spoVG promoter. DPA levels were increased in the culture medium of genetically modified strains. DPA productivity was significantly improved up to 29.14 g/L in 72 h culture by improving the medium composition using a two-step optimization technique with the Taguchi methodology.

  19. Identification of the merR gene of R100 by using mer-lac gene and operon fusions.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, T J; Brown, N L

    1985-01-01

    Transcriptional (operon) and translational (gene) fusions between the R100 merR gene and lacZ were constructed in vitro in a pBR322 plasmid carrying the mer genes derived from plasmid R100. The translational fusions were oriented in the opposite direction to and divergently from the merTCAD genes. This shows that the reading frame previously thought to be merR was incorrect. Expression of the gene fusion was repressed in trans by a compatible plasmid carrying the R100 merR+ gene, as was a similarly oriented transcriptional fusion. In contrast, expression of beta-galactosidase by the lac fragment located at the same site but in the opposite orientation was at a lower level and was not repressed by merR+. Images PMID:2993235

  20. The cost of expression of Escherichia coli lac operon proteins is in the process, not in the products.

    PubMed

    Stoebel, Daniel M; Dean, Antony M; Dykhuizen, Daniel E

    2008-03-01

    Transcriptional regulatory networks allow bacteria to express proteins only when they are needed. Adaptive hypotheses explaining the evolution of regulatory networks assume that unneeded expression is costly and therefore decreases fitness, but the proximate cause of this cost is not clear. We show that the cost in fitness to Escherichia coli strains constitutively expressing the lactose operon when lactose is absent is associated with the process of making the lac gene products, i.e., associated with the acts of transcription and/or translation. These results reject the hypotheses that regulation exists to prevent the waste of amino acids in useless protein or the detrimental activity of unnecessary proteins. While the cost of the process of protein expression occurs in all of the environments that we tested, the expression of the lactose permease could be costly or beneficial, depending on the environment. Our results identify the basis of a single selective pressure likely acting across the entire E. coli transcriptome.

  1. [Gene knockout and knockin on the Escherichia coli lac operon loci using pBR322-red system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yu, Mei; Li, Shan-Hu; Wang, Ming-Gang; Zhou, Jian-Guang

    2005-03-01

    pBR322-Red is a newly constructed recombineering plasmid, which contains a part of the pBR322 vector, a series of regulatory elements of lambda-prophage and Red recombination genes. In the beginning, we studied the best working conditions of pBR322-Red, and then modified lac operon in E. coli W3110 chromosome using the plasmid as follow: Firstly, we knockout the lacI gene using Red-mediated recombineering with overlapping single stranded DNA oligonucleotides. Secondly, we substituded the lacA and lacY genes with lacZ, a report gene, by Red-mediated linearized double strands DNA homologous recombination. Finally, we detected the expression of lacZ on these loci for the first time. The results suggested that pBR322-Red system is suitable for modifying W3110 chromosome with various recombination strategies.

  2. Inter-Protein Sequence Co-Evolution Predicts Known Physical Interactions in Bacterial Ribosomes and the Trp Operon.

    PubMed

    Feinauer, Christoph; Szurmant, Hendrik; Weigt, Martin; Pagnani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between proteins is a fundamental mechanism that underlies virtually all biological processes. Many important interactions are conserved across a large variety of species. The need to maintain interaction leads to a high degree of co-evolution between residues in the interface between partner proteins. The inference of protein-protein interaction networks from the rapidly growing sequence databases is one of the most formidable tasks in systems biology today. We propose here a novel approach based on the Direct-Coupling Analysis of the co-evolution between inter-protein residue pairs. We use ribosomal and trp operon proteins as test cases: For the small resp. large ribosomal subunit our approach predicts protein-interaction partners at a true-positive rate of 70% resp. 90% within the first 10 predictions, with areas of 0.69 resp. 0.81 under the ROC curves for all predictions. In the trp operon, it assigns the two largest interaction scores to the only two interactions experimentally known. On the level of residue interactions we show that for both the small and the large ribosomal subunit our approach predicts interacting residues in the system with a true positive rate of 60% and 85% in the first 20 predictions. We use artificial data to show that the performance of our approach depends crucially on the size of the joint multiple sequence alignments and analyze how many sequences would be necessary for a perfect prediction if the sequences were sampled from the same model that we use for prediction. Given the performance of our approach on the test data we speculate that it can be used to detect new interactions, especially in the light of the rapid growth of available sequence data.

  3. Expression of the nos operon proteins from Pseudomonas stutzeri in transgenic plants to assemble nitrous oxide reductase.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shen; Mottiar, Yaseen; Johnson, Amanda M; Goto, Kagami; Altosaar, Illimar

    2012-06-01

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a stable greenhouse gas that plays a significant role in the destruction of the ozone layer. Soils are a significant source of atmospheric N(2)O. It is important to explore some innovative and effective biology-based strategies for N(2)O mitigation. The enzyme nitrous oxide reductase (N(2)OR), naturally found in soil bacteria, is responsible for catalysing the final step of the denitrification pathway, conversion of N(2)O to dintrogen gas (N(2)). To transfer this catalytic pathway from soil into plants and amplify the abundance of this essential mechanism (to reduce global warming), a mega-cassette of five coding sequences was assembled to produce transgenic plants heterologously expressing the bacterial nos operon in plant leaves. Both the single-gene transformants (nosZ) and the multi-gene transformants (nosFLZDY) produced active recombinant N(2)OR. Enzymatic activity was detected using the methyl viologen-linked enzyme assay, showing that extracts from both types of transgenic plants exhibited N(2)O-reducing activity. Remarkably, the single-gene strategy produced higher reductase capability than the whole-operon approach. The data indicate that bacterial N(2)OR expressed in plants could convert N(2)O into inert N(2) without involvement of other Nos proteins. Silencing by homologous signal sequences, or cryptic intracellular targeting are possible explanations for the low activities obtained. Expressing N(2)OR from Pseudomonas stutzeri in single-gene transgenic plants indicated that such ag-biotech solutions to climate change have the potential to be easily incorporated into existing genetically modified organism seed germplasm.

  4. The ompB Operon Partially Determines Differential Expression of OmpC in Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Flores, Irma; Cano, Roxana; Bustamante, Víctor H.; Calva, Edmundo; Puente, José Luis

    1999-01-01

    Expression of the Escherichia coli OmpC and OmpF outer membrane proteins is regulated by the osmolarity of the culture media. In contrast, expression of OmpC in Salmonella typhi is not influenced by osmolarity, while OmpF is regulated as in E. coli. To better understand the lack of osmoregulation of OmpC expression in S. typhi, we compared the expression of the ompC gene in S. typhi and E. coli, using ompC-lacZ fusions and outer membrane protein (OMP) electrophoretic profiles. S. typhi ompC expression levels in S. typhi were similar at low and high osmolarity along the growth curve, whereas osmoregulation of E. coli ompC in E. coli was observed during the exponential phase. Both genes were highly expressed at high and low osmolarity when present in S. typhi, while expression of both was regulated by osmolarity in E. coli. Complementation experiments with either the S. typhi or E. coli ompB operon in an S. typhi ΔompB strain carrying the ompC-lacZ fusions showed that both S. typhi and E. coli ompC were not regulated by osmolarity when they were under the control of S. typhi ompB. Interestingly, in the same strain, both genes were osmoregulated under E. coli ompB. Surprisingly, in E. coli ΔompB, they were both osmoregulated under S. typhi or E. coli ompB. Thus, the lack of osmoregulation of OmpC expression in S. typhi is determined in part by the ompB operon, as well as by other unknown trans-acting elements present in S. typhi. PMID:9882670

  5. Positive and negative regulatory elements in the dnaA-dnaN-recF operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Roger, I; García-Sogo, M; Navarro-Aviñó, J P; López-Acedo, C; Macián, F; Armengod, M E

    1991-01-01

    The recF gene of E coli lies within a cluster of genes which play essential roles in DNA replication; the gene order is dnaA dnaN recF gyrB. Each of these genes has its own promoters which, with the exception of dnaA promoters, reside entirely within the translated region of the respective preceding gene. In this report, we analyze the effect of the dnaA and dnaN promoters on recF expression by translational fusions between recF and the lacZ reporter gene. Our results indicate that recF is a distal gene of the dnaA operon, and support the previous proposal that dnaN and recF constitute a transcriptional unit under control of the dnaN promoters. They also suggest that dnaA, dnaN and recF are predominantly expressed from the same mRNA although transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional mechanisms should be specifically involved in lowering expression of the recF gene. Recently, we have localized 3 tandem transcription termination sites in the second half of the dnaN gene, downstream from the recF promoters. Neither of them shows the typical features of simple terminators and apparently they do not work in a minimal system of in vitro transcription. In this report, we present evidence that only one of them is dependent on the Rho protein. Although the operon structure allows coordinate expression of dnaA, dnaN and recF, the presence of internal promoters (the dnaN and recF promoters), which appear to be inducible by DNA damage, and intracistronic terminators, whose activity is inversely proportional to the efficiency of translation, permits expression of individual genes to be independently regulated in response to altered growth conditions.

  6. Expression of E. coli araBAD operon encoding enzymes for metabolizing L-arabinose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sedlak; Ho

    2001-01-02

    The Escherichia coli araBAD operon consists of three genes encoding three enzymes that convert L-arabinose to D-xylulose-5 phosphate. In this paper we report that the genes of the E. coli araBAD operon have been expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using strong promoters from genes encoding S. cerevisiae glycolytic enzymes (pyruvate kinase, phosphoglucose isomerase, and phosphoglycerol kinase). The expression of these cloned genes in yeast was demonstrated by the presence of the active enzymes encoded by these cloned genes and by the presence of the corresponding mRNAs in the new host. The level of expression of L-ribulokinase (araB) and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase (araD) in S. cerevisiae was relatively high, with greater than 70% of the activity of the enzymes in wild type E. coli. On the other hand, the expression of L-arabinose isomerase (araA) reached only 10% of the activity of the same enzyme in wild type E. coli. Nevertheless, S. cerevisiae, bearing the cloned L-arabinose isomerase gene, converted L-arabinose to detectable levels of L-ribulose during fermentation. However, S. cerevisiae bearing all three genes (araA, araB, and araD) was not able to produce detectable amount of ethanol from L-arabinose. We speculate that factors such as pH, temperature, and competitive inhibition could reduce the activity of these enzymes to a lower level during fermentation compared to their activity measured in vitro. Thus, the ethanol produced from L-arabinose by recombinant yeast containing the expressed BAD genes is most likely totally consumed by the cell to maintain viability.

  7. Molecular basis of TRAP–5′SL RNA interaction in the Bacillus subtilis trp operon transcription attenuation mechanism

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Adam P.; Mokdad, Ali; Major, François; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Babitzke, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Expression of the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon is regulated by the interaction of tryptophan-activated TRAP with 11 (G/U)AG trinucleotide repeats that lie in the leader region of the nascent trp transcript. Bound TRAP prevents folding of an antiterminator structure and favors formation of an overlapping intrinsic terminator hairpin upstream of the trp operon structural genes. A 5′-stem–loop (5′SL) structure that forms just upstream of the triplet repeat region increases the affinity of TRAP–trp RNA interaction, thereby increasing the efficiency of transcription termination. Single-stranded nucleotides in the internal loop and in the hairpin loop of the 5′SL are important for TRAP binding. We show here that altering the distance between these two loops suggests that G7, A8, and A9 from the internal loop and A19 and G20 from the hairpin loop constitute two structurally discrete TRAP-binding regions. Photochemical cross-linking experiments also show that the hairpin loop of the 5′SL is in close proximity to the flexible loop region of TRAP during TRAP–5′SL interaction. The dimensions of B. subtilis TRAP and of a three-dimensional model of the 5′SL generated using the MC-Sym and MC-Fold pipeline imply that the 5′SL binds the protein in an orientation where the helical axis of the 5′SL is perpendicular to the plane of TRAP. This interaction not only increases the affinity of TRAP–trp leader RNA interaction, but also orients the downstream triplet repeats for interaction with the 11 KKR motifs that lie on TRAP's perimeter, increasing the likelihood that TRAP will bind in time to promote termination. PMID:19033375

  8. Inter-Protein Sequence Co-Evolution Predicts Known Physical Interactions in Bacterial Ribosomes and the Trp Operon

    PubMed Central

    Feinauer, Christoph; Szurmant, Hendrik; Weigt, Martin; Pagnani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between proteins is a fundamental mechanism that underlies virtually all biological processes. Many important interactions are conserved across a large variety of species. The need to maintain interaction leads to a high degree of co-evolution between residues in the interface between partner proteins. The inference of protein-protein interaction networks from the rapidly growing sequence databases is one of the most formidable tasks in systems biology today. We propose here a novel approach based on the Direct-Coupling Analysis of the co-evolution between inter-protein residue pairs. We use ribosomal and trp operon proteins as test cases: For the small resp. large ribosomal subunit our approach predicts protein-interaction partners at a true-positive rate of 70% resp. 90% within the first 10 predictions, with areas of 0.69 resp. 0.81 under the ROC curves for all predictions. In the trp operon, it assigns the two largest interaction scores to the only two interactions experimentally known. On the level of residue interactions we show that for both the small and the large ribosomal subunit our approach predicts interacting residues in the system with a true positive rate of 60% and 85% in the first 20 predictions. We use artificial data to show that the performance of our approach depends crucially on the size of the joint multiple sequence alignments and analyze how many sequences would be necessary for a perfect prediction if the sequences were sampled from the same model that we use for prediction. Given the performance of our approach on the test data we speculate that it can be used to detect new interactions, especially in the light of the rapid growth of available sequence data. PMID:26882169

  9. Transcription of the Streptococcus pyogenes hyaluronic acid capsule biosynthesis operon is regulated by previously unknown upstream elements.

    PubMed

    Falaleeva, Marina; Zurek, Oliwia W; Watkins, Robert L; Reed, Robert W; Ali, Hadeel; Sumby, Paul; Voyich, Jovanka M; Korotkova, Natalia

    2014-12-01

    The important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) produces a hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule that plays critical roles in immune evasion. Previous studies showed that the hasABC operon encoding the capsule biosynthesis enzymes is under the control of a single promoter, P1, which is negatively regulated by the two-component regulatory system CovR/S. In this work, we characterize the sequence upstream of P1 and identify a novel regulatory region controlling transcription of the capsule biosynthesis operon in the M1 serotype strain MGAS2221. This region consists of a promoter, P2, which initiates transcription of a novel small RNA, HasS, an intrinsic transcriptional terminator that inefficiently terminates HasS, permitting read-through transcription of hasABC, and a putative promoter which lies upstream of P2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and transcriptional reporter data identified CovR as a negative regulator of P2. We found that the P1 and P2 promoters are completely repressed by CovR, and capsule expression is regulated by the putative promoter upstream of P2. Deletion of hasS or of the terminator eliminates CovR-binding sequences, relieving repression and increasing read-through, hasA transcription, and capsule production. Sequence analysis of 44 GAS genomes revealed a high level of polymorphism in the HasS sequence region. Most of the HasS variations were located in the terminator sequences, suggesting that this region is under strong selective pressure. We discovered that the terminator deletion mutant is highly resistant to neutrophil-mediated killing and is significantly more virulent in a mouse model of GAS invasive disease than the wild-type strain. Together, these results are consistent with the naturally occurring mutations in this region modulating GAS virulence.

  10. Secretion and assembly of functional mini-cellulosomes from synthetic chromosomal operons in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is reliant on the simultaneous enzyme production, saccharification of biomass, and fermentation of released sugars into valuable products such as butanol. Clostridial species that produce butanol are, however, unable to grow on crystalline cellulose. In contrast, those saccharolytic species that produce predominantly ethanol, such as Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium cellulolyticum, degrade crystalline cellulose with high efficiency due to their possession of a multienzyme complex termed the cellulosome. This has led to studies directed at endowing butanol-producing species with the genetic potential to produce a cellulosome, albeit by localising the necessary transgenes to unstable autonomous plasmids. Here we have explored the potential of our previously described Allele-Coupled Exchange (ACE) technology for creating strains of the butanol producing species Clostridium acetobutylicum in which the genes encoding the various cellulosome components are stably integrated into the genome. Results We used BioBrick2 (BB2) standardised parts to assemble a range of synthetic genes encoding C. thermocellum cellulosomal scaffoldin proteins (CipA variants) and glycoside hydrolases (GHs, Cel8A, Cel9B, Cel48S and Cel9K) as well as synthetic cellulosomal operons that direct the synthesis of Cel8A, Cel9B and a truncated form of CipA. All synthetic genes and operons were integrated into the C. acetobutylicum genome using the recently developed ACE technology. Heterologous protein expression levels and mini-cellulosome self-assembly were assayed by western blot and native PAGE analysis. Conclusions We demonstrate the successful expression, secretion and self-assembly of cellulosomal subunits by the recombinant C. acetobutylicum strains, providing a platform for the construction of novel cellulosomes. PMID:23962085

  11. Dynamic diversity of the tryptophan pathway in chlamydiae: reductive evolution and a novel operon for tryptophan recapture

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gary; Bonner, Carol A; Jensen, Roy A

    2002-01-01

    Background Complete genomic sequences of closely related organisms, such as the chlamydiae, afford the opportunity to assess significant strain differences against a background of many shared characteristics. The chlamydiae are ubiquitous intracellular parasites that are important pathogens of humans and other organisms. Tryptophan limitation caused by production of interferon-γ by the host and subsequent induction of indoleamine dioxygenase is a key aspect of the host-parasite interaction. It appears that the chlamydiae have learned to recognize tryptophan depletion as a signal for developmental remodeling. The consequent non-cultivable state of persistence can be increasingly equated to chronic disease conditions. Results The genes encoding enzymes of tryptophan biosynthesis were the focal point of this study. Chlamydophila psittaci was found to possess a compact operon containing PRPP synthase, kynureninase, and genes encoding all but the first step of tryptophan biosynthesis. All but one of the genes exhibited translational coupling. Other chlamydiae (Chlamydia trachomatis, C. muridarum and Chlamydophila pneumoniae) lack genes encoding PRPP synthase, kynureninase, and either lack tryptophan-pathway genes altogether or exhibit various stages of reductive loss. The origin of the genes comprising the trp operon does not seem to have been from lateral gene transfer. Conclusions The factors that accommodate the transition of different chlamydial species to the persistent (chronic) state of pathogenesis include marked differences in strategies deployed to obtain tryptophan from host resources. C. psittaci appears to have a novel mechanism for intercepting an early intermediate of tryptophan catabolism and recycling it back to tryptophan. In effect, a host-parasite metabolic mosaic has evolved for tryptophan recycling. PMID:12225590

  12. The ada operon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes two DNA methyltransferases for inducible repair of DNA alkylation damage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingyi; Aamodt, Randi M; Dalhus, Bjørn; Balasingham, Seetha; Helle, Ina; Andersen, Pernille; Tønjum, Tone; Alseth, Ingrun; Rognes, Torbjørn; Bjørås, Magnar

    2011-06-10

    The ada operon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which encodes a composite protein of AdaA and AlkA and a separate AdaB/Ogt protein, was characterized. M. tuberculosis treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induced transcription of the adaA-alkA and adaB genes, suggesting that M. tuberculosis mount an inducible response to methylating agents. Survival assays of the methyltransferase defective Escherichia coli mutant KT233 (ada ogt), showed that expression of the adaB gene rescued the alkylation sensitivity. Further, adaB but not adaA-alkA complemented the hypermutator phenotype of KT233. Purified AdaA-AlkA and AdaB possessed methyltransferase activity. These data suggested that AdaB counteract the cytotoxic and mutagenic effect of O(6)-methylguanine, while AdaA-AlkA most likely transfers methyl groups from innocuous methylphosphotriesters. AdaA-AlkA did not possess alkylbase DNA glycosylase activity nor rescue the alkylation sensitivity of the E. coli mutant BK2118 (tag alkA). We propose that AdaA-AlkA is a positive regulator of the adaptive response in M. tuberculosis. It thus appears that the ada operon of M. tuberculosis suppresses the mutagenic effect of alkylation but not the cytotoxic effect of lesions such as 3-methylpurines. Collectively, these data indicate that M. tuberculosis hypermutator strains with defective adaptive response genes might sustain robustness to cytotoxic alkylation DNA damage and confer a selective advantage contributing to host adaptation.

  13. Homo-D-lactic acid production from mixed sugars using xylose-assimilating operon-integrated Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shogo; Okano, Kenji; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2011-10-01

    In order to achieve efficient D-lactic acid fermentation from a mixture of xylose and glucose, the xylose-assimilating xylAB operon from Lactobacillus pentosus (PXylAB) was introduced into an L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL1)-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum (ΔldhL1-xpk1::tkt-Δxpk2) strain in which the phosphoketolase 1 gene (xpk1) was replaced with the transketolase gene (tkt) from Lactococcus lactis, and the phosphoketolase 2 (xpk2) gene was deleted. Two copies of xylAB introduced into the genome significantly improved the xylose fermentation ability, raising it to the same level as that of ΔldhL1-xpk1::tkt-Δxpk2 harboring a xylAB operon-expressing plasmid. Using the two-copy xylAB integrated strain, successful homo-D-lactic acid production was achieved from a mixture of 25 g/l xylose and 75 g/l glucose without carbon catabolite repression. After 36-h cultivation, 74.2 g/l of lactic acid was produced with a high yield (0.78 g per gram of consumed sugar) and an optical purity of D-lactic acid of 99.5%. Finally, we successfully demonstrated homo-D-lactic acid fermentation from a mixture of three kinds of sugar: glucose, xylose, and arabinose. This is the first report that describes homo-D-lactic acid fermentation from mixed sugars without carbon catabolite repression using the xylose-assimilating pathway integrated into lactic acid bacteria.

  14. A dual-signal regulatory circuit activates transcription of a set of divergent operons in Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guang; Weatherspoon, Natasha; Kong, Wei; Curtiss, Roy; Shi, Yixin

    2008-01-01

    We present a molecular mechanism for signal transduction that activates transcription of the SlyA regulon in Salmonella typhimurium. We demonstrate that SlyA mediates transcriptional activation in response to guanosine tetraphosphate, ppGpp, according to the following observations: (i) in vivo transcription of SlyA-dependent genes is repressed when ppGpp is absent; this transcription can be restored by overproducing SlyA; (ii) in vivo dimerization and binding of SlyA to the target promoter are facilitated in the presence of ppGpp; and (iii) in vitro SlyA binding to the target promoter is enhanced when ppGpp is supplemented. Thus, ppGpp must be the cytoplasmic component that stimulates SlyA regulatory function by interacting directly with this regulator in Salmonella. This signaling domain, integrated by the PhoP/PhoQ 2-component system that activates slyA transcription by sensing Mg2+, forms feedforward loops that regulate chromosomal loci identified through a motif search over the S. typhimurium genome. Many such loci are divergent operons, each formed by 2 neighboring genes in which transcription of these 2 loci proceeds in opposite directions. Both genes, however, are controlled by PhoP and SlyA through a single shared PhoP box and SlyA box present in their intergenic regions. A substitution in either box sequence causes a simultaneous cessation of transcription of a divergent operon, pagD-pagC, equivalent to the phenotype in a phoP or slyA mutant. We also identified several chromosomal loci that possess pagC-type genes without the cognate pagD-type genes. Therefore, our results provide a molecular basis for the understanding of SlyA-dependent phenotypes associated with Salmonella virulence. PMID:19091955

  15. The Sigma B operon is a determinant of fitness for a Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b strain in soil.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Lisa; Duhé, Jessica M; Flaherty, Denise

    2011-06-01

    In nature the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes lives as a saprophyte where it can contaminate preharvest produce. This environment can present many stresses such as ultraviolet light, variations in temperature and humidity, and oxidative stress from growing plant matter in the soil. The alternative sigma factor Sigma B, encoded by sigB, controls the response to most stresses in L. monocytogenes. Fitness in soil and on radishes sown and grown in contaminated soil was measured in a wild-type and an isogenic sigB operon mutant strain to determine if the sigma factor was necessary for life in these niches. Levels of wild-type and mutant strains were monitored in contaminated soil over the course of radish gestation from seed to mature tuber, and levels on mature radishes were determined. The wild-type strain was able to survive in soil over the 4 weeks of the experiment at levels of 4-7 log CFU/g soil, and the levels of the sigB mutant were reduced by 1-2 log from the wild type. The mutant showed reduced levels in soil by 6 h after inoculation, which was partially recovered when the mutant was complemented, and stayed at a reduced level over the next 4 weeks. Upon harvest, 3-4 log CFU/g of wild-type L. monocytogenes was detected on radish surfaces, and the bacteria could not be washed off under running water. On mature radishes populations of the mutant strain were 1-2 log CFU/g lower than the wild type. The levels on mature radishes reflected the levels in the soil at 4 weeks. The conclusions are that the Sigma B operon is necessary for initial adaptation to the soil environment, and plays a role in maintaining the population, but does not play a role in attachment or colonization of the radish.

  16. A Phenotypically Silent vanB2 Operon Carried on a Tn1549-Like Element in Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Daniel R.; Androga, Grace O.; Ballard, Susan A.; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has reached an epidemic state with increasing incidence and severity in both health care and community settings. Vancomycin is an important first-line therapy for CDI, and the emergence of resistance would have significant clinical consequences. In this study, we describe for the first time a vanB2 vancomycin resistance operon in C. difficile, isolated from an Australian veal calf at slaughter. The operon was carried on an ~42-kb element showing significant homology and synteny to Tn1549, a conjugative transposon linked with the emergence and global dissemination of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Notably, the C. difficile strain did not show any reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in vitro (MIC, 1 mg/liter), possibly as a result of an aberrant vanRB gene. As observed for other anaerobic species of the animal gut microbiota, C. difficile may be a reservoir of clinically important vancomycin resistance genes. IMPORTANCE In an era when the development of new antimicrobial drugs is slow, vancomycin remains the preferred antimicrobial therapy for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most important health care-related infection in the world today. The emergence of resistance to vancomycin would have significant consequences in relation to treating patients with CDI. In this paper, we describe for the first time a complete set of vancomycin resistance genes in C. difficile. The genes were very similar to genes found in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) that were associated with the emergence and global dissemination of this organism. Fortunately, the C. difficile strain did not show any reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in vitro (MIC, 1 mg/liter), possibly because of a small difference in one gene. However, this observation signals that we may be very close to seeing a fully vancomycin-resistant strain of C. difficile. PMID:27536735

  17. Identification and characterization of MalA in the maltose/maltodextrin operon of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Hwang, Sungmin; Cha, Jaeho

    2013-04-01

    A putative maltose/maltodextrin operon was found in the Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM639 genome. The gene cluster consisted of 7 genes (malA, trmB, amyA, malG, malF, malE, and malK). Here, we report the identification of MalA, which is responsible for the hydrolysis of maltose or maltodextrin to glucose in S. acidocaldarius. The transcription level of malA was increased 3-fold upon the addition of maltose or starch to the medium. Moreover, the α-glucosidase activity for maltose as a substrate in cell extracts of S. acidocaldarius DSM639 was also 11- and 10-fold higher during growth in YT medium (Brock's mineral salts, 0.1% [wt/vol] tryptone, and 0.005% [wt/vol] yeast extract) containing maltose or starch, respectively, than during growth on other sugars. The gene encoding MalA was cloned and expressed in S. acidocaldarius. The enzyme purified from the organism was a dodecamer in its active state and showed strong maltose-hydrolyzing activity at 100°C and pH 5.0. MalA was remarkably thermostable, with half-lives of 33.8 h, 10.6 h, and 1.8 h at 95°C, 100°C, and 105°C, respectively. Substrate specificity and kinetic studies of MalA with maltooligosaccharides indicated that MalA efficiently hydrolyzed maltose to maltopentaose, which is a typical characteristic of GH31-type α-glucosidases. However, glycogen or starch was not hydrolyzed. Reverse transcription-PCR, sugar uptake, and growth studies of the wild-type DSM639 and ΔmalEFG mutant on different sugars demonstrated that MalA located in the mal operon gene cluster is involved in maltose and starch metabolism in S. acidocaldarius.

  18. Independent regulation of nifHDK operon transcription and DNA rearrangement during heterocyst differentiation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed Central

    Golden, J W; Whorff, L L; Wiest, D R

    1991-01-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 expresses the genes required for nitrogen fixation in terminally differentiated cells called heterocysts. The nifHDK operon encodes the nitrogenase polypeptides and is expressed at high levels in heterocysts. During heterocyst differentiation, an 11-kb DNA element is excised from the nifD gene by site-specific recombination. The xisA gene, located on the 11-kb element, is required for the excision of the element. Transcription and DNA rearrangement of the nifHDK operon both occur late during heterocyst differentiation, about 18 to 24 h after induction, suggesting that the regulation of these events might be coupled. We show that heterocyst-specific transcription and DNA rearrangement of the nifHDK operon are independent of one another. Northern (RNA) analysis of the xisA mutant strain DW12-2.2, which cannot excise the nifD 11-kb element or fix nitrogen, showed that the nifH and nifD genes are transcribed on unrearranged chromosomes. The nifK gene was not transcribed in DW12-2.2, indicating that its expression is dependent on the nifH promoter and excision of the 11-kb element from the operon. A 1.68-kb DNA fragment containing the nifH promoter was deleted from the chromosome to produce the mutant strain LW1. LW1 formed heterocysts but did not grow on nitrogen-free medium and showed no transcription through nifD. Southern analysis of LW1 showed normal excision of the 11-kb element from the nifHDK operon, indicating that transcription from the nifH promoter is not required for the developmentally regulated DNA rearrangement. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:1938911

  19. The conserved nhaAR operon is drastically divergent between B2 and non-B2 Escherichia coli and is involved in extra-intestinal virulence.

    PubMed

    Lescat, Mathilde; Reibel, Florence; Pintard, Coralie; Dion, Sara; Glodt, Jérémy; Gateau, Cecile; Launay, Adrien; Ledda, Alice; Cruveiller, Stephane; Cruvellier, Stephane; Tourret, Jérôme; Tenaillon, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The Escherichia coli species is divided in phylogenetic groups that differ in their virulence and commensal distribution. Strains belonging to the B2 group are involved in extra-intestinal pathologies but also appear to be more prevalent as commensals among human occidental populations. To investigate the genetic specificities of B2 sub-group, we used 128 sequenced genomes and identified genes of the core genome that showed marked difference between B2 and non-B2 genomes. We focused on the gene and its surrounding region with the strongest divergence between B2 and non-B2, the antiporter gene nhaA. This gene is part of the nhaAR operon, which is in the core genome but flanked by mobile regions, and is involved in growth at high pH and high sodium concentrations. Consistently, we found that a panel of non-B2 strains grew faster than B2 at high pH and high sodium concentrations. However, we could not identify differences in expression of the nhaAR operon using fluorescence reporter plasmids. Furthermore, the operon deletion had no differential impact between B2 and non-B2 strains, and did not result in a fitness modification in a murine model of gut colonization. Nevertheless, sequence analysis and experiments in a murine model of septicemia revealed that recombination in nhaA among B2 strains was observed in strains with low virulence. Finally, nhaA and nhaAR operon deletions drastically decreased virulence in one B2 strain. This effect of nhaAR deletion appeared to be stronger than deletion of all pathogenicity islands. Thus, a population genetic approach allowed us to identify an operon in the core genome without strong effect in commensalism but with an important role in extra-intestinal virulence, a landmark of the B2 strains.

  20. Competition between VanU(G) repressor and VanR(G) activator leads to rheostatic control of vanG vancomycin resistance operon expression.

    PubMed

    Depardieu, Florence; Mejean, Vincent; Courvalin, Patrice

    2015-04-01

    Enterococcus faecalis BM4518 is resistant to vancomycin by synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors ending in D-alanyl-D-serine. In the chromosomal vanG locus, transcription of the resistance genes from the PYG resistance promoter is inducible and, upstream from these genes, there is an unusual three-component regulatory system encoded by the vanURS(G) operon from the P(UG) regulatory promoter. In contrast to the other van operons in enterococci, the vanG operon possesses the additional vanU(G) gene which encodes a transcriptional regulator whose role remains unknown. We show by DNase I footprinting, RT-qPCR, and reporter proteins activities that VanU(G), but not VanR(G), binds to P(UG) and negatively autoregulates the vanURS(G) operon and that it also represses PYG where it overlaps with VanR(G) for binding. In clinical isolate BM4518, the transcription level of the resistance genes was dependent on vancomycin concentration whereas, in a ΔvanUG mutant, resistance was expressed at a maximum level even at low concentrations of the inducer. The binding competition between VanU(G) and VanR(G) on the P(YG) resistance promoter allowed rheostatic activation of the resistance operon depending likely on the level of VanR(G) phosphorylation by the VanS(G) sensor. In addition, there was cross-talk between VanS(G) and VanR'(G), a VanR(G) homolog, encoded elsewhere in the chromosome indicating a sophisticated and subtle regulation of vancomycin resistance expression by a complex two-component system.

  1. The AbrB2 autorepressor, expressed from an atypical promoter, represses the hydrogenase operon to regulate hydrogen production in Synechocystis strain PCC6803.

    PubMed

    Dutheil, Jérémy; Saenkham, Panatda; Sakr, Samer; Leplat, Christophe; Ortega-Ramos, Marcia; Bottin, Hervé; Cournac, Laurent; Cassier-Chauvat, Corinne; Chauvat, Franck

    2012-10-01

    We have thoroughly investigated the abrB2 gene (sll0822) encoding an AbrB-like regulator in the wild-type strain of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis strain PCC6803. We report that abrB2 is expressed from an active but atypical promoter that possesses an extended -10 element (TGTAATAT) that compensates for the absence of a -35 box. Strengthening the biological significance of these data, we found that the occurrence of an extended -10 promoter box and the absence of a -35 element are two well-conserved features in abrB2 genes from other cyanobacteria. We also show that AbrB2 is an autorepressor that is dispensable to cell growth under standard laboratory conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AbrB2 also represses the hox operon, which encodes the Ni-Fe hydrogenase of biotechnological interest, and that the hox operon is weakly expressed even though it possesses the two sequences resembling canonical -10 and -35 promoter boxes. In both the AbrB2-repressed promoters of the abrB2 gene and the hox operon, we found a repeated DNA motif [TT-(N(5))-AAC], which could be involved in AbrB2 repression. Supporting this hypothesis, we found that a TT-to-GG mutation of one of these elements increased the activity of the abrB2 promoter. We think that our abrB2-deleted mutant with increased expression of the hox operon and hydrogenase activity, together with the reporter plasmids we constructed to analyze the abrB2 gene and the hox operon, will serve as useful tools to decipher the function and the regulation of hydrogen production in Synechocystis.

  2. Sensitivity and Specificity of an Operon Immunochromatographic Test in Serum and Whole-Blood Samples for the Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Spain, an Area of Nonendemicity

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Chavez, María; Cruz, Israel; Nieto, Javier; Gárate, Teresa; Navarro, Miriam; Pérez-Ayala, Ana; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection is an imported parasitic disease in Spain, and the majority of infected individuals are in the chronic phase of the disease. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the Operon immunochromatographic test (ICT-Operon; Simple Stick Chagas and Simple Chagas WB [whole blood]; Operon S.A., Spain) for different biological samples. Well-characterized serum samples were obtained from chagasic patients (n = 63), nonchagasic individuals (n = 95), visceral leishmaniasis patients (n = 38), and malaria patients (n = 55). Noncharacterized specimens were obtained from Latin American immigrants and individuals at risk with a clinical and/or epidemiological background: these specimens were recovered serum or plasma samples (n = 450), whole peripheral blood (n = 94), and capillary blood (n = 282). The concordance of the results by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence test was considered to be the “gold standard” for diagnosis. Serum and plasma samples were analyzed by Stick Chagas, and whole blood was analyzed by Simple Chagas WB. The sensitivity and specificity of the ICT-Operon in well-characterized samples were 100% and 97.9%, respectively. No cross-reactivity was found with samples obtained from visceral leishmaniasis patients. In contrast, a false-positive result was obtained in 27.3% of samples from malaria patients. The sensitivities of the rapid test in noncharacterized serum or plasma, peripheral blood, and capillary blood samples were 100%, 92.1%, and 86.4%, respectively, while the specificities were 91.6%, 93.6%, and 95% in each case. ICT-Operon showed variable sensitivity, depending on the kind of sample, performing better when serum or plasma samples were used. It could therefore be used for serological screening combined with any other conventional test. PMID:22761296

  3. Gene regulation on broad host range plasmid RK2: identification of three novel operons whose transcription is repressed by both KorA and KorC.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C M; Ibbotson, J P; Wang, N Y; Smith, C A; Tipping, R; Loader, N M

    1988-01-01

    The product of the korA gene of broad host range plasmid RK2 is a key transcriptional repressor which regulates not only the expression of the essential replication gene trfA but also its own expression and that of the kilA operon. It has previously been proposed that korA also encodes a positive activator of transcription of the korC gene, which may act as a transcriptional antiterminator. Here we show that the action of korA in relation to korC can be explained entirely through the korA protein's property as a transcriptional repressor. The limited ability of the previously cloned korC gene to suppress kilC on its own is shown to be due to the fact that korC in RK2 is transcribed from the bla promoter of Tn1 which was deleted in the original korC clones. We demonstrate that korA is a second repressor along with korC of three operons, one of which encodes kilC, the other two not having been described previously and serving an as yet unknown function. We have designated these operons kcrA, B and C for KorC-regulated. Putative kilC is designated kcrC. The homology between the expression signals of these operons suggests that they have arisen by duplication. This is confirmed in the case of kcrA and B by the existence of considerable homology between the products of the first ORFs in each of these operons. Images PMID:2838814

  4. A Coarse-Grained Biophysical Model of E. coli and Its Application to Perturbation of the rRNA Operon Copy Number

    PubMed Central

    Tadmor, Arbel D.; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2008-01-01

    We propose a biophysical model of Escherichia coli that predicts growth rate and an effective cellular composition from an effective, coarse-grained representation of its genome. We assume that E. coli is in a state of balanced exponential steady-state growth, growing in a temporally and spatially constant environment, rich in resources. We apply this model to a series of past measurements, where the growth rate and rRNA-to-protein ratio have been measured for seven E. coli strains with an rRNA operon copy number ranging from one to seven (the wild-type copy number). These experiments show that growth rate markedly decreases for strains with fewer than six copies. Using the model, we were able to reproduce these measurements. We show that the model that best fits these data suggests that the volume fraction of macromolecules inside E. coli is not fixed when the rRNA operon copy number is varied. Moreover, the model predicts that increasing the copy number beyond seven results in a cytoplasm densely packed with ribosomes and proteins. Assuming that under such overcrowded conditions prolonged diffusion times tend to weaken binding affinities, the model predicts that growth rate will not increase substantially beyond the wild-type growth rate, as indicated by other experiments. Our model therefore suggests that changing the rRNA operon copy number of wild-type E. coli cells growing in a constant rich environment does not substantially increase their growth rate. Other observations regarding strains with an altered rRNA operon copy number, such as nucleoid compaction and the rRNA operon feedback response, appear to be qualitatively consistent with this model. In addition, we discuss possible design principles suggested by the model and propose further experiments to test its validity. PMID:18437222

  5. CysB-dependent upregulation of the Salmonella Typhimurium cysJIH operon in response to antimicrobial compounds that induce oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Ricardo; Neumann, German; Frávega, Jorge; Díaz, Fernando; Tejías, Cristóbal; Collao, Bernardo; Fuentes, Juan A; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Calderón, Iván L; Gil, Fernando

    2015-02-27

    It has been proposed that some antibiotics exert additional damage through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Since H₂S protects neurons and cardiac muscle from oxidative stress, it has been hypothesized that bacterial H₂S might, similarly, be a cellular protector against antibiotics. In Enterobacteriaceae, H₂S can be produced by the cysJIH pathway, which uses sulfate as the sulfur source. CysB, in turn, is a positive regulator of cysJIH. At present, the role of S. Typhimurium cysJIH operon in the protection to reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by antimicrobial compounds remains to be elucidated. In this work, we evaluated the role of cysJIH and cysB in ROS accumulation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced thiol accumulation, and H₂S accumulation in S. Typhimurium, cultured in either sulfate or cysteine as the sole sulfur source. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of the addition of ceftriaxone (CEF) and menadione (MEN) in these same parameters. In sulfate as the sole sulfur source, we found that the cysJIH operon and the cysB gene were required to full growth in minimal media, independently on the addition of CEF or MEN. Most importantly, both cysJIH and cysB contributed to diminish ROS levels, increase the SOD activity, increase the reduced thiols, and increase the H₂S levels in presence of CEF or MEN. Moreover, the cysJIH operon exhibited a CysB-dependent upregulation in presence of these two antimicrobials compounds. On the other hand, when cysteine was used as the sole sulfur source, we found that cysJIH operon was completely negligible, were only cysB exhibited similar phenotypes than the described for sulfate as sulfur source. Unexpectedly, CysB downregulated cysJIH operon when cysteine was used instead of sulfate, suggesting a complex regulation of this system.

  6. A Coarse-Grained Biophysical Model of E. coli and Its Application to Perturbation of the rRNA Operon Copy Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadmor, Arbel

    2009-03-01

    In this work a biophysical model of Escherichia coli is presented that predicts growth rate and an effective cellular composition from an effective, coarse-grained representation of its genome. We assume that E. coli is in a state of balanced exponential steady-state growth, growing in a temporally and spatially constant environment, rich in resources. We apply this model to a series of past measurements, where the growth rate and rRNA-to-protein ratio have been measured for seven E. coli strains with an rRNA operon copy number ranging from one to seven (the wild-type copy number). These experiments show that growth rate markedly decreases for strains with fewer than six copies. Using the model, we were able to reproduce these measurements. We show that the model that best fits these data suggests that the volume fraction of macromolecules inside E. coli is not fixed when the rRNA operon copy number is varied. Moreover, the model predicts that increasing the copy number beyond seven results in a cytoplasm densely packed with ribosomes and proteins. Assuming that under such overcrowded conditions prolonged diffusion times tend to weaken binding affinities, the model predicts that growth rate will not increase substantially beyond the wild-type growth rate, as indicated by other experiments. Our model therefore suggests that changing the rRNA operon copy number of wild-type E. coli cells growing in a constant rich environment does not substantially increase their growth rate. Other observations regarding strains with an altered rRNA operon copy number, such as nucleoid compaction and the rRNA operon feedback response, appear to be qualitatively consistent with this model. In addition, we discuss possible design principles suggested by the model and propose further experiments to test its validity.

  7. THERMAL IMAGING OF ACTIVE MAGNETIC REGERNERATOR MCE MATERIALS DURING OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Shassere, Benjamin; West, David L; Abdelaziz, Omar; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen

    2012-01-01

    An active magnetic regenerator (AMR) prototype was constructed that incorporates a Gd sheet into the regenerator wall to enable visualization of the system s thermal transients. In this experiment, the thermal conditions inside the AMR are observed under a variety of operating conditions. An infrared (IR) camera is employed to visualize the thermal transients within the AMR. The IR camera is used to visually and quantitatively evaluate the temperature difference and thus giving means to calculate the performance of the system under the various operating conditions. Thermal imaging results are presented for two differing experimental test runs. Real time imaging of the thermal state of the AMR has been conducted while operating the system over a range of conditions. A 1 Tesla twin-coil electromagnet (situated on a C frame base) is used for this experiment such that all components are stationary during testing. A modular, linear reciprocating system has been realized in which the effects of regenerator porosity and utilization factor can be investigated. To evaluate the performance variation in porosity and utilization factor the AMR housing was constructed such that the plate spacing of the Gd sheets may be varied. Each Gd sheet has dimensions of 38 mm wide and 66 mm long with a thickness of 1 mm and the regenerator can hold a maximum of 29 plates with a spacing of 0.25 mm. Quantitative and thermal imaging results are presented for several regenerator configurations.

  8. Phenotypical analysis of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG fimbrial spaFED operon: surface expression and functional characterization of recombinant SpaFED pili in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Rintahaka, Johanna; Yu, Xia; Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    A noticeable genomic feature of many piliated Gram-positive bacterial species is the presence of more than one pilus-encoding operon. Paradigmatically, the gut-adapted Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain contains two different fimbrial operons in its genome. However, whereas one of these operons (called spaCBA) is encoding for the functionally mucus-/collagen-binding SpaCBA pilus, for the other operon (called spaFED) any native expression of the SpaFED-called pili is still the subject of some uncertainty. Irrespective of such considerations, we decided it would be of relevance or interest to decipher the gross structure of this pilus type, and as well assess its functional capabilities for cellular adhesion and immunostimulation. For this, and by following the approach we had used previously to explicate the immuno-properties of SpaCBA pili, we constructed nisin-inducible expression clones producing either wild-type or SpaF pilin-deleted surface-assembled L. rhamnosus GG SpaFED pili on Lactococcus lactis cells. Using these piliated lactococcal constructs, we found that the pilin-polymerized architecture of a recombinant-produced SpaFED pilus coincides with sequence-based functional predictions of the related pilins, and in fact is prototypical of those other sortase-dependent pilus-like structures thus far characterized for piliated Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, we confirmed that among the different pilin subunits encompassing spaFED operon-encoded pili, the SpaF pilin is a main adhesion determinant, and when present in the assembled structure can mediate pilus binding to mucus, certain extracellular matrix proteins, and different gut epithelial cell lines. However, somewhat unexpectedly, when recombinant SpaFED pili are surface-attached, we found that they could not potentiate the existing lactococcal cell-induced immune responses so elicited from intestinal- and immune-related cells, but rather instead, they could dampen them. Accordingly, we have now provided

  9. Phenotypical Analysis of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Fimbrial spaFED Operon: Surface Expression and Functional Characterization of Recombinant SpaFED Pili in Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    A noticeable genomic feature of many piliated Gram-positive bacterial species is the presence of more than one pilus-encoding operon. Paradigmatically, the gut-adapted Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain contains two different fimbrial operons in its genome. However, whereas one of these operons (called spaCBA) is encoding for the functionally mucus-/collagen-binding SpaCBA pilus, for the other operon (called spaFED) any native expression of the SpaFED-called pili is still the subject of some uncertainty. Irrespective of such considerations, we decided it would be of relevance or interest to decipher the gross structure of this pilus type, and as well assess its functional capabilities for cellular adhesion and immunostimulation. For this, and by following the approach we had used previously to explicate the immuno-properties of SpaCBA pili, we constructed nisin-inducible expression clones producing either wild-type or SpaF pilin-deleted surface-assembled L. rhamnosus GG SpaFED pili on Lactococcus lactis cells. Using these piliated lactococcal constructs, we found that the pilin-polymerized architecture of a recombinant-produced SpaFED pilus coincides with sequence-based functional predictions of the related pilins, and in fact is prototypical of those other sortase-dependent pilus-like structures thus far characterized for piliated Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, we confirmed that among the different pilin subunits encompassing spaFED operon-encoded pili, the SpaF pilin is a main adhesion determinant, and when present in the assembled structure can mediate pilus binding to mucus, certain extracellular matrix proteins, and different gut epithelial cell lines. However, somewhat unexpectedly, when recombinant SpaFED pili are surface-attached, we found that they could not potentiate the existing lactococcal cell-induced immune responses so elicited from intestinal- and immune-related cells, but rather instead, they could dampen them. Accordingly, we have now provided

  10. Characterization of the p-toluenesulfonate operon tsaMBCD and tsaR in Comamonas testosteroni T-2.

    PubMed Central

    Junker, F; Kiewitz, R; Cook, A M

    1997-01-01

    Comamonas testosteroni T-2 uses a standard, if seldom examined, attack on an aromatic compound and oxygenates the side chain of p-toluenesulfonate (TS) (or p-toluenecarboxylate) to p-sulfobenzoate (or terephthalate) prior to complete oxidation. The expression of the first three catabolic enzymes in the pathway, the TS methyl-monooxygenase system (comprising reductase B and oxygenase M; TsaMB), p-sulfobenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase (TsaC), and p-sulfobenzaldehyde dehydrogenase (TsaD), is coregulated as regulatory unit R1 (H. R. Schlafli Oppenberg, G. Chen, T. Leisinger, and A. M. Cook, Microbiology [Reading] 141:1891-1899, 1995). The components of the oxygenase system were repurified, and the N-terminal amino acid sequences were confirmed and extended. An internal sequence of TsaM was obtained, and the identity of the [2Fe-2S] Rieske center was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We purified both dehydrogenases (TsaC and TsaD) and determined their molecular weights and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Oligonucleotides derived from the partial sequences of TsaM were used to identify cloned DNA from strain T-2, and about 6 kb of contiguous cloned DNA was sequenced. Regulatory unit R1 was presumed to represent a four-gene operon (tsaMBCD) which was regulated by the LysR-type regulator, TsaR, encoded by a deduced one-gene transcriptional unit. The genes for the inducible TS transport system were not at this locus. The oxygenase system was confirmed to be a class IA mononuclear iron oxygenase, and class IA can now be seen to have two evolutionary groups, the monooxygenases and the dioxygenases, though the divergence is limited to the oxygenase components. The alcohol dehydrogenase TsaC was confirmed to belong to the short-chain, zinc-independent dehydrogenases, and the aldehyde dehydrogenase TsaD was found to resemble several other aldehyde dehydrogenases. The operon and its putative regulator are compared with units of the TOL plasmid. PMID:9006050

  11. Expression of a Humanized Viral 2A-Mediated lux Operon Efficiently Generates Autonomous Bioluminescence in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tingting; Ripp, Steven; Sayler, Gary S.; Close, Dan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Expression of autonomous bioluminescence from human cells was previously reported to be impossible, suggesting that all bioluminescent-based mammalian reporter systems must therefore require application of a potentially influential chemical substrate. While this was disproven when the bacterial luciferase (lux) cassette was demonstrated to function in a human cell, its expression required multiple genetic constructs, was functional in only a single cell type, and generated a significantly reduced signal compared to substrate-requiring systems. Here we investigate the use of a humanized, viral 2A-linked lux genetic architecture for the efficient introduction of an autobioluminescent phenotype across a variety of human cell lines. Methodology/Principal Findings The lux cassette was codon optimized and assembled into a synthetic human expression operon using viral 2A elements as linker regions. Human kidney, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer cell lines were both transiently and stably transfected with the humanized operon and the resulting autobioluminescent phenotype was evaluated using common imaging instrumentation. Autobioluminescent cells were screened for cytotoxic effects resulting from lux expression and their utility as bioreporters was evaluated through the demonstration of repeated monitoring of single populations over a prolonged period using both a modified E-SCREEN assay for estrogen detection and a classical cytotoxic compound detection assay for the antibiotic Zeocin. Furthermore, the use of self-directed bioluminescent initiation in response to target detection was assessed to determine its amenability towards deployment as fully autonomous sensors. In all cases, bioluminescent measurements were supported with traditional genetic and transcriptomic evaluations. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that the viral 2A-linked, humanized lux genetic architecture successfully produced autobioluminescent phenotypes in all cell lines

  12. The catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) is not required for indole-3-acetic acid to activate transcription of the araBAD operon of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Ebright, R H; Beckwith, J

    1985-01-01

    Kline et al. (1980) have reported that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and four other indole derivatives are able to substitute for cAMP in activating expression of the ara regulon of E. coli. We have examined this phenomenon in detail, utilizing fusions between the structural gene for beta-galactosidase and the promoters for the araBAD, araE, and araFG operons. We confirm that IAA potently stimulates transcription from the araBAD promoter. The effect is highly specific to araBAD, as IAA has no, or only slight, effects on the araE and araFG operons. However, contrary to the results of Kline et al., we find that the action of IAA does not require CAP. Thus, IAA fully stimulates the transcription of araBAD in a strain which bears a complete deletion of the crp gene.

  13. The rpoA341 allele of Escherichia coli specifically impairs the transcription of a group of positively-regulated operons.

    PubMed

    Giffard, P M; Booth, I R

    1988-09-01

    The specificity of the transcription defect caused by the rpoA341(phs) allele has been investigated. Three apparently unlinked genetic systems have been found to be impaired in their transcription by this mutant allele of the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase. These three systems, the melAB operon, the cysA locus and the ara regulon, are apparently unrelated other than by their requirement for a regulon-specific positive regulator for the initiation of transcription. Expression of the gene for the positive regulator does not appear to be significantly affected in any of the three systems. However, mutations that render expression of the araBAD operon independent of the regulatory protein also confer insensitivity to the rpoA341 allele. The significance of these observations is discussed in the context of models of positive regulation.

  14. Use of an ipb-lux Fusion To Study Regulation of the Isopropylbenzene Catabolism Operon of Pseudomonas putida RE204 and To Detect Hydrophobic Pollutants in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Selifonova, O. V.; Eaton, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    A DNA segment involved in the regulation of the isopropylbenzene (cumene) catabolism operon (ipb) of plasmid pRE4 from Pseudomonas putida RE204 and the Vibrio fischeri luciferase genes, luxCDABE, were used to create an ipbRo/pA(prm1)-luxCDABE reporter fusion plasmid, pOS25. Escherichia coli HMS174(pOS25) produces light in the presence of inducers of the ipb operon. These inducers were shown to be hydrophobic compounds and to include monoalkylbenzenes, substituted benzenes and toluenes, some alkanes and cycloalkanes, chlorinated solvents, and naphthalenes. Complex hydrocarbon mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuels (JP-4 and JP-5), and creosote, were also inducers of ipb-lux. Bacteria carrying the ipb-lux reporter may be useful as bioindicators of hydrocarbon pollution in the environment and may be particularly valuable for examining the bioavailability of inducing pollutants. PMID:16535269

  15. Induction of the Nitrate Assimilation nirA Operon and Protein-Protein Interactions in the Maturation of Nitrate and Nitrite Reductases in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Frías, José E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitrate is widely used as a nitrogen source by cyanobacteria, in which the nitrate assimilation structural genes frequently constitute the so-called nirA operon. This operon contains the genes encoding nitrite reductase (nirA), a nitrate/nitrite transporter (frequently an ABC-type transporter; nrtABCD), and nitrate reductase (narB). In the model filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, which can fix N2 in specialized cells termed heterocysts, the nirA operon is expressed at high levels only in media containing nitrate or nitrite and lacking ammonium, a preferred nitrogen source. Here we examined the genes downstream of the nirA operon in Anabaena and found that a small open reading frame of unknown function, alr0613, can be cotranscribed with the operon. The next gene in the genome, alr0614 (narM), showed an expression pattern similar to that of the nirA operon, implying correlated expression of narM and the operon. A mutant of narM with an insertion mutation failed to produce nitrate reductase activity, consistent with the idea that NarM is required for the maturation of NarB. Both narM and narB mutants were impaired in the nitrate-dependent induction of the nirA operon, suggesting that nitrite is an inducer of the operon in Anabaena. It has previously been shown that the nitrite reductase protein NirA requires NirB, a protein likely involved in protein-protein interactions, to attain maximum activity. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis confirmed possible NirA-NirB and NarB-NarM interactions, suggesting that the development of both nitrite reductase and nitrate reductase activities in cyanobacteria involves physical interaction of the corresponding enzymes with their cognate partners, NirB and NarM, respectively. IMPORTANCE Nitrate is an important source of nitrogen for many microorganisms that is utilized through the nitrate assimilation system, which includes nitrate/nitrite membrane transporters and the nitrate and nitrite reductases. Many

  16. Translation of the open reading frame encoded by comS, a gene of the srf operon, is necessary for the development of genetic competence, but not surfactin biosynthesis, in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, C; Nakano, M M; Frisby, D L; Zuber, P

    1995-01-01

    A small open reading frame, comS of the srf operon, is the site of mutations that impair competence development in Bacillus subtilis. comS open reading frame translation was required for competence, as was confirmed by the suppression of a comS amber mutation [comS(Am)] by the nonsense suppressor sup-3. comS(Am), when introduced into the srf operon, eliminated late competence gene expression but had no significant effect on surfactin production. PMID:7608091

  17. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium fljBA operon stability: implications regarding the origin of Salmonella enterica I 4,[5],12:i:.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, M P O; Werle, C H; Milanez, G P; Nóbrega, D B; Pereira, J P; Calarga, A P; Flores, F; Brocchi, M

    2015-12-29

    Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar 4,5,12:i:- has been responsible for many recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Several studies indicate that this serovar originated from S. enterica subsp enterica serovar Typhimurium, by the loss of the flagellar phase II gene (fljB) and adjacent sequences. However, at least two different clones of S. enterica 4,5,12:i:- exist that differs in the molecular events responsible for fljB deletion. The aim of this study was to test the stability of the fljBA operon responsible for the flagellar phase variation under different growth conditions in order to verify if its deletion is a frequent event that could explain the origin and dissemination of this serovar. In fact, coding sequences for transposons are present near this operon and in some strains, such as S. enterica Typhimurium LT2, the Fels-2 prophage gene is inserted near this operon. The presence of mobile DNA could confer instability to this region. In order to examine this, the cat (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) gene was inserted adjacent to the fljBA operon so that deletions involving this genomic region could be identified. After growing S. enterica chloramphenicol-resistant strains under different conditions, more than 104 colonies were tested for the loss of chloramphenicol resistance. However, none of the colonies were sensitive to chloramphenicol. These data suggest that the origin of S. enterica serovar 4,5,12:i:- from Typhimurium by fljBA deletion is not a frequent event. The origin and dissemination of 4,5,12:i:- raise several questions about the role of flagellar phase variation in virulence.

  18. Functional characterization of a cadmium resistance operon in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600: CadC does not function as a repressor.

    PubMed

    Hoogewerf, Arlene J; Dyk, Lisa A Van; Buit, Tyler S; Roukema, David; Resseguie, Emily; Plaisier, Christina; Le, Nga; Heeringa, Lee; Griend, Douglas A Vander

    2015-02-01

    Sequencing of a cadmium resistance operon from a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600 plasmid revealed that it is identical to a cadCA operon found in MRSA strains. Compared to plasmid-cured and cadC-mutant strains, cadC-positive ATCC12600 cells had increased resistance to cadmium (1 mg ml(-1) cadmium sulfate) and zinc (4 mg ml(-1) zinc sulfate), but not to other metal ions. After growth in media containing 20 µg ml(-1) cadmium sulfate, cadC-mutant cells contained more intracellular cadmium than cadC-positive ATCC12600 cells, suggesting that cadC absence results in impaired cadmium efflux. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed with CadC proteins encoded by the S. aureus ATCC12600 plasmid and by the cadC gene of pI258, which is known to act as a transcriptional repressor and shares only 47% protein sequence identity with ATCC12600 CadC. Mobility shifts occurred when pI258 CadC protein was incubated with the promoter DNA-regions from the pI258 and S. aureus ATCC12600 cadCA operons, but did not occur with S. aureus ATCC12600 CadC protein, indicating that the ATCC12600 CadC protein does not interact with promoter region DNA. This cadCA operon, found in MRSA strains and previously functionally uncharacterized, increases resistance to cadmium and zinc by an efflux mechanism, and CadC does not function as a transcriptional repressor.

  19. High-Level Heat Resistance of Spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus licheniformis Results from the Presence of a spoVA Operon in a Tn1546 Transposon.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Koning, Rosella A; Boekhorst, Jos; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial endospore formers can produce spores that are resistant to many food processing conditions, including heat. Some spores may survive heating processes aimed at production of commercially sterile foods. Recently, it was shown that a spoVA operon, designated spoVA(2mob), present on a Tn1546 transposon in Bacillus subtilis, leads to profoundly increased wet heat resistance of B. subtilis spores. Such Tn1546 transposon elements including the spoVA(2mob) operon were also found in several strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus licheniformis, and these strains were shown to produce spores with significantly higher resistances to wet heat than their counterparts lacking this transposon. In this study, the locations and compositions of Tn1546 transposons encompassing the spoVA(2mob) operons in B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis were analyzed. Introduction of these spoVA(2mob) operons into B. subtilis 168 (producing spores that are not highly heat resistant) rendered mutant 168 strains that produced high-level heat resistant spores, demonstrating that these elements in B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis are responsible for high level heat resistance of spores. Assessment of growth of the nine strains of each species between 5.2°C and 57.7°C showed some differences between strains, especially at lower temperatures, but all strains were able to grow at 57.7°C. Strains of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis that contain the Tn1546 elements (and produce high-level heat resistant spores) grew at temperatures similar to those of their Tn1546-negative counterparts that produce low-level heat resistant spores. The findings presented in this study allow for detection of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis strains that produce highly heat resistant spores in the food chain.

  20. The essential yhcSR two-component signal transduction system directly regulates the lac and opuCABCD operons of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Meiying; Hall, Jeffrey W; Yang, Junshu; Ji, Yinduo

    2012-01-01

    Our previous studies suggested that the essential two-component signal transduction system, YhcSR, regulates the opuCABCD operon at the transcriptional level, and the Pspac-driven opuCABCD partially complements the lethal effects of yhcS antisense RNA expression in Staphylococcus aureus. However, the reason why yhcSR regulon is required for growth is still unclear. In this report, we present that the lac and opuC operons are directly transcriptionally regulated by YhcSR. Using real-time RT-PCR we showed that the down-regulation of yhcSR expression affected the transcription of lacA encoding galactose-6-phosphotase isomerase subunit LacA, and opuCA encoding a subunit of a glycine betaine/carnitine/choline ABC transporter. Promoter-lux reporter fusion studies further confirmed the transcriptional regulation of lac by YhcSR. Gel shift assays revealed that YhcR binds to the promoter regions of the lac and opuC operons. Moreover, the Pspac-driven lacABC expression in trans was able to partially complement the lethal effect of induced yhcS antisense RNA. Likewise, the Pspac-driven opuCABCD expression in trans complemented the growth defect of S. aureus in a high osmotic strength medium during the depletion of YhcSR. Taken together, the above data indicate that the yhcSR system directly regulates the expression of lac and opuC operons, which, in turn, may be partially associated with the essentiality of yhcSR in S. aureus. These results provide a new insight into the biological functions of the yhcSR, a global regulator.

  1. High-Level Heat Resistance of Spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus licheniformis Results from the Presence of a spoVA Operon in a Tn1546 Transposon

    PubMed Central

    Berendsen, Erwin M.; Koning, Rosella A.; Boekhorst, Jos; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial endospore formers can produce spores that are resistant to many food processing conditions, including heat. Some spores may survive heating processes aimed at production of commercially sterile foods. Recently, it was shown that a spoVA operon, designated spoVA2mob, present on a Tn1546 transposon in Bacillus subtilis, leads to profoundly increased wet heat resistance of B. subtilis spores. Such Tn1546 transposon elements including the spoVA2mob operon were also found in several strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus licheniformis, and these strains were shown to produce spores with significantly higher resistances to wet heat than their counterparts lacking this transposon. In this study, the locations and compositions of Tn1546 transposons encompassing the spoVA2mob operons in B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis were analyzed. Introduction of these spoVA2mob operons into B. subtilis 168 (producing spores that are not highly heat resistant) rendered mutant 168 strains that produced high-level heat resistant spores, demonstrating that these elements in B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis are responsible for high level heat resistance of spores. Assessment of growth of the nine strains of each species between 5.2°C and 57.7°C showed some differences between strains, especially at lower temperatures, but all strains were able to grow at 57.7°C. Strains of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis that contain the Tn1546 elements (and produce high-level heat resistant spores) grew at temperatures similar to those of their Tn1546-negative counterparts that produce low-level heat resistant spores. The findings presented in this study allow for detection of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis strains that produce highly heat resistant spores in the food chain. PMID:27994575

  2. Sequence diversity in the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (ISR) of the rRNA operons in representatives of the Escherichia coli ECOR collection.

    PubMed

    Antón, A I; Martínez-Murcia, A J; Rodríguez-Valera, F

    1998-07-01

    The ribosomal RNA multigene family in Escherichia coli comprises seven rrn operons of similar, but not identical, sequence. Four operons (rrnC, B, G, and E) contain genes in the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (ISR) for tRNA(Glu-2) and three (rrnA, D, and H) contain genes for tRNA(Ile-1) and tRNA(Ala-1B). To increase our understanding of their molecular evolution, we have determined the ISR sequence of the seven operons in a set of 12 strains from the ECOR collection. Each operon was specifically amplified using polymerase chain reaction primers designed from genes or open reading frames located upstream of the 16S rRNA genes in E. coli K12. With a single exception (ECOR 40), ISRs containing one or two tRNA genes were found at the same respective loci as those of strain K12. Intercistronic heterogeneity already found in K12 was representative of most variation among the strains studied and the location of polymorphic sites was the same. Dispersed nucleotide substitutions were very few but 21 variable sites were found grouped in a stem-loop, although the secondary structure was conserved. Some regions were found in which a stretch of nucleotides was substituted in block by one alternative, apparently unrelated, sequence (as illustrated by the known putative insertion of rsl in K12). Except for substitutions of different sizes and insertions/deletions found in the ISR, the pattern of nucleotide variation is very similar to that found for the 16S rRNA gene in E. coli. Strains K12 and ECOR 40 showed the highest intercistronic heterogeneity. Most strains showed a strong tendency to homogenization. Concerted evolution could explain the notorious conservation of this region that is supposed to have low functional restrictions.

  3. trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP)-trp leader RNA interactions mediate translational as well as transcriptional regulation of the Bacillus subtilis trp operon.

    PubMed

    Merino, E; Babitzke, P; Yanofsky, C

    1995-11-01

    Expression of the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon has been shown to be regulated by transcription attenuation in response to the availability of L-tryptophan. Regulation is mediated by the tryptophan-activated trp RNA-binding attenuation protein, TRAP, the product of mtrB. Formation of mutually exclusive RNA anti-terminator and terminator structures within trp leader RNA determines whether transcription will terminate in the leader region of the operon. Previous studies suggested that transcripts that escape termination are subject to translational regulation via the formation of a secondary structure that blocks ribosome access to the trpE ribosome-binding site. To assess the relative importance of these postulated events in trp operon regulation, we used site-directed mutagenesis to alter the putative elements involved in transcriptional and translational control. Using a trpE'-'lacZ reporter, we measured translational yield and specific mRNA levels with various leader constructs, in both mtrB+ and mtrB strains, during growth in the presence and absence of excess tryptophan. To verify that the altered regulatory regions behaved as expected, we carried out in vitro transcription assays with the wild-type and altered leader region templates and performed oligonucleotide competition assays with an oligonucleotide complementary to a segment of the transcription terminator. Our results establish that binding of TRAP to leader RNA regulates of transcription termination in the trp operon over about an 88-fold range and regulates translation of trpE over about a 13-fold range. The roles played by different trp leader RNA segments in mediating transcriptional and translational regulation are documented by our findings.

  4. Nucleotide sequence and functional analysis of the luxE gene encoding acyl-protein synthetase of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Lin, J W; Chao, Y F; Weng, S F

    1996-11-21

    Nucleotide sequence of the luxE gene GenBank Accession No. U66407 from Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 has been determined, and the amino acid sequence of acyl-protein synthetase encoded by the luxE gene is deduced. Nucleotide sequence reveals that the luxE gene encodes acyl-protein synthetase, which is a component of the fatty acid reductase complex that is responsible for converting fatty acid to aldehyde as substrate in the luciferase-catalyzed bioluminescence reaction. The acyl-protein synthetase encoded by the luxE gene has a calculated M, 43,128 and comprises 373 amino acid residues. Alignment and comparison of acyl-protein synthetases from P. leiognathi, P. phosphoreum, Vibrio fischeri, V. harveyi and Xenorhabdus luminescens shows that they are homologous; there is 75.5% homologous (44.2% identity and 31.3% similarity) among these species. Functional analysis illustrates that the specific segment sequence lying before or in the luxE gene might from potential loops omega o omega e1, omega e2 as mRNA stability loop and/or for sub-regulation by alternative modulation in the lux operon. The gene order of the luxE gene in the lux and the lum operons is<--ter-lumQ-lumP-R&R-luxC-luxD-luxA-luxB -luxN-luxE-->(R&R: regulatory region; ter; transcriptional terminator), whereas the R&R is the regulatory region for the lum and the lux operons, and ter is the transcriptional terminator for the lum operon.

  5. A Bacillus subtilis operon containing genes of unknown function senses tRNATrp charging and regulates expression of the genes of tryptophan biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sarsero, Joseph P.; Merino, Enrique; Yanofsky, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Strains of Bacillus subtilis containing a temperature-sensitive tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase produce elevated levels of the tryptophan pathway enzymes, when grown at high temperatures in the presence of excess tryptophan. This increase is because of reduced availability of the tryptophan-activated trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP). To test the hypothesis that this elevated trp gene expression was caused by the overproduction of a transcript capable of binding and sequestering TRAP, a computer program was designed to search the B. subtilis genome sequence for additional potential TRAP binding sites. A region containing a stretch of (G/A)AG trinucleotide repeats, characteristic of a TRAP binding site, was identified in the yczA-ycbK operon. We show that transcriptional regulation of the yczA-ycbK operon is controlled by the T-box antitermination mechanism in response to the level of uncharged tRNATrp, and that the presence of a trpS1 mutant allele increases production of the yczA-ycbK transcript. Elevated yczA-ycbK expression was shown to activate transcription of the trp operon. Deletion of the yczA-ycbK operon abolishes the trpS1 effect on trp gene expression. The purpose of increasing expression of the genes of tryptophan biosynthesis in the trpS mutant would be to provide additional tryptophan to overcome the charged tRNATrp deficiency. Therefore, in B. subtilis, as in Escherichia coli, transcription of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes is regulated in response to changes in the extent of charging of tRNATrp as well as the availability of tryptophan. PMID:10706627

  6. [Involvement of sigma S and sigma 70 subunits of RNA polymerase and the CRP protein in the regulation of microcin C51 operon expression].

    PubMed

    Veselovskiĭ, A M; Bass, I A; Zolotukhina, M A; Mironov, A S; Metlitskaia, A Z; Khmel', I A

    2004-11-01

    Expression of the microcin C51 operon in Escherichia coli cells is activated during cell entry into the stationary growth phase and depends on the sigmaS subunit of RNA polymerase (RpoS). The null rpoS mutations retained the residual expression level of the transcriptional P(mcc)-lac fusion, which indicates that other sigma subunit can participate in the regulation of transcription of the microcin C51 operon. Data presented in this work show that the overproduction of sigma70 in rpoS- cells diminished the level of P(mcc)-lac expression, as in wild-type cells, which seems to be the consequence of competition between sigma factors for a limited number of core RNA polymerase molecules. In the presence of the rpoD800 mutation that renders sigma70 temperature-sensitive, expression of P(mcc)-lac was not induced in the phase of delayed culture growth at nonpermissive temperature, which indicates that sigma70 is indispensable for microcin operon expression. Point substitutions in the -10 P(mcc) region, leading to the formation of 5'-TGaTATAAT-3' site, enhanced promoter activity but did not affect the relationship between P(mcc)-lac transcription and growth phase, sigmaS, and the activator protein CRP. The activator protein CRP was shown to bind a DNA fragment containing the TGTGA(AATGAA)TCTAT site in the -59.5 bp position relative to the start site of transcription. Mutation in the ssrI gene encoding 6S RNA did not disturb P9mcc)-lac expression; these results indicate that 6S RNA does not participate in the regulation of microcin C51 operon expression.

  7. Deletion of the budBAC operon in Klebsiella pneumoniae to understand the physiological role of 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Daun; Yang, Jeongmo; Lee, Soojin; Kim, Borim; Um, Youngsoon; Kim, Youngrok; Ha, Kyoung-Su; Lee, Jinwon

    2016-05-18

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is known to produce 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO), a valuable chemical. In K. pneumoniae, the 2,3-BDO operon (budBAC) is involved in the production of 2,3-BDO. To observe the physiological role of the 2,3-BDO operon in a mixed acid fermentation, we constructed a budBAC-deleted strain (SGSB109). The production of extracellular metabolites, CO2 emission, carbon distribution, and NADH/NAD(+) balance of SGSB109 were compared with the parent strain (SGSB100). When comparing the carbon distribution at 15 hr, four significant differences were observed: in 2,3-BDO biosynthesis, lactate and acetate production (lactate and acetate production increased 2.3-fold and 4.1-fold in SGSB109 compared to SGSB100), CO2 emission (higher in SGSB100), and carbon substrate uptake (higher in SGSB100). Previous studies on the inactivation of the 2,3-BDO operon were focused on the increase of 1,3-propanediol production. Few studies have been done observing the role of 2,3-BDO biosynthesis. This study provides a prime insight into the role of 2,3-BDO biosynthesis of K. pneumoniae.

  8. Ribosomal protein L10(L12)4 autoregulates expression of the Bacillus subtilis rplJL operon by a transcription attenuation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yakhnin, Helen; Yakhnin, Alexander V; Babitzke, Paul

    2015-08-18

    Ribosomal protein genes are often controlled by autoregulatory mechanisms in which a protein encoded in the operon can either bind to newly synthesized rRNA during rapid growth or to a similar target in its mRNA during poor growth conditions. The rplJL operon encodes the ribosomal L10(L12)4 complex. In Escherichia coli L10(L12)4 represses its translation by binding to the rplJL leader transcript. We identified three RNA structures in the Bacillus subtilis rplJL leader transcript that function as an anti-antiterminator, antiterminator or intrinsic terminator. Expression studies with transcriptional and translational fusions indicated that L10(L12)4 represses rplJL expression at the transcriptional level. RNA binding studies demonstrated that L10(L12)4 stabilizes the anti-antiterminator structure, while in vitro transcription results indicated that L10(L12)4 promotes termination. Disruption of anti-antiterminator, antiterminator or terminator function by competitor oligonucleotides in vitro and by mutations in vivo demonstrated that each structure functions as predicted. Thus, rplJL expression is regulated by an autogenous transcription attenuation mechanism in which L10(L12)4 binding to the anti-antiterminator structure promotes termination. We also found that translation of a leader peptide increases rplJL expression, presumably by inhibiting Rho-dependent termination. Thus, the rplJL operon of B. subtilis is regulated by transcription attenuation and antitermination mechanisms.

  9. A Homologue of an Operon Required for DNA Transfer in Agrobacterium Is Required in Brucella abortus for Virulence and Intracellular Multiplication

    PubMed Central

    Sieira, Rodrigo; Comerci, Diego J.; Sánchez, Daniel O.; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.

    2000-01-01

    As part of a Brucella abortus 2308 genome project carried out in our laboratory, we identified, cloned, and sequenced a genomic DNA fragment containing a locus (virB) highly homologous to bacterial type IV secretion systems. The B. abortus virB locus is a collinear arrangement of 13 open reading frames (ORFs). Between virB1 and virB2 and downstream of ORF12, two degenerated, palindromic repeat sequences characteristic of Brucella intergenic regions were found. Gene reporter studies demonstrated that the B. abortus virB locus constitutes an operon transcribed from virB1 which is turned on during the stationary phase of growth. A B. abortus polar virB1 mutant failed to replicate in HeLa cells, indicating that the virB operon plays a critical role in intracellular multiplication. Mutants with polar and nonpolar mutations introduced in virB10 showed different behaviors in mice and in the HeLa cell infection assay, suggesting that virB10 per se is necessary for the correct function of this type IV secretion apparatus. Mouse infection assays demonstrated that the virB operon constitutes a major determinant of B. abortus virulence. It is suggested that putative effector molecules secreted by this type IV secretion system determine routing of B. abortus to an endoplasmic reticulum-related replication compartment. PMID:10940027

  10. Euglena gracilis chloroplast ribosomal protein operon: a new chloroplast gene for ribosomal protein L5 and description of a novel organelle intron category designated group III.

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, D A; Hallick, R B

    1989-01-01

    We describe the structure (3840 bp) of a novel Euglena gracilis chloroplast ribosomal protein operon that encodes the five genes rpl16-rpl14-rpl5-rps8-rpl36. The gene organization resembles the spc and the 3'-end of the S10 ribosomal protein operons of E. coli. The rpl5 is a new chloroplast gene not previously reported for any chloroplast genome to date and also not described as a nuclear-encoded, chloroplast protein gene. The operon contains at least 7 introns. We present evidence from primer extension analysis of chloroplast RNA for the correct in vivo splicing of five of the introns. Two of the introns within the rps8 gene flank an 8 bp exon, the smallest exon yet characterized in a chloroplast gene. Three introns resemble the classical group II introns of organelle genomes. The remaining 4 introns appear to be unique to the Euglena chloroplast DNA. They are uniform in size (95-109 nt), share common features with each other and are distinct from both group I and group II introns. We designate this new intron category as 'group III'. Images PMID:2477800

  11. The Dickeya dadantii biofilm matrix consists of cellulose nanofibres, and is an emergent property dependent upon the type III secretion system and the cellulose synthesis operon.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Courtney E; Selimi, Dija A; Barak, Jeri D; Charkowski, Amy O

    2011-10-01

    Dickeya dadantii is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that produces cellulose-containing biofilms, called pellicles, at the air-liquid interface of liquid cultures. D. dadantii pellicle formation appears to be an emergent property dependent upon at least three gene clusters, including cellulose synthesis, type III secretion system (T3SS) and flagellar genes. The D. dadantii cellulose synthesis operon is homologous to that of Gluconacetobacter xylinus, which is used for industrial cellulose production, and the cellulose nanofibres produced by D. dadantii were similar in diameter and branching pattern to those produced by G. xylinus. Salmonella enterica, an enterobacterium closely related to D. dadantii, encodes a second type of cellulose synthesis operon, and it produced biofilm strands that differed in width and branching pattern from those of D. dadantii and G. xylinus. Unlike any previously described cellulose fibre, the D. dadantii cellulose nanofibres were decorated with bead-like structures. Mutation of the cellulose synthesis operon genes resulted in loss of cellulose synthesis and production of a cellulase-resistant biofilm. Mutation of other genes required for pellicle formation, including those encoding FliA (a sigma factor that regulates flagella production), HrpL