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Sample records for action affecting export

  1. 76 FR 39844 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; ERIC COHEN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    .... 783 (2002)), as extended most recently by the Notice of August 17, 2010 (75 FR 50,681 (Aug. 16, 2010... Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; ERIC COHEN 10-BIS-0005 Eric Cohen... through and including on or about June 6, 2005, Cohen engaged in a transaction or took actions with...

  2. 75 FR 8917 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Afshin Rezaei

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... recent being that of August 13, 2009 (74 FR 41,325 (August 14, 2009)), has continued the Regulations in...)) (``IEEPA'') for knowingly and willfully exporting and causing to be exported laptop computers from...

  3. 76 FR 13127 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Amy Farrow

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 50,681 (Aug. 16, 2010)), has continued the Regulations in effect under the International... exported 254 stun guns, items subject to the Regulations, classified under Export Control Classification Number 0A985, and controlled for export to these destinations for crime control reasons, without...

  4. 75 FR 56504 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Rigel Optics, Inc. and Donald Wayne Hatch; Order Denying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... August 12, 2010 (75 FR 50681, August 16, 2010), has continued the Regulations in effect under the... Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Rigel Optics, Inc. and Donald Wayne Hatch; Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Rigel Optics, Inc., 477 South 28th...

  5. 75 FR 337 - Action Affecting Export Privileges: Ning Wen

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ..., 2001 (3 CFR, 2001 Comp. 783 (2002)), as extended most recently by the Notice of August 13, 2009 (74 FR... Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). Charge 1: 15 CFR 764.2(d)--Conspiracy To Export Electronic... that violated the Regulations. The object of the conspiracy was to export electronic components...

  6. 75 FR 842 - Action Affecting Export Privileges: Hailin Lin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... extended most recently by the Notice of August 13, 2009 (74 FR 41325 (Aug. 14, 2009)), has continued the...: 15 CFR 764.2(d)--Conspiracy To Export Electronic Components to the Republic of China Without the... conspiracy was to export electronic components from the United States to the People's Republic of China...

  7. 75 FR 11112 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Robert Kraaipoel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... successive Presidential Notices, the most recent being that of August 13, 2009 (74 FR 41,325 (Aug. 14, 2009....C. 1701, et seq.). Charge 1 15 CFR 764.2(d)--Conspiracy Between on or about October 1, 2005, and... Regulations. The purpose of the conspiracy was to export U.S.-origin items including aircraft...

  8. 76 FR 11756 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Ali Amirnazmi; Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 50,681, August 16, 2010), has continued the Regulations in effect under the International... any item subject to the Regulations; B. Take any action that facilitates the acquisition or attempted acquisition by the Denied Person of the ownership, possession, or control of any item subject to...

  9. 75 FR 13079 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; MAHAN AIRWAYS; Mahan Airways, Mahan Tower, No. 21, Azadegan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... Tower, No. 21, Azadegan St., M.A. Jenah Exp. Way, Tehran, Iran, Respondent; Order Renewing Order... to Iran three U.S.-origin aircraft, specifically Boeing 747s (``Aircraft 1-3''), items subject to the... involved in the attempted re-export of three additional U.S.-origin Boeing 747s (``Aircraft 4-6'') to...

  10. 76 FR 12318 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Mahan Airways, Gatewick LLC; Pejman Mahmood Kosarayanifard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Mahmood Kosarayanifard and Mahmoud Amini; Order Renewing Order Temporarily Denying Export Privileges and... Kosarian Fard, P.O. Box 52404, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Mahmoud Amini G 22 Dubai Airport Free Zone, P.O..., P.O. Box 52404, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; and Mahmoud Amini, G 22 Dubai Airport Free Zone,...

  11. 75 FR 11113 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Aviation Services International, B.V.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Comp. 783 (2002)), as extended most recently by the Notice of August 13, 2009 (74 FR 41325 (August 14.... 1701, et seq.) (``IEEPA''). Charge 1 15 CFR 764.2(d)--Conspiracy Between on or about October 1, 2005... Regulations. The purpose of the conspiracy was to export U.S.-origin items including aircraft...

  12. 75 FR 25202 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... May 1, 2010, unless renewed in accordance with section 766.24 of the Regulations. \\1\\ 74 FR 24,786. \\2... on November 9, 2009 (74 FR 57626). On April 9, 2010, BIS, through its Office of Export Enforcement..., Damascus, Syria, Respondents Pursuant to Section 766.24 of the Export Administration Regulations, 15...

  13. 75 FR 10462 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Mohamad M. Elkateb; In the Matter of: Mohamad M. Elkateb...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... August 13, 2009 (74 FR 41325 (Aug. 14, 2009)), has continued the Regulations in effect under the...: Mohamad M. Elkateb, 29256 Marilyn Dr., Canyon Country, CA 91387. Respondent; Order Relating to Mohamad M... export of U.S.-origin lab equipment from the United States to Syria, via Indonesia, without the...

  14. Exporting licensing regulations affecting US geothermal firms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.

  15. 15 CFR 766.25 - Administrative action denying export privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative action denying export privileges. 766.25 Section 766.25 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS ADMINISTRATIVE...

  16. Motor Execution Affects Action Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Liepelt, Roman; Birngruber, Teresa; Giese, Martin; Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of the claim that the prediction of occluded action involves real-time simulation. We report two experiments that aimed to study how real-time simulation is affected by simultaneous action execution under conditions of full, partial or no overlap between observed and executed actions. This overlap was analysed by…

  17. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  18. RNA-exporting machine in action

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    A tiny motor tasked with one of nature's biggest jobs is now better understood. The molecular machinery that helps export messenger RNA from a cell's nucleus has been structurally mapped at the Advanced Light Source, a synchrotron located at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab). In this simulation, Gle1 (yellow) binds Dbp5 (green and blue-grey) causing Dbp5 to release RNA (orange). The movie begins with Dbp5 bound to RNA and then transitions to the Gle1-Dbp5 state, the step that jettisons RNA. The simulation then plays in reverse to mimic RNA and ATP dependent closing of Dbp5 and release of Gle1 (Movie courtesy of Karsten Weis's and James Berger's labs)

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... in many US hospitals do not fully support breastfeeding. Some of the Ten Steps on which hospitals ...

  20. 75 FR 32742 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Joseph Piquet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Notices, the most recent being that of August 13, 2009 (74 FR 41325, August 14, 2009), has continued the... involved in this conspiracy were high power amplifiers designed for use by the U.S. military in early warning radar and missile target acquisition systems, and low noise amplifiers that have both...

  1. 75 FR 16735 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Bob Rahimzadeh

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... by successive Presidential Notices, the most recent being that of August 13, 2009 (74 FR 41325 (Aug..., 2006. 71 FR 61706 (Oct. 19, 2006). \\3\\ EAR99 is a designation for items subject to the Regulations but... the transaction, published in the Federal Register on October 19, 2006. 71 FR 61706 (Oct. 19,...

  2. The β-richness of two detritivore caddisflies affects fine organic matter export.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher J; Fernandez, Dylan H

    2013-08-01

    We used stream networks as a model system to test whether the ecosystem function, upstream production, and export of fine organic particles, an important subsidy to downstream habitats, would vary between two stream networks with identical detritivore species but different spatial distributions (i.e. high or low β-richness). Our experiment employed artificial stream networks with two simulated tributaries. We used two species of detritivorous caddisflies, Lepidostoma sp. and Pycnopsyche guttifer, in either sympatry (low β-richness) or allopatry (high β-richness) in the tributaries of each network. The tributaries were given either senesced or green speckled alder (Alnus incana rugosa). In the networks with senesced leaves, particle export was more than twice as great when the detritivores were in allopatry whereas interference competition in sympatry reduced particle export. In the networks with green leaves, particle export did not significantly vary between the allopatric and sympatric distributions because the interference competition was reduced and the two species had similar feeding rates on green leaves. Humans are altering β-richness by homogenizing or differentiating flora and fauna across habitats; however, little is known about how altering this type of biodiversity will affect ecosystem functions. Our experimental manipulation is a simple version of a change in the β-richness of the detritivores in a more complex stream network in nature. These results may indicate that shifts in species distributions across sites may significantly affect ecosystem functions, even when no species are lost from a watershed. PMID:23247687

  3. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  4. 12 CFR 1261.9 - Actions affecting director elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actions affecting director elections. 1261.9... BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.9 Actions affecting director elections. (a) Banks. Each Bank, acting through its board of directors, may conduct...

  5. 12 CFR 1261.9 - Actions affecting director elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actions affecting director elections. 1261.9... BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.9 Actions affecting director elections. (a) Banks. Each Bank, acting through its board of directors, may conduct...

  6. 12 CFR 1261.9 - Actions affecting director elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actions affecting director elections. 1261.9... BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.9 Actions affecting director elections. (a) Banks. Each Bank, acting through its board of directors, may conduct...

  7. 12 CFR 1261.9 - Actions affecting director elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actions affecting director elections. 1261.9... BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.9 Actions affecting director elections. (a) Banks. Each Bank, acting through its board of directors, may conduct...

  8. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  9. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  10. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  11. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  12. Exporting the Buyers Health Care Action Group Purchasing Model: Lessons from Other Communities

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, Jon B; Feldman, Roger

    2005-01-01

    When first implemented in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, the Buyers Health Care Action Group's (BHCAG) purchasing approach received considerable attention as an employer-managed, consumer-driven health care model embodying many of the principles of managed competition. First BHCAG and, later, a for-profit management company attempted to export this model to other communities. Their efforts were met with resistance from local hospitals and, in many cases, apathy by employers who were expected to be supportive. This experience underscores several difficulties that appear to be inherent in implementing purchasing models based on competing care systems. It also, once again, suggests caution in drawing lessons from community-level experiments in purchasing health care. PMID:15787957

  13. 24 CFR 965.405 - Actions affecting residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actions affecting residents. 965.405 Section 965.405 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR...

  14. 24 CFR 965.405 - Actions affecting residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requisite changes in resident dwelling leases in accordance with 24 CFR part 966. (c) PHAs must work closely... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Actions affecting residents. 965.405 Section 965.405 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND...

  15. 24 CFR 965.405 - Actions affecting residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requisite changes in resident dwelling leases in accordance with 24 CFR part 966. (c) PHAs must work closely... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Actions affecting residents. 965.405 Section 965.405 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND...

  16. 24 CFR 965.405 - Actions affecting residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requisite changes in resident dwelling leases in accordance with 24 CFR part 966. (c) PHAs must work closely... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Actions affecting residents. 965.405 Section 965.405 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND...

  17. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Snagg, Arielle; Heerey, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer’s general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation. PMID:27149106

  18. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Louise P; Snagg, Arielle; Heerey, Erin; Cross, Emily S

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer's general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation. PMID:27149106

  19. Social class affects Mu-suppression during action observation.

    PubMed

    Varnum, Michael E W; Blais, Chris; Brewer, Gene A

    2016-08-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to differences in the degree to which people are attuned to others. Those who are lower in SES also tend to be more interpersonally attuned. However, to date, this work has not been demonstrated using neural measures. In the present electroencephalogram study, we found evidence that lower SES was linked to stronger Mu-suppression during action observation. This finding adds to the growing literature on factors that affect Mu-suppression and suggests that the mirror neuron system may be influenced by one's social class. PMID:26458132

  20. The time between intention and action affects the experience of action

    PubMed Central

    Vinding, Mikkel C.; Jensen, Mads; Overgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We present a study investigating how the delay between the intention to act and the following action, influenced the experience of action. In experiments investigating sense of agency and experience of action, the contrast is most often between voluntary and involuntary actions. It is rarely asked whether different types of intentions influence the experience of action differently. To investigate this we distinguished between proximal intentions (i.e., intentions for immediate actions) and delayed intentions (i.e., intentions with a temporal delay between intention and action). The distinction was implemented in an intentional binding paradigm, by varying the delay between the time where participants formed the intention to act and the time at which they performed the action. The results showed that delayed intentions were followed by a stronger binding effect for the tone following the action compared to proximal intentions. The actions were reported to have occurred earlier for delayed intentions than for proximal intentions. This effect was independent of the binding effect usually found in intentional binding experiments. This suggests that two perceptual shifts occurred in the contrast between delayed intentions and proximal intentions: The first being the binding effect, the second a general shift in the perceived time of action. Neither the stronger binding effect for tone, nor the earlier reports of action, differed across delays for delayed intentions. The results imply that delayed intentions and proximal intentions have a different impact on the experience of action. PMID:26150783

  1. 75 FR 63801 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Joseph Piquet and Related Person Alphatronx, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... individual Joseph Piquet (``Piquet'') on May 28, 2010 (75 FR 32742, June 9, 2010) applicable to Alphatronx... August 12, 2010 (75 FR 50,681 (Aug. 16, 2010)), has continued the Regulations in effect under the... published in the Federal Register on June 9, 2010 at 75 FR 32742, shall be made applicable to...

  2. 75 FR 32743 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Green Supply, Inc.; Robert Leland Green and William Robert...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... being that of August 13, 2009 (74 FR. 41325, August 14, 2009), has continued the Regulations in effect... United States certain commodities which included night vision goggles, global positioning systems,...

  3. 76 FR 19033 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Credit International Trading Co. Ltd; In the Matter of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... that of August 12, 2010 (75 FR 50681 (Aug. 16, 2010)), has continued the Regulations in effect under... the Federal Register on April 25, 2006 at 71 FR 23896, shall be made applicable to Credit... (``OEE''), has requested that I make the Denial Order that was imposed against the individual Ruo...

  4. 75 FR 63802 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Parto Abgardan Cooling Towers Co.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... published in the Federal Register on April 2, 2010 (see 75 FR 16732 (April 2, 2010)), and will remain in... Register. 75 FR 16,732 (April 2, 2010). Aqua-Loop settled these charges with BIS in March 2010, agreeing to... the Federal Register. 75 FR 16,735 (April 2, 2010). B. BIS's Related Person's Notice Letter...

  5. 76 FR 22865 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... a 180-day renewal Order on April 29, 2010.\\2\\ \\1\\ 74 FR 24,786. \\2\\ The November 2, 2009 renewal Order was published in the Federal Register on November 9, 2009 (74 FR 57,626). The April 29, 2010 renewal Order was published in the Federal Register on May 7, 2010 (75 FR 25,002). Most recently,...

  6. 75 FR 56052 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Mahan Airways and Gatewick LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Group PLC, Balli Aviation, Balli Holdings, Vahid Alaghband, Hassan Alaghband, Blue Sky One Ltd., Blue Sky Two Ltd., Blue Sky Three Ltd., Blue Sky Four Ltd., Blue Sky Five Ltd., and Blue Sky Six Ltd., all... prevent an imminent violation of the Regulations. The TDO also named as denied persons Blue......

  7. 75 FR 32741 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Shu Quan-Sheng

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... most recent being that of (August 13, 2009 (74 FR 41325, August 14, 2009), has continued the... Quan-Sheng, Register 58250-083, FCI LA Tuna, Federal Correctional Institution, P.O. Box 3000, Anthony..., FCI LA Tuna, Federal Correctional Institution, P.O. Box 3000, Anthony, TX 88021 and 816 Holbrook...

  8. 75 FR 16732 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Aqua-Loop Cooling Towers, Co.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... successive Presidential Notices, the most recent being that of August 13, 2009 (74 FR 41.325 (Aug. 14, 2009... the transaction, published in the Federal Register on October 19, 2006. 71 FR 61,706 (Oct. 19, 2006..., published in the Federal Register on October 19, 2006. 71 FR 61,706 (Oct. 19, 2006). In so doing,...

  9. Rail Transportation A review of administrative, judicial and legislative developments affecting domestic and export coal traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Loftus, C.M.

    1983-11-01

    During the past year, several important decisions by the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Federal courts have substantially expanded the extent of deregulation of the railroad industry. Without exception, these decisions have been adverse to the interests of shippers of coal by rail. Through the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (the ''4-R Act'') and the Staggers Rail Act of 1980 Congress clearly intended and directed a substantial relaxation of government regulation of the railroad industry. However, this deregulation was focused by Congress upon those transportation markets where the availability of other transportation options protected shippers from the exercise by the railroads of monopoly power in pricing and other activities. Where shippers are ''captive'' to the railroads, Congress recognized the need for continued regulation to protect shippers against the imposition of unreasonable rates. In a series of major decisions since enactment of the Staggers Act, the ICC has whittled away the protections which Congress provided in the law to such an extent that, for practical purposes, we are approaching full deregulation, at least in the area of rail rates. Of most importance to coal shipping interests are the Commission's recent decisions (a) proposing new guidelines for establishing maximum coal rate levels, and (b) exempting export coal traffic from all aspects of regulation under the Interstate Commerce Act.

  10. 12 CFR 1261.9 - Actions affecting director elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... capacity, may support the nomination or election of any individual for a member directorship, provided that... nominated by the board of directors for election to an independent directorship. (c) Prohibition. Except as... for a directorship; or (2) Take any other action to influence the voting with respect to...

  11. 34 CFR 369.43 - What are the affirmative action plan requirements affecting grantees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the affirmative action plan requirements... affirmative action plan requirements affecting grantees? A recipient of Federal assistance must develop and implement an affirmative action plan to employ and advance in employment qualified individuals...

  12. 34 CFR 369.43 - What are the affirmative action plan requirements affecting grantees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What are the affirmative action plan requirements... affirmative action plan requirements affecting grantees? A recipient of Federal assistance must develop and implement an affirmative action plan to employ and advance in employment qualified individuals...

  13. 34 CFR 369.43 - What are the affirmative action plan requirements affecting grantees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the affirmative action plan requirements... affirmative action plan requirements affecting grantees? A recipient of Federal assistance must develop and implement an affirmative action plan to employ and advance in employment qualified individuals...

  14. 34 CFR 369.43 - What are the affirmative action plan requirements affecting grantees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are the affirmative action plan requirements... affirmative action plan requirements affecting grantees? A recipient of Federal assistance must develop and implement an affirmative action plan to employ and advance in employment qualified individuals...

  15. 34 CFR 369.43 - What are the affirmative action plan requirements affecting grantees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the affirmative action plan requirements... affirmative action plan requirements affecting grantees? A recipient of Federal assistance must develop and implement an affirmative action plan to employ and advance in employment qualified individuals...

  16. 26 CFR 1.6045B-1 - Returns relating to actions affecting basis of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Returns relating to actions affecting basis of securities. 1.6045B-1 Section 1.6045B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information Returns § 1.6045B-1 Returns relating to actions affecting basis...

  17. 26 CFR 1.6045B-1 - Returns relating to actions affecting basis of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returns relating to actions affecting basis of securities. 1.6045B-1 Section 1.6045B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information Returns § 1.6045B-1 Returns relating to actions affecting basis...

  18. Bad actions or bad outcomes? Differentiating affective contributions to the moral condemnation of harm.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ryan M; Hannikainen, Ivar A; Cushman, Fiery A

    2014-06-01

    Moral condemnation of harmful behavior is influenced by both cognitive and affective processes. However, despite much recent research, the proximate source of affect remains unclear. One obvious contender is empathy; simulating the victim's pain could lead one to judge an action as wrong ("outcome aversion"). An alternative, less obvious source is one's own aversion to performing the action itself ("action aversion"). To dissociate these alternatives, we developed a scale that assessed individual aversions to (a) witnessing others experience painful outcomes (e.g., seeing someone fall down stairs); and (b) performing actions that are harmless yet aversive (e.g., stabbing a fellow actor with a fake stage knife). Across 4 experiments, we found that moral condemnation of both first-person and third-party harmful behavior in the context of moral dilemmas is better predicted by one's aversion to action properties than by an affective response to victim suffering. In a fifth experiment, we manipulated both action aversion and the degree of expected suffering across a number of actions and found that both factors make large, independent contributions to moral judgment. Together, these results suggest we may judge others' actions by imagining what it would feel like to perform the action rather than experience the consequences of the action. Accordingly, they provide a counterpoint to a dominant but largely untested assumption that empathy is the key affective response governing moral judgments of harm. PMID:24512250

  19. Embodied communication:Speakers' gestures affect listeners' actions

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Susan Wagner; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    We explored how speakers and listeners use hand gestures as a source of perceptual-motor information during naturalistic communication. After solving the Tower of Hanoi task either with real objects or on a computer, speakers explained the task to listeners. Speakers' hand gestures, but not their speech, reflected properties of the particular objects and the actions that they had previously used to solve the task. Speakers who solved the problem with real objects used more grasping handshapes and produced more curved trajectories during the explanation. Listeners who observed explanations from speakers who had previously solved the problem with real objects subsequently treated computer objects more like real objects; their mouse trajectories revealed that they lifted the objects in conjunction with moving them sideways, and this behavior was related to the particular gestures that were observed. These findings demonstrate that hand gestures are a reliable source of perceptual-motor information during human communication. PMID:19682672

  20. 78 FR 51746 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... European Union; Scheduling of an Additional Public Hearing With Simplified Filing Procedures AGENCY: United... Barriers that U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the European Union... and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations with the European Union (EU), is seeking to...

  1. Identification of Action Units Related to Affective States in a Tutoring System for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrón-Rivera, Gustavo; Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Parra, Pilar Pozos; Huerta-Pacheco, N. Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Affect is an important element of the learning process both in the classroom and with educational technology. This paper presents analyses in relation to the identification of Action Units (AUs) related to affective states and their impact on learning with a tutoring system. To assess affect, a tool was devised to identify AUs on pictures of human…

  2. How the Dollar's Value Affects U.S. Farm Exports to Developing Countries. Foreign Agricultural Economic Report Number 237.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burfisher, Mary E.

    United States exports may not necessarily increase when the dollar falls on the world market. Conventional thinking is that a weaker dollar means more demand for U.S. products because they become less expensive than goods from countries with stronger currencies. However, developing countries whose export revenues are denominated in the weakening…

  3. Factors that affect action possibility judgements: recent experience with the action and the current body state.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Sanjay; Binsted, Gordon; Ayres, Fabio; Higgins, Laura; Welsh, Timothy N

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that action possibility judgements are formed through a covert simulation of the to-be-executed action. We sought to determine whether the motor system (via a common coding mechanism) influences this simulation, by investigating whether action possibility judgements are influenced by experience with the movement task (Experiments 1 and 2) and current body states (Experiment 3). The judgement task in each experiment involved judging whether it was possible for a person's hand to accurately move between two targets at presented speeds. In Experiment 1, participants completed the action judgements before and after executing the movement they were required to judge. Results were that judged movement times after execution were closer to the actual execution time than those prior to execution. The results of Experiment 2 suggest that the effects of execution on judgements were not due to motor activation or perceptual task experience-alternative explanations of the execution-mediated judgement effects. Experiment 3 examined how judged movement times were influenced by participants wearing weights. Results revealed that wearing weights increased judged movement times. These results suggest that the simulation underlying the judgement process is connected to the motor system, and that simulations are dynamically generated, taking into account recent experience and current body state. PMID:22348464

  4. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... populations. 230.75 Section 230.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  5. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... populations. 230.75 Section 230.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  6. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... populations. 230.75 Section 230.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  7. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... populations. 230.75 Section 230.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  8. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... populations. 230.75 Section 230.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  9. 40 CFR 230.73 - Actions affecting the method of dispersion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions affecting the method of dispersion. 230.73 Section 230.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects §...

  10. Herpes simplex virus type 1 protein IE63 affects the nuclear export of virus intron-containing transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, A; Dunlop, J; Clements, J B

    1996-01-01

    Using in situ hybridization labelling methods, we have determined that the herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early protein IE63 (ICP27) affects the cellular localization of virus transcripts. Intronless transcripts from the IE63, UL38, and UL44 genes are rapidly exported to and accumulate in the cytoplasm throughout infection, in either the presence or absence of IE63 expression. The intron-containing transcripts from the IE110 and UL15 genes, while initially cytoplasmic, are increasingly retained in the nucleus in distinct clumps as infection proceeds, and the clumps colocalize with the redistributed small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. Infections with the IE63 mutant virus 27-lacZ demonstrated that in the absence of IE63 expression, nuclear retention of intron-containing transcripts was lost. The nuclear retention of UL15 transcripts, which demonstrated both nuclear and cytoplasmic label, was not as pronounced as that of the IE110 transcripts, and we propose that this is due to the late expression of UL15. Infections with the mutant virus 110C1, in which both introns of IE110 have been precisely removed (R.D. Everett, J. Gen. Virol. 72:651-659, 1991), demonstrated IE110 transcripts in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm; thus, exon definition sequences which regulate viral RNA transport are present in the IE110 transcript. By in situ hybridization a stable population of polyadenylated RNAs was found to accumulate in the nucleus in spots, most of which were separate from the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle clumps. The IE63 protein has an involvement, either direct or indirect, in the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic transport of viral transcripts, a function which contrasts with the recently proposed role of herpes simplex virus type 1 Us11 in promoting the nuclear export of partially spliced or unspliced transcripts (J.-J. Diaz, M. Duc Dodon, N. Schaerer-Uthurraly, D. Simonin, K. Kindbeiter, L. Gazzolo, and J.-J. Madjar, Nature [London] 379

  11. Arabidopsis NMD3 Is Required for Nuclear Export of 60S Ribosomal Subunits and Affects Secondary Cell Wall Thickening

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Qin; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Bao-Cai; Nan, Jie; Li, Xia; Liu, Na; Qu, Hong; Lu, Cong-Ming; Sudmorgen; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2012-01-01

    NMD3 is required for nuclear export of the 60S ribosomal subunit in yeast and vertebrate cells, but no corresponding function of NMD3 has been reported in plants. Here we report that Arabidopsis thaliana NMD3 (AtNMD3) showed a similar function in the nuclear export of the 60S ribosomal subunit. Interference with AtNMD3 function by overexpressing a truncated dominant negative form of the protein lacking the nuclear export signal sequence caused retainment of the 60S ribosomal subunits in the nuclei. More interestingly, the transgenic Arabidopsis with dominant negative interference of AtNMD3 function showed a striking failure of secondary cell wall thickening, consistent with the altered expression of related genes and composition of cell wall components. Observation of a significant decrease of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) in the differentiating interfascicular fiber cells of the transgenic plant stems suggested a link between the defective nuclear export of 60S ribosomal subunits and the abnormal formation of the secondary cell wall. These findings not only clarified the evolutionary conservation of NMD3 functions in the nuclear export of 60S ribosomal subunits in yeast, animals and plants, but also revealed a new facet of the regulatory mechanism underlying secondary cell wall thickening in Arabidopsis. This new facet is that the nuclear export of 60S ribosomal subunits and the formation of RER may play regulatory roles in coordinating protein synthesis in cytoplasm and transcription in nuclei. PMID:22558264

  12. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... significantly affecting the quality of the human environment,” as used in this part, shall be construed with a... actions should ordinarily be considered as significantly affecting the quality of the human...

  13. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... significantly affecting the quality of the human environment,” as used in this part, shall be construed with a... actions should ordinarily be considered as significantly affecting the quality of the human...

  14. The Actions of Affect in Deleuze: Others Using Language and the Language that We Make...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The actions of affect are prominent in the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze and can be broken down for the purposes of education into two roles. The first alludes to the history of philosophy and the ways in which affect has been used by Spinoza (Deleuze, 1992) Nietzsche (Deleuze, 1983) or Bergson (Deleuze, 1991). In this role, Deleuze reinvigorates…

  15. Neural Coding of Cooperative vs. Affective Human Interactions: 150 ms to Code the Action's Purpose

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica; Paganelli, Laura; Cappa, Stefano F.; Canessa, Nicola; Perani, Daniela; Zani, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The timing and neural processing of the understanding of social interactions was investigated by presenting scenes in which 2 people performed cooperative or affective actions. While the role of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) in understanding actions and intentions is widely accepted, little is known about the time course within which these aspects of visual information are automatically extracted. Event-Related Potentials were recorded in 35 university students perceiving 260 pictures of cooperative (e.g., 2 people dragging a box) or affective (e.g., 2 people smiling and holding hands) interactions. The action's goal was automatically discriminated at about 150–170 ms, as reflected by occipito/temporal N170 response. The swLORETA inverse solution revealed the strongest sources in the right posterior cingulate cortex (CC) for affective actions and in the right pSTS for cooperative actions. It was found a right hemispheric asymmetry that involved the fusiform gyrus (BA37), the posterior CC, and the medial frontal gyrus (BA10/11) for the processing of affective interactions, particularly in the 155–175 ms time window. In a later time window (200–250 ms) the processing of cooperative interactions activated the left post-central gyrus (BA3), the left parahippocampal gyrus, the left superior frontal gyrus (BA10), as well as the right premotor cortex (BA6). Women showed a greater response discriminative of the action's goal compared to men at P300 and anterior negativity level (220–500 ms). These findings might be related to a greater responsiveness of the female vs. male MNS. In addition, the discriminative effect was bilateral in women and was smaller and left-sided in men. Evidence was provided that perceptually similar social interactions are discriminated on the basis of the agents' intentions quite early in neural processing, differentially activating regions devoted to face/body/action coding, the limbic system and the MNS. PMID:21760948

  16. 77 FR 68790 - Program Comment Issued for Streamlining Section 106 Review for Actions Affecting Post-1945...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    .../archive/NotesDocs/25-25%2815%29_FR.pdf ). (A) Reinforced concrete slab bridges (i) Reinforced concrete... Concrete and Steel Bridges AGENCY: Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. ACTION: Program Comment issued for streamlining Section 106 review for undertakings affecting post-1945 concrete and...

  17. Minimalist Social-Affective Value for Use in Joint Action: A Neural-Computational Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Robert; Almér, Alexander; Lindblad, Gustaf; Gander, Pierre; Michael, John; Vesper, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    Joint Action is typically described as social interaction that requires coordination among two or more co-actors in order to achieve a common goal. In this article, we put forward a hypothesis for the existence of a neural-computational mechanism of affective valuation that may be critically exploited in Joint Action. Such a mechanism would serve to facilitate coordination between co-actors permitting a reduction of required information. Our hypothesized affective mechanism provides a value function based implementation of Associative Two-Process (ATP) theory that entails the classification of external stimuli according to outcome expectancies. This approach has been used to describe animal and human action that concerns differential outcome expectancies. Until now it has not been applied to social interaction. We describe our Affective ATP model as applied to social learning consistent with an “extended common currency” perspective in the social neuroscience literature. We contrast this to an alternative mechanism that provides an example implementation of the so-called social-specific value perspective. In brief, our Social-Affective ATP mechanism builds upon established formalisms for reinforcement learning (temporal difference learning models) nuanced to accommodate expectations (consistent with ATP theory) and extended to integrate non-social and social cues for use in Joint Action. PMID:27601989

  18. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment. 520.5 Section 520.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR CONSIDERING ENVIRONMENTAL...

  19. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment. 520.5 Section 520.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR CONSIDERING ENVIRONMENTAL...

  20. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment. 520.5 Section 520.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR CONSIDERING ENVIRONMENTAL...

  1. 40 CFR 230.73 - Actions affecting the method of dispersion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions affecting the method of dispersion. 230.73 Section 230.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... obstruction to the water current or circulation pattern, and utilizing natural bottom contours to minimize...

  2. 40 CFR 230.73 - Actions affecting the method of dispersion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions affecting the method of dispersion. 230.73 Section 230.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... obstruction to the water current or circulation pattern, and utilizing natural bottom contours to minimize...

  3. 40 CFR 230.73 - Actions affecting the method of dispersion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions affecting the method of dispersion. 230.73 Section 230.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... obstruction to the water current or circulation pattern, and utilizing natural bottom contours to minimize...

  4. 40 CFR 230.73 - Actions affecting the method of dispersion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions affecting the method of dispersion. 230.73 Section 230.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... obstruction to the water current or circulation pattern, and utilizing natural bottom contours to minimize...

  5. Minimalist Social-Affective Value for Use in Joint Action: A Neural-Computational Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Robert; Almér, Alexander; Lindblad, Gustaf; Gander, Pierre; Michael, John; Vesper, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    Joint Action is typically described as social interaction that requires coordination among two or more co-actors in order to achieve a common goal. In this article, we put forward a hypothesis for the existence of a neural-computational mechanism of affective valuation that may be critically exploited in Joint Action. Such a mechanism would serve to facilitate coordination between co-actors permitting a reduction of required information. Our hypothesized affective mechanism provides a value function based implementation of Associative Two-Process (ATP) theory that entails the classification of external stimuli according to outcome expectancies. This approach has been used to describe animal and human action that concerns differential outcome expectancies. Until now it has not been applied to social interaction. We describe our Affective ATP model as applied to social learning consistent with an "extended common currency" perspective in the social neuroscience literature. We contrast this to an alternative mechanism that provides an example implementation of the so-called social-specific value perspective. In brief, our Social-Affective ATP mechanism builds upon established formalisms for reinforcement learning (temporal difference learning models) nuanced to accommodate expectations (consistent with ATP theory) and extended to integrate non-social and social cues for use in Joint Action. PMID:27601989

  6. 26 CFR 1.6045B-1 - Returns relating to actions affecting basis of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... specified security (within the meaning of § 1.6045-1(a)(14)) that takes an organizational action that affects the basis of the security must file an issuer return setting forth the following information and... and taxpayer identification number of the reporting issuer. (ii) Security identifiers. The...

  7. 78 FR 31517 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to California Almond Export Association, LLC (``CAEA'') (Application...: Joseph E. Flynn, Director, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International...

  8. Camphene, a Plant Derived Monoterpene, Exerts Its Hypolipidemic Action by Affecting SREBP-1 and MTP Expression.

    PubMed

    Vallianou, Ioanna; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The control of hyperlipidemia plays a central role in cardiovascular disease. Previously, we have shown that camphene, a constituent of mastic gum oil, lowers cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) in the plasma of hyperlipidemic rats without affecting HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. In the present study, we examine the mechanism by which camphene exerts its hypolipidemic action. We evaluated the effect of camphene on the de novo synthesis of cholesterol and TG from [14C]-acetate in HepG2 cells, along with the statin mevinolin. Camphene inhibited the biosynthesis of cholesterol in a concentration-dependent manner, and a maximal inhibition of 39% was observed at 100 μM while mevinolin nearly abolished cholesterol biosynthesis. Moreover, treatment with camphene reduced TG by 34% and increased apolipoprotein AI expression. In contrast, mevinolin increased TG by 26% and had a modest effect on apolipoprotein AI expression. To evaluate the mode of action of camphene, we examined its effects on the expression of SREBP-1, which affects TG biosynthesis and SREBP-2, which mostly affects sterol synthesis. Interestingly, camphene increased the nuclear translocation of the mature form of SREBP-1 while mevinolin was found to increase the amount of the mature form of SREBP-2. The effect of camphene is most likely regulated through SREBP-1 by affecting MTP levels in response to a decrease in the intracellular cholesterol. We propose that camphene upregulates SREBP-1 expression and MTP inhibition is likely to be a probable mechanism whereby camphene exerts its hypolipidemic effect. PMID:26784701

  9. Camphene, a Plant Derived Monoterpene, Exerts Its Hypolipidemic Action by Affecting SREBP-1 and MTP Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vallianou, Ioanna; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The control of hyperlipidemia plays a central role in cardiovascular disease. Previously, we have shown that camphene, a constituent of mastic gum oil, lowers cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) in the plasma of hyperlipidemic rats without affecting HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. In the present study, we examine the mechanism by which camphene exerts its hypolipidemic action. We evaluated the effect of camphene on the de novo synthesis of cholesterol and TG from [14C]-acetate in HepG2 cells, along with the statin mevinolin. Camphene inhibited the biosynthesis of cholesterol in a concentration-dependent manner, and a maximal inhibition of 39% was observed at 100 μM while mevinolin nearly abolished cholesterol biosynthesis. Moreover, treatment with camphene reduced TG by 34% and increased apolipoprotein AI expression. In contrast, mevinolin increased TG by 26% and had a modest effect on apolipoprotein AI expression. To evaluate the mode of action of camphene, we examined its effects on the expression of SREBP-1, which affects TG biosynthesis and SREBP-2, which mostly affects sterol synthesis. Interestingly, camphene increased the nuclear translocation of the mature form of SREBP-1 while mevinolin was found to increase the amount of the mature form of SREBP-2. The effect of camphene is most likely regulated through SREBP-1 by affecting MTP levels in response to a decrease in the intracellular cholesterol. We propose that camphene upregulates SREBP-1 expression and MTP inhibition is likely to be a probable mechanism whereby camphene exerts its hypolipidemic effect. PMID:26784701

  10. Observed actions affect body-specific associations between space and valence.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Juanma; Casasanto, Daniel; Santiago, Julio

    2015-03-01

    Right-handers tend to associate "good" with the right side of space and "bad" with the left. This implicit association appears to arise from the way people perform actions, more or less fluently, with their right and left hands. Here we tested whether observing manual actions performed with greater or lesser fluency can affect observers' space-valence associations. In two experiments, we assigned one participant (the actor) to perform a bimanual fine motor task while another participant (the observer) watched. Actors were assigned to wear a ski glove on either the right or left hand, which made performing the actions on this side of space disfluent. In Experiment 1, observers stood behind the actors, sharing their spatial perspective. After motor training, both actors and observers tended to associate "good" with the side of the actors' free hand and "bad" with the side of the gloved hand. To determine whether observers' space-valence associations were computed from their own perspectives or the actors', in Experiment 2 we asked the observer to stand face-to-face with the actor, reversing their spatial perspectives. After motor training, both actors and observers associated "good" with the side of space where disfluent actions had occurred from their own egocentric spatial perspectives; if "good" was associated with the actor's right-hand side it was likely to be associated with the observer's left-hand side. Results show that vicarious experiences of motor fluency can shape valence judgments, and that observers spontaneously encode the locations of fluent and disfluent actions in egocentric spatial coordinates. PMID:25638409

  11. 75 FR 71075 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Anvik Technologies Sdn. Bhd., a/k/a Anvik Technologies; Babak...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... presidential notices, the most recent being that of August 12, 2010 (75 FR 50681 (Aug. 16, 2010)), has... negligent '' Id. A ``lack of information establishing the precise time a violation may occur does not... communication and physical office services available to a typical lessee of office space, providing...

  12. 76 FR 12023 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; William Chi-Wai Tsu And Cheerway Corporation; Order Denying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... that of August 12, 2010 (75 FR 50681, August 16, 2010), has continued the Regulations in effect under... with an address at: 1432 Forest Glen Drive, Unit 65, Hacienda Heights, CA 91745; Respondent; Cheerway Corporation, 1641 W. Main Street, Suite 308, Alhambra, CA 91801; and with an address at: 1432 Forest...

  13. Do Long-Term Changes in Organic Matter Inputs to Forest Soils Affect Dissolved Organic Matter Chemistry and Export?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajtha, K.; Strid, A.; Lee, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) production and transport play an important role in regulating organic matter (OM) distribution through a soil profile and ultimately, OM stabilization or export to aquatic systems. The contributions of varying OM inputs to the quality and amount of DOM as it passes through a soil profile remain relatively unknown. The Detrital Input and Removal Treatment (DIRT) site at the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon has undergone 17 years of litter, wood and root input manipulations and allows us to guage shifts in DOM chemistry induced by long-term changes to aboveground and belowground OM additions and exclusions. Using fluorescence and UV spectroscopy to characterize fluorescent properties, extent of decomposition, and sources of DOM in streams and soil solutions collected with lysimeters and soil extractions, we have assessed the importance of fresh OM inputs to DOM chemistry. Soil extracts from DIRT plots had a higher fluorescence index (FI) than lysimeter solutions or stream water. A high FI in surface water is generally interpreted as indicative of a high proportion of microbially-derived DOM. However, we suspect that the high FI in soil extracts is due to a higher proportion of non-aromatic DOM from fresh soil that microorganisms consume in transit through the soil profile to lysimeters or to streams. High redox index (RI) values were observed in lysimeters from the April 2014 sampling compared with the November 2013 sampling. These RI values show evidence of more reducing conditions at the end of the rainy season in the spring compared to the onset of the rainy season in the fall. Lysimeter water collected in No Input, No Litter, and No Root treatments contained high proportions of protein, suggesting the absence of carbon inputs changes activities of the microbial community. Observed variations reflect the viability of using fluorescent properties to explore the terrestrial-aquatic interface.

  14. Need for Affect, Need for Cognition, and the Intention-Fruit Consumption Relationship: An Action-Control Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Keer, Mario; van den Putte, Bas; Neijens, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Predictors of action-control profiles are useful targets for health behaviour change interventions, but action-control research has not focused on fruit consumption and has not yet included need for affect and need for cognition, despite the demonstrated usefulness of these variables in a broad range of research. The role of these…

  15. Happiness in action: the impact of positive affect on the time of the conscious intention to act

    PubMed Central

    Rigoni, Davide; Demanet, Jelle; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The temporal relationship between our conscious intentions to act and the action itself has been widely investigated. Previous research consistently shows that the motor intention enters awareness a few 100 ms before movement onset. As research in other domains has shown that most behavior is affected by the emotional state people are in, it is remarkable that the role of emotional states on intention awareness has never been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that positive and negative affects have opposite effects on the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself. A mood induction procedure that combined guided imagery and music listening was employed to induce positive, negative, or neutral affective states. After each mood induction session, participants were asked to execute voluntary self-paced movements and to report when they formed the intention to act. Exposure to pleasant material, as compared to exposure to unpleasant material, enhanced positive affect and dampened negative affect. Importantly, in the positive affect condition participants reported their intention to act earlier in time with respect to action onset, as compared to when they were in the negative or in the neutral affect conditions. Conversely the reported time of the intention to act when participants experienced negative affect did not differ significantly from the neutral condition. These findings suggest that the temporal relationship between the conscious intention to act and the action itself is malleable to changes in affective states and may indicate that positive affect enhances intentional awareness. PMID:26388812

  16. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section 402.45... habitat. (a) Consultation obligations for FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat when alternative consultation agreement is in effect. If EPA and the...

  17. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section 402.45... habitat. (a) Consultation obligations for FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat when alternative consultation agreement is in effect. If EPA and the...

  18. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section 402.45... habitat. (a) Consultation obligations for FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat when alternative consultation agreement is in effect. If EPA and the...

  19. New Law Relating to Child Custody Determinations in Actions Affecting the Family (1987 Wisconsin Act 355, as Affected by 1987 Wisconsin Act 364). Information Memorandum 88-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salm, Don

    This information memorandum of the Wisconsin Legislative Council describes two pieces of state legislation: 1987 Wisconsin Act 355, which revises the laws relating to child custody determinations in actions affecting the family, and 1987 Wisconsin Act 364, which clarifies and revises the initial applicability provisions in Act 355. Part I of the…

  20. 75 FR 35441 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to EFS International Corporation/DBA: EFS Global Trade and Export Sales... Certificate of Review to EFS International Corporation/ DBA: EFS Global Trade and Export Services...

  1. 75 FR 11842 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 10-00002) for an Export Trade Certificate of Review from EFS International Corporation/DBA: EFS Global Trade and Export (``EFS''). SUMMARY: Export Trading Company Affairs (``ETCA''), International Trade...

  2. The effects of an action video game on visual and affective information processing.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Playing action video games can have beneficial effects on visuospatial cognition and negative effects on social information processing. However, these two effects have not been demonstrated in the same individuals in a single study. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of playing an action or non-action video game on the processing of emotion in facial expression. The data revealed that 10h of playing an action or non-action video game had differential effects on the ERPs relative to a no-contact control group. Playing an action game resulted in two effects: one that reflected an increase in the amplitude of the ERPs following training over the right frontal and posterior regions that was similar for angry, happy, and neutral faces; and one that reflected a reduction in the allocation of attention to happy faces. In contrast, playing a non-action game resulted in changes in slow wave activity over the central-parietal and frontal regions that were greater for targets (i.e., angry and happy faces) than for non-targets (i.e., neutral faces). These data demonstrate that the contrasting effects of action video games on visuospatial and emotion processing occur in the same individuals following the same level of gaming experience. This observation leads to the suggestion that caution should be exercised when using action video games to modify visual processing, as this experience could also have unintended effects on emotion processing. PMID:23419898

  3. 20 CFR 408.820 - Will we send you a notice of intended action affecting your SVB payment status?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will we send you a notice of intended action affecting your SVB payment status? 408.820 Section 408.820 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Termination §...

  4. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  5. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  6. When What's Inside Counts: Sequence of Demonstrated Actions Affects Preschooler's Categorization by Nonobvious Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the role of a particular social cue--the "sequence" of demonstrated actions and events--in preschooler's categorization. A demonstrator sorted objects that varied on both a surface feature (color) and a nonobvious property (sound made when shaken). Children saw a sequence of actions in which the nonobvious property…

  7. Factors Affecting Collective Action for Forest Fire Management: A Comparative Study of Community Forest User Groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  8. Factors affecting collective action for forest fire management: a comparative study of community forest user groups in central Siwalik, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management. PMID:25413128

  9. From Affective Experience to Motivated Action: Tracking Reward-Seeking and Punishment-Avoidant Behaviour in Real-Life

    PubMed Central

    Wichers, Marieke; Kasanova, Zuzana; Bakker, Jindra; Thiery, Evert; Derom, Catherine; Jacobs, Nele; van Os, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Many of the decisions and actions in everyday life result from implicit learning processes. Important to psychopathology are, for example, implicit reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant learning processes. It is known that when specific actions get associated with a rewarding experience, such as positive emotions, that this will increase the likelihood that an organism will engage in similar actions in the future. Similarly, when actions get associated with punishing experiences, such as negative emotions, this may reduce the likelihood that the organism will engage in similar actions in the future. This study examines whether we can observe these implicit processes prospectively in the flow of daily life. If such processes take place then we expect that current behaviour can be predicted by how similar behaviour was experienced (in terms of positive and negative affect) at previous measurement moments. This was examined in a sample of 621 female individuals that had participated in an Experience Sampling data collection. Measures of affect and behaviour were collected at 10 semi-random moments of the day for 5 consecutive days. It was examined whether affective experience that was paired with certain behaviours (physical activity and social context) at previous measurements modified the likelihood to show similar behaviours at next measurement moments. Analyses were performed both at the level of observations (a time scale with units of ± 90 min) and at day level (a time scale with units of 24 h). As expected, we found that affect indeed moderated the extent to which previous behaviour predicted similar behaviour later in time, at both beep- and day-level. This study showed that it is feasible to track reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant behaviour prospectively in humans in the flow of daily life. This opens up a new toolbox to examine processes determining goal-oriented behaviour in relation to psychopathology in humans. PMID:26087323

  10. Movement or Goal: Goal Salience and Verbal Cues Affect Preschoolers' Imitation of Action Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsner, Birgit; Pfeifer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The impact of goal salience and verbal cues given by the model on 3- to 5-year-olds' reproduction of action components (movement or goal) was investigated in an imitation choice task. Preschoolers watched an experimenter moving a puppet up or down a ramp, terminating at one of two target objects. The target objects were either differently colored…

  11. 26 CFR 1.6045B-1 - Returns relating to actions affecting basis of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information Returns § 1.6045B-1 Returns relating... § 601.601(d)(2) of this chapter), classification of the security (such as stock), account number, serial... organizational action on a timely filed Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S), “Shareholder's Share of Income,...

  12. Factors that affect action possibility judgments: the assumed abilities of other people.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Timothy N; Wong, Lokman; Chandrasekharan, Sanjay

    2013-06-01

    Judging what actions are possible and impossible to complete is a skill that is critical for planning and executing movements in both individual and joint actions contexts. The present experiments explored the ability to adapt action possibility judgments to the assumed characteristics of another person. Participants watched alternating pictures of a person's hand moving at different speeds between targets of different indexes of difficulty (according to Fitts' Law) and judged whether or not it was possible for individuals with different characteristics to maintain movement accuracy at the presented speed. Across four studies, the person in the pictures and the background information about the person were manipulated to determine how and under what conditions participants adapted their judgments. Results revealed that participants adjusted their possibility judgments to the assumed motor capabilities of the individual they were judging. However, these adjustments only occurred when participants were instructed to take the other person into consideration suggesting that the adaption process is a voluntary process. Further, it was observed that the slopes of the regression equations relating movement time and index of difficulty did not differ across conditions. All differences between conditions were in the y-intercept of the regression lines. This pattern of findings suggests that participants formed the action possibility judgments by first simulating their own performance, and then adjusted the "possibility" threshold by adding or subtracting a correction factor to determine what is and is not possible for the other person to perform. PMID:23644579

  13. Self-Directed Action Affects Planning In Tool-Use Tasks with Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Claxton, Laura J.; McCarty, Michael E.; Keen, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Toddlers grasp a tool more effectively when it is self-directed (e.g., spoon) than other-directed (e.g., hammer), possibly because the consequences of self-directed actions are more obvious. When the negative consequences of an inefficient grip were made equally salient, the self- versus other-directed differences remained. PMID:19185350

  14. Development and Validation of Children's Environmental Affect (Attitude, Sensitivity and Willingness to Take Action) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the design, development, validation, and psychometric properties of the Children's Environmental Affect Scale (CEAS). The following steps were taken in developing the CEAS. A substantial review of literature on environmental affect and EL helped the researchers identify several scales and questionnaires that, in turn, help…

  15. When what's inside counts: Sequence of demonstrated actions affects preschooler's categorization by nonobvious properties.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-03-01

    This study explores the role of a particular social cue-the sequence of demonstrated actions and events-in preschooler's categorization. A demonstrator sorted objects that varied on both a surface feature (color) and a nonobvious property (sound made when shaken). Children saw a sequence of actions in which the nonobvious property was revealed before (shake-first) or after (shake-last) categorization. Four experiments (N = 150) showed that both 4-year-olds (M(age) = 4.5 years) and 3-year-olds (M(age) = 3.5 years) shifted toward categorizing by nonobvious property after the shake-first sequence compared with the shake-last sequence (Experiment 1 and 4); 4-year-olds also generalized their categorization strategy to new objects (Experiment 2) and objects that were both labeled and categorized (Experiment 3). Results are discussed with regard to preschooler's ability to integrate social and pedagogical cues in category learning. PMID:26689759

  16. 15 CFR 923.44 - State review on a case-by-case basis of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the management program-Technique C. 923.44... MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Authorities and Organization § 923.44 State review on a case-by-case basis of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the management...

  17. 15 CFR 923.44 - State review on a case-by-case basis of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the management program-Technique C. 923.44... MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Authorities and Organization § 923.44 State review on a case-by-case basis of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the management...

  18. 15 CFR 923.44 - State review on a case-by-case basis of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the management program-Technique C. 923.44... MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Authorities and Organization § 923.44 State review on a case-by-case basis of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the management...

  19. 15 CFR 923.44 - State review on a case-by-case basis of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the management program-Technique C. 923.44... MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Authorities and Organization § 923.44 State review on a case-by-case basis of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the management...

  20. 15 CFR 923.44 - State review on a case-by-case basis of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the management program-Technique C. 923.44... MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Authorities and Organization § 923.44 State review on a case-by-case basis of actions affecting land and water uses subject to the management...

  1. Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance

    PubMed Central

    Blanchfield, Anthony; Hardy, James; Marcora, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise. PMID:25566014

  2. Trends and Issues Affecting School Facilities in Rural America: Challenges and Opportunities for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Sarah; Earthman, Glen

    School facilities needs in rural America and the means to meet them are affected by rural population trends, building inadequacies and obsolescence, and financial problems. Overall, America's schools have seen increased public school enrollments since the mid-1980s, but rural enrollments have declined, particularly in communities with fewer than…

  3. Pubertal Onset in Girls is Strongly Influenced by Genetic Variation Affecting FSH Action

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Casper P.; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Wohlfart-Veje, Christine; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, Katharina M.; Meyts, Ewa Rajpert-De; Almstrup, Kristian; Juul, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Age at pubertal onset varies substantially in healthy girls. Although genetic factors are responsible for more than half of the phenotypic variation, only a small part has been attributed to specific genetic polymorphisms identified so far. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estradiol synthesis which is responsible for breast development. We assessed the effect of three polymorphisms influencing FSH action on age at breast deveopment in a population-based cohort of 964 healthy girls. Girls homozygous for FSHR -29AA (reduced FSH receptor expression) entered puberty 7.4 (2.5–12.4) months later than carriers of the common variants FSHR -29GG+GA, p = 0.003. To our knowledge, this is the strongest genetic effect on age at pubertal onset in girls published to date. PMID:25231187

  4. Dopamine depletion affects communicative intentionality in Parkinson's disease patients: Evidence from action kinematics.

    PubMed

    Straulino, Elisa; Scaravilli, Tomaso; Castiello, Umberto

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate communication is at the heart of successful, healthy social interactions in humans. Deficits in social communication are a hallmark of several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Yet, very little research has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms underlying these issues. It has been suggested that dopamine is a candidate neurotransmitter system involved in stimulating communication in individuals that are not highly motivated to communicate. A typical model to study dopaminergic dysfunctions in humans is represented by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, who show motor, cognitive and motivational symptoms. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of social communication on actions in non-demented PD patients receiving dopamine replacement therapy (Levodopa = l-Dopa) and in neurologically healthy control participants. Patients' ability to modulate motor patterning depending on the communicative intention motivating the action to be performed was evaluated both in "on" (with l-Dopa) and "off" (without l-Dopa) states. In two main conditions, participants were requested to reach towards, grasp an object, and either simply lift it (individual condition) or lift it with the intent to communicate a meaning to a partner (communicative condition). Movements' kinematics was recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The results indicate that kinematics is sensitive to communicative intention and that l-Dopa treatment has positive effects on translating communicative intentions into specific motor patterns in PD patients. Although the to-be-grasped object remained the same both the controls and the PD patients in an 'on' state adopted different kinematic patterning for the 'individual' and the 'communication' conditions. The PD patients in the 'off' state, instead, were unable to kinematically differentiate between the two conditions. We contend that social and communicative impairments are associated with abnormalities in

  5. Sensitivity analysis of potential events affecting the double-shell tank system and fallback actions

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J.

    1996-09-27

    Sensitivity analyses were performed for fall-back positions (i.e., management actions) to accommodate potential off-normal and programmatic change events overlaid on the waste volume projections and their uncertainties. These sensitivity analyses allowed determining and ranking tank system high-risk parameters and fall- back positions that will accommodate the respective impacts. This quantification of tank system impacts shows periods where tank capacity is sensitive to certain variables that must be carefully managed and/or evaluated. Identifying these sensitive variables and quantifying their impact will allow decision makers to prepare fall-back positions and focus available resources on the highest impact parameters where technical data are needed to reduce waste projection uncertainties. For noncomplexed waste, the period of capacity vulnerability occurs during the years of single-shell tank (SST) retrieval (after approximately 2009) due to the sensitivity to several variables. Ranked by importance these variables include the pretreatment rate and 200-East SST solids transfer volume. For complexed waste, the period of capacity vulnerability occurs during the period after approximately 2005 due to the sensitivity to several variables. Ranked by importance these variables include the pretreatment rate. 200-East SST solids transfer volume. complexed waste reduction factor using evaporation, and 200-west saltwell liquid porosity.

  6. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, George R; Peterson, Mark J; Roy, W Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream s headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced[80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  7. Structural issues affecting creation of a community action and advocacy board

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, M. R.; Abbott, M.; Hilario, H.; Radda, K.; Medina, Z.; Prince, M.; Li, J.; Kaplan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The most effective woman-initiated method to prevent HIV/sexually transmitted infections is the female condom (FC). Yet, FCs are often difficult to find and denigrated or ignored by community health and service providers. Evidence increasingly supports the need to develop and test theoretically driven, multilevel interventions using a community-empowerment framework to promote FCs in a sustained way. We conducted a study in a midsized northeastern US city (2009–2013) designed to create, mobilize and build capacity of a community group to develop and implement multilevel interventions to increase availability, accessibility and support for FCs in their city. The Community Action and Advocacy Board (CAAB) designed and piloted interventions concurrently targeting community, organizational and individual levels. Ethnographic observation of the CAAB training and intervention planning and pilot implementation sessions documented the process, preliminary successes, challenges and limitations of this model. The CAAB demonstrated ability to conceptualize, plan and initiate multilevel community change. However, challenges in group decision-making and limitations in members’ availability or personal capacity constrained CAAB processes and intervention implementation. Lessons from this experience could inform similar efforts to mobilize, engage and build capacity of community coalitions to increase access to and support for FCs and other novel effective prevention options for at-risk women. PMID:23660461

  8. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, George R.; Peterson, Mark J.; Roy, W. Kelly; Mathews, Teresa J.

    2011-06-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream's headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced >80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  9. ENPP1 Affects Insulin Action and Secretion: Evidences from In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Di Paola, Rosa; Caporarello, Nunzia; Marucci, Antonella; Dimatteo, Claudia; Iadicicco, Claudia; Del Guerra, Silvia; Prudente, Sabrina; Sudano, Dora; Miele, Claudia; Parrino, Cristina; Piro, Salvatore; Beguinot, Francesco; Marchetti, Piero

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to deeper investigate the mechanisms through which ENPP1, a negative modulator of insulin receptor (IR) activation, plays a role on insulin signaling, insulin secretion and eventually glucose metabolism. ENPP1 cDNA (carrying either K121 or Q121 variant) was transfected in HepG2 liver-, L6 skeletal muscle- and INS1E beta-cells. Insulin-induced IR-autophosphorylation (HepG2, L6, INS1E), Akt-Ser473, ERK1/2-Thr202/Tyr204 and GSK3-beta Ser9 phosphorylation (HepG2, L6), PEPCK mRNA levels (HepG2) and 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake (L6) was studied. GLUT 4 mRNA (L6), insulin secretion and caspase-3 activation (INS1E) were also investigated. Insulin-induced IR-autophosphorylation was decreased in HepG2-K, L6-K, INS1E-K (20%, 52% and 11% reduction vs. untransfected cells) and twice as much in HepG2-Q, L6-Q, INS1E-Q (44%, 92% and 30%). Similar data were obtained with Akt-Ser473, ERK1/2-Thr202/Tyr204 and GSK3-beta Ser9 in HepG2 and L6. Insulin-induced reduction of PEPCK mRNA was progressively lower in untransfected, HepG2-K and HepG2-Q cells (65%, 54%, 23%). Insulin-induced glucose uptake in untransfected L6 (60% increase over basal), was totally abolished in L6-K and L6-Q cells. GLUT 4 mRNA was slightly reduced in L6-K and twice as much in L6-Q (13% and 25% reduction vs. untransfected cells). Glucose-induced insulin secretion was 60% reduced in INS1E-K and almost abolished in INS1E-Q. Serum deficiency activated caspase-3 by two, three and four folds in untransfected INS1E, INS1E-K and INS1E-Q. Glyburide-induced insulin secretion was reduced by 50% in isolated human islets from homozygous QQ donors as compared to those from KK and KQ individuals. Our data clearly indicate that ENPP1, especially when the Q121 variant is operating, affects insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle- and liver-cells and both function and survival of insulin secreting beta-cells, thus representing a strong pathogenic factor predisposing to insulin resistance

  10. Evaluation of the legal consequences of action affects neural activity and emotional experience during the resolution of moral dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Pletti, Carolina; Sarlo, Michela; Palomba, Daniela; Rumiati, Rino; Lotto, Lorella

    2015-03-01

    In any modern society killing is regarded as a severe violation of the legal codes that is subjected to penal judgment. Therefore, it is likely that people take legal consequences into account when deciding about the hypothetical killing of one person in classic moral dilemmas, with legal concerns contributing to decision-making. In particular, by differing for the degree of intentionality and emotional salience, Footbridge- and Trolley-type dilemmas might promote differential assignment of blame and punishment while implicating the same severity of harm. The present study was aimed at comparing the neural activity, subjective emotional reactions, and behavioral choices in two groups of participants who either took (Legal group) or did not take (No Legal group) legal consequences into account when deciding on Footbridge-type and Trolley-type moral dilemmas. Stimulus- and response-locked ERPs were measured to investigate the neural activity underlying two separate phases of the decision process. No difference in behavioral choices was found between groups. However, the No Legal group reported greater overall emotional impact, associated with lower preparation for action, suggesting greater conflict between alternative motor responses representing the different decision choices. In contrast, the Legal group showed an overall dampened affective experience during decision-making associated with greater overall action readiness and intention to act, reflecting lower conflict in responding. On these bases, we suggest that in moral dilemmas legal consequences of actions provide a sort of reference point on which people can rely to support a decision, independent of dilemma type. PMID:25638294

  11. Role of gustatory and postingestive actions of sweeteners in the generation of positive affect as evaluated by place preference conditioning.

    PubMed

    Agmo, A; Marroquin, E

    1997-12-01

    Either an 18% sucrose or a 0.1% saccharin solution was used as reward in a conditioned place preference procedure. The respective solution was consumed immediately before the subject was confined to the non-preferred compartment of a place preference box. In this way only the affective reaction produced by the rewarding stimulus participated in place conditioning. Non-deprived rats consumed similar quantities of the two solutions, suggesting that they were equally rewarding. Yet only sucrose induced place preference. The lack of effect of saccharin may have been due to weaker positive affect or to an inability to induce an affective state that outlasted consummatory behavior. The first possibility was evaluated in the second experiment. Food-deprived rats were subjected to a discrimination learning task in a runway with plain water, sucrose or saccharin as reinforcer. Sucrose sustained running responses and produced improvement of discrimination behavior. Saccharin had a small effect at the first sessions only. It was concluded that saccharin is less rewarding than sucrose. In a final experiment, one group of rats was injected with glucose (2 g/kg) 17 min before being introduced in the non-preferred compartment of a place preference box. Another group was given the same dose of glucose just before drinking saccharin for 15 min. Immediately thereafter place conditioning was performed. Glucose alone had no effect, while a place preference was established when glucose injection was combined with saccharin drinking. These results show that the positive affect produced by sweet substances does not outlast consummatory behavior in the absence of postabsorptive actions. PMID:9468761

  12. 78 FR 66950 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... on October 8, 2013 was published in the Federal Register of July 30, 2013 (78 FR 45969); the notice... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Rescheduling of Washington public...

  13. Covert imitation of transitive actions activates effector-independent motor representations affecting "motor" knowledge of target-object properties.

    PubMed

    Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether, and in what conditions, covert imitation of different manual grasps of the same object influences estimation of those object properties whose variations afford those different grasp interactions. Participants matched the size of spheres after observation of the same spheres being grasped using both a power and a precision grasp: these actions are used preferentially to grasp large and small objects, respectively. The type of matching varied across four experiments. In experiment 1, participants matched the object size by opening their thumb and index finger; in experiment 2, they abducted their index and middle fingers as in a finger opening of a cutting pantomime, and in experiment 3, they opened their mouth. In experiment 4, the sphere size was reproduced on a PC monitor by moving the mouse forward/backward. Grasp observation affected matching in experiments 1 and 3. Kinematics analysis showed overestimation after observation of a power grasp as compared to a precision grasp. The data are interpreted as a consequence of covert imitation of the observed hand kinematics, which varied congruently with the object sizes potentially activating that type-of-grasp. This affected estimation of object size. Covert imitation was favored by the types of matching requiring motor patterns related to grasp movements independently of the effector used. This finding supports the existence of motor commands to the hand as well as to the mouth, activated when the same potential goal guides the movements of both these effectors. PMID:19850083

  14. 75 FR 66728 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines: Orion Air, S.L...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Secretary Delli-Colli issued an Order renewing the TDO for an additional 180 days.\\2\\ \\1\\ 74 FR 24,786. \\2... on November 9, 2009 (74 FR 57,626). On April 29, 2010, I renewed the TDO against the Respondents for... accordance with Section 766.24 of the Regulations. \\3\\ 75 FR 25,202. On October 5, 2010, BIS, through...

  15. How Verb Tense Affects the Construal of Action: The Simple Past Tense Leads People into an Abstract Mindset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrera, Pilar; Muñoz, Dolores; Caballero, Amparo; Fernández, Itziar; Aguilar, Pilar; Albarracín, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments examined the influence of verb tense on how abstractly people construe action representations. Experiment 1 revealed that written descriptions of several daily events using the simple past tense (vs. simple present tense) resulted in actions and the action's target being seen as less likely and less familiar, respectively. In…

  16. ABC transporters: bacterial exporters.

    PubMed Central

    Fath, M J; Kolter, R

    1993-01-01

    The ABC transporters (also called traffic ATPases) make up a large superfamily of proteins which share a common function and a common ATP-binding domain. ABC transporters are classified into three major groups: bacterial importers (the periplasmic permeases), eukaryotic transporters, and bacterial exporters. We present a comprehensive review of the bacterial ABC exporter group, which currently includes over 40 systems. The bacterial ABC exporter systems are functionally subdivided on the basis of the type of substrate that each translocates. We describe three main groups: protein exporters, peptide exporters, and systems that transport nonprotein substrates. Prototype exporters from each group are described in detail to illustrate our current understanding of this protein family. The prototype systems include the alpha-hemolysin, colicin V, and capsular polysaccharide exporters from Escherichia coli, the protease exporter from Erwinia chrysanthemi, and the glucan exporters from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium meliloti. Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-binding domains from 29 bacterial ABC exporters indicates that the bacterial ABC exporters can be divided into two primary branches. One branch contains the transport systems where the ATP-binding domain and the membrane-spanning domain are present on the same polypeptide, and the other branch contains the systems where these domains are found on separate polypeptides. Differences in substrate specificity do not correlate with evolutionary relatedness. A complete survey of the known and putative bacterial ABC exporters is included at the end of the review. PMID:8302219

  17. A scorpion venom neurotoxin paralytic to insects that affects sodium current inactivation: Purification, primary structure, and mode of action

    SciTech Connect

    Eitan, M.; Fowler, E.; Herrmann, R.; Duval, A.; Pelhate, M.; Zlotkin, E. )

    1990-06-26

    A new toxin, Lqh alpha IT, which caused a unique mode of paralysis of blowfly larvae, was purified from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus, and its structural and pharmacological properties were compared to those of three other groups of neurotoxins found in Buthinae scorpion venoms. Like the excitatory and depressant insect-selective neurotoxins, Lqh alpha IT was highly toxic to insects, but it differed from these toxins in two important characteristics: (a) Lqh alpha IT lacked strict selectivity for insects; it was highly toxic to crustaceans and had a measurable but low toxicity to mice. (b) It did not displace an excitatory insect toxin, 125I-AaIT, from its binding sites in the insect neuronal membrane; this indicates that the binding sites for Lqh alpha IT are different from those shared by the excitatory and depressant toxins. However, in its primary structure and its effect on excitable tissues, Lqh alpha IT strongly resembled the well-characterized alpha scorpion toxins, which affect mammals. The amino acid sequence was identical with alpha toxin sequences in 55%-75% of positions. This degree of similarity is comparable to that seen among the alpha toxins themselves. Voltage- and current-clamp studies showed that Lqh alpha IT caused an extreme prolongation of the action potential in both cockroach giant axon and rat skeletal muscle preparations as a result of the slowing and incomplete inactivation of the sodium currents. These observations indicate that Lqh alpha IT is an alpha toxin which acts on insect sodium channels.

  18. The impact of social action funds on child health in a conflict affected country: evidence from Angola.

    PubMed

    Djimeu, Eric W

    2014-04-01

    Although recent evidence shows significant and long-lasting detrimental effects of armed conflict on child health, there is lack of studies rigorously assessing the effectiveness of different social and economic development interventions aiming to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this study assesses the impact of health projects and water, sanitation, and waste management interventions financed by the Angola Social Action Fund (ASAF) from 1994 to 2001 on child health. I use data from Inquérito aos Agregados Familiares sobre Despesas e Receitas 2000/2001(IDR 2001), a household survey on expenditures and incomes conducted between February 2000 and February 2001 in Angola. IDR 2001 uses a stratified sampling design in which 12 households were surveyed in a random fashion in each aldeia (village) in rural areas and bairro (neighborhood) in urban areas. Using propensity score matching, a fixed effects model, and propensity-based weighted regression, I find that ASAF leads to a statistically significant increase of the height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) by 0.335 standard deviations of children less than 5 years. This finding is robust to different implementations of the propensity score model specification and when conducting the sensitivity analysis of hidden bias. The main result that emerges from an analysis of heterogeneous effects shows that ASAF has no impact on children living in war displaced households. Despite many challenges faced by conflict affected countries, social funds which are one the key instruments of the World Bank used to promote development at the local level can be used to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. For children living in war displaced households, specific interventions should be designed to mitigate the impact of armed conflict. PMID:24530615

  19. 14 CFR 39.17 - What must I do if a change in a product affects my ability to accomplish the actions required in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What must I do if a change in a product affects my ability to accomplish the actions required in an airworthiness directive? 39.17 Section 39.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...

  20. 78 FR 13861 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (99-5A002... International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade..., Director, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, (202)...

  1. 77 FR 12562 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (10-2A001... International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade..., Director, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, (202)...

  2. 76 FR 55010 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export..., Director, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, by telephone at... are found at 15 CFR part 325 (2010). The U.S. Department of Commerce, International...

  3. 76 FR 15294 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export..., International Trade Administration, by telephone at (202) 482-5131 (this is not a toll-free number) or e- mail... Commerce, International Trade Administration, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis (``OCEA'')...

  4. 76 FR 10885 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 11-00001... (``LAMAC''). SUMMARY: The Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration...: Joseph E. Flynn, Director, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International...

  5. 75 FR 80456 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application (Application... Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of... of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, by telephone at (202)...

  6. 75 FR 8040 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an... Trading Company Affairs (``ETCA'') unit, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade..., Director, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, by telephone...

  7. 78 FR 59004 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an... Trading Company Affairs (``ETCA'') unit, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade..., Director, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, by telephone...

  8. JPL Export Compliance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momjian, E.; Lam, C.

    2000-01-01

    The transfer of commodities, software, or technlogies to foreign persons is subject to U.S. export control laws and regulations. These export controls are applicable, regardless of whether the transfer occurs in the U.S. or outside of the U.S.

  9. Focus on SREB States' Responses to the Economic Slowdown: Budget Actions Affecting Education in 2008-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Gale

    2008-01-01

    Unfortunately, Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states are not immune to the economic slowdown sweeping the nation. States are taking action to bring budgets into balance while working to protect essential services and programs. In a 1991 report, "Coping With the Sluggish Economy," SREB noted the accelerated efforts to reshape schools and…

  10. Action Control, Motivated Strategies, and Integrative Motivation as Predictors of Language Learning Affect and the Intention to Continue Learning French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Blackie, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the relative ability of variables from three motivational frameworks to predict four non-linguistic outcomes of language learning. The study examines Action Control Theory with its measures of (1) hesitation, (2) volatility and (3) rumination. The study also examined Pintrich's expectancy-value model that uses measures…

  11. The corporate determinants of health: how big business affects our health, and the need for government action!

    PubMed

    Millar, John S

    2013-01-01

    Corporations have a great effect on the health of Canadians.Good companies create jobs, sell valued products at market value, pay a living wage, empower employees, have progressive human resource policies (parental, mental health leaves, workplace wellness programs, day care), and pay their appropriate corporate taxes. They embrace corporate social responsibility and some have a triple bottom line - people, planet and profits. More good corporations are needed.But others are selling products that are damaging to health and the environment, at prices that do not account for these damaging effects and often target consumers that are ill-informed and susceptible (e.g., children). These include businesses involving tobacco, alcohol, drugs, junk foods and beverages, resource extraction, arms production and the electronic media.Governments have a responsibility to take action when the market mechanism fails in this way.A priority for action is the food and beverage sector. The overconsumption of sugar, fat and salt is causing a rising prevalence of all the major chronic diseases, rising health care costs and declining population health and productivity. Urgent government action is required: taxation, advertising and sales restrictions, and a salt reduction program. PMID:24044474

  12. Poor efficacy of herbicides in biochar-amended soils as affected by their chemistry and mode of action.

    PubMed

    Nag, Subir K; Kookana, Rai; Smith, Lester; Krull, Evelyn; Macdonald, Lynne M; Gill, Gurjeet

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated wheat straw biochar produced at 450°C for its ability to influence bioavailability and persistence of two commonly used herbicides (atrazine and trifluralin) with different modes of action (photosynthesis versus root tip mitosis inhibitors) in two contrasting soils. The biochar was added to soils at 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% (w/w) and the herbicides were applied to those soil-biochar mixes at nil, half, full, two times, and four times, the recommended dosage (H(4)). Annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) was grown in biochar amended soils for 1 month. Biochar had a positive impact on ryegrass survival rate and above-ground biomass at most of the application rates, and particularly at H(4). Within any given biochar treatment, increasing herbicide application decreased the survival rate and fresh weight of above-ground biomass. Biomass production across the biochar treatment gradient significantly differed (p<0.01) and was more pronounced in the case of atrazine than trifluralin. For example, the dose-response analysis showed that in the presence of 1% biochar in soil, the value of GR(50) (i.e. the dose required to reduce weed biomass by 50%) for atrazine increased by 3.5 times, whereas it increased only by a factor of 1.6 in the case of trifluralin. The combination of the chemical properties and the mode of action governed the extent of biochar-induced reduction in bioavailability of herbicides. The greater biomass of ryegrass in the soil containing the highest biochar (despite having the highest herbicide residues) demonstrates decreased bioavailability of the chemicals caused by the wheat straw biochar. This work clearly demonstrates decreased efficacy of herbicides in biochar amended soils. The role played by herbicide chemistry and mode of action will have major implications in choosing the appropriate application rates for biochar amended soils. PMID:21696801

  13. The Observation of Manual Grasp Actions Affects the Control of Speech: A Combined Behavioral and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Volta, Riccardo Dalla; Bernardis, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Does the mirror system affect the control of speech? This issue was addressed in behavioral and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) experiments. In behavioral experiment 1, participants pronounced the syllable /da/ while observing (1) a hand grasping large and small objects with power and precision grasps, respectively, (2) a foot interacting…

  14. Comparison between Canadian Canola Harvest and Export Surveys.

    PubMed

    Barthet, Véronique J

    2016-01-01

    Parameters, such as oil, protein, glucosinolates, chlorophyll content and fatty acid composition, were determined using reference methods for both harvest survey samples and Canadian Canola exports. Canola harvest survey and export data were assessed to evaluate if canola harvest survey data can be extrapolated to predict the quality of the Canadian canola exports. There were some differences in some measured parameters between harvest and export data, while other parameters showed little difference. Protein content and fatty acid composition showed very similar data for harvest and export averages. Canadian export data showed lower oil content when compared to the oil content of harvest survey was mainly due to a diluting effect of dockage in the export cargoes which remained constant over the years (1.7% to 1.9%). Chlorophyll was the least predictable parameter; dockage quality as well as commingling of the other grades in Canola No. 1 Canada affected the chlorophyll content of the exports. Free fatty acids (FFA) were also different for the export and harvest survey. FFA levels are affected by storage conditions; they increase during the shipping season and, therefore, are difficult to predict from their harvest survey averages. PMID:27447675

  15. Thrombospondin-1 Affects Bovine Luteal Function via Transforming Growth Factor-Beta1-Dependent and Independent Actions.

    PubMed

    Farberov, Svetlana; Meidan, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFB1) are specifically up-regulated by prostaglandin F2alpha in mature corpus luteum (CL). This study examined the relationship between the expression of THBS1 and TGFB1 and the underlying mechanisms of their actions in luteal endothelial cells (ECs). TGFB1 stimulated SMAD2 phosphorylation and SERPINE1 levels in dose- and time-dependent manners in luteal EC. THBS1 also elevated SERPINE1; this effect was abolished by TGFB1 receptor-1 kinase inhibitor (SB431542). The findings here further imply that THBS1 activates TGFB1 in luteal ECs: THBS1 increased the effects of latent TGFB1 on phosphorylated SMAD (phospho-SMAD) 2 and SERPINE1. THBS1 silencing significantly decreased SERPINE1 and levels of phospho-SMAD2. Lastly, THBS1 actions on SERPINE1 were inhibited by LSKL peptide (TGFB1 activation inhibitor); LSKL also counteracted latent TGFB1-induced phospho-SMAD2. We found that TGFB1 up-regulated its own mRNA levels and those of THBS1. Both compounds generated apoptosis, but THBS1 was significantly more effective (2.5-fold). Notably, this effect of THBS1 was not mediated by TGFB1. THBS1 and TGFB1 also differed in their activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Whereas TGFB1 rapidly induced phospho-p38, THBS1 had a delayed effect. Inhibition of p38 pathway by SB203580 did not modulate TGFB1 effect on cell viability, but it amplified THBS1 actions. THBS1-stimulated caspase-3 activation coincided with p38 phosphorylation, suggesting that caspase-induced DNA damage initiated p38 phosphorylation. The in vitro data suggest that a feed-forward loop exists between THBS1, TGFB1, and SERPINE1. Indeed all these three genes were similarly induced in the regressing CL. Their gene products can promote vascular instability, apoptosis, and matrix remodeling during luteolysis. PMID:26658711

  16. The influence of muscle action on heart rate, RPE, and affective responses after upper-body resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul C; Hall, Eric E; Chmelo, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Jeffrey M; DeWitt, Rachel E; Kostura, Christine M

    2009-03-01

    Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) are routinely used to monitor, assess, and prescribe aerobic exercise. Heart rate (HR) is another measure used to evaluate exercise intensity. Additionally, affective responses to aerobic exercise have been studied and seem to be influenced by the intensity of the exercise. The perceptual, HR, and affective responses to resistance exercise have not been effectively established. The purpose of this study was to examine whether differences in affect, RPE, and HR exist among college-aged women (n = 31) performing three different modes of resistance training: concentric (CE), eccentric (EE), and traditional concentric/eccentric (TE) performed at varying resistances. The women were asked to complete four sessions of resistance training on variable resistance machines: chest press, seated row, overhead press, and biceps curl. The first session was used to establish the 10-repetition maximum (RM) load for each station. Subsequent sessions involved the execution of training in one of the three test conditions: CE, EE, or TE. The participants performed three sets of each lift at 80% 10-RM, 100% 10-RM, and 120% 10-RM. The data revealed lower RPE during EE than the other test conditions. Similarly, EE elicited more mild HR response than either CE or TE. This finding is potentially important for the establishment of training programs, especially for those individuals recovering from an illness, who had been previously sedentary, and who are involved in rehabilitation of an injury. PMID:19204573

  17. [The effect of thiamine deficiency on the actions of drugs affecting the central nervous system in rats (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Onodera, K; Sakurada, S; Ando, R; Takahashi, N; Tadano, T; Kisara, K; Ogura, Y

    1980-03-01

    Male Wistar rats, 35-days-old, maintained on a thiamine deficient diet for 30 days showed marked growth inhibition and a heart rate less than 70% of that of control rats. We examined the effect of thiamine deficiency on the action of drugs effecting the central nervous system at this period. In thiamine deficient rats treated with chloral hydrate 200 mg/kg, ketamine 100 mg/kg sodium pentobarbital 50 mg/kg, and hexobarbital 100 mg/kg, the sleeping time increased. Pretreatment with 15 mg/kg of the metabolic enzymes inhibitor, SKF-525A, 30 min prior to the hexobarbital administration resulted in prolongation of sleeping time in all groups. The thiamine deficient rats slept almost 3.5 times longer than did the control group. Pretreatment with 100 mg/kg of the metabolic enzyme inducer, sodium phenobarbital, 48 hours prior to hexobarbital treatment resulted in decreased sleeping time in all groups, as compared with only hexobarbital treatment. In the thiamine deficient rats the catalepsy and ptosis induced by the i.p. administration of tetrabenazine 50 mg/kg was reduced even when the control and pair-fed groups responded to this drug at the drug peak time. The spontaneous neuronal activity of lateral hypothalamus was most sensitive to the administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan in thiamine deficient rats. PMID:6967442

  18. Specific dynamic action affects the hydrostatic pressure tolerance of the shallow-water spider crab Maja brachydactyla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatje, Sven; Robinson, Nathan

    2011-04-01

    The bathymetric distribution of marine benthic invertebrates is likely governed by a combination of ecological and physiological factors. The present study investigates oxygen consumption and heartbeat rate in response to attempted feeding at 1, 100 and 150 atm in the shallow-water spider crab, Maja brachydactyla, from temperate European waters. No significant difference was evident between the resting heartbeat rate of specimens at 1 or 100 atm, which were 56 and 65 bpm, respectively (Mann-Whitney, U = 5382.0; n = 95, 98; p = 0.079). However, at 150 atm the resting heartbeat rate was significantly higher than that observed for 100 atm at 108 bpm (Mann-Whitney, U = 149.0; n = 45, 98; p < 0.001). At 150 atm, feeding was never observed and coupled with the elevated resting heartbeat rate; it is suggested by 150 atm continued survival is unfeasible. At 1 and 100 atm, feeding instigated a distinct increase in heartbeat rate, which remained elevated for over 30 h. This increase peaked within 1 h at 1 atm. At 100 atm, this required 4 h and postprandial oxygen consumption was significantly higher than at 1 atm (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 85.036; df = 2; p < 0.001). Elevated hydrostatic pressure is hypothesized to extend the duration and the total metabolic energy devoted to specific dynamic action. The metabolic requirements of feeding under hyperbaric conditions may even reach such a critical demand that feeding is entirely inhibited.

  19. Specific dynamic action affects the hydrostatic pressure tolerance of the shallow-water spider crab Maja brachydactyla.

    PubMed

    Thatje, Sven; Robinson, Nathan

    2011-04-01

    The bathymetric distribution of marine benthic invertebrates is likely governed by a combination of ecological and physiological factors. The present study investigates oxygen consumption and heartbeat rate in response to attempted feeding at 1, 100 and 150 atm in the shallow-water spider crab, Maja brachydactyla, from temperate European waters. No significant difference was evident between the resting heartbeat rate of specimens at 1 or 100 atm, which were 56 and 65 bpm, respectively (Mann-Whitney, U = 5382.0; n = 95, 98; p = 0.079). However, at 150 atm the resting heartbeat rate was significantly higher than that observed for 100 atm at 108 bpm (Mann-Whitney, U =  49.0; n = 45, 98; p < 0.001). At 150 atm, feeding was never observed and coupled with the elevated resting heartbeat rate; it is suggested by 150 atm continued survival is unfeasible. At 1 and 100 atm, feeding instigated a distinct increase in heartbeat rate, which remained elevated for over 30 h. This increase peaked within 1 h at 1 atm. At 100 atm, this required 4 h and postprandial oxygen consumption was significantly higher than at 1 atm (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 85.036; df = 2; p < 0.001). Elevated hydrostatic pressure is hypothesized to extend the duration and the total metabolic energy devoted to specific dynamic action. The metabolic requirements of feeding under hyperbaric conditions may even reach such a critical demand that feeding is entirely inhibited. PMID:21344261

  20. Computeer-based decision support tools for evaluation of actions affecting flow and water quality in the San Joaquin Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a preliminary effort to draw together some of the important simulation models that are available to Reclamation or that have been developed by Reclamation since 1987. This document has also attempted to lay out a framework by which these models might be used both for the purposes for which they were originally intended and to support the analysis of other issues that relate to the hydrology and to salt and water quality management within the San Joaquin Valley. To be successful as components of a larger Decision Support System the models should to be linked together using custom designed interfaces that permit data sharing between models and that are easy to use. Several initiatives are currently underway within Reclamation to develop GIS - based and graphics - based decision support systems to improve the general level of understanding of the models currently in use, to standardize the methodology used in making planning and operations studies and to permit improved data analysis, interpretation and display. The decision support systems should allow greater participation in the planning process, allow the analysis of innovative actions that are currently difficult to study with present models and should lead to better integrated and more comprehensive plans and policy decisions in future years.

  1. Xyloglucan Endotransglucosylase-Hydrolase17 Interacts with Xyloglucan Endotransglucosylase-Hydrolase31 to Confer Xyloglucan Endotransglucosylase Action and Affect Aluminum Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Wan, Jiang Xue; Sun, Ying; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Braam, Janet; Li, Gui Xin; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2014-06-19

    Previously, we reported that although the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Xyloglucan Endotransglucosylase-Hydrolase31 (XTH31) has predominately xyloglucan endohydrolase activity in vitro, loss of XTH31 results in remarkably reduced in vivo xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) action and enhanced Al resistance. Here, we report that XTH17, predicted to have XET activity, binds XTH31 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitations assays and that this interaction may be required for XTH17 XET activity in planta. XTH17 and XTH31 may be colocalized in plant cells because tagged XTH17 fusion proteins, like XTH31 fusion proteins, appear to target to the plasma membrane. XTH17 expression, like that of XTH31, was substantially reduced in the presence of aluminum (Al), even at concentrations as low as 10 µm for 24 h or 25 µm for just 30 min. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transfer DNA insertion mutant of XTH17, xth17, showed low XET action and had moderately shorter roots than the wild type but was more Al resistant than the wild type. Similar to xth31, xth17 had low hemicellulose content and retained less Al in the cell wall. These data suggest a model whereby XTH17 and XTH31 may exist as a dimer at the plasma membrane to confer in vivo XET action, which modulates cell wall Al-binding capacity and thereby affects Al sensitivity in Arabidopsis. PMID:24948835

  2. General chemistry courses that can affect achievement: An action research study in developing a plan to improve undergraduate chemistry courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shweikeh, Eman

    Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on chemistry education at three institutions in Southern California. Via action research, the study sought to develop a plan to improve student engagement in general chemistry courses. A mixed method was utilized to analyze different perceptions on key factors determining the level of commitment and engagement in general chemistry education. The approach to chemistry learning from both a faculty and student perspective was examined including good practices, experiences and extent of active participation. The research study considered well-known measures of effective education with an emphasis on two key components: educational practices and student behavior. Institutional culture was inclusively assessed where cognitive expectations of chemistry teaching and learning were communicated. First, the extent in which faculty members are utilizing the "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education" in their instruction was explored. Second, student attitudes and approaches toward chemistry learning were examined. The focus was on investigating student understanding of the learning process and the structure of chemistry knowledge. The seven categories used to measure students' expectations for learning chemistry were: effort, concepts, math link, reality link, outcome, laboratory, and visualization. This analysis represents the views of 16 faculty and 140 students. The results validated the assertion that students need some competencies and skills to tackle the challenges of the chemistry learning process to deeply engage in learning. A mismatch exists between the expectations of students and those of the faculty

  3. Emotion affects action: Midcingulate cortex as a pivotal node of interaction between negative emotion and motor signals

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, M.G.; Oliveira, L; Erthal, FS; Joffily, M; Mocaiber, I.F.; Volchan, E.; Pessoa, L.

    2010-01-01

    Affective pictures drive the activity of brain networks and impact behavior. We showed previously that viewing unpleasant pictures interfered in the performance of a basic non-emotional visual detection task. In the present study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that behavioral interference may result from the interaction between negatively valenced and motor-related signals in the brain. As in our previous study, subjects performed a simple target-detection task that followed the presentation of unpleasant or neutral pictures. Our results revealed that an unpleasant emotional context modulated evoked responses in several regions engaged by the simple target-detection task. In particular, the midcingulate cortex was recruited when participants performed target-detection trials during the unpleasant context and signal responses in this region closely mirrored the pattern of behavioral interference (as revealed via reaction time). Our findings suggest that the midcingulate cortex may be an important site for the interaction between negatively valenced and motor signals in the brain, and that it may be involved in the implementation of defensive responses, such as freezing. PMID:20233958

  4. Synergistic action of histone acetyltransferase GCN5 and receptor CLAVATA1 negatively affects ethylene responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Poulios, Stylianos; Vlachonasios, Konstantinos E

    2016-02-01

    GENERAL CONTROL NON-REPRESSIBLE 5 (GCN5) is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and the catalytic subunit of several multicomponent HAT complexes that acetylate lysine residues of histone H3. Mutants in AtGCN5 display pleiotropic developmental defects including aberrant meristem function. Shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintenance is regulated by CLAVATA1 (CLV1), a receptor kinase that controls the size of the shoot and floral meristems. Upon activation through CLV3 binding, CLV1 signals to the transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS), restricting WUS expression and thus the meristem size. We hypothesized that GCN5 and CLV1 act together to affect SAM function. Using genetic and molecular approaches, we generated and characterized clv gcn5 mutants. Surprisingly, the clv1-1 gcn5-1 double mutant exhibited constitutive ethylene responses, suggesting that GCN5 and CLV signaling act synergistically to inhibit ethylene responses in Arabidopsis. This genetic and molecular interaction was mediated by ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/ EIN3-LIKE1 (EIN3/EIL1) transcription factors. Our data suggest that signals from the CLV transduction pathway reach the GCN5-containing complexes in the nucleus and alter the histone acetylation status of ethylene-responsive genes, thus translating the CLV information to transcriptional activity and uncovering a link between histone acetylation and SAM maintenance in the complex mode of ethylene signaling. PMID:26596766

  5. VIRTIS/VEX O2(a1Δg) nightglow profiles affected by gravity waves action: modeling and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, Francesca; Miglirioni, Alessandra; Shakun, Alexey; Zasova, Ludmila; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Bellucci, Giancarlo

    2013-04-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) are mesoscale atmospheric oscillations related to the buoyancy restoring force, which play a key role in the circulation of planetary atmospheres. Their propagation, inducing fluctuation in both temperature and density fields, can also affect the intensity of the airglow emissions. In this work we report on the modelling of O2(a1Δg) nightglow limb profiles perturbed by the GWs propagation in the Venus atmosphere. O2(a1Δg) excited molecules arise by the three-body reaction between two atoms of oxygen and carbon dioxide, then they decay at the fundamental state by emitting most of the photons at 1.27 µm or through collisions with CO2 molecules (quenching). The 1.27 µm emission behavior is analyzed through the data acquired by the VIRTIS (Visible and InfraRed Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on boards the ESA mission Venus Express (VEX). The high variability observed in the shape of the O2(a1Δg) nightglow limb profiles between 80 and 120 km, often characterized by the presence of a double peak, implies GWs occurrence at the considered altitudes. In order to model and derive the GWs properties, we apply to Venus a well-known theory used to study terrestrial airglow fluctuations induced by the GWs propagation. The initial O2(a1Δg) molecules density profile have been assumed to be Gaussian shaped. Unperturbed temperatures and density profiles have been taken from SPICAV data, while the initial atomic oxygen density profile has been derived with the same approach of Gerard et al. [2009]. This study confirms the high variability induced by the waves propagation in the O2 profiles, as observed in the VIRTIS data.

  6. Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander) Essential Oil: Antifungal Activity and Mode of Action on Candida spp., and Molecular Targets Affected in Human Whole-Genome Expression

    PubMed Central

    Freires, Irlan de Almeida; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça; Furletti, Vivian Fernandes; Sartoratto, Adilson; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Figueira, Glyn Mara; de Oliveira Rodrigues, Janaina Aparecida; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity with increasingly worldwide prevalence and incidence rates. Novel specifically-targeted strategies to manage this ailment have been proposed using essential oils (EO) known to have antifungal properties. In this study, we aim to investigate the antifungal activity and mode of action of the EO from Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) leaves on Candida spp. In addition, we detected the molecular targets affected in whole-genome expression in human cells. The EO phytochemical profile indicates monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as major components, which are likely to negatively impact the viability of yeast cells. There seems to be a synergistic activity of the EO chemical compounds as their isolation into fractions led to a decreased antimicrobial effect. C. sativum EO may bind to membrane ergosterol, increasing ionic permeability and causing membrane damage leading to cell death, but it does not act on cell wall biosynthesis-related pathways. This mode of action is illustrated by photomicrographs showing disruption in biofilm integrity caused by the EO at varied concentrations. The EO also inhibited Candida biofilm adherence to a polystyrene substrate at low concentrations, and decreased the proteolytic activity of Candida albicans at minimum inhibitory concentration. Finally, the EO and its selected active fraction had low cytotoxicity on human cells, with putative mechanisms affecting gene expression in pathways involving chemokines and MAP-kinase (proliferation/apoptosis), as well as adhesion proteins. These findings highlight the potential antifungal activity of the EO from C. sativum leaves and suggest avenues for future translational toxicological research. PMID:24901768

  7. Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander) essential oil: antifungal activity and mode of action on Candida spp., and molecular targets affected in human whole-genome expression.

    PubMed

    Freires, Irlan de Almeida; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça; Furletti, Vivian Fernandes; Sartoratto, Adilson; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Figueira, Glyn Mara; de Oliveira Rodrigues, Janaina Aparecida; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity with increasingly worldwide prevalence and incidence rates. Novel specifically-targeted strategies to manage this ailment have been proposed using essential oils (EO) known to have antifungal properties. In this study, we aim to investigate the antifungal activity and mode of action of the EO from Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) leaves on Candida spp. In addition, we detected the molecular targets affected in whole-genome expression in human cells. The EO phytochemical profile indicates monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as major components, which are likely to negatively impact the viability of yeast cells. There seems to be a synergistic activity of the EO chemical compounds as their isolation into fractions led to a decreased antimicrobial effect. C. sativum EO may bind to membrane ergosterol, increasing ionic permeability and causing membrane damage leading to cell death, but it does not act on cell wall biosynthesis-related pathways. This mode of action is illustrated by photomicrographs showing disruption in biofilm integrity caused by the EO at varied concentrations. The EO also inhibited Candida biofilm adherence to a polystyrene substrate at low concentrations, and decreased the proteolytic activity of Candida albicans at minimum inhibitory concentration. Finally, the EO and its selected active fraction had low cytotoxicity on human cells, with putative mechanisms affecting gene expression in pathways involving chemokines and MAP-kinase (proliferation/apoptosis), as well as adhesion proteins. These findings highlight the potential antifungal activity of the EO from C. sativum leaves and suggest avenues for future translational toxicological research. PMID:24901768

  8. Effect of Increased Natural Gas Exports on Domestic Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This report responds to an August 2011 request from the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE\\/FE) for an analysis of "the impact of increased domestic natural gas demand, as exports." Appendix A provides a copy of the DOE\\/FE request letter. Specifically, DOE\\/FE asked the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to assess how specified scenarios of increased natural gas exports could affect domestic energy markets, focusing on consumption, production, and prices.

  9. 78 FR 25415 - Waivers Under the Refined Sugar Re-Export Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... 30, 2013. (2) USDA is temporarily increasing the license limit for raw cane sugar refiners from 50... Office of the Secretary Waivers Under the Refined Sugar Re-Export Program AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... waiving certain provisions in the Refined Sugar Re-Export Program, effective today. These actions...

  10. 78 FR 39824 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration ACTION: Notice of... Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration OMB Control Number: 1405-0095 Type of Request... imports of shrimp pursuant to the State Department's implementation of Section 609 of Public Law...

  11. 7 CFR 989.221 - Sale and export of reserve raisins by handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations. For Federal Register citations affecting these regulations, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sale and export of reserve raisins by handlers. 989... RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Supplementary Regulations § 989.221 Sale and export...

  12. 7 CFR 989.221 - Sale and export of reserve raisins by handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations. For Federal Register citations affecting these regulations, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sale and export of reserve raisins by handlers. 989... RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Supplementary Regulations § 989.221 Sale and export...

  13. 7 CFR 989.221 - Sale and export of reserve raisins by handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations. For Federal Register citations affecting these regulations, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sale and export of reserve raisins by handlers. 989... RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Supplementary Regulations § 989.221 Sale and export...

  14. 7 CFR 989.221 - Sale and export of reserve raisins by handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations. For Federal Register citations affecting these regulations, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale and export of reserve raisins by handlers. 989... RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Supplementary Regulations § 989.221 Sale and export...

  15. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    PubMed

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. PMID:24064315

  16. 75 FR 75963 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended... issuance was published in the Federal Register on October 26, 2009 (74 FR 54961). The original Certificate... Register on September 14, 1992 (57 FR 41920). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Joseph E. Flynn,...

  17. 78 FR 62585 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the...-5A018). SUMMARY: The Office of Competition and Economic Analysis (``OCEA'') of the International Trade..., Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, (202) 482-5131 (this...

  18. 75 FR 28235 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 85-16A18... Analysis, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, has received an application to... Trading Company Affairs, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Room...

  19. 78 FR 5778 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (92-11A01... the International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend... INFORMATION CONTACT: Joseph Flynn, Director, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International...

  20. 78 FR 13861 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Amended..., through the International Trade Administration, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis (OCEA), has... Register on December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72324). The original Certificate No. 85-00018 was issued to USSA...

  1. 75 FR 55739 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 92-9A001... of America, Inc. SUMMARY: The Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade... of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, (202) 482-5131 (this is...

  2. 75 FR 35441 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance ( 99-4A005) of..., 2007 (72 FR 30775). The original Certificate for CAEA was issued on December 27, 1999, and a notice of its issuance was published in the Federal Register on January 6, 2000 (65 FR 760). FOR...

  3. 76 FR 27994 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (84-22A12..., Director, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, (202) 482-5131..., International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Room 7021-X, Washington, DC 20230....

  4. 77 FR 72324 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to Amend the... of Competition and Economic Analysis (``OCEA'') of the International Trade Administration, Department... Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, (202) 482-5131 (this is not a...

  5. 78 FR 36747 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the...-6A002. SUMMARY: The Office of Competition and Economic Analysis (``OCEA'') of the International Trade..., Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, (202) 482-5131 (this...

  6. 78 FR 23916 - Secrecy and License To Export

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Secrecy and License To Export ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce...: Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent...

  7. 77 FR 29314 - Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export.... May 25, 2012 by either of the following methods: Electronic Statements Submit electronic...

  8. 75 FR 38514 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing LP... power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  9. 75 FR 78980 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Direct Energy Marketing,...

  10. 78 FR 65978 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing...

  11. 9 CFR 91.14 - Ports of embarkation and export inspection facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... animals intended for export, and in cold weather such water shall be kept free of ice. Feed and feeding... citations affecting § 91.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding...

  12. 9 CFR 91.14 - Ports of embarkation and export inspection facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... animals intended for export, and in cold weather such water shall be kept free of ice. Feed and feeding... citations affecting § 91.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding...

  13. 7 CFR 989.221 - Sale and export of reserve raisins by handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations. For Federal Register citations affecting these regulations, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Supplementary Regulations § 989.221 Sale and export...

  14. 77 FR 33217 - Notice of Open Meeting of the Advisory Committee of the Export-Import Bank of the United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Notice of Open Meeting of the Advisory Committee of the Export- Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank) AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  15. The Bacterial Flagellar Type III Export Gate Complex Is a Dual Fuel Engine That Can Use Both H+ and Na+ for Flagellar Protein Export

    PubMed Central

    Minamino, Tohru; Morimoto, Yusuke V.; Hara, Noritaka; Aldridge, Phillip D.; Namba, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes ATP and proton motive force (PMF) to transport flagellar proteins to the distal end of the growing flagellar structure for self-assembly. The transmembrane export gate complex is a H+–protein antiporter, of which activity is greatly augmented by an associated cytoplasmic ATPase complex. Here, we report that the export gate complex can use sodium motive force (SMF) in addition to PMF across the cytoplasmic membrane to drive protein export. Protein export was considerably reduced in the absence of the ATPase complex and a pH gradient across the membrane, but Na+ increased it dramatically. Phenamil, a blocker of Na+ translocation, inhibited protein export. Overexpression of FlhA increased the intracellular Na+ concentration in the presence of 100 mM NaCl but not in its absence, suggesting that FlhA acts as a Na+ channel. In wild-type cells, however, neither Na+ nor phenamil affected protein export, indicating that the Na+ channel activity of FlhA is suppressed by the ATPase complex. We propose that the export gate by itself is a dual fuel engine that uses both PMF and SMF for protein export and that the ATPase complex switches this dual fuel engine into a PMF-driven export machinery to become much more robust against environmental changes in external pH and Na+ concentration. PMID:26943926

  16. 7 CFR 1218.6 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.6 Exporter. Exporter means a person involved in exporting blueberries from another country to the United States....

  17. 7 CFR 1218.6 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.6 Exporter. Exporter means a person involved in exporting blueberries from another country to the United States....

  18. 7 CFR 1218.6 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.6 Exporter. Exporter means a person involved in exporting blueberries from another country to the United States....

  19. 7 CFR 1218.6 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.6 Exporter. Exporter means a person involved in exporting blueberries from another country to the United States....

  20. 7 CFR 1218.6 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.6 Exporter. Exporter means a person involved in exporting blueberries from another country to the United States....

  1. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... export” on each container of beer concentrate, before removal from the brewery for any exportation... transferred from a brewery to a foreign-trade zone for export or for storage pending exportation; or (3)...

  2. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... export” on each container of beer concentrate, before removal from the brewery for any exportation... transferred from a brewery to a foreign-trade zone for export or for storage pending exportation; or (3)...

  3. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... export” on each container of beer concentrate, before removal from the brewery for any exportation... transferred from a brewery to a foreign-trade zone for export or for storage pending exportation; or (3)...

  4. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... export” on each container of beer concentrate, before removal from the brewery for any exportation... transferred from a brewery to a foreign-trade zone for export or for storage pending exportation; or (3)...

  5. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... export” on each container of beer concentrate, before removal from the brewery for any exportation... transferred from a brewery to a foreign-trade zone for export or for storage pending exportation; or (3)...

  6. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship...

  7. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship...

  8. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship...

  9. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship...

  10. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship...

  11. Temporal Uncertainty and Temporal Estimation Errors Affect Insular Activity and the Frontostriatal Indirect Pathway during Action Update: A Predictive Coding Study

    PubMed Central

    Limongi, Roberto; Pérez, Francisco J.; Modroño, Cristián; González-Mora, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Action update, substituting a prepotent behavior with a new action, allows the organism to counteract surprising environmental demands. However, action update fails when the organism is uncertain about when to release the substituting behavior, when it faces temporal uncertainty. Predictive coding states that accurate perception demands minimization of precise prediction errors. Activity of the right anterior insula (rAI) is associated with temporal uncertainty. Therefore, we hypothesize that temporal uncertainty during action update would cause the AI to decrease the sensitivity to ascending prediction errors. Moreover, action update requires response inhibition which recruits the frontostriatal indirect pathway associated with motor control. Therefore, we also hypothesize that temporal estimation errors modulate frontostriatal connections. To test these hypotheses, we collected fMRI data when participants performed an action-update paradigm within the context of temporal estimation. We fit dynamic causal models to the imaging data. Competing models comprised the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG), right supramarginal gyrus (rSMG), rAI, right presupplementary motor area (rPreSMA), and the right striatum (rSTR). The winning model showed that temporal uncertainty drove activity into the rAI and decreased insular sensitivity to ascending prediction errors, as shown by weak connectivity strength of rSMG→rAI connections. Moreover, temporal estimation errors weakened rPreSMA→rSTR connections and also modulated rAI→rSTR connections, causing the disruption of action update. Results provide information about the neurophysiological implementation of the so-called horse-race model of action control. We suggest that, contrary to what might be believed, unsuccessful action update could be a homeostatic process that represents a Bayes optimal encoding of uncertainty. PMID:27445737

  12. Temporal Uncertainty and Temporal Estimation Errors Affect Insular Activity and the Frontostriatal Indirect Pathway during Action Update: A Predictive Coding Study.

    PubMed

    Limongi, Roberto; Pérez, Francisco J; Modroño, Cristián; González-Mora, José L

    2016-01-01

    Action update, substituting a prepotent behavior with a new action, allows the organism to counteract surprising environmental demands. However, action update fails when the organism is uncertain about when to release the substituting behavior, when it faces temporal uncertainty. Predictive coding states that accurate perception demands minimization of precise prediction errors. Activity of the right anterior insula (rAI) is associated with temporal uncertainty. Therefore, we hypothesize that temporal uncertainty during action update would cause the AI to decrease the sensitivity to ascending prediction errors. Moreover, action update requires response inhibition which recruits the frontostriatal indirect pathway associated with motor control. Therefore, we also hypothesize that temporal estimation errors modulate frontostriatal connections. To test these hypotheses, we collected fMRI data when participants performed an action-update paradigm within the context of temporal estimation. We fit dynamic causal models to the imaging data. Competing models comprised the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG), right supramarginal gyrus (rSMG), rAI, right presupplementary motor area (rPreSMA), and the right striatum (rSTR). The winning model showed that temporal uncertainty drove activity into the rAI and decreased insular sensitivity to ascending prediction errors, as shown by weak connectivity strength of rSMG→rAI connections. Moreover, temporal estimation errors weakened rPreSMA→rSTR connections and also modulated rAI→rSTR connections, causing the disruption of action update. Results provide information about the neurophysiological implementation of the so-called horse-race model of action control. We suggest that, contrary to what might be believed, unsuccessful action update could be a homeostatic process that represents a Bayes optimal encoding of uncertainty. PMID:27445737

  13. Export Promotion Reform Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Berman, Howard L. [D-CA-28

    2012-02-15

    06/04/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. 40 CFR 91.1009 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 91.1009 Section 91....1009 Export exemptions. (a) A new marine SI engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged...., Washington, DC 20460. New marine SI engines exported to such countries must comply with EPA...

  15. 40 CFR 89.909 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 89.909 Section 89....909 Export exemptions. (a) A new nonroad engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged..., 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. New nonroad engines exported to such countries...

  16. 40 CFR 94.909 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 94.909 Section 94... Export exemptions. (a) A new engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged on the outside... of export under paragraph (a) of this section, that such exemption is void ab initio with respect...

  17. 40 CFR 92.909 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 92.909 Section 92....909 Export exemptions. (a) A new locomotive or locomotive engine intended solely for export, and so... from EPA standards. (c) It is a condition of any exemption for the purpose of export under paragraph...

  18. Catchment controls on solute export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musolff, Andreas; Schmidt, Christian; Selle, Benny; Fleckenstein, Jan H.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamics of solute export from catchments can be classified in terms of chemostatic and chemodynamic export regimes by an analysis of concentration-discharge relationships. Previous studies hypothesized that distinct export regimes emerge from the presence of solute mass stores within the catchment and their connectivity to the stream. However, so far a direct link of solute export to identifiable catchment characteristics is missing. Here we investigate long-term time series of stream water quality and quantity of nine neighboring catchments in Central Germany ranging from relatively pristine mountain catchments to agriculturally dominated lowland catchments, spanning large gradients in land use, geology, and climatic conditions. Given the strong collinearity of catchment characteristics we used partial least square regression analysis to quantify the predictive power of these characteristics for median concentrations and the metrics of export regime. We can show that median concentrations and metrics of the export regimes of major ions and nutrients can indeed be inferred from catchment characteristics. Strongest predictors for median concentrations were the share of arable land, discharge per area, runoff coefficient and available water capacity in the root zone of the catchments. The available water capacity in the root zone, the share of arable land being artificially drained and the topographic gradient were found to be the most relevant predictors for the metrics of export regime. These catchment characteristics can represent the size of solute mass store such as the fraction of arable land being a measure for the store of nitrate. On the other hand, catchment characteristics can be a measure for the connectivity of these solute stores to the stream such as the fraction of tile drained land in the catchments. This study demonstrates the potential of data-driven, top down analyses using simple metrics to classify and better understand dominant controls of

  19. 75 FR 47548 - President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ...The President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration (PECSEA) advises the U.S. Government on matters and issues pertinent to implementation of the provisions of the Export Administration Act and the Export Administration Regulations, as amended, and related statutes and regulations. These issues relate to U.S. export controls as mandated by law for national security, foreign......

  20. 75 FR 54857 - President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...The President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration (PECSEA) advises the U.S. Government on matters and issues pertinent to implementation of the provisions of the Export Administration Act and the Export Administration Regulations, as amended, and related statutes and regulations. These issues relate to U.S. export controls as mandated by law for national security, foreign......

  1. 15 CFR 732.5 - Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination Control Statements, and recordkeeping. 732.5... THE EAR § 732.5 Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record... Automated Export System (AES) record. Exporters or agents authorized to complete the Shipper's...

  2. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  3. 15 CFR 732.5 - Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination Control Statements, and recordkeeping. 732.5... THE EAR § 732.5 Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record... Automated Export System (AES) record. Exporters or agents authorized to complete the Shipper's...

  4. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  5. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  6. 15 CFR 732.5 - Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination Control Statements, and recordkeeping. 732.5... THE EAR § 732.5 Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record... Automated Export System (AES) record. Exporters or agents authorized to complete the Shipper's...

  7. 15 CFR 732.5 - Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination Control Statements, and recordkeeping. 732.5... THE EAR § 732.5 Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record... Automated Export System (AES) record. Exporters or agents authorized to complete the Shipper's...

  8. 15 CFR 732.5 - Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination Control Statements, and recordkeeping. 732.5... THE EAR § 732.5 Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record... Automated Export System (AES) record. Exporters or agents authorized to complete the Shipper's...

  9. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  10. Carbon Dynamics and Export from Flooded Wetlands: A Modeling Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Described in this article is development and validation of a process based model for carbon cycling in flooded wetlands, called WetQual-C. The model considers various biogeochemical interactions affecting C cycling, greenhouse gas emissions, organic carbon export and retention. ...

  11. 19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... file. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 144.37, see the List of CFR Sections... Form 7512 or CBP Form 7501 must contain all of the statistical information as provided in § 141.61(e... exportation. (e) Weight, gauge, or measure. Merchandise in bulk and packaged articles which are...

  12. 19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... file. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 144.37, see the List of CFR Sections... Form 7512 or CBP Form 7501 must contain all of the statistical information as provided in § 141.61(e... exportation. (e) Weight, gauge, or measure. Merchandise in bulk and packaged articles which are...

  13. 19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... file. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 144.37, see the List of CFR Sections... Form 7512 or CBP Form 7501 must contain all of the statistical information as provided in § 141.61(e... exportation. (e) Weight, gauge, or measure. Merchandise in bulk and packaged articles which are...

  14. 78 FR 36012 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Export Declaration of Defense Technical Data or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Export Declaration of Defense Technical Data or Services ACTION: Notice of request for public comment and submission to OMB of proposed collection of information... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Information Collection: Export Declaration of Defense Technical Data...

  15. A Call for Policy Action in Sub-Saharan Africa to Rethink Diagnostics for Pregnancy Affected by Sickle Cell Disease: Differential Views of Medical Doctors, Parents and Adult Patients Predict Value Conflicts in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Samia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating illness that affects the life expectancy of patients. It is possible to test for SCD before birth, to allow for reproductive options to parents. However, under Cameroonian Law, voluntary abortion is a criminal offense and medical abortion is permitted only “…if it is done by an authorized professional and justified by the need to save the mother from grave health jeopardy.” The objective of the present study was to compare the views of Cameroonian doctors, parents with at least one living SCD-affected child, and adult SCD patients, regarding prenatal genetic diagnosis and termination of SCD-affected pregnancy. We conducted a quantitative sociological survey of 110 doctors, 130 parents, and 89 adult patients. The majority accepted the prenatal genetic diagnosis for SCD (78.7%, 89.8%, and 89.2%, respectively). Parents (62.5%) were more in favor of termination of SCD-affected pregnancy, than doctors and adults patients (36.1% and 40.9% acceptance, respectively). Parents and patients who found medical abortion acceptable cited fear to have a SCD-affected child (98.1 and 88.9%) and the poor quality of the affected child's health (92.6% and 81.5%). The data underscore the urgency of policy action to place emphasis on: premarital screening, early detection and care of SCD, socio-economic measures to assist SCD-affected families, appropriateness to consider maternal distress due to fetal anomalies in medical abortion legislation. These novel findings signal potential value-based conflicts on the horizon, and can usefully inform the future policy actions in the African continent as OMICS biotechnologies are increasingly employed in global health. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first attempt in sub-Saharan Africa to attempt to triangulate the views of multiple stakeholders towards prenatal diagnosis of SCD and termination of an affected pregnancy. PMID:24754796

  16. Palmitic acid increases pro-oxidant adaptor protein p66Shc expression and affects vascularization factors in angiogenic mononuclear cells: Action of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Favre, Julie; Yildirim, Cansu; Leyen, Thomas A; Chen, Weena J Y; van Genugten, Renate E; van Golen, Larissa W; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan-Jesus; Musters, Rene; Baggen, Josefien; Fontijn, Ruud; van der Pouw Kraan, Tineke; Serné, Erik; Koolwijk, Pieter; Diamant, Michaela; Horrevoets, Anton J G

    2015-12-01

    A defect in neo-vascularization process involving circulating angiogenic mononuclear cells (CACs) dysfunction is associated with diabetes. We showed that oxidative stress was elevated in CACs cultured from blood of individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes. We then assessed the action of palmitic acid (PA), a deregulated and increased NEFA in metabolic disorders, focusing on its oxidant potential. We observed that the phyto-polyphenol resveratrol normalized oxidative stress both in CACs isolated from MetS patients or treated with PA. Resveratrol further decreased the deleterious action of PA on gene expression of vascularization factors (TNFα, VEGF-A, SDF1α, PECAM-1, VEGFR2, Tie2 and CXCR4) and improved CAC motility. Particularly, resveratrol abolished the PA-induced over-expression of the pro-oxidant protein p66Shc. Neither KLF2 nor SIRT1, previously shown in resveratrol and p66Shc action, was directly involved. Silencing p66Shc normalized PA action on VEGF-A and TNFα specifically, without abolishing the PA-induced oxidative stress, which suggests a deleterious role of p66Shc independently of any major modulation of the cellular oxidative status in a high NEFA levels context. Besides showing that resveratrol reverses PA-induced harmful effects on human CAC function, certainly through profound cellular modifications, we establish p66Shc as a major therapeutic target in metabolic disorders, independent from glycemic control. PMID:26254104

  17. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  18. 15 CFR 730.5 - Coverage of more than exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS GENERAL... than exports. (a) Reexports. Commodities, software, and technology that have been exported from...

  19. A comparison of models for estimating the riverine export of nitrogen from large watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, R.B.; Johnes, P.J.; Boyer, E.W.; Smith, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of six watershed models of nitrogen export in streams (kg km2 yr-1) developed for use in large watersheds and representing various empirical and quasi-empirical approaches described in the literature. These models differ in their methods of calibration and have varying levels of spatial resolution and process complexity, which potentially affect the accuracy (bias and precision) of the model predictions of nitrogen export and source contributions to export. Using stream monitoring data and detailed estimates of the natural and cultural sources of nitrogen for 16 watersheds in the northeastern United States (drainage sizes = 475 to 70,000 km2), we assessed the accuracy of the model predictions of total nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen export. The model validation included the use of an error modeling technique to identify biases caused by model deficiencies in quantifying nitrogen sources and biogeochemical processes affecting the transport of nitrogen in watersheds. Most models predicted stream nitrogen export to within 50% of the measured export in a majority of the watersheds. Prediction errors were negatively correlated with cultivated land area, indicating that the watershed models tended to over predict export in less agricultural and more forested watersheds and under predict in more agricultural basins. The magnitude of these biases differed appreciably among the models. Those models having more detailed descriptions of nitrogen sources, land and water attenuation of nitrogen, and water flow paths were found to have considerably lower bias and higher precision in their predictions of nitrogen export.

  20. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC. PMID:25802992

  1. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC. PMID:25802992

  2. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which...

  3. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which...

  4. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which...

  5. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond...

  6. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond...

  7. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond...

  8. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond...

  9. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond...

  10. P-glycoprotein (Pgp) does not affect the cytotoxicity of flavonoids from Sophora flavescens, which also have no effects on Pgp action.

    PubMed

    Choi, S U; Kim, K H; Choi, E J; Park, S H; Lee, C O; Jung, N P; Yoon, S K; Ryu, S Y

    1999-01-01

    Sophoraflavanone, kurarinone (GS08), norkurarinol (GS11), kurarinol (GS12) and kushenol K are cytotoxic flavonoids isolated from Sophora flavescens. In this study, we tested the cytotoxicity of those flavonoids to human cancer cells including P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-expressing HCT15 cells and its multidrug resistant subline, HCT15/CL02 cells. HCT15/CL02 cells revealed resistance to GS08, GS11 and GS12 about 2 fold in comparison with HCT15 cells. Nonetheless, verapamil, a Pgp inhibitor, could not increase the cytotoxicity of all the flavonoids tested. We also investigated that the flavonoids could modulate the Pgp action. At nontoxic concentrations, the flavonoids could not effect on the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel, a well-known Pgp-substrate. The flavonoids also had no effects on the accumulation of rhodamine 123 in all the cells tested at 10 microM. From the results, we concluded that Pgp had no effect on the cytotoxicity of the flavonoids, and the flavonoids also had no effect on the action of Pgp. Our results also suggested that HCT15/CL02 cells had additional mechanisms for drug resistance distinct from Pgp overexpression. PMID:10470145

  11. Export bill and scientific exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    President Ronald Reagan has signed into law the reauthorization of the Export Administration Act (EAA), first passed in 1979. The amended version of the law, signed July 12, includes a policy statement in support of “vigorous scientific enterprise. . .in accordance with applicable provisions of law. . .by means of publication, teaching, conferences, and other forms of scholarly exchange.”

  12. Languages and the Export Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, D. E.

    The improvement of language skills and intercultural understanding among Australians for the purpose of increasing their country's ability to develop a strong export economy is explored. It is argued that a formidable language teaching system in education is vital to the strengthening of Australia's international reputation in world markets.…

  13. Nuclear Export of Pre-Ribosomal Subunits Requires Dbp5, but Not as an RNA-Helicase as for mRNA Export

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Bettina; Wu, Haijia; Hackmann, Alexandra; Krebber, Heike

    2016-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA-helicase Dbp5/Rat8 is known for its function in nuclear mRNA export, where it displaces the export receptor Mex67 from the mRNA at the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Here we show that Dbp5 is also required for the nuclear export of both pre-ribosomal subunits. Yeast temperature-sensitive dbp5 mutants accumulate both ribosomal particles in their nuclei. Furthermore, Dbp5 genetically and physically interacts with known ribosomal transport factors such as Nmd3. Similar to mRNA export we show that also for ribosomal transport Dbp5 is required at the cytoplasmic side of the NPC. However, unlike its role in mRNA export, Dbp5 does not seem to undergo its ATPase cycle for this function, as ATPase-deficient dbp5 mutants that selectively inhibit mRNA export do not affect ribosomal transport. Furthermore, mutants of GLE1, the ATPase stimulating factor of Dbp5, show no major ribosomal export defects. Consequently, while Dbp5 uses its ATPase cycle to displace the export receptor Mex67 from the translocated mRNAs, Mex67 remains bound to ribosomal subunits upon transit to the cytoplasm, where it is detectable on translating ribosomes. Therefore, we propose a model, in which Dbp5 supports ribosomal transport by capturing ribosomal subunits upon their cytoplasmic appearance at the NPC, possibly by binding export factors such as Mex67. Thus, our findings reveal that although different ribonucleoparticles, mRNAs and pre-ribosomal subunits, use shared export factors, they utilize different transport mechanisms. PMID:26872259

  14. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price). 351.414 Section 351.414 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value...

  15. 7 CFR 1488.9a - Evidence of export for commodities delivered before export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES Financing of Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit... financial period is 12 months or less, the exporter shall furnish a certification to the Treasurer, CCC... Assistant Treasurer, CCC, certifying that the commodities have been exported. The certification must...

  16. 7 CFR 1488.9a - Evidence of export for commodities delivered before export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES Financing of Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit... financial period is 12 months or less, the exporter shall furnish a certification to the Treasurer, CCC... Assistant Treasurer, CCC, certifying that the commodities have been exported. The certification must...

  17. 7 CFR 1488.9a - Evidence of export for commodities delivered before export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES Financing of Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit... financial period is 12 months or less, the exporter shall furnish a certification to the Treasurer, CCC... Assistant Treasurer, CCC, certifying that the commodities have been exported. The certification must...

  18. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk containers and cases under the provisions of parts 24 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  19. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  20. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk containers and cases under the provisions of parts 24 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  1. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  2. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk containers and cases under the provisions of parts 24 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  3. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates or other packages under the provisions of part 25 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  4. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  5. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates or other packages under the provisions of part 25 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  6. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates or other packages under the provisions of part 25 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  7. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  8. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  9. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  10. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates or other packages under the provisions of part 25 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  11. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  12. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  13. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk containers and cases under the provisions of parts 24 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  14. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  15. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates or other packages under the provisions of part 25 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  16. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or other bulk containers and cases under the provisions of parts 24 of this chapter, the exporter shall mark the...

  17. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government...

  18. 7 CFR 948.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 948.17 Section 948.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.17 Export. Export means the shipment of potatoes to any...

  19. 7 CFR 924.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 924.15 Section 924.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.15 Export. Export...

  20. 7 CFR 51.912 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 51.912 Section 51.912 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.912 Export. When designated as Export, grapes shall be packed with any of the customary protective materials such as...

  1. 40 CFR 85.1709 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 85.1709 Section 85... Engines § 85.1709 Export exemptions. (a) A new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged on the outside of the container and on the vehicle or...

  2. 27 CFR 7.60 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 7.60 Section 7.60... TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES General Provisions § 7.60 Exports. This part shall not apply to malt beverages exported in bond....

  3. 40 CFR 90.909 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 90.909 Section 90... of Nonroad Engines from Regulations § 90.909 Export exemptions. (a) A new nonroad engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged on the outside of the container and on the engine itself,...

  4. 7 CFR 946.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 946.15 Section 946.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.15 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries...

  5. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 966.18 Section 966.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the...

  6. 27 CFR 16.31 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 16.31 Section 16... TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT General Provisions § 16.31 Exports. The..., bottled, or labeled for export from the United States, or for delivery to a vessel or aircraft,...

  7. 19 CFR 351.514 - Export subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export subsidies. 351.514 Section 351.514 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.514 Export subsidies. (a) In general. The Secretary will consider a subsidy to be an export subsidy if the Secretary determines that eligibility...

  8. 40 CFR 211.208 - Export provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export provisions. 211.208 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.208 Export provisions. (a) The outside of each package or container containing a hearing protective device intended solely for export must be so...

  9. 7 CFR 959.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 959.18 Section 959.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 959.18 Export. Export means to ship onions to any destination which is not...

  10. 7 CFR 948.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Export. 948.17 Section 948.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.17 Export. Export means the shipment of potatoes to any...

  11. 7 CFR 959.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Export. 959.18 Section 959.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 959.18 Export. Export means to ship onions to any destination which is not...

  12. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Export. 966.18 Section 966.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the...

  13. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Export. 915.12 Section 915.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which...

  14. 7 CFR 946.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Export. 946.15 Section 946.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.15 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries...

  15. 7 CFR 924.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Export. 924.15 Section 924.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.15 Export. Export...

  16. 27 CFR 555.129 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exportation. 555.129 Section 555.129 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Records and Reports § 555.129 Exportation. Exportation of explosive materials is to be...

  17. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export insurance. 351.520 Section 351.520 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate...

  18. 7 CFR 1493.220 - Exporter eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exporter eligibility. 1493.220 Section 1493.220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Facility Guarantee...

  19. 7 CFR 1493.220 - Exporter eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exporter eligibility. 1493.220 Section 1493.220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Facility Guarantee...

  20. 7 CFR 1493.220 - Exporter eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exporter eligibility. 1493.220 Section 1493.220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Facility Guarantee...

  1. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  2. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  3. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  4. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  5. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  6. 27 CFR 478.171 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exportation. 478.171 Section 478.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exportation § 478.171 Exportation. Firearms and ammunition...

  7. 27 CFR 478.171 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exportation. 478.171 Section 478.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exportation § 478.171 Exportation. Firearms and...

  8. 27 CFR 478.171 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exportation. 478.171 Section 478.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exportation § 478.171 Exportation. Firearms and...

  9. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export insurance. 351.520 Section 351.520 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate...

  10. 27 CFR 478.171 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exportation. 478.171 Section 478.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exportation § 478.171 Exportation. Firearms and...

  11. 27 CFR 478.171 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exportation. 478.171 Section 478.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exportation § 478.171 Exportation. Firearms and ammunition...

  12. Multiple cis-acting signals for export of pre-U1 snRNA from the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Terns, M P; Dahlberg, J E; Lund, E

    1993-10-01

    We have identified cis-acting sequences that promote nuclear export of pre-U1 RNA injected into Xenopus oocyte nuclei. At least three elements, the 5' m7G cap, the 3'-terminal stem-loop structure, and sequences in the 5'-terminal 124 nucleotides, contribute to efficient export of this RNA. Both the 5' and 3' export signals can function separately and do so independently of the cap structure. Experiments using hybrid RNAs indicate that the 5' and 3' export sequences of U1 RNA are sufficient to direct export of the heterologous, otherwise nonexportable, U6 RNA. The absence of comparable export signals in U6 RNA appears to be responsible for its retention in the nucleus. Stability of the pre-snRNAs in the nucleus depends on the presence of both a 5' cap structure and a 3' base-paired stem. The 5' m7G cap is neither sufficient nor necessary for nuclear export. The m7G cap by itself did not promote export of U6 RNA or nonspecific small RNAs. Moreover, substitution of this cap with either an AppG cap or gamma-mppG cap did not eliminate export of either full-length or a "minimal" U1 RNA (lacking most of the internal U1 RNA sequences), but it reduced the rate of export by about two to threefold. However, in the absence of the 3' stem-loop, substitution of the m7G cap led to a greater decrease in export rate, underscoring the cooperative action of the three different export elements of pre-U1 RNA. The m7G cap analog, m7GpppG, selectively destabilized pre-U1 RNA within the nucleus. Thus, nuclear components that recognize the 5' m7G cap may be important for both the stability and the export of pre-U1 RNA. PMID:8405997

  13. 7 CFR 1493.80 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exported and the basis (e.g., FOB, CFR, CIF). Where the unit sales price at export differs from the unit... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) and CCC Intermediate Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-103) Operations §...

  14. Global river nutrient export: A scenario analysis of past and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitzinger, S. P.; Mayorga, E.; Bouwman, A. F.; Kroeze, C.; Beusen, A. H. W.; Billen, G.; van Drecht, G.; Dumont, E.; Fekete, B. M.; Garnier, J.; Harrison, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    An integrated modeling approach was used to connect socioeconomic factors and nutrient management to river export of nitrogen, phosphorus, silica and carbon based on an updated Global NEWS model. Past trends (1970-2000) and four future scenarios were analyzed. Differences among the scenarios for nutrient management in agriculture were a key factor affecting the magnitude and direction of change of future DIN river export. In contrast, connectivity and level of sewage treatment and P detergent use were more important for differences in DIP river export. Global particulate nutrient export was calculated to decrease for all scenarios, in part due to increases in dams for hydropower. Small changes in dissolved silica and dissolved organics were calculated for all scenarios at the global scale. Population changes were an important underlying factor for river export of all nutrients in all scenarios. Substantial regional differences were calculated for all nutrient elements and forms. South Asia alone accounted for over half of the global increase in DIN and DIP river export between 1970 and 2000 and in the subsequent 30 years under the Global Orchestration scenario (globally connected with reactive approach to environmental problems); DIN river export decreased in the Adapting Mosaic (globally connected with proactive approach) scenario by 2030, although DIP continued to increase. Risks for coastal eutrophication will likely continue to increase in many world regions for the foreseeable future due to both increases in magnitude and changes in nutrient ratios in river export.

  15. How the mode of action affects evidence of planning and movement kinematics in aging: End-state comfort in older adults.

    PubMed

    Scharoun, Sara M; Gonzalez, Dave A; Roy, Eric A; Bryden, Pamela J

    2016-05-01

    Motor deficits are commonly observed with age; however, it has been argued that older adults are more adept when acting in natural tasks and do not differ from young adults in these contexts. This study assessed end-state comfort and movement kinematics in a familiar task to examine this further. Left- and right-handed older adults picked up a glass (upright or overturned) as if to pour water in four modes of action (pantomime, pantomime with image/cup as a guide, actual grasping). With increasing age, a longer deceleration phase (in pantomime without a stimulus) and less end-state comfort (in pantomime without a stimulus and image as a guide) was displayed as the amount of contextual information available to guide movement decreased. Changes in movement strategies likely reflect an increased reliance on feedback control and demonstration of a more cautious movement. A secondary aim of this study was to assess hand preference and performance, considering conflicting reports of manual asymmetries with age. Performance differences in the Grooved Pegboard place task indicate left handers may display a shift towards right handedness in some, but not all cases. Summarizing, this study supports age-related differences in planning and control processes in a familiar task, and changes in manual asymmetries with age in left handers. PMID:26617081

  16. Identification of phospholipid species affected by miltefosine action in Leishmania donovani cultures using LC-ELSD, LC-ESI/MS, and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Imbert, L; Ramos, R G; Libong, D; Abreu, S; Loiseau, P M; Chaminade, P

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a widespread parasitic disease principally treated by intravenous drugs. Hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine) has recently proved its efficacy by oral route. Although its mechanism of action has been investigated, and principally relies on perturbations of the metabolism of lipids and especially phospholipids, further studies need to be conducted to detect precisely which metabolic pathways are impacted. For this purpose, the present work proposes a complete lipidomic study focused on membrane phospholipids of clones of Leishmania donovani non-treated (NT), treated (T) and resistant (R) to miltefosine. Firstly, a separation of phospholipids in normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NP-HPLC) was coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) equipped with an electrospray (ESI) ion source, and response was compared to evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). Secondly, a quantification of phospholipid classes was performed using NP-HPLC/ESI/MS on NT, T and R clones of L. donovani. Thirdly, full-scan acquisitions of analyzed samples were compared using orthogonal signal correction-partial least square-discriminant analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) to highlight phospholipid molecular species of interest between the three types of clones. Structural determination of the most relevant species has finally been performed using tandem mass spectrometry. A first hypothesis on the effect of miltefosine on lipid metabolic pathways is then proposed. PMID:22065347

  17. Free heme pool and activity of key enzyme of heme synthesis in the rat liver under action of agents affecting reduced glutathione level.

    PubMed

    Barannik, T V; Inshina, N M; Kaliman, P A

    2005-01-01

    The decrease of GSH level in the rat liver was found to be accompanied by an increase of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) heme saturation during first hours after HgCl2, phenylhydrazine (Ph) injection or rhabdomyolysis (the coefficient of correlation -0.978). The activity of the key enzyme of heme synthesis--5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) was 2.5-fold increased in the first hours after Ph injection and rhabdomyolysis. Glutathione injection in vivo as well as CdCl2 caused the increase of GSH content and the inhibition of ALAS. The coefficient of correlation for GSH content and ALAS activity under the action of agents altering both these parameters (CdCl2, Ph, GSH injection and rhabdomyolysis) is 0.938. Taking into account the presence of heme regulatory motif with conserved cystein in many proteins, including ALAS and TDO (accession number in SwissProt database AAH61793 and P21643, respectively), the link between alterations of GSH content, ALAS activity and heme saturation of TDO in the rat liver could be proposed. The further experiments should be performed in order to elucidate the mechanisms of GSH level influence on free heme pool formation in the liver cells. PMID:16846079

  18. Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion.

    PubMed

    Galy, Valier; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Eglinton, Timothy

    2015-05-14

    Riverine export of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean affects the atmospheric carbon inventory over a broad range of timescales. On geological timescales, the balance between sequestration of POC from the terrestrial biosphere and oxidation of rock-derived (petrogenic) organic carbon sets the magnitude of the atmospheric carbon and oxygen reservoirs. Over shorter timescales, variations in the rate of exchange between carbon reservoirs, such as soils and marine sediments, also modulate atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The respective fluxes of biospheric and petrogenic organic carbon are poorly constrained, however, and mechanisms controlling POC export have remained elusive, limiting our ability to predict POC fluxes quantitatively as a result of climatic or tectonic changes. Here we estimate biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes for a suite of river systems representative of the natural variability in catchment properties. We show that export yields of both biospheric and petrogenic POC are positively related to the yield of suspended sediment, revealing that POC export is mostly controlled by physical erosion. Using a global compilation of gauged suspended sediment flux, we derive separate estimates of global biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes of 157(+74)(-50) and 43(+61)(-25) megatonnes of carbon per year, respectively. We find that biospheric POC export is primarily controlled by the capacity of rivers to mobilize and transport POC, and is largely insensitive to the magnitude of terrestrial primary production. Globally, physical erosion rates affect the rate of biospheric POC burial in marine sediments more strongly than carbon sequestration through silicate weathering. We conclude that burial of biospheric POC in marine sediments becomes the dominant long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide sink under enhanced physical erosion. PMID:25971513

  19. Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, Valier; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Eglinton, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    Riverine export of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean affects the atmospheric carbon inventory over a broad range of timescales. On geological timescales, the balance between sequestration of POC from the terrestrial biosphere and oxidation of rock-derived (petrogenic) organic carbon sets the magnitude of the atmospheric carbon and oxygen reservoirs. Over shorter timescales, variations in the rate of exchange between carbon reservoirs, such as soils and marine sediments, also modulate atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The respective fluxes of biospheric and petrogenic organic carbon are poorly constrained, however, and mechanisms controlling POC export have remained elusive, limiting our ability to predict POC fluxes quantitatively as a result of climatic or tectonic changes. Here we estimate biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes for a suite of river systems representative of the natural variability in catchment properties. We show that export yields of both biospheric and petrogenic POC are positively related to the yield of suspended sediment, revealing that POC export is mostly controlled by physical erosion. Using a global compilation of gauged suspended sediment flux, we derive separate estimates of global biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes of and megatonnes of carbon per year, respectively. We find that biospheric POC export is primarily controlled by the capacity of rivers to mobilize and transport POC, and is largely insensitive to the magnitude of terrestrial primary production. Globally, physical erosion rates affect the rate of biospheric POC burial in marine sediments more strongly than carbon sequestration through silicate weathering. We conclude that burial of biospheric POC in marine sediments becomes the dominant long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide sink under enhanced physical erosion.

  20. NAS Panel faults export controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A study prepared by a top-level panel says that current export controls on militarily sensitive U.S. technology may be “overcorrecting” previous weaknesses in that system, resulting in “a complex and confusing control system” that makes it more difficult for U.S. businesses to compete in international markets. Moreover, this control system has “an increasingly corrosive effect” on U.S. relations with allies. The panel recommended that the United States concentrate more effort on bringing about uniformity in the export control policies of countries belonging to the Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom), i.e., most of the member nations in NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and Japan.The 21-member panel was appointed by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), a joint unit of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The panel, composed of administrators, researchers, and former government officials, was chaired by AGU member Lew Allen, Jr., director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, Calif.) and former chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force. Their report was supported by NAS funds, by a number of private organizations (including AGU), by the U.S. Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State, by the National Science Foundation, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. Exporting vices: smoking in Asia.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B

    1988-08-01

    Marketing statistics of U.S. cigarette exports indicate that despite notable declines in sales at home, sales to foreign countries, especially in Asia, Africa and Latin America, are growing dramatically. World cigarette consumption has doubled since 1960, mainly in less developed countries. In 1987, American tobacco firms increased cigarette exports 76%, or 1 billion in new sales. U.S. smoking dropped in 1985-86 from 30.4 to 26.5% of adults. In Taiwan, tariffs were removed from U.S. cigarettes, lowering prices from $2.86 to 1.30, and raising U.S. imports from $4.4 to 119 million. South Korean trade barriers were removed in May 1988, creating a large market. Japan imports 32% of exported U.S. cigarettes, has 120 million smokers, and is the beneficiary of a massive advertising campaign centered on young people and women. The Asian response to the smoking phenomenon is emerging in the form of restrictions on timing of TV advertising (Japan and Taiwan), health warnings (Japan and Taiwan), and restriction of smoking in public places (Hong Kong). PMID:12315861

  2. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE₂) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE₂ (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; -48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., -48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE₂ administration. EE₂ (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE₂ was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE₂ alone or in combination with CIT. PMID:27153072

  3. Export Production Fluctuations in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific during the Pliocene-Pleistocene: Reconstruction Using Barite Accumulation Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paytan, A.; Ma, Z.; Ravelo, A. C.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last 5 million years, Earth has experienced a transition from warmer climates to cooler climates. It is not clear how these changes affected export productivity in the Equatorial Pacific (EEP) and what are the potential feedbacks between ocean productivity and climate? To address these questions we use barite accumulation rates to reconstruct export productivity in the eastern equatorial Pacific (ODP Site 849) and compare the record to sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuations and other productivity proxies over the past 5.3 Ma. We find that export productivity fluctuated considerably on multiple time scales. During the Pliocene between 4.5 and 3 Ma, export productivity was on average higher (~50 g C m-2 yr-1) than during the Pleistocene (~ 35 g C m-2 yr-1). In the Pleistocene a trend of decreasing export production occurred between 3 Ma and 1 Ma (from ~60 to ~20 g C m-2 yr-1) followed by an increase over the last million years. Our record reveal decoupling between export productivity and SST on long (million year) time scales as previously suggested. Throughout this time interval shorter orbital-scale large amplitude fluctuations (between 10 and 100 g C m-2 yr-1) in export productivity are observed and export production was generally higher during cold periods or during transitions. Results from this study suggest that in the EEP mechanisms that affect carbon export on orbital time scales differed from those operating on longer time scales.

  4. Might eddies dominate carbon export ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.; Rixen, M.; Fielding, S.; Mustard, A.; Brown, L.; Sanders, R.

    2003-04-01

    Yes - from a review of recent data sets we present a scale analysis of the potential for globally integrated carbon export, from the surface ocean, due to the vertical transports of mesoscale eddies. Mesoscale eddies are the oceanic equivalent of atmospheric storms, most are a fundamental result of horizontally unstable density gradients on the surface of a rotating sphere (baroclinic instability) and ~ 90% of the oceans energy exchanges take place at this scale. Recent studies from satellite remote sensing and high resolution models show that mesoscale eddies are a ubiquitous feature of the open ocean in both time and space; they are even present in sub-tropical oligotrophic gyres. Individual atmospheric weather systems generally have little ecological impact on terrestrial or marine biological systems. Grass grows and herbivores munch through many cyclone and anticyclone periods. In the open ocean we have a very different picture. The primary producers and herbivores have shorter time scales; time scales that coincide with those of mesoscale eddies. Plankton can have either good or bad weather lifetimes associated with just a single cyclone or anticyclone period. Furthermore, although the spring bloom may be the single largest source of material for the export of carbon from the upper ocean, it is short lived and may not be dominant everywhere in the annual export budget. The magnitude of vertical motion associated with mesoscale eddies is significant on biological timescales both for phytoplankton growth and the development of zooplankton grazing pressure. Critically this motion does not form a closed vertical circulation; baroclinic instability releases potential energy and thus water masses are exchanged both vertically and horizontally across water mass boundaries. Thus mesoscale eddies have been shown to provide a mechanism for export both in the direct transport of biomass downwards out of the surface mixed layer and the fertilisation of an exhausted

  5. Non-classical export of an adenovirus structural protein.

    PubMed

    Trotman, Lloyd C; Achermann, Dominik P; Keller, Stephan; Straub, Monika; Greber, Urs F

    2003-06-01

    The icosahedral capsids of Adenoviruses (Ads) consist of the hexon and stabilizing proteins building the facettes, and of the vertex protein penton base (Pb) anchoring the protruding fibers. The fibers bind to the Coxsackie virus B Ad cell surface receptor (CAR) and Pb to integrins. Here we describe a novel property of the Ad2 Pb. Pb was found to leave the infected cell and, upon exit, it attached to the surrounding noninfected cells forming a radial gradient with highest Pb levels on cells adjacent to the infected cell. The producer cells remained intact until at least 30 h post infection. At this point, Pb was not recovered from the extracellular medium, suggesting that its cell-cell spread might not involve free Pb. When viral particles were released at late stages of infection, soluble Pb was found in the extracellular medium and it randomly bound to noninfected cells. Nonlytic export of Pb occurred upon transient transfection with plasmid DNA, but plasmid-encoded fiber was not exported, indicating that cell-cell spread of Pb is autonomous of infection. Pb export was not affected by Brefeldin A-induced disruption of the Golgi apparatus, suggesting that it occurred via a nonclassical mechanism. Interestingly, the coexpression of Pb and fiber leads to both Pb and fiber export, termed 'protein abduction'. We suggest that fiber abduction might support viral dissemination in infected tissues by interfering with tissue integrity. PMID:12753648

  6. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M.; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE2) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE2 (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; −48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE2 (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., −48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE2 administration. EE2 (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE2 (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE2 was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE2 alone or in combination with CIT. PMID:27153072

  7. Lys98 Substitution in Human AP Endonuclease 1 Affects the Kinetic Mechanism of Enzyme Action in Base Excision and Nucleotide Incision Repair Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Timofeyeva, Nadezhda A.; Koval, Vladimir V.; Ishchenko, Alexander A.; Saparbaev, Murat K.; Fedorova, Olga S.

    2011-01-01

    Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is a key enzyme in the base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide incision repair (NIR) pathways. We recently analyzed the conformational dynamics and kinetic mechanism of wild-type (wt) protein, in a stopped-flow fluorescence study. In this study, we investigated the mutant enzyme APE1K98A using the same approach. Lys98 was known to hydrogen bond to the carboxyl group of Asp70, a residue implicated in binding the divalent metal ion. Our data suggested that the conformational selection and induced fit occur during the enzyme action. We expanded upon the evidence that APE1 can pre-exist in two conformations. The isomerization of an enzyme-product complex in the BER process and the additional isomerization stage of enzyme-substrate complex in the NIR process were established for APE1K98A. These stages had not been registered for the wtAPE1. We found that the K98A substitution resulted in a 12-fold reduction of catalytic constant of 5′-phosphodiester bond hydrolysis in (3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methyl phosphate (F, tetrahydrofuran) containing substrate, and in 200-fold reduction in 5,6-dihydrouridine (DHU) containing substrate. Thus, the K98A substitution influenced NIR more than BER. We demonstrated that the K98A mutation influenced the formation of primary unspecific enzyme-substrate complex in a complicated manner, depending on the Mg2+ concentration and pH. This mutation obstructed the induced fit of enzyme in the complex with undamaged DNA and F-containing DNA and appreciably decreased the stability of primary complex upon interaction of enzyme with DNA, containing the natural apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site. Furthermore, it significantly delayed the activation of the less active form of enzyme during NIR and slowed down the conformational conversion of the complex of enzyme with the cleavage product of DHU-substrate. Our data revealed that APE1 uses the same active site to catalyze the cleavage of DHU- and

  8. Calreticulin Is a Receptor for Nuclear Export

    PubMed Central

    Holaska, James M.; Black, Ben E.; Love, Dona C.; Hanover, John A.; Leszyk, John; Paschal, Bryce M.

    2001-01-01

    In previous work, we used a permeabilized cell assay that reconstitutes nuclear export of protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) to show that cytosol contains an export activity that is distinct from Crm1 (Holaska, J.M., and B.M. Paschal. 1995. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 95: 14739–14744). Here, we describe the purification and characterization of the activity as calreticulin (CRT), a protein previously ascribed to functions in the lumen of the ER. We show that cells contain both ER and cytosolic pools of CRT. The mechanism of CRT-dependent export of PKI requires a functional nuclear export signal (NES) in PKI and involves formation of an export complex that contains RanGTP. Previous studies linking CRT to downregulation of steroid hormone receptor function led us to examine its potential role in nuclear export of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We found that CRT mediates nuclear export of GR in permeabilized cell, microinjection, and transfection assays. GR export is insensitive to the Crm1 inhibitor leptomycin B in vivo, and it does not rely on a leucine-rich NES. Rather, GR export is facilitated by its DNA-binding domain, which is shown to function as an NES when transplanted to a green fluorescent protein reporter. CRT defines a new export pathway that may regulate the transcriptional activity of steroid hormone receptors. PMID:11149926

  9. Calreticulin Is a receptor for nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Holaska, J M; Black, B E; Love, D C; Hanover, J A; Leszyk, J; Paschal, B M

    2001-01-01

    In previous work, we used a permeabilized cell assay that reconstitutes nuclear export of protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) to show that cytosol contains an export activity that is distinct from Crm1 (Holaska, J.M., and B.M. Paschal. 1995. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 95: 14739-14744). Here, we describe the purification and characterization of the activity as calreticulin (CRT), a protein previously ascribed to functions in the lumen of the ER. We show that cells contain both ER and cytosolic pools of CRT. The mechanism of CRT-dependent export of PKI requires a functional nuclear export signal (NES) in PKI and involves formation of an export complex that contains RanGTP. Previous studies linking CRT to downregulation of steroid hormone receptor function led us to examine its potential role in nuclear export of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We found that CRT mediates nuclear export of GR in permeabilized cell, microinjection, and transfection assays. GR export is insensitive to the Crm1 inhibitor leptomycin B in vivo, and it does not rely on a leucine-rich NES. Rather, GR export is facilitated by its DNA-binding domain, which is shown to function as an NES when transplanted to a green fluorescent protein reporter. CRT defines a new export pathway that may regulate the transcriptional activity of steroid hormone receptors. PMID:11149926

  10. Revegetation Plan for Areas of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve Affected by Decommissioning of Buildings and Infrastructure and Debris Clean-up Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, Janelle L.; Durham, Robin E.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office is working to remove a number of facilities on the Fitzner Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Decommissioning and removal of buildings and debris on ALE will leave bare soils and excavated areas that need to be revegetated to prevent erosion and weed invasion. Four main areas within ALE are affected by these activities (DOE 2009;DOE/EA-1660F): 1) facilities along the ridgeline of Rattlesnake Mountain, 2) the former Nike missile base and ALE HQ laboratory buildings, 3) the aquatic research laboratory at Rattlesnake Springs area, and 4) a number of small sites across ALE where various types of debris remain from previous uses. This revegetation plan addresses the revegetation and restoration of those land areas disturbed by decommissioning and removal of buildings, facilities and associated infrastructure or debris removal. The primary objective of the revegetation efforts on ALE is to establish native vegetation at each of the sites that will enhance and accelerate the recovery of the native plant community that naturally persists at that location. Revegetation is intended to meet the direction specified by the Environmental Assessment (DOE 2009; DOE/EA-1660F) and by Stipulation C.7 of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the Rattlesnake Mountain Combined Community Communication Facility and InfrastructureCleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland Washington(DOE 2009; Appendix B). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CPRC) and in consultation with the tribes and DOE-RL developed a site-specific strategy for each of the revegetation units identified within this document. The strategy and implementation approach for each revegetation unit identifies an appropriate native species mix and outlines the necessary site preparation activities

  11. Baseline study of US industry solar exports

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobius, T M; Levi, R S; Bereny, J A

    1980-10-01

    This study is a detailed aggregate profile of US solar export activity in 1979 based on a survey of all segments of the solar industry. It identifies the dollar volume of exports by technology: (1) solar heating and cooling products; (2) wind products; (3) photovoltaics; (4) solar thermal electric; (5) OTEC and biomass; and (6) support products and services. The study offers to government and industry groups, for the first time, comprehensive information with which to formulate export goals and assistance measures based on the current realities of the solar export marketplace. Specific and aggregate recommendations which can lead to identification of realistic solar export opportunities and development of solar export markets are included.

  12. Price and Income Elasticities of Iranian Exports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atrkar Roshan, Sedigheh

    This study investigates the export demand elasticities at the aggregate and disaggregated levels over the period 1977 to 2001 for Iran. By utilizing an export demand model and using time series techniques that account for the nonstationarity in the data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated by commodity class. As the elasticities of demand for various categories of exports are different, while they are crucial for policy determination. Based upon the estimated results, price and income elasticities are almost similar to those obtained in earlier studies in the case of developing countries. The main findings of this paper demonstrate that, price elasticities are smaller than -1 for all exports categories, whereas the income elasticities are found to be greater than one. The results also suggested, the income elasticities of industrial goods are higher compared to other export categories, while the lower elasticities are found in primary exports. The price and income elasticity estimates have also good statistical properties.

  13. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  14. The Plasmodium Export Element Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Hiss, Jan Alexander; Przyborski, Jude Marek; Schwarte, Florian; Lingelbach, Klaus; Schneider, Gisbert

    2008-01-01

    We performed a bioinformatical analysis of protein export elements (PEXEL) in the putative proteome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. A protein family-specific conservation of physicochemical residue profiles was found for PEXEL-flanking sequence regions. We demonstrate that the family members can be clustered based on the flanking regions only and display characteristic hydrophobicity patterns. This raises the possibility that the flanking regions may contain additional information for a family-specific role of PEXEL. We further show that signal peptide cleavage results in a positional alignment of PEXEL from both proteins with, and without, a signal peptide. PMID:18253504

  15. The Plasmodium export element revisited.

    PubMed

    Hiss, Jan Alexander; Przyborski, Jude Marek; Schwarte, Florian; Lingelbach, Klaus; Schneider, Gisbert

    2008-01-01

    We performed a bioinformatical analysis of protein export elements (PEXEL) in the putative proteome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. A protein family-specific conservation of physicochemical residue profiles was found for PEXEL-flanking sequence regions. We demonstrate that the family members can be clustered based on the flanking regions only and display characteristic hydrophobicity patterns. This raises the possibility that the flanking regions may contain additional information for a family-specific role of PEXEL. We further show that signal peptide cleavage results in a positional alignment of PEXEL from both proteins with, and without, a signal peptide. PMID:18253504

  16. Decreased activity and enhanced nuclear export of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein beta during inhibition of adipogenesis by ceramide.

    PubMed Central

    Sprott, Kam M; Chumley, Michael J; Hanson, Janean M; Dobrowsky, Rick T

    2002-01-01

    To identify novel molecular mechanisms by which ceramide regulates cell differentiation, we examined its effect on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Hormonal stimulation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes induced formation of triacylglycerol-laden adipocytes over 7 days; in part, via the co-ordinated action of CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins alpha, beta and delta (C/EBP-alpha, -beta and -delta) and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). The addition of exogenous N-acetylsphingosine (C2-ceramide) or increasing endogenous ceramide levels inhibited the expression of C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma, and blocked adipocyte development. C2-ceramide did not decrease the cellular expression of C/EBPbeta, which is required for expression of C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma, but significantly blocked its transcriptional activity from a promoter construct after 24 h. The ceramide-induced decrease in the transcriptional activity of C/EBPbeta correlated with a strong decrease in its phosphorylation, DNA-binding ability and nuclear localization at 24 h. However, ceramide did not change the nuclear level of C/EBPbeta after a period of 4 or 16 h, suggesting that it was not affecting nuclear import. CRM1 (more recently named 'exportin-1') is a nuclear membrane protein that regulates protein export from the nucleus by binding to a specific nuclear export sequence. Leptomycin B is an inhibitor of CRM1/exportin-1, and reversed the ceramide-induced decrease in nuclear C/EBPbeta at 24 h. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that ceramide may inhibit adipogenesis, at least in part, by enhancing dephosphorylation and premature nuclear export of C/EBPbeta at a time when its maximal transcriptional activity is required to drive adipogenesis. PMID:12071851

  17. In Vitro Comparison of Adipokine Export Signals.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Parisa; Kocaefe, Y Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cells are widely used for recombinant protein production in research and biotechnology. Utilization of export signals significantly facilitates production and purification processes. 35 years after the discovery of the mammalian export machinery, there still are obscurities regarding the efficiency of the export signals. The aim of this study was the comparative evaluation of the efficiency of selected export signals using adipocytes as a cell model. Adipocytes have a large capacity for protein secretion including several enzymes, adipokines, and other signaling molecules, providing a valid system for a quantitative evaluation. Constructs that expressed N-terminal fusion export signals were generated to express Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) as a reporter for quantitative and qualitative evaluation. Furthermore, fluorescent microscopy was used to trace the intracellular traffic of the reporter. The export efficiency of six selected proteins secreted from adipocytes was evaluated. Quantitative comparison of intracellular and exported fractions of the recombinant constructs demonstrated a similar efficiency among the studied sequences with minor variations. The export signal of Retinol Binding Protein (RBP4) exhibited the highest efficiency. This study presents the first quantitative data showing variations among export signals, in adipocytes which will help optimization of recombinant protein distribution. PMID:27064098

  18. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  19. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  20. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  1. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  2. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  3. Guide to exporting for US solar companies

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.

    1981-06-01

    Reasons for US solar manufacturers to export are discussed; and, after a descision has been made to export solar equipment and technology, how to export and where to export are primary goals. The manual presents some basic information to answer the how and where. It provides information concerning the services which are currently available to facilitate entry into foreign markets and the basic social, economic, and solar insolation data on over 70 foreign markets are presented. Statistical profile information for the 70 countries include population; per capita income; primary languages, literacy rate; ratio of urban and rural areas; monetary unit; population density; GNP; energy production; energy consumption; energy reserves; trade with US. (MCW)

  4. 78 FR 26765 - Application to Export Electric Energy; ALLETE, Inc., d/b/a Minnesota Power

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; ALLETE, Inc., d/b/a Minnesota Power AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: ALLETE, Inc., d/b/a Minnesota... foreign country are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 301(b) and 402(f)...

  5. 77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Dynasty Power, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Dynasty Power, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Dynasty Power, Inc. (Dynasty Power) has applied for... Federal Power Act (FPA). DATES: Comments, protests, or motions to intervene must be submitted on or...

  6. 76 FR 67430 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Tenaska Power Services Co.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Tenaska Power Services Co. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Tenaska Power Services Co. (Tenaska) has... section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA). DATES: Comments, protests, or motions to intervene must...

  7. 75 FR 6369 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Aquilon Power Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Aquilon Power Ltd. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Aquilon Power Ltd. (Aquilon Power) has applied for... Federal Power Act. DATES: Comments, protests, or requests to intervene must be submitted on or...

  8. 76 FR 11436 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Ontario Power Generation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Ontario Power Generation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) has... section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA). DATES: Comments, protests, or requests to intervene must...

  9. 76 FR 59656 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Import and Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification Systems AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and request for...

  10. 77 FR 56766 - Updated Statements of Legal Authority for the Export Administration Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... 746 of the EAR with respect to Syria is based in part on Executive Order 13338, 69 FR 26751, 3 CFR... Actions of the Government of Syria, 77 FR 27559 (May 10, 2012), which is the most recent such annual... August 15, 2012--Continuation of Emergency Regarding Export Control Regulations, 77 FR 49699 (August...

  11. 75 FR 75994 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Sempra Energy Trading LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application To Export Electric Energy; Sempra Energy Trading LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Sempra Energy Trading LLC (SET)...

  12. 77 FR 50486 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TexMex Energy, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application To Export Electric Energy; TexMex Energy, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: TexMex Energy, LLC (TexMex) has applied to renew...

  13. 78 FR 64207 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TEC Energy Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TEC Energy Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: TEC Energy Inc. (TEC) has applied for authority to... Act (16 U.S.C. 824a(e)). On September 13, 2013, DOE received an application from TEC for authority...

  14. 76 FR 58488 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) gives notice of receipt of an...

  15. 76 FR 19069 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Cargill Power Markets, LLC (CPM) has... directly with Eugene J. Becker, Vice President, Cargill Power Markets, LLC, 9350 Excelsior Blvd., MS...

  16. 78 FR 14778 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Shell Energy North...

  17. 78 FR 14779 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Shell Energy North...

  18. 75 FR 26202 - Application To Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application To Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: EDF Trading North America,...

  19. 75 FR 57911 - Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: EDF Trading North America,...

  20. 78 FR 15800 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration ACTION: Notice of... menardmm@state.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Importer's.... Abstract of proposed collection: The Form DS-2031 is necessary to document imports of shrimp pursuant...

  1. 76 FR 11437 - Application To Export Electric Energy; SESCO Enterprises Canada, LTD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; SESCO Enterprises Canada, LTD AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: SESCO Enterprises Canada, LTD... Michael Schbiger, CEO, SESCO Enterprises Canada, Ltd., 2 Tower Center, Suite 1202, East Brunswick,...

  2. 77 FR 74472 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Energia Renovable S.C., LLC (Energia... 402(f) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7151(b), 7172(f)) and...

  3. 75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA... utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The...

  4. 77 FR 11515 - Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ] ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has... would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities and Federal power marketing agencies...

  5. 75 FR 80482 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd... electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States....

  6. 75 FR 75994 - Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  7. 75 FR 78979 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Twin Rivers Paper Company Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Twin Rivers Paper Company Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Twin Rivers Paper Company Inc... line, operated at 69-kV, connect the integrated pulp and paper operations owned by Twin Rivers and...

  8. 76 FR 50476 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Glacial Energy of Texas, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application To Export Electric Energy; Glacial Energy of Texas, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Glacial Energy of Texas,...

  9. 75 FR 76962 - Application To Export Electric Energy; MAG Energy Solutions, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application To Export Electric Energy; MAG Energy Solutions, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: MAG Energy Solutions, Inc. (MAG...

  10. 76 FR 3882 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Intercom Energy, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application To Export Electric Energy; Intercom Energy, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Intercom Energy, Inc. (Intercom) has applied...

  11. 77 FR 20805 - Application to Export Electric Energy; PPL EnergyPlus, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application to Export Electric Energy; PPL EnergyPlus, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: PPL EnergyPlus, LLC. (PPL EnergyPlus) has applied...

  12. 77 FR 1474 - Application To Export Electric Energy; AEP Energy Partners, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application To Export Electric Energy; AEP Energy Partners, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: AEP Energy Partners, Inc. (AEPEP)...

  13. 77 FR 20375 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation (Rainbow) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States...

  14. 75 FR 57912 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation (Rainbow) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

  15. 9 CFR 91.14 - Ports of embarkation and export inspection facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... citations affecting § 91.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ports of embarkation and export inspection facilities. 91.14 Section 91.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  16. 7 CFR 1493.80 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exported and the basis (e.g., FOB, CFR, CIF). Where the unit sales price at export differs from the unit... programs: Export Enhancement Program, Dairy Export Incentive Program, Sunflowerseed Oil Assistance Program, or Cottonseed Oil Assistance Program. (10) The exporter's statement, “All § 1493.90...

  17. 7 CFR 1493.80 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exported and the basis (e.g., FOB, CFR, CIF). Where the unit sales price at export differs from the unit... programs: Export Enhancement Program, Dairy Export Incentive Program, Sunflowerseed Oil Assistance Program, or Cottonseed Oil Assistance Program. (10) The exporter's statement, “All § 1493.90...

  18. 7 CFR 1493.80 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exported and the basis (e.g., FOB, CFR, CIF). Where the unit sales price at export differs from the unit... programs: Export Enhancement Program, Dairy Export Incentive Program, Sunflowerseed Oil Assistance Program, or Cottonseed Oil Assistance Program. (10) The exporter's statement, “All § 1493.90...

  19. 7 CFR 1493.80 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exported and the basis (e.g., FOB, CFR, CIF). Where the unit sales price at export differs from the unit... programs: Export Enhancement Program, Dairy Export Incentive Program, Sunflowerseed Oil Assistance Program, or Cottonseed Oil Assistance Program. (10) The exporter's statement, “All § 1493.90...

  20. 21 CFR 1313.22 - Contents of export declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contents of export declaration. 1313.22 Section... EXPORTATION OF LIST I AND LIST II CHEMICALS Exportation of Listed Chemicals § 1313.22 Contents of export... quantitative threshold criteria established in § 1310.04(f) of this chapter may be exported if that chemical...

  1. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1488.9 Section 1488.9 Agriculture... Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Documents Required for Financing § 1488.9 Evidence of export. (a) If the commodity is exported by rail...

  2. 50 CFR 14.63 - Export declaration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Export declaration requirements. 14.63... PLANTS IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Wildlife Declarations § 14.63 Export... exporter's agent, shall be filed with the Service prior to the export of any wildlife at the port...

  3. 21 CFR 1312.23 - Issuance of export permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of export permit. 1312.23 Section 1312.23... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.23 Issuance of export permit. (a) The... regulation in § 1312.30 of this part be exported only pursuant to the issuance of an export permit....

  4. 19 CFR 191.73 - Export summary procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export summary procedure. 191.73 Section 191.73... TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Exportation and Destruction § 191.73 Export summary procedure. (a) General. The export summary procedure consists of a Chronological Summary of Exports used to support a...

  5. 77 FR 37385 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Export Trade Certificate of Review Colombia Poultry Export Quota, Inc. (COLOM-PEQ). SUMMARY: The Office... application follows. Summary of the Application Applicant: Colombia Poultry Export Quota, Inc., c/o DTB... Poultry Export Quota, Inc. (hereinafter, ``COLOM-PEQ'') was formed by USA Poultry and Egg Export...

  6. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price). 351.414 Section 351.414 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed...

  7. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price). 351.414 Section 351.414 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed...

  8. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price). 351.414 Section 351.414 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed...

  9. 15 CFR 30.3 - Electronic Export Information filer requirements, parties to export transactions, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic Export Information filer requirements, parties to export transactions, and responsibilities of parties to export transactions. 30.3 Section 30.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  10. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  11. A decrease in discharge-normalized DOC export by the Yukon River during summer through autumn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, R.G.; Aiken, G.R.; Dornblaser, M.M.; Raymond, P.A.; Wickland, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    Climate warming is having a dramatic effect on the vegetation distribution and carbon cycling of terrestrial subarctic and arctic ecosystems. Here, we present hydrologic evidence that warming is also affecting the export of dissolved organic carbon and bicarbonate (DOC and HCO3-) at the large basin scale. In the 831,400 km2 Yukon River basin, water discharge (Q) corrected DOC export significantly decreased during the growing season from 1978-80 to 2001-03, indicating a major shift in terrestrial to aquatic C transfer. We conclude that decreased DOC export, relative to total summer through autumn Q, results from increased flow path, residence time, and microbial mineralization of DOC in the soil active layer and groundwater. Counter to current predictions, we argue that continued warming could result in decreased DOC export to the Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean by major subarctic and arctic rivers, due to increased respiration of organic C on land. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Intentional Action and Action Slips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Heinz; Beckmann, Jurgen

    1990-01-01

    An explanation of action slips is offered that examines controlled actions in the context of an intentional behavior theory. Actions are considered guided by mentally represented intentions, subdivided into goal intentions and contingent instrumental intentions. Action slips are categorized according to problem areas in the enactment of goal…

  13. Variability in under-ice export fluxes of biogenic matter in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalande, Catherine; Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Somavilla, Raquel; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Okolodkov, Yuri

    2014-05-01

    A critical question regarding the organic carbon cycle in the Arctic Ocean is whether the decline in ice extent and thickness and the associated increase in solar irradiance in the upper ocean will result in increased primary production and particulate organic carbon (POC) export. To assess spatial and temporal variability in POC export, under-ice export fluxes were measured with short-term sediment traps in the northern Laptev Sea in July-August-September 1995, north of the Fram Strait in July 1997, and in the Central Arctic in August-September 2012. Sediment traps were deployed at 2-5 m and 20-25 m under ice for periods ranging from 8.5 to 71 h. In addition to POC fluxes, total particulate matter, chlorophyll a, biogenic particulate silica, phytoplankton, and zooplankton fecal pellet fluxes were measured to evaluate the amount and composition of the material exported in the upper Arctic Ocean. Whereas elevated export fluxes observed on and near the Laptev Sea shelf were likely the combined result of high primary production, resuspension, and release of particulate matter from melting ice, low export fluxes above the central basins despite increased light availability during the record minimum ice extent of 2012 suggest that POC export was limited by nutrient supply during summer. These results suggest that the ongoing decline in ice cover affects export fluxes differently on Arctic shelves and over the deep Arctic Ocean and that POC export is likely to remain low above the central basins unless additional nutrients are supplied to surface waters.

  14. 9 CFR 352.16 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.16 Exports. This shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR 322.1 through 322.5. ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exports. 352.16 Section 352.16...

  15. 14 CFR 1274.942 - Export licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... appropriate licenses or other approvals, if required, for exports of hardware, technical data, and software... International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120 through 130, and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), 15 CFR parts 730 through 799, in the performance of this Cooperative Agreement. In...

  16. 19 CFR 18.25 - Direct exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... declaration as required by § 30.3(a)(2) of the Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (15 CFR 30.3(a)(2)) shall... chapter). (e) The principal on any bond filed to guarantee direct exportation shall cause the merchandise... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Direct exportation. 18.25 Section 18.25...

  17. 19 CFR 18.25 - Direct exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... declaration as required by § 30.3(a)(2) of the Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (15 CFR 30.3(a)(2)) shall... chapter). (e) The principal on any bond filed to guarantee direct exportation shall cause the merchandise... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Direct exportation. 18.25 Section 18.25...

  18. 19 CFR 18.42 - Direct exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Census (15 CFR part 30) and the Office of Export Control (15 CFR part 386). The port director... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Direct exportation. 18.42 Section 18.42 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control...

  19. 19 CFR 18.42 - Direct exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Census (15 CFR part 30) and the Office of Export Control (15 CFR part 386). The port director... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Direct exportation. 18.42 Section 18.42 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control...

  20. 19 CFR 18.42 - Direct exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Census (15 CFR part 30) and the Office of Export Control (15 CFR part 386). The port director... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct exportation. 18.42 Section 18.42 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control...

  1. 19 CFR 18.25 - Direct exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... declaration as required by § 30.3(a)(2) of the Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (15 CFR 30.3(a)(2)) shall... chapter). (e) The principal on any bond filed to guarantee direct exportation shall cause the merchandise... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct exportation. 18.25 Section 18.25...

  2. 19 CFR 18.25 - Direct exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... declaration as required by § 30.3(a)(2) of the Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (15 CFR 30.3(a)(2)) shall... chapter). (e) The principal on any bond filed to guarantee direct exportation shall cause the merchandise... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Direct exportation. 18.25 Section 18.25...

  3. 19 CFR 18.25 - Direct exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... declaration as required by § 30.3(a)(2) of the Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (15 CFR 30.3(a)(2)) shall... chapter). (e) The principal on any bond filed to guarantee direct exportation shall cause the merchandise... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Direct exportation. 18.25 Section 18.25...

  4. 19 CFR 18.42 - Direct exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Census (15 CFR part 30) and the Office of Export Control (15 CFR part 386). The port director... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Direct exportation. 18.42 Section 18.42 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control...

  5. 19 CFR 18.42 - Direct exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Census (15 CFR part 30) and the Office of Export Control (15 CFR part 386). The port director... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Direct exportation. 18.42 Section 18.42 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control...

  6. 40 CFR 211.208 - Export provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Export provisions. 211.208 Section 211.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.208 Export provisions. (a) The outside of...

  7. 40 CFR 211.208 - Export provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Export provisions. 211.208 Section 211.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.208 Export provisions. (a) The outside of...

  8. 40 CFR 211.208 - Export provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Export provisions. 211.208 Section 211.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.208 Export provisions. (a) The outside of...

  9. 40 CFR 211.208 - Export provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Export provisions. 211.208 Section 211.208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.208 Export provisions. (a) The outside of...

  10. 77 FR 37823 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ...) Commodity. Wheat and wheat flour, feed grains, oilseeds, cotton, rice, cattle hides and skins, beef, pork...), the Export Sales Reporting Requirements mandate that exporters of wheat and wheat flour, feed grains..., rice (by class), cattle hides and skins (cattle, calf, and kip), wet blues (grain, unsplit, and...

  11. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  12. 19 CFR 18.43 - Indirect exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... loading, sealing or labeling, and affixing of TIR plates. He shall remove one voucher from the carnet... container or road vehicle to the port of actual exportation. (c) At the port of actual exportation, the carnet and the container (or heavy or bulky goods) or road vehicle shall be presented to the...

  13. 27 CFR 4.80 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 4.80 Section 4.80 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE General Provisions § 4.80 Exports. The regulations...

  14. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or cases of wine at the time they...

  15. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  16. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or cases of wine at the time they...

  17. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  18. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or cases of wine at the time they...

  19. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or cases of wine at the time they...

  20. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  1. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  2. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side...

  3. 10 CFR 430.65 - Exported products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Certification and... covered product if (a) such covered product is manufactured, sold, or held for sale for export from the United States (or such product was imported for export), unless such product is, in fact, distributed...

  4. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  5. 26 CFR 52.4682-5 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 82). (ii) The aggregate tax that would (but... term 1989 export percentage. (d) Procedural requirements relating to tax-free sales for export—(1... PURCHASER OF CHEMICALS FOR EXPORT BY THE PURCHASER (To support tax-free sales under section 4682(d)(3)...

  6. 15 CFR 2015.3 - Export certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export certificates. 2015.3 Section... Export certificates. (a) To claim the in-quota rate of duty on sugar-containing products of a..., in the form and manner determined by the United States Customs Service, that a valid...

  7. 7 CFR 958.14 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 958.14 Section 958.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.14 Export....

  8. 15 CFR 752.15 - Export clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with requirements of the Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (15 CFR part 30) and § 758.1 of the... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export clearance. 752.15 Section 752... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...

  9. 7 CFR 945.14 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 945.14 Section 945.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.14 Export....

  10. 40 CFR 273.20 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to those OECD countries specified in 40 CFR 262.58(a)(1) (in which case the handler is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR part 262, subpart H) must: (a) Comply with the requirements applicable to a primary exporter in 40 CFR 262.53, 262.56(a) (1) through (4), (6), and (b) and 262.57; (b) Export such...

  11. 40 CFR 273.40 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to those OECD countries specified in 40 CFR 262.58(a)(1) (in which case the handler is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR part 262, subpart H) must: (a) Comply with the requirements applicable to a primary exporter in 40 CFR 262.53, 262.56(a)(1) through (4), (6), and (b) and 262.57; (b) Export such...

  12. 7 CFR 945.14 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Export. 945.14 Section 945.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.14 Export....

  13. 7 CFR 958.14 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Export. 958.14 Section 958.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.14 Export....

  14. 75 FR 69573 - Export Enforcement Coordination Center

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... of U.S. export control laws, and must share intelligence and law enforcement information related to... United States through strengthened and coordinated enforcement of United States export control laws and enhanced intelligence exchange in support of such enforcement efforts, it is hereby ordered as...

  15. 15 CFR 2012.3 - Export certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Export certificates. 2012.3 Section 2012.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS FOR BEEF § 2012.3 Export...

  16. 15 CFR 2012.3 - Export certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Export certificates. 2012.3 Section 2012.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS FOR BEEF § 2012.3 Export...

  17. 15 CFR 2012.3 - Export certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Export certificates. 2012.3 Section 2012.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS FOR BEEF § 2012.3 Export...

  18. 15 CFR 2012.3 - Export certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export certificates. 2012.3 Section 2012.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS FOR BEEF § 2012.3 Export...

  19. 15 CFR 2012.3 - Export certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Export certificates. 2012.3 Section 2012.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS FOR BEEF § 2012.3 Export...

  20. 7 CFR 1493.220 - Exporter eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exporter eligibility. 1493.220 Section 1493.220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS...

  1. 7 CFR 1493.220 - Exporter eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exporter eligibility. 1493.220 Section 1493.220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS...

  2. 10 CFR 431.405 - Exported equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exported equipment. 431.405 Section 431.405 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.405 Exported equipment. Under Sections 330 and 345 of the Act, this...

  3. 10 CFR 431.405 - Exported equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exported equipment. 431.405 Section 431.405 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.405 Exported equipment. Under Sections 330 and 345 of the Act, this...

  4. 77 FR 34342 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 50661 (August 16, 2011)), has continued the Regulations in effect under the International... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Zhen Zhou Wu, a/k/a... violation of the [Export Administration Act (``EAA'')], the EAR, or any order, license or...

  5. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123 Section 28.123 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In...

  6. 10 CFR 430.65 - Exported products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exported products. 430.65 Section 430.65 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Certification and Enforcement § 430.65 Exported products. Pursuant to section 330 of the Act, this part shall not apply to...

  7. 19 CFR 191.73 - Export summary procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... claimant Unique export identifier 1 Description Net quantity Sched. B com. # or HTSUS # Destination (1) (2... Chronological Summary of Exports to the appropriate documentary evidence of exportation (for example, Bill...

  8. 7 CFR 1488.21 - Exporter's records and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES Financing of Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Miscellaneous Provisions § 1488.21 Exporter's records and accounts. CCC shall...

  9. 7 CFR 1488.21 - Exporter's records and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES Financing of Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Miscellaneous Provisions § 1488.21 Exporter's records and accounts. CCC shall...

  10. Legislative Actions Affecting Higher Education, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Council for Postsecondary Education, Olympia.

    Summaries of bills pertaining to higher education from the Washington State Senate and House of Representatives are presented. The legislation covers the following: library services to Indian tribes; acquisition of surplus EXPO facilities; creation of the Vocational Education Commission; renaming of the Council for Postsecondary Education;…

  11. Embodied Communication: Speakers' Gestures Affect Listeners' Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Susan Wagner; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    We explored how speakers and listeners use hand gestures as a source of perceptual-motor information during naturalistic communication. After solving the Tower of Hanoi task either with real objects or on a computer, speakers explained the task to listeners. Speakers' hand gestures, but not their speech, reflected properties of the particular…

  12. 15 CFR 752.9 - Action on SCL applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Action on SCL applications. 752.9 Section 752.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SPECIAL COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.9 Action on...

  13. 27 CFR 28.304 - Action on claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Action on claim. 28.304 Section 28.304 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Distilled Spirits § 28.304 Action on claim. The appropriate TTB officer will allow...

  14. 27 CFR 28.304 - Action on claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Action on claim. 28.304 Section 28.304 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Distilled Spirits § 28.304 Action on claim. The appropriate TTB officer will allow...

  15. 75 FR 25206 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... management; export licensing; advertising; documentation and services related to compliance with customs... Register identifying the applicant and summarizing its proposed export conduct. Request for Public...

  16. How can we reduce phosphorus export from lowland polders? Implications from a sensitivity analysis of a coupled model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiacong; Gao, Junfeng; Yan, Renhua

    2016-08-15

    Phosphorus (P) export from lowland polders has caused severe water pollution. Numerical models are an important resource that help water managers control P export. This study coupled three models, i.e., Phosphorus Dynamic model for Polders (PDP), Integrated Catchments model of Phosphorus dynamics (INCA-P) and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), to describe the P dynamics in polders. Based on the coupled models and a dataset collected from Polder Jian in China, sensitivity analysis were carried out to analyze the cause-effect relationships between environmental factors and P export from Polder Jian. The sensitivity analysis results showed that P export from Polder Jian were strongly affected by air temperature, precipitation and fertilization. Proper fertilization management should be a strategic priority for reducing P export from Polder Jian. This study demonstrated the success of model coupling, and its application in investigating potential strategies to support pollution control in polder systems. PMID:27148646

  17. An analysis of the relationship between staff qualification and export readiness of pharmaceutical companies: the case of iran.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Export and the readiness to export constitute the first step of international marketing, which are affected by both internal and external factors of firms. One of the most important internal factors is the presence of skilled personnel. The purpose of this study was to define the relationship between staff qualification and encouragment with the readiness level of Iranian pharmacuetical firms for engagement in export marketing. The research was based on a single case study on a basket of seven leading domestic firms. For the bias reduction, questionnaires as well as interviews with managers were used. The performance of the studied factor was lower than the desired level for export readiness and there was much scope for improvement in staff qualifications to achieve such readiness. The results of this research enable small and medium-sized pharmaceutical companies to evaluate their staff qualification levels needed for export readiness and to detect their shortcomings in order to improve them. PMID:24250528

  18. An Analysis of the Relationship Between Staff Qualification and Export Readiness of Pharmaceutical Companies: The Case of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Export and the readiness to export constitute the first step of international marketing, which are affected by both internal and external factors of firms. One of the most important internal factors is the presence of skilled personnel. The purpose of this study was to define the relationship between staff qualification and encouragment with the readiness level of Iranian pharmacuetical firms for engagement in export marketing. The research was based on a single case study on a basket of seven leading domestic firms. For the bias reduction, questionnaires as well as interviews with managers were used. The performance of the studied factor was lower than the desired level for export readiness and there was much scope for improvement in staff qualifications to achieve such readiness. The results of this research enable small and medium-sized pharmaceutical companies to evaluate their staff qualification levels needed for export readiness and to detect their shortcomings in order to improve them. PMID:24250528

  19. Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Jesse; Allen, Rodney F.

    This booklet, a general guide to citizen eco-action, discusses a plan of action on community environmental problems. It offers factors to be considered in any community eco-action situation, but it is not a rigid set of rules. An overview identifies seven key ideas of environmental issues, including the universal participation of all humans in the…

  20. THOC2 Mutations Implicate mRNA-Export Pathway in X-Linked Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raman; Corbett, Mark A.; van Bon, Bregje W.M.; Woenig, Joshua A.; Weir, Lloyd; Douglas, Evelyn; Friend, Kathryn L.; Gardner, Alison; Shaw, Marie; Jolly, Lachlan A.; Tan, Chuan; Hunter, Matthew F.; Hackett, Anna; Field, Michael; Palmer, Elizabeth E.; Leffler, Melanie; Rogers, Carolyn; Boyle, Jackie; Bienek, Melanie; Jensen, Corinna; Van Buggenhout, Griet; Van Esch, Hilde; Hoffmann, Katrin; Raynaud, Martine; Zhao, Huiying; Reed, Robin; Hu, Hao; Haas, Stefan A.; Haan, Eric; Kalscheuer, Vera M.; Gecz, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Export of mRNA from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm is essential for protein synthesis, a process vital to all living eukaryotic cells. mRNA export is highly conserved and ubiquitous. Mutations affecting mRNA and mRNA processing or export factors, which cause aberrant retention of mRNAs in the nucleus, are thus emerging as contributors to an important class of human genetic disorders. Here, we report that variants in THOC2, which encodes a subunit of the highly conserved TREX mRNA-export complex, cause syndromic intellectual disability (ID). Affected individuals presented with variable degrees of ID and commonly observed features included speech delay, elevated BMI, short stature, seizure disorders, gait disturbance, and tremors. X chromosome exome sequencing revealed four missense variants in THOC2 in four families, including family MRX12, first ascertained in 1971. We show that two variants lead to decreased stability of THOC2 and its TREX-complex partners in cells derived from the affected individuals. Protein structural modeling showed that the altered amino acids are located in the RNA-binding domains of two complex THOC2 structures, potentially representing two different intermediate RNA-binding states of THOC2 during RNA transport. Our results show that disturbance of the canonical molecular pathway of mRNA export is compatible with life but results in altered neuronal development with other comorbidities. PMID:26166480

  1. Uncovering common principles in protein export of malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Grüring, Christof; Heiber, Arlett; Kruse, Florian; Flemming, Sven; Franci, Gianluigi; Colombo, Sara F; Fasana, Elisa; Schoeler, Hanno; Borgese, Nica; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Przyborski, Jude M; Gilberger, Tim-Wolf; Spielmann, Tobias

    2012-11-15

    For proliferation, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum needs to modify the infected host cell extensively. To achieve this, the parasite exports proteins containing a Plasmodium export element (PEXEL) into the host cell. Phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate binding and cleavage of the PEXEL are thought to mediate protein export. We show that these requirements can be bypassed, exposing a second level of export control in the N terminus generated after PEXEL cleavage that is sufficient to distinguish exported from nonexported proteins. Furthermore, this region also corresponds to the export domain of a second group of exported proteins lacking PEXELs (PNEPs), indicating shared export properties among different exported parasite proteins. Concordantly, export of both PNEPs and PEXEL proteins depends on unfolding, revealing translocation as a common step in export. However, translocation of transmembrane proteins occurs at the parasite plasma membrane, one step before translocation of soluble proteins, indicating unexpectedly complex translocation events at the parasite periphery. PMID:23159060

  2. Photovoltaic systems for export application. Informal report

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, J.; Campbell, H.; Sajo, A.; Sanz, E.

    1988-01-31

    One approach to improving the competitiveness of photovoltaic systems is the development of designs specifically for export applications. In other words, where is it appropriate in a system design to incorporate components manufactured and/or assembled in the receiving country in order to improve the photovoltaic exports from the US? What appears to be needed is a systematic method of evaluating the potential for export from the US of PV systems for various application in different countries. Development of such a method was the goal of this project.

  3. Export dynamics as an optimal growth problem in the network of global economy.

    PubMed

    Caraglio, Michele; Baldovin, Fulvio; Stella, Attilio L

    2016-01-01

    We analyze export data aggregated at world global level of 219 classes of products over a period of 39 years. Our main goal is to set up a dynamical model to identify and quantify plausible mechanisms by which the evolutions of the various exports affect each other. This is pursued through a stochastic differential description, partly inspired by approaches used in population dynamics or directed polymers in random media. We outline a complex network of transfer rates which describes how resources are shifted between different product classes, and determines how casual favorable conditions for one export can spread to the other ones. A calibration procedure allows to fit four free model-parameters such that the dynamical evolution becomes consistent with the average growth, the fluctuations, and the ranking of the export values observed in real data. Growth crucially depends on the balance between maintaining and shifting resources to different exports, like in an explore-exploit problem. Remarkably, the calibrated parameters warrant a close-to-maximum growth rate under the transient conditions realized in the period covered by data, implying an optimal self organization of the global export. According to the model, major structural changes in the global economy take tens of years. PMID:27530505

  4. Inspection report: the Department of Energy's export licensing process for dual-use and munitions commodities

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Gregory H.

    1999-05-01

    Export of commodities, encouraged by both the private sector and the Federal Government, helps to improve our position in the global economy and is in the national interest of the US. However, exports of commodities or technologies, without regard to whether they may significantly contribute to the military potential of individual countries or combination of countries or enhance the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, may adversely affect the national security of the US. The Federal Government, therefore, implements several laws, Executive Orders, and regulations to control the export of certain commodities and technologies. These commodities and technologies require a license for export. Some of the controlled items are designated as ''dual-use,'' that is, commodities and technologies that have both civilian and military application. Some dual-use commodities are designated as ''nuclear dual-use''--items controlled for nuclear nonproliferation purposes. Another group of controlled commodities is designated as munitions, which are goods and technologies that have solely military uses. The Department of Energy (Energy) conducts reviews of export license applications for nuclear dual-use items and certain munitions. On August 26, 1998, the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs requested that the Inspectors General from the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, State, and Treasury, and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), update and expand on a 1993 interagency review conducted by the Inspectors General of the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State of the export licensing processes for dual-use and munitions commodities.

  5. Export dynamics as an optimal growth problem in the network of global economy

    PubMed Central

    Caraglio, Michele; Baldovin, Fulvio; Stella, Attilio L.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze export data aggregated at world global level of 219 classes of products over a period of 39 years. Our main goal is to set up a dynamical model to identify and quantify plausible mechanisms by which the evolutions of the various exports affect each other. This is pursued through a stochastic differential description, partly inspired by approaches used in population dynamics or directed polymers in random media. We outline a complex network of transfer rates which describes how resources are shifted between different product classes, and determines how casual favorable conditions for one export can spread to the other ones. A calibration procedure allows to fit four free model-parameters such that the dynamical evolution becomes consistent with the average growth, the fluctuations, and the ranking of the export values observed in real data. Growth crucially depends on the balance between maintaining and shifting resources to different exports, like in an explore-exploit problem. Remarkably, the calibrated parameters warrant a close-to-maximum growth rate under the transient conditions realized in the period covered by data, implying an optimal self organization of the global export. According to the model, major structural changes in the global economy take tens of years. PMID:27530505

  6. Piperlongumine is a novel nuclear export inhibitor with potent anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Niu, Mingshan; Xu, Xiaoyu; Shen, Yangling; Yao, Yao; Qiao, Jianlin; Zhu, Feng; Zeng, Lingyu; Liu, Xuejiao; Xu, Kailin

    2015-07-25

    Piperlongumine is a natural compound recently identified to be toxic selectively to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its anti-tumor action still remains unclear. In this report, we describe another novel mechanism by which piperlongumine mediates its anti-tumor effects. We found that piperlongumine is a novel nuclear export inhibitor. Piperlongumine could induce nuclear retention of tumor suppressor proteins and inhibit the interactions between CRM1 and these proteins. Piperlongumine could directly bind to the conserved Cys528 of CRM1 but not to a Cys528 mutant peptide. More importantly, cancer cells expressing mutant CRM1 (C528S) are resistant to piperlongumine, demonstrating the nuclear export inhibition via direct interaction with Cys528 of CRM1. The inhibition of nuclear export by piperlongumine may account for its therapeutic properties in cancer diseases. Our findings provide a good starting point for development of novel CRM1 inhibitors. PMID:26026911

  7. Effect of Increased Levels of Liquefied Natural Gas Exports on U.S. Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    This report responds to a May 29, 2014 request from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) for an update of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) January 2012 study of liquefied natural gas (LNG) export scenarios. This updated study, like the prior one, is intended to serve as an input to be considered in the evaluation of applications to export LNG from the United States under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act, which requires DOE to grant a permit to export domestically produced natural gas unless it finds that such action is not consistent with the public interest. Appendix A provides a copy of the DOE/FE request letter.

  8. Study of the export potential of the Bolivian Power Sector. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This study, conducted by Black & Veatch International, was conducted by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a review of export potential and to assess the ability of the Bolivian power sector to provide these exports economically and with financially viable projects. The study includes technical, economic, and financial analyses of export power stations alternatives. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) The Bolivian Power Sector; (3) Market Assessment for Brazil; (4) Market Assessment for Argentina; (5) Market Assessment for Export; (6) Market Assessment for Peru; (7) Project Selection; (8) Transmission Plans for Power Export; (9) Delivered Natural Gas Costs; (10) Power Plant Characteristics; (11) Economic Screening of Export Power Station Options; (12) Project Financing; (13) Conclusions and Recommendations.

  9. Marine Pharmacology in 2009–2011: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2009 to 2011 is presented in this review, following the format used in the 1998–2008 reviews of this series. The pharmacology of structurally-characterized compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral pharmacological activities were reported for 102 marine natural products. Additionally, 60 marine compounds were observed to affect the immune and nervous system as well as possess antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 68 marine metabolites were shown to interact with a variety of receptors and molecular targets, and thus will probably contribute to multiple pharmacological classes upon further mechanism of action studies. Marine pharmacology during 2009–2011 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 35 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 262 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical pharmaceutical pipeline. Continued pharmacological research with marine natural products will contribute to enhance the marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which in 2013 consisted of 17 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories. PMID:23880931

  10. Agricultural chemical export dynamics in a watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-06-01

    chemicals filter through a catchment is important for managing water quality. Using a concept of the catchment as a physicochemical filter, Guan et al. examined nitrate, phosphate, and atrazine loads in the Little Vermillion River watershed, a tile-drained watershed in Illinois. They analyzed a 10-year data set using mathematical signal processing to investigate spatial and temporal patterns in chemical concentrations and discharge rate. They found that export of these chemicals had a linear relationship with streamflow at annual scales—the higher the streamflow, the more these chemicals were exported from the watershed. The researchers' approach helps identify the roles of different hydrological flow paths in controlling chemical export at different spatial and temporal scales and reveals that chemical inputs overwhelm normal biogeochemical processing in these agricultural systems, leading to high long-term average rates of export. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/ 2010WR009997, 2011)

  11. 78 FR 37520 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... recent being that of August 15, 2012 (77 FR 49699 (August 16, 2012)), has continued the Regulations in... to be exported from the United States to Mexico two AK47 semi-automatic rifles which were...

  12. 78 FR 61953 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-08

    ... being that of August 8, 2013 (78 FR 49107 (August 12, 2013)), has continued the Regulations in effect... engaging in transactions relating to exporting amplifiers to China and India without obtaining the...

  13. 9 CFR 352.16 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.16 Exports. This shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR 322.1 through 322.5....

  14. 78 FR 54238 - President's Export Council; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration President's Export Council; Meeting AGENCY: International Trade... minimis reform; intellectual property protections in the Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement; expansion...

  15. Molecular biology Mediating transcription and RNA export

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Jonathan D.; Taatjes, Dylan J.

    2016-01-01

    The finding that the Mediator protein complex contributes to messenger RNA export from the nucleus in yeast adds to a growing list of roles for the complex in regulating transcriptional processes. PMID:26450052

  16. 7 CFR 1212.5 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... person who exports honey or honey products from the United States....

  17. 7 CFR 1212.5 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... person who exports honey or honey products from the United States....

  18. 7 CFR 1212.5 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... person who exports honey or honey products from the United States....

  19. 7 CFR 1212.5 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... person who exports honey or honey products from the United States....

  20. 7 CFR 1212.5 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... person who exports honey or honey products from the United States....

  1. 9 CFR 352.16 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.16 Exports. This shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR 322.1 through 322.5....

  2. 9 CFR 352.16 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION EXOTIC ANIMALS AND HORSES; VOLUNTARY INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.16 Exports. This shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR 322.1 through 322.5....

  3. Optogenetic control of nuclear protein export

    PubMed Central

    Niopek, Dominik; Wehler, Pierre; Roensch, Julia; Eils, Roland; Di Ventura, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Active nucleocytoplasmic transport is a key mechanism underlying protein regulation in eukaryotes. While nuclear protein import can be controlled in space and time with a portfolio of optogenetic tools, protein export has not been tackled so far. Here we present a light-inducible nuclear export system (LEXY) based on a single, genetically encoded tag, which enables precise spatiotemporal control over the export of tagged proteins. A constitutively nuclear, chromatin-anchored LEXY variant expands the method towards light inhibition of endogenous protein export by sequestering cellular CRM1 receptors. We showcase the utility of LEXY for cell biology applications by regulating a synthetic repressor as well as human p53 transcriptional activity with light. LEXY is a powerful addition to the optogenetic toolbox, allowing various novel applications in synthetic and cell biology. PMID:26853913

  4. 10 CFR 110.42 - Export licensing criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export licensing criteria. 110.42 Section 110.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Review of License Applications § 110.42 Export licensing criteria. (a) The review of license applications for export for peaceful nuclear uses of...

  5. 10 CFR 110.42 - Export licensing criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Export licensing criteria. 110.42 Section 110.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Review of License Applications § 110.42 Export licensing criteria. (a) The review of license applications for export for peaceful nuclear uses of...

  6. 19 CFR 19.38 - Supervision of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cigarettes and cigars from ATF export bonded warehouses (see 27 CFR part 290) in conjunction with exportation... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervision of exportation. 19.38 Section 19.38... Supervision of exportation. (a) Sales ticket withdrawals. Conditionally duty-free merchandise withdrawn...

  7. 19 CFR 191.73 - Export summary procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export summary procedure. 191.73 Section 191.73 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Exportation and Destruction § 191.73 Export summary procedure. (a) General. The export summary procedure consists of...

  8. 19 CFR 191.73 - Export summary procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export summary procedure. 191.73 Section 191.73 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Exportation and Destruction § 191.73 Export summary procedure. (a) General. The export summary procedure consists of...

  9. 21 CFR 1313.26 - Transfers following exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transfers following exportation. 1313.26 Section 1313.26 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF LIST I AND LIST II CHEMICALS Exportation of Listed Chemicals § 1313.26 Transfers following exportation. (a) In the case of a notice under...

  10. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of export. 35.8 Section 35.8 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.8 Date of export. Date of export means the date of loading on board...

  11. 19 CFR 113.55 - Cancellation of export bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation of export bonds. 113.55 Section 113... export bonds. (a) Manner of cancellation. A bond to assure exportation as defined in § 101.1 of this... shall be signed by a revenue officer of the foreign country to which the merchandise is exported,...

  12. 41 CFR 109-45.309-51 - Export controlled property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export controlled... § 109-45.309-51 Export controlled property. Export controlled property shall be made available for sale only after the export license requirements of § 109-43.307-50 of this subpart have been met....

  13. 9 CFR 322.3 - Transferring products for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transferring products for export. 322... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXPORTS 1 § 322.3 Transferring products for export. When inspected and passed products for export are transferred from tank cars to other containers on vessels, such transfer shall...

  14. 7 CFR 1493.280 - Evidence of export report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export report. 1493.280 Section 1493.280... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Facility Guarantee Program (FGP) Operations § 1493.280 Evidence of export report. (a) Report of export....

  15. 40 CFR 168.85 - Other export requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other export requirements. 168.85... STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting Unregistered Pesticides § 168.85 Other export requirements. This section describes other requirements found...

  16. 14 CFR 21.325 - Export airworthiness approvals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export airworthiness approvals. 21.325... AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Export Airworthiness Approvals § 21.325 Export airworthiness approvals. (a) Kinds of approvals. (1) Export airworthiness approval of Class I products is...

  17. 7 CFR 1493.470 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sales price received for the commodity exported and the basis (e.g., FOB, CFR, CIF). Where the unit... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Supplier Credit Guarantee... provide CCC an evidence of export report for each shipment made under the payment guarantee. This...

  18. 7 CFR 1493.470 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sales price received for the commodity exported and the basis (e.g., FOB, CFR, CIF). Where the unit... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Supplier Credit Guarantee... provide CCC an evidence of export report for each shipment made under the payment guarantee. This...

  19. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5... truck, the exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one copy of the bill of lading covering the... carrier, the exporter shall furnish to the Treasurer, CCC, one non-negotiable copy or photo copy or...

  20. 10 CFR 590.208 - Small volume exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Applications for Authorization To Import or Export Natural Gas § 590.208 Small volume exports. Any person may export up to 100,000 cubic feet of natural...