Science.gov

Sample records for action alternative screening

  1. Screening Action Potentials: The Power of Light

    PubMed Central

    Kaestner, Lars; Lipp, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Action potentials reflect the concerted activity of all electrogenic constituents in the plasma membrane during the excitation of a cell. Therefore, the action potential is an integrated read out and a promising parameter to detect electrophysiological failures or modifications thereof in diagnosis as well as in drug screens. Cellular action potentials can be recorded by optical approaches. To fulfill the pre-requirements to scale up for, e.g., pharmacological screens the following preparatory work has to be provided: (i) model cells under investigation need to represent target cells in the best possible manner; (ii) optical sensors that can be either small molecule dyes or genetically encoded potential probes need to provide a reliable read out with minimal interaction with the naive behavior of the cells and (iii) devices need to be capable to stimulate the cells, read out the signals with the appropriate speed as well as provide the capacity for a sufficient throughput. Here we discuss several scenarios for all three categories in the field of cardiac physiology and pharmacology and provide a perspective to use the power of light in screening cardiac action potentials. PMID:21847381

  2. Alternative bisphosphonate targets and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Jack F; Dascher, Christopher C; Das, Hiranmoy

    2005-03-18

    As the number of bisphosphonates continues to increase, they have found widespread use in an increasing number of clinical conditions. Ongoing examination of their targets and mechanisms of action has revealed that this surprisingly diverse class of drugs has effects beyond those first described for osteoclasts. These additional targets include osteoblasts, osteocytes, angiogenesis, and gammadelta T lymphocytes of the human immune system. The immune system effects are specifically targeted to gammadelta T cells and are reminiscent of the effects seen after ingestion of tea beverage. BP effects on such alternate targets may explain not only their antiresorptive effect, but also their effect on bone quality, tumors, and microbes.

  3. PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATIONS OF ALTERNATIVE SCREEN RECLAMATION PRODUCTS FOR SCREEN PRINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated environmentally-preferable products for the screen reclamation process In screen printing during month-long demonstrations at 23 printing facilities nationwide. hrough the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Design for the Environment Printing Project, pr...

  4. An Alternative to Impedance Screening: Unoccluded Frontal Bone Conduction Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Square, Regina; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A bone conduction hearing screening test using frontal bone oscillator placement was compared with pure-tone air-conduction screening and impedance audiometry with 114 preschoolers. Unoccluded frontal bone conduction testing produced screening results not significantly different from results obtained by impedance audiometry. (CL)!

  5. Computed tomography screening: the international early lung cancer action program experience.

    PubMed

    Henschke, Claudia I; Boffetta, Paolo; Yankelevitz, David F; Altorki, Nasser

    2015-05-01

    The International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (I-ELCAP) used a novel study design that provided quantitative information about annual CT screening for lung cancer. The results stimulated additional studies of lung cancer screening and ultimately led to the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) being initiated in 2002, as the initial report in 1999 was sufficiently compelling to reawaken interest in screening for lung cancer. The authors think that the I-ELCAP and NLST "story" provides a strong argument for relevant agencies to consider alternative study designs for the public funding of studies aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of screening and other medical trials.

  6. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternatives including the proposed action. 1502.14 Section 1502.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.14 Alternatives including the proposed action. This section is the heart of...

  7. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternatives including the proposed action. 1502.14 Section 1502.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.14 Alternatives including the proposed action. This section is the heart of...

  8. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternatives including the proposed action. 1502.14 Section 1502.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.14 Alternatives including the proposed action. This section is the heart of...

  9. 40 CFR 1502.14 - Alternatives including the proposed action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternatives including the proposed action. 1502.14 Section 1502.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.14 Alternatives including the proposed action. This section is the heart of...

  10. Screening evaluation of alternative cleaning solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The cleaning efficiency of five alternative solvents for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and chlorohydrocarbons (CHCs) used in the manufacture of certain electronic components was studied. These solvents were evaluated in the first phase of a two-phase program to remove various manufacturing contaminants such as oils, greases, mold release, and body oils. Results have shown that EXXATE 1000 and EC-7 were able to effectively remove these contaminants from copper board substrates. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  12. Persistence of Internal Representations of Alternative Voluntary Actions

    PubMed Central

    Filevich, Elisa; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated a situation in which externally available response alternatives and their internal representations could be dissociated, by suddenly removing some action alternatives from the response space during the interval between the free selection and the execution of a voluntary action. Choice reaction times in this situation were related to the number of initially available response alternatives, rather than to the number of alternatives available effectively available after the change in the external environment. The internal representations of response alternatives appeared to persist after external changes actually made the corresponding action unavailable. This suggests a surprising dynamics of voluntary action representations: counterfactual response alternatives persist, and may even be actively maintained, even when they are not available in reality. Our results highlight a representational basis for the counterfactual course of action. Such representations may play a key role in feelings of regret, disappointment, or frustration. These feelings all involve persistent representation of counterfactual response alternatives that may not actually be available in the environment. PMID:23653608

  13. Screening the Missing Electron: Nanochemistry in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozawa, H.; Pichler, T.; Kramberger, C.; Rümmeli, M.; Batchelor, D.; Liu, Z.; Suenaga, K.; Kataura, H.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2009-01-01

    The excitement of nano-test-tube chemistry in a single-walled carbon nanotube is exemplified in our study on electron doping in carbon nanotubes. Electron doping through the 1D van Hove singularity of single-walled carbon nanotubes is realized via a chemical reaction of an encapsulated organocerium compound, CeCp3. The decomposition of CeCp3 inside the carbon nanotubes increases the doping level and greatly enhances the density of conduction electrons. The transition of the cerium encapsulating semiconducting tubes to metallic results in enhanced screening of the photoexcited core hole potential. This fact illustrates the importance of many body effects in understanding core-level excitation process in carbon nanotubes.

  14. Screening the missing electron: nanochemistry in action.

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, H; Pichler, T; Kramberger, C; Rümmeli, M; Batchelor, D; Liu, Z; Suenaga, K; Kataura, H; Silva, S R P

    2009-01-30

    The excitement of nano-test-tube chemistry in a single-walled carbon nanotube is exemplified in our study on electron doping in carbon nanotubes. Electron doping through the 1D van Hove singularity of single-walled carbon nanotubes is realized via a chemical reaction of an encapsulated organocerium compound, CeCp3. The decomposition of CeCp3 inside the carbon nanotubes increases the doping level and greatly enhances the density of conduction electrons. The transition of the cerium encapsulating semiconducting tubes to metallic results in enhanced screening of the photoexcited core hole potential. This fact illustrates the importance of many body effects in understanding core-level excitation process in carbon nanotubes.

  15. Alternatives/action plan report for outfall 17

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    This Document contains information pertaining to alternatives/action associated with controlling ammonia entering through outfall 17. This document identifies the location of contaminate source, the ammonia concentration levels entering East Fork Poplar Creek, and the action taken to reduce/eliminate the toxicity problem.

  16. Long-term-consequence analysis of no action alternative 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Staven, L.H.; Serne, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Disposal-Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. Data and information is described which pertains to estimated impacts from postulated long-term release of radionuclides and hazardous constituents from alpha-bearing wastes stored at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control (no action alternative 2). Under this alternative, wastes would remain at the generator sites and not be emplaced at WIPP.

  17. SLCA/IP power alternative screening method (SPASM)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.C. |; Ancrile, J.D.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the SLCA/IP Power Alternative Screening Method (SPASM), which was used to screen 784 possible combinations of electric power marketing alternatives and dam operational scenarios to provide a representative range for analysis in the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Each combination consists of one energy and capacity commitment level and one operational scenario for each of the hydroelectric facilities at Glen Canyon Dam, Flaming Gorge Dam, and the Aspinall Unit. The total annual cost to the SLCA/IP firm power customers of each of the 784 combinations is estimated and included in a relative frequency distribution. A relative frequency distribution is also generated for each marketing alternative. The number of combinations is reduced to 12 by taking the mean value and endpoint value for each of four marketing alternatives. Some minor deviations from this procedure, which are made for political purposes, are explained. 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Identifying objectives and alternative actions to frame a decision problem.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.; Walshe, Terry

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the role of objectives and alternative actions in framing a natural resource management decision problem, with particular attention to thresholds. We outline a number of considerations in developing objectives and measurable attributes, including when utility thresholds may be needed to express the decision-makers’ values.We also discuss the development of a set of alternative actions, and how these might give rise to decision thresholds, particularly when the predictive models contain ecological thresholds. Framing of a decision problem plays a central role in decision analysis because it helps determine the needs for a predictive ecological model, the type of solution method required, and the value and structure of a monitoring system.

  19. Screening of one-well hydraulic barrier design alternatives.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Hillel; Shoemaker, Christine A; Köngeter, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This study develops a robust method for screening one-well hydraulic barrier design alternatives that can be easily computed without a numerical simulation model. The paper outlines the general method and shows its implementation with hydraulic barriers using a single pumping well. For such barriers, the method is easily computable with spreadsheets and/or charts depicted within the paper and posted online. The method applies the potential flow theory, which leads to using a curvilinear coordinate system for all types of calculations. For contaminant transport calculations, the method applies the boundary layer theory. For calculations of aquifer remediation, the method refers to bulk characteristics of the domain. As an example, the method has been applied to calculate the possible containment of a wide part of the coastal plain aquifer in Israel, which is contaminated by entrapped kerosene (a light nonaqueous phase liquid).

  20. 24 CFR 5.852 - What discretion do I have in screening and eviction actions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What discretion do I have in screening and eviction actions? 5.852 Section 5.852 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... General § 5.852 What discretion do I have in screening and eviction actions? (a) General. If the law...

  1. Gravitational anti-screening as an alternative to dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, A. Raymond

    2016-04-01

    A semiclassical model of the screening of electric charge by virtual electric dipoles, as found in electrodynamic theory, will be presented. This model is then applied to the hypothetical case of an electric force where like charges attract. The resulting anti-screening of the electric charge is found to have the same functional dependence on the field source and observation distance that is found with the Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relationship. This leads to an anti-screening model for the gravitational force which is then used to determine the theoretical rotational curve of the Galaxy and the theoretical velocity dispersions and shear values for the Coma cluster. These theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding astronomical observations. The screening of electric charge as found in QED and the larger apparent masses of galaxies and galactic clusters therefore appears to be two sides of the same coin.

  2. Research perspectives for pre-screening alternatives to animal experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Walum, Erik . E-mail: erik.walum@biovitrum.com; Hedander, Jan; Garberg, Per

    2005-09-01

    The MEIC study revealed a high predictivity of in vitro cytotoxicity data for human acute systemic toxicity. The idea, put forward by several authors, that compounds that show high cytotoxicity should not need further testing for confirmation but could be assumed toxic also in vivo provides a convenient concept for the selection of the most relevant compounds for further studies in large sets of chemicals, as in the REACH program. The automated techniques applied in high throughput screening (HTS) by the pharmaceutical and biotech industries to select hits in extensive compound collections represent an opportunity to significantly increase the capacity of cytotoxicity testing. Furthermore, it has been suggested that a combination of cytotoxicity data and some basic biokinetic information would greatly improve the accuracy in the extrapolation from in vitro to in vivo and thus make it possible to identify additional toxic compounds that might have escaped in the initial screen. Such information, which can be obtained in a medium throughput screening mode (MTS), includes biotransformation, absorption and some aspects of distribution. The measurement of the net flux of a compound over a cellular barrier, as the one formed in culture by human Caco-2 cells, gives useful, but limited, information on both gut absorption and blood-brain barrier penetration. The test procedures discussed here, as well as other supplementary in vitro tests, cannot always easily be described in terms of animal-based test replacements. In those instances, the necessary test validation cannot be carried out using animal reference data, and prediction models may have to be adapted to new ideas. Consequently, concepts of prospective validation to supplement the now well-established retrospective validation have to be developed.

  3. Evaluating Alternative High Schools: Program Evaluation in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Drew Samuel Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Alternative high schools serve some of the most vulnerable students and their programs present a significant challenge to evaluate. Determining the impact of an alternative high school that serves mostly at-risk students presented a significant research problem. Few studies exist that dig deeper into the characteristics and strategies of…

  4. An Alternative Field Method for Screening Soybean Genotypes for Resistance to Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Arantes, N. E.; Mauro, A. O.; Tihohood, D.

    1998-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) has become an increasingly severe problem in soybean production areas in Brazil. The development and use of resistant cultivars is the most efficient method of minimizing losses due to this pathogen. Our objective was to test the efficiency of an alternative method for screening soybean genotypes for resistance to H. glycines in field plots. The alternative method was compared to the standard method of sowing the test genotypes in fields found to be infested during the previous crop season. In the alternative method, the test genotypes are sown in the furrow following the uprooting of 45-day-old infected plants. The alternative method resulted in twice the cyst population and fewer escapes, and more consistent results than the standard method. The major advantage of the alternative method is that it permits screening in a more homogeneous distribution of H. glycines in the soil. PMID:19274244

  5. Time for action: science education for an alternative future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, Derek

    2003-06-01

    Following a brief historical survey of the popular 'slogans' that have influenced science education during the past quarter century and a review of current international debate on scientific literacy and science pedagogy, the author takes the view that while much of value has been achieved, there is still considerable cause for concern and that it is time for action in two senses. First, it is time to take action on the school science curriculum because it no longer meets the needs, interests and aspirations of young citizens. Second, it is time for a science curriculum oriented toward sociopolitical action. The author argues that if current social and environmental problems are to be solved, we need a generation of scientifically and politically literate citizens who are not content with the role of 'armchair critic'. A particular concern in North America is the link between science education, economic globalization, increasing production and unlimited expansion - a link that threatens the freedom of individuals, the spiritual well-being of particular societies and the very future of the planet. The author's response is to advocate a politicized, issues-based curriculum focused on seven areas of concern (human health; food and agriculture; land, water and mineral resources; energy resources and consumption; industry; information transfer and transportation; ethics and social responsibility) and addressed at four levels of sophistication, culminating in preparation for sociopolitical action. The curriculum proposal outlined in the article is intended to produce activists: people who will fight for what is right, good and just; people who will work to re-fashion society along more socially-just lines; people who will work vigorously in the best interests of the biosphere. At the heart of this curriculum is a commitment to pursue a fundamental realignment of the values underpinning Western industrialized society. Achieving that goal is a formidable task - one that

  6. INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area CERCLA-based Decision Analysis for Technology Screening and Remedial Alternative Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Parnell, G. S.; Kloeber, Jr. J.; Westphal, D; Fung, V.; Richardson, John Grant

    2000-03-01

    A CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology for alternative evaluation and technology screening has been developed for application at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory WAG 7 OU13/14 Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Quantitative value functions derived from CERCLA balancing criteria in cooperation with State and Federal regulators are presented. A weighted criteria hierarchy is also summarized that relates individual value function numerical values to an overall score for a specific technology alternative.

  7. 40 CFR 26.1507 - Actions alternative or additional to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions alternative or additional to disqualification. 26.1507 Section 26.1507 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL... judicial proceedings (civil or criminal) and any other appropriate regulatory action, in addition to or...

  8. 40 CFR 26.1507 - Actions alternative or additional to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions alternative or additional to disqualification. 26.1507 Section 26.1507 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL... judicial proceedings (civil or criminal) and any other appropriate regulatory action, in addition to or...

  9. 21 CFR 58.215 - Alternative or additional actions to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternative or additional actions to disqualification. 58.215 Section 58.215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... proceedings or actions authorized by the act. The Food and Drug Administration may, at any time,...

  10. 21 CFR 58.215 - Alternative or additional actions to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternative or additional actions to disqualification. 58.215 Section 58.215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... proceedings or actions authorized by the act. The Food and Drug Administration may, at any time,...

  11. 21 CFR 58.215 - Alternative or additional actions to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternative or additional actions to disqualification. 58.215 Section 58.215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... proceedings or actions authorized by the act. The Food and Drug Administration may, at any time,...

  12. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  13. Comprehensive screening of alternative lengthening of telomeres phenotype and loss of ATRX expression in sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Liau, Jau-Yu; Lee, Jen-Chieh; Tsai, Jia-Huei; Yang, Ching-Yao; Liu, Tsung-Lin; Ke, Zhi-Long; Hsu, Hung-Han; Jeng, Yung-Ming

    2015-12-01

    According to cytogenetic aberrations, sarcomas can be categorized as complex or simple karyotype tumors. Alternative lengthening of telomeres is a telomere-maintenance mechanism common in sarcomas. Recently, this mechanism was found to be associated with loss of either α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death domain-associated (DAXX) protein. We previously reported that alternative lengthening of telomeres and loss of ATRX expression were common in leiomyosarcoma, angiosarcoma, pleomorphic liposarcoma, and dedifferentiated liposarcoma. In the present study, we screened an additional 245 sarcomas of other types to determine the prevalence of alternative lengthening of telomeres, loss of ATRX/DAXX expression, and their relationship. Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas were frequently alternative lengthening of telomeres positive (65%) and loss of ATRX was seen in approximately half of the alternative lengthening of telomeres-positive tumors. Nineteen of 25 myxofibrosarcomas were alternative lengthening of telomeres-positive, but only one was ATRX deficient. Three of 15 radiation-associated sarcomas were alternative lengthening of telomeres positive, but none of them was ATRX deficient. Alternative lengthening of telomeres and/or loss of ATRX were uncommon in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas. By contrast, none of the 71 gene fusion-associated sarcomas was ATRX deficient or alternative lengthening of telomeres positive. All tumors exhibited preserved DAXX expression. Combining our previous studies and this study, a total of 384 sarcomas with complex karyotypes were examined, 83 of which were ATRX deficient (22%). By telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization, 45% (138/308) were alternative lengthening of telomeres positive, 55% (76/138) of which were ATRX deficient. Loss of ATRX was highly associated with alternative lengthening of telomeres (P<0.001). We

  14. 48 CFR 719.271-7 - Reports on procurement actions that are exempted from screening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports on procurement....271-7 Reports on procurement actions that are exempted from screening. (a) Unilateral and class set... concludes that it would be practicable to accomplish all or a portion of the procurement involved...

  15. Baby unplugged: a novel, market-based approach to reducing screen time and promoting healthy alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hutton, John S

    2013-01-01

    The issue of electronic media use by young children is increasingly important in pediatrics, a major risk factor for numerous chronic conditions. Despite guidelines in place since 1999, screen time is on the rise, aided by new formats removing practically all barriers of use. Key drivers are technological allure, confusion about developmental readiness, and perception of educational value, fueled by potent marketing. This article describes the development of Baby Unplugged, a series of children's board books celebrating "old-school," screen-free childhood. Written by a pediatrician who also owns a children's bookstore, the books were inspired and informed by advocacy projects in the areas of media use and early literacy as a pediatric resident. They reinforce AAP Electronic Media Guidelines, notably discouraging screen-based media under 2 years old, largely by encouraging healthy, fun alternatives. Examples include Pets, Book, and Yard. Multi-sensorial exploration and parent-child engagement are emphasized in a non-prescriptive way, featuring gender and ethnic diversity and activities that are accessible and inexpensive. The author describes challenges faced by pediatricians providing anticipatory guidance for media use, given limited time and resources and the perception that we are out of touch. This is heightened by oft-deceptive marketing of screen-based products more likely to be perceived as "cool." Reach Out and Read is cited as an example of a successful, "cool" intervention, though limited to select populations. Baby Unplugged takes advocacy to the marketplace, where the screen time battle is being lost. PMID:23172903

  16. Excess screen time in US children: association with family rules and alternative activities.

    PubMed

    Gingold, Janet A; Simon, Alan E; Schoendorf, Kenneth C

    2014-01-01

    We describe the association of screen time in excess of American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations (≤2 h/d) with family television-use policies and regular nonscreen activities among US school-aged children. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were used. The sum of minutes spent on television, videos, video games, and recreational computer use was calculated for children 6 to 17 years old. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate relative odds of exceeding American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines and of heavy screen use (>4 h/d) for varying family media-use policies and frequency of alternative activities (physical activity and family meals). In all, 49% of school-aged children had screen time >2 h/d and 16% had screen time >4 h/d. Lower frequency of family meals, presence of TV in the bedroom, absence of rules about TV viewing, and less physical activity were associated with both >2 and >4 hours per day of screen time. PMID:23922251

  17. Excess screen time in US children: association with family rules and alternative activities.

    PubMed

    Gingold, Janet A; Simon, Alan E; Schoendorf, Kenneth C

    2014-01-01

    We describe the association of screen time in excess of American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations (≤2 h/d) with family television-use policies and regular nonscreen activities among US school-aged children. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were used. The sum of minutes spent on television, videos, video games, and recreational computer use was calculated for children 6 to 17 years old. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate relative odds of exceeding American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines and of heavy screen use (>4 h/d) for varying family media-use policies and frequency of alternative activities (physical activity and family meals). In all, 49% of school-aged children had screen time >2 h/d and 16% had screen time >4 h/d. Lower frequency of family meals, presence of TV in the bedroom, absence of rules about TV viewing, and less physical activity were associated with both >2 and >4 hours per day of screen time.

  18. Baby unplugged: a novel, market-based approach to reducing screen time and promoting healthy alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hutton, John S

    2013-01-01

    The issue of electronic media use by young children is increasingly important in pediatrics, a major risk factor for numerous chronic conditions. Despite guidelines in place since 1999, screen time is on the rise, aided by new formats removing practically all barriers of use. Key drivers are technological allure, confusion about developmental readiness, and perception of educational value, fueled by potent marketing. This article describes the development of Baby Unplugged, a series of children's board books celebrating "old-school," screen-free childhood. Written by a pediatrician who also owns a children's bookstore, the books were inspired and informed by advocacy projects in the areas of media use and early literacy as a pediatric resident. They reinforce AAP Electronic Media Guidelines, notably discouraging screen-based media under 2 years old, largely by encouraging healthy, fun alternatives. Examples include Pets, Book, and Yard. Multi-sensorial exploration and parent-child engagement are emphasized in a non-prescriptive way, featuring gender and ethnic diversity and activities that are accessible and inexpensive. The author describes challenges faced by pediatricians providing anticipatory guidance for media use, given limited time and resources and the perception that we are out of touch. This is heightened by oft-deceptive marketing of screen-based products more likely to be perceived as "cool." Reach Out and Read is cited as an example of a successful, "cool" intervention, though limited to select populations. Baby Unplugged takes advocacy to the marketplace, where the screen time battle is being lost.

  19. 21 CFR 56.124 - Actions alternative or additional to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Actions alternative or additional to disqualification. 56.124 Section 56.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... The Food and Drug Administration may, at any time, through the Department of Justice institute...

  20. 21 CFR 56.124 - Actions alternative or additional to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Actions alternative or additional to disqualification. 56.124 Section 56.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... The Food and Drug Administration may, at any time, through the Department of Justice institute...

  1. 21 CFR 56.124 - Actions alternative or additional to disqualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Actions alternative or additional to disqualification. 56.124 Section 56.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... The Food and Drug Administration may, at any time, through the Department of Justice institute...

  2. Improving screening and diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Weiler, John M; Hallstrand, Teal S; Parsons, Jonathan P; Randolph, Christopher; Silvers, William S; Storms, William W; Bronstone, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of an expert panel of nationally recognized allergists and pulmonologists who met to discuss how to improve detection and diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), a transient airway narrowing that occurs during and most often after exercise in people with and without underlying asthma. EIB is both commonly underdiagnosed and overdiagnosed. EIB underdiagnosis may result in habitual avoidance of sports and physical activity, chronic deconditioning, weight gain, poor asthma control, low self-esteem, and reduced quality of life. Routine use of a reliable and valid self-administered EIB screening questionnaire by professionals best positioned to screen large numbers of people could substantially improve the detection of EIB. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature that evaluated the accuracy of EIB screening questionnaires that might be adopted for widespread EIB screening in the general population. Results of this review indicated that no existing EIB screening questionnaire had adequate sensitivity and specificity for this purpose. The authors present a call to action to develop a new EIB screening questionnaire, and discuss the rigorous qualitative and quantitative research necessary to develop and validate such an instrument, including key methodological pitfalls that must be avoided.

  3. Improving screening and diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Weiler, John M; Hallstrand, Teal S; Parsons, Jonathan P; Randolph, Christopher; Silvers, William S; Storms, William W; Bronstone, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of an expert panel of nationally recognized allergists and pulmonologists who met to discuss how to improve detection and diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), a transient airway narrowing that occurs during and most often after exercise in people with and without underlying asthma. EIB is both commonly underdiagnosed and overdiagnosed. EIB underdiagnosis may result in habitual avoidance of sports and physical activity, chronic deconditioning, weight gain, poor asthma control, low self-esteem, and reduced quality of life. Routine use of a reliable and valid self-administered EIB screening questionnaire by professionals best positioned to screen large numbers of people could substantially improve the detection of EIB. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature that evaluated the accuracy of EIB screening questionnaires that might be adopted for widespread EIB screening in the general population. Results of this review indicated that no existing EIB screening questionnaire had adequate sensitivity and specificity for this purpose. The authors present a call to action to develop a new EIB screening questionnaire, and discuss the rigorous qualitative and quantitative research necessary to develop and validate such an instrument, including key methodological pitfalls that must be avoided. PMID:24811017

  4. Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Di Perri, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lillo, Flavia B

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of HIV testing has the objective to increase screening, identify and counsel persons with infection, link them to clinical services and reduce transmission. Rapid tests and/or alternative biological samples (like oral fluid) give the option for a better general consent in approaching screening, immediate referral of HIV positives to medical treatment and partner notification. We tested the performance characteristics of an oral fluid-based rapid HIV test (Rapidtest HIV lateral flow-Healthchem diag. LLC) in comparison with routinely utilized methods in a selected population of known positive (N = 121) or negative (N = 754) subjects. The sensitivity of the rapid test was 99.1% (one false negative sample) and the specificity 98.8%. Five negatives showed a faint reactivity, 3 of these were reactive also in the reference test, one with a p24 only reaction in Western blot. If these 3 samples were excluded from the analysis the specificity increases to 99.2%. Results from our study confirm that, although a continuous improvement of the test performance is still needed to minimize false negative and positive results, rapid test and alternative biological samples may contribute to HIV prevention strategies by reaching a larger population particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain. PMID:20128446

  5. A biologically plausible computational theory for value integration and action selection in decisions with competing alternatives.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Vassilios; Bonaiuto, James; Andersen, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    Decision making is a vital component of human and animal behavior that involves selecting between alternative options and generating actions to implement the choices. Although decisions can be as simple as choosing a goal and then pursuing it, humans and animals usually have to make decisions in dynamic environments where the value and the availability of an option change unpredictably with time and previous actions. A predator chasing multiple prey exemplifies how goals can dynamically change and compete during ongoing actions. Classical psychological theories posit that decision making takes place within frontal areas and is a separate process from perception and action. However, recent findings argue for additional mechanisms and suggest the decisions between actions often emerge through a continuous competition within the same brain regions that plan and guide action execution. According to these findings, the sensorimotor system generates concurrent action-plans for competing goals and uses online information to bias the competition until a single goal is pursued. This information is diverse, relating to both the dynamic value of the goal and the cost of acting, creating a challenging problem in integrating information across these diverse variables in real time. We introduce a computational framework for dynamically integrating value information from disparate sources in decision tasks with competing actions. We evaluated the framework in a series of oculomotor and reaching decision tasks and found that it captures many features of choice/motor behavior, as well as its neural underpinnings that previously have eluded a common explanation. PMID:25803729

  6. A biologically plausible computational theory for value integration and action selection in decisions with competing alternatives.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Vassilios; Bonaiuto, James; Andersen, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    Decision making is a vital component of human and animal behavior that involves selecting between alternative options and generating actions to implement the choices. Although decisions can be as simple as choosing a goal and then pursuing it, humans and animals usually have to make decisions in dynamic environments where the value and the availability of an option change unpredictably with time and previous actions. A predator chasing multiple prey exemplifies how goals can dynamically change and compete during ongoing actions. Classical psychological theories posit that decision making takes place within frontal areas and is a separate process from perception and action. However, recent findings argue for additional mechanisms and suggest the decisions between actions often emerge through a continuous competition within the same brain regions that plan and guide action execution. According to these findings, the sensorimotor system generates concurrent action-plans for competing goals and uses online information to bias the competition until a single goal is pursued. This information is diverse, relating to both the dynamic value of the goal and the cost of acting, creating a challenging problem in integrating information across these diverse variables in real time. We introduce a computational framework for dynamically integrating value information from disparate sources in decision tasks with competing actions. We evaluated the framework in a series of oculomotor and reaching decision tasks and found that it captures many features of choice/motor behavior, as well as its neural underpinnings that previously have eluded a common explanation.

  7. A Biologically Plausible Computational Theory for Value Integration and Action Selection in Decisions with Competing Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Christopoulos, Vassilios; Bonaiuto, James; Andersen, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Decision making is a vital component of human and animal behavior that involves selecting between alternative options and generating actions to implement the choices. Although decisions can be as simple as choosing a goal and then pursuing it, humans and animals usually have to make decisions in dynamic environments where the value and the availability of an option change unpredictably with time and previous actions. A predator chasing multiple prey exemplifies how goals can dynamically change and compete during ongoing actions. Classical psychological theories posit that decision making takes place within frontal areas and is a separate process from perception and action. However, recent findings argue for additional mechanisms and suggest the decisions between actions often emerge through a continuous competition within the same brain regions that plan and guide action execution. According to these findings, the sensorimotor system generates concurrent action-plans for competing goals and uses online information to bias the competition until a single goal is pursued. This information is diverse, relating to both the dynamic value of the goal and the cost of acting, creating a challenging problem in integrating information across these diverse variables in real time. We introduce a computational framework for dynamically integrating value information from disparate sources in decision tasks with competing actions. We evaluated the framework in a series of oculomotor and reaching decision tasks and found that it captures many features of choice/motor behavior, as well as its neural underpinnings that previously have eluded a common explanation. PMID:25803729

  8. Cautionary note concerning the CuSO4 X-ray laser. [alternative to lasing action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, K. W.; Mark, H.

    1973-01-01

    For the so far unconfirmed lasing action claimed by Kepros et al. (1972) to have been obtained by focusing a 1.06-micron radiation of a q-switched Nd(3+) glass laser to a small cylindrical volume inside a CuSO4-doped gelatin medium supported between two glass plates, an alternate explanation is proposed that does not depend on the assumption of laser action in copper. The proposed explanation shows how collimated X-ray beams might be created under the experimental conditions described by Kepros et al.

  9. Is There a “Workable” Race-Neutral Alternative to Affirmative Action in College Admissions?

    PubMed Central

    Long, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in the Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin case clarified when and how it is legally permissible for universities to use an applicant’s race or ethnicity in its admissions decisions. The court concluded that such use is permissible when “no workable race-neutral alternatives would produce the educational benefits of diversity.” This paper shows that replacing traditional affirmative action with a system that uses an applicant’s predicted likelihood of being an underrepresented racial minority as a proxy for the applicant’s actual minority status can yield an admitted class that has a lower predicted grade point average and likelihood of graduating than the class that would have been admitted using traditional affirmative action. This result suggests that race-neutral alternatives may not be “workable” from the university’s perspective. PMID:25750473

  10. A Field Trial of Alternative Targeted Screening Strategies for Chagas Disease in Arequipa, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gabrielle C.; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Ancca Juárez, Jenny; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Malaga Chavez, Fernando S.; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Córdova Benzaquen, Eleazar; Náquira, César; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is endemic in the rural areas of southern Peru and a growing urban problem in the regional capital of Arequipa, population ∼860,000. It is unclear how to implement cost-effective screening programs across a large urban and periurban environment. Methods We compared four alternative screening strategies in 18 periurban communities, testing individuals in houses with 1) infected vectors; 2) high vector densities; 3) low vector densities; and 4) no vectors. Vector data were obtained from routine Ministry of Health insecticide application campaigns. We performed ring case detection (radius of 15 m) around seropositive individuals, and collected data on costs of implementation for each strategy. Results Infection was detected in 21 of 923 (2.28%) participants. Cases had lived more time on average in rural places than non-cases (7.20 years versus 3.31 years, respectively). Significant risk factors on univariate logistic regression for infection were age (OR 1.02; p = 0.041), time lived in a rural location (OR 1.04; p = 0.022), and time lived in an infested area (OR 1.04; p = 0.008). No multivariate model with these variables fit the data better than a simple model including only the time lived in an area with triatomine bugs. There was no significant difference in prevalence across the screening strategies; however a self-assessment of disease risk may have biased participation, inflating prevalence among residents of houses where no infestation was detected. Testing houses with infected-vectors was least expensive. Ring case detection yielded four secondary cases in only one community, possibly due to vector-borne transmission in this community, apparently absent in the others. Conclusions Targeted screening for urban Chagas disease is promising in areas with ongoing vector-borne transmission; however, these pockets of epidemic transmission remain difficult to detect a priori. The flexibility to adapt to the epidemiology that

  11. Implementing a method of screening one-well hydraulic barrier design alternatives.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Hillel; Shoemaker, Christine A; Köngeter, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    This article provides details of applying the method developed by the authors (Rubin et al. 2008b) for screening one-well hydraulic barrier design alternatives. The present article with its supporting information (manual and electronic spreadsheets with a case history example) provides the reader complete details and examples of solving the set of nonlinear equations developed by Rubin et al. (2008b). It allows proper use of the analytical solutions and also depicting the various charts given by Rubin et al. (2008b). The final outputs of the calculations are the required position and the discharge of the pumping well. If the contaminant source is nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) entrapped within the aquifer, then the method provides an estimate of the aquifer remediation progress (which is a by-product) due to operating the hydraulic barrier.

  12. Alternatives for management of wastes generated by the formerly utilized sites remedial action program and supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Vocke, R.W.; Alexander, J.K.

    1983-03-01

    Alternatives for disposal or stabilization of the wastes generated by the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) are identified and compared, with emphasis on the long-term aspects. These wastes consist of soil material and rubble containing trace amounts of radionuclides. A detailed pathway analysis for the dose to the maximally exposed individual is carried out using an adaptation of the natural analogue method. Comparisons of the different alternatives, based on the results of the pathway analysis and qualitative cost considerations, indicate that, if the hazard is such that the wastes must be removed and disposed of rather than stabilized in place, disposal by immediate dispersal is preferable to containment, and containment followed by slow planned dispersal is preferable to containment without dispersal. The Supplement presents refinements of work that was reported at the 1982 International Decommissioning Symposium. The new material consists of revisions of the estimates of the predicted potential dose to the maximally exposed individual and a more detailed comparative assessment of the radiological impacts of alternatives for management of wastes generated by the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP).

  13. Gravitational anti-screening as an alternative to the Λ CDM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, A. Raymond

    2016-11-01

    Previously, in Penner (Astrophys. Space Sci., 361:124, 2016), a theory of gravitational anti-screening was shown to lead to the Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relationship. In addition it was shown to agree with the observed rotation curve of the Galaxy, the observed features in the rotational curves of other spiral galaxies, and with observations of the Coma cluster. In this paper, the theory is now shown to be consistent with a geometrically flat universe. Using a model of the distribution of superclusters, the overall density parameter of the universe, as determined by the theory, is Ω = 1.08 ± 0.19. In addition, the energy density which falls out from the theory has a negative pressure associated with it. This, along with a model of the evolution of superclusters, leads to an acceleration of the universal expansion without the requirement of dark energy. The theory of gravitational anti-screening therefore provides an alternative to the ΛCDM model of cosmology.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-05-26

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Nevada Test Site's Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit (Corrective Action Unit 342) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 342 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 23-56-01. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for Corrective Action Unit 342. The scope of this document consists of the following: Develop corrective action objectives; Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; Develop corrective action alternatives; Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for the Corrective Action Unit.

  15. Point-of-care testing for HCV infection: recent advances and implications for alternative screening.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Vidoni, Gianmarino; Mabellini, Chiara; Belloni, Teresa; Brignolo, Livia; Negri, Silvia; Schlusnus, Karin; Dorigatti, Fernanda; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2014-10-01

    Over the last few years, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has emerged as one of the most significant causes of chronic liver disease worldwide, with an estimated prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 3.0%. In Italy, approximately 2% of subjects are infected with HCV. Considering that acute HCV infection is usually asymptomatic, early diagnosis is rare. Those people who develop chronic infection, even though undiagnosed, may suffer serious liver damage, making chronic HCV infection a major health problem. New initiatives are needed to identify a submerged portion of patients with chronic viral hepatitis and to propose controls and antiviral treatments to avoid the progression to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Since January 2011, the Infectious Diseases Department of San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Milan has been carrying out a prevention program called "EASY test project", using a new oral test, the OraQuick® HCV rapid antibody test (OraSure technologies, Inc.). The main objective of the project is to evaluate the acceptability of an alternative, free and anonymous HCV test offer, available in different settings (Points of Care, STDs Prevention clinics and General Practitioner clinics). From January 2011 to April 2014, 29,600 subjects were approached to inform them about HCV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases; 4,507 (15.2% of the contacted subjects) of them, total eligible volunteers, performed HCV tests on saliva and completed the interview in the alternative POCTs. Twenty-seven subjects (0.6% of the total) turned HCV oral test reactive (27/4.507) during the evaluation period; all of them were confirmed by conventional test. All 27 patients were asymptomatic and without a history of HCV-re- lated symptoms. The results from this analysis suggest that the promotion of alternative HCV test screening has not yet been fully developed as a strategy to increase levels of HCV testing among people at risk for HCV infection. Increasing

  16. Estrogen action: a historic perspective on the implications of considering alternative approaches

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Elwood V.; Jacobson, Herbert I.; Walf, Alicia A.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    In the 50 years since the initial reports of a cognate estrogen receptor (ER), much has been learned about the diverse effects and mechanisms of estrogens, such as 17β-estradiol (E2). This expert narrative review briefly summarizes perspectives and/or recent work of the authors, who have been addressing different aspects of estrogen action, but take a common approach of using alternative considerations to gain insight into mechanisms with clinical relevance, and inform future studies, regarding estrogen action. Their “Top Ten” favorite alternatives that are discussed herein are as follows. 1- E2 has actions by binding to a receptor that do not require its enzymatic conversion. 2- Using a different strategy for antibody binding could make the estrogen receptor (ER) more discernible. 3- Blocking ERs, rather than E2 production, may be a useful strategy for breast cancer therapy. 4- Secretion of α-fetoprotein (AFP), rather than only levels of E2 and/or progesterone, may influence breast cancer risk. 5- A peptide derived from the active site of AFP can produce the same benefits of the entire endogenous protein in endocrine cancers. 6- Differential distribution of ER subtypes in the body and brain may underlie specific effects of estrogens. 7- ERβ may be sufficient for the trophic effects of estrogen in the brain, and ERα may be the primary target of trophic effects in the body. 8- ERβ may play a role in the trophic effects of androgens, and may also be relevant in the periphery. 9 - Downstream of E2's effects at ERβ, there may be consequences for biosynthesis of progestogens and/or androgens. 10- Changes in histones and/or other factors, which may be downstream of ERβ, potentially underlie the divergent effects of E2 in the brain and peripheral tissues. PMID:19737574

  17. Entrainment and motor emulation approaches to joint action: Alternatives or complementary approaches?

    PubMed Central

    Colling, Lincoln J.; Williamson, Kellie

    2014-01-01

    Joint actions, such as music and dance, rely crucially on the ability of two, or more, agents to align their actions with great temporal precision. Within the literature that seeks to explain how this action alignment is possible, two broad approaches have appeared. The first, what we term the entrainment approach, has sought to explain these alignment phenomena in terms of the behavioral dynamics of the system of two agents. The second, what we term the emulator approach, has sought to explain these alignment phenomena in terms of mechanisms, such as forward and inverse models, that are implemented in the brain. They have often been pitched as alternative explanations of the same phenomena; however, we argue that this view is mistaken, because, as we show, these two approaches are engaged in distinct, and not mutually exclusive, explanatory tasks. While the entrainment approach seeks to uncover the general laws that govern behavior the emulator approach seeks to uncover mechanisms. We argue that is possible to do both and that the entrainment approach must pay greater attention to the mechanisms that support the behavioral dynamics of interest. In short, the entrainment approach must be transformed into a neuroentrainment approach by adopting a mechanistic view of explanation and by seeking mechanisms that are implemented in the brain. PMID:25309403

  18. Phytochemical screening and anti-inflammatory actions of Alangium salviifolium root extract.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Hindustan Abdul; Padmaja, B Suma; Sravanthi, M; Ramyasree, P; Kavitha, K

    2012-01-01

    Alangium salviifolium root was screened for phytochemical and anti-inflammatory properties. The percentage inhibition of carrageenan induced paw oedema was studied in rats. Alangium salvifolium gave maximum extractive values with Ethanol and the Loss on Drying value, total ash value and acid-insoluble ash and water soluble ash values were within limits. The extract gave positive tests for phytosterols, triterpenes, flavonoids, carbohydrates and alkaloids. The extract was free from glycosides, saponins, tannins, proteins and amino acids. In acute toxicity studies, Alangium salviifolium root extract was found to be safe up to 3000 mg kg⁻¹, p.o. in the albino rats. The Alangium salviifolium root gave significant per cent inhibition of the maximal paw oedema and very highly significant per cent inhibition of total paw oedema during 6 h. This study revealed that Alangium salviifolium root has good anti-inflammatory actions when compared with Diclofenac sodium.

  19. Action mechanisms of complementary and alternative medicine therapies for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Keisuke, Imada; Bian, Bao-lin; Li, Xiang-dong; Takashi, Sato; Akira, Ito

    2011-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized as a chronic inflammatory disease in joints and concomitant destruction of cartilage and bone. Cartilage extracellular matrix components, such as type II collagen and aggrecan are enzymatically degraded by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and aggrecanases in RA. Currently, treatments targeting cytokines, including anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α antibodies, soluble TNF receptor, anti-interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antibody, and IL-1 receptor antagonist, are widely used for treating RA in addition to antiantiinflammatory agents and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as inflmethotrexate, but these treatments have some problems, especially in terms of cost and the increased susceptibility of patients to infection in addition to the existence of low-responders to these treatments. Therefore, therapeutics that can be safely used for an extended period of time would be preferable. Complementary and alternative medicines including traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have been used for the arthritic diseases through the ages. Recently, there are many reports concerning the anti-arthritic action mechanisms of TCM-based herbal formulas and crude herbal extracts or isolated ingredients. These natural herbal medicines are thought to moderately improve RA, but they exert various actions for the treatment of RA. In this review, the current status of the mechanism exploration of natural compounds and TCM-based herbal formulas are summarized, focusing on the protection of cartilage destruction in arthritic diseases including RA and osteoarthritis.

  20. Use of thermo-coagulation as an alternative treatment modality in a 'screen-and-treat' programme of cervical screening in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Christine; Kafwafwa, Savel; Brown, Hilary; Walker, Graeme; Madetsa, Belito; Deeny, Miriam; Kabota, Beatrice; Morton, David; Ter Haar, Reynier; Grant, Liz; Cubie, Heather A

    2016-08-15

    The incidence of cervical cancer in Malawi is the highest in the world and projected to increase in the absence of interventions. Although government policy supports screening using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), screening provision is limited due to lack of infrastructure, trained personnel, and the cost and availability of gas for cryotherapy. Recently, thermo-coagulation has been acknowledged as a safe and acceptable procedure suitable for low-resource settings. We introduced thermo-coagulation for treatment of VIA-positive lesions as an alternative to cryotherapy within a cervical screening service based on VIA, coupled with appropriate, sustainable pathways of care for women with high-grade lesions and cancers. Detailed planning was undertaken for VIA clinics, and approvals were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Regional and Village Chiefs. Educational resources were developed. Thermo-coagulators were introduced into hospital and health centre settings, with theoretical and practical training in safe use and maintenance of equipment. A total of 7,088 previously unscreened women attended VIA clinics between October 2013 and March 2015. Screening clinics were held daily in the hospital and weekly in the health centres. Overall, VIA positivity was 6.1%. Almost 90% received same day treatment in the hospital setting, and 3- to 6-month cure rates of more than 90% are observed. Thermo-coagulation proved feasible and acceptable in this setting. Effective implementation requires comprehensive training and provider support, ongoing competency assessment, quality assurance and improvement audit. Thermo-coagulation offers an effective alternative to cryotherapy and encouraged VIA screening of many more women. PMID:27006131

  1. Should We Consider Alternatives to Universal Well-Child Behavioral-Developmental Screening?

    PubMed Central

    Urkin, Jacob; Bar-David, Yair; Porter, Basil

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of developmental disabilities in the young age is of the order of 15%. When behavioral and social-emotional disorders, physical impairments, and sensory disorders are included, the need for special intervention increases to one out of four children. As the sensitivity and specificity of the best screening tests are in the range of 70–80%, their predictive value is controversial. The cost of conducting definitive tests and repeat screening for those who fail the screening tests is high. Children with severe disorders can be identified clinically without a screening test. The poor predictability, difficulty in implementation, and the high costs of developmental testing suggest that children, particularly those in high-risk communities, might be better served by implementing intervention programs for all, instead of trying to identify the outliers through screening. PMID:25853111

  2. Unitarity alternatives in the reduced-action model for gravitational collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciafaloni, M.; Colferai, D.; Falcioni, G.

    2011-09-01

    Based on the ACV approach to transplanckian energies, the reduced-action model for the gravitational S-matrix predicts a critical impact parameter {b_c} ˜ R equiv 2Gsqrt {s} such that S-matrix unitarity is satisfied in the perturbative region b > b c , while it is exponentially suppressed with respect to s in the region b < b c that we think corresponds to gravitational collapse. Here we definitely confirm this statement by a detailed analysis of both the critical region b ≃ b c and of further possible contributions due to quantum transitions for b < b c . We point out, however, that the subcritical unitarity suppression is basically due to the boundary condition which insures that the solutions of the model be ultraviolet-safe. As an alternative, relaxing such condition leads to solutions which carry short-distance singularities presumably regularized by the string. We suggest that through such solutions — depending on the detailed dynamics at the string scale — the lost probability may be recovered.

  3. Identification of Alternative Vapor Intrusion Pathways Using Controlled Pressure Testing, Soil Gas Monitoring, and Screening Model Calculations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanming; Holton, Chase; Luo, Hong; Dahlen, Paul; Gorder, Kyle; Dettenmaier, Erik; Johnson, Paul C

    2015-11-17

    Vapor intrusion (VI) pathway assessment and data interpretation have been guided by an historical conceptual model in which vapors originating from contaminated soil or groundwater diffuse upward through soil and are swept into a building by soil gas flow induced by building underpressurization. Recent studies reveal that alternative VI pathways involving neighborhood sewers, land drains, and other major underground piping can also be significant VI contributors, even to buildings beyond the delineated footprint of soil and groundwater contamination. This work illustrates how controlled-pressure-method testing (CPM), soil gas sampling, and screening-level emissions calculations can be used to identify significant alternative VI pathways that might go undetected by conventional sampling under natural conditions at some sites. The combined utility of these tools is shown through data collected at a long-term study house, where a significant alternative VI pathway was discovered and altered so that it could be manipulated to be on or off. Data collected during periods of natural and CPM conditions show that the alternative pathway was significant, but its presence was not identifiable under natural conditions; it was identified under CPM conditions when measured emission rates were 2 orders of magnitude greater than screening-model estimates and subfoundation vertical soil gas profiles changed and were no longer consistent with the conventional VI conceptual model.

  4. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  5. Five Ethical Paradigms for Community College Leaders: Toward Constructing and Considering Alternative Courses of Action in Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, J. Luke; Hilton, Adriel A.

    2012-01-01

    This article encourages community college leaders to employ ethical paradigms when constructing and considering alternative courses of action in decision-making processes. The authors discuss four previously articulated paradigms (e.g., ethic of justice, ethic of critique, ethic of care, and ethic of the profession) and propose an additional…

  6. Economic Affirmative Action in College Admissions: A Progressive Alternative to Racial Preferences and Class Rank Admissions Plans. Issue Brief Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard

    This brief explores the pros and cons of three alternative approaches to college admissions policies: race-based preferences, which are backed by most Democrats; class-rank plans (admitting the top students in each high school), which is backed by the Bush administration; and economic affirmative action for the disadvantaged of all races, which…

  7. PERSONAL COMPUTER MONITORS: A SCREENING EVALUATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM EXISTING PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD LAMINATES AND POTENTIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a screening evaluation of volatile organic emissions from printed circuit board laminates and potential pollution prevention alternatives. In the evaluation, printed circuit board laminates, without circuitry, commonly found in personal computer (PC) m...

  8. A comparison of retesting rates using alternative testing algorithms in the pilot implementation of critical congenital heart disease screening in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kochilas, Lazaros K; Menk, Jeremiah S; Saarinen, Annamarie; Gaviglio, Amy; Lohr, Jamie L

    2015-03-01

    Prior to state-wide implementation of newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) in Minnesota, a pilot program was completed using the protocol recommended by the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children (SACHDNC). This report compares the retesting rates for newborn screening for CCHDs using the SACHDNC protocol and four alternative algorithms used in large published CCHD screening studies. Data from the original Minnesota study were reanalyzed using the passing values from these four alternative protocols. The retesting rate for the first pulse oximeter measurement ranged from 1.1 % in the SACHDNC protocol to 9.6 % in the Ewer protocol. The SACHDNC protocol generated the lowest rate of retesting among all tested algorithms. Our data suggest that even minor modifications of CCHD screening protocol would significantly impact screening retesting rate. In addition, we provide support for including lower extremity oxygen saturations in the screening algorithm.

  9. Alternative Approaches for Screening Contaminated Sediments and Soils for PCDD/PCDF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generating analytical data for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) using the traditional high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis method, EPA Method 1613B, is time-consuming and expensive. Consequently, alternative methods to ...

  10. Functional Assays and Alternative Species: Using Larval Zebrafish in Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening**

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. As such, we are exploring a behavioral testing paradigm, which can assess the effect of sublethal and subteratogenic concentrations of de...

  11. Functional Assays and Alternative Species: Using Larval Zebrafish in Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing and evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental toxicity. Towards this goal, we are exploring methods to detect developmental neurotoxicants in very young larval zebrafish. We have...

  12. The impact and use of written leaflets as a counselling alternative in mass antenatal HIV screening.

    PubMed

    Sherr, L; Hedge, B

    1990-01-01

    Pre-test counselling has been seen as a pre-requisite for HIV screening. As HIV moves into the heterosexual community, the role of HIV screening in ante-natal care has increased. As vertical transmission is the major contributor to perinatal infection HIV screening of pregnant women has become a reality. The pregnant population comprises large numbers, the practical difficulties of routine pre-test counselling and the informational demand from pregnant women themselves has necessitated the provision of ante-natal leaflets about HIV infection and AIDS. A survey of 24 London hospitals revealed only three leaflets in use, two from one hospital and one from an AIDS Charity. A content evaluation of the leaflets revealed varying readability, elements of bias and presentation factors which may all affect the usefulness of such leaflets. An in depth qualitative group on the leaflet with highest readability revealed particular concerns and highlighted the fact that the leaflets could be seen as additions and addendums to counselling but were not sufficient in themselves. PMID:2088519

  13. Fluorophore Absorption Size Exclusion Chromatography (FA-SEC): An Alternative Method for High-Throughput Detergent Screening of Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sung-Yao; Sun, Xing-Han; Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Shao-En; Li, Guan-Syun; Hu, Nien-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins play key roles in many fundamental functions in cells including ATP synthesis, ion and molecule transporter, cell signalling and enzymatic reactions, accounting for ~30% genes of whole genomes. However, the hydrophobic nature of membrane proteins frequently hampers the progress of structure determination. Detergent screening is the critical step in obtaining stable detergent-solubilized membrane proteins and well-diffracting protein crystals. Fluorescence Detection Size Exclusion Chromatography (FSEC) has been developed to monitor the extraction efficiency and monodispersity of membrane proteins in detergent micelles. By tracing the FSEC profiles of GFP-fused membrane proteins, this method significantly enhances the throughput of detergent screening. However, current methods to acquire FSEC profiles require either an in-line fluorescence detector with the SEC equipment or an off-line spectrofluorometer microplate reader. Here, we introduce an alternative method detecting the absorption of GFP (FA-SEC) at 485 nm, thus making this methodology possible on conventional SEC equipment through the in-line absorbance spectrometer. The results demonstrate that absorption is in great correlation with fluorescence of GFP. The comparably weaker absorption signal can be improved by using a longer path-length flow cell. The FA-SEC profiles were congruent with the ones plotted by FSEC, suggesting FA-SEC could be a comparable and economical setup for detergent screening of membrane proteins. PMID:27332877

  14. Fluorophore Absorption Size Exclusion Chromatography (FA-SEC): An Alternative Method for High-Throughput Detergent Screening of Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sung-Yao; Sun, Xing-Han; Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Shao-En; Li, Guan-Syun; Hu, Nien-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins play key roles in many fundamental functions in cells including ATP synthesis, ion and molecule transporter, cell signalling and enzymatic reactions, accounting for ~30% genes of whole genomes. However, the hydrophobic nature of membrane proteins frequently hampers the progress of structure determination. Detergent screening is the critical step in obtaining stable detergent-solubilized membrane proteins and well-diffracting protein crystals. Fluorescence Detection Size Exclusion Chromatography (FSEC) has been developed to monitor the extraction efficiency and monodispersity of membrane proteins in detergent micelles. By tracing the FSEC profiles of GFP-fused membrane proteins, this method significantly enhances the throughput of detergent screening. However, current methods to acquire FSEC profiles require either an in-line fluorescence detector with the SEC equipment or an off-line spectrofluorometer microplate reader. Here, we introduce an alternative method detecting the absorption of GFP (FA-SEC) at 485 nm, thus making this methodology possible on conventional SEC equipment through the in-line absorbance spectrometer. The results demonstrate that absorption is in great correlation with fluorescence of GFP. The comparably weaker absorption signal can be improved by using a longer path-length flow cell. The FA-SEC profiles were congruent with the ones plotted by FSEC, suggesting FA-SEC could be a comparable and economical setup for detergent screening of membrane proteins.

  15. Utilizing alternative developmental and neurotoxicity screening methods to prioritize compounds for further mammalian testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are being phased out of commercial use, leading to the increased use of alternative chemicals such as the organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). Due to the structural similarity of th...

  16. mRAISE: an alternative algorithmic approach to ligand-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    von Behren, Mathias M; Bietz, Stefan; Nittinger, Eva; Rarey, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Ligand-based virtual screening is a well established method to find new lead molecules in todays drug discovery process. In order to be applicable in day to day practice, such methods have to face multiple challenges. The most important part is the reliability of the results, which can be shown and compared in retrospective studies. Furthermore, in the case of 3D methods, they need to provide biologically relevant molecular alignments of the ligands, that can be further investigated by a medicinal chemist. Last but not least, they have to be able to screen large databases in reasonable time. Many algorithms for ligand-based virtual screening have been proposed in the past, most of them based on pairwise comparisons. Here, a new method is introduced called mRAISE. Based on structural alignments, it uses a descriptor-based bitmap search engine (RAISE) to achieve efficiency. Alignments created on the fly by the search engine get evaluated with an independent shape-based scoring function also used for ranking of compounds. The correct ranking as well as the alignment quality of the method are evaluated and compared to other state of the art methods. On the commonly used Directory of Useful Decoys dataset mRAISE achieves an average area under the ROC curve of 0.76, an average enrichment factor at 1 % of 20.2 and an average hit rate at 1 % of 55.5. With these results, mRAISE is always among the top performing methods with available data for comparison. To access the quality of the alignments calculated by ligand-based virtual screening methods, we introduce a new dataset containing 180 prealigned ligands for 11 diverse targets. Within the top ten ranked conformations, the alignment closest to X-ray structure calculated with mRAISE has a root-mean-square deviation of less than 2.0 Å for 80.8 % of alignment pairs and achieves a median of less than 2.0 Å for eight of the 11 cases. The dataset used to rate the quality of the calculated alignments is freely available

  17. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2.

  18. The joint Simon effect depends on perceived agency, but not intentionality, of the alternative action

    PubMed Central

    Stenzel, Anna; Dolk, Thomas; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard; Liepelt, Roman

    2014-01-01

    A co-actor's intentionality has been suggested to be a key modulating factor for joint action effects like the joint Simon effect (JSE). However, in previous studies intentionality has often been confounded with agency defined as perceiving the initiator of an action as being the causal source of the action. The aim of the present study was to disentangle the role of agency and intentionality as modulating factors of the JSE. In Experiment 1, participants performed a joint go/nogo Simon task next to a co-actor who either intentionally controlled a response button with own finger movements (agency+/intentionality+) or who passively placed the hand on a response button that moved up and down on its own as triggered by computer signals (agency−/intentionality−). In Experiment 2, we included a condition in which participants believed that the co-actor intentionally controlled the response button with a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) while placing the response finger clearly besides the response button, so that the causal relationship between agent and action effect was perceptually disrupted (agency−/intentionality+). As a control condition, the response button was computer controlled while the co-actor placed the response finger besides the response button (agency−/intentionality−). Experiment 1 showed that the JSE is present with an intentional co-actor and causality between co-actor and action effect, but absent with an unintentional co-actor and a lack of causality between co-actor and action effect. Experiment 2 showed that the JSE is absent with an intentional co-actor, but no causality between co-actor and action effect. Our findings indicate an important role of the co-actor's agency for the JSE. They also suggest that the attribution of agency has a strong perceptual basis. PMID:25140144

  19. Student Feedback via Screen Capture Digital Video: Stimulating Student's Modified Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nigel; Georghiades, Panicos; Gunson, John

    2012-01-01

    A new technique of providing assessment feedback to students is demonstrated via a case study of MBA and undergraduate students. The feedback method uses inexpensive and widely available screen capture digital video technology; it gives the student an impression of being present during the marking process. In addition it enables the tutor to…

  20. How well do the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behaviour predict intentions and attendance at screening programmes? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard; French, David P

    2008-01-01

    Meta-analysis was used to quantify how well the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour have predicted intentions to attend screening programmes and actual attendance behaviour. Systematic literature searches identified 33 studies that were included in the review. Across the studies as a whole, attitudes had a large-sized relationship with intention, while subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) possessed medium-sized relationships with intention. Intention had a medium-sized relationship with attendance, whereas the PBC-attendance relationship was small sized. Due to heterogeneity in results between studies, moderator analyses were conducted. The moderator variables were (a) type of screening test, (b) location of recruitment, (c) screening cost and (d) invitation to screen. All moderators affected theory of planned behaviour relationships. Suggestions for future research emerging from these results include targeting attitudes to promote intention to screen, a greater use of implementation intentions in screening information and examining the credibility of different screening providers.

  1. Evaluating potential changes in salmonid rearing capacity from alternative sets of rehabilitation actions in the Trinity River, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beechie, T. J.; Pess, G. R.; Imaki, H.; Martin, A.; Alvarez, J.; Goodman, D.

    2013-12-01

    River restoration plans often propose numerous rehabilitation actions to address key habitat impairments for salmonids. However, restoration plans rarely propose alternative sets of actions or attempt to quantify the potential benefits to targeted biota. In this paper we use geomorphic and biological analyses to estimate restoration potential for each of 37 reaches in a 64-km section of Trinity River, California from the North Fork Trinity River to Lewiston Dam (the focus of habitat rehabilitation efforts under the Trinity River Restoration Program). We first predicted the channel pattern that might develop based in each reach on slope-discharge criteria, and then used these potential patterns along with floodplain width to estimate the maximum sinuosity that restoration actions could likely achieve, as well as a maximum side-channel length that might be created in each reach. For each scenario, we then used existing stream habitat and juvenile salmonid data from previous studies in the Trinity River and other watersheds to determine current and restored carrying capacity. Potential increases in Chinook and steelhead carrying capacity range from 39% for a relatively realistic estimate of increasing habitat quality (more low velocity areas with cover) to 67% for a more optimistic scenario that increases both sinuosity and habitat quality. Only the most optimistic scenario that increases habitat quality, increases sinuosity, and constructs tens of kilometers of side channels more than doubles potential juvenile salmonid production (140% increase). These quantitative predictions provide a frame of reference for evaluating alternative restoration options, and for setting measurable restoration goals.

  2. Screening for antibacterial activity of some Turkish plants against fish pathogens: a possible alternative in the treatment of bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Turker, Hakan; Yıldırım, Arzu Birinci

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethanolic and aqueous crude extracts from 36 plants in Turkey, including seven endemic species, against fish pathogens was studied using the disc diffusion assay. The extract that was most active against all microbial strains, except Aeromonas salmonicida, was that of Dorycnium pentaphyllum. Some of the extracts also showed a very broad spectrum of potent antimicrobial activity. The extract of Anemone nemorosa showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Vibrio anguillarum. V. anguillarum, a Gram-negative bacterium, appeared to be the most susceptible to the plant extracts used in this experiment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of 11 of the studied plants. The preliminary screening assay indicated that some of the Turkish plants with antibacterial properties may offer alternative therapeutic agents against bacterial infections in aquaculture industry. PMID:26019642

  3. Zebrafish eleutheroembryos as an alternative system for screening chemicals disrupting the mammalian thyroid gland morphogenesis and function.

    PubMed

    Raldúa, Demetrio; Thienpont, Benedicte; Babin, Patrick J

    2012-04-01

    The importance and irreversibility of the effects of thyroid hormone deficiency on human brain development highlight the importance of identifying environmental agents that interfere with thyroid gland morphogenesis and function. Zebrafish eleutheroembryos are currently used by many pharmaceutical companies in drug discovery as a vertebrate model, not subjected to regulations for animal experiments, that provides an intermediate step between in vitro and rodent assay. The mechanisms of zebrafish thyroid development are generally comparable to those in humans, and moreover, molecular and functional studies of zebrafish thyroid follicles have demonstrated a high degree of conservation with upper vertebrates, opening up the possibility of designing alternative methods for screening individual chemicals and mixtures that impairing thyroid gland morphogenesis and/or function. Analysis of the intrafollicular thyroxine-content of zebrafish larvae exposed to potential disruptors has proved to be a reliable, physiologically relevant endpoint to estimate effects of chemicals on the mammalian thyroid gland. PMID:21978863

  4. Interim Action Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection Met Lab HWMF

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    2001-09-25

    The purpose of this interim action for the Metallurgical Laboratory HWMF Operable Unit is to minimize migration of contaminants to groundwater from the Metallurgical Laboratory Basin sediments and sediments associated with the process sewer line while risk assessment activities for the Carolina Bay are being planned and conducted.

  5. Alternative Measures for Assessing Affirmative Action Effectiveness. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Kay

    Assessments of institutional effectiveness in affirmative action tend to take either a simple, bottom-line approach (tracking number and percentage of female/minority faculty) or a sophisticated multiple regression-based approach (evaluating rank or salary equity). Either approach may obscure or overlook positive changes occurring within…

  6. Disparity in cancer prevention and screening in aboriginal populations: recommendations for action

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.; Episkenew, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, cancer has occurred at a lower rate in aboriginal populations; however, it is now dramatically increasing. Unless preventive measures are taken, cancer rates among aboriginal peoples are expected to soon surpass those in non-aboriginal populations. Because a large proportion of malignant disorders are preventable, primary prevention through socioeconomic interventions, environmental changes, and lifestyle modification might provide the best option for reducing the increasing burden of cancers. Such efforts can be further amplified by making use of effective cancer screening programs for early detection of cancers at their most treatable stage. However, compared with non-aboriginal Canadians, many aboriginal Canadians lack equal access to cancer screening and prevention programs. In this paper, we discuss disparities in cancer prevention and screening in aboriginal populations in Canada. We begin with the relevant definitions and a theoretical perspective of disparity in health care in aboriginal populations. A framework of health determinants is proposed to explain the pathways associated with an increased risk of cancer that are potentially avoidable. Major challenges and knowledge gaps in relation to cancer care for aboriginal populations are addressed, and we make recommendations to eliminate disparities in cancer control and prevention. PMID:26715875

  7. Effects of hypoxia or low PH on the alternation of canine ventricular action potentials following an abrupt increase in driving rate.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Y; Toyama, J; Yamada, K

    1980-02-01

    Effects of hypoxia or low extracellular pH on the alternation of ventricular action potentials occurring after an abrupt increase in driving rate (rate change induced alternation--RCI alternation) were studied using standard microelectrode methods in canine papillary muscle preparations. Under the control conditions the alternation always occurred after a rate change from 10 to 100 beats . min-1 or 60 to 200 beats . min-1, but it diminished rapidly during the faster rates. Under the hypoxic condition the degree of the RCI alternation gradually increased to the peak 20 to 60 min after the onset of the hypoxic perfusion and then decreased. The hypoxic perfusion caused an increase in beat-to-beat laternating change of the action potential configuration and a marked persistence of the phenomenon. In the initial stage of reoxygenation after 2 hours of the hypoxic perfusion, the RCI alternation transiently increased again. During hypoxia in six out of 15 preparations an unusual alternation of action potentials with an inverted phase occasionally occurred after the rate change from 60 to 200 beats . min-1. Acidic perfusion (pH = 6.0) had similar effects on the RCI alternation. It also caused an increase in beat-to-beat alternating change in the action potential configuration and a prolongation of the phenomenon. In the period when the RCI alternation was markedly increased, a steady-state alternation of action potentials spontaneously occurred at a constant drive rate under hypoxia or low pH. The mechanisms responsible for the RCI alternation of action potentials and the possible role of the phenomenon in the genesis of cardiac arrhythmias in the ischaemic heart are discussed.

  8. Is There a "Workable" Race-Neutral Alternative to Affirmative Action in College Admissions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in the Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin case clarified when and how it is legally permissible for universities to use an applicant's race or ethnicity in its admissions decisions. The court concluded that such use is permissible when "no workable race-neutral alternatives would produce…

  9. Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A small group of teachers at one Illinois high school is helping to effect and promote change. Through the Action Research Laboratory (ARL), teams of teachers conduct collaborative action research to improve classroom practices. Data from the first two years of the ARL indicate that teachers are eager to participate in, and have thrived in, their…

  10. The ChemScreen project to design a pragmatic alternative approach to predict reproductive toxicity of chemicals.

    PubMed

    van der Burg, Bart; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Dietrich, Daniel R; Jaworska, Joanna; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Paune, Eduard; Schwarz, Michael; Piersma, Aldert H; Kroese, E Dinant

    2015-08-01

    There is a great need for rapid testing strategies for reproductive toxicity testing, avoiding animal use. The EU Framework program 7 project ChemScreen aimed to fill this gap in a pragmatic manner preferably using validated existing tools and place them in an innovative alternative testing strategy. In our approach we combined knowledge on critical processes affected by reproductive toxicants with knowledge on the mechanistic basis of such effects. We used in silico methods for prescreening chemicals for relevant toxic effects aiming at reduced testing needs. For those chemicals that need testing we have set up an in vitro screening panel that includes mechanistic high throughput methods and lower throughput assays that measure more integrative endpoints. In silico pharmacokinetic modules were developed for rapid exposure predictions via diverse exposure routes. These modules to match in vitro and in vivo exposure levels greatly improved predictivity of the in vitro tests. As a further step, we have generated examples how to predict reproductive toxicity of chemicals using available data. We have executed formal validations of panel constituents and also used more innovative manners to validate the test panel using mechanistic approaches. We are actively engaged in promoting regulatory acceptance of the tools developed as an essential step towards practical application, including case studies for read-across purposes. With this approach, a significant saving in animal use and associated costs seems very feasible.

  11. Assessment and Comparison of Vitreous Humor as an Alternative Matrix for Forensic Toxicology Screening by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Metushi, Imir G; Fitzgerald, Robert L; McIntyre, Iain M

    2016-05-01

    Alternative specimens have been occasionally considered as substitutes for whole blood for postmortem toxicology testing. We studied the applicability of vitreous humor, and evaluated whether it would be suitable to replace (or augment) whole blood for routine drug screening. Results showed that from 51 autopsy cases, we were able to identify an aggregate of 209 findings in whole blood compared with 169 in vitreous. The total number of compounds identified was 71 for whole blood and 60 for vitreous humor. Quantitative analysis showed that whole-blood concentrations of trazodone were several fold higher than vitreous humor concentrations (1.42 ± 0.57 vs. 0.15 ± 0.05 mg/L, respectively) and similar results were also obtained for diazepam (0.37 ± 0.06 vs. 0.13 ± 0.01, respectively). For other drugs such as oxycodone, hydrocodone and doxylamine, a trend suggesting higher concentrations in vitreous humor vs. whole blood was observed; however, this was not significant. Our results are consistent with the limited work of other investigators, and suggest that vitreous humor could be an appropriate matrix for drug screening in postmortem toxicology. PMID:26945835

  12. Screening for alternative antibiotics: an investigation into the antimicrobial activities of medicinal food plants of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Mahomoodally, M F; Gurib-Fakim, A; Subratty, A H

    2010-04-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of 2 endemic medicinal plants; Faujasiopsis flexuosa (Asteraceae) (FF) and Pittosporum senacia (Pittosporaceae) (PS) and 2 exotic medicinal plants, Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) (OT) that forms part of local pharmacopoeia of Mauritius and correlate any observed activity with its phytochemical profile. Aqueous and organic fractions of the leaves, fruits, and seeds of these plants were subjected to antimicrobial testing by the disc diffusion method against 8 clinical isolates of bacteria and 2 strains of fungus. It was found that MC, OT, and FF possessed antimicrobial properties against the test organisms. The MIC for MC ranged from 0.5 to 9 mg/mL and that of FF from 2 to 10 mg/mL and the lowest MIC value (0.5 mg/mL) was recorded for the unripe fruits of MC against E. coli. On the other hand, higher concentration of the unripe MC fruit extract of 9 mg/mL was needed to be effective against a resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The antimicrobial effect against MRSA was lost upon ripening of the fruits. The methanolic extract of both MC and FF showed highest MIC values compared to the corresponding aqueous extract, which indicates the low efficacy and the need of higher doses of the plant extract. Phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of at least tannins, phenols, flavonoids, and alkaloids, which are known antimicrobial phyto-compounds. In conclusion, the observed antimicrobial properties would tend to further validate the medicinal properties of these commonly used endemic medicinal and food plants of Mauritius. PMID:20492307

  13. Ronald Reagan and the American environment: an indictment, alternate budget proposal, and citizen's guide to action

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This Friends of the Earth (FOE) publication, prepared by FOE and 9 other environmental groups, documents hundreds of actions of the Reagan environmental record which, they feel, endangers the quality of life of all Americans. These actions by the Reagan administration that endanger the quality of life because of their radical approach to the environment adds up to their indictment that the President has broken a public trust. The laws remain intact, however, and public support for their enforcement increases. The report is divided into eight major sections: pollution control, federal public lands and natural resources, energy leasing, water resources, energy, regulatory reform, Council on Environmental Quality, and the international environment. Readers are urged to relate their concerns and support compliance with environmental laws. (DCK)

  14. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit.

  15. Bioelectric activity of skeletal muscle under conditions of alternating action of g-Forces and weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuganov, Y. M.; Kasyan, I. I.; Asyamolov, B. F.

    1975-01-01

    The bioelectric activity of the musculature of animals and man was studied during alternating g-forces and weightlessness. The appropriate conditions were reproduced in flight along a parabolic curve; in this case, weightlessness lasting 25-30 sec alternated with g-forces of about 2 g magnitude. Quite regular changes in the bioelectric activity of various groups of muscles were disclosed under g-forces and in weightlessness. Thus, muscle biopotential amplitudes of 130-180 microvolt in horizontal flight, increased to 190-330 microvolt under g-forces. In the subsequent weightlessness, an abrupt reduction in oscillation voltage was observed and, in a number of cases, phenomena, similar to the picture of bioelectric silence were noted.

  16. Screening alternative therapies to control Nosemosis type C in honey bee (Apis mellifera iberiensis) colonies.

    PubMed

    Botías, Cristina; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Meana, Aránzazu; Higes, Mariano

    2013-12-01

    Nosemosis type C caused by the microsporidium Nosema ceranae is one of the most widespread of the adult honey bee diseases, and due to its detrimental effects on both strength and productivity of honey bee colonies, an appropriate control of this disease is advisable. Fumagillin is the only veterinary medicament recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) to suppress infections by Nosema, but the use of this antibiotic is prohibited in the European Union and few alternatives are available at present to control the disease. In the present study three therapeutic agents (Nosestat®, Phenyl salicylate and Vitafeed Gold®) have been tested to control N. ceranae infection in honey bee colonies, and have been compared to the use of fumagillin. None of the products tested was effective against Nosema under our experimental conditions. Low consumption of the different doses of treatments may have had a strong influence on the results obtained, highlighting the importance of this issue and emphasizing that this should be evaluated in studies to test therapeutic treatments of honey bee colonies.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 340: Pesticide Release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-12-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 340, the NTS Pesticide Release Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 340 is located at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites: 23-21-01, Area 23 Quonset Hut 800 Pesticide Release Ditch; 23-18-03, Area 23 Skid Huts Pesticide Storage; and 15-18-02, Area 15 Quonset Hut 15-11 Pesticide Storage. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site. The scope of this Corrective Action Decision Document consists of the following tasks: Develop corrective action objectives; Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; Develop corrective action alternatives; Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site.

  18. Applying the knowledge to action framework to plan a strategy for implementing breast cancer screening guidelines: an interprofessional perspective.

    PubMed

    Munce, Sarah; Kastner, Monika; Cramm, Heidi; Lal, Shalini; Deschêne, Sarah-Maude; Auais, Mohammad; Stacey, Dawn; Brouwers, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    Integrated knowledge translation (IKT) interventions may be one solution to improving the uptake of clinical guidelines. IKT research initiatives are particularly relevant for breast cancer research and initiatives targeting the implementation of clinical guidelines and guideline implementation initiatives, where collaboration with an interdisciplinary team of practitioners, patients, caregivers, and policy makers is needed for producing optimum patient outcomes. The objective of this paper was to describe the process of developing an IKT strategy that could be used by guideline developers to improve the uptake of their new clinical practice guidelines on breast cancer screening. An interprofessional group of students as well as two faculty members met six times over three days at the KT Canada Summer Institute in 2011. The team used all of the phases of the action cycle in the Knowledge to Action Framework as an organizing framework. While the entire framework was used, the step involving assessing barriers to knowledge use was judged to be particularly relevant in anticipating implementation problems and being able to inform the specific KT interventions that would be appropriate to mitigate these challenges and to accomplish goals and outcomes. This activity also underscored the importance of group process and teamwork in IKT. We propose that an a priori assessment of barriers to knowledge use (i.e., level and corresponding barriers), along with the other phases of the Knowledge to Action Framework, is a strategic approach for KT strategy development, implementation, and evaluation planning and could be used in the future planning of KT strategies.

  19. Applications and Therapeutic Actions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Women with Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

    2014-01-01

    Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review. PMID:24648850

  20. Applications and therapeutic actions of complementary and alternative medicine for women with genital infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Kong, Sai; Tsui, Ilene; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

    2014-01-01

    Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review.

  1. Targeted Health Assessment for Wastes Contained at the Niagara Falls Storage Site to Guide Planning for Remedial Action Alternatives - 13428

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, John; Keil, Karen; Staten, Jane; Miller, Neil; Barker, Michelle; MacDonell, Margaret; Peterson, John; Chang, Young-Soo; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is evaluating potential remedial alternatives at the 191-acre Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in Lewiston, New York, under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) brought radioactive wastes to the site during the 1940's and 1950's, and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) consolidated these wastes into a 10-acre interim waste containment structure (IWCS) in the southwest portion of the site during the 1980's. The USACE is evaluating remedial alternatives for radioactive waste contained within the IWCS at the NFSS under the Feasibility Study phase of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process. A preliminary evaluation of the IWCS has been conducted to assess potential airborne releases associated with uncovered wastes, particularly during waste excavation, as well as direct exposures to uncovered wastes. Key technical issues for this assessment include: (1) limitations in waste characterization data; (2) representative receptors and exposure routes; (3) estimates of contaminant emissions at an early stage of the evaluation process; (4) consideration of candidate meteorological data and air dispersion modeling approaches; and (5) estimates of health effects from potential exposures to both radionuclides and chemicals that account for recent updates of exposure and toxicity factors. Results of this preliminary health risk assessment indicate if the wastes were uncovered and someone stayed at the IWCS for a number of days to weeks, substantial doses and serious health effects could be incurred. Current controls prevent such exposures, and the controls that would be applied to protect onsite workers during remedial action at the IWCS would also effectively protect the public nearby. This evaluation provides framing context for the upcoming development and detailed evaluation of

  2. A discriminant function model as an alternative method to spirometry for COPD screening in primary care settings in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jiangyu; Zhou, Yumin; Tian, Jia; Wang, Xinwang; Zheng, Jingping; Zhong, Nanshan

    2012-01-01

    Objective COPD is often underdiagnosed in a primary care setting where the spirometry is unavailable. This study was aimed to develop a simple, economical and applicable model for COPD screening in those settings. Methods First we established a discriminant function model based on Bayes’ Rule by stepwise discriminant analysis, using the data from 243 COPD patients and 112 non-COPD subjects from our COPD survey in urban and rural communities and local primary care settings in Guangdong Province, China. We then used this model to discriminate COPD in additional 150 subjects (50 non-COPD and 100 COPD ones) who had been recruited by the same methods as used to have established the model. All participants completed pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry and questionnaires. COPD was diagnosed according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. The sensitivity and specificity of the discriminant function model was assessed. Results The established discriminant function model included nine variables: age, gender, smoking index, body mass index, occupational exposure, living environment, wheezing, cough and dyspnoea. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, accuracy and error rate of the function model to discriminate COPD were 89.00%, 82.00%, 4.94, 0.13, 86.66% and 13.34%, respectively. The accuracy and Kappa value of the function model to predict COPD stages were 70% and 0.61 (95% CI, 0.50 to 0.71). Conclusions This discriminant function model may be used for COPD screening in primary care settings in China as an alternative option instead of spirometry. PMID:23205284

  3. Ronald Reagan and the American environment: an indictment, alternate budget proposal, and citizen's guide to action

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Ten environmental groups have joined forces to document the Reagan administration's record on environmental issues. They cite hundreds of actions that they interpret as breaking faith with the American people's desire to restore and preserve environmental quality. They feel the administration has used the appeal of regulatory reform to either rescind pollution regulations or to use the budget process as a way to avoid enforcement. They observe that the multiple-use concept of public land has been titled in favor of private speculators whose activities preclude recreational and preservationist uses. The indictment points out that the Reagan approach is a radical squandering of the nation's resources and not a conservative policy. The book opens with specific charges in several environmental areas, then reports the group's findings and its recommendations. 79 references, 3 figures, 3 tables. (DCK)

  4. Detection of novel and potentially actionable anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement in colorectal adenocarcinoma by immunohistochemistry screening

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Kim, Sun Young; Jang, Jiryeon; Kim, Seung Tae; Park, Joon Oh; Lim, Ho Yeong; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Young Suk; Lee, Jiyun; Lee, Woo Yong; Park, Yoon Ah; Huh, Jung Wook; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Do, In-Gu; Kim, Seok Hyung; Balasubramanian, Sohail; Stephens, Philip J.; Ross, Jeffrey S.; Li, Gang Gary; Hornby, Zachary; Ali, Siraj M.; Miller, Vincent A.; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement has been detected in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) using advanced molecular diagnostics tests including exon scanning, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and next generation sequencing (NGS). We investigated if immunohistochemistry (IHC) can be used to detect ALK rearrangement in gastrointestinal malignancies. Experimental designs Tissue microarrays (TMAs) from consecutive gastric carcinoma (GC) and CRC patients who underwent surgical resection at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea were screened by IHC using ALK monoclonal antibody 5A4. IHC positive cases were confirmed by FISH, nCounter assays, and NGS-based comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP). ALK IHC was further applied to CRC patients enrolled in a pathway-directed therapeutic trial. Results Four hundred thirty-two GC and 172 CRC cases were screened by IHC. No GC sample was ALK IHC positive. One CRC (0.6%) was ALK IHC positive (3+) that was confirmed by ALK FISH and a novel CAD-ALK (C35; A20) fusion variant that resulted from a paracentric inversion event inv(2)(p22–21p23) was identified by CGP. One out of 50 CRC patients enrolled in a pathway-directed therapeutic trial was ALK IHC positive (3+) confirmed by ALK FISH and found to harbor the EML4-ALK (E21, A20) fusion variant by CGP. Growth of a tumor cell line derived from this EML4-ALK CRC patient was inhibited by ALK inhibitors crizotinib and entrectinib. Conclusions ALK IHC is a viable screening strategy for identifying ALK rearrangement in CRC. ALK rearrangement is a potential actionable driver mutation in CRC based on survival inhibition of patient tumor-derived cell line by potent ALK inhibitors. PMID:26172300

  5. Screening HIV-Infected Patients with Low CD4 Counts for Cryptococcal Antigenemia prior to Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy: Cost Effectiveness of Alternative Screening Strategies in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rockers, Peter C.; Bonawitz, Rachael; Sriruttan, Charlotte; Glencross, Deborah K.; Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi M.; Greene, Gregory S.; Chiller, Tom M.; Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Long, Lawrence; van Rensburg, Craig; Govender, Nelesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2015 South Africa established a national cryptococcal antigenemia (CrAg) screening policy targeted at HIV-infected patients with CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4) counts <100 cells/ μl who are not yet on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Two screening strategies are included in national guidelines: reflex screening, where a CrAg test is performed on remnant blood samples from CD4 testing; and provider-initiated screening, where providers order a CrAg test after a patient returns for CD4 test results. The objective of this study was to compare costs and effectiveness of these two screening strategies. Methods We developed a decision analytic model to compare reflex and provider-initiated screening in terms of programmatic and health outcomes (number screened, number identified for preemptive treatment, lives saved, and discounted years of life saved) and screening and treatment costs (2015 USD). We estimated a base case with prevalence and other parameters based on data collected during CrAg screening pilot projects integrated into routine HIV care in Gauteng, Free State, and Western Cape Provinces. We conducted sensitivity analyses to explore how results change with underlying parameter assumptions. Results In the base case, for each 100,000 CD4 tests, the reflex strategy compared to the provider-initiated strategy has higher screening costs ($37,536 higher) but lower treatment costs ($55,165 lower), so overall costs of screening and treatment are $17,629 less with the reflex strategy. The reflex strategy saves more lives (30 lives, 647 additional years of life saved). Sensitivity analyses suggest that reflex screening dominates provider-initiated screening (lower total costs and more lives saved) or saves additional lives for small additional costs (< $125 per life year) across a wide range of conditions (CrAg prevalence, patient and provider behavior, patient survival without treatment, and effectiveness of preemptive fluconazole treatment). Conclusions In

  6. The Health System and Population Health Implications of Large-Scale Diabetes Screening in India: A Microsimulation Model of Alternative Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanjay; Millett, Christopher; Vijan, Sandeep; Hayward, Rodney A.; Kinra, Sanjay; Ahuja, Rahoul; Yudkin, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Like a growing number of rapidly developing countries, India has begun to develop a system for large-scale community-based screening for diabetes. We sought to identify the implications of using alternative screening instruments to detect people with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes among diverse populations across India. Methods and Findings We developed and validated a microsimulation model that incorporated data from 58 studies from across the country into a nationally representative sample of Indians aged 25–65 y old. We estimated the diagnostic and health system implications of three major survey-based screening instruments and random glucometer-based screening. Of the 567 million Indians eligible for screening, depending on which of four screening approaches is utilized, between 158 and 306 million would be expected to screen as “high risk” for type 2 diabetes, and be referred for confirmatory testing. Between 26 million and 37 million of these people would be expected to meet international diagnostic criteria for diabetes, but between 126 million and 273 million would be “false positives.” The ratio of false positives to true positives varied from 3.9 (when using random glucose screening) to 8.2 (when using a survey-based screening instrument) in our model. The cost per case found would be expected to be from US$5.28 (when using random glucose screening) to US$17.06 (when using a survey-based screening instrument), presenting a total cost of between US$169 and US$567 million. The major limitation of our analysis is its dependence on published cohort studies that are unlikely fully to capture the poorest and most rural areas of the country. Because these areas are thought to have the lowest diabetes prevalence, this may result in overestimation of the efficacy and health benefits of screening. Conclusions Large-scale community-based screening is anticipated to produce a large number of false-positive results, particularly if using currently

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  8. Combined action of static and alternating magnetic fields on ion motion in a macromolecule: theoretical aspects.

    PubMed

    Zhadin, M N

    1998-01-01

    This is an attempt to solve the energetic problem of the primary detection of weak parallel static (DC) and alternating (AC) extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields. We studied the equations of motion for an ion situated inside a macromolecule under the influence of these fields. The main concern is with the magnetic field influence on thermal motion of the ion in the macromolecule. The resonance effects are revealed at discrete frequencies of the ion thermal oscillations determined by the DC field magnitude and the AC field frequency. These phenomena result from the Larmor precession of the ion thermal motion. When the DC field or, to a greater extent, the combined DC and AC fields with the specific frequencies are turned on or cut off, changes occur in the energy of the ion thermal motion. If, inside the macromolecule, the ion is sufficiently protected against immediate impacts of particles of the medium surrounding the macromolecule, these changes may be enough to trigger alteration in the quantum state of the macromolecule.

  9. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Daniel A; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2013-09-15

    Copper-indium-gallium-selenium-sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS₂ p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane.

  10. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Daniel A; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2013-09-15

    Copper-indium-gallium-selenium-sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS₂ p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane. PMID:23811631

  11. How community action, science and common sense can work together to develop an alternative way to combat desertification.

    PubMed

    Bethune, Shirley; Schachtschneider, Klaudia

    2004-12-01

    The Spitzkoppe Community Campsite in western Namibia lies in an area with very limited water resources. Water scarcity places a constraint on community income generation and development opportunities. The existing water resources are overexploited and to ensure future water security, the community must take sustainable water management into consideration in their daily lives and business ventures, including tourism. This has been successfully achieved at the Spitzkoppe Community Campsite through a combination of high community motivation, organisation and action, the involvement of researchers and trainers in water resource management and support from developers. The most appropriate water management solutions were found through ongoing practical testing of different strategies and technologies over two years. This paper presents a case study of a community-based tourist camp at Spitzkoppe and traces the community's progress towards developing an alternative way to combat desertification and a potentially lucrative tourist business.

  12. How community action, science and common sense can work together to develop an alternative way to combat desertification.

    PubMed

    Bethune, Shirley; Schachtschneider, Klaudia

    2004-12-01

    The Spitzkoppe Community Campsite in western Namibia lies in an area with very limited water resources. Water scarcity places a constraint on community income generation and development opportunities. The existing water resources are overexploited and to ensure future water security, the community must take sustainable water management into consideration in their daily lives and business ventures, including tourism. This has been successfully achieved at the Spitzkoppe Community Campsite through a combination of high community motivation, organisation and action, the involvement of researchers and trainers in water resource management and support from developers. The most appropriate water management solutions were found through ongoing practical testing of different strategies and technologies over two years. This paper presents a case study of a community-based tourist camp at Spitzkoppe and traces the community's progress towards developing an alternative way to combat desertification and a potentially lucrative tourist business. PMID:15641379

  13. Implementing low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer in Canada: implications of alternative at-risk populations, screening frequency, and duration

    PubMed Central

    Evans, W.K.; Flanagan, W.M.; Miller, A.B.; Goffin, J.R.; Memon, S.; Fitzgerald, N.; Wolfson, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-dose computed tomography (ldct) screening has been shown to reduce mortality from lung cancer; however, the optimal screening duration and “at risk” population are not known. Methods The Cancer Risk Management Model developed by Statistics Canada for the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer includes a lung screening module based on data from the U.S. National Lung Screening Trial (nlst). The base-case scenario reproduces nlst outcomes with high fidelity. The impact in Canada of annual screening on the number of incident cases and life-years gained, with a wider range of age and smoking history eligibility criteria and varied participation rates, was modelled to show the magnitude of clinical benefit nationally and by province. Life-years gained, costs (discounted and undiscounted), and resource requirements were also estimated. Results In 2014, 1.4 million Canadians were eligible for screening according to nlst criteria. Over 10 years, screening would detect 12,500 more lung cancers than the expected 268,300 and would gain 9200 life-years. The computed tomography imaging requirement of 24,000–30,000 at program initiation would rise to between 87,000 and 113,000 by the 5th year of an annual nlst-like screening program. Costs would increase from approximately $75 million to $128 million at 10 years, and the cumulative cost nationally over 10 years would approach $1 billion, partially offset by a reduction in the costs of managing advanced lung cancer. Conclusions Modelling various ways in which ldct might be implemented provides decision-makers with estimates of the effect on clinical benefit and on resource needs that clinical trial results are unable to provide. PMID:27330355

  14. Dried Blood as an Alternative to Plasma or Serum for Trypanosoma cruzi IgG Detection in Screening Programs

    PubMed Central

    Holguín, Africa; Norman, Francesca; Martín, Leticia; Mateos, María Luisa; Chacón, Jesús; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi serological screening is recommended for people potentially exposed to this parasite in countries where Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic and those where it is not endemic. Blood samples on filter paper may be a practical alternative to plasma/serum for antibody detection. Using the Architect Chagas assay, we detected the presence of IgG against T. cruzi in matched serum and dried blood spots (DBS) collected from 147 patients residing in Madrid, Spain, who had potential previous exposure to T. cruzi. The κ statistic for the DBS/serum proportion of agreement for the detection of antibodies against T. cruzi was 0.803, considering an S/CO (assay result unit; chemiluminescent signal from the sample [S] divided by the mean chemiluminescent signal for the three calibrators used in the test [CO]) cutoff value of ≥1.00. The relative sensitivity of the Architect test using DBS increased from 95.2% to 98.8% when the cutoff was lowered from ≥1.00 to ≥0.88, while the relative specificity decreased from 84.1% to 71.6%. Overall, the median S/CO values for DBS were significantly lower than those for serum (2.6 versus 6.5; P < 0.001). Discrepancies that occurred with the use of DBS included 10 false positives (with low S/CO values in 9 cases [median, 2.13]) and 4 false negatives, with mean S/CO values of 0.905 (gray zone). Using DBS plus a highly sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) may be a simple and reliable method for detecting IgG against T. cruzi when blood sampling by venipuncture is not feasible. This method may also reduce the false-negative rates observed with some rapid diagnostic tests. The lower relative sensitivity compared to the reference method may be increased by lowering the optical density threshold. PMID:23740927

  15. Identification of Coilin Mutants in a Screen for Enhanced Expression of an Alternatively Spliced GFP Reporter Gene in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Tatsuo; Lin, Wen-Dar; Fu, Jason L.; Wu, Ming-Tsung; Yang, Ho-Wen; Lin, Shih-Shun; Matzke, Antonius J. M.; Matzke, Marjori

    2016-01-01

    Coilin is a marker protein for subnuclear organelles known as Cajal bodies, which are sites of various RNA metabolic processes including the biogenesis of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. Through self-associations and interactions with other proteins and RNA, coilin provides a structural scaffold for Cajal body formation. However, despite a conspicuous presence in Cajal bodies, most coilin is dispersed in the nucleoplasm and expressed in cell types that lack these organelles. The molecular function of coilin, particularly of the substantial nucleoplasmic fraction, remains uncertain. We identified coilin loss-of-function mutations in a genetic screen for mutants showing either reduced or enhanced expression of an alternatively spliced GFP reporter gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. The coilin mutants feature enhanced GFP fluorescence and diminished Cajal bodies compared with wild-type plants. The amount of GFP protein is several-fold higher in the coilin mutants owing to elevated GFP transcript levels and more efficient splicing to produce a translatable GFP mRNA. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing data from two distinct coilin mutants revealed a small, shared subset of differentially expressed genes, many encoding stress-related proteins, and, unexpectedly, a trend toward increased splicing efficiency. These results suggest that coilin attenuates splicing and modulates transcription of a select group of genes. The transcriptional and splicing changes observed in coilin mutants are not accompanied by gross phenotypic abnormalities or dramatically altered stress responses, supporting a role for coilin in fine tuning gene expression. Our GFP reporter gene provides a sensitive monitor of coilin activity that will facilitate further investigations into the functions of this enigmatic protein. PMID:27317682

  16. Identification of Coilin Mutants in a Screen for Enhanced Expression of an Alternatively Spliced GFP Reporter Gene in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Tatsuo; Lin, Wen-Dar; Fu, Jason L; Wu, Ming-Tsung; Yang, Ho-Wen; Lin, Shih-Shun; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2016-08-01

    Coilin is a marker protein for subnuclear organelles known as Cajal bodies, which are sites of various RNA metabolic processes including the biogenesis of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. Through self-associations and interactions with other proteins and RNA, coilin provides a structural scaffold for Cajal body formation. However, despite a conspicuous presence in Cajal bodies, most coilin is dispersed in the nucleoplasm and expressed in cell types that lack these organelles. The molecular function of coilin, particularly of the substantial nucleoplasmic fraction, remains uncertain. We identified coilin loss-of-function mutations in a genetic screen for mutants showing either reduced or enhanced expression of an alternatively spliced GFP reporter gene in Arabidopsis thaliana The coilin mutants feature enhanced GFP fluorescence and diminished Cajal bodies compared with wild-type plants. The amount of GFP protein is several-fold higher in the coilin mutants owing to elevated GFP transcript levels and more efficient splicing to produce a translatable GFP mRNA. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing data from two distinct coilin mutants revealed a small, shared subset of differentially expressed genes, many encoding stress-related proteins, and, unexpectedly, a trend toward increased splicing efficiency. These results suggest that coilin attenuates splicing and modulates transcription of a select group of genes. The transcriptional and splicing changes observed in coilin mutants are not accompanied by gross phenotypic abnormalities or dramatically altered stress responses, supporting a role for coilin in fine tuning gene expression. Our GFP reporter gene provides a sensitive monitor of coilin activity that will facilitate further investigations into the functions of this enigmatic protein. PMID:27317682

  17. Alternatives Analysis for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Nelson

    2013-11-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for resumption of transient testing. The analysis considered eleven alternatives – including both US international facilities. A screening process was used to identify two viable alternatives from the original eleven. In addition, the alternatives analysis includes a no action alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The alternatives considered in this analysis included: 1. Restart the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) 2. Modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) which includes construction of a new hot cell and installation of a new hodoscope. 3. No Action

  18. Defined PEG smears as an alternative approach to enhance the search for crystallization conditions and crystal-quality improvement in reduced screens

    SciTech Connect

    Chaikuad, Apirat; Knapp, Stefan; Delft, Frank von

    2015-07-28

    An alternative strategy for PEG sampling is suggested through the use of four newly defined PEG smears to enhance chemical space in reduced screens with a benefit towards protein crystallization. The quest for an optimal limited set of effective crystallization conditions remains a challenge in macromolecular crystallography, an issue that is complicated by the large number of chemicals which have been deemed to be suitable for promoting crystal growth. The lack of rational approaches towards the selection of successful chemical space and representative combinations has led to significant overlapping conditions, which are currently present in a multitude of commercially available crystallization screens. Here, an alternative approach to the sampling of widely used PEG precipitants is suggested through the use of PEG smears, which are mixtures of different PEGs with a requirement of either neutral or cooperatively positive effects of each component on crystal growth. Four newly defined smears were classified by molecular-weight groups and enabled the preservation of specific properties related to different polymer sizes. These smears not only allowed a wide coverage of properties of these polymers, but also reduced PEG variables, enabling greater sampling of other parameters such as buffers and additives. The efficiency of the smear-based screens was evaluated on more than 220 diverse recombinant human proteins, which overall revealed a good initial crystallization success rate of nearly 50%. In addition, in several cases successful crystallizations were only obtained using PEG smears, while various commercial screens failed to yield crystals. The defined smears therefore offer an alternative approach towards PEG sampling, which will benefit the design of crystallization screens sampling a wide chemical space of this key precipitant.

  19. Defined PEG smears as an alternative approach to enhance the search for crystallization conditions and crystal-quality improvement in reduced screens.

    PubMed

    Chaikuad, Apirat; Knapp, Stefan; von Delft, Frank

    2015-08-01

    The quest for an optimal limited set of effective crystallization conditions remains a challenge in macromolecular crystallography, an issue that is complicated by the large number of chemicals which have been deemed to be suitable for promoting crystal growth. The lack of rational approaches towards the selection of successful chemical space and representative combinations has led to significant overlapping conditions, which are currently present in a multitude of commercially available crystallization screens. Here, an alternative approach to the sampling of widely used PEG precipitants is suggested through the use of PEG smears, which are mixtures of different PEGs with a requirement of either neutral or cooperatively positive effects of each component on crystal growth. Four newly defined smears were classified by molecular-weight groups and enabled the preservation of specific properties related to different polymer sizes. These smears not only allowed a wide coverage of properties of these polymers, but also reduced PEG variables, enabling greater sampling of other parameters such as buffers and additives. The efficiency of the smear-based screens was evaluated on more than 220 diverse recombinant human proteins, which overall revealed a good initial crystallization success rate of nearly 50%. In addition, in several cases successful crystallizations were only obtained using PEG smears, while various commercial screens failed to yield crystals. The defined smears therefore offer an alternative approach towards PEG sampling, which will benefit the design of crystallization screens sampling a wide chemical space of this key precipitant.

  20. Defined PEG smears as an alternative approach to enhance the search for crystallization conditions and crystal-quality improvement in reduced screens

    PubMed Central

    Chaikuad, Apirat; Knapp, Stefan; von Delft, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The quest for an optimal limited set of effective crystallization conditions remains a challenge in macromolecular crystallography, an issue that is complicated by the large number of chemicals which have been deemed to be suitable for promoting crystal growth. The lack of rational approaches towards the selection of successful chemical space and representative combinations has led to significant overlapping conditions, which are currently present in a multitude of commercially available crystallization screens. Here, an alternative approach to the sampling of widely used PEG precipitants is suggested through the use of PEG smears, which are mixtures of different PEGs with a requirement of either neutral or cooperatively positive effects of each component on crystal growth. Four newly defined smears were classified by molecular-weight groups and enabled the preservation of specific properties related to different polymer sizes. These smears not only allowed a wide coverage of properties of these polymers, but also reduced PEG variables, enabling greater sampling of other parameters such as buffers and additives. The efficiency of the smear-based screens was evaluated on more than 220 diverse recombinant human proteins, which overall revealed a good initial crystallization success rate of nearly 50%. In addition, in several cases successful crystallizations were only obtained using PEG smears, while various commercial screens failed to yield crystals. The defined smears therefore offer an alternative approach towards PEG sampling, which will benefit the design of crystallization screens sampling a wide chemical space of this key precipitant. PMID:26249344

  1. Establishment of alternative potency test for botulinum toxin type A using compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in rats.

    PubMed

    Torii, Yasushi; Goto, Yoshitaka; Nakahira, Shinji; Ginnaga, Akihiro

    2014-11-01

    The biological activity of botulinum toxin type A has been evaluated using the mouse intraperitoneal (ip) LD50 test. This method requires a large number of mice to precisely determine toxin activity, and, as such, poses problems with regard to animal welfare. We previously developed a compound muscle action potential (CMAP) assay using rats as an alternative method to the mouse ip LD50 test. In this study, to evaluate this quantitative method of measuring toxin activity using CMAP, we assessed the parameters necessary for quantitative tests according to ICH Q2 (R1). This assay could be used to evaluate the activity of the toxin, even when inactive toxin was mixed with the sample. To reduce the number of animals needed, this assay was set to measure two samples per animal. Linearity was detected over a range of 0.1-12.8 U/mL, and the measurement range was set at 0.4-6.4 U/mL. The results for accuracy and precision showed low variability. The body weight was selected as a variable factor, but it showed no effect on the CMAP amplitude. In this study, potency tests using the rat CMAP assay of botulinum toxin type A demonstrated that it met the criteria for a quantitative analysis method.

  2. Identification of Novel Small Molecule Activators of Nuclear Factor-κB With Neuroprotective Action Via High-Throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    Manuvakhova, Marina S.; Johnson, Guyla G.; White, Misti C.; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Sosa, Melinda; Maddox, Clinton; McKellip, Sara; Rasmussen, Lynn; Wennerberg, Krister; Hobrath, Judith V.; White, E. Lucile; Maddry, Joseph A.; Grimaldi, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal noncytokine-dependent p50/p65 nuclear factor-κB (the primary NF-κB complex in the brain) activation has been shown to exert neuroprotective actions. Thus neuronal activation of NF-κB could represent a viable neuroprotective target. We have developed a cell-based assay able to detect NF-κB expression enhancement, and through its use we have identified small molecules able to up-regulate NF-κB expression and hence trigger its activation in neurons. We have successfully screened approximately 300,000 compounds and identified 1,647 active compounds. Cluster analysis of the structures within the hit population yielded 14 enriched chemical scaffolds. One high-potency and chemically attractive representative of each of these 14 scaffolds and four singleton structures were selected for follow-up. The experiments described here highlighted that seven compounds caused noncanonical long-lasting NF-κB activation in primary astrocytes. Molecular NF-κB docking experiments indicate that compounds could be modulating NF-κB-induced NF-κB expression via enhancement of NF-κB binding to its own promoter. Prototype compounds increased p65 expression in neurons and caused its nuclear translocation without affecting the inhibitor of NF-κB (I-κB). One of the prototypical compounds caused a large reduction of glutamate-induced neuronal death. In conclusion, we have provided evidence that we can use small molecules to activate p65 NF-κB expression in neurons in a cytokine receptor-independent manner, which results in both long-lasting p65 NF-κB translocation/activation and decreased glutamate neurotoxicity. PMID:21046675

  3. Organometallic Iridium(III) Anticancer Complexes with New Mechanisms of Action: NCI-60 Screening, Mitochondrial Targeting, and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Platinum complexes related to cisplatin, cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2], are successful anticancer drugs; however, other transition metal complexes offer potential for combating cisplatin resistance, decreasing side effects, and widening the spectrum of activity. Organometallic half-sandwich iridium (IrIII) complexes [Ir(Cpx)(XY)Cl]+/0 (Cpx = biphenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl and XY = phenanthroline (1), bipyridine (2), or phenylpyridine (3)) all hydrolyze rapidly, forming monofunctional G adducts on DNA with additional intercalation of the phenyl substituents on the Cpx ring. In comparison, highly potent complex 4 (Cpx = phenyltetramethylcyclopentadienyl and XY = N,N-dimethylphenylazopyridine) does not hydrolyze. All show higher potency toward A2780 human ovarian cancer cells compared to cisplatin, with 1, 3, and 4 also demonstrating higher potency in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) NCI-60 cell-line screen. Use of the NCI COMPARE algorithm (which predicts mechanisms of action (MoAs) for emerging anticancer compounds by correlating NCI-60 patterns of sensitivity) shows that the MoA of these IrIII complexes has no correlation to cisplatin (or oxaliplatin), with 3 and 4 emerging as particularly novel compounds. Those findings by COMPARE were experimentally probed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of A2780 cells exposed to 1, showing mitochondrial swelling and activation of apoptosis after 24 h. Significant changes in mitochondrial membrane polarization were detected by flow cytometry, and the potency of the complexes was enhanced ca. 5× by co-administration with a low concentration (5 μM) of the γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase inhibitor L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO). These studies reveal potential polypharmacology of organometallic IrIII complexes, with MoA and cell selectivity governed by structural changes in the chelating ligands. PMID:23618382

  4. Alternative to the soft-agar assay that permits high-throughput drug and genetic screens for cellular transformation

    PubMed Central

    Rotem, Asaf; Janzer, Andreas; Izar, Benjamin; Ji, Zhe; Doench, John G.; Garraway, Levi A.; Struhl, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Colony formation in soft agar is the gold-standard assay for cellular transformation in vitro, but it is unsuited for high-throughput screening. Here, we describe an assay for cellular transformation that involves growth in low attachment (GILA) conditions and is strongly correlated with the soft-agar assay. Using GILA, we describe high-throughput screens for drugs and genes that selectively inhibit or increase transformation, but not proliferation. Such molecules are unlikely to be found through conventional drug screening, and they include kinase inhibitors and drugs for noncancer diseases. In addition to known oncogenes, the genetic screen identifies genes that contribute to cellular transformation. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability of Food and Drug Administration-approved noncancer drugs to selectively kill ovarian cancer cells derived from patients with chemotherapy-resistant disease, suggesting this approach may provide useful information for personalized cancer treatment. PMID:25902495

  5. The ToxCast Pathway Database for Identifying Toxicity Signatures and Potential Modes of Action from Chemical Screening Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ToxCast program, is developing predictive toxicity approaches that will use in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS), high-content screening (HCS) and toxicogenomic data to predict in vivo toxicity phenotypes. There are ...

  6. Alternatives to in vivo tests to detect endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in fish and amphibians--screening for estrogen, androgen and thyroid hormone disruption.

    PubMed

    Scholz, S; Renner, P; Belanger, S E; Busquet, F; Davi, R; Demeneix, B A; Denny, J S; Léonard, M; McMaster, M E; Villeneuve, D L; Embry, M R

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disruption is considered a highly relevant hazard for environmental risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, biocides and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, screening tests with a focus on interference with estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone pathways in fish and amphibians have been developed. However, they use a large number of animals and short-term alternatives to animal tests would be advantageous. Therefore, the status of alternative assays for endocrine disruption in fish and frogs was assessed by a detailed literature analysis. The aim was to (i) determine the strengths and limitations of alternative assays and (ii) present conclusions regarding chemical specificity, sensitivity, and correlation with in vivo data. Data from 1995 to present were collected related to the detection/testing of estrogen-, androgen-, and thyroid-active chemicals in the following test systems: cell lines, primary cells, fish/frog embryos, yeast and cell-free systems. The review shows that the majority of alternative assays measure effects directly mediated by receptor binding or resulting from interference with hormone synthesis. Other mechanisms were rarely analysed. A database was established and used for a quantitative and comparative analysis. For example, a high correlation was observed between cell-free ligand binding and cell-based reporter cell assays, between fish and frog estrogenic data and between fish embryo tests and in vivo reproductive effects. It was concluded that there is a need for a more systematic study of the predictive capacity of alternative tests and ways to reduce inter- and intra-assay variability.

  7. Get Screened

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get Ready 3 of 4 sections Take Action: Cost and Insurance What about cost? Depending on your insurance plan, you may be able to get screening tests at no cost to you. Most insurance plans, including Medicaid and ...

  8. Closing the Gap between Policy and Practice in Screening for Perinatal Depression: A Policy Analysis and Call for Action.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Sampson, McClain

    2016-10-01

    Although perinatal depression (PND) is one of the most common maternal morbidities, it is frequently undetected. Screening for early detection and intervention has the potential to prevent depressive symptoms from worsening. In the United States, five states have enacted legislation in relation to screening for PND, but a gap remains between policy and practice in providing continuum of care for mothers who may be suffering from depressive symptoms. From the perspective of policy formation, the reasons for this gap include a discrepancy between policy and practice goals, lack of regulations on capability building among perinatal care providers, and few pathways for establishing collaborations between medical providers and mental health professionals. The authors recommend involving social workers in the process to promote a better continuum of care after screening through comprehensive policy that explicitly states goals to effectively screen women in the perinatal period. PMID:27254263

  9. Closing the Gap between Policy and Practice in Screening for Perinatal Depression: A Policy Analysis and Call for Action.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Sampson, McClain

    2016-10-01

    Although perinatal depression (PND) is one of the most common maternal morbidities, it is frequently undetected. Screening for early detection and intervention has the potential to prevent depressive symptoms from worsening. In the United States, five states have enacted legislation in relation to screening for PND, but a gap remains between policy and practice in providing continuum of care for mothers who may be suffering from depressive symptoms. From the perspective of policy formation, the reasons for this gap include a discrepancy between policy and practice goals, lack of regulations on capability building among perinatal care providers, and few pathways for establishing collaborations between medical providers and mental health professionals. The authors recommend involving social workers in the process to promote a better continuum of care after screening through comprehensive policy that explicitly states goals to effectively screen women in the perinatal period.

  10. Development of a tool for defining and identifying the dying patient in hospital: Criteria for Screening and Triaging to Appropriate aLternative care (CriSTAL)

    PubMed Central

    Cardona-Morrell, Magnolia; Hillman, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a screening tool to identify elderly patients at the end of life and quantify the risk of death in hospital or soon after discharge for to minimise prognostic uncertainty and avoid potentially harmful and futile treatments. Design Narrative literature review of definitions, tools and measurements that could be combined into a screening tool based on routinely available or obtainable data at the point of care to identify elderly patients who are unavoidably dying at the time of admission or at risk of dying during hospitalisation. Main measurements Variables and thresholds proposed for the Criteria for Screening and Triaging to Appropriate aLternative care (CriSTAL screening tool) were adopted from existing scales and published research findings showing association with either in-hospital, 30-day or 3-month mortality. Results Eighteen predictor instruments and their variants were examined. The final items for the new CriSTAL screening tool included: age ≥65; meeting ≥2 deterioration criteria; an index of frailty with ≥2 criteria; early warning score >4; presence of ≥1 selected comorbidities; nursing home placement; evidence of cognitive impairment; prior emergency hospitalisation or intensive care unit readmission in the past year; abnormal ECG; and proteinuria. Conclusions An unambiguous checklist may assist clinicians in reducing uncertainty patients who are likely to die within the next 3 months and help initiate transparent conversations with families and patients about end-of-life care. Retrospective chart review and prospective validation will be undertaken to optimise the number of prognostic items for easy administration and enhanced generalisability. Development of an evidence-based tool for defining and identifying the dying patient in hospital: CriSTAL. PMID:25613983

  11. Comparative Analyses of Live-Action and Animated Film Remake Scenes: Finding Alternative Film-Based Teaching Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champoux, Joseph E.

    2005-01-01

    Live-action and animated film remake scenes can show many topics typically taught in organizational behaviour and management courses. This article discusses, analyses and compares such scenes to identify parallel film scenes useful for teaching. The analysis assesses the scenes to decide which scene type, animated or live-action, more effectively…

  12. Development of a mechanism of action-based screen for anthelmintic microbial metabolites with avermectinlike activity and isolation of milbemycin-producing Streptomyces strains.

    PubMed Central

    Haber, C L; Heckaman, C L; Li, G P; Thompson, D P; Whaley, H A; Wiley, V H

    1991-01-01

    A high-volume screen for anthelmintic microbial metabolites with an avermectinlike mode of action was developed. The primary screen used the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in a whole-organism assay. The specificity for avermectinlike compounds resides in the secondary screen, which takes advantage of the chloride channel-opening properties of the avermectins. By using standard microelectrode techniques, membrane conductance changes following exposure to extracts of microbial cultures were measured in the walking leg stretcher muscle fibers of the lined shore crab Pachygrapsus crassipes. The avermectins and related milbemycins give a characteristic response of rapid loss of membrane resistance coupled with a slight hyperpolarization of the membrane. This is partially (near 50%) reversible with the chloride channel blocker picrotoxinin. Four morphologically similar cultures that produced avermectinlike activities were identified by this screen. Isolation of the active components from one of these cultures (strain UC 8984) followed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy resulted in the identification of milbemycins alpha 1 and alpha 3. These metabolites are members of a large family of milbemycins produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. aureolacrimosus NRRL 5739. Systematic studies revealed that strain UC 8984 is also a S. hygroscopicus strain, but which is taxonomically distinct from NRRL 5739. Images PMID:1719935

  13. A rapid and inexpensive method to screen for common foods that reduce the action of acrylamide, a harmful substance in food.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Koichi; Miwa, Satsuki; Tajima, Tomoko; Tsutsumiuchi, Kaname; Taniguchi, Hajime; Miwa, Johji

    2007-12-10

    By DNA microarray and protein 2-DE screens for Caenorhabditis elegans genes up-regulated by acrylamide, we selected the gst-4 gene and constructed a gst::gfp fusion gene, which was used to transform C. elegans into a biosensor for acrylamide. This biosensor detects acrylamide as a GFP-expression signal in a dose- and time-dependent manner. When the biosensor was exposed to acrylamide together with commercially available powdered green tea, GFP levels decreased to the control level, suggestive of acrylamide detoxification or prevention of GST induction. The present methodology should be applicable for screening of not only harmful substances but also substances that reduce or counteract their harmfulness or action, with appropriately constructed visible biosensors. PMID:18023302

  14. Feasibility study of contamination remediation at Naval Weapons Station, Concord, California. Volume 1. Remedial-action alternatives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cullinane, M.J.; Lee, C.R.; O'Neil, L.J.

    1988-09-01

    This report identifies and describes potential remedial actions to eliminate or mitigate the release of hazardous substances onto lands of the Naval Weapons Station, Concord, CA. Hazardous substances identified as necessitating remedial actions include lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, selenium, and arsenic. The proposed remedial actions are designed to address existing or potential impacts identified in a separate study. These identified impacts include: contamination of soil with metals; contamination and toxicity in plants and soil invertebrates; reduced plant growth; increased soil acidity; surface water contamination; air contamination; loss of quantity and quality of wildlife habitat; loss of wetland function; and loss of ultimate land use. The release of hazardous substances at seven sites was identified in the remedial investigation. The seven individual areas were consolidated into four remedial action subsites (RASS's) based on an analysis of the topography and nature of the habitat.

  15. Record of decision remedial alternative selection for the Grace Road site (631-22G) operable unit: Final action

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1997-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Grace Road Site located at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The selected action was developed in accordance with CERCLA, as amended, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The selected remedy satisfies both CERCLA and RCRA 3004 requirements. This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA unit.

  16. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  17. [Transcranial magnetic electro-stimulation with alternate action on brain hemispheres in the correction of cerebral disturbances in children with diabetes mellitus type 1].

    PubMed

    Filina, N Iu; Bolotova, N V; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M; Nikolaeva, N V

    2012-01-01

    Correction of psychoemotional and autonomic disturbances in children 7-17 years old with diabetes mellitus type 1 was conducted using transcranial magnetic electro-stimulation with alternate action on brain hemispheres (main group, 42 patients). The method includes the combined action of magnetic field pulses and series of electric impulses; magnetic and electric stimulation were performed synchronously - at first, on one brain hemisphere, then on another hemisphere with alternation frequency 9.5-10.5 Hz. A comparison group consisted of 44 patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 who received physiotherapeutic treatment as a combination of transcranial magnetic therapy and electro-stimulation with simultaneous action on both brain hemispheres. Treatment duration was 10 sessions. Treatment efficacy was assessed by the decrease in frequency and intensity of complaints, improvement of patient's health status measured (a scale for assessment of activity, health perception and mood) and improvement of the status of the autonomic nervous system (Vein's questionnaire), mental sphere (the Luscher color test) and cognitive traits (The Concentrated Attention Test of the Toulouse-Pierron Factorial Battery). The status of the autonomic nervous system was evaluated before and after the treatment using cardiointervalography. Brain bioelectrical activity was assessed using encephalography. Significant reduction of autonomic, psychoemotional and cognitive disturbances, normalization of brain bioelectrical activity due to the α-rhythm organization and arrhythmia removal were identified in the main group after the treatment. No adverse effects of this physiotherapeutic treatment was found.

  18. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  19. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  20. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Counterpart Regulations Governing Actions by the U.S... that are not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat. 402.45 Section...

  1. Knowledge, action and resistance: the selective use of pre-natal screening among Bedouin women of the Negev, Israel.

    PubMed

    Lewando-Hundt, G; Shoham-Vardi, I; Beckerleg, S; Belmaker, I; Kassem, F; Jaafar, A A

    2001-02-01

    The selective use of prenatal screening by Bedouin women attending Ministry of Health, maternal and child health clinics in Israel is examined. The data consist of a review of 537 prenatal care records, 16 in depth interviews with mothers, and four interviews with health personnel. These data are part of a larger study that took place between 1994-99 amongst Negev Bedouin women, part of the Palestinian Arab minority within Israel. The record review shows that the majority of women who attend prenatal care do not take up referrals for Maternal Serum Alpha Feto Protein (MSAFP) testing or for amniocentesis tests. Although many women interviewed talked about the value of prenatal screening, they also spoke of 'false alarms' that may result from testing. Similarly, women were aware that the socially preferred pattern of consanguinity in marriage amongst the Bedouin may cause medical problems, however test uptake was unrelated to consanguinity. There was a variety of views concerning the permissibility of terminating a pregnancy. This study shows that women use prenatal screening selectively in a way that helps them to balance social and medical risk.

  2. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that the Service's oversight will be based on periodic evaluation of EPA's program for making effects determinations under this subpart. Periodic program evaluation will occur at the end of the first year following... the public to the extent provided by law. (c) Oversight of alternative consultation...

  3. 50 CFR 402.45 - Alternative consultation on FIFRA actions that are not likely to adversely affect listed species...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that the Service's oversight will be based on periodic evaluation of EPA's program for making effects determinations under this subpart. Periodic program evaluation will occur at the end of the first year following... the public to the extent provided by law. (c) Oversight of alternative consultation...

  4. Sputtered bismuth screen-printed electrode: a promising alternative to other bismuth modifications in the voltammetric determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Velia; Serrano, Núria; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2014-02-01

    A commercially available sputtered bismuth screen-printed electrode (BispSPE) has been pioneeringly applied for the simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in a certified groundwater sample by means of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) as an alternative to more conventional bismuth screen-printed carbon electrodes (BiSPCEs). BispSPEs can be used for a large set of measurements without any previous plating or activation. The obtained detection and quantification limits suggest that BispSPEs produce a better analytical performance as compared to In-situ BiSPCE for Pb(II) and Cd(II) determination, but also to Ex-situ BiSPCE for Cd(II) determination. The results confirm the applicability of these devices for the determination of low level concentrations of these metal ions in natural samples with very high reproducibility (0.7% and 2.5% for Pb(II) and Cd(II) respectively), and good trueness (0.3% and 2.4% for Pb(II) and Cd(II) respectively). PMID:24401424

  5. Gene-specific amplicons from metagenomes as an alternative to directed evolution for enzyme screening: a case study using phenylacetaldehyde reductases.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Nobuya; Kazama, Miki; Takeuchi, Nami; Isotani, Kentaro; Kurokawa, Junji

    2016-06-01

    Screening gene-specific amplicons from metagenomes (S-GAM) is a highly promising technique for the isolation of genes encoding enzymes for biochemical and industrial applications. From metagenomes, we isolated phenylacetaldehyde reductase (par) genes, which code for an enzyme that catalyzes the production of various Prelog's chiral alcohols. Nearly full-length par genes were amplified by PCR from metagenomic DNA, the products of which were fused with engineered par sequences at both terminal regions of the expression vector to ensure proper expression and then used to construct Escherichia coli plasmid libraries. Sequence- and activity-based screening of these libraries identified different homologous par genes, Hpar-001 to -036, which shared more than 97% amino acid sequence identity with PAR. Comparative characterization of these active homologs revealed a wide variety of enzymatic properties including activity, substrate specificity, and thermal stability. Moreover, amino acid substitutions in these genes coincided with those of Sar268 and Har1 genes, which were independently engineered by error-prone PCR to exhibit increased activity in the presence of concentrated 2-propanol. The comparative data from both approaches suggest that sequence information from homologs isolated from metagenomes is quite useful for enzyme engineering. Furthermore, by examining the GAM-based sequence dataset derived from soil metagenomes, we easily found amino acid substitutions that increase the thermal stability of PAR/PAR homologs. Thus, GAM-based approaches can provide not only useful homologous enzymes but also an alternative to directed evolution methodologies. PMID:27419059

  6. Modeling of Reduction in the Drag and of Cessation of the Action of an Alternating Transverse Force on a Circular Cylinder due to the Throttling Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, S. A.; Sudakov, A. G.; Zhukova, Yu. V.; Usachovd, A. E.

    2014-07-01

    An analysis of the physical processes in unsteady fl ow past a circular cylinder surrounded by a sheath with ports for bleeding of the medium has been made by a factorized fi nite-volume method on the basis of numerical solution of Navier-Stokes equations closed with the Menter sheer-stress-transfer model. It has been shown that such arrangement of a circular cylinder ensures stabilization of the wake of the cylinder, and also the reduction in its drag and cessation of the action of an alternating transverse force at Reynolds numbers higher than 105.

  7. Nodes-and-connections RNAi knockdown screening: identification of a signaling molecule network involved in fulvestrant action and breast cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, N; Wittner, B S; Shioda, K; Hitora, T; Ito, T; Ramaswamy, S; Isselbacher, K J; Sgroi, D C; Shioda, T

    2015-01-01

    Although RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown screening of cancer cell cultures is an effective approach to predict drug targets or therapeutic/prognostic biomarkers, interactions among identified targets often remain obscure. Here, we introduce the nodes-and-connections RNAi knockdown screening that generates a map of target interactions through systematic iterations of in silico prediction of targets and their experimental validation. An initial RNAi knockdown screening of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells targeting 6560 proteins identified four signaling molecules required for their fulvestrant-induced apoptosis. Signaling molecules physically or functionally interacting with these four primary node targets were computationally predicted and experimentally validated, resulting in identification of four second-generation nodes. Three rounds of further iterations of the prediction–validation cycle generated third, fourth and fifth generation of nodes, completing a 19-node interaction map that contained three predicted nodes but without experimental validation because of technical limitations. The interaction map involved all three members of the death-associated protein kinases (DAPKs) as well as their upstream and downstream signaling molecules (calmodulins and myosin light chain kinases), suggesting that DAPKs play critical roles in the cytocidal action of fulvestrant. The in silico Kaplan–Meier analysis of previously reported human breast cancer cohorts demonstrated significant prognostic predictive power for five of the experimentally validated nodes and for three of the prediction-only nodes. Immunohistochemical studies on the expression of 10 nodal proteins in human breast cancer tissues not only supported their prognostic prediction power but also provided statistically significant evidence of their synchronized expression, implying functional interactions among these nodal proteins. Thus, the Nodes-and-Connections approach to RNAi knockdown screening yields

  8. State-of-the-art automated patch clamp: heat activation, action potentials, and high throughput in ion channel screening.

    PubMed

    Stoelzle-Feix, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    A successful robotic approach of the patch clamp technique is based on planar patch clamp chips where a glass pipette, as used in conventional patch clamping, is replaced by a thin planar glass sheet with a small hole in the middle. Automated patch clamp (APC) systems utilizing this chip design offer higher throughput capabilities and ease of use and thus have become common in basic research, drug development, and safety screening. Further development of existing devices and introduction of new systems widen the range of possible experiments and increase throughput. Here, two features with different areas of applications that meet the needs of drug discovery researchers and basic researchers alike are described. The utilized system is a medium throughput APC device capable of recording up to eight cells simultaneously. The temperature control capability and the possibility to perform recordings not only in the voltage clamp but also in the current clamp mode are described in detail. Since eight recordings can be generated in parallel without compromising data quality, reliable and cost-effective and time-effective screening of compounds against ion channels using voltage clamp and current clamp electrophysiology can be performed. PMID:25023302

  9. Kinetic Cell-based Morphological Screening: Prediction of Mechanism of Compound Action and Off-Target Effects

    PubMed Central

    Abassi, Yama A.; Xi, Biao; Zhang, Wenfu; Ye, Peifang; Kirstein, Shelli L.; Gaylord, Michelle R.; Feinstein, Stuart C.; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Summary We describe a cell-based kinetic profiling approach using impedance readout for monitoring the effect of small molecule compounds. This non-invasive readout allows continuous sampling of cellular responses to biologically active compounds and the ensuing kinetic profile provides information regarding the temporal interaction of compounds with cells. The utility of this approach was tested by screening a library containing FDA approved drugs, experimental compounds and nature compounds. Compounds with similar activity produced similar impedance-based time-dependent cell response profiles (TCRP). The compounds were clustered based on TCRP similarity. We identified novel mechanisms for existing drugs, confirmed previously reported calcium modulating activity for COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib and identified an additional mechanism for the experimental compound, monastrol. We also identified and characterized a new anti-mitotic agent. Our findings indicate TCRP approach provides predictive mechanistic information for small molecule compounds. PMID:19635408

  10. Global Phenotype Screening and Transcript Analysis Outlines the Inhibitory Mode(s) of Action of Two Amphibian-Derived, α-Helical, Cationic Peptides on Saccharomyces cerevisiae▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Morton, C. Oliver; Hayes, Andrew; Wilson, Michael; Rash, Bharat M.; Oliver, Stephen G.; Coote, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Dermaseptin S3(1-16) [DsS3(1-16)] and magainin 2 (Mag 2) are two unrelated, amphibian-derived cationic peptides that adopt an α-helical structure within microbial membranes and have been proposed to kill target organisms via membrane disruption. Using a combination of global deletion mutant library phenotypic screening, expression profiling, and physical techniques, we have carried out a comprehensive in vitro analysis of the inhibitory action of these two peptides on the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene ontology profiling (of biological processes) was used to identify both common and unique effects of each peptide. Resistance to both peptides was conferred by genes involved in telomere maintenance, chromosome organization, and double-strand break repair, implicating a common inhibitory action of DNA damage. Crucially, each peptide also required unique genes for maintaining resistance; for example, DsS3(1-16) required genes involved in protein targeting to the vacuole, and Mag 2 required genes involved in DNA-dependent DNA replication and DNA repair. Thus, DsS3(1-16) and Mag 2 have both common and unique antifungal actions that are not simply due to membrane disruption. Physical techniques revealed that both peptides interacted with DNA in vitro but in subtly different ways, and this observation was supported by the functional genomics experiments that provided evidence that both peptides also interfered with DNA integrity differently in vivo. This implies that both peptides are able to pass through the cytoplasmic membrane of yeast cells and damage DNA, an inhibitory action that has not been previously attributed to either of these peptides. PMID:17846143

  11. State-of-the-Art Automated Patch Clamp Devices: Heat Activation, Action Potentials, and High Throughput in Ion Channel Screening

    PubMed Central

    Stoelzle, Sonja; Obergrussberger, Alison; Brüggemann, Andrea; Haarmann, Claudia; George, Michael; Kettenhofen, Ralf; Fertig, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Ion channels are essential in a wide range of cellular functions and their malfunction underlies many disease states making them important targets in drug discovery. The availability of standardized cell lines expressing ion channels of interest lead to the development of diverse automated patch clamp (APC) systems with high-throughput capabilities. These systems are now available for drug screening, but there are limitations in the application range. However, further development of existing devices and introduction of new systems widen the range of possible experiments and increase throughput. The addition of well controlled and fast solution exchange, temperature control and the availability of the current clamp mode are required to analyze standard cell lines and excitable cells such as stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in a more physiologically relevant environment. Here we describe two systems with different areas of applications that meet the needs of drug discovery researchers and basic researchers alike. The here utilized medium throughput APC device is a planar patch clamp system capable of recording up to eight cells simultaneously. Features such as temperature control and recordings in the current clamp mode are described here. Standard cell lines and excitable cells such as stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes have been used in the voltage clamp and current clamp modes with the view to finding new drug candidates and safety testing methods in a more physiologically relevant environment. The high-throughput system used here is a planar patch clamp screening platform capable of recording from 96 cells in parallel and offers a throughput of 5000 data points per day. Full dose response curves can be acquired from individual cells reducing the cost per data point. The data provided reveals the suitability and relevance of both APC platforms for drug discovery, ion channel research, and safety testing. PMID:22131976

  12. State-of-the-Art Automated Patch Clamp Devices: Heat Activation, Action Potentials, and High Throughput in Ion Channel Screening.

    PubMed

    Stoelzle, Sonja; Obergrussberger, Alison; Brüggemann, Andrea; Haarmann, Claudia; George, Michael; Kettenhofen, Ralf; Fertig, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Ion channels are essential in a wide range of cellular functions and their malfunction underlies many disease states making them important targets in drug discovery. The availability of standardized cell lines expressing ion channels of interest lead to the development of diverse automated patch clamp (APC) systems with high-throughput capabilities. These systems are now available for drug screening, but there are limitations in the application range. However, further development of existing devices and introduction of new systems widen the range of possible experiments and increase throughput. The addition of well controlled and fast solution exchange, temperature control and the availability of the current clamp mode are required to analyze standard cell lines and excitable cells such as stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in a more physiologically relevant environment. Here we describe two systems with different areas of applications that meet the needs of drug discovery researchers and basic researchers alike. The here utilized medium throughput APC device is a planar patch clamp system capable of recording up to eight cells simultaneously. Features such as temperature control and recordings in the current clamp mode are described here. Standard cell lines and excitable cells such as stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes have been used in the voltage clamp and current clamp modes with the view to finding new drug candidates and safety testing methods in a more physiologically relevant environment. The high-throughput system used here is a planar patch clamp screening platform capable of recording from 96 cells in parallel and offers a throughput of 5000 data points per day. Full dose response curves can be acquired from individual cells reducing the cost per data point. The data provided reveals the suitability and relevance of both APC platforms for drug discovery, ion channel research, and safety testing. PMID:22131976

  13. A Four-Point Screening Method for Assessing Molecular Mechanism of Action (MMOA) Identifies Tideglusib as a Time-Dependent Inhibitor of Trypanosoma brucei GSK3β

    PubMed Central

    Swinney, Zachary T.; Haubrich, Brad A.; Xia, Shuangluo; Ramesha, Chakk; Gomez, Stephen R.; Guyett, Paul; Mensa-Wilmot, Kojo; Swinney, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background New therapeutics are needed for neglected tropical diseases including Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), a progressive and fatal disease caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense. There is a need for simple, efficient, cost effective methods to identify new molecules with unique molecular mechanisms of action (MMOAs). The mechanistic features of a binding mode, such as competition with endogenous substrates and time-dependence can affect the observed inhibitory IC50, and differentiate molecules and their therapeutic usefulness. Simple screening methods to determine time-dependence and competition can be used to differentiate compounds with different MMOAs in order to identify new therapeutic opportunities. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work we report a four point screening methodology to evaluate the time-dependence and competition for inhibition of GSK3β protein kinase isolated from T. brucei. Using this method, we identified tideglusib as a time-dependent inhibitor whose mechanism of action is time-dependent, ATP competitive upon initial binding, which transitions to ATP non-competitive with time. The enzyme activity was not recovered following 100-fold dilution of the buffer consistent with an irreversible mechanism of action. This is in contrast to the T. brucei GSK3β inhibitor GW8510, whose inhibition was competitive with ATP, not time-dependent at all measured time points and reversible in dilution experiments. The activity of tideglusib against T. brucei parasites was confirmed by inhibition of parasite proliferation (GI50 of 2.3 μM). Conclusions/Significance Altogether this work demonstrates a straightforward method for determining molecular mechanisms of action and its application for mechanistic differentiation of two potent TbGSK3β inhibitors. The four point MMOA method identified tideglusib as a mechanistically differentiated TbGSK3β inhibitor. Tideglusib was shown to inhibit parasite

  14. A Proposed Alternative Mechanism of Action for Transmyocardial Revascularization Prefaced by a Review of the Accepted Explanations

    PubMed Central

    Cardarelli, Marcelo

    2006-01-01

    Laser transmyocardial revascularization, a procedure originally intended to simulate the perfusion mechanism of the reptilian heart, has evolved into an effective but poorly understood treatment for angina when traditional revascularization is not an option. Herein, we review the explanations that have been proposed over the years and suggest a new one. We hypothesize that the long-term mechanism of action of transmyocardial revascularization is the redistribution of stresses on the ventricular wall through the creation of fibrous transmyocardial scars, which penetrate the various layers of muscle that surround the left ventricular cavity. The stress redistribution of a load in an otherwise unchanged ventricular wall reduces the wall stress per unit of wall volume, which in turn decreases the workload for the hyperkinetic compensating areas. This reduces both oxygen demand and local metabolite production, lowering the level of angina. PMID:17215963

  15. Elicitors as alternative strategy to pesticides in grapevine? Current knowledge on their mode of action from controlled conditions to vineyard.

    PubMed

    Delaunois, Bertrand; Farace, Giovanni; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2014-04-01

    Development and optimisation of alternative strategies to reduce the use of classic chemical inputs for protection against diseases in vineyard is becoming a necessity. Among these strategies, one of the most promising consists in the stimulation and/or potentiation of the grapevine defence responses by the means of elicitors. Elicitors are highly diverse molecules both in nature and origins. This review aims at providing an overview of the current knowledge on these molecules and will highlight their potential efficacy from the laboratory in controlled conditions to vineyards. Recent findings and concepts (especially on plant innate immunity) and the new terminology (microbe-associated molecular patterns, effectors, etc.) are also discussed in this context. Other objectives of this review are to highlight the difficulty of transferring elicitors use and results from the controlled conditions to the vineyard, to determine their practical and effective use in viticulture and to propose ideas for improving their efficacy in non-controlled conditions. PMID:23719689

  16. Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of refugees and survivors of torture: a review and proposal for action.

    PubMed

    Longacre, McKenna; Silver-Highfield, Ellen; Lama, Puja; Grodin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Survivors of torture and refugee trauma often have increased needs for mental and physical healthcare. This is due in part to the complex sequelae of trauma, including chronic pain, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and somatization. This article reviews the scientific medical literature for the efficacy and feasibility of some complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities including meditation, Ayurveda, pranayama/yogic breathing, massage/body-work, dance/movement, spirituality, yoga, music, Traditional Chinese Medicine and acupuncture, qigong, t'ai chi, chiropractic, homeopathy, aromatherapy and Reiki specifically with respect to survivors of torture and refugee trauma. We report that preliminary research suggests that the certain CAM modalities may prove effective as part of an integrated treatment plan for survivors of torture and refugee trauma. Further research is warranted.

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of refugees and survivors of torture: a review and proposal for action.

    PubMed

    Longacre, McKenna; Silver-Highfield, Ellen; Lama, Puja; Grodin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Survivors of torture and refugee trauma often have increased needs for mental and physical healthcare. This is due in part to the complex sequelae of trauma, including chronic pain, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and somatization. This article reviews the scientific medical literature for the efficacy and feasibility of some complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities including meditation, Ayurveda, pranayama/yogic breathing, massage/body-work, dance/movement, spirituality, yoga, music, Traditional Chinese Medicine and acupuncture, qigong, t'ai chi, chiropractic, homeopathy, aromatherapy and Reiki specifically with respect to survivors of torture and refugee trauma. We report that preliminary research suggests that the certain CAM modalities may prove effective as part of an integrated treatment plan for survivors of torture and refugee trauma. Further research is warranted. PMID:23086004

  18. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  19. Education and the energy crisis: policies and actions for the Department of Energy. [Options and alternatives, DOE Education Programs Div

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-22

    This report is the result of a study carried out to determine options and alternatives for the Education Programs Division (EPD) of the Department of Energy. In the conduct of this study, numerous individuals from various concerned institutions were interviewed. While the project scope clearly precluded contact with every involved or potentially involved party, a concerted effort was made to obtain a representative sampling of the opinions and views of relevant government, academic and private sector agencies and organizations. A listing of those contacted, excluding the Department of Energy, is provided. In addition to interviews, an extensive range of literature was drawn upon including memoranda, brochures, program statements, school-enrollment data, speeches and the like. It was determined during this study that a wide range of public and private institutions are actively involved in the energy-education field. Oil companies, utilities, public interest groups, schools, agencies at every level of government, and others are formulating and delivering education which is enormously varied. It was concluded, however, that the public is not being reached, partially because current efforts are unfocused and partially because the public has become inured to problems and resistant to many of the traditional means of education. The study found that within this crowded and varied energy education field the Department of Energy is well placed to begin to provide direction and focus to the widespread activity now occurring.

  20. Robust Classification of Small-Molecule Mechanism of Action Using a Minimalist High-Content Microscopy Screen and Multidimensional Phenotypic Trajectory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Twarog, Nathaniel R; Low, Jonathan A; Currier, Duane G; Miller, Greg; Chen, Taosheng; Shelat, Anang A

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic screening through high-content automated microscopy is a powerful tool for evaluating the mechanism of action of candidate therapeutics. Despite more than a decade of development, however, high content assays have yielded mixed results, identifying robust phenotypes in only a small subset of compound classes. This has led to a combinatorial explosion of assay techniques, analyzing cellular phenotypes across dozens of assays with hundreds of measurements. Here, using a minimalist three-stain assay and only 23 basic cellular measurements, we developed an analytical approach that leverages informative dimensions extracted by linear discriminant analysis to evaluate similarity between the phenotypic trajectories of different compounds in response to a range of doses. This method enabled us to visualize biologically-interpretable phenotypic tracks populated by compounds of similar mechanism of action, cluster compounds according to phenotypic similarity, and classify novel compounds by comparing them to phenotypically active exemplars. Hierarchical clustering applied to 154 compounds from over a dozen different mechanistic classes demonstrated tight agreement with published compound mechanism classification. Using 11 phenotypically active mechanism classes, classification was performed on all 154 compounds: 78% were correctly identified as belonging to one of the 11 exemplar classes or to a different unspecified class, with accuracy increasing to 89% when less phenotypically active compounds were excluded. Importantly, several apparent clustering and classification failures, including rigosertib and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine, instead revealed more complex mechanisms or off-target effects verified by more recent publications. These results show that a simple, easily replicated, minimalist high-content assay can reveal subtle variations in the cellular phenotype induced by compounds and can correctly predict mechanism of action, as long as the appropriate

  1. Screening of the antidepressant-like effect of the traditional Chinese medicinal formula Si-Ni-San and their possible mechanism of action in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Li-Tao; Li, Jing; Liu, Bin-Bin; Li, Cheng-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Background: The traditional Chinese medicine formula Si-Ni-San has well therapeutic applications in improvement of mental diseases including depression. However, the neuropharmacological and neuroendocrine mechanisms of the formula on antidepressant-like action have not been reported. Objective: Herein, we explored the antidepressant-like effect and its mechanism of Si-Ni-San. Materials and Methods: Acute effect of Si-Ni-San on the immobility time was assessed in the mouse forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Moreover, we investigated the neurochemical, neuroendocrine, and neurotrophin systems involved in the antidepressant-like effect of this formula. Results: Si-Ni-San significantly decreased the immobility time after acute treatment in the mouse TST (1300 mg/kg) but not in the FST compared with the control group. In addition, pretreatment of mice with PCPA or AMPT prevented the anti-immobility effect of Si-Ni-San (1300 mg/kg) in the TST. Moreover, acute Si-Ni-San (1300 mg/kg) decreased serum corticosterone levels, elevated serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) levels without affecting brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the whole brain exposed to TST. Conclusion: The acute antidepressant-like action of Si-Ni-San is mediated by the monoaminergic and neuroendocrine systems although underlying mechanism still remains to be further elucidated, and this formula should be further investigated as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of depression. PMID:23598923

  2. High-throughput screening using the differential radial capillary action of ligand assay identifies ebselen as an inhibitor of diguanylate cyclases.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Ori J; Orr, Mona W; Wang, Yan; Lee, Vincent T

    2014-01-17

    The rise of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics has motivated recent efforts to identify new drug candidates that target virulence factors or their regulatory pathways. One such antivirulence target is the cyclic-di-GMP (cdiGMP) signaling pathway, which regulates biofilm formation, motility, and pathogenesis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen that utilizes cdiGMP-regulated polysaccharides, including alginate and pellicle polysaccharide (PEL), to mediate virulence and antibiotic resistance. CdiGMP activates PEL and alginate biosynthesis by binding to specific receptors including PelD and Alg44. Mutations that abrogate cdiGMP binding to these receptors prevent polysaccharide production. Identification of small molecules that can inhibit cdiGMP binding to the allosteric sites on these proteins could mimic binding defective mutants and potentially reduce biofilm formation or alginate secretion. Here, we report the development of a rapid and quantitative high-throughput screen for inhibitors of protein-cdiGMP interactions based on the differential radial capillary action of ligand assay (DRaCALA). Using this approach, we identified ebselen as an inhibitor of cdiGMP binding to receptors containing an RxxD domain including PelD and diguanylate cyclases (DGC). Ebselen reduces diguanylate cyclase activity by covalently modifying cysteine residues. Ebselen oxide, the selenone analogue of ebselen, also inhibits cdiGMP binding through the same covalent mechanism. Ebselen and ebselen oxide inhibit cdiGMP regulation of biofilm formation and flagella-mediated motility in P. aeruginosa through inhibition of diguanylate cyclases. The identification of ebselen provides a proof-of-principle that a DRaCALA high-throughput screening approach can be used to identify bioactive agents that reverse regulation of cdiGMP signaling by targeting cdiGMP-binding domains.

  3. High-throughput screening using the differential radial capillary action of ligand assay identifies ebselen as an inhibitor of diguanylate cyclases

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Ori J.; Orr, Mona W.; Wang, Yan; Lee, Vincent T.

    2013-01-01

    The rise of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics has motivated recent efforts to identify new drug candidates that target virulence factors or their regulatory pathways. One such antivirulence target is the cyclic-di-GMP (cdiGMP) signaling pathway, which regulates biofilm formation, motility, and pathogenesis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen that utilizes cdiGMP-regulated polysaccharides, including alginate and pellicle polysaccharide (PEL), to mediate virulence and antibiotic resistance. CdiGMP activates PEL and alginate biosynthesis by binding to specific receptors including PelD and Alg44. Mutations that abrogate cdiGMP binding to these receptors prevent polysaccharide production. Identification of small molecules that can inhibit cdiGMP binding to the allosteric sites on these proteins could mimic binding defective mutants and potentially reduce biofilm formation or alginate secretion. Here, we report the development of a rapid and quantitative high-throughput screen for inhibitors of protein-cdiGMP interactions based on the differential radial capillary action of ligand assay (DRaCALA). Using this approach, we identified ebselen as an inhibitor of cdiGMP binding to receptors containing an RxxD domain including PelD and diguanylate cyclases (DGC). Ebselen reduces diguanylate cyclase activity by covalently modifying cysteine residues. Ebselen oxide, the selenone analogue of ebselen, also inhibits cdiGMP binding through the same covalent mechanism. Ebselen and ebselen oxide inhibit cdiGMP regulation of biofilm formation and flagella-mediated motility in P. aeruginosa through inhibition of diguanylate cyclases. The identification of ebselen provides a proof-of-principle that a DRaCALA high-throughput screening approach can be used to identify bioactive agents that reverse regulation of cdiGMP signaling by targeting cdiGMP-binding domains. PMID:24134695

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of ELISA methods as an alternative screening test to indirect immunofluorescence for the detection of antinuclear antibodies. Evaluation of five commercial kits.

    PubMed

    Tonuttia, Elio; Bassetti, Danila; Piazza, Anna; Visentini, Daniela; Poletto, Monica; Bassetto, Franca; Caciagli, Patrizio; Villalta, Danilo; Tozzoli, Renato; Bizzaro, Nicola

    2004-03-01

    Detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a fundamental laboratory test for diagnosing systemic autoimmune diseases. Currently, the method of choice is indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on a HEp-2 cell substrate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of five commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits for ANA detection and to verify the possibility of using them as an alternative to the IIF method. The study involved 1513 patients, 315 of whom were diagnosed with a systemic autoimmune disease and 1198 in whom an autoimmune disorder was excluded. For all sera, ANA detection was performed via IIF and with five different EIA kits. The results were evaluated in relation to clinical diagnosis and the presence of possible specific autoantibodies (anti-ENA or anti-dsDNA); lastly, they were compared with the results obtained using ANA-IIF as the method of reference. The positive rate of the ANA-IIF test in subjects with systemic autoimmune diseases was 92%, whereas in the five ANA-EIA kits there was broad diversity in terms of response, with positive rates ranging from 74 to 94%. All the EIA kits correctly detected the presence of antibodies (anti-dsDNA, anti-RNP, anti-Ro/SSA) responsible for homogeneous and speckled fluorescence pattern, but at the same time they showed substantial inaccuracy with the nucleolar pattern, with a mean sensitivity of approximately 50% in this case. Instead, there was a large kit-to-kit difference in terms of identification of anti-Scl70 and centromere patterns, for which sensitivities ranged between 45 and 91%, and between 49 and 100%, respectively. The results of the study demonstrate that the commercially available ANA-EIA kits show different levels of sensitivity and specificity. Some of them have a diagnostic accuracy that is comparable and, in some cases, even higher than the IIF method. Consequently, these could be used as an alternative screening test to IIE. However, others do not ensure acceptable

  5. A Hydrostrat Model and Alternatives for Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainer Mesa-Shoshone Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Geotechnical Sciences Group

    2007-03-01

    The three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit was completed in Fiscal Year 2006. The model extends from eastern Pahute Mesa in the north to Mid Valley in the south and centers on the former nuclear testing areas at Rainier Mesa, Aqueduct Mesa, and Shoshone Mountain. The model area also includes an overlap with the existing Underground Test Area Corrective Action Unit models for Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa. The model area is geologically diverse and includes un-extended yet highly deformed Paleozoic terrain and high volcanic mesas between the Yucca Flat extensional basin on the east and caldera complexes of the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field on the west. The area also includes a hydrologic divide between two groundwater sub-basins of the Death Valley regional flow system. A diverse set of geological and geophysical data collected over the past 50 years was used to develop a structural model and hydrostratigraphic system for the model area. Three deep characterization wells, a magnetotelluric survey, and reprocessed gravity data were acquired specifically for this modeling initiative. These data and associated interpretive products were integrated using EarthVision{reg_sign} software to develop the three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model. Crucial steps in the model building process included establishing a fault model, developing a hydrostratigraphic scheme, compiling a drill-hole database, and constructing detailed geologic and hydrostratigraphic cross sections and subsurface maps. The more than 100 stratigraphic units in the model area were grouped into 43 hydrostratigraphic units based on each unit's propensity toward aquifer or aquitard characteristics. The authors organized the volcanic units in the model area into 35 hydrostratigraphic units that include 16 aquifers, 12 confining units, 2 composite units (a mixture of aquifer and confining units), and 5 intrusive confining

  6. Electro-optically responsive composites of gold nanospheres in 5CB liquid crystal under direct current and alternating current joint action

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjichristov, Georgi B.; Marinov, Yordan G.; Petrov, Alexander G.; Bruno, Emanuela; Marino, Lucia; Scaramuzza, Nicola

    2014-02-28

    Direct current (DC) electro-optical (EO) control of transmitted laser beam intensity based on EO controlled coherent light scattering and diffraction by stationary longitudinal texture pattern (LTP) is achieved in planar-oriented cells with a composite mixture of polymer-coated gold spherical nanoparticles (Au-NPs) with a mean diameter of about 12 nm and the room-temperature nematic pentylcyanobiphenyl (5CB). At relatively low DC voltage of about 5 V, the effective scattering/diffraction by Au-NPs/5CB composites leads to a spatial spreading of transmitted coherent light from a low-power continuous wave laser beam, resulting in a drastic reduction of its local intensity. The effect is polarization dependent and is strongest when the polarization of the input laser beam is along the LTP. The EO response of Au-NPs/5CB mixtures is studied under DC and alternating current (AC) joint action with the aim of the potential use of these composite materials as EO controlled diffusers. The specific V-shaped sharp dip in the DC voltage-dependent coherent light transmittance of Au-NPs/5CB planar films, as well as the possibility for erasing the scattering/diffractive LTP in the films by joint low AC voltage, can be useful for EO applications in the field of process control and for detection of weak dynamic electric fields.

  7. Electro-optically responsive composites of gold nanospheres in 5CB liquid crystal under direct current and alternating current joint action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjichristov, Georgi B.; Marinov, Yordan G.; Petrov, Alexander G.; Bruno, Emanuela; Marino, Lucia; Scaramuzza, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    Direct current (DC) electro-optical (EO) control of transmitted laser beam intensity based on EO controlled coherent light scattering and diffraction by stationary longitudinal texture pattern (LTP) is achieved in planar-oriented cells with a composite mixture of polymer-coated gold spherical nanoparticles (Au-NPs) with a mean diameter of about 12 nm and the room-temperature nematic pentylcyanobiphenyl (5CB). At relatively low DC voltage of about 5 V, the effective scattering/diffraction by Au-NPs/5CB composites leads to a spatial spreading of transmitted coherent light from a low-power continuous wave laser beam, resulting in a drastic reduction of its local intensity. The effect is polarization dependent and is strongest when the polarization of the input laser beam is along the LTP. The EO response of Au-NPs/5CB mixtures is studied under DC and alternating current (AC) joint action with the aim of the potential use of these composite materials as EO controlled diffusers. The specific V-shaped sharp dip in the DC voltage-dependent coherent light transmittance of Au-NPs/5CB planar films, as well as the possibility for erasing the scattering/diffractive LTP in the films by joint low AC voltage, can be useful for EO applications in the field of process control and for detection of weak dynamic electric fields.

  8. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 423: BUILDING 03-60 UNDERGROUND DISCHARGE POINT, TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA, REVISION 0, JUNE 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Area 3 Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (Corrective Action Unit 423) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 423 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is comprised of Corrective Action Site 03-02-002-0308. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for Corrective Action Unit 423. The scope of this Correction Action Decision Document consists of the following: � Develop corrective action objectives. � Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. � Develop corrective action alternatives. � Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. � Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for the Corrective Action Unit. In January 1998, a corrective action investigation was performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1997). A hydrocarbon plume was found to emanate from near the bottom of the Underground Discharge Point to the west. The plume encompasses approximately 65 square meters (700 square feet). The highest total petroleum hydrocarbon level detected was 2,400 milligrams per kilogram. No other contaminants were detected above preliminary action levels. Details of the investigation can be found in Appendix A of this document. Based on the potential exposure pathways identified during the Data Quality Objectives process, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for Corrective Action Unit 423: � Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soil containing contaminants of concern. � Prevent

  9. A Hydrostratigraphic Model and Alternatives for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat-Climax Mine, Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Geotechnical Sciences Group Bechtel Nevada

    2006-01-01

    A new three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model for the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit was completed in 2005. The model area includes Yucca Flat and Climax Mine, former nuclear testing areas at the Nevada Test Site, and proximal areas. The model area is approximately 1,250 square kilometers in size and is geologically complex. Yucca Flat is a topographically closed basin typical of many valleys in the Basin and Range province. Faulted and tilted blocks of Tertiary-age volcanic rocks and underlying Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks form low ranges around the structural basin. During the Cretaceous Period a granitic intrusive was emplaced at the north end of Yucca Flat. A diverse set of geological and geophysical data collected over the past 50 years was used to develop a structural model and hydrostratigraphic system for the basin. These were integrated using EarthVision? software to develop the 3-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model. Fifty-six stratigraphic units in the model area were grouped into 25 hydrostratigraphic units based on each unit's propensity toward aquifer or aquitard characteristics. The authors organized the alluvial section into 3 hydrostratigraphic units including 2 aquifers and 1 confining unit. The volcanic units in the model area are organized into 13 hydrostratigraphic units that include 8 aquifers and 5 confining units. The underlying pre-Tertiary rocks are divided into 7 hydrostratigraphic units, including 3 aquifers and 4 confining units. Other units include 1 Tertiary-age sedimentary confining unit and 1 Mesozoic-age granitic confining unit. The model depicts the thickness, extent, and geometric relationships of these hydrostratigraphic units (''layers'' in the model) along with the major structural features (i.e., faults). The model incorporates 178 high-angle normal faults of Tertiary age and 2 low-angle thrust faults of Mesozoic age. The complexity of the model area and the non

  10. F- and H-Area Seepage Basins Water Treatment System Process Optimization and Alternative Chemistry Ion Exchange/Sorbent Material Screening Clearwell Overflow Study

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, S.M.

    2000-08-30

    This study investigated alternative ion exchange/sorbent materials and polishing chemistries designed to remove specific radionuclides not removed during the neutralization/precipitation/clarification process.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Evans

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the subsurface at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443, CNTA - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). CAU 443 is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, north of U.S. Highway 6, about 48 kilometers north of Warm Springs, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the corrective action plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for the UC-1 Cavity (Corrective Action Site 58-57-001) at CAU 443, as provided in the FFACO. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. A Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) was performed in several stages from 1999 to 2003, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Sites (Corrective Action Unit No. 443)'' (DOE/NV, 1999). Groundwater modeling was the primary activity of the CAI. Three phases of modeling were conducted for the Faultless underground nuclear test. The first involved the gathering and interpretation of geologic and hydrogeologic data into a three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow, and use of the output of the flow model for a transport model of radionuclide release

  12. Alternate methods of applying diffusants to silicon solar cells. [screen printing of thick-film paste materials and vapor phase transport from solid sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. W.; Field, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    Low-melting phosphate and borate glasses were screen printed on silicon wafers and heated to form n and p junctions. Data on surface appearance, sheet resistance and junction depth are presented. Similar data are reported for vapor phase transport from sintered aluminum metaphosphate and boron-containing glass-ceramic solid sources. Simultaneous diffusion of an N(+) layer with screen-printed glass and a p(+) layer with screen-printed Al alloy paste was attempted. No p(+) back surface field formation was achieved. Some good cells were produced but the heating in an endless-belt furnace caused a large scatter in sheet resistance and junction depth for three separate lots of wafers.

  13. 77 FR 22321 - National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods: Call for Nominations of High Throughput Screening (HTS) Assays for the Tox21 Initiative... Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health (NIH). ACTION: Call for nominations. SUMMARY:...

  14. Work Plan for the Feasibility Study for Remedial Action at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Haffenden, R.; Goyette, M.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Yuen, C.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of the feasibility study is to gather sufficient information to develop and evaluate alternative remedial actions to address contamination at J-Field in compliance with the NCP, CERCLA, and SARA. This FS Work Plan summarizes existing environmental data for each AOC and outlines the tasks to be performed to evaluate and select remedial technologies. The tasks to be performed will include (1) developing remedial action objectives and identifying response actions to meet these objectives; (2) identifying and screening remedial action technologies on the basis of effectiveness, implementability, and cost; (3) assembling technologies into comprehensive alternatives for J-Field; (4) evaluating, in detail, each alternative against the nine EPA evaluation criteria and comparing the alternatives to identify their respective strengths and weaknesses; and (5) selecting the preferred alternative for each operable unit.

  15. The influence of spirituality and religiosity on breast cancer screening delay in African American women: application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior (TRA/TPB).

    PubMed

    Gullate, Mary

    2006-01-01

    African American women (AAW) are 25% more likely to present with late stage breast cancer and 20% more likely to die from their disease than Caucasian women. Researchers report that a treatment delay of 3 months is a significant factor in breast cancer mortality. Socioeconomic factors, lack of access and knowledge, spiritual and religious beliefs, fear and fatalism are reported as contributing factors to screening delays. Studies have primarily applied the Health Belief Model (HBM) and modified versions like the Champion HBM to preventive health practices. Neither have significant inclusion of spirituality or religiosity. The TRA/TPB focus on beliefs, intent and attitude as individual determinants of the likelihood of performing a specific behavior; but have not had wide utility in studies related to screening delays among AAW. This paper explores the utility of applying the TRA/TPB as the theoretical framework for determining cultural relevance of spirituality and religiosity to screening delays among AAW.

  16. Computer based screening for novel inhibitors against Vibrio cholerae using NCI diversity set-II: an alternative approach by targeting transcriptional activator ToxT.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Khadka, Bijendra; Akter, Arzuba; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Sultana, Razia

    2014-06-01

    Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae and remains as a major health risk in developing countries. The emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant V. cholerae strains during the past two decades is now a major problem in the treatment of cholera and have created the urgent need for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Targeting transcriptional factor is now a novel approach to tackle the development of multi-drug resistant strain. In the recent year virtual high throughput screening has emerged as a widely accepted powerful technology in the identification of novel and diverse lead. This study provides new insight to the search for new potent and selective inhibitors that still remains necessary to avoid the risk of possible resistance and reduce toxicity and side effects of currently available cholera drugs. The publications of high resolution X-ray structure of V. cholerae ToxT has open the way to the structure based virtual screening to identify new small molecular inhibitors which still remain necessary to avoid the risk of possible resistance and reduce toxicity and side effects of currently available cholera drugs. In this study we have performed structure based virtual screening approach using NCI diversity set-II to look for novel inhibitor of ToxT and proposed eight candidate compounds with high scoring function. Thus from complex scoring and binding ability it is elucidated that these compounds could be the promising inhibitors or could be developed as novel lead compounds for drug design against cholera.

  17. Fe en Accion/Faith in Action: Design and implementation of a church-based randomized trial to promote physical activity and cancer screening among churchgoing Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo, Elva M.; Haughton, Jessica; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Slymen, Donald J.; Sallis, James F.; Burke, Kari; Holub, Christina; Chanson, Dayana; Perez, Lilian G.; Valdivia, Rodrigo; Ryan, Sherry; Elder, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe both conditions of a two-group randomized trial, one that promotes physical activity and one that promotes cancer screening, among churchgoing Latinas. The trial involves promotoras (community health workers) targeting multiple levels of the Ecological Model. This trial builds on formative and pilot research findings. Design Sixteen churches were randomly assigned to either the physical activity intervention or cancer screening comparison condition (approximately 27 women per church). In both conditions, promotoras from each church intervened at the individual- (e.g., beliefs), interpersonal- (e.g., social support), and environmental- (e.g., park features and access to health care) levels to affect change on target behaviors. Measurements The study’s primary outcome is min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at baseline and 12 and 24 months following implementation of intervention activities. We enrolled 436 Latinas (aged 18–65 years) who engaged in less than 250 min/wk of MVPA at baseline as assessed by accelerometer, attended church at least four times per month, lived near their church, and did not have a health condition that could prevent them from participating in physical activity. Participants were asked to complete measures assessing physical activity and cancer screening as well as their correlates at 12- and 24-months. Summary Findings from the current study will address gaps in research by showing the long term effectiveness of multi-level faith-based interventions promoting physical activity and cancer screening among Latino communities. PMID:26358535

  18. Summary report of the screening process to determine reasonable alternatives for long-term storage and disposition of weapons-usable fissile materials

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-29

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials (primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium) have become surplus to national defense needs both in the US and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety and health consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. As announced in the Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Department of Energy is currently conducting an evaluation process for disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials determined surplus to National Security needs, and long-term storage of national security and programmatic inventories, and surplus weapons-usable fissile materials that are not able to go directly from interim storage to disposition. An extensive set of long-term storage and disposition options was compiled. Five broad long-term storage options were identified; thirty-seven options were considered for plutonium disposition; nine options were considered for HEU disposition; and eight options were identified for Uranium-233 disposition. Section 2 discusses the criteria used in the screening process. Section 3 describes the options considered, and Section 4 provides a detailed summary discussions of the screening results.

  19. Image filtering as an alternative to the application of a different reconstruction kernel in CT imaging: Feasibility study in lung cancer screening

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, Masaki; Wada, Shinichi; Kayugawa, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Toru; Murao, Kohei

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: While the acquisition of projection data in a computed tomography (CT) scanner is generally carried out once, the projection data is often removed from the system, making further reconstruction with a different reconstruction filter impossible. The reconstruction kernel is one of the most important parameters. To have access to all the reconstructions, either prior reconstructions with multiple kernels must be performed or the projection data must be stored. Each of these requirements would increase the burden on data archiving. This study aimed to design an effective method to achieve similar image quality using an image filtering technique in the image space, instead of a reconstruction filter in the projection space for CT imaging. The authors evaluated the clinical feasibility of the proposed method in lung cancer screening. Methods: The proposed technique is essentially the same as common image filtering, which performs processing in the spatial-frequency domain with a filter function. However, the filter function was determined based on the quantitative analysis of the point spread functions (PSFs) measured in the system. The modulation transfer functions (MTFs) were derived from the PSFs, and the ratio of the MTFs was used as the filter function. Therefore, using an image reconstructed with a kernel, an image reconstructed with a different kernel was obtained by filtering, which used the ratio of the MTFs obtained for the two kernels. The performance of the method was evaluated by using routine clinical images obtained from CT screening for lung cancer in five subjects. Results: Filtered images for all combinations of three types of reconstruction kernels (''smooth,''''standard,'' and ''sharp'' kernels) showed good agreement with original reconstructed images regarded as the gold standard. On the filtered images, abnormal shadows suspected as being lung cancers were identical to those on the reconstructed images. The standard deviations (SDs) for

  20. The Global Energy Crisis: Today and Tomorrow. Developing Proactive Action Student Awareness and Understanding About Finite Fuels and Alternative Energy Sources in a Global Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard O.

    Background information and a teaching strategy are provided to help students better understand the global energy crisis and learn to take action. An overview of the energy crisis includes a discussion of the unequal distribution of natural resources throughout the world, the finite nature of fossil fuels, and problems associated with the depletion…

  1. Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chitty, L S

    1995-12-01

    Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly scanning is done in the second trimester but there may be a case for screening at other times in pregnancy and alternative anomaly screening policies are discussed. PMID:8710765

  2. System Alternatives Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrait, James A.

    1977-01-01

    The Systems Alternatives Project is an attempt to develop open classroom alternatives within a modular scheduling system. Biology students are given both action and test objectives that emphasize individualization. Structure of the project is detailed and an attempt to analyze the project evaluation data statistically is included. (MA)

  3. Liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography as alternative techniques to gas chromatography for the rapid screening of anabolic agents in urine.

    PubMed

    Desfontaine, Vincent; Nováková, Lucie; Ponzetto, Federico; Nicoli, Raul; Saugy, Martial; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-06-17

    This work describes the development of two methods involving supported liquid extraction (SLE) sample treatment followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography or ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS) for the screening of 43 anabolic agents in human urine. After evaluating different stationary phases, a polar-embedded C18 and a diol columns were selected for UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS, respectively. Sample preparation, mobile phases and MS conditions were also finely tuned to achieve highest selectivity, chromatographic resolution and sensitivity. Then, the performance of these two methods was compared to the reference routine procedure for steroid analyses in anti-doping laboratories, which combines liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). For this purpose, urine samples spiked with the compounds of interest at five different concentrations were analyzed using the three analytical platforms. The retention and selectivity of the three techniques were very different, ensuring a good complementarity. However, the two new methods displayed numerous advantages. The overall procedure was much faster thanks to high throughput SLE sample treatment using 48-well plates and faster chromatographic analysis. Moreover, the highest sensitivity was attained using UHPLC-MS/MS with 98% of the doping agents detected at the lowest concentration level (0.1ng/mL), against 76% for UHPSFC-MS/MS and only 14% for GC-MS/MS. Finally, the weakest matrix effects were obtained with UHPSFC-MS/MS with 76% of the analytes displaying relative matrix effect between -20 and 20%, while the GC-MS/MS reference method displayed very strong matrix effects (over 100%) for all of the anabolic agents.

  4. Liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography as alternative techniques to gas chromatography for the rapid screening of anabolic agents in urine.

    PubMed

    Desfontaine, Vincent; Nováková, Lucie; Ponzetto, Federico; Nicoli, Raul; Saugy, Martial; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-06-17

    This work describes the development of two methods involving supported liquid extraction (SLE) sample treatment followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography or ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS) for the screening of 43 anabolic agents in human urine. After evaluating different stationary phases, a polar-embedded C18 and a diol columns were selected for UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS, respectively. Sample preparation, mobile phases and MS conditions were also finely tuned to achieve highest selectivity, chromatographic resolution and sensitivity. Then, the performance of these two methods was compared to the reference routine procedure for steroid analyses in anti-doping laboratories, which combines liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). For this purpose, urine samples spiked with the compounds of interest at five different concentrations were analyzed using the three analytical platforms. The retention and selectivity of the three techniques were very different, ensuring a good complementarity. However, the two new methods displayed numerous advantages. The overall procedure was much faster thanks to high throughput SLE sample treatment using 48-well plates and faster chromatographic analysis. Moreover, the highest sensitivity was attained using UHPLC-MS/MS with 98% of the doping agents detected at the lowest concentration level (0.1ng/mL), against 76% for UHPSFC-MS/MS and only 14% for GC-MS/MS. Finally, the weakest matrix effects were obtained with UHPSFC-MS/MS with 76% of the analytes displaying relative matrix effect between -20 and 20%, while the GC-MS/MS reference method displayed very strong matrix effects (over 100%) for all of the anabolic agents. PMID:27185056

  5. Identification of agents that reduce renal hypoxia-reoxygenation injury using cell-based screening: purine nucleosides are alternative energy sources in LLC-PK1 cells during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Szoleczky, Petra; Módis, Katalin; Nagy, Nóra; Dóri Tóth, Zoltán; DeWitt, Douglas; Szabó, Csaba; Gero, Domokos

    2012-01-01

    Acute tubular necrosis is a clinical problem that lacks specific therapy and is characterized by high mortality rate. The ischemic renal injury affects the proximal tubule cells causing dysfunction and cell death after severe hypoperfusion. We utilized a cell-based screening approach in a hypoxia-reoxygenation model of tubular injury to search for cytoprotective action using a library of pharmacologically active compounds. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) induced ATP depletion, suppressed aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, increased the permeability of the monolayer, caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and caspase-dependent cell death. The only compound that proved cytoprotective either applied prior to the hypoxia induction or during the reoxygenation was adenosine. The protective effect of adenosine required the coordinated actions of adenosine deaminase and adenosine kinase, but did not requisite the purine receptors. Adenosine and inosine better preserved the cellular ATP content during ischemia than equimolar amount of glucose, and accelerated the restoration of the cellular ATP pool following the OGD. Our results suggest that radical changes occur in the cellular metabolism to respond to the energy demand during and following hypoxia, which include the use of nucleosides as an essential energy source. Thus purine nucleoside supplementation holds promise in the treatment of acute renal failure.

  6. Techniques for Screening Translation Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, Ilya A.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Dontsova, Olga A.; Sergiev, Petr V.

    2016-01-01

    The machinery of translation is one of the most common targets of antibiotics. The development and screening of new antibiotics usually proceeds by testing antimicrobial activity followed by laborious studies of the mechanism of action. High-throughput methods for new antibiotic screening based on antimicrobial activity have become routine; however, identification of molecular targets is usually a challenge. Therefore, it is highly beneficial to combine primary screening with the identification of the mechanism of action. In this review, we describe a collection of methods for screening translation inhibitors, with a special emphasis on methods which can be performed in a high-throughput manner. PMID:27348012

  7. Screening of postharvest agricultural wastes as alternative sources of peroxidases: characterization and kinetics of a novel peroxidase from lentil ( Lens culinaris L.) stubble.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Cuadrado, Nazaret; Pérez-Galende, Patricia; Manzano, Teresa; De Maria, Cándido Garcia; Shnyrov, Valery L; Roig, Manuel G

    2012-05-16

    Aqueous crude extracts of a series of plant wastes (agricultural, wild plants, residues from sports activities (grass), ornamental residues (gardens)) from 17 different plant species representative of the typical biodiversity of the Iberian peninsula were investigated as new sources of peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7). Of these, lentil (Lens culinaris L.) stubble crude extract was seen to provide one of the highest specific peroxidase activities, catalyzing the oxidation of guaiacol in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to tetraguaiacol, and was used for further studies. For the optimum extraction conditions found, the peroxidase activity in this crude extract (110 U mL(-1)) did not vary for at least 15 months when stored at 4 °C (k(inact) = 0.146 year(-1), t(1/2 inact) = 4.75 year), whereas, for comparative purposes, the peroxidase activity (60 U mL(-1)) of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L.) root crude extract, obtained and stored under the same conditions, showed much faster inactivation kinetics (k(inact) = 2.2 × 10(-3) day(-1), t(1/2 inact) = 315 days). Using guaiacol as an H donor and a universal buffer (see above), all crude extract samples exhibited the highest peroxidase activity in the pH range between 4 and 7. Once semipurified by passing the crude extract through hydrophobic chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B, the novel peroxidase (LSP) was characterized as having a purity number (RZ) of 2.5 and three SDS-PAGE electrophoretic bands corresponding to molecular masses of 52, 35, and 18 kDa. The steady-state kinetic study carried out on the H(2)O(2)-mediated oxidation of guaiacol by the catalytic action of this partially purified peroxidase pointed to apparent Michaelian kinetic behavior (K(m)(appH(2)O(2)) = 1.87 mM; V(max)(appH(2)O(2)) = 6.4 mM min(-1); K(m)(app guaicol) = 32 mM; V(max)(app guaicol) = 9.1 mM min(-1)), compatible with the two-substrate ping-pong mechanism generally accepted for peroxidases. Finally, after the effectiveness of the crude

  8. The insulin secretory action of novel polycyclic guanidines: discovery through open innovation phenotypic screening, and exploration of structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Shaghafi, Michael B; Barrett, David G; Willard, Francis S; Overman, Larry E

    2014-02-15

    We report the discovery of the glucose-dependent insulin secretogogue activity of a novel class of polycyclic guanidines through phenotypic screening as part of the Lilly Open Innovation Drug Discovery platform. Three compounds from the University of California, Irvine, 1-3, having the 3-arylhexahydropyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidin-1-amine scaffold acted as insulin secretagogues under high, but not low, glucose conditions. Exploration of the structure-activity relationship around the scaffold demonstrated the key role of the guanidine moiety, as well as the importance of two lipophilic regions, and led to the identification of 9h, which stimulated insulin secretion in isolated rat pancreatic islets in a glucose-dependent manner.

  9. The Anti-Inflammatory and Antibacterial Action of Nanocrystalline Silver and Manuka Honey on the Molecular Alternation of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Comprehensive Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ka-Kit; Kwong, Enid Wai-Yung; Woo, Kevin Y; To, Tony Shing-Shun; Chung, Joanne Wai-Yee; Wong, Thomas Kwok-Shing

    2015-01-01

    Honey and silver have been used since ancient times for treating wounds. Their widespread clinical application has attracted attention in light of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. While there have been a number of studies exploring the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of manuka honey and nanocrystalline silver, their advantages and limitations with regard to the treatment of chronic wounds remain a subject of debate. The aim of this paper is to examine the evidence on the use of nanocrystalline silver and manuka honey for treating diabetic foot ulcers through a critical and comprehensive review of in vitro studies, animal studies, and in vivo studies. The findings from the in vitro and animal studies suggest that both agents have effective antibacterial actions. Their anti-inflammatory action and related impact on wound healing are unclear. Besides, there is no evidence to suggest that any topical agent is more effective for use in treating diabetic foot ulcer. Overall, high-quality, clinical human studies supported by findings from the molecular science on the use of manuka honey or nanocrystalline silver are lacking. There is a need for rigorously designed human clinical studies on the subject to fill this knowledge gap and guide clinical practice. PMID:26290672

  10. The Anti-Inflammatory and Antibacterial Action of Nanocrystalline Silver and Manuka Honey on the Molecular Alternation of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Ka-Kit; Kwong, Enid Wai-Yung; Woo, Kevin Y.; To, Tony Shing-Shun; Chung, Joanne Wai-Yee; Wong, Thomas Kwok-Shing

    2015-01-01

    Honey and silver have been used since ancient times for treating wounds. Their widespread clinical application has attracted attention in light of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. While there have been a number of studies exploring the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of manuka honey and nanocrystalline silver, their advantages and limitations with regard to the treatment of chronic wounds remain a subject of debate. The aim of this paper is to examine the evidence on the use of nanocrystalline silver and manuka honey for treating diabetic foot ulcers through a critical and comprehensive review of in vitro studies, animal studies, and in vivo studies. The findings from the in vitro and animal studies suggest that both agents have effective antibacterial actions. Their anti-inflammatory action and related impact on wound healing are unclear. Besides, there is no evidence to suggest that any topical agent is more effective for use in treating diabetic foot ulcer. Overall, high-quality, clinical human studies supported by findings from the molecular science on the use of manuka honey or nanocrystalline silver are lacking. There is a need for rigorously designed human clinical studies on the subject to fill this knowledge gap and guide clinical practice. PMID:26290672

  11. Chemical Screening in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Brady, Colleen A; Rennekamp, Andrew J; Peterson, Randall T

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic small molecule screens in zebrafish have gained popularity as an unbiased approach to probe biological processes. In this chapter we outline basic methods for performing chemical screens with larval zebrafish including breeding large numbers of embryos, plating larval fish into multi-well dishes, and adding small molecules to these wells. We also highlight important considerations when designing and interpreting the results of a phenotypic screen and possible follow-up approaches, including popular methods used to identify the mechanism of action of a chemical compound. PMID:27464797

  12. Expedited response action proposal for 316-5 process trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    A summary of the evaluation of remedial alternatives for the 300 Area Process Trench sediment removal at Hanford is presented. Based on the preliminary technology screening, screening factors, and selection criteria the preferred alternative for the 300 Area Process Trench is to remove and interim stabilize the sediments within the fenced area of the process trenches. This alternative involves proven technologies that are applied easily at this mixed waste site. This alternative removes and isolates contaminated sediments from the active portion of the trenches allowing continued used of the trenches until an inspection and treatment facility is constructed. The alternative does not incorporate any materials or actions that preclude consideration of a technology for final remediation of the operable unit. The estimated initial and annual costs would enable this alternative to be implemented under the guidelines for an EPA- funded ERA ($2 million). Implementation of the alternative can be accomplished with trained personnel using familiar procedures to provide a safe operation that accomplishes the objective for removing a potential source of contamination, thereby reducing potential environmental threat to groundwater. 18 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  14. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 3 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Echelard

    2006-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Project Shoal Area (PSA)-Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 447 is located in the Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County, Nevada, approximately 48 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for CAU 447, as provided in the FFACO. Corrective Action Unit 447 consists of two corrective action sites (CASs): CAS 57-49-01, Emplacement Shaft, and CAS 57-57-001, Cavity. The emplacement shaft (CAS-57-49-01) was backfilled and plugged in 1996 and will not be evaluated further. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at PSA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives. (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. (3) Develop corrective action alternatives. (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at PSA. The original Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for the PSA was approved in September 1996 and described a plan to drill and test four characterization wells, followed by flow and transport modeling (DOE/NV, 1996). The resultant drilling is described in a data report (DOE/NV, 1998e) and the data analysis and modeling in an interim modeling report (Pohll et al., 1998). After considering the results of the modeling effort, the U.S. Department

  16. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR THE AREA 3 LANDFILL COMPLEX, TONOPAH TEST RANGE, CAU 424, REVISION 0, MARCH 1998

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-03-03

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for the Area 3 Landfill Complex (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 424) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Corrective Action Unit 424 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs), each an individual landfill located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound (DOE/NV, 1996a): (1) Landfill A3-1 is CAS No. 03-08-001-A301. (2) Landfill A3-2 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A302. (3) Landfill A3-3 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A303. (4) Landfill A3-4 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A304. (5) Landfill A3-5 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A305. (6) Landfill A3-6 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A306. (7) Landfill A3-7 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A307. (8) Landfill A3-8 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A308. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives. (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. (3) Develop corrective action alternatives. (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. (6) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS. In June and July 1997, a corrective action investigation was performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1997). Details can be found in Appendix A of this document. The results indicated four groupings of site characteristics as shown in Table ES-1. Based on the potential exposure pathways, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for CAU No. 424: (1) Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soils containing waste. (2) Remediate the site per

  17. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 383: AREA 12 E-TUNNEL SITES, NEVADA TEST SITE, REV. NO. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark McLane

    2005-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) and the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The recommendations and corrective actions described within this document apply to the future closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 383, Area 12 E-Tunnel Sites, which is a joint DTRA and NNSA/NSO site. The CAU consists of three (3) Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-06-06 (Muckpile); CAS 12-25-02 (Oil Spill); and CAS 12-28-02 (Radioactive Material). In addition to these CASs, E-Tunnel Ponds One, Two, and Three, and the Drainage Area above the ponds were included since closure of the Muckpile will impact these areas. This CADD is consistent with the requirements of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The DTRA point of contact is the Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Project Manager; currently Ms. Tiffany A. Lantow. The NNSA/NSO point of contact is the Environmental Restoration, Industrial Sites Project Manager; currently Ms. Janet Appenzeller-Wing. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for CAU 383. This document presents the recommended corrective action for CAU 383 (E-Tunnel Sites); however, implementation may be affected by the corrective action (to be determined) for CAU 551 (Area 12 Muckpiles) due to the close proximity of B, C, D, and F-Tunnels. The scope of this CADD consists of the following tasks: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify

  18. Airport Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2011 Photo courtesy of Dan Paluska/Flickr Denver Airport Security Screening Introduction With air travel regaining popularity and increased secu- rity measures, airport security screening has become an area of interest for ...

  19. Health Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier ... Overweight and obesity Prostate cancer in men Which tests you need depends on your age, your sex, ...

  20. MRSA Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance ...

  1. IronMaking Process Alternatives Screening Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-10-01

    This study by Lockwood Greene evaluates a number ironmaking processes. The appendices provide greater detail and further exploration of the ironmaking processes, including components, relative costs, and comparisons.

  2. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  3. Alternate Alternates: A Medley of Alternate Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Paula J.; Olsen, Ken

    This paper highlights eight states that have implemented alternate assessments for children with disabilities who cannot participate in their state and district-wide assessment programs. The alternate assessment systems in Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Minnesota, North Dakota, Utah, and West Virginia are briefly described, along with their…

  4. ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

  5. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  6. Alternative strategies: a better alternative.

    PubMed

    Doody, Dennis

    2010-05-01

    Alternatives can be defined as being any financial asset other than traditional stocks and bonds. They include marketable alternatives, private capital, and equity real estate. There are two primary reasons for investing in alternatives: the potential for greater return and the opportunity to diversify a portfolio. Although alternatives were challenged in the highly volatile environment that existed in 2008 and early 2009, they generally lived up to expectations.

  7. Streptococcal screen

    MedlinePlus

    A negative strep screen most often means group A streptococcus is not present. It is unlikely that you have strep throat. If your provider still thinks that you may have strep throat, a throat culture will be done.

  8. Hypertension screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  9. Developmental Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Learn More about Your Child’s Development: Developmental Monitoring and Screening Taking a first step, waving “bye-bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, ...

  10. TORCH screen

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a newborn. TORCH stands for toxoplasmosis , rubella , cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and HIV, but it can also ... to screen infants for infections such as toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, syphilis and others. These infections may ...

  11. Newborn Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pulse Oximetry Screening for CCHDs Sickle Cell Disease Laboratory SCID Quality Assurance Training and Resources For Lab Professionals Data and Reports Laboratory Reports National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) Resources ...

  12. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  13. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  14. Assessing reader performance in radiology, an imperfect science: lessons from breast screening.

    PubMed

    Soh, B P; Lee, W; Kench, P L; Reed, W M; McEntee, M F; Poulos, A; Brennan, P C

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the limitations associated with current methods of assessing reader accuracy in mammography screening programmes. Clinical audit is commonly used as a quality-assurance tool to monitor the performance of screen readers; however, a number of the metrics employed, such as recall rate as a surrogate for specificity, do not always accurately measure the intended clinical feature. Alternatively, standardized screening test sets, which benefit from ease of application, immediacy of results, and quicker assessment of quality improvement plans, suffer from experimental confounders, thus questioning the relevance of these laboratory-type screening test sets to clinical performance. Four key factors that impact on the external validity of screening test sets were identified: the nature and extent of scrutiny of one's action, the artificiality of the environment, the over-simplification of responses, and prevalence of abnormality. The impact of these factors on radiological and other contexts is discussed, and although it is important to acknowledge the benefit of standardized screening test sets, issues relating to the relevance of test sets to clinical activities remain. The degree of correlation between performance based on real-life clinical audit and performances at screen read test sets must be better understood and specific causal agents for any lack of correlation identified.

  15. Fragment Screening and HIV Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Joseph D.; Patel, Disha; Arnold, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Fragment screening has proven to be a powerful alternative to traditional methods for drug discovery. Biophysical methods, such as X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and surface plasmon resonance, are used to screen a diverse library of small molecule compounds. Although compounds identified via this approach have relatively weak affinity, they provide a good platform for lead development and are highly efficient binders with respect to their size. Fragment screening has been utilized for a wide-range of targets, including HIV-1 proteins. Here, we review the fragment screening studies targeting HIV-1 proteins using X-ray crystallography or surface plasmon resonance. These studies have successfully detected binding of novel fragments to either previously established or new sites on HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase. In addition, fragment screening against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase has been used as a tool to better understand the complex nature of ligand binding to a flexible target. PMID:21972022

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 190 is located in Areas 11 and 14 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 190 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 11-02-01, Underground Centrifuge; (2) 11-02-02, Drain Lines and Outfall; (3) 11-59-01, Tweezer Facility Septic System; and (4) 14-23-01, LTU-6 Test Area. These sites are being investigated because existing information is insufficient on the nature and extent of potential contamination to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI). The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on August 24, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture, and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 190. The scope of the CAU 190 CAI includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling; (2) Conduct radiological and geophysical surveys; (3) Perform field screening; (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (5) If COCs are present, collect additional step-out samples to define the lateral and vertical extent of the contamination; (6) Collect samples of source material, if present

  17. Aiding alternatives assessment with an uncertainty-tolerant hazard scoring method.

    PubMed

    Faludi, Jeremy; Hoang, Tina; Gorman, Patrick; Mulvihill, Martin

    2016-11-01

    This research developed a single-score system to simplify and clarify decision-making in chemical alternatives assessment, accounting for uncertainty. Today, assessing alternatives to hazardous constituent chemicals is a difficult task-rather than comparing alternatives by a single definitive score, many independent toxicological variables must be considered at once, and data gaps are rampant. Thus, most hazard assessments are only comprehensible to toxicologists, but business leaders and politicians need simple scores to make decisions. In addition, they must balance hazard against other considerations, such as product functionality, and they must be aware of the high degrees of uncertainty in chemical hazard data. This research proposes a transparent, reproducible method to translate eighteen hazard endpoints into a simple numeric score with quantified uncertainty, alongside a similar product functionality score, to aid decisions between alternative products. The scoring method uses Clean Production Action's GreenScreen as a guide, but with a different method of score aggregation. It provides finer differentiation between scores than GreenScreen's four-point scale, and it displays uncertainty quantitatively in the final score. Displaying uncertainty also illustrates which alternatives are early in product development versus well-defined commercial products. This paper tested the proposed assessment method through a case study in the building industry, assessing alternatives to spray polyurethane foam insulation containing methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). The new hazard scoring method successfully identified trade-offs between different alternatives, showing finer resolution than GreenScreen Benchmarking. Sensitivity analysis showed that different weighting schemes in hazard scores had almost no effect on alternatives ranking, compared to uncertainty from data gaps. PMID:27454102

  18. Aiding alternatives assessment with an uncertainty-tolerant hazard scoring method.

    PubMed

    Faludi, Jeremy; Hoang, Tina; Gorman, Patrick; Mulvihill, Martin

    2016-11-01

    This research developed a single-score system to simplify and clarify decision-making in chemical alternatives assessment, accounting for uncertainty. Today, assessing alternatives to hazardous constituent chemicals is a difficult task-rather than comparing alternatives by a single definitive score, many independent toxicological variables must be considered at once, and data gaps are rampant. Thus, most hazard assessments are only comprehensible to toxicologists, but business leaders and politicians need simple scores to make decisions. In addition, they must balance hazard against other considerations, such as product functionality, and they must be aware of the high degrees of uncertainty in chemical hazard data. This research proposes a transparent, reproducible method to translate eighteen hazard endpoints into a simple numeric score with quantified uncertainty, alongside a similar product functionality score, to aid decisions between alternative products. The scoring method uses Clean Production Action's GreenScreen as a guide, but with a different method of score aggregation. It provides finer differentiation between scores than GreenScreen's four-point scale, and it displays uncertainty quantitatively in the final score. Displaying uncertainty also illustrates which alternatives are early in product development versus well-defined commercial products. This paper tested the proposed assessment method through a case study in the building industry, assessing alternatives to spray polyurethane foam insulation containing methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). The new hazard scoring method successfully identified trade-offs between different alternatives, showing finer resolution than GreenScreen Benchmarking. Sensitivity analysis showed that different weighting schemes in hazard scores had almost no effect on alternatives ranking, compared to uncertainty from data gaps.

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0 with ROTC No. 1 and ROTC No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Boehlecke

    2004-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 554 is located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 554 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), which is: 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. This site consists of soil contamination resulting from a fuel release from underground storage tanks (USTs). Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 554. Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 15, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; and contractor personnel. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 554. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to CAS 23-02-08. The scope of the corrective action investigation

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-10-05

    undisturbed locations near the area of the disposal pits; field screening samples for radiological constituents; analysis for geotechnical/hydrologic parameters of samples beneath the disposal pits; and bioassessment samples, if VOC or TPH contamination concentrations exceed field-screening levels. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  1. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 370: T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC-1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Pat Matthews

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 370 is located in Area 4 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 370 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 04-23-01, Atmospheric Test Site T-4. This site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and/or implement a corrective action. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The investigation results may also be used to evaluate improvements in the Soils Project strategy to be implemented. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on December 10, 2007, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Desert Research Institute; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 370. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to the CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 370 includes the following activities: • Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. • Conduct radiological surveys. • Perform field screening. • Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine whether contaminants of concern are present. • If contaminants of concern are present, collect samples to define the extent of the

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations, and step-out sampling to define the extent of

  3. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 557: Spills and Tank Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 557 is located in Areas 1, 3, 6, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and is comprised of the four corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 01-25-02, Fuel Spill • 03-02-02, Area 3 Subdock UST • 06-99-10, Tar Spills • 25-25-18, Train Maintenance Bldg 3901 Spill Site These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 3, 2008, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 557. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the corrective action investigation for CAU 557 includes the following activities: • Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. • Conduct radiological survey at CAS 25-25-18. • Perform field screening. • Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine whether contaminants of concern are present. • If contaminants of concern are present, collect additional step

  5. 75 FR 3182 - Intake Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons 28 CFR Part 522 RIN 1120-AB47 Intake Screening AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau... to the Rules Unit, Office of General Counsel, Bureau of Prisons, 320 First Street, NW.,...

  6. Screening for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains three sections: Fundamentals of Screening, Screening Tests, and Screening for Specific Cancer Sites. Each section consists of several chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Principles of Screening and of the Evaluation of Screening Programs; Economic Aspects of Screening; Cervical Cytology; Screening Tests for Bladder Cancer; Fecal Occult Blood Testing; Screening for Cancer of the Cervix; Screening for Gastric Cancer; and Screening for Oral Cancer.

  7. PSA and beyond: alternative prostate cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of biomarkers for prostate cancer screening, diagnosis and prognosis has the potential to improve the clinical management of the patients. Owing to inherent limitations of the biomarker prostate-specific antigen (PSA), intensive efforts are currently directed towards a search for alternative prostate cancer biomarkers, particularly those that can predict disease aggressiveness and drive better treatment decisions. Methods A literature search of Medline articles focused on recent and emerging advances in prostate cancer biomarkers was performed. The most promising biomarkers that have the potential to meet the unmet clinical needs in prostate cancer patient management and/or that are clinically implemented were selected. Conclusions With the advent of advanced genomic and proteomic technologies, we have in recent years seen an enormous spurt in prostate cancer biomarker research with several promising alternative biomarkers being discovered that show an improved sensitivity and specificity over PSA. The new generation of biomarkers can be tested via serum, urine, or tissue-based assays that have either received regulatory approval by the US Food and Drug Administration or are available as Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-based laboratory developed tests. Additional emerging novel biomarkers for prostate cancer, including circulating tumor cells, microRNAs and exosomes, are still in their infancy. Together, these biomarkers provide actionable guidance for prostate cancer risk assessment, and are expected to lead to an era of personalized medicine. PMID:26790878

  8. Hearing Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  9. Virtual screening for lead discovery.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yat T; Marshall, Garland R

    2011-01-01

    The identification of small drug-like compounds that selectively inhibit the function of biological targets has historically been a major focus in the pharmaceutical industry, and in recent years, has generated much interest in academia as well. Drug-like compounds are valuable as chemical genetics tools to probe biological pathways in a reversible, dose- and time-dependent manner for drug target identification. In addition, small molecule compounds can be used to characterize the shape and charge preferences of macromolecular binding sites, for both structure-based and ligand-based drug design. High-throughput screening is the most common experimental method used to identify lead compounds. Because of the cost, time, and resources required for performing high-throughput screening for compound libraries, the use of alternative strategies is necessary for facilitating lead discovery. Virtual screening has been successful in prioritizing large chemical libraries to identify experimentally active compounds, serving as a practical and effective alternative to high-throughput screening. Methodologies used in virtual screening such as molecular docking and scoring have advanced to the point where they can rapidly and accurately identify lead compounds in addition to predicting native binding conformations. This chapter provides instructions on how to perform a virtual screen using freely available tools for structure-based lead discovery. PMID:21318897

  10. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  11. [Alternative medicine].

    PubMed

    Mitello, L

    2001-01-01

    In a critical situation of world official medicine, we can find different alternatives therapies: natural therapy traditional and complementary, survival sometimes, of antique stiles and conditions of life. New sciences presented for them empiricism to the margin of official science. Doctors and sorcerer do the best to defeat the horrible virus that contribute to build symbols categories of sick. The alternatives put dangerously in game the scientific myth of experiment and exhume, if they got lost, antique remedy, almost preserved like cultural wreck very efficient where the medicine is impotent. Besides alternatives and complementary therapies, that are remedies not recognized conventional from official medicine, there are the homeopathic, phytotherapy, pranotherapy, nutritional therapy, the ayurveda, the yoga, ecc. Italians and internationals research show a composite picture of persons that apply that therapies. Object of this work is to understand and know the way that sick lighten their sufferings and role that have o that can assume the nurses to assist this sick. PMID:12146072

  12. Cosmic alternatives?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  13. 10 CFR 490.502 - Creditable actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Creditable actions. 490.502 Section 490.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.502 Creditable actions. A fleet or covered person becomes entitled to...

  14. 10 CFR 490.502 - Creditable actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creditable actions. 490.502 Section 490.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.502 Creditable actions. A fleet or covered person becomes entitled to...

  15. 10 CFR 490.502 - Creditable actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Creditable actions. 490.502 Section 490.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.502 Creditable actions. A fleet or covered person becomes entitled to...

  16. 10 CFR 490.502 - Creditable actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Creditable actions. 490.502 Section 490.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.502 Creditable actions. A fleet or covered person becomes entitled to...

  17. 10 CFR 490.502 - Creditable actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Creditable actions. 490.502 Section 490.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.502 Creditable actions. A fleet or covered person becomes entitled to...

  18. Vision Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  19. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  20. Alternative Conceptualizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the topic of "Alternative Conceptualizations" of the foundations of education. In "The Concept of Place in the New Sociology of Education," Paul Theobald examines the notion of place in educational theory and practice. Janice Jipson and Nicholas Paley, in…

  1. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  2. Alternative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

  3. [Screening for cervical and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Wilm, J; Schüler-Toprak, S; Ortmann, O

    2016-09-01

    Screening programs for cervical cancer and breast cancer lead to a clear reduction of mortality. Starting in 2018 screening for cervical cancer will be structured as an organized program as already exists for breast cancer. In future screening for cervical cancer will be primarily performed by human papillomavirus (HPV) testing at intervals of 5 years while cytological examination (Pap smear) will also be available as an additional or alternative procedure. For breast cancer screening in Germany an annual clinical examination with palpation and mammography screening at 2‑year intervals is provided for women aged between 50 and 69 years. In Germany only approximately 50 % of invited women have used the opportunity to participate in screening in recent years. Weighing the benefits against the harms of cancer screening programs is always important in the process of evaluation of different strategies. PMID:27577734

  4. Addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, November 2000)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-11-03

    This addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to determine the extent of contamination existing at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 321. This addendum was required when the extent of contamination exceeded the estimate in the original Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD). Located in Area 22 on the Nevada Test Site, Corrective Action Unit 321, Weather Station Fuel Storage, consists of Corrective Action Site 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area, was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility. This facility was operational from 1951 to 1958 and dismantled after 1958. Based on site history and earlier investigation activities at CAU 321, the contaminant of potential concern (COPC) was previously identified as total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel-range organics). The scope of this corrective action investigation for the Fuel Storage Area will include the selection of biased sample locations to determine the vertical and lateral extent of contamination, collection of soil samples using rotary sonic drilling techniques, and the utilization of field-screening methods to accurately determine the extent of COPC contamination. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives and be included in the revised CADD.

  5. Final corrective action study for the former CCC/USDA facility in Ramona, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2011-04-20

    Past operations at a grain storage facility formerly leased and operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in Ramona, Kansas, resulted in low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater that slightly exceed the regulatory standard in only one location. As requested by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, the CCC/USDA has prepared a Corrective Action Study (CAS) for the facility. The CAS examines corrective actions to address groundwater impacted by the former CCC/USDA facility but not releases caused by other potential groundwater contamination sources in Ramona. Four remedial alternatives were considered in the CAS. The recommended remedial alternative in the CAS consists of Environmental Use Control to prevent the inadvertent use of groundwater as a water supply source, coupled with groundwater monitoring to verify the continued natural improvement in groundwater quality. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) has directed Argonne National Laboratory to prepare a Corrective Action Study (CAS), consistent with guidance from the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2001a), for the CCC/USDA grain storage facility formerly located in Ramona, Kansas. This effort is pursuant to a KDHE (2007a) request. Although carbon tetrachloride levels at the Ramona site are low, they remain above the Kansas Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 {micro}g/L (Kansas 2003, 2004). In its request for the CAS, the KDHE (2007a) stated that, because of these levels, risk is associated with potential future exposure to contaminated groundwater. The KDHE therefore determined that additional measures are warranted to limit future use of the property and/or exposure to contaminated media as part of site closure. The KDHE further requested comparison of at least two corrective

  6. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David Strand

    2006-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 166 is located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is comprised of the seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 28, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 166. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 166 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Perform field screening. (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine if

  8. Supercritical fluid extraction as an on-line clean-up technique for rapid amperometric screening and alternative liquid chromatography for confirmation of paraquat and diquat in olive oil samples.

    PubMed

    Zougagh, M; Bouabdallah, M; Salghi, R; Hormatallah, A; Rios, A

    2008-09-12

    A rapid and simple method for the direct screening of paraquat (PQ) and diquat (DQ) in olive oil samples is proposed. The sample screening method involves supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (clean-up followed by the extraction of the analytes) followed by continuous flow electrochemical detection. Those samples for which the total concentration is close to or above the threshold limit established by the Columbian Society for Social Protection (0.05 microg g(-1)) are subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC) with diode array detection (DAD). This confirmation method allows the determination of PQ and DQ in the range between 0.04 and 1.0 microg g(-1), with average relative standard deviations lower than 3.5%, and 0.003 and 0.002 microg g(-1) detection limits for PQ and DQ, respectively. The proposed arrangement opens up interesting prospects for the direct determination of polar pesticides in complex samples with a good throughput and a high level of automation.

  9. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  10. ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants. [Foreign Trip Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

  11. Screening Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Linda L.; Ballard, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women and, until recently surpassed by lung cancer, was the leading cause of cancer-related death in women. It is the leading cause of death in women aged 39 to 44 years. The American Cancer Society has estimated that there will be 135,000 new cases of breast cancer and 42,300 breast cancer-related deaths in 1988. It is now predicted that breast cancer will develop in one out of every ten women in the United States. Given the clinical and public health significance of breast cancer, annual screening with mammography and clinical breast examination is recommended for women aged 50 and older to reduce breast cancer mortality. PMID:3407172

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 561 is located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, 22, 23, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 561 is comprised of the 10 corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 01-19-01, Waste Dump • 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area • 03-19-02, Debris Pile • 05-62-01, Radioactive Gravel Pile • 12-23-09, Radioactive Waste Dump • 22-19-06, Buried Waste Disposal Site • 23-21-04, Waste Disposal Trenches • 25-08-02, Waste Dump • 25-23-21, Radioactive Waste Dump • 25-25-19, Hydrocarbon Stains and Trench These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 28, 2008, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 561. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the Corrective Action Investigation for CAU 561 includes the following activities: • Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. • Conduct radiological surveys

  13. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  14. Action perception predicts action performance.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system.

  15. Double recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain for screening of primary and rationale-based antimycobacterial compounds.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vandana; Biswas, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Bhupendra N

    2014-01-01

    Conventional antimycobacterial screening involves CFU analysis, which poses a great challenge due to slow growth of mycobacteria. Recombinant strains carrying reporter genes under the influence of constitutive promoters allow rapid and wide screening of compounds but without revealing their modes of action. Reporter strains using pathway-specific promoters provide a better alternative but allow a limited screening of compounds interfering with only a particular metabolic pathway. This reduces these strains to merely a second-line screening system, as they fail to identify even the more potent compounds if they are not inhibiting the pathway of interest. In this study, we have generated a double recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain carrying firefly and Renilla luciferase genes as two reporters under the control of a constitutive and an inducible mycobacterial promoter. The presence of dual reporters allows simultaneous expression and analysis of two reporter enzymes within a single system. The expression profile of the firefly luciferase gene, rendered by a constitutive mycobacterial promoter, coincides with the decline in bacterial growth in response to a wide range of antimycobacterial drugs, while the enhanced expression of Renilla luciferase mirrors the selective induction of the reporter gene expression as a result of pathway-specific inhibition. Thus, the double recombinant strain allows the screening of both primary and rationally synthesized antimycobacterial compounds in a single assay. The inhibiting response of drugs was monitored with a dual-luciferase reporter assay which can be easily adapted in high-throughput mode.

  16. Preclinical screening methods in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sachin; Bajaj, Sakshi; Bodla, Ramesh Babu

    2016-01-01

    Cancer, a group of diseases of unregulated cell proliferation, is a leading cause of death worldwide. More than 80% of compounds which have shown promising effects in preclinical studies could not get through Phase II of clinical trials. Such high attrition rate is due to improper or selective use of preclinical modalities in anticancer drug screening. The various preclinical screening methods available such as in vitro human cancer cell lines, in vivo tumor xenograft model, or genetically engineered mouse model have their respective pros and cons. Scrupulous use of these preclinical screening methods vis-à-vis efficacy of potential anticancer compound with diverse mechanism of action can help in bringing down the rate of failure of anticancer compound at clinical phase. This article provides an insight into the various preclinical methods used in anticancer studies along with their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:27721530

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE /Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-10

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Air port Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-10

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  19. [New guidelines in regard to cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cancer screening programs have been successful in reducing the incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer. For more than a decade, the human papillomavirus test has been recommended as part of these programs, however, Pap tests is not currently recommended for women 65 years of age who participated adequately in screening programs, continuing with these screening programs is not needed. Screening programs will be different in special populations at greatest risk where tests are frequently needed or use of alternative methods.

  20. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 2 - CANDU heavy water reactor alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.; Spellman, D.J.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 2 of a four volume report, summarizes the results of these analyses for the CANDU reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

  1. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 3 - partially complete LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.; Fisher, S.E.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 3 of a four volume report summarizes the results of these analyses for the partially complete LWR (PCLWR) reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

  2. Alternative Fuels Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Angela D.; Klettlinger, Jennifer L.; Nakley, Leah M.; Yen, Chia H.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Glenn has invested over $1.5 million in engineering, and infrastructure upgrades to renovate an existing test facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), which is now being used as an Alternative Fuels Laboratory. Facility systems have demonstrated reliability and consistency for continuous and safe operations in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis and thermal stability testing. This effort is supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing project. The purpose of this test facility is to conduct bench scale F-T catalyst screening experiments. These experiments require the use of a synthesis gas feedstock, which will enable the investigation of F-T reaction kinetics, product yields and hydrocarbon distributions. Currently the facility has the capability of performing three simultaneous reactor screening tests, along with a fourth fixed-bed reactor for catalyst activation studies. Product gas composition and performance data can be continuously obtained with an automated gas sampling system, which directly connects the reactors to a micro-gas chromatograph (micro GC). Liquid and molten product samples are collected intermittently and are analyzed by injecting as a diluted sample into designated gas chromatograph units. The test facility also has the capability of performing thermal stability experiments of alternative aviation fuels with the use of a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) (Ref. 1) in accordance to ASTM D 3241 "Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Fuels" (JFTOT method) (Ref. 2). An Ellipsometer will be used to study fuel fouling thicknesses on heated tubes from the HLPS experiments. A detailed overview of the test facility systems and capabilities are described in this paper.

  3. Acceptability of Alternatives to Traditional Emergency Care: Patient Characteristics, Alternate Transport Modes, and Alternate Destinations.

    PubMed

    Jones, Courtney Marie Cora; Wasserman, Erin B; Li, Timmy; Shah, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    To determine the acceptability of alternatives to traditional emergency care, we assessed the proportion of subjects willing to consider alternative modes of transportation and alternative destinations. We further identified patient characteristics associated with willingness to consider these alternatives. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study in the emergency department (ED) of an academic medical center. Research assistants screened all non-critically ill ED patients for eligibility and willingness to participate and administered an interview-based survey that included questions on demographic and clinical characteristics, perceived illness severity, and acceptability of alternatives to traditional emergency care for acute illness and injuries. We calculated the proportions and 95% confidence intervals for subjects who found alternative transport modes and destinations acceptable and developed a log-binomial regression model to identify patient characteristics associated with acceptability of alternative modes of transport and alternative destinations. Complete data were available on 1,058 subjects. Forty-two percent of the study sample arrived to the ED via emergency medical services (EMS). Over two-thirds of the study sample (68.2%) was willing to consider transport via either taxi or medical transport van and 69.0% was willing to consider either transportation to an urgent care center or their primary care physician's office. Other alternatives, including delayed EMS response time, were less frequently endorsed as acceptable alternatives. Subject characteristics associated with willingness to accept alternative modes of transportation included younger age, chief complaint, previous ED use, and place of residence (p < 0.05). Subject characteristics associated with willingness to accept alternative destinations included younger age, non-white race, lower patient acuity, and lower self-perceived illness severity (p < 0.05). In our ED, some patients found

  4. International Older Driver Consensus Conference on Assessment, Remediation and Counseling for Transportation Alternatives: Summary and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Burton W.; McCarthy, Dennis P.; Marsiske, Michael; Shechtman, Orit; Classen, Sherrilene; Justiss, Michael; Mann, William C.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY On December 1 and 2, 2003, 63 international experts on older driver issues met to examine three critical issues related to the safe mobility of older drivers. Conference participants addressed standards and protocols for screening and evaluating the skills of older drivers. For drivers judged to lack the necessary skills to drive safely, participants addressed methods of remediation that could enable older persons with limited cognitive or physical abilities to continue to drive. For those persons whose skills are judged inadequate for safe driving, conference participants addressed the question as to how best to counsel individuals and their caregivers on practical alternatives to driving. Consensus was achieved as to the current methods for best assessing and screening drivers, remediation techniques, and providing advice and counsel for those persons and the caregivers as to appropriate actions for those no longer able to drive safely. PMID:20668642

  5. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  6. Set-up of a multivariate approach based on serum biomarkers as an alternative strategy for the screening evaluation of the potential abuse of growth promoters in veal calves

    PubMed Central

    Pirro, Valentina; Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Gardini, Giulia; Badino, Paola; Nebbia, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    A chemometric class modelling strategy (unequal dispersed classes – UNEQ) was applied for the first time as a possible screening method to monitor the abuse of growth promoters in veal calves. Five serum biomarkers, known to reflect the exposure to classes of compounds illegally used as growth promoters, were determined from 50 untreated animals in order to design a model of controls, representing veal calves reared under good, safe and highly standardised breeding conditions. The class modelling was applied to 421 commercially bred veal calves to separate them into ‘compliant’ and ‘non-compliant’ with respect to the modelled controls. Part of the non-compliant animals underwent further histological and chemical examinations to confirm the presence of either alterations in target tissues or traces of illegal substances commonly administered for growth-promoting purposes. Overall, the congruence between the histological or chemical methods and the UNEQ non-compliant outcomes was approximately 58%, likely underestimated due to the blindness nature of this examination. Further research is needed to confirm the validity of the UNEQ model in terms of sensitivity in recognising untreated animals as compliant to the controls, and specificity in revealing deviations from ideal breeding conditions, for example due to the abuse of growth promoters. PMID:25730172

  7. Remedial Action Assessment System

    1997-02-01

    RAAS1.1 is a software-based system designed to assist remediation professionals at each stage of the environmental analysis process. RAAS1.1 provides a template for environmental restoration analysis, and provides the user with key results at each step in the analysis. RAAS1.1 assists the user to develop a coherent and consistent site description, estimate baseline and residual risk to public health from the contaminated site, identify applicable environmental restoration technologies, and formulate feasible remedial response alternatives. Inmore » addition, the RAAS1.1 methodology allows the user to then assess and compare those remedial response alternatives across EPA criteria, including: compliance with objectives; short-term and long-term effectiveness; extent of treatment; and implementability of the technologies. The analytic methodology is segmented and presented in a standardized, concise, easy-to-use format that can be viewed on the personal computer screen, saved and further manipulated, or printed for later use. Each screen and analytic step is accessed via a user-friendly personal computer graphical interface. Intuitively-designed buttons, menus, and lists help the user focus in on the particular information and analysis component of interest; the corresponding results are presented in a format that facilitates their use in decision-making.« less

  8. American Cancer Society lung cancer screening guidelines.

    PubMed

    Wender, Richard; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Barrera, Ermilo; Colditz, Graham A; Church, Timothy R; Ettinger, David S; Etzioni, Ruth; Flowers, Christopher R; Gazelle, G Scott; Kelsey, Douglas K; LaMonte, Samuel J; Michaelson, James S; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Sullivan, Daniel C; Travis, William; Walter, Louise; Wolf, Andrew M D; Brawley, Otis W; Smith, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Findings from the National Cancer Institute's National Lung Screening Trial established that lung cancer mortality in specific high-risk groups can be reduced by annual screening with low-dose computed tomography. These findings indicate that the adoption of lung cancer screening could save many lives. Based on the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, the American Cancer Society is issuing an initial guideline for lung cancer screening. This guideline recommends that clinicians with access to high-volume, high-quality lung cancer screening and treatment centers should initiate a discussion about screening with apparently healthy patients aged 55 years to 74 years who have at least a 30-pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. A process of informed and shared decision-making with a clinician related to the potential benefits, limitations, and harms associated with screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography should occur before any decision is made to initiate lung cancer screening. Smoking cessation counseling remains a high priority for clinical attention in discussions with current smokers, who should be informed of their continuing risk of lung cancer. Screening should not be viewed as an alternative to smoking cessation.

  9. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Tests, Strategies, and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Stracci, Fabrizio; Zorzi, Manuel; Grazzini, Grazia

    2014-01-01

    Screening has a central role in colorectal cancer (CRC) control. Different screening tests are effective in reducing CRC-specific mortality. Influence on cancer incidence depends on test sensitivity for pre-malignant lesions, ranging from almost no influence for guaiac-based fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) to an estimated reduction of 66–90% for colonoscopy. Screening tests detect lesions indirectly in the stool [gFOBT, fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), and fecal DNA] or directly by colonic inspection [flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, CT colonography (CTC), and capsule endoscopy]. CRC screening is cost-effective compared to no screening but no screening strategy is clearly better than the others. Stool tests are the most widely used in worldwide screening interventions. FIT will soon replace gFOBT. The use of colonoscopy as a screening test is increasing and this strategy has superseded all alternatives in the US and Germany. Despite its undisputed importance, CRC screening is under-used and participation rarely reaches 70% of target population. Strategies to increase participation include ensuring recommendation by physicians, introducing organized screening and developing new, more acceptable tests. Available evidence for DNA fecal testing, CTC, and capsule endoscopy is reviewed. PMID:25386553

  10. Groundwater Screen

    1993-11-09

    GWSCREEN was developed for assessment of the groundwater pathway from leaching of radioactive and non radioactive substances from surface or buried sources and release to percolation ponds. The code calculates the limiting soil concentration or effluent release concentration such that, after leaching and transport to the aquifer, regulatory contaminant levels in groundwater are not exceeded. The code uses a mass conservation approach to model three processes: Contaminant release from a source volume, contaminant transport inmore » the unsaturated zone, and contaminant transport in the saturated zone. The source model considers the sorptive properties and solubility of the contaminant. Transport in the unsaturated zone is described by a plug flow model. Transport in the saturated zone is calculated with a semi-analytical solution to the advection dispersion equation in groundwater. Concentration as a function of time at a user specified receptor point and maximum concentration averaged over the exposure interval are also calculated. In addition, the code calculates transport and impacts of radioactive progeny. Input to GWSCREEN is through one, free format ASCII file. This code was designed for assessment and screening of the groundwater pathway when field data is limited. It was not intended to be a predictive tool.« less

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2009-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit 562 is located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 562 is comprised of the 13 corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 02-26-11, Lead Shot • 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain • 02-59-01, Septic System • 02-60-01, Concrete Drain • 02-60-02, French Drain • 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain • 02-60-04, French Drain • 02-60-05, French Drain • 02-60-06, French Drain • 02-60-07, French Drain • 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall • 23-99-06, Grease Trap • 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on December 11, 2008, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 562. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the corrective action investigation for CAU 562 includes the following activities: • Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling.

  12. Health Screenings and Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... your primary doctor. Blood Tests – A Common Screening Method (Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) Click ... tests, see What Are Blood Tests? Other Screening Methods Doctors can't screen for all diseases and ...

  13. Screen time and children

    MedlinePlus

    "Screen time" is a term used for activities done in front of a screen, such as watching TV, working on a computer, or playing video games. Screen time is sedentary activity, meaning you are being physically ...

  14. RBC Antibody Screen

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? RBC Antibody Screen Share this page: Was this page ... Screen Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; Blood Typing ; RBC Antibody Identification ; Type and Screen; Crossmatch All content ...

  15. What Is Carrier Screening?

    MedlinePlus

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  16. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  17. Screening Analysis : Volume 1, Description and Conclusions.

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville Power Administration; Corps of Engineers; Bureau of Reclamation

    1992-08-01

    The SOR consists of three analytical phases leading to a Draft EIS. The first phase Pilot Analysis, was performed for the purpose of testing the decision analysis methodology being used in the SOR. The Pilot Analysis is described later in this chapter. The second phase, Screening Analysis, examines all possible operating alternatives using a simplified analytical approach. It is described in detail in this and the next chapter. This document also presents the results of screening. The final phase, Full-Scale Analysis, will be documented in the Draft EIS and is intended to evaluate comprehensively the few, best alternatives arising from the screening analysis. The purpose of screening is to analyze a wide variety of differing ways of operating the Columbia River system to test the reaction of the system to change. The many alternatives considered reflect the range of needs and requirements of the various river users and interests in the Columbia River Basin. While some of the alternatives might be viewed as extreme, the information gained from the analysis is useful in highlighting issues and conflicts in meeting operating objectives. Screening is also intended to develop a broad technical basis for evaluation including regional experts and to begin developing an evaluation capability for each river use that will support full-scale analysis. Finally, screening provides a logical method for examining all possible options and reaching a decision on a few alternatives worthy of full-scale analysis. An organizational structure was developed and staffed to manage and execute the SOR, specifically during the screening phase and the upcoming full-scale analysis phase. The organization involves ten technical work groups, each representing a particular river use. Several other groups exist to oversee or support the efforts of the work groups.

  18. Single-Laboratory Validation Study of a Method for Screening and Identification of Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors in Dietary Ingredients and Supplements Using Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole-Orbital Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry: First Action 2015.12.

    PubMed

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Schmitz, John R; Halbardier, Jean-Francois; Mastovska, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study of a method for screening and identification of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors in dietary ingredients and supplements is described. PDE5 inhibitors were extracted from the samples using a 50:50 (v/v) mixture of acetonitrile and water and centrifuged. Supernatant was diluted, filtered, and analyzed by LC-high-resolution MS. Data were collected in MS acquisition mode that combined full-scan MS experiment with all-ion fragmentation and data-dependent MS/MS product from the ion scan experiment. This approach enabled collection of MS and tandem MS (MS/MS) data for both targeted and nontargeted PDE5 inhibitors in a single chromatographic run. Software-facilitated identification of targeted analytes was performed based on the retention time, accurate mass, and isotopic pattern of pseudomolecular ions, and accurate masses of fragment ions using an in-house compound database. Detection and identification of other PDE5 inhibitors and novel analogs were performed by retrospective evaluation of MS and MS/MS experimental data. The method validation results obtained for evaluated matrixes fulfilled the probability of identification requirements and probability of detection requirements (for the pooled data) set at 90% (95% confidence interval) in the respective AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements for identification and screening methods for PDE5 inhibitors. Limited data demonstrating the quantification capability of the method were also generated. Mean recovery and repeatability obtained for the evaluated PDE5 inhibitors were in the range 69-90% and 0.4-1.8%, respectively.

  19. Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil: 2005 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Friday, G. P.

    2005-07-18

    One of the principal components of the environmental remediation program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is the assessment of ecological risk. Used to support CERCLA, RCRA, and DOE orders, the ecological risk assessment (ERA) can identify environmental hazards and evaluate remedial action alternatives. Ecological risk assessment is also an essential means for achieving DOE's risk based end state vision for the disposition of nuclear material and waste hazards, the decommissioning of facilities, and the remediation of inactive waste units at SRS. The complexity of an ERA ranges from a screening level ERA (SLERA) to a full baseline ERA. A screening level ecological risk assessments, although abbreviated from a baseline risk assessment, is nonetheless considered a complete risk assessment (EPA, 2001a). One of the initial tasks of any ERA is to identify constituents that potentially or adversely affect the environment. Typically, this is accomplished by comparing a constituent's maximum concentration in surface water, sediment, or soil with an ecological screening value (ESV). The screening process can eliminate many constituents from further consideration in the risk assessment, but it also identifies those that require additional evaluation. This document is an update of a previous compilation (Friday, 1998) and provides a comprehensive listing of ecological screening values for surface water, sediment, and soil. It describes how the screening values were derived and recommends benchmarks that can be used for ecological risk assessment. The sources of these updated benchmarks include the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the State of Florida, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), the Dutch Ministry of the Environment (RIVM), and the scientific literature. It should be

  20. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M.; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P.; Clark, John M.; Reynolds, Stuart E.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Feil, Edward J.; Urrutia, Araxi O.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  1. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation.

  2. 76 FR 22163 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 221 meeting: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck... Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures....

  3. 76 FR 38741 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 221 meeting: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck... Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures....

  4. 75 FR 9016 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 221 meeting: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck... Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures....

  5. 75 FR 52591 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 221 meeting: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight... RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security...

  6. Debt relief and financing climate change action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, Adrian; Wright, Helena; Afionis, Stavros; Paavola, Jouni; Huq, Saleemul

    2014-08-01

    Slow progress in scaling-up climate finance has emerged as a major bottleneck in international negotiations. Debt relief for climate finance swaps could provide an alternative source for financing mitigation and adaptation action in developing countries.

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 542: Disposal Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Laura Pastor

    2006-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 542 is located in Areas 3, 8, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 542 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-20-07, ''UD-3a Disposal Hole''; (2) 03-20-09, ''UD-3b Disposal Hole''; (3) 03-20-10, ''UD-3c Disposal Hole''; (4) 03-20-11, ''UD-3d Disposal Hole''; (5) 06-20-03, ''UD-6 and UD-6s Disposal Holes''; (6) 08-20-01, ''U-8d PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''; (7) 09-20-03, ''U-9itsy30 PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''; and (8) 20-20-02, ''U-20av PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 30, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 542. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 542 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Conduct geophysical surveys to

  8. Improving Colon Cancer Screening in Community Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry; Arnold, Connie; Rademaker, Alfred; Bennett, Charles; Bailey, Stacy; Platt, Daci; Reynolds, Cristalyn; Liu, Dachao; Carias, Edson; Bass, Pat; Wolf, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two interventions designed to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in safety-net settings. Methods A three-arm, quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted among 8 clinics in Louisiana. Screening efforts included: 1) enhanced usual care, 2) literacy-informed education of patients, and 3) education plus nurse support. Overall, 961 average-risk patients, ages 50–85 were eligible for routine CRC screening and recruited. Outcomes included CRC screening completion and incremental cost-effectiveness the latter two approaches versus enhanced usual care. Results Baseline screening rates were < 3%. After the interventions, screening rates were 38.6% with enhanced usual care, 57.1% with education and 60.6% with additional nurse support. After adjusting for age, race, gender, and literacy, patients receiving education were not more likely to complete screening than those receiving enhanced usual care; those additionally receiving nurse support were 1.60 fold more likely to complete screening than those receiving enhanced usual care (95% CI 1.06 – 2.42, p=0.024). The incremental cost per additional person screened was $1,337 for nurse over enhanced usual care. Conclusions FOBT rates were increased beyond enhanced usual care by providing brief education and nurse support but not education alone. More cost effective alternatives to nurse support need to be investigated. PMID:24037721

  9. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  10. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516 is located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 516 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Septic Systems and Discharge Points, and is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): {sm_bullet} CAS 03-59-01, Bldg 3C-36 Septic System {sm_bullet} CAS 03-59-02, Bldg 3C-45 Septic System {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-01, Sump and Piping {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping {sm_bullet} CAS 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 06-51-02 and 22-19-04 is no further action. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-impacted septic tank contents, septic tanks, distribution/clean out boxes, and piping. CAU 516 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 516 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 516 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 516 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 186 tons of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH-impacted soil and debris, as well as 89 tons of construction debris, were generated and managed and disposed of appropriately. Waste minimization techniques, such as field screening of soil samples and the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure work.

  12. Reactivation of latently infected HIV-1 viral reservoirs and correction of aberrant alternative splicing in the LMNA gene via AMPK activation: Common mechanism of action linking HIV-1 latency and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Finley, Jahahreeh

    2015-09-01

    Although the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has proven highly effective in controlling and suppressing HIV-1 replication, the persistence of latent but replication-competent proviruses in a small subset of CD4(+) memory T cells presents significant challenges to viral eradication from infected individuals. Attempts to eliminate latent reservoirs are epitomized by the 'shock and kill' approach, a strategy involving the combinatorial usage of compounds that influence epigenetic modulation and initiation of proviral transcription. However, efficient regulation of viral pre-mRNA splicing through manipulation of host cell splicing machinery is also indispensible for HIV-1 replication. Interestingly, aberrant alternative splicing of the LMNA gene via the usage of a cryptic splice site has been shown to be the cause of most cases of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a rare genetic condition characterized by an accelerated aging phenotype due to the accumulation of a truncated form of lamin A known as progerin. Recent evidence has shown that inhibition of the splicing factors ASF/SF2 (or SRSF1) and SRp55 (or SRSF6) leads to a reduction or an increase in progerin at both the mRNA and protein levels, respectively, thus altering the LMNA pre-mRNA splicing ratio. It is also well-established that during the latter stages of HIV-1 infection, an increase in the production and nuclear export of unspliced viral mRNA is indispensible for efficient HIV-1 replication and that the presence of ASF/SF2 leads to excessive viral pre-mRNA splicing and a reduction of unspliced mRNA, while the presence of SRp55 inhibits viral pre-mRNA splicing and aids in the generation and translation of unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs. The splicing-factor associated protein and putative mitochondrial chaperone p32 has also been shown to inhibit ASF/SF2, increase unspliced HIV-1 viral mRNA, and enhance mitochondrial DNA replication and oxidative phosphorylation. It is our hypothesis that activation of

  13. Holography in action

    SciTech Connect

    Kolekar, Sanved; Padmanabhan, T.

    2010-07-15

    The Einstein-Hilbert action and its natural generalizations to higher dimensions (like the Lanczos-Lovelock action) have certain peculiar features. All of them can be separated into a bulk and a surface term, with a specific (''holographic'') relationship between the two, so that either term can be used to extract information about the other. Further, the surface term leads to entropy of the horizons on shell. It has been argued in the past that these features are impossible to understand in the conventional approach but find a natural explanation if we consider gravity as an emergent phenomenon. We provide further support for this point of view in this paper. We describe an alternative decomposition of the Einstein-Hilbert action and the Lanczos-Lovelock action into a new pair of surface and bulk terms, such that the surface term becomes the Wald entropy on a horizon and the bulk term is the energy density (which is the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner Hamiltonian density for Einstein gravity). We show that this new pair also obeys a holographic relationship, and we give a thermodynamic interpretation of this relation in this context. Since the bulk and surface terms, in this decomposition, are related to the energy and entropy, the holographic condition can be thought of as analogous to inverting the expression for entropy given as a function of energy S=S(E,V) to obtain the energy E=E(S,V) in terms of the entropy in a normal thermodynamic system. Thus the holographic nature of the action allows us to relate the descriptions of the same system in terms of two different thermodynamic potentials. Some further possible generalizations and implications are discussed.

  14. Screening Substitute Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakkuri, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The screening process a school district uses in hiring substitute teachers is critical to striking a balance between required qualifications and immediate need. Typically, screening involves at least one of the following: pre-screening, paper and pencil screening, interviews, and background checks, each of which is used to different degrees…

  15. Suppressor Screens in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuelin

    2016-01-01

    Genetic screens have proven to be a useful tool in the dissection of biological processes in plants. Specifically, suppressor screens have been widely used to study signal transduction pathways. Here we provide a detailed protocol for ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis used in our suppressor screens in Arabidopsis and discuss the basic principles behind suppressor screen design and downstream analyses. PMID:26577776

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 563, Septic Systems, is located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 563 is comprised of the four corrective action sites (CASs) below: • 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank • 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool • 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks • 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  17. Defining responsibility for screening.

    PubMed

    Sifri, R; Wender, R

    1999-10-01

    Patients commonly receive medical care from multiple providers and confusion as to who is responsible for cancer screening undoubtedly contributes to inadequate recommendations. Effective screening requires successful implementation of a series of steps that begin with the initial discussion of a screening test and proceed through obtaining results and instituting appropriate follow-up. Clear definition of generalist and specialist physician roles are necessary to optimally screen the public. This article explores the differences in how generalists and specialists approach screening, describes models of care that facilitate shared responsibility for screening, and suggests strategies on how to improve communication between physicians to maximize screening performance. PMID:10452930

  18. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do. PMID:27667859

  19. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do.

  20. Corrective Action Planning for Environmental Compliance Deficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmon, C. F.; Ashburn, S. A.; Jolley, R. L.; Smith, A. A.; Mercer, A. E.; Oeulette, B.; Renz, K.; Scott, S.

    1995-01-01

    Effective corrective action planning is one of the cornerstones of an effective environmental management program. Alternatively, ineffective planning can highlight an installation`s unwillingness or inability to effectively address environmental compliance deficiencies. The following paper discusses several guidelines to consider in corrective action planning to ensure that plans benefit rather than harm an installation`s overall environmental management program.

  1. Considerations for designing chemical screening strategies in plant biology.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Mario; Kombrink, Erich; Meesters, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, biologists regularly used classical genetic approaches to characterize and dissect plant processes. However, this strategy is often impaired by redundancy, lethality or pleiotropy of gene functions, which prevent the isolation of viable mutants. The chemical genetic approach has been recognized as an alternative experimental strategy, which has the potential to circumvent these problems. It relies on the capacity of small molecules to modify biological processes by specific binding to protein target(s), thereby conditionally modifying protein function(s), which phenotypically resemble mutation(s) of the encoding gene(s). A successful chemical screening campaign comprises three equally important elements: (1) a reliable, robust, and quantitative bioassay, which allows to distinguish between potent and less potent compounds, (2) a rigorous validation process for candidate compounds to establish their selectivity, and (3) an experimental strategy for elucidating a compound's mode of action and molecular target. In this review we will discuss details of this general strategy and additional aspects that deserve consideration in order to take full advantage of the power provided by the chemical approach to plant biology. In addition, we will highlight some success stories of recent chemical screenings in plant systems, which may serve as teaching examples for the implementation of future chemical biology projects.

  2. Considerations for designing chemical screening strategies in plant biology

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Mario; Kombrink, Erich; Meesters, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, biologists regularly used classical genetic approaches to characterize and dissect plant processes. However, this strategy is often impaired by redundancy, lethality or pleiotropy of gene functions, which prevent the isolation of viable mutants. The chemical genetic approach has been recognized as an alternative experimental strategy, which has the potential to circumvent these problems. It relies on the capacity of small molecules to modify biological processes by specific binding to protein target(s), thereby conditionally modifying protein function(s), which phenotypically resemble mutation(s) of the encoding gene(s). A successful chemical screening campaign comprises three equally important elements: (1) a reliable, robust, and quantitative bioassay, which allows to distinguish between potent and less potent compounds, (2) a rigorous validation process for candidate compounds to establish their selectivity, and (3) an experimental strategy for elucidating a compound's mode of action and molecular target. In this review we will discuss details of this general strategy and additional aspects that deserve consideration in order to take full advantage of the power provided by the chemical approach to plant biology. In addition, we will highlight some success stories of recent chemical screenings in plant systems, which may serve as teaching examples for the implementation of future chemical biology projects. PMID:25904921

  3. Plasma Screen Floating Mount

    DOEpatents

    Eakle, Robert F.; Pak, Donald J.

    2004-10-26

    A mounting system for a flat display screen, particularly a plasma display screen, suspends the screen separately in each of the x-, y- and z-directions. A series of frames located by linear bearings and isolated by springs and dampers allows separate controlled movement in each axis. The system enables the use of relatively larger display screens in vehicles in which plasma screen are subject to damage from vibration.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening - an overview.

    PubMed

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Knudsen, Amy B; Brenner, Hermann

    2010-08-01

    There are several modalities available for a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program. When determining which CRC screening program to implement, the costs of such programs should be considered in comparison to the health benefits they are expected to provide. Cost-effectiveness analysis provides a tool to do this. In this paper we review the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of CRC screening. Published studies universally indicate that when compared with no CRC screening, all screening modalities provide additional years of life at a cost that is deemed acceptable by most industrialized nations. Many recent studies even find CRC screening to be cost-saving. However, when the alternative CRC screening strategies are compared against each other in an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis, no single optimal strategy emerges across the studies. There is consensus that the new technologies of stool DNA testing, computed tomographic colonography and capsule endoscopy are not yet cost-effective compared with the established CRC screening tests.

  5. Defining alternative rules in water and sanitation.

    PubMed

    Robert, J

    1995-11-01

    While the conventional water and sanitation package remains most prominent, alternatives exist to conventional waterworks and sanitation practices. Some alternate courses of action are considered. Promising an unprecedented availability of piped water, water development projects foster a pump-and-dump mentality even before they are completed. Often simply announcing the impending implementation of such projects encourages the intention among future beneficiaries to waste water resources. Alternatives to the domestic waste of water must be sought and implemented. Disestablishing water development, styles of alternative water technologies, decision-making and decision-makers, water policy scale, regenerating community access to sources, and water pricing are discussed. PMID:12293526

  6. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  7. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  8. 77 FR 30542 - Air Cargo Screening Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Office's web page at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR to view the... the civil aviation security regulation. 49 CFR 1540.209. \\1\\ 71 FR 30478. On September 16, 2009, TSA... screened cargo or carry out certain other cargo security duties. \\2\\ 74 FR 47672. The 2009 IFR amended...

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Contamination, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 of the NTS, CAU 528 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination. Corrective Action Unit 528 was created to address the presence of PCBs around the Test Cell C concrete pad. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 24, 2003, through January 8, 2004. The PCBs and total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics were identified as contaminants of concern in the surface and shallow subsurface soils in 12 areas (Areas 1 through 12) at CAS 25-27-03. Based on the review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS, the following alternatives have been developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. The three corrective action alternatives were evaluated on their technical merits, focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, and safety. Alternative 3 is the preferred corrective action for CAS 25-27-03. The selected alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated for closure of the sites and additionally to minimize potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 528.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the

  11. The role of selective attention and action selection in the development of multiple action capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simione, Luca; Nolfi, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we illustrate how the capacity to select the most appropriate actions when handling contexts affording multiple conflicting actions can be solved either through a selective attention strategy (in which the stimuli affording alternative actions are filtered out at the perceptual level through top-down regulation) or at later processing stages through an action selection strategy (through the suppression of the premotor information eliciting alternative actions). By carrying out a series of experiments in which a neuro-robot develops an ability to choose between conflicting actions, we were able to identify the conditions that lead to the development of solutions based on one strategy or another. Overall, the results indicate that the selective attention strategy constitutes the most simple and straightforward mechanism enabling the acquisition of such capacities. Moreover, the characteristics of the adaptive/learning process influence whether the adaptive robot converges towards a selective attention and/or action selection strategy.

  12. [Lung cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Sánchez González, M

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is a very important disease, curable in early stages. There have been trials trying to show the utility of chest x-ray or computed tomography in Lung Cancer Screening for decades. In 2011, National Lung Screening Trial results were published, showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality in patients with low dose computed tomography screened for three years. These results are very promising and several scientific societies have included lung cancer screening in their guidelines. Nevertheless we have to be aware of lung cancer screening risks, such as: overdiagnosis, radiation and false positive results. Moreover, there are many issues to be solved, including choosing the appropriate group to be screened, the duration of the screening program, intervals between screening and its cost-effectiveness. Ongoing trials will probably answer some of these questions. This article reviews the current evidence on lung cancer screening.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-07-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 321, Weather Station Fuel Storage, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 321 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 22, and consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area. This CAS contains a fuel storage area approximately 325 by 540 feet, which was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historical Camp Desert Rock facility, which was operational from 1951 to 1958. The corrective action investigation conducted in February 1999 found the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels to be total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics at two sample locations. During this investigation, the two corrective action objectives identified were (1) to prevent or mitigate exposure to near-surface soil containing contaminants of concern, and (2) to prevent spread of contaminants of concern beyond the corrective action unit. Based on the corrective action objectives, the two corrective action alternatives developed for consideration were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. The two alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors, and the preferred corrective action alternative chosen on technical merit, focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, and safety was Alternative 2. This alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at the Weather Station Fuel Storage site.

  14. Mimer: an automated spreadsheet-based crystallization screening system.

    PubMed

    Brodersen, Ditlev Egeskov; Andersen, Gregers Rom; Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a simple low-cost alternative to large commercial systems for preparing macromolecular crystallization conditions is described. Using an intuitive spreadsheet-based approach, the system allows the rapid calculation of relevant pipetting volumes given known stock-solution concentrations and incorporates the automatic design of custom crystallization screens via the incomplete-factorial and grid-screen approaches. Automated dispensing of the resulting crystallization screens is achieved using a generic and relatively inexpensive liquid handler.

  15. Prospective screening for deep vein thrombosis in high risk patients.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R W

    1977-08-01

    In 257 patients undergoing total hip replacement, gastric bypass for morbid obesity, major abdominal surgery, and major leg amputation, Doppler ultrasonic screening revealed only five instances of deep vein thrombosis. The present study suggests that Doppler screening of high risk patients is a useful alternative to routine anticoagulant prophylaxis of venous thromboembolic disease.

  16. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River Estuary. Volume II. Impingement impact analyses, evaluations of alternative screening devices, and critiques of utility testimony relating to density-dependent growth, the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock, and the LMS real-time life cycle model

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L. W.; Van Winkle, W.; Golumbek, J.; Cada, G. F.; Goodyear, C. P.; Christensen, S. W.; Cannon, J. B.; Lee, D. W.

    1982-04-01

    This volume includes a series of four exhibits relating to impacts of impingement on fish populations, together with a collection of critical evaluations of testimony prepared for the utilities by their consultants. The first exhibit is a quantitative evaluation of four sources of bias (collection efficiency, reimpingement, impingement on inoperative screens, and impingement survival) affecting estimates of the number of fish killed at Hudson River power plants. The two following exhibits contain, respectively, a detailed assessment of the impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population and estimates of conditional impingement mortality rates for seven Hudson River fish populations. The fourth exhibit is an evaluation of the engineering feasibility and potential biological effectiveness of several types of modified intake structures proposed as alternatives to cooling towers for reducing impingement impacts. The remainder of Volume II consists of critical evaluations of the utilities' empirical evidence for the existence of density-dependent growth in young-of-the-year striped bass and white perch, of their estimate of the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock in the Hudson River, and of their use of the Lawler, Matusky, and Skelly (LMS) Real-Time Life Cycle Model to estimate the impact of entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population.

  17. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  18. Screening for Breast Problems

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ178 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems • What ... used to screen for breast problems? • What is mammography? • Why is mammography done? • When should I start ...

  19. Video Screen Capture Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  20. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  1. Screening for Gestational Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of screening for gestational diabetes: (1) All women ... not enough evidence to judge the benefits and harms of screening women before 24 weeks of pregnancy. ...

  2. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  3. Health Screenings at School

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Health Screenings at School Page Content Article Body In most ... child's ability to learn. In some states these screening tests are mandated by law and may also ...

  4. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers Redirect CDC - Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You are being redirected to the HPV Cancer Screening page. Please update your bookmarks to the link ...

  5. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity and ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  7. Screening methods for thyroid hormone disruptors.

    PubMed Central

    DeVito, M; Biegel, L; Brouwer, A; Brown, S; Brucker-Davis, F; Cheek, A O; Christensen, R; Colborn, T; Cooke, P; Crissman, J; Crofton, K; Doerge, D; Gray, E; Hauser, P; Hurley, P; Kohn, M; Lazar, J; McMaster, S; McClain, M; McConnell, E; Meier, C; Miller, R; Tietge, J; Tyl, R

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Congress has passed legislation requiring the EPA to implement screening tests for identifying endocrine-disrupting chemicals. A series of workshops was sponsored by the EPA, the Chemical Manufacturers Association, and the World Wildlife Fund; one workshop focused on screens for chemicals that alter thyroid hormone function and homeostasis. Participants at this meeting identified and examined methods to detect alterations in thyroid hormone synthesis, transport, and catabolism. In addition, some methods to detect chemicals that bind to the thyroid hormone receptors acting as either agonists or antagonists were also identified. Screening methods used in mammals as well as other vertebrate classes were examined. There was a general consensus that all known chemicals which interfere with thyroid hormone function and homeostasis act by either inhibiting synthesis, altering serum transport proteins, or by increasing catabolism of thyroid hormones. There are no direct data to support the assertion that certain environmental chemicals bind and activate the thyroid hormone receptors; further research is indicated. In light of this, screening methods should reflect known mechanisms of action. Most methods examined, albeit useful for mechanistic studies, were thought to be too specific and therefore would not be applicable for broad-based screening. Determination of serum thyroid hormone concentrations following chemical exposure in rodents was thought to be a reasonable initial screen. Concurrent histologic evaluation of the thyroid would strengthen this screen. Similar methods in teleosts may be useful as screens, but would require indicators of tissue production of thyroid hormones. The use of tadpole metamorphosis as a screen may also be useful; however, this method requires validation and standardization prior to use as a broad-based screen. PMID:10210697

  8. Crafting Appealing Text Messages to Encourage Colorectal Cancer Screening Test Completion: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Shellie D; Denizard-Thompson, Nancy; Kronner, Donna; Miller, David P

    2015-01-01

    texting shorthand phrases and complicated replies); they did not want messages that contain bad news or test results. They wanted the ability to choose alternative options such as email or phone calls. Conclusions Older adults are receptive to receiving cancer screening text messages from health care providers. Sharing sample messages with patients may increase acceptance of this tool in the clinic setting. Supportive tailored text messaging reminders could enhance uptake of colorectal cancer screening by enhancing patient self-efficacy and providing cues to action to complete colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing. PMID:26537553

  9. Screening Tests for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... questions you have. Make sure to ask about: Alcohol use Depression Weight Screening tests Screening tests Screening tests Ages ... for high cholesterol, and ways to improve cholesterol levels through lifestyle changes. ... Sheets - Alcohol Use and Health - This fact sheet talks about ...

  10. Discovery of bile salt hydrolase inhibitors using an efficient high-throughput screening system.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katie; Zeng, Ximin; Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of restricting the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in animal production necessitates the need to develop valid alternatives to maintain productivity and sustainability of food animals. Previous studies suggest inhibition of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization, is a promising approach to promote animal growth performance. To achieve the long term goal of developing novel alternatives to AGPs, in this study, a rapid and convenient high-throughput screening (HTS) system was developed and successfully used for identification of BSH inhibitors. With the aid of a high-purity BSH from a chicken Lactobacillus salivarius strain, we optimized various screening conditions (e.g. BSH concentration, reaction buffer pH, incubation temperature and length, substrate type and concentration) and establish a precipitation-based screening approach to identify BSH inhibitors using 96-well or 384-well microplates. A pilot HTS was performed using a small compound library comprised of 2,240 biologically active and structurally diverse compounds. Among the 107 hits, several promising and potent BSH inhibitors (e.g. riboflavin and phenethyl caffeate) were selected and validated by standard BSH activity assay. Interestingly, the HTS also identified a panel of antibiotics as BSH inhibitor; in particular, various tetracycline antibiotics and roxarsone, the widely used AGP, have been demonstrated to display potent inhibitory effect on BSH. Together, this study developed an efficient HTS system and identified several BSH inhibitors with potential as alternatives to AGP. In addition, the findings from this study also suggest a new mode of action of AGP for promoting animal growth. PMID:24454844

  11. Discovery of Bile Salt Hydrolase Inhibitors Using an Efficient High-Throughput Screening System

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katie; Zeng, Ximin; Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of restricting the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in animal production necessitates the need to develop valid alternatives to maintain productivity and sustainability of food animals. Previous studies suggest inhibition of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization, is a promising approach to promote animal growth performance. To achieve the long term goal of developing novel alternatives to AGPs, in this study, a rapid and convenient high-throughput screening (HTS) system was developed and successfully used for identification of BSH inhibitors. With the aid of a high-purity BSH from a chicken Lactobacillus salivarius strain, we optimized various screening conditions (e.g. BSH concentration, reaction buffer pH, incubation temperature and length, substrate type and concentration) and establish a precipitation-based screening approach to identify BSH inhibitors using 96-well or 384-well microplates. A pilot HTS was performed using a small compound library comprised of 2,240 biologically active and structurally diverse compounds. Among the 107 hits, several promising and potent BSH inhibitors (e.g. riboflavin and phenethyl caffeate) were selected and validated by standard BSH activity assay. Interestingly, the HTS also identified a panel of antibiotics as BSH inhibitor; in particular, various tetracycline antibiotics and roxarsone, the widely used AGP, have been demonstrated to display potent inhibitory effect on BSH. Together, this study developed an efficient HTS system and identified several BSH inhibitors with potential as alternatives to AGP. In addition, the findings from this study also suggest a new mode of action of AGP for promoting animal growth. PMID:24454844

  12. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer symptoms. There are different kinds of screening tests. Screening tests include the following: Physical exam and ... are linked to some types of cancer. Screening tests have risks. Not all screening tests are helpful ...

  13. Developing Managers as Learners and Researchers: Using Action Learning and Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raelin, Joseph A.; Coghlan, David

    2006-01-01

    This article takes the view that formal educational programs often miss opportunities to use the rich experiences of working managers to produce both learning and knowledge. Two alternative pedagogical approaches, action learning and action research, are proposed as contributing to management education by their respective capabilities to generate…

  14. Screen of cylindrical lenses produces stereoscopic television pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nork, C. L.

    1966-01-01

    Stereoscopic television pictures are produced by placing a colorless, transparent screen of adjacent parallel cylindrical lenses before a raster from two synchronized TV cameras. Alternate frames from alternate cameras are displayed. The viewers sensory perception fuses the two images into one three-dimensional picture.

  15. Newborn screening: current status.

    PubMed

    Arn, Pamela H

    2007-01-01

    Newborn screening, which represents one of the major advances in child health of the past century, has been carried out in all fifty U.S. states since the 1970s. Newborn screening programs are state-run, and decisions are left to the individual states regarding the conditions to be screened for, the mechanism for confirmatory testing, follow-up care, and financing of the programs. Laboratory advances in tandem mass spectrometry make it possible to screen newborns for many rare inborn errors of metabolism. This raises many policy issues including screening's cost-effectiveness, ethics, quality, and oversight.

  16. Emergence of Cognition from Action.

    PubMed

    Buzsáki, György; Peyrache, Adrien; Kubie, John

    2014-01-01

    Theories of brain function have evolved through multiple stages. The first proposition was that brain networks support a set of reflex responses, with current sensory inputs producing immediate motor outputs. The behaviorist paradigm suggested that actions can always be explained as a response to immediate external cues. In response to these views, the cognitive paradigm argued that behavior cannot be understood simply as input-output functions because the hidden layers of brain generate unpredictability. The central processing was termed "cognition." Here we propose a neuroscience-based model of cognition. Our core hypothesis is that cognition depends on internal models of the animal and its world, where internally generated sequences can serve to perform "what if" scenarios and anticipate the possible consequences of alternative actions without actually testing them, and aid in the decisions of overt actions. We support our hypotheses by several examples of recent experimental findings and show how externally guided cell assembly sequences become internalized to support cognitive functions.

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Boehlecke

    2005-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 552 is being investigated because man-made radionuclides and chemical contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose an unacceptable risk to human health and/or the environment. The CAI will be conducted following the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The DQOs are used to identify the type, amount, and quality of data needed to define the nature and extent of contamination and identify and evaluate the most appropriate corrective action alternatives for CAU 552. The primary problem statement for the investigation is: ''Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for CAS 12-23-05.'' To address this problem statement, the resolution of the following two decision statements is required: (1) The Decision I statement is: ''Is a contaminant present within the CAU at a concentration that could pose an unacceptable risk to human health and the environment?'' Any site-related contaminant detected at a concentration exceeding the corresponding preliminary action level (PAL), as defined in Section A.1.4.2, will be considered a contaminant of concern (COC). A COC is defined as a site-related constituent that exceeds the screening criteria (PAL). The presence of a contaminant within each CAS is defined as the analytical detection of a COC. (2) The Decision II statement is: ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs.'' This decision will be achieved by the collection of data that are adequate to define the extent of COCs. Decision II samples are used to determine the lateral and vertical extent of the contamination as well as the likelihood of COCs to migrate outside of the site boundaries. The migration pattern can be derived from the Decision

  18. Cervical cancer screening in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ditzian, Lauren R; David-West, Gizelka; Maza, Mauricio; Hartmann, Beatrix; Shirazian, Taraneh; Cremer, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death among women in the developing world. Conventional cytology-based cervical cancer screening programs have been largely ineffectual at reducing the cervical cancer burden in low-resource settings. In response, alternative strategies have been tested, such as visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA-based testing. This manuscript reviews literature addressing the programmatic approaches to implementing cervical cancer screening programs in low-resource settings, highlighting the challenges, barriers, and successes related to the use of cytology, VIA, and HPV-DNA based screening programs.

  19. Tactile perception during action observation.

    PubMed

    Vastano, Roberta; Inuggi, Alberto; Vargas, Claudia D; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Jacono, Marco; Pozzo, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    It has been suggested that tactile perception becomes less acute during movement to optimize motor control and to prevent an overload of afferent information generated during action. This empirical phenomenon, known as "tactile gating effect," has been associated with mechanisms of sensory feedback prediction. However, less attention has been given to the tactile attenuation effect during the observation of an action. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how the observation of a goal-directed action influences tactile perception as during overt action. In a first experiment, we recorded vocal reaction times (RTs) of participants to tactile stimulations during the observation of a reach-to-grasp action. The stimulations were delivered on different body parts that could be either congruent or incongruent with the observed effector (the right hand and the right leg, respectively). The tactile stimulation was contrasted with a no body-related stimulation (an auditory beep). We found increased RTs for tactile congruent stimuli compared to both tactile incongruent and auditory stimuli. This effect was reported only during the observation of the reaching phase, whereas RTs were not modulated during the grasping phase. A tactile two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task was then conducted in order to quantify the changes in tactile sensitivity during the observation of the same goal-directed actions. In agreement with the first experiment, the tactile perceived intensity was reduced only during the reaching phase. These results suggest that tactile processing during action observation relies on a process similar to that occurring during action execution. PMID:27161552

  20. Action-Sentence Compatibility: The Role of Action Effects and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Diefenbach, Christiane; Rieger, Martina; Massen, Cristina; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Research on embodied approaches to language comprehension suggests that we understand linguistic descriptions of actions by mentally simulating these actions. Evidence is provided by the action-sentence compatibility effect (ACE) which shows that sensibility judgments for sentences are faster when the direction of the described action matches the response direction. In two experiments, we investigated whether the ACE relies on actions or on intended action effects. Participants gave sensibility judgments of auditorily presented sentences by producing an action effect on a screen at a location near the body or far from the body. These action effects were achieved by pressing a response button that was located in either the same spatial direction as the action effect, or in the opposite direction. We used a go/no-go task in which the direction of the to-be-produced action effect was either cued at the onset of each sentence (Experiment 1) or at different points in time before and after sentence onset (Experiment 2). Overall, results showed a relationship between the direction of the described action and the direction of the action effect. Furthermore, Experiment 2 indicated that depending on the timing between cue presentation and sentence onset, participants responded either faster when the direction of the described action matched the direction of the action effect (positive ACE), or slower (negative ACE). These results provide evidence that the comprehension of action sentences involves the activation of representations of action effects. Concurrently activated representations in sentence comprehension and action planning can lead to both priming and interference, which is discussed in the context of the theory of event coding. PMID:23734134

  1. Alternative, complementary and traditional medicine in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Talib, N

    2006-09-01

    This paper sets out the practice of traditional, alternative and/or complementary medicine in Malaysia. It gives an overview of the types of alternative medicine available, and the legal regulation, or lack of it within the current setting. The relevant policies and governmental action in this area are highlighted. Relevant case law decisions in this area are also included. The practice of spiritual healing as one form of traditional medicine, and its role within the spectrum of alternative medicine is dealt with briefly. The significant question of integration of alternative medicine within the existing allopathic system is addressed. The paper concludes that as interest in, and usage of alternative medicine is not likely to decrease, certain measures must be taken by the relevant authorities to ensure among others, the safety and efficacy of these medicines.

  2. Automated Groundwater Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Glenn A.; Collard, Leonard, B.

    2005-10-31

    The Automated Intruder Analysis has been extended to include an Automated Ground Water Screening option. This option screens 825 radionuclides while rigorously applying the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) methodology. An extension to that methodology is presented to give a more realistic screening factor for those radionuclides which have significant daughters. The extension has the promise of reducing the number of radionuclides which must be tracked by the customer. By combining the Automated Intruder Analysis with the Automated Groundwater Screening a consistent set of assumptions and databases is used. A method is proposed to eliminate trigger values by performing rigorous calculation of the screening factor thereby reducing the number of radionuclides sent to further analysis. Using the same problem definitions as in previous groundwater screenings, the automated groundwater screening found one additional nuclide, Ge-68, which failed the screening. It also found that 18 of the 57 radionuclides contained in NCRP Table 3.1 failed the screening. This report describes the automated groundwater screening computer application.

  3. Cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the role of family physicians in screening for cancer of the cervix, to review the evidence for screening, in particular, frequency and technique for screening, and to review the reasons cervical cancer has not been prevented and the role of family physicians in addressing these failures. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The value of screening has been established with level II evidence. Many of the unresolved issues are not supported either way by good evidence; level II and III evidence predominates. MAIN FINDINGS: In Canada, 1350 women were predicted to be diagnosed with cancer of the cervix in 1996. Most of these women had not been screened. Minority, rural, low-income, and older women face important barriers to screening. Family physicians have a role in reaching out to these women to provide effective health care, including cancer screening. When cancer screening is performed, it should conform to recommended techniques with appropriate follow up of abnormal test results. CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians have an important role in preventing cancer of the cervix. Efforts should be concentrated on encouraging a greater proportion of eligible women to be screened. Criteria are suggested for effective screening. PMID:9721422

  4. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    PubMed

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  5. Screening in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Paolo Del; Mazzoleni, Marzio

    2006-01-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines, although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors, such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction, is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation. PMID:16981254

  6. Screening in liver disease.

    PubMed

    Del Poggio, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Marzio

    2006-09-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines, although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors, such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction, is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation. PMID:16981254

  7. Turbulent flow through screens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation has been carried out on the effects of different types of screens on turbulent flow, in particular turbulent boundary layers. The effect of a screen on a turbulent boundary layer is to give it a 'new lease of life'. The boundary layer turbulence is reorganized and the thickness reduced, thus making it less susceptible to separation. The aerodynamic properties of plastic screens are found to differ significantly from those of the conventional metal screens, evidently because of differences in the weaving properties. The 'overshoot' in mean velocity profile near the boudnary layer edge is shown to be a result of the effect of screen inclination on pressure drop coefficient. A more accurate formulation for the deflection coefficient of a screen is also proposed.

  8. Calibrating screens for continuous colour displays.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, A J

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on two issues that are important to those who use colour monitors for research in vision. One is concerned with the measurement and calibration of colour screens. To this end the luminance and chromaticity readings of a tri-filter colorimeter and a spectroradiometer are compared (both commonly used to calibrate screens). The second is concerned with screen interactions, whereby colours can be distorted from their expected or calculated values by the colours displayed in neighbouring areas. This issue is crucial for those who use measurements of the light emitted from the red, green and blue phosphors of a monitor in isolation to specify other colours on screen, particularly in the research areas of colour contrast and colour constancy, since the specified colours may not actually be displayed. Finally, an alternative calibration method is described that uses an iterative measurement procedure to obtain screen specifications that are accurate regardless of the display complexity, so that researchers can be confident that the required colours are actually displayed on the screen.

  9. The Take Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Take Action Project (TAP) was created to help middle school students take informed and effective action on science-related issues. The seven steps of TAP ask students to (1) choose a science-related problem of interest to them, (2) research their problem, (3) select an action to take on the problem, (4) plan that action, (5) take action, (6)…

  10. Screening in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Biringer, Anne

    1988-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, traditional elements of antenatal care have been supplemented by complex biochemical and biophysical investigations. With his/her knowledge of the patient and awareness of the principles of screening, the family physician is ideally placed to assess potential problems in pregnancy. This article reviews the rationale for screening for certain disorders in pregnancy. Genetic disorders, infectious diseases, and other specific conditions are considered. Some of the more recent controversies in prenatal screening are highlighted. PMID:21253226

  11. Composite scintillator screen

    DOEpatents

    Zeman, Herbert D.

    1994-01-01

    A scintillator screen for an X-ray system includes a substrate of low-Z material and bodies of a high-Z material embedded within the substrate. By preselecting the size of the bodies embedded within the substrate, the spacial separation of the bodies and the thickness of the screen, the sensitivity of the screen to X-rays within a predetermined energy range can be predicted.

  12. Use of Biomarkers in Screening for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Screening for premalignant lesions or early invasive disease has the potential to reduce mortality from cancer. Potential screening tests for malignancy include measurement of (bio)markers. Content The literature relevant to the use of biomarkers as screening tests for cancer was reviewed with particular attention given to systematic reviews, prospective randomised trials and guidelines published by Expert Panels. Because of their ease of measurement, several biomarkers have been evaluated or are currently undergoing evaluation as screening tests for early malignancy. These include the use of vanillymandelic acid and homovanillic acid in screening for neuroblastoma in newborn infants, AFP in screening for hepatocellular cancer in high-risk subjects, CA 125 in combination with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) in screening for ovarian cancer, PSA in screening for prostate cancer and fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) in screening for CRC. Of these markers, only the use of FOBT in screening for CRC has been shown to reduce mortality from cancer. Large randomized prospective trials are currently in progress aimed at evaluating the potential value of PSA screening in reducing mortality from prostate cancer and CA 125 in combination with TVU in reducing mortality form ovarian cancer. Conclusion Although biomarkers have many attractions as screening tests, inadequate sensitivity and specificity, when combined with the low prevalence of cancer in asymptomatic subjects, limit their value for the early detection of malignancy. Screening has been defined as the systematic application of a test to identify subjects at sufficient risk of a specific disorder to benefit from further investigation or direct preventive action, among persons who have not sought medical attention on account of symptoms of that disorder (1). To be of value, screening must detect disease earlier and result in an efficacious treatment and the earlier use of efficacious treatment must lead to

  13. Effectiveness during ball screens in elite basketball games.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel-Ángel; Battaglia, Otavio; Lorenzo, Alberto; Lorenzo, Jorge; Jiménez, Sergio; Sampaio, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Ball screens are one of the most frequently used tactical behaviour in elite basketball games. The aim of the present study was to identify their predictors of success related to time, space, players, and tasks performed. The sample was composed of 818 ball screens corresponding to 20 close games (mean differences in score of 3.1 ± 0.8 points) randomly selected from the playoff games of the Spanish Basketball League (2008-2011). Classification tree analysis (CHAID) was used to analyse which variable or combination of variables, better predicts effectiveness during ball screens. The main results allowed identifying interactions with dribbler actions after the screen and the orientation of the screen on the ball. The results showed no interaction with game quarter and quarter minute temporal-related variables in both analyses. The present findings allow improving coaches' strategic plans that involve selecting the most appropriate offensive approach when performing ball screens.

  14. [Overdiagnosis in cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Cervera Deval, J; Sentís Crivillé, M; Zulueta, J J

    2015-01-01

    In screening programs, overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of a disease that would have gone undetected without screening when that disease would not have resulted in morbimortality and was treated unnecessarily. Overdiagnosis is a bias inherent in screening and an undesired effect of secondary prevention and improved sensitivity of diagnostic techniques. It is difficult to discriminate a priori between clinically relevant diagnoses and those in which treatment is unnecessary. To minimize the effects of overdiagnosis, screening should be done in patients at risk. PMID:25174786

  15. [Overdiagnosis in cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Cervera Deval, J; Sentís Crivillé, M; Zulueta, J J

    2015-01-01

    In screening programs, overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of a disease that would have gone undetected without screening when that disease would not have resulted in morbimortality and was treated unnecessarily. Overdiagnosis is a bias inherent in screening and an undesired effect of secondary prevention and improved sensitivity of diagnostic techniques. It is difficult to discriminate a priori between clinically relevant diagnoses and those in which treatment is unnecessary. To minimize the effects of overdiagnosis, screening should be done in patients at risk.

  16. What Kind of Actions Are Appropriate? Eco-School Teachers' and Instructors' Ranking of Sustainability-Promoting Actions as Content in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagell, Ulrica; Almers, Ellen; Askerlund, Per; Apelqvist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Based on the consideration that learning about different action alternatives and strategies are essential parts of ESD, this quantitative study focuses Eco-School teachers' and instructors' views on including different sustainability-promoting actions in teaching practices. Direct actions, and actions that take place in the private sphere were…

  17. Colorectal cancer screening tests: pros and cons, and for whom?

    PubMed

    Forbes, Geoffrey M

    2008-04-01

    The past decade has seen major advances internationally in the implementation of colorectal cancer screening, influenced in differing ways by the profession, the public and by government. Relatively unique to colorectal cancer screening is the availability of so many test alternatives, which have substantial variation in methodology. While perhaps spoilt for choice, discerning the key advantages and disadvantages of each test is often difficult, depending on the perspective from which screening is viewed. Accordingly, this article provides an evaluation of screening tests as might be perceived by governments, the patient and the profession. Aligned issues such as choosing a screening test and provision of informed consent are discussed. Finally, the article identifies current problems with various screening tests that, if attended to, might change the perception of a test's value to a particular interest group. PMID:19072355

  18. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  19. The impact of the regimen of screening on lung cancer cure: a comparison of I-ELCAP and NLST.

    PubMed

    Yip, Rowena; Henschke, Claudia I; Yankelevitz, David F; Boffetta, Paolo; Smith, James P

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the regimen of screening on the frequency of early diagnosis and resection in two computed tomography screening programs. The stage and size distribution of all screen-diagnosed lung cancers was compared. A total of 775 patients in the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (I-ELCAP) and 664 patients in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) were screen-diagnosed; that is, resulting from a positive result requiring further diagnostic workup. The frequency of stage I diagnoses, resections, tumor size, and lung cancer-specific survival were determined. Cox regression was used to identify the key determinants of lung cancer cure. The frequency of clinical stage I lung cancer in I-ELCAP was 82%, and in the NLST it was 67% (P<0.0001). The frequency of stage I (pathologic and clinical if not resected) was 78% in I-ELCAP and 62% in the NLST (P<0.0001). Surgical resection was performed in 86% (664/755) in I-ELCAP and 76% (492/644, P<0.0001) in the NLST. The average tumor size was 17 mm in I-ELCAP and 23 mm in the NLST (P<0.0001). The 5-year survival rate was 83% in I-ELCAP and 62% in the NLST (P<0.0001). Cox regression showed that I-ELCAP provided a 50% better survival benefit than the NLST and that stage I and resection were key determinants of survival, independent of age, smoking history, and tumor size. The higher frequency of stage I disease and resection and smaller tumor size resulted in a significantly higher survival rate in I-ELCAP than in the NLST. These differences strongly support the importance of a specified regimen of screening, as alternative explanations have been addressed.

  20. 15 years of zebrafish chemical screening

    PubMed Central

    Rennekamp, Andrew J.; Peterson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, the first chemical screen using living zebrafish in a multi-well plate was reported. Since then, more than 60 additional screens have been published describing whole-organism drug and pathway discovery projects in zebrafish. To investigate the scope of the work reported in the last 14 years and to identify trends in the field, we analyzed the discovery strategies of 64 primary research articles from the literature. We found that zebrafish screens have expanded beyond the use of developmental phenotypes to include behavioral, cardiac, metabolic, proliferative and regenerative endpoints. Additionally, many creative strategies have been used to uncover the mechanisms of action of new small molecules including chemical phenocopy, genetic phenocopy, mutant rescue, and spatial localization strategies. PMID:25461724

  1. Alternative models in developmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-yul; Inselman, Amy L; Kanungo, Jyotshnabala; Hansen, Deborah K

    2012-02-01

    In light of various pressures, toxicologists have been searching for alternative methods for safety testing of chemicals. According to a recent policy in the European Union (Regulation, Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, REACH), it has been estimated that over the next twelve to fifteen years, approximately 30,000 chemicals may need to be tested for safety, and under current guidelines such testing would require the use of approximately 7.2 million laboratory animals [ Hofer et al. 2004 ]. It has also been estimated that over 80% of all animals used for safety testing under REACH legislation would be used for examining reproductive and developmental toxicity [Hofer et al., 2004]. In addition to REACH initiatives, it has been estimated that out of 5,000 to 10,000 new drug entities that a pharmaceutical company may start with, only one is finally approved by the Food and Drug Administration at a cost of over one billion dollars [ Garg et al. 2011 ]. A large portion of this cost is due to animal testing. Therefore, both the pharmaceutical and chemical industries are interested in using alternative models and in vitro tests for safety testing. This review will examine the current state of three alternative models - whole embryo culture (WEC), the mouse embryonic stem cell test (mEST), and zebrafish. Each of these alternatives will be reviewed, and advantages and disadvantages of each model will be discussed. These models were chosen because they are the models most commonly used and would appear to have the greatest potential for future applications in developmental toxicity screening and testing.

  2. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for public comment.../CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire...

  3. 76 FR 24925 - Solicitation for Public Comment on Potential Alternatives To Resolve Generic Safety Issue 191...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Solicitation for Public Comment on Potential Alternatives To Resolve Generic Safety Issue 191, Pressurized Water Reactor Sump Performance AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION: Solicitation of public comment. SUMMARY: The NRC is seeking public comment on potential alternatives for...

  4. 76 FR 44961 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Alternative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 22728). Interested parties are encouraged to send comments to the OMB, Office of...; Alternative Method of Compliance for Certain Simplified Employee Pensions ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Alternative Method of Compliance for Certain...

  5. Prenatal Screening, Reproductive Choice, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  6. Prenatal screening, reproductive choice, and public health.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues.

  7. Assessment "Honest Alternatives".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Susan Glazer

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the challenge of finding or creating alternatives to tests and traditional grading systems. Reflects on and describes the experience of creating an assessment tool and cautions against choosing alternatives that merely camouflage the grades. Encourages educators to find authentic alternatives to describe children's growth. (BAC)

  8. Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Mary Lou

    2002-01-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies are increasingly used by many pregnant women in the United States; however, limited research is available on many therapies. The number of studies should increase with the establishment of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine by the National Institutes of Health. This column reviews recent studies of both herbal medicines and alternative therapies used in pregnancy. PMID:17273285

  9. Alternative Teacher Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Carol; Thomas, Kay

    This paper examines issues related to alternative teacher certification, discussing teacher certification in Texas and noting that most researchers agree that both traditional and alternative routes to teacher preparation need improvement. For over a decade, alternative certification has become increasingly available in Texas. This paper…

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision No. 1 (9/2001)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-07-20

    biased and random locations within the boundaries of the leachfields, collection of soil samples at stepout locations (where needed) to further define lateral and vertical extent of contamination, conduction of discrete field screening, and logging of soil borings and collection of geotechnical samples to assess soil characteristics. Historical information indicates that significant quantities of radioactive material were produced during the rocket engine testing program, some of which was disposed of in radioactive waste disposal systems (posted leachfields) at each of these locations. Process and sanitary effluents were generated and disposed of in other leachfields. The results of this field investigation will be used to develop and evaluate corrective action alternatives for these CASs.

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 34: Area 3 Contaminated Waste Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, March 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2001-03-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 34 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 34 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CAU is located within the Area 3 Compound at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in the vicinity of the Mud Plant Facility in Yucca Valley. Historically, CAS 03-09-07, Mud Pit, was used for disposal of excess mud from washing drilling equipment from 1968 to 1974, at which time it began to be used for excess mud disposal (currently inactive); CAS 03-44-01, Chromium Contamination Spill, was used to store additives used in the formulation of drilling mud from the early 1960s to the mid-1990s; CAS 03-47-02, Area 3 Mud Plant Pond, was used as a freshwater storage reservoir for the mud plant as well as supplied water for a number of activities including the mixing of mud, the rinsing and cleaning of tanks, and various washdowns from the 1960s through 1990s; and CAS 03-09-06, Mud Disposal Crater, was created in 1962 by an underground nuclear detonation (i.e., Chinchilla test) and was used to mix and store mud, dispose of receiving waste from the mud plant floor drains and excess drilling mud, and clean/flush mix tanks through the mid-1990s. Based on site history, the scope of this plan is to identify potentially contaminated ground soil at each of the four CASs and determine the quantity, nature, and extent of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs). The investigation will include systematic and biased surface and subsurface soil and mud sampling using hand-auguring and direct-push techniques; visual, video, and/or electromagnetic surveys of pipes; field screening for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and alpha/beta-emitting radionuclides; and laboratory

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-28

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 on the NTS, CAU 516 includes six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) consisting of two septic systems, a sump and piping, a clean-out box and piping, dry wells, and a vehicle decontamination area. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from July 22 through August 14, 2003, with supplemental sampling conducted in late 2003 and early 2004. The potential exposure pathways for any contaminants of concern (COCs) identified during the development of the DQOs at CAU 516 gave rise to the following objectives: (1) prevent or mitigate exposure to media containing COCs at concentrations exceeding PALs as defined in the corrective action investigation plan; and (2) prevent the spread of COCs beyond each CAS. The following alternatives have been developed for consideration at CAU 516: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 1, No Further Action, is the preferred corrective action for two CASs (06-51-02 and 22-19-04). Alternative 2, Clean Closure, is the preferred corrective action for four CASs (03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03). The selected alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, as well as meeting all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will further eliminate the contaminated media at CAU 516.

  13. N Springs expedited response action proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Since signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in 1989, the parties to the agreement have recognized the need to modify the approach to conducting investigations, studies, and cleanup actions at Hanford. To implement this approach, the parties have jointly developed the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The strategy defines a non-time-critical expedited response action (ERA) as a response action ``needed to abate a threat to human health or welfare or the environment where sufficient time exists for formal planning prior to initiation of response. In accordance with the past-practice strategy, DOE proposes to conduct an ERA at the N Springs, located in the Hanford 100 N Area, to substantially reduce the strontium-90 transport into the river through the groundwater pathway. The purpose of this ERA proposal is to provide sufficient information to select a preferred alternative at N Springs. The nature of an ERA requires that alternatives developed for the ERA be field ready; therefore, all the technologies proposed for the ERA should be capable of addressing the circumstances at N Springs. A comparison of these alternatives is made based on protectiveness, cost, technical feasibility, and institutional considerations to arrive at a preferred alternative. Following the selection of an alternative, a design phase will be conducted; the design phase will include a detailed look at design parameters, performance specifications, and costs of the selected alternative. Testing will be conducted as required to generate design data.

  14. Aneuploidy Screening in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dashe, Jodi S

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal aneuploidy screening has changed dramatically in recent years with increases in the types of chromosomal abnormalities reliably identified and in the proportion of aneuploid fetuses detected. Initially, screening was available only for trisomies 21 and 18 and was offered only to low-risk pregnancies. Improved detection with the quadruple- and first-trimester multiple marker screens led to the option of aneuploidy screening for women 35 years of age and older. Cell-free DNA tests now screen for common autosomal trisomies and sex chromosome aneuploidies. Cell-free DNA screening is particularly effective in older women because of higher positive predictive values and lower false-positive rates. Integrated first- and second-trimester multiple marker tests provide specific risks for trisomies 21, 18, and possibly 13, and may detect an even wider range of aneuploidies. Given current precision in risk assessment, based on maternal age and preferences for screening or diagnostic tests, counseling has become more complex. This review addresses the benefits and limitations of available aneuploidy screening methods along with counseling considerations when offering them. PMID:27275786

  15. Radiographic intensifying screen

    SciTech Connect

    Ochiai, T.

    1985-02-26

    A radiographic intensifying screen comprising a substrate and a fluorescent layer provided thereon and consisting essentially of a binder and a radioluminescent phosphor dispersed therein. The binder comprises linear polyester resin or linear polyester resin crosslinked with a crosslinking agent. The screen exhibits improved physical properties.

  16. Preconception Carrier Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can the results of a carrier screening test tell me? A genetic counselor or your health care provider will use the results to calculate the ... the publisher. Related FAQs Genetic Disorders (FAQ094) Screening Tests for Birth Defects ... Education & Events Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG ...

  17. Scoliosis Screening in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Pupil Personnel Services.

    The booklet outlines New York state school policy and procedures for screening students for scoliosis, lateral curvature of the spine. It is explained that screening is designed to discover spinal deformities early enough to prevent surgery. Planning aspects, including organizing a planning team for the school district, are discussed. Among…

  18. Ocular Screening System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An ocular screening system designed for safe, convenient screening of large groups was developed at Marshall Space Flight Center, leading to the formation of Medical Sciences Corporation. The system identifies visual defects accurately and inexpensively, and includes a photorefractor telephoto lens and an electronic flash. Medical Sciences Corporation is using the device to test at schools, industrial plants, etc.

  19. Screening for adverse events.

    PubMed

    Karson, A S; Bates, D W

    1999-02-01

    Adverse events (AEs) in medical patients are common, costly, and often preventable. Development of quality improvement programs to decrease the number and impact of AEs demands effective methods for screening for AEs on a routine basis. Here we describe the impact, types, and potential causes of AEs and review various techniques for identifying AEs. We evaluate the use of generic screening criteria in detail and describe a recent study of the sensitivity and specificity of individual generic screening criteria and combinations of these criteria. In general, the most sensitive screens were the least specific and no small sub-set of screens identified a large percentage of adverse events. Combinations of screens that were limited to administrative data were the least expensive, but none were particularly sensitive, although in practice they might be effective since routine screening is currently rarely done. As computer systems increase in sophistication sensitivity will improve. We also discuss recent studies that suggest that programs that screen for and identify AEs can be useful in reducing AE rates. While tools for identifying AEs have strengths and weaknesses, they can play an important role in organizations' quality improvement portfolios. PMID:10468381

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 556: Dry Wells and Surface Release Points Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Draft), Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2007-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit  (CAU) 556, Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, is located in Areas 6 and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 556 is comprised of four corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: •06-20-04, National Cementers Dry Well •06-99-09, Birdwell Test Hole •25-60-03, E-MAD Stormwater Discharge and Piping •25-64-01, Vehicle Washdown and Drainage Pit These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  1. Representation of action in Parkinson's disease: imagining, observing, and naming actions.

    PubMed

    Poliakoff, Ellen

    2013-09-01

    People with Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit slowed movements and difficulty in initiating movements. This review addresses the issue of whether or not cognitive representations of actions in PD are affected, alongside these motor problems. In healthy people, the motor system can be involved in tasks such as observing a graspable object or another person's action, or imagining and naming actions, in the absence of overt movement. As described in this review, the fact that the slowed real movements exhibited by PD patients are coupled with slower motor imagery and verb processing provides additional evidence for the involvement of the motor system in these processes. On the other hand, PD patients can still engage in motor imagery and action observation to some extent, which is encouraging for the use of these processes in rehabilitation. Findings across the different domains of action-representation reveal several important factors. First, the nature of action is critical: patients' performance in observation and naming tasks is influenced by whether or not the action is in their repertoire and by the extent of motion required to execute the action. Second, people with PD may use alternative or compensatory mechanisms to represent actions, such as relying more on a third-person perspective or a visual strategy. Third, people with PD show a lack of specificity, responding as strongly to stimuli related and unrelated to actions. Investigating action-representation in PD has implications for our understanding of both the symptoms of PD and the cognitive representation of actions in the healthy system.

  2. Alternative self-dual gravity in eight dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, J. A.

    2016-07-01

    We develop an alternative Ashtekar formalism in eight dimensions. In fact, using a MacDowell-Mansouri physical framework and a self-dual curvature symmetry, we propose an action in eight dimensions in which the Levi-Civita tenor with eight indices plays a key role. We explicitly show that such an action contains number of linear, quadratic and cubic terms in the Riemann tensor, Ricci tensor and scalar curvature. In particular, the linear term is reduced to the Einstein-Hilbert action with cosmological constant in eight dimensions. We prove that such a reduced action is equivalent to the Lovelock action in eight dimensions.

  3. Screening for Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    di Pietro, Massimiliano; Chan, Daniel; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; Wang, Kenneth K

    2015-05-01

    The large increase in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in the West during the past 30 years has stimulated interest in screening for Barrett's esophagus (BE), a precursor to esophageal cancer. Effective endoscopic treatments for dysplasia and intramucosal cancer, coupled with screening programs to detect BE, could help reverse the increase in the incidence of esophageal cancer. However, there are no accurate, cost-effective, minimally invasive techniques available to screen for BE, reducing the enthusiasm of gastroenterologists. Over the past 5 years, there has been significant progress in the development of screening technologies. We review existing and developing technologies, new minimally invasive imaging techniques, nonendoscopic devices for cell collection, and biomarkers that can be measured in blood or stool samples. We discuss the status of these approaches, data from clinical studies of their effects, and their anticipated strengths and weaknesses in screening. The area is rapidly evolving, and new tools will soon be ready for prime time. PMID:25701083

  4. Psychological screening program overview.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kathleen M; Huffman, Ann H; Adler, Amy B; Castro, Carl A

    2002-10-01

    This article reviews the literature on health surveillance conducted during military deployments, focusing on models for assessing the impact of operational deployments on peacekeepers. A discussion of the stressors and potential mental health consequences of peacekeeping operations follows with relevant examples of findings from U.S. and international military forces. Psychological screening in different peacekeeping operations conducted in U.S. Army-Europe is reviewed. The review begins with the redeployment screening of military personnel deployed to Bosnia mandated under the Joint Medical Surveillance Program, and continues through the present screening of units deployed to Kosovo. The detailed description of the screening program includes a discussion of procedures and measures and demonstrates the evolution of the program. A summary of key findings from the screening program and a discussion of future research directions are provided. PMID:12392255

  5. Diabetes Screening Among Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Creatore, Maria I.; Booth, Gillian L.; Manuel, Douglas G.; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine diabetes screening, predictors of screening, and the burden of undiagnosed diabetes in the immigrant population and whether these estimates differ by ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A population-based retrospective cohort linking administrative health data to immigration files was used to follow the entire diabetes-free population aged 40 years and up in Ontario, Canada (N = 3,484,222) for 3 years (2004–2007) to determine whether individuals were screened for diabetes. Multivariate regression was used to determine predictors of having a diabetes test. RESULTS Screening rates were slightly higher in the immigrant versus the general population (76.0 and 74.4%, respectively; P < 0.001), with the highest rates in people born in South Asia, Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Immigrant seniors (age ≥65 years) were screened less than nonimmigrant seniors. Percent yield of new diabetes subjects among those screened was high for certain countries of birth (South Asia, 13.0%; Mexico and Latin America, 12.1%; Caribbean, 9.5%) and low among others (Europe, Central Asia, U.S., 5.1–5.2%). The number of physician visits was the single most important predictor of screening, and many high-risk ethnic groups required numerous visits before a test was administered. The proportion of diabetes that remained undiagnosed was estimated to be 9.7% in the general population and 9.0% in immigrants. CONCLUSIONS Overall diabetes-screening rates are high in Canada’s universal health care setting, including among high-risk ethnic groups. Despite this finding, disparities in screening rates between immigrant subgroups persist and multiple physician visits are often required to achieve recommended screening levels. PMID:22357181

  6. An emerging action science of social settings.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Seymour B. Sarason's innovative ideas have influenced much of my work. These same ideas-in particular, his concepts of social settings, behavioral and programmatic regularities, and the universe of alternatives-also serve as the foundation for an action science of social settings. Questions regarding theory, measurement, intervention, and research design and data analysis are central to the development of this action science, and there have been recent innovations in each of these areas. However, future challenges remain for the field. We must continue to move forward to advance an action science of social settings and make a real difference in people's lives.

  7. Mechanisms underlying selecting objects for action.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Melanie; Laverick, Rosanna; Humphreys, Glyn W; Wing, Alan M; Rotshtein, Pia

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the factors which affect the selection of objects for action, focusing on the role of action knowledge and its modulation by distracters. Fourteen neuropsychological patients and 10 healthy aged-matched controls selected pairs of objects commonly used together among distracters in two contexts: with real objects and with pictures of the same objects presented sequentially on a computer screen. Across both tasks, semantically related distracters led to slower responses and more errors than unrelated distracters and the object actively used for action was selected prior to the object that would be passively held during the action. We identified a sub-group of patients (N = 6) whose accuracy was 2SDs below the controls performances in the real object task. Interestingly, these impaired patients were more affected by the presence of unrelated distracters during both tasks than intact patients and healthy controls. Note that the impaired patients had lesions to left parietal, right anterior temporal and bilateral pre-motor regions. We conclude that: (1) motor procedures guide object selection for action, (2) semantic knowledge affects action-based selection, (3) impaired action decision making is associated with the inability to ignore distracting information and (4) lesions to either the dorsal or ventral visual stream can lead to deficits in making action decisions. Overall, the data indicate that impairments in everyday tasks can be evaluated using a simulated computer task. The implications for rehabilitation are discussed.

  8. Mechanisms underlying selecting objects for action

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Melanie; Laverick, Rosanna; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Wing, Alan M.; Rotshtein, Pia

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the factors which affect the selection of objects for action, focusing on the role of action knowledge and its modulation by distracters. Fourteen neuropsychological patients and 10 healthy aged-matched controls selected pairs of objects commonly used together among distracters in two contexts: with real objects and with pictures of the same objects presented sequentially on a computer screen. Across both tasks, semantically related distracters led to slower responses and more errors than unrelated distracters and the object actively used for action was selected prior to the object that would be passively held during the action. We identified a sub-group of patients (N = 6) whose accuracy was 2SDs below the controls performances in the real object task. Interestingly, these impaired patients were more affected by the presence of unrelated distracters during both tasks than intact patients and healthy controls. Note that the impaired patients had lesions to left parietal, right anterior temporal and bilateral pre-motor regions. We conclude that: (1) motor procedures guide object selection for action, (2) semantic knowledge affects action-based selection, (3) impaired action decision making is associated with the inability to ignore distracting information and (4) lesions to either the dorsal or ventral visual stream can lead to deficits in making action decisions. Overall, the data indicate that impairments in everyday tasks can be evaluated using a simulated computer task. The implications for rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:25954177

  9. 78 FR 58264 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... INFORMATION: On August 8, 2013 (78 FR 48593), MSHA published a Request for Information on Refuge Alternatives... Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for information...) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension gives interested parties...

  10. 24 CFR 248.223 - Alternative State strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternative State strategy. 248.223... Preservation Act of 1987 § 248.223 Alternative State strategy. (a) The Commissioner may approve a State strategy providing for State approval of plans of action that involve termination of low...

  11. 24 CFR 248.223 - Alternative State strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternative State strategy. 248.223... Preservation Act of 1987 § 248.223 Alternative State strategy. (a) The Commissioner may approve a State strategy providing for State approval of plans of action that involve termination of low...

  12. Action goals influence action-specific perception.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Kamp, John

    2009-12-01

    We examined the processes that mediate the emergence of action-specific influences on perception that have recently been reported for baseball batting and golf putting (Witt, Linkenauger, Bakdash, & Proffitt, 2008; Witt & Proffitt, 2005). To this end, we used a Schokokusswurfmaschine: Children threw a ball at a target, which, if hit successfully, launched a ball that the children then had to catch. In two experiments, children performed either a throwing-and-catching task or a throwing-only task, in which no ball was launched. After each task, the size of the target or of the ball was estimated. Results indicate that action-specific influences on perceived size occur for objects that are related to the end goal of the action, but not for objects that are related to intermediate action goals. These results suggest that action-specific influences on perception are contingent upon the primary action goals to be achieved.

  13. Action Research: Rethinking Lewin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)

  14. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and Action Research in Context" (Cliff…

  15. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geena X; Raz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States and worldwide. Since lung cancer outcomes are dependent on stage at diagnosis with early disease resulting in longer survival, the goal of screening is to capture lung cancer in its early stages when it can be treated and cured. Multiple studies have evaluated the use of chest X-ray (CXR) with or without sputum cytologic examination for lung cancer screening, but none has demonstrated a mortality benefit. In contrast, the multicenter National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) from the United States found a 20 % reduction in lung cancer mortality following three consecutive screenings with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk current and former smokers. Data from European trials are not yet available. In addition to a mortality benefit, lung cancer screening with LDCT also offers a unique opportunity to promote smoking cessation and abstinence and may lead to the diagnoses of treatable chronic diseases, thus decreasing the overall disease burden. The risks of lung cancer screening include overdiagnosis, radiation exposure, and false-positive results leading to unnecessary testing and possible patient anxiety and distress. However, the reduction in lung cancer mortality is a benefit that outweighs the risks and major health organizations currently recommend lung cancer screening using age, smoking history, and quit time criteria derived from the NLST. Although more research is needed to clearly define and understand the application and utility of lung cancer screening in the general population, current data support that lung cancer screening is effective and should be offered to eligible beneficiaries. PMID:27535387

  16. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geena X; Raz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States and worldwide. Since lung cancer outcomes are dependent on stage at diagnosis with early disease resulting in longer survival, the goal of screening is to capture lung cancer in its early stages when it can be treated and cured. Multiple studies have evaluated the use of chest X-ray (CXR) with or without sputum cytologic examination for lung cancer screening, but none has demonstrated a mortality benefit. In contrast, the multicenter National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) from the United States found a 20 % reduction in lung cancer mortality following three consecutive screenings with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk current and former smokers. Data from European trials are not yet available. In addition to a mortality benefit, lung cancer screening with LDCT also offers a unique opportunity to promote smoking cessation and abstinence and may lead to the diagnoses of treatable chronic diseases, thus decreasing the overall disease burden. The risks of lung cancer screening include overdiagnosis, radiation exposure, and false-positive results leading to unnecessary testing and possible patient anxiety and distress. However, the reduction in lung cancer mortality is a benefit that outweighs the risks and major health organizations currently recommend lung cancer screening using age, smoking history, and quit time criteria derived from the NLST. Although more research is needed to clearly define and understand the application and utility of lung cancer screening in the general population, current data support that lung cancer screening is effective and should be offered to eligible beneficiaries.

  17. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... Task Force. Final Update Summary: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening. July 2015. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/ ...

  18. Medicare Preventive and Screening Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Preventive & screening services How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers: Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening Alcohol misuse screenings & counseling Bone mass measurements (bone ...

  19. A History of Vision Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelboom, Tina M.

    1985-01-01

    The vision screening program has a long and interesting history involving educators, pediatricians, optometrists, and ophthamologists. This historical review of vision screening in the schools includes a discussion of amblyopia and screening of preschool students. (Author/CB)

  20. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain types ...

  1. Screening for Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carol; Duran-Flores, Deborah; Dumars, Kenneth W.; Stills, Stanley

    1985-01-01

    Developmental disabilities are responsible for a combination of severe physical, mental, psychological and social deficits. They develop before age 22 years and involve a little more than 1% of the population. Screening for developmental disabilities is the first step in their prevention. Various screening instruments are available for use throughout the developmental years that are designed to detect the wide variety of developmental problems that interfere with a developing person's optimal adaptation to his or her environment. The screening instruments must be inexpensive, reproducible, widely available and cost effective to the child, family and society. PMID:2413633

  2. Screening for Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wada, Keita; Takaori, Kyoichi; Traverso, L William

    2015-10-01

    Neither extended surgery nor extended indication for surgery has improved survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. According to autopsy studies, presumably 90% are metastatic. The only cure is complete removal of the tumor at an early stage before it becomes a systemic disease or becomes invasive. Early detection and screening of individuals at risk is currently under way. This article reviews the evidence and methods for screening, either familial or sporadic. Indication for early-stage surgery and precursors are discussed. Surgeons should be familiar with screening because it may provide patients with a chance for cure by surgical resection.

  3. Electron screening in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajević, J.; Lipoglavšek, M.; Likar, A.; Petrovič, T.; Pelicon, P.; Sánchez Ortiz, A.; Cvetinović, A.

    2016-01-01

    In order to further investigate electron screening effect we studied proton induced nuclear reactions over an energy range from 0.8 to 2.6 MeV for different environments: Mn and Cd metals and MnO and CdO insulators. Shifts in resonance energy for metallic relative to insulator targets were not observed. No large electron screening could be deduced for (p,γ) and (p,n) reactions in Mn. Moreover, no large electron screening can be deduced with certainty for the (p,n) reaction in Cd.

  4. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Deffebach, Mark E; Humphrey, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Screening for lung cancer in high-risk individuals with annual low-dose computed tomography has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality by 20% and is recommended by multiple health care organizations. Lung cancer screening is not a specific test; it is a process that involves appropriate selection of high-risk individuals, careful interpretation and follow-up of imaging, and annual testing. Screening should be performed in the context of a multidisciplinary program experienced in the diagnosis and management of lung nodules and early-stage lung cancer.

  5. Neonatal hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Kenna, Margaret A

    2003-04-01

    Neonatal hearing screening can be performed using reliable and reproducible methods. Intervention before the age of 6 months with hearing aids and appropriate educational support services will give the infant the best possible opportunity to develop language. Potential barriers to efficient implementation of a neonatal hearing screening program include access to appropriate and timely diagnostic and support services and insurance to cover the services. Without universal neonatal hearing screening, many children with hearing loss will be missed, which will have a direct negative impact on their speech, language, educational, and social development. PMID:12809324

  6. Learning in Action and Adventure Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellmer, Eva; Rynne, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The exponential growth in action and adventure sport (e.g. snowboarding, bicycle motorcross (BMX), surfing, parkour) participation over the past two decades has been showcased in world championship events and the inclusion in Olympic programs. Yet, by virtue of their alternative, escapist and/or adventure-based origins, these sports do not fully…

  7. Riverland expedited response action proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Riverland Railroad Car Wash Pit and the 600 Area Army Munitions Burial Site. A non-time-critical ERA proposal includes preparation of an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) section. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA proposal will undergo reviews by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE, EPA, Ecology, and the public. Ecology and EPA will issue an Action Agreement Memorandum after resolution of all review comments. The, memorandum will authorize remediation activities. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-1 Operable Unit. A No Action Record of Decision may be issued after cleanup completion.

  8. 42 CFR 488.825 - Action when deficiencies pose immediate jeopardy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES Alternative Sanctions for Home Health Agencies With Deficiencies § 488.825 Action when... termination, CMS may impose one or more alternative sanctions, as appropriate. (b) 2-day notice. Except...

  9. 42 CFR 488.825 - Action when deficiencies pose immediate jeopardy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES Alternative Sanctions for Home Health Agencies With Deficiencies § 488.825 Action when... termination, CMS may impose one or more alternative sanctions, as appropriate. (b) 2-day notice. Except...

  10. Planning my actions to accommodate yours: joint action development during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Hunnius, Sabine

    2016-05-01

    The planning and adjusting of one's actions in relation to an action partner is fundamental to smooth joint action. During their first years of life, children gradually become more engaged in joint actions. Here, we investigated whether and at what age children take their partner into account in their action plans to accommodate the other's actions. We focused on children's proactive planning (without prior experience) and flexible adjustment of action plans over time. In a behavioural study, we tested 96 children from four age groups (2½, 3, 3½ and 5 years) in a joint cup-stacking task. Children passed cups to their partner who had only one hand available (alternating over time) to build a tower. Children's response choices were assessed (i.e. passing the cup on the free or occupied side to their partner). The study yielded two major findings. At all ages, children proactively planned their actions in a way that accommodated their partner's actions. However, only by 3½ years did children start to flexibly integrate their partner into their action plans. Even at age 5, children only showed minimal adjustments to their action partner. Candidate processes underlying these developmental changes (e.g. inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, perspective taking) are discussed. PMID:27069048

  11. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 214: BUNKERS AND STORAGE AREAS NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this Closure Report is to document that the closure of CAU 214 complied with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved Corrective Action Plan closure requirements. The closure activities specified in the Corrective Action Plan were based on the approved corrective action alternatives presented in the CAU 214 Corrective Action Decision Document.

  12. Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.

    2011-11-30

    Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various energy usages

  13. Alternative Certification Isn't Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kate; Jacobs, Sandi

    2007-01-01

    While nearly all states now have something on their books labeled "alternate route to certification," these programs defy standard definition due to their enormous variability. States differ in the types of candidates allowed to apply (e.g., career changers or recent college graduates) and in the academic backgrounds these individuals must…

  14. Alternative Solar Indices

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  15. Alternative solar indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, L. J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  16. Alternate drop pulse polarography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The new technique of alternate drop pulse polarography is presented. An experimental evaluation of alternate drop pulse polarography shows complete compensation of the capacitative background due to drop expansion. The capillary response phenomenon was studied in the absence of faradaic reaction and the capillary response current was found to depend on the pulse width to the -0.72 power. Increased signal-to-noise ratios were obtained using alternate drop pulse polarography at shorter drop times.

  17. Piston engine configuration alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a technological assessment of alternate engine component configuration and material alternatives. It includes a comparative analysis of key characteristics of Gasoline, Diesel and Gas Turbine engines built by Daihatsu, Honda, Isuzu, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Suburu, Suzuki and Toyota. The piston engines range from two to ten cylinders with inline, vee and opposed configurations. Furthermore, additional special features and alternative choices include variable compression ratio, ceramic structural components, supercharger, turbocharger, twin turbocharger, supercharger-turbocharger combined and the regenerative gas turbine.

  18. Alternator insulation evaluation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, W. B.; Schaefer, R. F.; Balke, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted to predict the remaining electrical insulation life of a 60 KW homopolar inductor alternator following completion of NASA turbo-alternator endurance tests for SNAP-8 space electrical power systems application. The insulation quality was established for two alternators following completion of these tests. A step-temperature aging test procedure was developed for insulation life prediction and applied to one of the two alternators. Armature winding insulation life of over 80,000 hours for an average winding temperature of 248 degrees C was predicted using the developed procedure.

  19. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  20. Prostate cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... not do an accurate job of screening for prostate cancer. ... and anxiety, even if you do not have prostate cancer. Side effects from further testing. If your PSA test is higher than normal, you may need to ...

  1. Screening Tests for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... or colonoscopy) Diabetes screening Gonorrhea test HIV test Syphilis test Get tested for chlamydia yearly through age ... to be tested for HIV. Get tested for syphilis if you are at increased risk or pregnant. ...

  2. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficult to assess the effect of lead-time bias on the reported rates. Men with screen-detected ... and Treatment Two poor-quality (high risk of bias) randomized, con- trolled trials initiated in the 1980s ...

  3. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... screening tests are being studied in clinical trials. Virtual colonoscopy Virtual colonoscopy is a procedure that uses ... complications may occur more often in older patients. Virtual colonoscopy Virtual colonoscopy often finds problems with organs ...

  4. RAS - Screens & Assays

    Cancer.gov

    A primary goal of the RAS Initiative is to develop assays for RAS activity, localization, and signaling and adapt those assays so they can be used for finding new drug candidates. Explore the work leading to highly validated screening protocols.

  5. Breast cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... there is no cancer. This is called a false-positive result. For women who have had cancer in ... easier to treat. Risks of screenings can include: False-positive results . This occurs when a test shows cancer ...

  6. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  7. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of these tests as well as the possible harms, both of which are explained below. This fact ... after receiving abnormal test results. Benefits and Possible Harms The main benefit of screening is that it ...

  8. Screening for Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... enough evidence to determine the potential benefits and harms of glaucoma screening for adults who do not ... Glaucoma is a group of diseases that can harm the eye’s optic nerve. The optic nerve carries ...

  9. Difficult Decisions: Genetic Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.; Parakh, Jal S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the issue of mandatory genetic screening. Poses the question of the benefits, drawbacks, and motives involved. Provides a discussion activity to be used in high school biology classes consisting of a hypothetical situation and several questions. (CW)

  10. Screening for Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... events Visit the podcast archive Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/Disorders Related ... for Your Patients Information about Depression Information about Bipolar Disorder Wellness Tools DBSA Support Groups Active Research Studies ...

  11. Environmental Stress Screening 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbel, Mark

    1997-01-01

    The following identifies the authors of this report and the organizations that sponsored the effort conducted under the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) 2000 Project.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's corrective action alternative recommendation for each of the corrective action sites (CASs) within Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. An evaluation of analytical data from the corrective action investigation, review of current and future operations at each CAS, and a detailed comparative analysis of potential corrective action alternatives were used to determine the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. There are six CASs in CAU 204, which are all located between Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 on the NTS. The No Further Action alternative was recommended for CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, and 05-99-02; and a Closure in Place with Administrative Controls recommendation was the preferred corrective action for CASs 05-18-02 and 05-33-01. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 204.

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 300: Surface Release Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 300 is located in Areas 23, 25, and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 300 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Surface Release Areas and is comprised of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), which are associated with the identified Building (Bldg): {sm_bullet} CAS 23-21-03, Bldg 750 Surface Discharge {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-02, Bldg 750 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-03, Bldg 751 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-01, Bldg 3113A Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-02, Bldg 3901 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-62-01, Bldg 3124 Contaminated Soil {sm_bullet} CAS 26-60-01, Bldg 2105 Outfall and Decon Pad The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 23-21-03, 23-25-02, and 23-25-03 is no further action. As a best management practice, approximately 48 feet of metal piping was removed from CAS 23-25-02 and disposed of as sanitary waste. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-60-01, 25-60-02, 25-62-01, and 26-60-01, is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of soil impacted with total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics (TPH-DRO), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and cesium (Cs)-137, concrete impacted with TPH-DRO, and associated piping impacted with TPH-DRO. CAU 300 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 300 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 300 Corrective Action Decision Document (NNSA/NSO, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 300 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 40 cubic yards (yd3) of low-level waste consisting of TPH-DRO-, PCB

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224 is located in Areas 02, 03, 05, 06, 11, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is situated approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 224 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Decon Pad and Septic Systems and is comprised of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); CAS 03-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; CAS 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); CAS 06-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; CAS 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; CAS 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and CAS 23-05-02, Leachfield. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 02-04-01, 03-05-01, 06-03-01, 11-04-01, and 23-05-02 is no further action. As a best management practice, the septic tanks and distribution box were removed from CASs 02-04-01 and 11-04-01 and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste. The NDEP-approved correction action alternative for CASs 05-04-01, 06-05-01, 06-17-04, and 06-23-01 is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of radiologically and pesticide-impacted soil and debris. CAU 224 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 224 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 224 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 224 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 60 cubic yards (yd3) of mixed waste in the form of soil and debris; approximately 70 yd{sup 3} of sanitary waste in the form of soil, liquid from septic tanks, and concrete debris; approximately 10 yd{sup 3} of hazardous waste in the form of pesticide-impacted soil; approximately 0.5 yd{sup 3} of universal waste in

  15. Training the motor cortex by observing the actions of others during immobilization.

    PubMed

    Bassolino, Michela; Campanella, Martina; Bove, Marco; Pozzo, Thierry; Fadiga, Luciano

    2014-12-01

    Limb immobilization and nonuse are well-known causes of corticomotor depression. While physical training can drive the recovery from nonuse-dependent corticomotor effects, it remains unclear if it is possible to gain access to motor cortex in alternative ways, such as through motor imagery (MI) or action observation (AO). Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to study the excitability of the hand left motor cortex in normal subjects immediately before and after 10 h of right arm immobilization. During immobilization, subjects were requested either to imagine to act with their constrained limb or to observe hand actions performed by other individuals. A third group of control subjects watched a nature documentary presented on a computer screen. Hand corticomotor maps and recruitment curves reliably showed that AO, but not MI, prevented the corticomotor depression induced by immobilization. Our results demonstrate the existence of a visuomotor mechanism in humans that links AO and execution which is able to effect cortical plasticity in a beneficial way. This facilitation was not related to the action simulation, because it was not induced by explicit MI.

  16. Screening of solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Appelbaum, J.; Chait, A.; Thompson, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    Because solar cells in a production batch are not identical, screening is performed to obtain similar cells for aggregation into arrays. A common technique for screening is based on a single operating point of the I-V characteristic of the cell, usually the maximum power point. As a result, inferior cell matching may occur at the actual operating points. Screening solar cells based on the entire I-V characteristic will inherently result in more similar cells in the array. An array consisting of more similar cells is likely to have better overall characteristics and more predictable performance. Solar cell screening methods and cell ranking are discussed. The concept of a mean cell is defined as a cell 'best' representing all the cells in the production batch. The screening and ranking of all cells are performed with respect to the mean cell. The comparative results of different screening methods are illustrated on a batch of 50 silicon cells of the Space Station Freedom.

  17. Screening of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Chait, A.; Thompson, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Because solar cells in a production batch are not identical, screening is performed to obtain similar cells for aggregation into arrays. A common technique for screening is based on a single operating point of the I-V characteristic of the cell, usually the maximum power point. As a result, inferior cell matching may occur at the actual operating points. Screening solar cells based on the entire I-V characteristic will inherently result in more similar cells in the array. An array consisting of more similar cells is likely to have better overall characteristics and more predictable performance. Solar cell screening methods and cell ranking are discussed. The concept of a mean cell is defined as a cell 'best' representing all the cells in the production batch. The screening and ranking of all cells are performed with respect to the mean cell. The comparative results of different screening methods are illustrated on a batch of 50 silicon cells of the Space Station Freedom.

  18. Screening and surveillance approaches in familial pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Canto, Marcia Irene

    2008-07-01

    Screening and surveillance for pancreatic cancer and its precursors is a relatively new indication for endoscopic ultrasound. It provides an alternative approach to the ineffective treatment of mostly incurable symptomatic pancreatic cancer. It is currently reserved for individuals with an increased risk for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, such as those who have inherited genetic syndromes (eg, patients who have Peutz-Jeghers syndrome or hereditary pancreatitis, germline mutation carriers of p16 and BRCA2) and at-risk relatives of patients who have familial pancreatic cancer. This article discusses the rationale for performing screening and surveillance, the types of patients who are eligible for screening, the diagnostic modalities and technique for screening, the diagnostic yield of screening, and the ongoing research.

  19. 8. DETAIL OF COMPUTER SCREEN AND CONTROL BOARDS: LEFT SCREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF COMPUTER SCREEN AND CONTROL BOARDS: LEFT SCREEN TRACKS RESIDUAL CHLORINE; INDICATES AMOUNT OF SUNLIGHT WHICH ENABLES OPERATOR TO ESTIMATE NEEDED CHLORINE; CENTER SCREEN SHOWS TURNOUT STRUCTURES; RIGHT SCREEN SHOWS INDICATORS OF ALUMINUM SULFATE TANK FARM. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  1. A screen against Leishmania intracellular amastigotes: comparison to a promastigote screen and identification of a host cell-specific hit.

    PubMed

    De Muylder, Geraldine; Ang, Kenny K H; Chen, Steven; Arkin, Michelle R; Engel, Juan C; McKerrow, James H

    2011-07-01

    The ability to screen compounds in a high-throughput manner is essential in the process of small molecule drug discovery. Critical to the success of screening strategies is the proper design of the assay, often implying a compromise between ease/speed and a biologically relevant setting. Leishmaniasis is a major neglected disease with limited therapeutic options. In order to streamline efforts for the design of productive drug screens against Leishmania, we compared the efficiency of two screening methods, one targeting the free living and easily cultured promastigote (insect-infective) stage, the other targeting the clinically relevant but more difficult to culture intra-macrophage amastigote (mammal-infective) stage. Screening of a 909-member library of bioactive compounds against Leishmania donovani revealed 59 hits in the promastigote primary screen and 27 in the intracellular amastigote screen, with 26 hits shared by both screens. This suggested that screening against the promastigote stage, although more suitable for automation, fails to identify all active compounds and leads to numerous false positive hits. Of particular interest was the identification of one compound specific to the infective amastigote stage of the parasite. This compound affects intracellular but not axenic parasites, suggesting a host cell-dependent mechanism of action, opening new avenues for anti-leishmanial chemotherapy. PMID:21811648

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  3. Alternative Schools, Mainstream Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Jan; Conner, Evguenia

    2007-01-01

    Alternative education has its own history. Having emerged in the sixties as a response to the social crisis, its goal was primarily to fight increasing bureaucracy and the depersonalization of public education by giving students more freedom and minimal adult supervision. In the eighties, the understanding of "alternative education" narrowed to…

  4. Alternatives: Project Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brier, Norman

    Alternatives is a project designed for youngsters, ages 11-15, who display serious conduct problems and severe learning deficiencies. The primary goal of the project is to prevent the development of a chronic antisocial orientation among youngsters who are at high risk for such an outcome. The interventions employed at Alternatives are based on…

  5. Alternative Automobile Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Gordon

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

  6. Alternative Work Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Kerri L.

    2004-01-01

    Employers are feeling the strain of needing to offer alternative work arrangements to retain and recruit employees. Due to a change in demographics, dual-career couples and increased technology; people are demanding a transformation in the workplace environment. Two alternatives, which are being offered by employers, are flextime and…

  7. Alternative fuel information: Alternative fuel vehicle outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Major automobile manufacturers continue to examine a variety of alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) options in an effort to provide vehicles that meet the fleet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The current generation of AFVs available to consumers is somewhat limited as the auto industry attempts to respond to the presently uncertain market. At the same time, however, the automobile industry must anticipate future demand and is therefore engaged in research, development, and production programs on a wide range of alternative fuels. The ultimate composition of the AFV fleet may be determined by state and local regulations which will have the effect of determining demand. Many state and regional groups may require vehicles to meet emission standards more stringent than those required by the federal government. Therefore, a significant impact on the market could occur if emission classifications begin serving as the benchmark for vehicles, rather than simply certifying a vehicle as capable of operating on an ``alternative`` to gasoline. Vehicles classified as Zero-Emissions, or even Inherently Low-Emissions, could most likely be met only by electricity or natural gas, thereby dictating that multi-fuel vehicles would be unable to participate in some clean air markets. In the near-term, the Clinton Administration desires to accelerate the use of alternative fuels as evidenced by an executive order directing the federal government to increase the rate of conversion of the federal fleet beyond that called for in EPACT. The Administration has expressed particular interest in using more compressed natural gas (CNG) as a motor fuel, which has resulted in the auto industry`s strong response of concentrating short-term efforts on CNG vehicles. For the 1994 model year, a number of CNG cars and trucks will be available from major automobile manufacturers.

  8. Alternative fuel transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-16

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Offices's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This corrective action investigation was conducted in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 240 as developed under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 240 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02, Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03, Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). In March 1999, the corrective action investigation was performed to detect and evaluate analyte concentrations against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified at CAS 25-07-01 or CAS 25-07-03; therefore, there was no need for corrective action at these two CASs. At CAS 25-07-02, diesel-range organics and radionuclide concentrations in soil samples from F and J Roads Pad exceeded PALs. Based on this result, potential CAAs were identified and evaluated to ensure worker, public, and environmental protection against potential exposure to COCs in accordance with Nevada Administrative Code 445A. Following a review of potential exposure pathways, existing data, and future and current operations in Area 25, two CAAs were identified for CAU 240 (CAS 25-07-02): Alternative 1 - No Further Action and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. Alternative 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, as well as minimizing potential future exposure

  10. Corrective Action Investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 546: Injection Well and Surface Releases, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 546 is located in Areas 6 and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 546 is comprised of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: •06-23-02, U-6a/Russet Testing Area •09-20-01, Injection Well These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on November 8, 2007, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process has been used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 546.

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 560 is located in Areas 3 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 560 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 03-51-01, Leach Pit • 06-04-02, Septic Tank • 06-05-03, Leach Pit • 06-05-04, Leach Bed • 06-59-03, Building CP-400 Septic System • 06-59-04, Office Trailer Complex Sewage Pond • 06-59-05, Control Point Septic System These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 22, 2008, by representatives from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 560.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, August 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-08-27

    contaminated materials. Future land-use scenarios limit subsequent uses of the CASs to various nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. Field activities will consist of radiological walkover and screening surveys, and field-screening and collecting of both tank content and soil samples, and further sample testing as appropriate. A two-step data quality objective strategy will be followed: (1) Phase I will be to collect environmental samples for laboratory analysis to confirm the presence or absence of contaminants at concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels; and (2) Phase II will be to collect additional environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine the extent of contamination identified in Phase I. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  13. Nitazoxanide: Nematicidal Mode of Action and Drug Combination Studies

    PubMed Central

    Somvanshi, Vishal S.; Ellis, Brian L.; Hu, Yan; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes or roundworms (aka soil-transmitted helminths or STHs) cause great disease. They infect upwards of two billion people, leading to high morbidity and a range of health problems, especially in infected children and pregnant women. Development of resistance to the two main classes of drugs used to treat intestinal nematode infections of humans has been reported. To fight STH infections, we need new and more effective drugs and ways to improve the efficacy of the old drugs. One promising alternative drug is nitazoxanide (NTZ). NTZ, approved for treating human protozoan infections, was serendipitously shown to have therapeutic activity against STHs. However, its mechanism of action against nematodes is not known. Using the laboratory nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that NTZ acts on the nematodes through avr-14, an alpha-type subunit of a glutamate-gated chloride ion channel known for its role in ivermectin susceptibility. In addition, a forward genetic screen to select C. elegans mutants resistant to NTZ resulted in isolation of two NTZ resistant mutants that are not in avr-14, suggesting that additional mechanisms are involved in resistance to NTZ. We found that NTZ combines synergistically with other classes of anthelmintic drugs, i.e. albendazole and pyrantel, making it a good candidate for further studies on its use in drug combination therapy of STH infections. Given NTZ acts against a wide range of nematode parasites, our findings also validate avr-14 as an excellent target for pan-STH therapy. PMID:24412397

  14. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 574: Neptune, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-08-31

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 574, Neptune. CAU 574 is included in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996 [as amended March 2010]) and consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 12-23-10, U12c.03 Crater (Neptune); (2) CAS 12-45-01, U12e.05 Crater (Blanca). This plan provides the methodology for the field activities that will be performed to gather the necessary information for closure of the two CASs. There is sufficient information and process knowledge regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 574 using the SAFER process. Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, field screening, analytical results, the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process (Section 3.0), and an evaluation of corrective action alternatives (Appendix B), closure in place with administrative controls is the expected closure strategy for CAU 574. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation to verify and support the expected closure strategy and provide a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. This will be presented in a Closure Report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval.

  15. Alternative cosmology from cusp geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Reinaldo; Herbin Stalder Díaz, Diego

    We study an alternative geometrical approach on the problem of classical cosmological singularity. It is based on a generalized function f(x,y)=x(2+y^2=(1-z)z^n) which consists of a cusped projected coupled isosurface. Such a projected geometry is computed and analized into the context of Friedmann singularity-free cosmology where a pre-big bang scenario is considered. Assuming that the mechanism of cusp formation is described by non-linear oscillations of a pre- big bang extended very high energy density field (>3x10^{94} kg/m^3$), we show that the action under the gravitational field follows a tautochrone of revolution, understood here as the primary projected geometry that alternatively replaces the Friedmann singularity in the standard big bang theory. As shown here this new approach allows us to interpret the nature of both matter and dark energy from first geometric principles [1]. [1] Rosa et al. DOI: 10.1063/1.4756991

  16. A Screening Method for Assessing Cumulative Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Alexeeff, George V.; Faust, John B.; August, Laura Meehan; Milanes, Carmen; Randles, Karen; Zeise, Lauren; Denton, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating “cumulative impacts.” As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA [1]: “Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.” The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community’s cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can serve as a screening

  17. Screening for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, O S

    2000-05-01

    Screening for lung cancer serves to prevent deaths from this disease insofar as earlier resections are associated with higher rates of cure. There is good reason to believe that this is the case: in stage I, the 5-year survival rate with resection is 70%, whereas without resection the corresponding rate is only 10%. Before this evidence emerged, various authoritative organizations and agencies in North America advised against screening for lung cancer on the grounds of the results of several RCTs. As for CXR, I argue that the study results are consistent with up to 40% reduction in the fatality rate. Moreover, modern helical CT screening provides for detecting much smaller tumors than were detected in those studies. It is time to revoke the conclusion that screening for lung cancer does not serve to prevent deaths from this disease, and to quantify the usefulness of CT screening in particular. As for the requisite research, the prevailing orthodoxy has it that RCTs are to be used, but I argue that more meaningful results are obtainable, more rapidly and much less expensively, by the use of noncomparative (and hence unrandomized) studies. PMID:10855255

  18. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  19. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  20. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  1. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  2. Planning as Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly

    2004-01-01

    Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…

  3. QSAR classification of estrogen receptor binders and pre-screening of potential pleiotropic EDCs.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Gramatica, P

    2010-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are suspected of posing serious threats to human and wildlife health through a variety of mechanisms, these being mainly receptor-mediated modes of action. It is reported that some EDCs exhibit dual activities as estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) binders. Indeed, such compounds can affect the normal endocrine system through a dual complex mechanism, so steps should be taken not only to identify them a priori from their chemical structure, but also to prioritize them for experimental tests in order to reduce and even forbid their usage. To date, very few EDCs with dual activities have been identified. The present research uses QSARs, to investigate what, so far, is the largest and most heterogeneous ER binder data set (combined METI and EDKB databases). New predictive classification models were derived using different modelling methods and a consensus approach, and these were used to virtually screen a large AR binder data set after strict validation. As a result, 46 AR antagonists were predicted from their chemical structure to also have potential ER binding activities, i.e. pleiotropic EDCs. In addition, 48 not yet recognized ER binders were in silico identified, which increases the number of potential EDCs that are substances of very high concern (SVHC) in REACH. Thus, the proposed screening models, based only on structure information, have the main aim to prioritize experimental tests for the highlighted compounds with potential estrogenic activities and also to design safer alternatives.

  4. Bioavailable inhibitors of HIV-1 RNA biogenesis identified through a Rev-based screen.

    PubMed

    Prado, Silvia; Beltrán, Manuela; Coiras, Mayte; Bedoya, Luis M; Alcamí, José; Gallego, José

    2016-05-01

    New antiretroviral agents with alternative mechanisms are needed to complement the combination therapies used to treat HIV-1 infections. Here we report the identification of bioavailable molecules that interfere with the gene expression processes of HIV-1. The compounds were detected by screening a small library of FDA-approved drugs with an assay based on measuring the displacement of Rev, and essential virus-encoded protein, from its high-affinity RNA binding site. The antiretroviral activity of two hits was based on interference with post-integration steps of the HIV-1 cycle. Both hits inhibited RRE-Rev complex formation in vitro, and blocked LTR-dependent gene expression and viral transcription in cellular assays. The best compound altered the splicing pattern of HIV-1 transcripts in a manner consistent with Rev inhibition. This mechanism of action is different from those used by current antiretroviral agents. The screening hits recognized the Rev binding site in the viral RNA, and the best compound did so with substantial selectivity, allowing the identification of a new RNA-binding scaffold. These results may be used for developing novel antiretroviral drugs.

  5. Screening for Developmental Neurotoxicants using In Vitro "Brain on a Chip" Cultures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently there are thousands of chemicals in the environment that have not been screened for their potential to cause developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). The use of microelectrode array (MEA) technology allows for simultaneous extracellular measurement of action potential (spike)...

  6. 76 FR 60022 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Weight-of-Evidence Guidance Document; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... the endocrine system. The combined results and information will also be used to identify which tests... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Weight-of-Evidence Guidance Document; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA's Endocrine...

  7. Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Quezada, Sandra M; Briscoe, Jessica; Cross, Raymond K

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a complex, chronic, multifactorial inflammatory disorder of the digestive tract. Standard therapies include immunosuppressive and biological treatments, but there is increasing interest in the potential benefit of complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Given the high prevalence of use of complementary and alternative medicine among inflammatory bowel disease patients, gastroenterologists must remain knowledgeable regarding the risks and benefits of these treatment options. This article reviews the updated scientific data on the use of biologically based complementary and alternative therapies for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  8. Screening of natural products for antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Silver, L; Bostian, K

    1990-07-01

    Antimicrobial research is geared toward the discovery and development of novel chemical structures such as therapeutic antimicrobial agents. The continuing problem of development of resistance to existing antibacterial agents and the dearth of good antifungal agents motivates this effort toward innovation. Selection of possible new enzyme targets for antibiotic inhibition may be made on theoretical grounds, but it appears premature to select any single, previously unvalidated target for the intensive study required for rational drug design. Instead, a broad screen of chemical entities can be undertaken, dedicated to the discovery of novel antimicrobial inhibitors. A number of target areas are under investigation, including fungal mRNA splicing and bacterial DNA synthesis. A major part of the endeavor is in the historically productive area of natural product screening. To make the best use of natural product resources for the discovery of novel antibiotics, a balance is struct between screening for inhibitors of rationally chosen targets for which clinically useful inhibitors are not yet available, and screening more broadly to ensure that rare activities of unanticipated mode-of-action are not missed.

  9. Emergence of Cognition from Action

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, György; Peyrache, Adrien; Kubie, John

    2016-01-01

    Theories of brain function have evolved through multiple stages. The first proposition was that brain networks support a set of reflex responses, with current sensory inputs producing immediate motor outputs. The behaviorist paradigm suggested that actions can always be explained as a response to immediate external cues. In response to these views, the cognitive paradigm argued that behavior cannot be understood simply as input–output functions because the hidden layers of brain generate unpredictability. The central processing was termed “cognition.” Here we propose a neuroscience-based model of cognition. Our core hypothesis is that cognition depends on internal models of the animal and its world, where internally generated sequences can serve to perform “what if” scenarios and anticipate the possible consequences of alternative actions without actually testing them, and aid in the decisions of overt actions. We support our hypotheses by several examples of recent experimental findings and show how externally guided cell assembly sequences become internalized to support cognitive functions. PMID:25752314

  10. Diesel injector carbonization by three alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Patel, V.C.; McClendon, R.W.

    1996-05-01

    Three alternative diesel fuels were screened by analysis of fuel injector tip deposits. The test engines were operated on the Peterson (torque) test cycle; the average carbon deposit volume on an injector tip was measured by a computer vision method. Relative coke deposit quantity was obtained by area analysis of injector tip images. Repetitive image areas varied less than 1%. Coke deposit areas for repetitive fuel tests also varied less than 1%. Injector coking tendencies of tested fuels decreased in the following order: peanut oil, no. 2 diesel, tricaprylin, and tributyrin/no. 2 diesel blend. The observed dependence of the relative coke quantity on fuel type was consistent with the results from a photographic technique used previously for fuel screening. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. [Neonatal hearing screening].

    PubMed

    Oudesluys-Murphy, A M; van Straaten, H L; Ens-Dokkum, M H; Kauffman-de Boer, M A

    2000-03-25

    Approximately 1 to 2 per thousand live-born infants suffer from a serious perceptive hearing loss. Normal hearing from birth is essential for optimal human development (language and speech, social and emotional development, communicative skills and learning). The earlier the hearing loss is diagnosed the better the prognosis for the infant with a hearing impairment. Suitable methods are now available for neonatal hearing screening: automated measurement of auditory brain stem response and measurement of oto-acoustic emissions. Screening must be viewed as only the first step in a program of diagnosis, treatment and habilitation of these children. The ultimate goal of the implementation of neonatal hearing screening is: identification of bilateral hearing losses before the age of 3 months and start of therapy and counselling before the age of 6 months.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Strand

    2004-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 554 is located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 554 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), which is: 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. This site consists of soil contamination resulting from a fuel release from underground storage tanks (USTs). Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 554. Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 15, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; and contractor personnel. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 554.

  13. Advanced endoscopic technologies for colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Diagnosing colorectal has been increasingly successful due to advances in technology. Flexible endoscopy is considered to be an effective method for early diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, making it a popular choice for screening programs. However, millions of people who may benefit from endoscopic colorectal cancer screening fail to have the procedure performed. Main reasons include psychological barriers due to the indignity of the procedure, fear of procedure related pain, bowel preparation discomfort, and potential need for sedation. Therefore, an urgent need for new technologies addressing these issues clearly exists. In this review, we discuss a set of advanced endoscopic technologies for colorectal cancer screening that are either already available or close to clinical trial. In particular, we focus on visual-inspection-only advanced flexible colonoscopes, interventional colonoscopes with alternative propulsion mechanisms, wireless capsule colonoscopy, and technologies for intraprocedural bowel cleansing. Many of these devices have the potential to reduce exam related patient discomfort, obviate the need for sedation, increase diagnostic yield, reduce learning curves, improve access to screening, and possibly avert the need for a bowel preparation. PMID:23382621

  14. Current Perspectives on the Use of Alternative Species in Human Health and Ecological Hazard Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Ankley, Gerald T.; Crofton, Kevin M.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; LaLone, Carlie A.; Johnson, Mark S.; Tietge, Joseph E.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Traditional animal toxicity tests can be time and resource intensive, thereby limiting the number of chemicals that can be comprehensively tested for potential hazards to humans and/or to the environment. Objective: We compared several types of data to demonstrate how alternative models can be used to inform both human and ecological risk assessment. Methods: We reviewed and compared data derived from high throughput in vitro assays to fish reproductive tests for seven chemicals. We investigated whether human-focused assays can be predictive of chemical hazards in the environment. We examined how conserved pathways enable the use of nonmammalian models, such as fathead minnow, zebrafish, and Xenopus laevis, to understand modes of action and to screen for chemical risks to humans. Results: We examined how dose-dependent responses of zebrafish embryos exposed to flusilazole can be extrapolated, using pathway point of departure data and reverse toxicokinetics, to obtain human oral dose hazard values that are similar to published mammalian chronic toxicity values for the chemical. We also examined how development/safety data for human health can be used to help assess potential risks of pharmaceuticals to nontarget species in the environment. Discussion: Using several examples, we demonstrate that pathway-based analysis of chemical effects provides new opportunities to use alternative models (nonmammalian species, in vitro tests) to support decision making while reducing animal use and associated costs. Conclusions: These analyses and examples demonstrate how alternative models can be used to reduce cost and animal use while being protective of both human and ecological health. Citation: Perkins EJ, Ankley GT, Crofton KM, Garcia-Reyero N, LaLone CA, Johnson MS, Tietge JE, Villeneuve DL. 2013. Current perspectives on the use of alternative species in human health and ecological hazard assessments. Environ Health Perspect 121:1002–1010;

  15. Understanding affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Faye J; Iyer, Aarti; Sincharoen, Sirinda

    2006-01-01

    Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior. PMID:16318608

  16. Screening for cervical cancer: when theory meets reality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality due to cervical cancer. However, there are many factors that determine the success of any cervical cancer prevention effort: the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in general population, the existence of an organized screening program and the corresponding coverage, the existence and quality of the field and laboratory facilities for screening and diagnostic follow-up, and the facilities available for treating diagnosed lesions. Monitoring the patient path or "chain of action" for each patient with an abnormal screening result is of crucial importance. Cost-effectiveness models are widely used by decision-makers to determine which cervical cancer screening program would maximize health benefits within a given, usually limited, set of resources. Regardless of their level of sophistication, however, these models cannot replace empirical evaluations of the effectiveness of screening programs. Cervical cancer prevention activities need to be monitored and evaluated in each country where they are introduced to see that they meet performance standards. Policy-makers responsible for allocating resources for cervical cancer prevention have a duty to allocate resources not only for cervical cancer screening, but also for screening program surveillance. PMID:21668947

  17. Gene Expression Changes in Developing Zebrafish as Potential Markers for Rapid Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sparse information exists on many chemicals to guide developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) risk assessments. As DNT testing using rodents is laborious and expensive, alternative species such as zebrafish are being adapted for toxicity screening. Assessing the DNT potential of chem...

  18. Evaluation of Expenditure Alternates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlein, Gary W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Illustrates a system of calculating dollar expenditures over periods of time in terms of present value. The system enables planners, school boards, and administrators to compare expenditure alternatives as a decisionmaking factor. (Author)

  19. GLOBAL ALTERNATIVE FUTURE SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One way to examine possible future outcomes for environmental protection is through the development and analysis of alternative future scenarios. This type of assessment postulates two or more different paths that social and environmental development might take, using correspond...

  20. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  1. Alternative and Complementary Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... always designed to treat a particular illness: Some alternative therapies treat the whole person, not an illness. They might restore harmony, balance, or normal energy flow. Acupuncturists, for example, use the pulse to ...

  2. SOLVENT WASTE REDUCTION ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication contains edited versions of presentations on this subject made at five Technology Transfer seminars in 1988. Chapters are included on land disposal regulations and requirements; waste solvent disposal alternatives from various industries such as process equipment...

  3. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  4. Alternative fuel information sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  5. Seal design alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  6. Action recognition in the visual periphery.

    PubMed

    Fademrecht, Laura; Bülthoff, Isabelle; de la Rosa, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing whether the gestures of somebody mean a greeting or a threat is crucial for social interactions. In real life, action recognition occurs over the entire visual field. In contrast, much of the previous research on action recognition has primarily focused on central vision. Here our goal is to examine what can be perceived about an action outside of foveal vision. Specifically, we probed the valence as well as first level and second level recognition of social actions (handshake, hugging, waving, punching, slapping, and kicking) at 0° (fovea/fixation), 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° of eccentricity with dynamic (Experiment 1) and dynamic and static (Experiment 2) actions. To assess peripheral vision under conditions of good ecological validity, these actions were carried out by a life-size human stick figure on a large screen. In both experiments, recognition performance was surprisingly high (more than 66% correct) up to 30° of eccentricity for all recognition tasks and followed a nonlinear decline with increasing eccentricities. PMID:26913625

  7. Alternative Developmental Evaluation Paradigm in Centers for Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachor, Ditza A.; Isaacs, Janet; Merrick, Joav

    2006-01-01

    The interdisciplinary evaluation has been a well-established process in centers for neurodevelopmental disabilities, but it is costly and may generate long waiting lists that can delay early diagnosis and treatment. An alternative evaluation paradigm was designed, using a specific screening approach, to improve use of staff time without…

  8. Actionable Recommendations in the Bright Futures Child Health Supervision Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, J.L.; Downs, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background With the growing use of electronic health record systems, there is a demand for an electronic version of the leading American pediatric preventive care guideline, Bright Futures. As computer implementation requires actionable recommendations, it is important to assess to what degree Bright Futures meets criteria for actionability. Objectives We aimed to 1) determine the number of actionable recommendations in the current edition of Bright Futures and 2) to recommend a specific format for representing an important class of guidelines in a way that better facilitates computer implementation. Methods We consolidated all action statements in Bright Futures into recommendations. We then used two dimensions (decidability and executability) in the Guideline Implementability Appraisal v 2.0 (GLIA) to determine the actionability of the recommendations. Decidability means the recommendation states precisely under what conditions to perform those actions. Executability means actions are stated specifically, unambiguously and in sufficient detail. The results were presented in a figure titled Service Interval Diagram (SID), describing actionable recommendations, age intervals during which they are applicable, and how frequently they should occur in that interval. Results We consolidated 2161 action items into 245 recommendations and identified 52 that were actionable (21%). Almost exclusively, these recommendations addressed screening, such as newborn metabolic screening, or child safety, such as car seat use. A limited number (n=13) of recommendations for other areas of anticipatory guidance were also actionable. No recommendations on child discipline, family function or mental health met our criteria for actionability. The SID representing these recommendations is presented in a figure. Conclusion Only a portion of the Bright Futures Guidelines meets criteria for actionability. Substantial work lies ahead to develop most recommendations for anticipatory

  9. Intraurban influences on physician colorectal cancer screening practices.

    PubMed Central

    Gorin, Sherri Sheinfeld; Ashford, Alfred R.; Lantigua, Rafael; Hajiani, Farida; Franco, Rebeca; Heck, Julia E.; Gemson, Donald

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Community social and economic resources influence colorectal (CRC) screening decisions by physicians and patients. The aim of this study is to systematically assess the differences in screening recommendations of primary care physicians within two urban communities that are distinct in socioeconomic characteristics. METHODS: Two-hundred-sixty-four primary care community (i.e., not hospital-based) physicians were stratified by community. Using self-report questionnaires, we examined primary care physicians' CRC screening practices, knowledge of risk factors and perceived physician and patient barriers to screening, Physicians practicing in upper-socioeconomic status (SES) communities were compared with those of participants practicing in lower SES communities. RESULTS: Physicians practicing in low-SES urban communities were significantly more likely to screen with fecal occult blood test than were physicians in upper-SES areas. Alternatively, upper-SES physicians were significantly more likely to recommend screening colonoscopy than were lower-SES physicians. The number of physicians (N=11) who screened for CRC using the double-contrast barium enema were few. CONCLUSIONS: Community-level SES influences physician cancer screening practices. Further understanding of these relationships may guide the development of interventions targeted to specific neighborhoods within urban areas. PMID:18229773

  10. Alternate policies for alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.F.

    1985-09-01

    Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep earth supplies of natural gas is another. Energy enhancement as opposed to energy conservation is investigated with regard to polar climate and what might be done to improve natural energy balances, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Pumping Arctic Ocean water out into the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait would be an energy debit as opposed to energy gains such as biomass conversion of future plant growth throughout the Siberian and Canadian tundra regions and presently very arid desert regions, improved access to northern region fuel, metal ore and mineral resources, year-round shipping and fishing fleet operations in the Arctic Ocean and development of the tremendous Greenland hydro-electric power potential.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Sites, Nevada with ROTC 1, Errata Sheet, Revision 0, January 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the seven CASs within CAU 139. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from June 26 through September 27, 2006, as set forth in the CAU 139 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP).

  12. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations. PMID:23636733

  13. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  14. Alternatives for long-term management of transuranic waste at the Savannah River Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towler, O. A., Jr.; Molen, G. F.

    The six alternatives are proposed which consider the effects of making no decision (alternative 1), delaying a decision for up to 100 years (alternatives 2 and 3), or taking significant action (alternatives 4, 5, or 6). Alternative 4 exhibits intermediate cost and risk values, and indicates good agreement with ideal disposal characteristics. Alternative 6, which is comparable to alternative 4 in risk and disposal characteristics, would require a large single outlay of capital funds, whereas funds for alternative 4 could be staged. The cases described, excluding the no action case, represent the better alternatives of the 34 that were studied. Their costs range from 80 to 270 million dollars, while the sum of the population risk and worker dose ranges from 95 to 13,800 man-rem. The naturally occurring dose from cosmic rays and terrestrial activity to the same population over the same period is many times larger.

  15. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  16. 75 FR 62820 - Screening Framework Guidance for Providers of Synthetic Double-Stranded DNA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...- Stranded DNA AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Secretary. ACTION: Notice... provides a framework for screening synthetic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). This document, the Screening Framework Guidance for Providers of Synthetic Double-Stranded DNA (the Guidance), sets forth...

  17. A database of whole-body action videos for the study of action, emotion, and untrustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Bruce D; Villing, Matthias; Racey, Chris; Strong, Samantha L; Wincenciak, Joanna; Barraclough, Nick E

    2014-12-01

    We present a database of high-definition (HD) videos for the study of traits inferred from whole-body actions. Twenty-nine actors (19 female) were filmed performing different actions-walking, picking up a box, putting down a box, jumping, sitting down, and standing and acting-while conveying different traits, including four emotions (anger, fear, happiness, sadness), untrustworthiness, and neutral, where no specific trait was conveyed. For the actions conveying the four emotions and untrustworthiness, the actions were filmed multiple times, with the actor conveying the traits with different levels of intensity. In total, we made 2,783 action videos (in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional format), each lasting 7 s with a frame rate of 50 fps. All videos were filmed in a green-screen studio in order to isolate the action information from all contextual detail and to provide a flexible stimulus set for future use. In order to validate the traits conveyed by each action, we asked participants to rate each of the actions corresponding to the trait that the actor portrayed in the two-dimensional videos. To provide a useful database of stimuli of multiple actions conveying multiple traits, each video name contains information on the gender of the actor, the action executed, the trait conveyed, and the rating of its perceived intensity. All videos can be downloaded free at the following address: http://www-users.york.ac.uk/~neb506/databases.html. We discuss potential uses for the database in the analysis of the perception of whole-body actions. PMID:24584971

  18. Action-based effects on music perception.

    PubMed

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M

    2014-01-01

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance.

  19. Action-based effects on music perception

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M.

    2013-01-01

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance. PMID:24454299

  20. Antimalarials in dermatology: mechanism of action, indications, and side effects.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Caruncho, C; Bielsa Marsol, I

    2014-04-01

    Antimalarial drugs have been in common use in dermatology since the 1950s. Their mechanism of action is complex, and it is now known that they act through various pathways. We review the indications for antimalarials in dermatology, their adverse effects, and some less well-known effects, such as their antithrombotic and hypolipidemic action. The most recent recommendations concerning ophthalmological screening in patients on antimalarials are also reviewed.