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Sample records for action approach acaa

  1. Do approach-avoidance actions create attitudes?

    PubMed

    Centerbar, David B; Clore, Gerald L

    2006-01-01

    Do approach-avoidance actions create attitudes? Prior influential studies suggested that rudimentary attitudes could be established by simply pairing novel stimuli (Chinese ideographs) with arm flexion (approach) or arm extension (avoidance). In three experiments, we found that approach-avoidance actions alone were insufficient to account for such effects. Instead, we found that these affective influences resulted from the interaction of these actions with a priori differences in stimulus valence. Thus, with negative stimuli, the effect of extension on attitude was more positive than the effect of flexion. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the affect from motivationally compatible or incompatible action can also influence task evaluations. A final experiment, using Chinese ideographs from the original studies, confirmed these findings. Both approach and avoidance actions led to more positive evaluations of the ideographs when the actions were motivationally compatible with the prior valence of the ideographs. The attitudinal impact of approach-avoidance action thus reflects its situated meaning, which depends on the valence of stimuli being approached or avoided.

  2. A reasoned action approach to health promotion.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the integrative model of behavioral prediction (IM), the latest formulation of a reasoned action approach. The IM attempts to identify a limited set of variables that can account for a considerable proportion of the variance in any given behavior. More specifically, consistent with the original theory of reasoned action, the IM assumes that intentions are the immediate antecedents of behavior, but in addition, the IM recognizes that environmental factors and skills and abilities can moderate the intention-behavior relationship. Similar to the theory of planned behavior, the IM also assumes that intentions are a function of attitudes, perceived normative pressure and self-efficacy, but it views perceived normative pressure as a function of descriptive as well as of injunctive (i.e., subjective) norms. After describing the theory and addressing some of the criticisms directed at a reasoned action approach, the paper illustrates how the theory can be applied to understanding and changing health related behaviors.

  3. Approaches to local climate action in Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. D.

    2011-12-01

    Though climate change is a global problem, the impacts are felt on the local scale; it follows that the solutions must come at the local level. Fortunately, many cities and municipalities are implementing climate mitigation (or climate action) policies and programs. However, they face many procedural and institutional barriers to their efforts, such of lack of expertise or data, limited human and financial resources, and lack of community engagement (Krause 2011). To address the first obstacle, thirteen in-depth case studies were done of successful model practices ("best practices") of climate action programs carried out by various cities, counties, and organizations in Colorado, and one outside Colorado, and developed into "how-to guides" for other municipalities to use. Research was conducted by reading documents (e.g. annual reports, community guides, city websites), email correspondence with program managers and city officials, and via phone interviews. The information gathered was then compiled into a series of reports containing a narrative description of the initiative; an overview of the plan elements (target audience and goals); implementation strategies and any indicators of success to date (e.g. GHG emissions reductions, cost savings); and the adoption or approval process, as well as community engagement efforts and marketing or messaging strategies. The types of programs covered were energy action plans, energy efficiency programs, renewable energy programs, and transportation and land use programs. Between the thirteen case studies, there was a range of approaches to implementing local climate action programs, examined along two dimensions: focus on climate change (whether it was direct/explicit or indirect/implicit) and extent of government authority. This benchmarking exercise affirmed the conventional wisdom propounded by Pitt (2010), that peer pressure (that is, the presence of neighboring jurisdictions with climate initiatives), the level of

  4. Action Research and Organisational Learning: A Norwegian Approach to Doing Action Research in Complex Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eikeland, Olav

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an overview nor a…

  5. Regulating Cognitive Control through Approach-Avoidance Motor Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Severine; Holland, Rob W.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, the regulatory function of approach-avoidance cues in activating cognitive control processes was investigated. It was hypothesized that avoidance motor actions, relative to approach motor actions, increase the recruitment of cognitive resources, resulting in better performance on tasks that draw on these capacities. In Study 1,…

  6. Doing Educational Research: An Action Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Alice; Nkanga, S.

    1995-01-01

    An American teaching anesthesiology in Tanzania sought help from a member of the host culture in order to grasp cultural meanings underpinning medical education practices, using action research to develop and refine research methods and solve problems related to the need to accommodate culturally diverse students' learning needs. (SM)

  7. Criminal responsibility: an action language approach.

    PubMed

    Miller, G H

    1979-05-01

    Traditionally, the propositions of psychiatry are said to be in conflict with those of the law since psychiatry assumes a "psychic determinism" and the law assumes freedom of the will (Stone, 1978). An argument always arises over the insanity defense since it bridges psychiatry and the law. But one may hold that there is nothing intrinsic to psychiatry which requires causally stated propositions. By formulating psychiatric propositions in a different form, specifically by adopting the action language of Roy Schafer (1976a), there need be no incompatibility between psychiatric and legal statements about criminal responsibility.

  8. Assessing a New Approach to Class-Based Affirmative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaertner, Matthew N.

    2011-01-01

    In November, 2008, Colorado and Nebraska voted on amendments that sought to end race-based affirmative action at public universities. In anticipation of the vote, Colorado's flagship public institution--The University of Colorado at Boulder (CU)--explored statistical approaches to support class-based affirmative action. This paper details CU's…

  9. Assessing a New Approach to Class-Based Affirmative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaertner, Matthew Newman

    2011-01-01

    In November, 2008, Colorado and Nebraska voted on amendments that sought to end race-based affirmative action at public universities in those states. In anticipation of the vote, the University of Colorado at Boulder (CU) explored statistical approaches to support class-based (i.e., socioeconomic) affirmative action. This dissertation introduces…

  10. Easy moves: Perceptual fluency facilitates approach-related action.

    PubMed

    Carr, Evan W; Rotteveel, Mark; Winkielman, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that processing fluency impacts preference judgments and physiological reactions indicative of affect. Yet, little is known about how fluency influences motivation-related action. Here, we offer a novel demonstration that fluency facilitates action-tendencies related to approach. Four experiments investigated this action effect, its boundary conditions, and concomitant affective responses. Experiment 1 found faster approach movements (reaction times [RTs] to initiate arm flexion) to perceptually fluent stimuli when participants acted to rapidly classify stimuli as either "good" or "bad." Experiment 2 eliminated this fluency effect on action when participants performed nonaffective classifications ("living" or "nonliving"), even though fluency robustly enhanced liking judgments. Experiment 3 demonstrated that fluency can also facilitate approach action that is not immediate, as long as the delayed action involves affective classification. This experiment also found that fluent stimuli elicit genuine hedonic responses, as reflected in facial electromyography (fEMG) activity over zygomaticus "smiling" muscle. Experiment 4 replicated the physiological (fEMG) evidence for hedonic responses to fluent stimuli, but similar to Experiment 2, we observed no fluency effects on actions involving nonaffective classification. The current studies offer the first evidence that perceptual fluency can facilitate approach-related movements, when such movements are embedded in the context of affective decisions. Generally, these results suggest that variations in processing dynamics can flexibly and implicitly shape action-tendencies. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26751628

  11. Towards actionable risk stratification: a bilinear approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Risk stratification is instrumental to modern clinical decision support systems. Comprehensive risk stratification should be able to provide the clinicians with not only the accurate assessment of a patient's risk but also the clinical context to be acted upon. However, existing risk stratification techniques mainly focus on predicting the risk score for individual patients; at the cohort level, they offer little insight beyond a flat score-based segmentation. This essentially reduces a patient to a score and thus removes him/her from his/her clinical context. To address this limitation, in this paper we propose a bilinear model for risk stratification that simultaneously captures the three key aspects of risk stratification: (1) it predicts the risk of each individual patient; (2) it stratifies the patient cohort based on not only the risk score but also the clinical characteristics; and (3) it embeds all patients into clinical contexts with clear interpretation. We apply our model to a cohort of 4977 patients, 1127 among which were diagnosed with Congestive Heart Failure (CHF). We demonstrate that our model cannot only accurately predict the onset risk of CHF but also provide rich and actionable clinical insights into the patient cohort.

  12. Exploring Action Research as an Approach to Interactive (Participatory) Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudary, Imran Anjum; Imran, Shahida

    2012-01-01

    This investigation seeks to understand "action research" as an approach to "interactive form of evaluation". The first half of the investigation illuminates the approach with the help of the selective body of literature and the second half draws attention to its application in the field with the help of an authentic evaluation plan. Action…

  13. Action and representation of action during childhood and adolescence: a functional approach.

    PubMed

    Assaiante, C

    2012-01-01

    Our scientific activity is focused on the field of action and representation of action from various adaptative situations during the life span, including pathology and extreme environment such as microgravity. The early action/perception matching, subserving the motor simulation network, is probably a major milestone for the building of action and representation of action during the course of ontogenesis. We have developed a functional approach of motor development based on a gradual mastering of coordination, adaptation and anticipation in postural control in the course of ontogenesis from babies to adolescents. This functional approach is recently associated with studies of brain structures involved in action and representation of action in children and adolescents with typical or atypical neurodevelopment. From our developmental studies, it was possible to put in light two turning points during motor development, such as 6/7 years of age and adolescence. The first step for children consists in building a repertoire of postural strategies. The second step consists in learning to select postural strategy depending on the characteristics of the task and the environmental requirements. An appropriate selection means to anticipate the consequence of the movement in order to maintain balance control and efficiency of the task. Taking into account the complexity of the parameters to control and the late maturation of anticipation and representation of action, it is not surprising that the development of postural control continues up to late periods during childhood and adolescence. PMID:22200341

  14. Evaluating Action Learning: A Critical Realist Complex Network Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This largely theoretical paper will argue the case for the usefulness of applying network and complex adaptive systems theory to an understanding of action learning and the challenge it is evaluating. This approach, it will be argued, is particularly helpful in the context of improving capability in dealing with wicked problems spread around…

  15. A Participatory Action Research Approach To Evaluating Inclusive School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, Stacy K.

    2001-01-01

    This article proposes a model for evaluating inclusive schools. Key elements of the model are inclusion of stakeholders in the evaluation process through a participatory action research approach, analysis of program processes and outcomes, use of multiple methods and measures, and obtaining perceptions from diverse stakeholder groups. (Contains…

  16. Strategic Approaches to Practice: An Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burwell, Kim; Shipton, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The importance of personal practice for instrumentalists and vocalists is well established among researchers, and axiomatic for practitioners. This paper reports on a phase of an action research project, investigating student approaches to personal practice. Following a preliminary questionnaire study, a residential clinic was conducted by…

  17. Reasoning about nondeterministic and concurrent actions: A process algebra approach

    SciTech Connect

    De Giacomo, G.; Chen, Xiao Jun

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study reasoning about actions following a model checking approach in contrast to the usual validity checking one. Specifically, we model a dynamic system as a transition graph which represents all the possible system evolutions in terms of state changes caused by actions. Such a transition graph is defined by means of a suitable process algebra associated with an explicit global store. To reason about system properties we introduce an extension of modal {mu}-calculus. This setting, although directly applicable only when complete information on the system is available, has several interesting features for reasoning about actions. On one hand, it inherits from the vast literature on process algebras tools for dealing with complex systems, treating suitably important aspects like parallelism, communications, interruptions, coordinations among agents. On the other hand, reasoning by model checking is typically much easier than more general logical services such as validity checking.

  18. Accelerating RCRA corrective action: The principles of the DOE approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.A.; Green, D.R.; Ranek, N.L.; Coalgate, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is involved in the remediation of environmental contamination at many of its facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RCRA`s corrective action provisions were established by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). In response to the HSWA mandate, EPA established a program for the conduct of RCRA corrective action that was similar to that established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). In addition, EPA developed and implemented its ``stabilization`` initiative as a means of quickly addressing immediate risks posed by releases until long term solutions can be applied. To improve the efficiency of environmental restoration at its facilities, DOE is developing guidance and training programs on accelerated environmental restoration under RCRA. A RCRA guidance document, entitled ``Accelerating RCRA Corrective Action at DOE Facilities,`` is currently being developed by DOE`s Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance. The new guidance document will outline a decision-making process for determining if acceleration is appropriate for individual facilities, for identifying, evaluating, and selecting options for program acceleration, and for implementing selected acceleration options. The document will also discuss management and planning strategies that provide a firm foundation for accelerating RCRA corrective action. These strategies include a number of very basic principles that have proven effective at DOE and other federal facilities, as well as some new approaches. The purpose of this paper is to introduce DOE`s new guidance document, discuss the general approach presented in the guidance for accelerating RCRA corrective action, and to emphasize some of the more important principles of effective management and planning.

  19. Expedited approach to a carbon tetrachloride spill interim remedial action

    SciTech Connect

    Cowdery, C.; Primrose, A.; Uhland, J.; Castaneda, N.

    1998-07-01

    Monitored natural attenuation was selected as an interim measure for a carbon tetrachloride spill site where source removal or in situ treatment cannot currently be implemented due to the surrounding infrastructure. Rather than delay action until the site is more accessible to an interim action, this more expedited approach would support a final action. Individual Hazard Substance Site (IHSS) 118.1 is a former underground storage tank at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) that stored carbon tetrachloride for process use. Inadvertent releases associated with filling and failure of the tank system resulted in an accumulation of carbon tetrachloride in a bedrock depression around a group of former process waste tanks. Access to the source of contamination is obstructed by numerous utilities, the process waste tanks, and other components of the site infrastructure that limit the ability to conduct an effective remedial action. A preremedial field investigation was conducted in September 1997 to identify and delineate the extent of the dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in the subsurface. Data collected from the investigation revealed that natural processes might be limiting the migration of contaminants from the source area.

  20. Action Research as a Qualitative Research Approach in Inter-Professional Education: The QUIPPED Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Margo; Medves, Jennifer M.; Chapman, Christine; Verma, Sarita; Broers, Teresa; Schroder, Cori

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian government supports the transformation of education for health care providers based on the recognized need for an inter-professional collaborative approach to care. This first paper in a series of papers demonstrates the credibility of an action research approach for the promotion and understanding of inter-professional education…

  1. A dynamic appearance descriptor approach to facial actions temporal modeling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bihan; Valstar, Michel; Martinez, Brais; Pantic, Maja

    2014-02-01

    Both the configuration and the dynamics of facial expressions are crucial for the interpretation of human facial behavior. Yet to date, the vast majority of reported efforts in the field either do not take the dynamics of facial expressions into account, or focus only on prototypic facial expressions of six basic emotions. Facial dynamics can be explicitly analyzed by detecting the constituent temporal segments in Facial Action Coding System (FACS) Action Units (AUs)-onset, apex, and offset. In this paper, we present a novel approach to explicit analysis of temporal dynamics of facial actions using the dynamic appearance descriptor Local Phase Quantization from Three Orthogonal Planes (LPQ-TOP). Temporal segments are detected by combining a discriminative classifier for detecting the temporal segments on a frame-by-frame basis with Markov Models that enforce temporal consistency over the whole episode. The system is evaluated in detail over the MMI facial expression database, the UNBC-McMaster pain database, the SAL database, the GEMEP-FERA dataset in database-dependent experiments, in cross-database experiments using the Cohn-Kanade, and the SEMAINE databases. The comparison with other state-of-the-art methods shows that the proposed LPQ-TOP method outperforms the other approaches for the problem of AU temporal segment detection, and that overall AU activation detection benefits from dynamic appearance information.

  2. Emotion as motion: asymmetries in approach and avoidant actions.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Jeffrey S; Davidson, Richard J

    2007-12-01

    To emote literally means to move or prepare for action. A large body of research indicates that flexor and extensor movements are conditionally associated with approach- and avoidance-related motivations. It has also been widely argued that approach and avoidant motivations are asymmetrically instantiated in the left and right hemispheres, respectively. Nevertheless, to date, these literatures remain largely separate. In the present investigation, flexor and extensor movements that were visuospatially contextualized as being directed toward the self and away from the self were observed to be asymmetrically represented in the "approach" and "avoidance" hemispheres. Moreover, this pattern of hemispheric specialization was manifested to a greater degree the higher participants' self-reported level of daily positive affect and the lower their self-reported level of dispositional anxiety. Collectively, these findings have direct implications for models of embodied emotional and perceptual processing, as well as for investigations of individual differences in emotional disposition.

  3. Entrainment and motor emulation approaches to joint action: Alternatives or complementary approaches?

    PubMed Central

    Colling, Lincoln J.; Williamson, Kellie

    2014-01-01

    Joint actions, such as music and dance, rely crucially on the ability of two, or more, agents to align their actions with great temporal precision. Within the literature that seeks to explain how this action alignment is possible, two broad approaches have appeared. The first, what we term the entrainment approach, has sought to explain these alignment phenomena in terms of the behavioral dynamics of the system of two agents. The second, what we term the emulator approach, has sought to explain these alignment phenomena in terms of mechanisms, such as forward and inverse models, that are implemented in the brain. They have often been pitched as alternative explanations of the same phenomena; however, we argue that this view is mistaken, because, as we show, these two approaches are engaged in distinct, and not mutually exclusive, explanatory tasks. While the entrainment approach seeks to uncover the general laws that govern behavior the emulator approach seeks to uncover mechanisms. We argue that is possible to do both and that the entrainment approach must pay greater attention to the mechanisms that support the behavioral dynamics of interest. In short, the entrainment approach must be transformed into a neuroentrainment approach by adopting a mechanistic view of explanation and by seeking mechanisms that are implemented in the brain. PMID:25309403

  4. Dialectical principlism: an approach to finding the most ethical action.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Most forensic psychiatrists occasionally face complex situations in forensic work in which ethics dilemmas cause discomfort. They want to determine the most ethical action, but the best choice is unclear. Fostering justice is primary in forensic roles, but secondary duties such as traditional biomedical ethics and personal values like helping society, combating racism, and being sensitive to cultural issues can impinge on or even outweigh the presumptive primary duty in extreme cases. Similarly, in treatment the psychiatrists' primary duty is to patients, but that can be outweighed by secondary duties such as protecting children and the elderly or maintaining security. The implications of one's actions matter. In forensic work, if the psychiatrist determines that he should not assist the party who wants to hire him, despite evidence clearly supporting its side, the only ethical option becomes not to accept the case at all, because the evidence does not support the better side. Sometimes it can be ethical to accept cases only for one side. In ethics-related dilemmas, I call the method of prioritizing and balancing all types of conflicting principles, duties, and personal and societal values in a dialectic to resolve conflicts among them dialectical principlism. This approach is designed to help determine the most ethical action. It is aspirational and is not intended to get the psychiatrist into trouble.

  5. Dialectical principlism: an approach to finding the most ethical action.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Most forensic psychiatrists occasionally face complex situations in forensic work in which ethics dilemmas cause discomfort. They want to determine the most ethical action, but the best choice is unclear. Fostering justice is primary in forensic roles, but secondary duties such as traditional biomedical ethics and personal values like helping society, combating racism, and being sensitive to cultural issues can impinge on or even outweigh the presumptive primary duty in extreme cases. Similarly, in treatment the psychiatrists' primary duty is to patients, but that can be outweighed by secondary duties such as protecting children and the elderly or maintaining security. The implications of one's actions matter. In forensic work, if the psychiatrist determines that he should not assist the party who wants to hire him, despite evidence clearly supporting its side, the only ethical option becomes not to accept the case at all, because the evidence does not support the better side. Sometimes it can be ethical to accept cases only for one side. In ethics-related dilemmas, I call the method of prioritizing and balancing all types of conflicting principles, duties, and personal and societal values in a dialectic to resolve conflicts among them dialectical principlism. This approach is designed to help determine the most ethical action. It is aspirational and is not intended to get the psychiatrist into trouble. PMID:25770274

  6. From Framework to Action: The DESIRE Approach to Combat Desertification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessel, R.; Reed, M. S.; Geeson, N.; Ritsema, C. J.; van Lynden, G.; Karavitis, C. A.; Schwilch, G.; Jetten, V.; Burger, P.; van der Werff ten Bosch, M. J.; Verzandvoort, S.; van den Elsen, E.; Witsenburg, K.

    2014-11-01

    It has become increasingly clear that desertification can only be tackled through a multi-disciplinary approach that not only involves scientists but also stakeholders. In the DESIRE project such an approach was taken. As a first step, a conceptual framework was developed in which the factors and processes that may lead to land degradation and desertification were described. Many of these factors do not work independently, but can reinforce or weaken one another, and to illustrate these relationships sustainable management and policy feedback loops were included. This conceptual framework can be applied globally, but can also be made site-specific to take into account that each study site has a unique combination of bio-physical, socio-economic and political conditions. Once the conceptual framework was defined, a methodological framework was developed in which the methodological steps taken in the DESIRE approach were listed and their logic and sequence were explained. The last step was to develop a concrete working plan to put the project into action, involving stakeholders throughout the process. This series of steps, in full or in part, offers explicit guidance for other organizations or projects that aim to reduce land degradation and desertification.

  7. From framework to action: the DESIRE approach to combat desertification.

    PubMed

    Hessel, R; Reed, M S; Geeson, N; Ritsema, C J; van Lynden, G; Karavitis, C A; Schwilch, G; Jetten, V; Burger, P; van der Werff Ten Bosch, M J; Verzandvoort, S; van den Elsen, E; Witsenburg, K

    2014-11-01

    It has become increasingly clear that desertification can only be tackled through a multi-disciplinary approach that not only involves scientists but also stakeholders. In the DESIRE project such an approach was taken. As a first step, a conceptual framework was developed in which the factors and processes that may lead to land degradation and desertification were described. Many of these factors do not work independently, but can reinforce or weaken one another, and to illustrate these relationships sustainable management and policy feedback loops were included. This conceptual framework can be applied globally, but can also be made site-specific to take into account that each study site has a unique combination of bio-physical, socio-economic and political conditions. Once the conceptual framework was defined, a methodological framework was developed in which the methodological steps taken in the DESIRE approach were listed and their logic and sequence were explained. The last step was to develop a concrete working plan to put the project into action, involving stakeholders throughout the process. This series of steps, in full or in part, offers explicit guidance for other organizations or projects that aim to reduce land degradation and desertification. PMID:25156863

  8. Action Research: An Approach for the Teachers in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasmeen, G.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Action Research is a formative study of progress commonly practiced by teachers in schools. Basically an action research is a spiral process that includes problem investigation, taking action & fact-finding about the result of action. It enables a teacher to adopt/craft most appropriate strategy within its own teaching…

  9. Action Research: An Approach for the Teachers in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasmeen, Ghazala

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Action Research is a formative study of progress commonly practiced by teachers in schools. Basically an action research is a spiral process that includes problem investigation, taking action & fact-finding about the result of action. It enables a teacher to adopt/craft most appropriate strategy within its own teaching environment.…

  10. Collaborative Action Research Approaches Promoting Professional Development for Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaipal, Kamini; Figg, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Action research in classrooms can be challenging for novice teacher researchers. This paper reports on a study involving eight action research teacher teams. Analysis of the teams as they conducted action research resulted in the identification of three collaborative action research approaches promoting professional development. The findings…

  11. Affirmative Action in Higher Education: Three Approaches to the Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Melvina

    Affirmative action remains one of the most controversial of social policies in complex democracies. Altman and Promise (1995), in their article entitled "Affirmative Action: The Law of Unintended Consequences," focuses on the phenomenon that almost every action of government, no matter how well intentioned, has unexpected results. They suggest…

  12. Action Learning for Professionals: A New Approach to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Christine; Mayes, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Following on from the article "Building Capacity in Social Care: An Evaluation of a National Programme of Action Learning Facilitator Development" (Abbott, C., L. Burtney, and C. Wall. 2013. "Action Learning: Research & Practice" 10 (2): 168--177), this article describes how action learning is being introduced in Cornwall…

  13. Multi-action planning for threat management: a novel approach for the spatial prioritization of conservation actions.

    PubMed

    Cattarino, Lorenzo; Hermoso, Virgilio; Carwardine, Josie; Kennard, Mark J; Linke, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Planning for the remediation of multiple threats is crucial to ensure the long term persistence of biodiversity. Limited conservation budgets require prioritizing which management actions to implement and where. Systematic conservation planning traditionally assumes that all the threats in priority sites are abated (fixed prioritization approach). However, abating only the threats affecting the species of conservation concerns may be more cost-effective. This requires prioritizing individual actions independently within the same site (independent prioritization approach), which has received limited attention so far. We developed an action prioritization algorithm that prioritizes multiple alternative actions within the same site. We used simulated annealing to find the combination of actions that remediate threats to species at the minimum cost. Our algorithm also accounts for the importance of selecting actions in sites connected through the river network (i.e., connectivity). We applied our algorithm to prioritize actions to address threats to freshwater fish species in the Mitchell River catchment, northern Australia. We compared how the efficiency of the independent and fixed prioritization approach varied as the importance of connectivity increased. Our independent prioritization approach delivered more efficient solutions than the fixed prioritization approach, particularly when the importance of achieving connectivity was high. By spatially prioritizing the specific actions necessary to remediate the threats affecting the target species, our approach can aid cost-effective habitat restoration and land-use planning. It is also particularly suited to solving resource allocation problems, where consideration of spatial design is important, such as prioritizing conservation efforts for highly mobile species, species facing climate change-driven range shifts, or minimizing the risk of threats spreading across different realms.

  14. Multi-action planning for threat management: a novel approach for the spatial prioritization of conservation actions.

    PubMed

    Cattarino, Lorenzo; Hermoso, Virgilio; Carwardine, Josie; Kennard, Mark J; Linke, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Planning for the remediation of multiple threats is crucial to ensure the long term persistence of biodiversity. Limited conservation budgets require prioritizing which management actions to implement and where. Systematic conservation planning traditionally assumes that all the threats in priority sites are abated (fixed prioritization approach). However, abating only the threats affecting the species of conservation concerns may be more cost-effective. This requires prioritizing individual actions independently within the same site (independent prioritization approach), which has received limited attention so far. We developed an action prioritization algorithm that prioritizes multiple alternative actions within the same site. We used simulated annealing to find the combination of actions that remediate threats to species at the minimum cost. Our algorithm also accounts for the importance of selecting actions in sites connected through the river network (i.e., connectivity). We applied our algorithm to prioritize actions to address threats to freshwater fish species in the Mitchell River catchment, northern Australia. We compared how the efficiency of the independent and fixed prioritization approach varied as the importance of connectivity increased. Our independent prioritization approach delivered more efficient solutions than the fixed prioritization approach, particularly when the importance of achieving connectivity was high. By spatially prioritizing the specific actions necessary to remediate the threats affecting the target species, our approach can aid cost-effective habitat restoration and land-use planning. It is also particularly suited to solving resource allocation problems, where consideration of spatial design is important, such as prioritizing conservation efforts for highly mobile species, species facing climate change-driven range shifts, or minimizing the risk of threats spreading across different realms. PMID:26020794

  15. Multi-Action Planning for Threat Management: A Novel Approach for the Spatial Prioritization of Conservation Actions

    PubMed Central

    Cattarino, Lorenzo; Hermoso, Virgilio; Carwardine, Josie; Kennard, Mark J.; Linke, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Planning for the remediation of multiple threats is crucial to ensure the long term persistence of biodiversity. Limited conservation budgets require prioritizing which management actions to implement and where. Systematic conservation planning traditionally assumes that all the threats in priority sites are abated (fixed prioritization approach). However, abating only the threats affecting the species of conservation concerns may be more cost-effective. This requires prioritizing individual actions independently within the same site (independent prioritization approach), which has received limited attention so far. We developed an action prioritization algorithm that prioritizes multiple alternative actions within the same site. We used simulated annealing to find the combination of actions that remediate threats to species at the minimum cost. Our algorithm also accounts for the importance of selecting actions in sites connected through the river network (i.e., connectivity). We applied our algorithm to prioritize actions to address threats to freshwater fish species in the Mitchell River catchment, northern Australia. We compared how the efficiency of the independent and fixed prioritization approach varied as the importance of connectivity increased. Our independent prioritization approach delivered more efficient solutions than the fixed prioritization approach, particularly when the importance of achieving connectivity was high. By spatially prioritizing the specific actions necessary to remediate the threats affecting the target species, our approach can aid cost-effective habitat restoration and land-use planning. It is also particularly suited to solving resource allocation problems, where consideration of spatial design is important, such as prioritizing conservation efforts for highly mobile species, species facing climate change-driven range shifts, or minimizing the risk of threats spreading across different realms. PMID:26020794

  16. Are You Approaching Me? Motor Execution Influences Perceived Action Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Manera, Valeria; Cavallo, Andrea; Chiavarino, Claudia; Schouten, Ben; Verfaillie, Karl; Becchio, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Human observers are especially sensitive to the actions of conspecifics that match their own actions. This has been proposed to be critical for social interaction, providing the basis for empathy and joint action. However, the precise relation between observed and executed actions is still poorly understood. Do ongoing actions change the way observers perceive others' actions? To pursue this question, we exploited the bistability of depth-ambiguous point-light walkers, which can be perceived as facing towards the viewer or as facing away from the viewer. We demonstrate that point-light walkers are perceived more often as facing the viewer when the observer is walking on a treadmill compared to when the observer is performing an action that does not match the observed behavior (e.g., cycling). These findings suggest that motor processes influence the perceived orientation of observed actions: Acting observers tend to perceive similar actions by conspecifics as oriented towards themselves. We discuss these results in light of the possible mechanisms subtending action-induced modulation of perception. PMID:22624042

  17. An Information-Based Approach to Action Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramenzoni, Veronica C.; Riley, Michael A.; Shockley, Kevin; Davis, Tehran

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed that the ability to make sense of other agents' behavior relies on the activation of internal mechanisms that map action perception onto action execution. In this study we explored the constraints on this ability introduced by eyeheight-scaled information in the optic array. Short and tall participants provided maximum…

  18. Educational Poetics: An Aesthetic Approach to Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Andrew; Peck, Marcie

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Gitlin and Peck argue that much of the development of action research has been based on a reconstructed view of science (i.e., a science that is more contextual, less law-like, less causal, but still accurately represents reality and is teacher centered as opposed to researcher centered). In contrast to this reconstructed view of…

  19. Energy Conservation Education. An Action Approach. Grades 4-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamm, Michael; Samuel, Barry C.

    Seventeen lessons are provided in this curriculum designed to involve students (grades 4-9) in energy conservation. The lessons are presented in four parts. The three lessons in part I are intended to give students a preliminary conceptual framework for energy conservation and to motivate them to participate in the conservation-action projects…

  20. A Collaborative Action Research Approach to Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleicher, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The field of professional development is moving towards the notion of professional learning, highlighting the active learning role that teachers play in changing their knowledge bases, beliefs and practice. This article builds on this idea and argues for creating professional learning that is guided by a collaborative action research (CAR)…

  1. An Action-Oriented Research Approach to Privatized Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Bright Horizons, a private school located in Florida, specializes in working with students of varying exceptionalities and is founded on the principles of action research. It began as an effort to create an alternative educational opportunity for a few specific children and grew into a special education school open to the community. The purpose of…

  2. Environmental Education in Action: A Discursive Approach to Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Giuliano; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Why do the designers of environmental education do what they do towards the environment through education? More importantly, how do they account for their design decisions (plans and actions)? Using the theoretical and methodological framework of discourse analysis, we analyse environmental education designers' discourse in terms of the discursive…

  3. Fourier Analytic Approach to Quantum Estimation of Group Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masahito

    2016-10-01

    This article proposes a unified method to estimation of group action by using the inverse Fourier transform of the input state. The method provides optimal estimation for commutative and non-commutative groups with and without energy constraint. The proposed method can be applied to projective representations of non-compact groups as well as of compact groups. This paper addresses the optimal estimation of R, U(1), SU(2), SO(3), and R^2 with Heisenberg representation under a suitable energy constraint.

  4. Chapter 14. Approaches for Evaluation of Mode of Action.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cellular and molecular approaches vastly expand the possibilities for revealing the underlying mechanisms of developmental toxicity. The typical teratology screening test examines near-term fetuses after exposure throughout organogenesis and evaluates the potential for an exposur...

  5. Demonstrating and Evaluating an Action Learning Approach to Building Project Management Competence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotnour, Tim; Starr, Stan; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper contributes a description of an action-learning approach to building project management competence. This approach was designed, implemented, and evaluated for use with the Dynacs Engineering Development Contract at the Kennedy Space Center. The aim of the approach was to improve three levels of competence within the organization: individual project management skills, project team performance. and organizational capabilities such as the project management process and tools. The overall steps to the approach, evaluation results, and lessons learned are presented. Managers can use this paper to design a specific action-learning approach for their organization.

  6. Multiple emotions: a person-centered approach to the relationship between intergroup emotion and action orientation.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Julian W; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Laham, Simon M

    2014-08-01

    Although a great deal of research has investigated the relationship between emotions and action orientations, most studies to date have used variable-centered techniques to identify the best emotion predictor(s) of a particular action. Given that people frequently report multiple or blended emotions, a profitable area of research may be to adopt person-centered approaches to examine the action orientations elicited by a particular combination of emotions or "emotion profile." In two studies, across instances of intergroup inequality in Australia and Canada, we examined participants' experiences of six intergroup emotions: sympathy, anger directed at three targets, shame, and pride. In both studies, five groups of participants with similar emotion profiles were identified by cluster analysis and their action orientations were compared; clusters indicated that the majority of participants experienced multiple emotions. Each action orientation was also regressed on the six emotions. There were a number of differences in the results obtained from the person-centered and variable-centered approaches. This was most apparent for sympathy: the group of participants experiencing only sympathy showed little inclination to perform prosocial actions, yet sympathy was a significant predictor of numerous action orientations in regression analyses. These results imply that sympathy may only prompt a desire for action when experienced in combination with other emotions. We suggest that the use of person-centered and variable-centered approaches as complementary analytic strategies may enrich research into not only the affective predictors of action, but emotion research in general.

  7. Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy

    2004-01-01

    The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…

  8. The Methods of Teaching Course Based on Constructivist Learning Approach: An Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altun, Sertel; Yücel-Toy, Banu

    2015-01-01

    This purpose of this study is to investigate how the course designed based on constructivist principles has been implemented, what actions have been taken to solve problems and what thoughts have arisen in the minds of teacher candidates with regard to the constructivist learning approach. In this study, an action research was employed which…

  9. A Youth Development Approach to Evaluation: Critical Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller-Berkman, Sarah; Muñoz-Proto, Carolina; Torre, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Across the U.S., youth development approaches are being tested in out-of-school time programs as a strategy to combat the growing opportunity gap between privileged and underprivileged youth (Gardner, Roth, & Brooks-Gunn, 2009). Along with increased recognition of the value of youth development programming has come increased financial support…

  10. Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A small group of teachers at one Illinois high school is helping to effect and promote change. Through the Action Research Laboratory (ARL), teams of teachers conduct collaborative action research to improve classroom practices. Data from the first two years of the ARL indicate that teachers are eager to participate in, and have thrived in, their…

  11. Location estimation of approaching objects is modulated by the observer's inherent and momentary action capabilities.

    PubMed

    Kandula, Manasa; Hofman, Dennis; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2016-08-01

    Action capability may be one of the factors that can influence our percept of the world. A distinction can be made between momentary action capability (action capability at that particular moment) and inherent action capability (representing a stable action capability). In the current study, we investigated whether there was a biasing effect of these two forms of action capability on visual perception of location. In a virtual reality room, subjects had to stop a moving ball from hitting a pillar. On some trials, the ball disappeared automatically during its motion. Subjects had to estimate the location of the ball's disappearance in these trials. We expected that if action is necessary but action capability (inherent or momentary) is limiting performance, the location of approaching objects with respect to the observer is underestimated. By judging the objects to be nearer than they really are, the need to select and execute the appropriate action increases, thereby facilitating quick action (Cole et al. in Psychol Sci 24(1):34-40, 2013. doi: 10.1177/0956797612446953 ). As a manipulation of inherent action capability in a virtual environment, two groups of participants (video game players vs. non-video game players) were entered into the study (high and low action capability). Momentary action capability was manipulated by using two difficulty levels in the experiment (Easy vs. Difficult). Results indicated that inherent and momentary action capabilities interacted together to influence online location judgments: Non-players underestimated locations when the task was Difficult. Taken together, our data suggest that both inherent and momentary action capabilities influence location judgments. PMID:27117302

  12. Location estimation of approaching objects is modulated by the observer's inherent and momentary action capabilities.

    PubMed

    Kandula, Manasa; Hofman, Dennis; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2016-08-01

    Action capability may be one of the factors that can influence our percept of the world. A distinction can be made between momentary action capability (action capability at that particular moment) and inherent action capability (representing a stable action capability). In the current study, we investigated whether there was a biasing effect of these two forms of action capability on visual perception of location. In a virtual reality room, subjects had to stop a moving ball from hitting a pillar. On some trials, the ball disappeared automatically during its motion. Subjects had to estimate the location of the ball's disappearance in these trials. We expected that if action is necessary but action capability (inherent or momentary) is limiting performance, the location of approaching objects with respect to the observer is underestimated. By judging the objects to be nearer than they really are, the need to select and execute the appropriate action increases, thereby facilitating quick action (Cole et al. in Psychol Sci 24(1):34-40, 2013. doi: 10.1177/0956797612446953 ). As a manipulation of inherent action capability in a virtual environment, two groups of participants (video game players vs. non-video game players) were entered into the study (high and low action capability). Momentary action capability was manipulated by using two difficulty levels in the experiment (Easy vs. Difficult). Results indicated that inherent and momentary action capabilities interacted together to influence online location judgments: Non-players underestimated locations when the task was Difficult. Taken together, our data suggest that both inherent and momentary action capabilities influence location judgments.

  13. Process Algebra Approach for Action Recognition in the Maritime Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The maritime environment poses a number of challenges for autonomous operation of surface boats. Among these challenges are the highly dynamic nature of the environment, the onboard sensing and reasoning requirements for obeying the navigational rules of the road, and the need for robust day/night hazard detection and avoidance. Development of full mission level autonomy entails addressing these challenges, coupled with inference of the tactical and strategic intent of possibly adversarial vehicles in the surrounding environment. This paper introduces PACIFIC (Process Algebra Capture of Intent From Information Content), an onboard system based on formal process algebras that is capable of extracting actions/activities from sensory inputs and reasoning within a mission context to ensure proper responses. PACIFIC is part of the Behavior Engine in CARACaS (Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing), a system that is currently running on a number of U.S. Navy unmanned surface and underwater vehicles. Results from a series of experimental studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of the system are also presented.

  14. An integrated approach for vascular health: a call to action.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Blair J; Rana, Shadab N; Bowman, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Vascular diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction, most causes of heart failure, dementia, peripheral arterial disease, certain kidney, and many lung and eye conditions are a result of disorders in the blood vessels (large and small) throughout the entire human body. Vascular diseases are the leading cause of preventable death and disability in Canada. Most vascular diseases share common risk factors (high blood pressure, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity), which can be influenced by modifiable health behaviours such as unhealthy diet, smoking, lack of physical activity, and stress. Ninety percent of Canadians face an increased risk, which could be modified by managing these health behaviours and risk factors. Canada's aging population, combined with alarming trends in obesity, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, and diabetes are expected to further increase the social and economic effect of vascular diseases in the coming decades, unless there are major changes in health policy. Even more concerning is the increase in vascular risk factors among Canada's youth, and ethnically diverse populations. Vascular diseases affect not only the patient, but also place burdens on their spouses, families, friends, and communities. Tremendous potential exists to reduce the effects of vascular diseases through healthy public policy, supporting Canadians to make healthy lifestyle changes, and coordinating efforts across the continuum of care in a patient-focused manner. Vascular health requires partnerships for action across many sectors including government, health care practitioners, academia, not-for-profit organizations, and the private sector. The health sector alone cannot solve this problem. PMID:25547559

  15. Improving the Process of Career Decision Making: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study adopts an action research approach with the aim of improving the process of career decision making among undergraduates in a business school at a "new" university in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised unfreezing techniques, multiple case studies in conjunction with the principle of analogical encoding, and…

  16. A Combined Social Action, Mixed Methods Approach to Vocational Guidance Efficacy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Justin C.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a social action, mixed methods approach to verifying the efficacy of vocational guidance programs. Research strategies are discussed in the context of how the processes and purposes of efficacy research have been conceptualized and studied in vocational psychology. Examples of how to implement this approach in future efficacy…

  17. The quench action approach in finite integrable spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba, Vincenzo; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2016-04-01

    We consider the problem of constructing the stationary state following a quantum quench, using the exact overlaps for finite size integrable models. We focus on the isotropic Heisenberg spin chain with initial state Néel or Majumdar-Ghosh (dimer), although the proposed approach is valid for an arbitrary integrable model. We consider only eigenstates which do not contain zero-momentum strings because the latter are affected by fictitious singularities that are very difficult to take into account. We show that the fraction of eigenstates that do not contain zero-momentum strings is vanishing in the thermodynamic limit. Consequently, restricting to this part of the Hilbert space leads to vanishing expectation values of local observables. However, it is possible to reconstruct the asymptotic values by properly reweighting the expectations in the considered subspace, at the price of introducing finite-size corrections. We also develop a Monte Carlo sampling of the Hilbert space which allows us to study larger systems. We accurately reconstruct the expectation values of the conserved charges and the root distributions in the stationary state, which turn out to match the exact thermodynamic results. The proposed method can be implemented even in cases in which an analytic thermodynamic solution is not obtainable.

  18. On-line and Model-based Approaches to the Visual Control of Action

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaiyong; Warren, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Two general approaches to the visual control of action have emerged in last few decades, known as the on-line and model-based approaches. The key difference between them is whether action is controlled by current visual information or on the basis of an internal world model. In this paper, we evaluate three hypotheses: strong on-line control, strong model-based control, and a hybrid solution that combines on-line control with weak off-line strategies. We review experimental research on the control of locomotion and manual actions, which indicates that (a) an internal world model is neither sufficient nor necessary to control action at normal levels of performance; (b) current visual information is necessary and sufficient to control action at normal levels; and (c) under certain conditions (e.g. occlusion) action is controlled by less accurate, simple strategies such as heuristics, visual-motor mappings, or spatial memory. We conclude that the strong model-based hypothesis is not sustainable. Action is normally controlled on-line when current information is available, consistent with the strong on-line control hypothesis. In exceptional circumstances, action is controlled by weak, context-specific, off-line strategies. This hybrid solution is comprehensive, parsimonious, and able to account for a variety of tasks under a range of visual conditions. PMID:25454700

  19. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 416, Mud Pit, Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This plan addresses the actions necessary for the restoration and closure of the Project Shoal Area (PSA), Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 416, Mud Pit (Corrective Action Site No. 57-09-01), a pit that was used to store effluent produced during drilling of the Post-Shot Borehole PS-1 in 1963. This plan describes the activities that will occur at the site and the steps that will be taken to gather enough data to obtain a notice of completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996) and the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan (DOE/NV, 1994). The SAFER process is being employed at this CAU where enough information exists about the nature and extent of contamination to propose an appropriate corrective action without completing a Corrective Action Decision Document and Corrective Action Plan. This process combines elements of the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process and the observational approach to help plan and conduct corrective actions. DQOs are used to identify the problem and define the type and quality of data needed to complete the investigation phase of the process. This has already been completed for the mud pit so it will not be repeated here. The DQOs for the mud pit are presented in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Project Shoal Area, CAU No. 416 (DOE/NV, 1996). This observational approach provides a framework for managing uncertainty and planning decision making.

  20. Implementation of evidence-based health care using action research: An emancipatory approach.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Luciana; Soares, Cassia Baldini

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study is to discuss the emancipatory approach to action research as an appropriate methodology for workers' meaningful implementation of evidence-based health care. Implementation of evidence-based health care using action research is well supported by the literature. There are various approaches to action research, and they are coherent with the objectives and methods elected to develop the investigation. It is not clear which approach of action research is responsible for meaningful worker engagement in changing praxis. This is a discussion paper based on our experiences and supported by literature on collective health. Health care is defined as a social praxis, dependent upon the capitalist mode of production in which health workers engage themselves in a labour process that has negative (as alienation) as well as positive (as creativity) meanings. Emancipatory changes of social praxis through implementation of evidence-based health care require that participants understand the positive and negative meanings of their work and engage health workers in a conscious and intentional collaborative educational process. Implementation of evidence-based health care through emancipatory action research is capable of overcoming alienation and changing social practice through a participatory meaningful process of knowledge translation. PMID:27562664

  1. Intact action segmentation in Parkinson's disease: Hypothesis testing using a novel computational approach.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Anne-Marike; Nevado-Holgado, Alejo J; Johnen, Andreas; Schönberger, Anna R; Fink, Gereon R; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2015-11-01

    Action observation is known to trigger predictions of the ongoing course of action and thus considered a hallmark example for predictive perception. A related task, which explicitly taps into the ability to predict actions based on their internal representations, is action segmentation; the task requires participants to demarcate where one action step is completed and another one begins. It thus benefits from a temporally precise prediction of the current action. Formation and exploitation of these temporal predictions of external events is now closely associated with a network including the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex. Because decline of dopaminergic innervation leads to impaired function of the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex in Parkinson's disease (PD), we hypothesised that PD patients would show increased temporal variability in the action segmentation task, especially under medication withdrawal (hypothesis 1). Another crucial aspect of action segmentation is its reliance on a semantic representation of actions. There is no evidence to suggest that action representations are substantially altered, or cannot be accessed, in non-demented PD patients. We therefore expected action segmentation judgments to follow the same overall patterns in PD patients and healthy controls (hypothesis 2), resulting in comparable segmentation profiles. Both hypotheses were tested with a novel classification approach. We present evidence for both hypotheses in the present study: classifier performance was slightly decreased when it was tested for its ability to predict the identity of movies segmented by PD patients, and a measure of normativity of response behaviour was decreased when patients segmented movies under medication-withdrawal without access to an episodic memory of the sequence. This pattern of results is consistent with hypothesis 1. However, the classifier analysis also revealed that responses given by patients and controls create very similar action

  2. Intact action segmentation in Parkinson's disease: Hypothesis testing using a novel computational approach.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Anne-Marike; Nevado-Holgado, Alejo J; Johnen, Andreas; Schönberger, Anna R; Fink, Gereon R; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2015-11-01

    Action observation is known to trigger predictions of the ongoing course of action and thus considered a hallmark example for predictive perception. A related task, which explicitly taps into the ability to predict actions based on their internal representations, is action segmentation; the task requires participants to demarcate where one action step is completed and another one begins. It thus benefits from a temporally precise prediction of the current action. Formation and exploitation of these temporal predictions of external events is now closely associated with a network including the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex. Because decline of dopaminergic innervation leads to impaired function of the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex in Parkinson's disease (PD), we hypothesised that PD patients would show increased temporal variability in the action segmentation task, especially under medication withdrawal (hypothesis 1). Another crucial aspect of action segmentation is its reliance on a semantic representation of actions. There is no evidence to suggest that action representations are substantially altered, or cannot be accessed, in non-demented PD patients. We therefore expected action segmentation judgments to follow the same overall patterns in PD patients and healthy controls (hypothesis 2), resulting in comparable segmentation profiles. Both hypotheses were tested with a novel classification approach. We present evidence for both hypotheses in the present study: classifier performance was slightly decreased when it was tested for its ability to predict the identity of movies segmented by PD patients, and a measure of normativity of response behaviour was decreased when patients segmented movies under medication-withdrawal without access to an episodic memory of the sequence. This pattern of results is consistent with hypothesis 1. However, the classifier analysis also revealed that responses given by patients and controls create very similar action

  3. Action Research as an Approach to Integrating Sustainability into MBA Programs: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benn, Suzanne; Dunphy, Dexter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory project that employed an action research approach to integrating sustainability into core subjects in the MBA program at an Australian university. It documents the change methodology used, the theoretical basis for this choice, and the project outcomes. It then identifies some key enabling factors and…

  4. Linking Action Learning and Inter-Organisational Learning: The Learning Journey Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The article presents and illustrates the learning journey (LJ)--a new management development approach to inter-organisational learning based on observation, reflection and problem-solving. The LJ involves managers from different organisations and applies key concepts of action learning and systemic organisational development. Made up of…

  5. Assessing a Controversial In-Service Program: An Action Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapel, David E.

    A course was prepared by Planned Parenthood on the subject of human sexuality. The school district required an evaluation to determine effects, assess whether the instructional agency should be invited back, and to determine whether experiences should be continued. An action research approach was deemed appropriate. The objectives of the research…

  6. Using a Reasoned Action Approach to Examine US College Women's Intention to Get the HPV Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although at high risk of contracting the human papillomavirus (HPV), less than one-half of US college women have been vaccinated. The purpose of this study was to identify underlying factors influencing college women's intention to get the HPV vaccine via developing an instrument using the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA). Setting: Data…

  7. One School's Approach to Overcoming Resistance and Improving Appraisal: Organizational Learning in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the action research (AR) approach adopted by one New Zealand (NZ) primary school to review and improve its appraisal system. Historically the staff had demonstrated considerable negativity towards appraisal. The classic reconnaissance, implementation and evaluation phases of AR were adopted by the case study school as a…

  8. The Art and Science of Rain Barrels: A Service Learning Approach to Youth Watershed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rector, Patricia; Lyons, Rachel; Yost, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Using an interdisciplinary approach to water resource education, 4-H Youth Development and Environmental Extension agents enlisted 4-H teens to connect local watershed education with social action. Teens participated in a dynamic service learning project that included learning about nonpoint source pollution; constructing, decorating, and teaching…

  9. Science and Social Practice: Action Research and Activity Theory as Socio-Critical Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langemeyer, Ines

    2011-01-01

    Action research and activity theory are considered by a number of followers as socio-critical approaches, whereas others do not relate them to social-criticism and use them merely as methods to improve practice. This article searches for general insights in Kurt Lewin's and Lev S. Vygotsky's work into how one proceeds and acts critically. In their…

  10. The Action--Reflection--Modelling (ARM) Pedagogical Approach for Teacher Education: A Malaysia-UK Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Joy; Dickerson, Claire; Thomas, Kit; Graham, Sally

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the Action--Reflection--Modelling (ARM) pedagogical approach for teacher education developed during a Malaysia-UK collaborative project to construct a Bachelor of Education (Honours) degree programme in Primary Mathematics, with English and Health and Physical Education as minor subjects. The degree programme was written…

  11. A Personal Journey in Promoting Social Justice as a School Counselor: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowden, Angel Riddick

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the author's journey as a school counselor utilizing an action research approach to advocate for social justice in education. Two case studies are provided to discuss the process utilized to advocate for equal education for all students as a school counselor. Lastly, the author reflects on the successes and failures…

  12. Sustainable Participation in Regular Exercise amongst Older People: Developing an Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Jeanne; Lester, Carolyn; O'Neill, Martin; Williams, Gareth

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes the Triangle Project's work with a post industrial community, where healthy living activities were developed in response to community members' expressed needs. Method: An action research partnership approach was taken to reduce health inequalities, with local people developing their own activities to address…

  13. Improving "At-Action" Decision-Making in Team Sports through a Holistic Coaching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard L.; Harvey, Stephen; Mouchet, Alain

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on Game Sense pedagogy and complex learning theory (CLT) to make suggestions for improving decision-making ability in team sports by adopting a holistic approach to coaching with a focus on decision-making "at-action". It emphasizes the complexity of decision-making and the need to focus on the game as a whole entity,…

  14. Learning to Be Interdisciplinary: An Action Research Approach to Boundary Spanning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Jeris, Laurel

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study explored challenges and barriers that need to be addressed in a preprofessional educational setting to provide opportunities for boundary spanning that leads to family-centred interdisciplinary service provision. Design: The design employed in this study was participatory action research, an inductive approach. Setting: The…

  15. Peer Observation of Teaching in the Online Environment: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinglehurst, D.; Russell, J.; Greenhalgh, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative action research approach used to explore peer observation of teaching (POT) within the online environment. Although POT has become familiar in face-to-face teaching contexts, little is understood of its potential role in online settings. We conducted "virtual" focus groups to explore the experience and views of…

  16. An integrated large- and small-group approach for conducting meetings that lead to social action.

    PubMed

    Peck, H B

    1997-01-01

    Large meetings and small-group sessions each have advantages and deficiencies in dealing with social issues. The goals of conveying information, effectively changing attitudes, and encouraging action are often best achieved by integrating small-group sessions within the context of a large meeting. An approach involving three phases for a 2-hour meeting is described: (1) and initial plenary of all participants; (2) small-group sessions conducted by previously trained group facilitators drawn from the host organization; (3) a concluding plenary session centering around brief reports from the small groups. The application of some concepts of positive mental health, contracting, and empowerment to facilitate social action are discussed.

  17. The Action Competence Approach and the "New" Discourses of Education for Sustainable Development, Competence and Quality Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogensen, Finn; Schnack, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Action competence has been a key concept in educational circles in Denmark since the 1980s. This paper explores the relationship between the action competence approach and recent discourses of education for sustainable development (ESD), competence and quality criteria. First we argue that action competence is an educational ideal, referring to…

  18. A wavelet denoising approach for signal action isolation in the ear canal.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Ravi; Wang, Shouyan; Gupta, Lalit

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop and implement a new filtering strategy to denoise acoustic signals in the ear canal resulting from voluntary movement of the tongue (as a method of generating control input), as well as from other active actions, (speech, eating, drinking, smoking), and passive actions (swallowing, adjusting the jaw, physiological activity). The strategy is based on a denoising wavelet shrinkage approach that separates rhythmic bursting activity and white noise representing sustained tonic activity. While past work has addressed the discrimination of voluntary TMEP signals from one-another, no work has addressed acoustic artefact rejection within the ear. The results described here, combined with our past work in isolating critical components of tongue movement ear pressure (TMEP) signals, provide a basis for discriminating voluntary and involuntary actions of the tongue by monitoring pressure in the ear. At this time, the system has worked in real-time for assistive device control.

  19. Engaging Students in a Simulated Collaborative Action Research Project: An Evaluation of a Participatory Approach to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congdon, Graham John; Congdon, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    This article reports an action research project designed to develop and implement a new participatory learning and teaching approach to enable postgraduate healthcare students to develop skills and knowledge in preparation for undertaking an action research study within their practice setting. The learning and teaching approach was based upon the…

  20. Exploring teacher's perceptions of concept mapping as a teaching strategy in science: An action research approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks Krpan, Catherine Anne

    In order to promote science literacy in the classroom, students need opportunities in which they can personalize their understanding of the concepts they are learning. Current literature supports the use of concept maps in enabling students to make personal connections in their learning of science. Because they involve creating explicit connections between concepts, concept maps can assist students in developing metacognitive strategies and assist educators in identifying misconceptions in students' thinking. The literature also notes that concept maps can improve student achievement and recall. Much of the current literature focuses primarily on concept mapping at the secondary and university levels, with limited focus on the elementary panel. The research rarely considers teachers' thoughts and ideas about the concept mapping process. In order to effectively explore concept mapping from the perspective of elementary teachers, I felt that an action research approach would be appropriate. Action research enabled educators to debate issues about concept mapping and test out ideas in their classrooms. It also afforded the participants opportunities to explore their own thinking, reflect on their personal journeys as educators and play an active role in their professional development. In an effort to explore concept mapping from the perspective of elementary educators, an action research group of 5 educators and myself was established and met regularly from September 1999 until June 2000. All of the educators taught in the Toronto area. These teachers were interested in exploring how concept mapping could be used as a learning tool in their science classrooms. In summary, this study explores the journey of five educators and myself as we engaged in collaborative action research. This study sets out to: (1) Explore how educators believe concept mapping can facilitate teaching and student learning in the science classroom. (2) Explore how educators implement concept

  1. Re-training Automatic Action Tendencies to Approach Cigarettes among Adolescent Smokers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Grace; Larsen, Helle; Cavallo, Dana; Becker, Daniela; Cousijn, Janna; Salemink, Elske; D'Escury-Koenigs, Annemat L. Collot; Morean, Meghan; Wiers, Reinout; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Background This pilot study conducted a preliminary examination of whether Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), a computerized task to retrain cognitive-approach biases towards smoking stimuli, (1) changed approach bias for cigarettes, and (2) improved smoking cessation outcomes in adolescent smokers. Methods Sixty adolescent smokers received four weeks of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation, with CBM (90% avoidance/10% approach for smoking stimuli and 10% avoidance/90% approach for neutral stimuli) or sham (50% avoidance/50% approach for smoking and neutral stimuli) training in the Netherlands (n = 42) and the United States (n = 18). Results While we did not observe changes in action tendencies related to CBM, adolescents with higher smoking approach biases at baseline had greater decreases in approach biases at follow up, compared to adolescents with smoking avoidance biases, regardless of treatment condition (p = 0.01). Intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses showed that CBM, when compared with sham trended toward higher end-of-treatment, biochemically-confirmed, seven-day point prevalence abstinence, (17.2% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.071). ITT analysis also showed that regardless of treatment condition, cotinine level (p = 0.045) and average number of cigarette smoked (p ≤ 0.001) significantly decreased over the course of treatment. Conclusions The findings from this pilot study suggests that re-training approach biases toward cigarettes shows promise for smoking cessation among adolescent smokers. Future research should utilize larger samples and increased distinction between CBM and sham conditions, and examine mechanisms underlying the CBM approach. PMID:26186485

  2. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  3. 76 FR 54288 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Bridge and Approach Roadways in Nevada and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Bridge and Approach... proposed Laughlin-Bullhead City Bridge project in Laughlin, Clark County, Nevada; and in Bullhead City... claim seeking judicial review of the Federal agency actions on the bridge and roadway project will...

  4. Development of a wheelchair skills home program for older adults using a participatory action design approach.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768

  5. Development of a Wheelchair Skills Home Program for Older Adults Using a Participatory Action Design Approach

    PubMed Central

    Giesbrecht, Edward M.; Miller, William C.; Mitchell, Ian M.; Woodgate, Roberta L.

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768

  6. Experimental semiotics: a new approach for studying communication as a form of joint action.

    PubMed

    Galantucci, Bruno

    2009-04-01

    In the last few years, researchers have begun to investigate the emergence of novel forms of human communication in the laboratory. I survey this growing line of research, which may be called experimental semiotics, from three distinct angles. First, I situate the new approach in its theoretical and historical context. Second, I review a sample of studies that exemplify experimental semiotics. Third, I present an empirical study that illustrates how the new approach can help us understand the socio-cognitive underpinnings of human communication. The main conclusion of the paper will be that, by reproducing micro samples of historical processes in the laboratory, experimental semiotics offers new powerful tools for investigating human communication as a form of joint action.

  7. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-05-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake. CAU 496 consists of one site located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  8. A New Approach for Assessing Aquifer Sustainability and the Impact of Proposed Management Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. J., Jr.; Whittemore, D. O.; Wilson, B. B.

    2015-12-01

    Aquifers are under stress worldwide as a result of large imbalances between inflows and outflows. These imbalances are particularly severe in aquifers in semi-arid regions that are heavily pumped for irrigation, such as the High Plains aquifer (HPA) in the United States. The water resources community has responded by placing an increasing emphasis on more sustainable management plans. To aid in the formulation of such plans, we have developed a simple, water-balance-based approach for rapid assessment of the impact of proposed management actions and the prospects for aquifer sustainability. This theoretically sound approach is particularly well suited for assessing the short- to medium-term (years to a few decades) response to management actions in seasonably pumped aquifers. The net inflow (capture) term of the aquifer water balance can also be directly calculated from water-level and water-use data with this approach. Application to the data-rich portion of the HPA in the state of Kansas reveals that practically achievable reductions in annual pumping would have a large impact. For example, a 22% reduction in average annual water use would have stabilized areally averaged water levels across northwest Kansas from 1996 to 2013 because of larger-than-expected and near-constant net inflows. Whether this is a short-term phenomenon or a path to long-term sustainability, however, has yet to be determined. Water resources managers are often in a quandary about the most effective use of scarce funds for data collection in support of aquifer assessment and management activities. This work demonstrates that a strong emphasis should be placed on collection of reliable water-use data; greater resources devoted to direct measurement of pumping will yield deeper insights into an aquifer's future. The Kansas HPA is similar to many other regional aquifers supporting critically needed agricultural production, so this approach should prove of value far beyond the borders of Kansas.

  9. Action versus result-oriented schemes in a grassland agroecosystem: a dynamic modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Sabatier, Rodolphe; Doyen, Luc; Tichit, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Effects of agri-environment schemes (AES) on biodiversity remain controversial. While most AES are action-oriented, result-oriented and habitat-oriented schemes have recently been proposed as a solution to improve AES efficiency. The objective of this study was to compare action-oriented, habitat-oriented and result-oriented schemes in terms of ecological and productive performance as well as in terms of management flexibility. We developed a dynamic modelling approach based on the viable control framework to carry out a long term assessment of the three schemes in a grassland agroecosystem. The model explicitly links grazed grassland dynamics to bird population dynamics. It is applied to lapwing conservation in wet grasslands in France. We ran the model to assess the three AES scenarios. The model revealed the grazing strategies respecting ecological and productive constraints specific to each scheme. Grazing strategies were assessed by both their ecological and productive performance. The viable control approach made it possible to obtain the whole set of viable grazing strategies and therefore to quantify the management flexibility of the grassland agroecosystem. Our results showed that habitat and result-oriented scenarios led to much higher ecological performance than the action-oriented one. Differences in both ecological and productive performance between the habitat and result-oriented scenarios were limited. Flexibility of the grassland agroecosystem in the result-oriented scenario was much higher than in that of habitat-oriented scenario. Our model confirms the higher flexibility as well as the better ecological and productive performance of result-oriented schemes. A larger use of result-oriented schemes in conservation may also allow farmers to adapt their management to local conditions and to climatic variations.

  10. Estrogen action: a historic perspective on the implications of considering alternative approaches

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Elwood V.; Jacobson, Herbert I.; Walf, Alicia A.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    In the 50 years since the initial reports of a cognate estrogen receptor (ER), much has been learned about the diverse effects and mechanisms of estrogens, such as 17β-estradiol (E2). This expert narrative review briefly summarizes perspectives and/or recent work of the authors, who have been addressing different aspects of estrogen action, but take a common approach of using alternative considerations to gain insight into mechanisms with clinical relevance, and inform future studies, regarding estrogen action. Their “Top Ten” favorite alternatives that are discussed herein are as follows. 1- E2 has actions by binding to a receptor that do not require its enzymatic conversion. 2- Using a different strategy for antibody binding could make the estrogen receptor (ER) more discernible. 3- Blocking ERs, rather than E2 production, may be a useful strategy for breast cancer therapy. 4- Secretion of α-fetoprotein (AFP), rather than only levels of E2 and/or progesterone, may influence breast cancer risk. 5- A peptide derived from the active site of AFP can produce the same benefits of the entire endogenous protein in endocrine cancers. 6- Differential distribution of ER subtypes in the body and brain may underlie specific effects of estrogens. 7- ERβ may be sufficient for the trophic effects of estrogen in the brain, and ERα may be the primary target of trophic effects in the body. 8- ERβ may play a role in the trophic effects of androgens, and may also be relevant in the periphery. 9 - Downstream of E2's effects at ERβ, there may be consequences for biosynthesis of progestogens and/or androgens. 10- Changes in histones and/or other factors, which may be downstream of ERβ, potentially underlie the divergent effects of E2 in the brain and peripheral tissues. PMID:19737574

  11. A review of ideomotor approaches to perception, cognition, action, and language: advancing a cultural recycling hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Badets, Arnaud; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M

    2016-01-01

    The term "cultural recycling" derives from the neuronal recycling hypothesis, which suggests that representations of cultural inventions like written words, Arabic numbers, or tools can occupy brain areas dedicated to other functions. In the present selective review article, we propose a recycling hypothesis for the ideomotor mechanism. The ideomotor approach assumes that motor actions are controlled by the anticipation of the expected perceptual consequences that they aim to generate in the environment. Arguably, such action-perception mechanisms contribute to motor behaviour for human and non-human animals since millions of years. However, recent empirical studies suggest that the ideomotor mechanism can also contribute to word processing, number representation, and arithmetic. For instance, it has been shown that the anticipatory simulation of abstract semantics, like the numerical quantitative value of three items can prime processing of the associated Arabic number "3". Arabic numbers, words, or tools represent cultural inventions, so that, from a theoretical perspective, we suggest an ideomotor recycling hypothesis for the interaction with such artefacts. In this view, the ideomotor mechanism spreads its influence to other functions beyond motor control, and is recycled to flexibly adapt different human behaviours towards dealing with more abstract concepts. PMID:25535019

  12. Risk newsboy: approach for addressing uncertainty in developing action levels and cleanup limits

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Roger; MacDonell, Margaret

    2007-07-01

    Site cleanup decisions involve developing action levels and residual limits for key contaminants, to assure health protection during the cleanup period and into the long term. Uncertainty is inherent in the toxicity information used to define these levels, based on incomplete scientific knowledge regarding dose-response relationships across various hazards and exposures at environmentally relevant levels. This problem can be addressed by applying principles used to manage uncertainty in operations research, as illustrated by the newsboy dilemma. Each day a newsboy must balance the risk of buying more papers than he can sell against the risk of not buying enough. Setting action levels and cleanup limits involves a similar concept of balancing and distributing risks and benefits in the face of uncertainty. The newsboy approach can be applied to develop health-based target concentrations for both radiological and chemical contaminants, with stakeholder input being crucial to assessing 'regret' levels. Associated tools include structured expert judgment elicitation to quantify uncertainty in the dose-response relationship, and mathematical techniques such as probabilistic inversion and iterative proportional fitting. (authors)

  13. Assessing Ethanol's Actions in the Suprachiasmatic Circadian Clock Using In vivo and In vitro Approaches

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Research over the past decade has demonstrated substantial interactions between the circadian system and the processes through which alcohol affects behavior and physiology. Here we summarize the results of our collaborative efforts focused on this intersection. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches, we have shown that ethanol affects many aspects of the mammalian circadian system, both acutely as well as after chronic administration. Conversely, we have shown circadian influences on ethanol consumption. Importantly, we are beginning to delve into the cellular mechanisms associated with these effects. We are also starting to form a picture of the neuroanatomical bases for many of these actions. Finally, we put our current findings into perspective by suggesting new avenues of inquiry for our future efforts. PMID:25457753

  14. Proteomic Approaches in Understanding Action Mechanisms of Metal-Based Anticancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Chiu, Jen-Fu

    2008-01-01

    Medicinal inorganic chemistry has been stimulating largely by the success of the anticancer drug, cisplatin. Various metal complexes are currently used as therapeutic agents (e.g., Pt, Au, and Ru) in the treatment of malignant diseases, including several types of cancers. Understanding the mechanism of action of these metal-based drugs is for the design of more effective drugs. Proteomic approaches combined with other biochemical methods can provide comprehensive understanding of responses that are involved in metal-based anticancer drugs-induced cell death, including insights into cytotoxic effects of metal-based anticancer drugs, correlation of protein alterations to drug targets, and prediction of drug resistance and toxicity. This information, when coupled with clinical data, can provide rational basses for the future design and modification of present used metal-based anticancer drugs. PMID:18670610

  15. Teaching Writing Skills Based on a Genre Approach to L2 Primary School Students: An Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Hyejeong

    2012-01-01

    This article, based on research findings, examines the effect of implementing a genre approach to develop writing competency of Year 5 and 6 L2 primary school students. Using action research, the genre approach was implemented over a 10-week term with two lessons per week in a culturally and linguistically diverse ESL class in a South Australian…

  16. Optophysiological Approach to Resolve Neuronal Action Potentials with High Spatial and Temporal Resolution in Cultured Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pagès, Stéphane; Côté, Daniel; De Koninck, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Cell to cell communication in the central nervous system is encoded into transient and local membrane potential changes (ΔVm). Deciphering the rules that govern synaptic transmission and plasticity entails to be able to perform Vm recordings throughout the entire neuronal arborization. Classical electrophysiology is, in most cases, not able to do so within small and fragile neuronal subcompartments. Thus, optical techniques based on the use of fluorescent voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs) have been developed. However, reporting spontaneous or small ΔVm from neuronal ramifications has been challenging, in part due to the limited sensitivity and phototoxicity of VSD-based optical measurements. Here we demonstrate the use of water soluble VSD, ANNINE-6plus, with laser-scanning microscopy to optically record ΔVm in cultured neurons. We show that the sensitivity (>10% of fluorescence change for 100 mV depolarization) and time response (sub millisecond) of the dye allows the robust detection of action potentials (APs) even without averaging, allowing the measurement of spontaneous neuronal firing patterns. In addition, we show that back-propagating APs can be recorded, along distinct dendritic sites and within dendritic spines. Importantly, our approach does not induce any detectable phototoxic effect on cultured neurons. This optophysiological approach provides a simple, minimally invasive, and versatile optical method to measure electrical activity in cultured neurons with high temporal (ms) resolution and high spatial (μm) resolution. PMID:22016723

  17. An Efficient Bayesian Approach to Exploit the Context of Object-Action Interaction for Object Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sungbaek; Park, Hyunjin; Yi, Juneho

    2016-01-01

    This research features object recognition that exploits the context of object-action interaction to enhance the recognition performance. Since objects have specific usages, and human actions corresponding to these usages can be associated with these objects, human actions can provide effective information for object recognition. When objects from different categories have similar appearances, the human action associated with each object can be very effective in resolving ambiguities related to recognizing these objects. We propose an efficient method that integrates human interaction with objects into a form of object recognition. We represent human actions by concatenating poselet vectors computed from key frames and learn the probabilities of objects and actions using random forest and multi-class AdaBoost algorithms. Our experimental results show that poselet representation of human actions is quite effective in integrating human action information into object recognition. PMID:27347977

  18. Genotoxic mode of action predictions from a multiplexed flow cytometric assay and a machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Steven M; Bernacki, Derek T; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2016-04-01

    Several endpoints associated with cellular responses to DNA damage as well as overt cytotoxicity were multiplexed into a miniaturized, "add and read" type flow cytometric assay. Reagents included a detergent to liberate nuclei, RNase and propidium iodide to serve as a pan-DNA dye, fluorescent antibodies against γH2AX, phospho-histone H3, and p53, and fluorescent microspheres for absolute nuclei counts. The assay was applied to TK6 cells and 67 diverse reference chemicals that served as a training set. Exposure was for 24 hrs in 96-well plates, and unless precipitation or foreknowledge about cytotoxicity suggested otherwise, the highest concentration was 1 mM. At 4- and 24-hrs aliquots were removed and added to microtiter plates containing the reagent mix. Following a brief incubation period robotic sampling facilitated walk-away data acquisition. Univariate analyses identified biomarkers and time points that were valuable for classifying agents into one of three groups: clastogenic, aneugenic, or non-genotoxic. These mode of action predictions were optimized with a forward-stepping process that considered Wald test p-values, receiver operator characteristic curves, and pseudo R(2) values, among others. A particularly high performing multinomial logistic regression model was comprised of four factors: 4 hr γH2AX and phospho-histone H3 values, and 24 hr p53 and polyploidy values. For the training set chemicals, the four-factor model resulted in 94% concordance with our a priori classifications. Cross validation occurred via a leave-one-out approach, and in this case 91% concordance was observed. A test set of 17 chemicals that were not used to construct the model were evaluated, some of which utilized a short-term treatment in the presence of a metabolic activation system, and in 16 cases mode of action was correctly predicted. These initial results are encouraging as they suggest a machine learning strategy can be used to rapidly and reliably predict new chemicals

  19. Dose-response characteristics of insulin action on glucose metabolism: a non-steady-state approach.

    PubMed

    Natali, A; Gastaldelli, A; Camastra, S; Sironi, A M; Toschi, E; Masoni, A; Ferrannini, E; Mari, A

    2000-05-01

    The traditional methods for the assessment of insulin sensitivity yield only a single index, not the whole dose-response curve information. This curve is typically characterized by a maximally insulin-stimulated glucose clearance (Cl(max)) and an insulin concentration at half-maximal response (EC(50)). We developed an approach for estimating the whole dose-response curve with a single in vivo test, based on the use of tracer glucose and exogenous insulin administration (two steps of 20 and 200 mU x min(-1) x m(-2), 100 min each). The effect of insulin on plasma glucose clearance was calculated from non-steady-state data by use of a circulatory model of glucose kinetics and a model of insulin action in which glucose clearance is represented as a Michaelis-Menten function of insulin concentration with a delay (t(1/2)). In seven nondiabetic subjects, the model predicted adequately the tracer concentration: the model residuals were unbiased, and their coefficient of variation was similar to the expected measurement error (approximately 3%), indicating that the model did not introduce significant systematic errors. Lean (n = 4) and obese (n = 3) subjects had similar half-times for insulin action (t(1/2) = 25 +/- 9 vs. 25 +/- 8 min) and maximal responses (Cl(max) = 705 +/- 46 vs. 668 +/- 259 ml x min(-1) x m(-2), respectively), whereas EC(50) was 240 +/- 84 microU/ml in the lean vs. 364 +/- 229 microU/ml in the obese (P < 0.04). EC(50) and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI, initial slope of the dose-response curve), but not Cl(max), were related to body adiposity and fat distribution with r of 0.6-0.8 (P < 0.05). Thus, despite the small number of study subjects, we were able to reproduce information consistent with the literature. In addition, among the lean individuals, t(1/2) was positively related to the ISI (r = 0.72, P < 0.02). We conclude that the test here presented, based on a more elaborate representation of glucose kinetics and insulin action, allows a

  20. Action Research in Special Education: An Inquiry Approach for Effective Teaching and Learning. Practitioner Inquiry Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Susan M.; Pine, Gerald J.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first book about action research devoted to the complex issues faced by children with disabilities and their teachers. The authors begin by providing the historical and philosophical underpinnings of action research and then present a framework for conducting action research in special education. In addition, they feature four examples…

  1. Developing a web-based information resource for palliative care: an action-research inspired approach

    PubMed Central

    Street, Annette F; Swift, Kathleen; Annells, Merilyn; Woodruff, Roger; Gliddon, Terry; Oakley, Anne; Ottman, Goetz

    2007-01-01

    Background General Practitioners and community nurses rely on easily accessible, evidence-based online information to guide practice. To date, the methods that underpin the scoping of user-identified online information needs in palliative care have remained under-explored. This paper describes the benefits and challenges of a collaborative approach involving users and experts that informed the first stage of the development of a palliative care website [1]. Method The action research-inspired methodology included a panel assessment of an existing palliative care website based in Victoria, Australia; a pre-development survey (n = 197) scoping potential audiences and palliative care information needs; working parties conducting a needs analysis about necessary information content for a redeveloped website targeting health professionals and caregivers/patients; an iterative evaluation process involving users and experts; as well as a final evaluation survey (n = 166). Results Involving users in the identification of content and links for a palliative care website is time-consuming and requires initial resources, strong networking skills and commitment. However, user participation provided crucial information that led to the widened the scope of the website audience and guided the development and testing of the website. The needs analysis underpinning the project suggests that palliative care peak bodies need to address three distinct audiences (clinicians, allied health professionals as well as patients and their caregivers). Conclusion Web developers should pay close attention to the content, language, and accessibility needs of these groups. Given the substantial cost associated with the maintenance of authoritative health information sites, the paper proposes a more collaborative development in which users can be engaged in the definition of content to ensure relevance and responsiveness, and to eliminate unnecessary detail. Access to volunteer networks forms an

  2. An integrated approach for prospectively investigating a mode-of-action for rodent liver effects.

    PubMed

    LeBaron, Matthew J; Geter, David R; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Thomas, Johnson; Murray, Jennifer; Kan, H Lynn; Wood, Amanda J; Elcombe, Cliff; Vardy, Audrey; McEwan, Jillian; Terry, Claire; Billington, Richard

    2013-07-15

    Registration of new plant protection products (e.g., herbicide, insecticide, or fungicide) requires comprehensive mammalian toxicity evaluation including carcinogenicity studies in two species. The outcome of the carcinogenicity testing has a significant bearing on the overall human health risk assessment of the substance and, consequently, approved uses for different crops across geographies. In order to understand the relevance of a specific tumor finding to human health, a systematic, transparent, and hypothesis-driven mode of action (MoA) investigation is, appropriately, an expectation by the regulatory agencies. Here, we describe a novel approach of prospectively generating the MoA data by implementing additional end points to the standard guideline toxicity studies with sulfoxaflor, a molecule in development. This proactive MoA approach results in a more robust integration of molecular with apical end points while minimizing animal use. Sulfoxaflor, a molecule targeting sap-feeding insects, induced liver effects (increased liver weight due to hepatocellular hypertrophy) in an initial palatability probe study for selecting doses for subsequent repeat-dose dietary studies. This finding triggered the inclusion of dose-response investigations of the potential key events for rodent liver carcinogenesis, concurrent with the hazard assessment studies. As predicted, sulfoxaflor induced liver tumors in rats and mice in the bioassays. The MoA data available by the time of the carcinogenicity finding supported the conclusion that the carcinogenic potential of sulfoxaflor was due to CAR/PXR nuclear receptor activation with subsequent hepatocellular proliferation. This MoA was not considered to be relevant to humans as sulfoxaflor is unlikely to induce hepatocellular proliferation in humans and therefore would not be a human liver carcinogen.

  3. An integrated approach for prospectively investigating a mode-of-action for rodent liver effects

    SciTech Connect

    LeBaron, Matthew J.; Geter, David R.; Rasoulpour, Reza J.; Gollapudi, B. Bhaskar; Thomas, Johnson; Murray, Jennifer; Kan, H. Lynn; Wood, Amanda J.; Elcombe, Cliff; Vardy, Audrey; McEwan, Jillian; Terry, Claire; Billington, Richard

    2013-07-15

    Registration of new plant protection products (e.g., herbicide, insecticide, or fungicide) requires comprehensive mammalian toxicity evaluation including carcinogenicity studies in two species. The outcome of the carcinogenicity testing has a significant bearing on the overall human health risk assessment of the substance and, consequently, approved uses for different crops across geographies. In order to understand the relevance of a specific tumor finding to human health, a systematic, transparent, and hypothesis-driven mode of action (MoA) investigation is, appropriately, an expectation by the regulatory agencies. Here, we describe a novel approach of prospectively generating the MoA data by implementing additional end points to the standard guideline toxicity studies with sulfoxaflor, a molecule in development. This proactive MoA approach results in a more robust integration of molecular with apical end points while minimizing animal use. Sulfoxaflor, a molecule targeting sap-feeding insects, induced liver effects (increased liver weight due to hepatocellular hypertrophy) in an initial palatability probe study for selecting doses for subsequent repeat-dose dietary studies. This finding triggered the inclusion of dose-response investigations of the potential key events for rodent liver carcinogenesis, concurrent with the hazard assessment studies. As predicted, sulfoxaflor induced liver tumors in rats and mice in the bioassays. The MoA data available by the time of the carcinogenicity finding supported the conclusion that the carcinogenic potential of sulfoxaflor was due to CAR/PXR nuclear receptor activation with subsequent hepatocellular proliferation. This MoA was not considered to be relevant to humans as sulfoxaflor is unlikely to induce hepatocellular proliferation in humans and therefore would not be a human liver carcinogen. - Highlights: • We prospectively generated MoA data into standard guideline toxicity studies. • A proactive MoA approach

  4. Using a Participatory Action Research Approach to Create a Universally Designed Inclusive High School Science Course: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, Stacy K.; Renzaglia, Adelle; Rosenstein, Amy; Chun, Eul Jung; Banks, Ronald A.; Niswander, Vicki; Gilson, Christie L.

    2006-01-01

    Case study methodology was used in combination with a participatory action research (PAR) approach to examine the process of redesigning one high school science course to incorporate the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and to promote access to the general curriculum. The participants included one general education teacher and two…

  5. Exploring Teacher Knowledge and Actions Supporting Technology-Enhanced Teaching in Elementary Schools: Two Approaches by Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figg, Candace; Jamani, Kamini Jaipal

    2011-01-01

    Two approaches to teaching with technology to highlight practice-based teacher knowledge and actions for teaching technologically enhanced lessons are presented. Participants were two elementary pre-service teachers teaching during practicum. Qualitative data sources included verbatim transcripts of participant interviews, field notes of planning…

  6. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 489: WWII UXO Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; May 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-05-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan provides the details for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 489: WWII UXO Sites, Tonopah Test Range. CAU 489 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996.

  7. STREAMLINED APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 116: AREA 25 TEST CELL C FACILITYNEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada.

  8. Re-Imagining the Traditional Lecture: An Action Research Approach to Teaching Student Teachers to "Do" Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tormey, Roland; Henchy, Deirdre

    2008-01-01

    Although we were required to lecture to large groups of over 170 students, the traditional lecture clashed with our commitment to teach in a way that was student-centred, relational and socially and politically transformative. In this context, and using an action research approach, we sought to turn our large-group lectures into a space that both…

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 114: Area 25 EMAD Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2010-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 114, Area 25 EMAD Facility, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 114 comprises the following corrective action site (CAS) located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site: • 25-41-03, EMAD Facility This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing CAS 25-41-03. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 114 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for CAS 25-41-03. It is anticipated that the results of the field investigation and implementation of corrective actions will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. If it is determined that complete clean closure cannot be accomplished during the SAFER, then a hold point will have been reached and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) will be consulted to determine whether the remaining contamination will be closed under the alternative corrective action of closure in place. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to NDEP for review and approval. The CAS will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 30, 2009, by representatives of NDEP and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for CAS 25-41-03. The following text summarizes the SAFER

  10. Language, Thinking and Action: Towards a Semio-Constructivist Approach in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallian, Nathalie; Chang, Ching-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Background: Research about sport pedagogy has recently emerged as a significant interest in student reflective practice within the PE teaching/learning system. This learning process is considered as a type of knowledge of co-construction in action. This epistemological assumption postulates that the "knowledge-in-action" is the result of an active…

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Reading Strategies for College Students: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelech, James; Hibbard, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    This study was an action research project evaluating the effectiveness of selected reading strategies on student learning. The action research was conducted in an undergraduate measurement course in a teacher preparation program. Students used a pre-selected reading strategy to read assigned readings then completed a quiz on the readings and a…

  12. Head and Hand: An Action Approach to Thinking. Occasional Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Sylvia

    Much research has focused on cognitive skills in isolation from daily life and from action. However, memory and thinking in daily life are not separate from, but are part of, doing. This study is based on a theoretical framework that encompasses an integrated account of mind in action. This "activity theory" holds that neither mind as such nor…

  13. Motivating an Action Design Research Approach to Implementing Online Training in an Organisational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson, Christine; Scott, Elsje

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of Action Design Research (ADR), a combination of Action Research and Design Science Research, as a methodology to examine how the implementation of e-learning will affect the learning outcomes for staff training in an organisational context. The research involves an intervention in the…

  14. Evaluating the Impact of Collaborative Action Research on Teachers: A Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    The authors extend findings from qualitative research on the effects of action research by reporting two linked quantitative studies (N = 80 and 105). They found that teachers who participated in collaborative action research experienced statistically significant improvements in attitudes to educational research and teacher efficacy. The pre-post…

  15. Trust, reciprocity and collective action to fight antibiotic resistance. An experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Rönnerstrand, Björn; Andersson Sundell, Karolina

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a collective action dilemma. Individuals may request antibiotics, but an overall reduction in use is necessary to limit resistance. A reoccurring theoretical claim is that social capital increase cooperation in social dilemmas. The aim of this paper is to investigate the link between generalized trust and reciprocity and the willingness to postpone antibiotic treatment in order to limit overuse in a scenario-based study. A between-subject scenario experimental approach with hypothetical scenarios was utilized. Participants were asked to imagine that they were seeing a doctor for a respiratory infection. The doctor prescribes antibiotics, but advise postponing therapy to see if the disease resolves by itself, for the sake of limiting overuse. Respondents were asked to answer how long they could accept postponing antibiotic treatment, from 0 to 7 days. The number of days that most people would be able to accept postponing treatment was considered the between-subject factor. In total, the study sample included 981 respondents with a mean age of 51 years. A majority of respondents were men (65.7%). The mean number of days that the respondents stated they were willing to postpone antibiotic treatment was positively associated with the number of days the respondents were told that most people were willing to postpone antibiotic treatment, p < 0.001. There was a positive association between number of days they were willing to postpone antibiotic treatment and generalized trust, p = 0.001. In conclusion, the results showed that the proclaimed public willingness to postpone therapy influenced a respondent's willingness to postpone antibiotic therapy in different scenarios. Also, generalized trust was positively associated with the willingness to postpone therapy.

  16. [Study on action mechanism of Danhong injection based on computational system biology approach].

    PubMed

    Lv, Yan-ni; Wei, Xiao-hua; Xiao, Pin

    2015-02-01

    Danhong injection is a compound preparation of traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza and Carthamus tinctorius, and has been widely applied in treating coronary heart diseases and ischemic encephalopathy in clinic. Despite the complexity of its chemical compounds and the diversity of targets, especially in system biology, there have not a report for its action mechanism as a whole regulatory biological network. In this study, protein data of S. miltiorrhiza and C. tinctorius were searched in TCMGeneDIT database and agilent literature search (ALS) system to establish the multi-component protein network of S. miltiorrhiza, C. tinctorius and Danhong injection. Besides, the protein interaction network was built based on the protein-protein interaction in Genecards, BIND, BioGRID, IntAct, MINT and other databases. According to the findings, 10 compounds of S. miltiorrhiza and 14 compounds of C. tinctorius were correlated with proteins. The 24 common compounds had interactions with 81 proteins, and formed a protein interaction network with 60 none-isolated nodes. The Cluster ONE module was applied to make an enrichment analysis on the protein interaction network and extract one sub-network with significant difference P <0.05. The sub-network contains 23 key proteins, which involved five signaling pathways, namely Nod-like receptor signaling pathway, epithelial cell signaling in helicobacter pylori infection, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway and neurotrophin signaling pathway through KEGG signaling pathway mapping. In this study, the computational system biology approach was adopted to preliminarily explain the molecular mechanism of main compounds of Danhong injection in preventing and treating diseases and provide reference for systematic studies on traditional Chinese medicine compounds.

  17. Design of dual action antibiotics as an approach to search for new promising drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tevyashova, A. N.; Olsufyeva, E. N.; Preobrazhenskaya, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the latest achievements in the design of dual action antibiotics — heterodimeric (chimeric) structures based on antibacterial agents of different classes (fluoroquinolones, anthracyclines, oxazolidines, macrolides and so on). Covalent binding can make the pharmacokinetic characteristics of these molecules more predictable and improve the penetration of each component into the cell. Consequently, not only does the drug efficacy increase owing to inhibition of two targets but also the resistance to one or both antibiotics can be overcome. The theoretical grounds of elaboration, design principles and methods for the synthesis of dual action antibiotics are considered. The structures are classified according to the type of covalent spacer (cleavable or not) connecting the moieties of two agents. Dual action antibiotics with a spacer that can be cleaved in a living cell are considered as dual action prodrugs. Data on the biological action of heterodimeric compounds are presented and structure-activity relationships are analyzed. The bibliography includes 225 references.

  18. The causal model approach to nutritional problems: an effective tool for research and action at the local level.

    PubMed Central

    Tonglet, R.; Mudosa, M.; Badashonderana, M.; Beghin, I.; Hennart, P.

    1992-01-01

    Reported are the results of a case study from Kirotshe rural health district, Northern Kivu, Zaire, where a workshop on the causal model approach to nutrition was organized in 1987. The model has since been used in the field for research design, training of health professionals, nutrition intervention, and community development. The rationale behind this approach is reviewed, the experience accumulated from Kirotshe district is described, and the ways in which the causal model contributes to comprehensive health and nutrition care are discussed. The broad range of possible policy implications of this approach underlines its usefulness for future action. PMID:1486667

  19. The SPIRIT Action Framework: A structured approach to selecting and testing strategies to increase the use of research in policy.

    PubMed

    Redman, Sally; Turner, Tari; Davies, Huw; Williamson, Anna; Haynes, Abby; Brennan, Sue; Milat, Andrew; O'Connor, Denise; Blyth, Fiona; Jorm, Louisa; Green, Sally

    2015-07-01

    The recent proliferation of strategies designed to increase the use of research in health policy (knowledge exchange) demands better application of contemporary conceptual understandings of how research shapes policy. Predictive models, or action frameworks, are needed to organise existing knowledge and enable a more systematic approach to the selection and testing of intervention strategies. Useful action frameworks need to meet four criteria: have a clearly articulated purpose; be informed by existing knowledge; provide an organising structure to build new knowledge; and be capable of guiding the development and testing of interventions. This paper describes the development of the SPIRIT Action Framework. A literature search and interviews with policy makers identified modifiable factors likely to influence the use of research in policy. An iterative process was used to combine these factors into a pragmatic tool which meets the four criteria. The SPIRIT Action Framework can guide conceptually-informed practical decisions in the selection and testing of interventions to increase the use of research in policy. The SPIRIT Action Framework hypothesises that a catalyst is required for the use of research, the response to which is determined by the capacity of the organisation to engage with research. Where there is sufficient capacity, a series of research engagement actions might occur that facilitate research use. These hypotheses are being tested in ongoing empirical work.

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499, Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR). This CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996). CAU 499 is located on the TTR and consists of the following single Corrective Action Site (CAS) (Figure 1): CAS RG-25-001-RD24 - Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been cased by numerous small historical over fillings, spills and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of 36 years. The tank was located on the north side of Building 24-50 on the TTR approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of the Avenue 24.

  1. Exploring multiple intelligences theory in the context of science education: An action research approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodnough, Karen Catherine

    2000-10-01

    Since the publication of Frames of Mind: The Theory in Practice, multiple intelligences, theory (Gardner, 1983) has been used by practitioners in a variety of ways to make teaching and learning more meaningful. However, little attention has been focused on exploring the potential of the theory for science teaching and learning. Consequently, this research study was designed to: (1) explore Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (1983) and its merit for making science teaching and learning more meaningful; (2) provide a forum for teachers to engage in critical self-reflection about their theory and practice in science education; (3) study the process of action research in the context of science education; and (4) describe the effectiveness of collaborative action research as a framework for teacher development and curriculum development. The study reports on the experiences of four teachers (two elementary teachers, one junior high teacher, and one high school teacher) and myself, a university researcher-facilitator, as we participated in a collaborative action research project. The action research group held weekly meetings over a five-month period (January--May, 1999). The inquiry was a qualitative case study (Stake, 1994) that aimed to understand the perspectives of those directly involved. This was achieved by using multiple methods to collect data: audiotaped action research meetings, fieldnotes, semi-structured interviews, journal writing, and concept mapping. All data were analysed on an ongoing basis. Many positive outcomes resulted from the study in areas such as curriculum development, teacher development, and student learning in science. Through the process of action research, research participants became more reflective about their practice and thus, enhanced their pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1987) in science. Students became more engaged in learning science, gained a greater understanding of how they learn, and experienced a

  2. Informing Tobacco Cessation Benefit Use Interventions for Unionized Blue-Collar Workers: A Mixed-Methods Reasoned Action Approach.

    PubMed

    Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits.

  3. Informing Tobacco Cessation Benefit Use Interventions for Unionized Blue-Collar Workers: A Mixed-Methods Reasoned Action Approach.

    PubMed

    Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits. PMID:25975798

  4. Learning to reach by reinforcement learning using a receptive field based function approximation approach with continuous actions.

    PubMed

    Tamosiunaite, Minija; Asfour, Tamim; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2009-03-01

    Reinforcement learning methods can be used in robotics applications especially for specific target-oriented problems, for example the reward-based recalibration of goal directed actions. To this end still relatively large and continuous state-action spaces need to be efficiently handled. The goal of this paper is, thus, to develop a novel, rather simple method which uses reinforcement learning with function approximation in conjunction with different reward-strategies for solving such problems. For the testing of our method, we use a four degree-of-freedom reaching problem in 3D-space simulated by a two-joint robot arm system with two DOF each. Function approximation is based on 4D, overlapping kernels (receptive fields) and the state-action space contains about 10,000 of these. Different types of reward structures are being compared, for example, reward-on- touching-only against reward-on-approach. Furthermore, forbidden joint configurations are punished. A continuous action space is used. In spite of a rather large number of states and the continuous action space these reward/punishment strategies allow the system to find a good solution usually within about 20 trials. The efficiency of our method demonstrated in this test scenario suggests that it might be possible to use it on a real robot for problems where mixed rewards can be defined in situations where other types of learning might be difficult. PMID:19229556

  5. Using a combined protection motivation theory and health action process approach intervention to promote exercise during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Anca; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-04-01

    Despite the benefits of exercise during pregnancy, many expectant mothers are inactive. This study examined whether augmenting a protection motivation theory (PMT) intervention with a Health Action Process Approach can enhance exercise behavior change among pregnant women. Sixty inactive pregnant women were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: PMT-only, PMT + action-planning, and PMT + action-and-coping-planning. Week-long objective (accelerometer) and subjective (self-report) exercise measures were collected at baseline, and at 1- and 4-weeks post-intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVAs demonstrated that while all participants reported increased exercise from baseline to 1-week post-intervention, participants in both planning groups were significantly more active (p < .001) than those in the PMT-only group by 4-weeks post-intervention (η (2) = .13 and .15 for accelerometer and self-report data, respectively). In conclusion, augmenting a PMT intervention with action or action-and-coping-planning can enhance exercise behavior change in pregnant women.

  6. An exploration of the experiences of cultural safety educators in New Zealand: an action research approach.

    PubMed

    Wepa, Dianne

    2003-10-01

    This research is a study of the experiences of four cultural safety educators in nursing education in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Action research methods assisted the participants to implement change in their practice and gain positive personal involvement in the study. Reflective diaries provided the major tool in this process as participants were able to achieve at least one action research cycle by identifying issues, planning action, observing the action, and reflecting. The findings of the research revealed that the participants not only coped with everyday stressors of teaching but were also required to formulate knowledge for cultural safety. For the Maori participants, their stress was confounded with recruiting and retaining Maori students and macro issues such as commitment to their iwi (tribe). Lack of support to teach cultural safety was identified to be a key theme for all participants. An analysis of this theme revealed that many issues were organizational in nature and out of their control. Action research provided a change strategy for participants to have a sense of control of issues within their practice. Recommendations include the following: support for cultural safety educators to have a dialogue on a regular basis, the introduction of nurse educator programmes, paid leave provisions for educators to conduct and publish research so that a body of knowledge can be developed, and that Maori cultural safety educators be recognised for their professional and cultural strengths so that they do not fall victim to burnout. PMID:14535155

  7. Learning Spatio-Temporal Representations for Action Recognition: A Genetic Programming Approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Shao, Ling; Li, Xuelong; Lu, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Extracting discriminative and robust features from video sequences is the first and most critical step in human action recognition. In this paper, instead of using handcrafted features, we automatically learn spatio-temporal motion features for action recognition. This is achieved via an evolutionary method, i.e., genetic programming (GP), which evolves the motion feature descriptor on a population of primitive 3D operators (e.g., 3D-Gabor and wavelet). In this way, the scale and shift invariant features can be effectively extracted from both color and optical flow sequences. We intend to learn data adaptive descriptors for different datasets with multiple layers, which makes fully use of the knowledge to mimic the physical structure of the human visual cortex for action recognition and simultaneously reduce the GP searching space to effectively accelerate the convergence of optimal solutions. In our evolutionary architecture, the average cross-validation classification error, which is calculated by an support-vector-machine classifier on the training set, is adopted as the evaluation criterion for the GP fitness function. After the entire evolution procedure finishes, the best-so-far solution selected by GP is regarded as the (near-)optimal action descriptor obtained. The GP-evolving feature extraction method is evaluated on four popular action datasets, namely KTH, HMDB51, UCF YouTube, and Hollywood2. Experimental results show that our method significantly outperforms other types of features, either hand-designed or machine-learned.

  8. A Computational Approach to Steady State Correspondence of Regular and Generalized Mass Action Systems.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew D

    2015-06-01

    It has been recently observed that the dynamical properties of mass action systems arising from many models of biochemical reaction networks can be characterized by considering the corresponding properties of a related generalized mass action system. The correspondence process known as network translation in particular has been shown to be useful in characterizing a system's steady states. In this paper, we further develop the theory of network translation with particular focus on a subclass of translations known as improper translations. For these translations, we derive conditions on the network topology of the translated network which are sufficient to guarantee the original and translated systems share the same steady states. We then present a mixed-integer linear programming algorithm capable of determining whether a mass action system can be corresponded to a generalized system through the process of network translation.

  9. Academic Misconduct: A Goals-Plans-Action Approach to Peer Confrontation and Whistle-Blowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henningsen, Mary Lynn Miller; Valde, Kathleen S.; Denbow, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Academic misconduct is a serious, pervasive, communication phenomenon on college campuses. In this study, the goals-plans-action model (Dillard, 1990) was used as a theoretical framework to investigate peer confrontation of cheating and whistle-blowing to a course instructor. In an experiment, participants were asked to respond to measures of…

  10. Innovative Approaches to Preventing Child Abuse: Volunteers in Action. Prevention Focus Working Paper 015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, Chicago, IL.

    Collected in this working paper are summary descriptions of 17 innovative community action programs designed to prevent child abuse. These programs were developed by individuals, community groups, hospitals, and/or state chapters of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, as well as by other groups and organizations. Located in…

  11. Dialogue--Missing in Action Competence: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Approach in a Botswana School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silo, Nthalivi

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth case study on children's participation in environmental management activities in a primary school in Botswana was undertaken, drawing on cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) and the action competence model. This research revealed that due to a lack of dialogue between teachers and children, teachers tended to view children's…

  12. Teaching Students to Analyze Agency Actions via a NEPA Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitworth, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Future recreation professionals need the ability to analyze the effects of proposed management actions and stakeholder concerns to make good decisions, maintain public support, and comply with state and federal laws. Importantly, when federal funds, lands, permits or licenses are involved, federal law requires consideration of environmental and…

  13. Climate Masters of Nebraska: An Innovative Action-Based Approach for Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Tapan B.; Bernadt, Tonya; Umphlett, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Climate Masters of Nebraska is an innovative educational program that strategically trains community volunteers about climate change science and corresponding ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an interactive and action-based teaching environment. As a result of the program, 91% of participants indicated that they made informed changes in…

  14. A Partnership Approach to Action Learning within a Masters Educational Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patricia; Edwards, Carys

    2012-01-01

    This account of practice provides a practical example of the use of action learning within a masters educational programme, an MA in Change Management designed and delivered by a collaborative partnership between the Isle of Anglesey County Council (ACC) and Liverpool Business School (LBS), Liverpool John Moores University. The account has been…

  15. Benefits, Barriers, and Cues to Action of Yoga Practice: A Focus Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Nancy L.; Permuth-Levine, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To explore perceived benefits, barriers, and cues to action of yoga practice among adults. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with persons who had never practiced yoga, practitioners of one year or less, and practitioners for more than one year. The Health Belief Model was the theoretical foundation of inquiry. Results: All…

  16. Training for Action: A New Approach to Executive Development. Report Number 153.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnside, Robert M.; Guthrie, Victoria A.

    LeaderLab, a leadership development program, encourages and enables leaders to take more effective actions. In developing content and structure, several instructional principles are important: realism, simplicity, relevance, operationalism, holism, and intervention over time. The program content falls into four categories: (1) challenges faced by…

  17. "Raising the Point!": An Artistic Approach in Supporting a Community's Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the notion of action and personal agency. The author discusses his experiences constructing an arts installation that supported a grassroots effort to revitalize Hunts Point, a community in the South Bronx that is home to 11,000 families, eighteen waste transfer stations, 40% of New York City's sewage, all of the…

  18. An Action Science Research Approach to Reducing Student Tardiness at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gile, Curtis S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to design, implement, analyze, and evaluate a series of interventions to reduce student tardiness at the high school level. Another purpose of the study was to determine the underlying values, beliefs, and behaviors associated with student tardiness from a faculty and staff perspective. The study…

  19. Promoting Students' Motivation in Learning Physical Science--An Action Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Hsiao-Lin; Chin, Chi-Chin; Tsai, Chih-Chung

    This study reported how four science teachers used action research to promote their students' motivation in learning physical science. Four teachers with one of their 8th grade physical science classes participated in the study. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research design were used in the study, and data collection included…

  20. Serving the Needs of Challenged Students at a Private Shanghai School: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    This action research started in year 2009 at LIU Shanghai, a private school for children with autism spectrum disorder, to serve the needs of challenged students. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the strengths and challenges of the program, plus solicit recommendations from the parents and teachers for making improvements. The…

  1. Health Inequity in People with Intellectual Disabilities: From Evidence to Action Applying an Appreciative Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naaldenberg, Jenneken; Banks, Roger; Lennox, Nick; Ouellette-Kunz, Hélène; Meijer, Marijke; Lantman-de Valk, Henny van Schrojenstein

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current understanding of health inequities in people with intellectual disabilities does not readily translate into improvements in health status or health care. To identify opportunities for action, the 2013 IASSIDD health SIRG conference organized ten intensive workshops. Materials and methods: The workshops each addressed…

  2. Functional genomic approaches for understanding the mode of action of Bacillus sp biocontrol strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete genome sequencing of several Bacillus sp. strains has shed new light on the mode of action of these antagonists of plant pathogens. The use of genomic data mining tools provided the ability to quickly determine the potential of these strains to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Our B...

  3. Streamlined Approach for (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 566: E-MAD Compound, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2010-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 566, EMAD Compound, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 566 comprises the following corrective action site (CAS) located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site: • 25-99-20, EMAD Compound This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing CAS 25-99-20. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 566 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action. It is anticipated that the results of the field investigation and implementation of a corrective action of clean closure will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. If it is determined that complete clean closure cannot be accomplished during the SAFER, then a hold point will have been reached and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) will be consulted to determine whether the remaining contamination will be closed under the alternative corrective action of closure in place. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to NDEP for review and approval. The data quality objective (DQO) strategy for CAU 566 was developed at a meeting on April 30, 2009, by representatives of NDEP and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for CAU 566. The following text summarizes the SAFER activities that will

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 130: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 130, Storage Tanks, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 130 consists of the seven following corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 7, 10, 20, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site: • 01-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 07-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks • 10-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 20-02-03, Underground Storage Tank • 20-99-05, Tar Residue • 22-02-02, Buried UST Piping • 23-02-07, Underground Storage Tank This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 130 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. This will be presented in a Closure Report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) finalized on April 3, 2008, by representatives of NDEP; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for each CAS in CAU 130. The DQO process developed for this CAU

  5. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 574: Neptune, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-08-31

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 574, Neptune. CAU 574 is included in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996 [as amended March 2010]) and consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 12-23-10, U12c.03 Crater (Neptune); (2) CAS 12-45-01, U12e.05 Crater (Blanca). This plan provides the methodology for the field activities that will be performed to gather the necessary information for closure of the two CASs. There is sufficient information and process knowledge regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 574 using the SAFER process. Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, field screening, analytical results, the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process (Section 3.0), and an evaluation of corrective action alternatives (Appendix B), closure in place with administrative controls is the expected closure strategy for CAU 574. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation to verify and support the expected closure strategy and provide a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. This will be presented in a Closure Report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval.

  6. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 461: Joint Test Assembly Sites and Corrective Action Unit 495: Unconfirmed Joint Test Assembly Sites Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Smith

    1998-08-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan addresses the action necessary for the clean closure of Corrective Action Unit 461 (Test Area Joint Test Assembly Sites) and Corrective Action Unit 495 (Unconfirmed Joint Test Assembly Sites). The Corrective Action Units are located at the Tonopah Test Range in south central Nevada. Closure for these sites will be completed by excavating and evaluating the condition of each artillery round (if found); detonating the rounds (if necessary); excavating the impacted soil and debris; collecting verification samples; backfilling the excavations; disposing of the impacted soil and debris at an approved low-level waste repository at the Nevada Test Site

  7. A model of antipsychotic action in conditioned avoidance: a computational approach.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew; Li, Ming; Becker, Sue; Kapur, Shitij

    2004-06-01

    The selective ability of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) to attenuate conditioned avoidance responding (CAR) has been recognized for over 50 years. However, most efforts to account for this finding have been either neurochemically oriented (focusing on the neuromodulator dopamine) or behavioral, with little effort invested in uniting the two within a computational model. In this paper we propose a computational model, based on concepts from formal reinforcement learning theory, which accounts for the basic finding that noncataleptic doses of APDs disrupt avoidance without disrupting escape. The model formally separates out sensory, motor, and reward processes, and makes novel predictions pertaining to the dose- and time-dependent effects of APDs on response latencies--predictions which we verified in experimental studies using four different APDs (haloperidol, chlorpromazine, risperidone, and clozapine). The APD action in this model is most consistent with an effect on 'expected future reward'--an idea closely linked to motivational drives and consistent with several leading theories of dopamine action.

  8. Effective-action approach to wave propagation in scalar QED plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuan; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Qin, Hong

    2016-07-01

    A relativistic quantum field theory with nontrivial background fields is developed and applied to study waves in plasmas. The effective action of the electromagnetic 4-potential is calculated ab initio from the standard action of scalar QED using path integrals. The resultant effective action is gauge invariant and contains nonlocal interactions, from which gauge bosons acquire masses without breaking the local gauge symmetry. To demonstrate how the general theory can be applied, we give two examples: a cold unmagnetized plasma and a cold uniformly magnetized plasma. Using these two examples, we show that all linear waves well known in classical plasma physics can be recovered from relativistic quantum results when taking the classical limit. In the opposite limit, classical wave dispersion relations are modified substantially. In unmagnetized plasmas, longitudinal waves propagate with nonzero group velocities even when plasmas are cold. In magnetized plasmas, anharmonically spaced Bernstein waves persist even when plasmas are cold. These waves account for cyclotron absorption features observed in spectra of x-ray pulsars. Moreover, cutoff frequencies of the two nondegenerate electromagnetic waves are red-shifted by different amounts. These corrections need to be taken into account in order to correctly interpret diagnostic results in laser plasma experiments.

  9. Decomposing retrieval and integration in memory for actions: a multinomial modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Melanie C; Jelenec, Petra; Mecklenbräuker, Silvia; Thompson, Erin Marie

    2006-03-01

    Typically, action phrases are recalled better if participants are asked to enact the phrases than if they are just asked to remember them. When investigating which processes constitute this enactment effect a difficulty is that observable effects in standard memory tests are ambiguous because such tests require several processes. In the present article, we introduce a multinomial model that decomposes observable memory performance into a retrieval parameter and a parameter concerning the item-specific processing and integration of an action phrase. These parameters are estimated from free recall and cued recall performance. The model fitted the data of two experiments designed to test it. Experiment 1 demonstrated the basic usefulness of the model by showing expected differences in the integration parameter in the absence of unexpected differences in the retrieval parameter. Experiment 2 extended the conditions under which the model is useful by showing expected differences in the retrieval parameter even in the presence of unexpected differences in the integration parameter. Together, these findings support our theoretical framework according to which enactment generally boosts integration of action phrases, but increases retrieval only for phrases with context cues. PMID:16627356

  10. Modeling Approach/Strategy for Corrective Action Unit 97, Yucca Flat and Climax Mine , Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Janet Willie

    2003-08-01

    The objectives of the UGTA corrective action strategy are to predict the location of the contaminant boundary for each CAU, develop and implement a corrective action, and close each CAU. The process for achieving this strategy includes modeling to define the maximum extent of contaminant transport within a specified time frame. Modeling is a method of forecasting how the hydrogeologic system, including the underground test cavities, will behave over time with the goal of assessing the migration of radionuclides away from the cavities and chimneys. Use of flow and transport models to achieve the objectives of the corrective action strategy is specified in the FFACO. In the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine system, radionuclide migration will be governed by releases from the cavities and chimneys, and transport in alluvial aquifers, fractured and partially fractured volcanic rock aquifers and aquitards, the carbonate aquifers, and in intrusive units. Additional complexity is associated with multiple faults in Yucca Flat and the need to consider reactive transport mechanisms that both reduce and enhance the mobility of radionuclides. A summary of the data and information that form the technical basis for the model is provided in this document.

  11. Clinical practice guideline development manual: A quality-driven approach for translating evidence into action

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Richard M.; Shiffman, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Guidelines translate best evidence into best practice. A well-crafted guideline promotes quality by reducing healthcare variations, improving diagnostic accuracy, promoting effective therapy, and discouraging ineffective – or potentially harmful – interventions. Despite a plethora of published guidelines, methodology is often poorly defined and varies greatly within and among organizations. Purpose This manual describes the principles and practices used successfully by the American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery to produce quality-driven, evidence-based guidelines using efficient and transparent methodology for action-ready recommendations with multi-disciplinary applicability. The development process, which allows moving from conception to completion in twelve months, emphasizes a logical sequence of key action statements supported by amplifying text, evidence profiles, and recommendation grades that link action to evidence. Conclusions As clinical practice guidelines become more prominent as a key metric of quality healthcare, organizations must develop efficient production strategies that balance rigor and pragmatism. Equally important, clinicians must become savvy in understanding what guidelines are – and are not – and how they are best utilized to improve care. The information in this manual should help clinicians and organizations achieve these goals. PMID:19464525

  12. Integrated approaches to natural resources management in practice: the catalyzing role of National Adaptation Programmes for Action.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Virpi; Smith, Mark

    2011-06-01

    The relationship of forests in water quantity and quality has been debated during the past years. At the same time, focus on climate change has increased interest in ecosystem restoration as a means for adaptation. Climate change might become one of the key drivers pushing integrated approaches for natural resources management into practice. The National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) is an initiative agreed under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. An analysis was done to find out how widely ecosystem restoration and integrated approaches have been incorporated into NAPA priority adaptation projects. The data show that that the NAPAs can be seen as potentially important channel for operationalizing various integrated concepts. Key challenge is to implement the NAPA projects. The amount needed to implement the NAPA projects aiming at ecosystem restoration using integrated approaches presents only 0.7% of the money pledged in Copenhagen for climate change adaptation.

  13. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-10-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan provides the details for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area. CAU 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. One Corrective Action Site (CAS) is included in CAU 408: {lg_bullet} CAS TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, process knowledge, site visits, aerial photography, multispectral data, preliminary geophysical surveys, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), clean closure will be implemented for CAU 408. CAU 408 closure activities will consist of identification and clearance of bomblet target areas, identification and removal of depleted uranium (DU) fragments on South Antelope Lake, and collection of verification samples. Any soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels will be excavated and transported to an appropriate disposal facility. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include explosives. In addition, at South Antelope Lake, bomblets containing DU were tested. None of these contaminants is expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results. The corrective action investigation and closure activities have been planned to include data collection and hold points throughout the process. Hold points are designed to allow decision makers to review the existing data and decide which of the available options are most suitable. Hold points include the review of radiological, geophysical, and analytical data and field observations.

  14. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-05-31

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 134, Aboveground Storage Tanks. CAU 134 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 15, and 29 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1): (1) CAS 03-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 03-01-04, Tank; (3) CAS 15-01-05, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (4) CAS 29-01-01, Hydrocarbon Stain. CAS 03-01-03 consists of a mud tank that is located at the intersection of the 3-07 and the 3-12 Roads in Area 3 of the NTS. The tank and its contents are uncontaminated and will be dispositioned in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations. This CAS will be closed by taking no further action. CAS 03-01-04 consists of a potable water tank that is located at the Core Complex in Area 3 of the NTS. The tank will be closed by taking no further action. CAS 15-01-05 consists of an aboveground storage tank (AST) and associated impacted soil, if any. This CAS is located on a steep slope near the Climax Mine in Area 15 of the NTS. The AST is empty and will be dispositioned in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations. Soil below the AST will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted by chemicals at concentrations exceeding the action levels. It appears that the tank is not at its original location. Soil will also be sampled at the original tank location, if it can be found. If soil at either location has been impacted at concentrations that exceed the action levels, then the extent of contamination will be identified and a use restriction (UR) will be implemented. The site may be clean closed if contamination is less than one cubic yard in extent and can be readily excavated. If action levels are not exceeded, then no

  15. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  16. Functional Organization of the Action Observation Network in Autism: A Graph Theory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Alaerts, Kaat; Geerlings, Franca; Herremans, Lynn; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Verhoeven, Judith; Sunaert, Stefan; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to recognize, understand and interpret other’s actions and emotions has been linked to the mirror system or action-observation-network (AON). Although variations in these abilities are prevalent in the neuro-typical population, persons diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have deficits in the social domain and exhibit alterations in this neural network. Method Here, we examined functional network properties of the AON using graph theory measures and region-to-region functional connectivity analyses of resting-state fMRI-data from adolescents and young adults with ASD and typical controls (TC). Results Overall, our graph theory analyses provided convergent evidence that the network integrity of the AON is altered in ASD, and that reductions in network efficiency relate to reductions in overall network density (i.e., decreased overall connection strength). Compared to TC, individuals with ASD showed significant reductions in network efficiency and increased shortest path lengths and centrality. Importantly, when adjusting for overall differences in network density between ASD and TC groups, participants with ASD continued to display reductions in network integrity, suggesting that also network-level organizational properties of the AON are altered in ASD. Conclusion While differences in empirical connectivity contributed to reductions in network integrity, graph theoretical analyses provided indications that also changes in the high-level network organization reduced integrity of the AON. PMID:26317222

  17. The analytic pair in action--finding the missing mental life: an intersubjective approach.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Jill C

    2006-01-01

    The case of a musician/performer whose disposition and identity involved action as a privileged modality and whose initial presentation included the absence of a palpable mental life is used to show how the analyst's urge to disclose/to fill in what was unknown was midwife to the development of a symbolizing capacity and an articulated mental life. The patient at first could only tell her story by showing and doing and so the analyst's participation in the actualization of the narrative was vital to its discovery. Relationships between the patient's unusual mental structure, including her proclivity for action, the use of projective mechanisms, and an ease with the concretization of fantasy are discussed with reference to her endowment as a gifted musical composer; and her identity as an "artist. " Technical strategies and difficulties in arriving at a 'best' technique are discussed as the analyst struggled to locate the patient developmentally, and to contain and permit difficult transference/countertransference enactments to unfold. Reflections on parallels to child/adolescent developmental necessities enabled the evolution of a viable technique. PMID:17370454

  18. Integration of toxicological approaches with "omic" and related technologies to elucidate mechanisms of carcinogenic action: propiconazole, an example.

    PubMed

    Nesnow, Stephen

    2013-06-28

    The field of mechanistic chemical carcinogenesis has evolved with the advent and advances in genomic, proteomic and metabolomic technologies. These advances allow mechanistic events along the process of exposure to frank tumors to be studied in great detail. Herein is reviewed an example of this approach using, propiconazole, a triazole-containing antifungal agent that is a mouse hepatocarcinogen. This review will highlight those toxicological, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic findings in mice that were used to describe a set of linked events that lead to propiconazole-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Independent experimental proof of many of these events is presented that solidified this proposed mechanism of carcinogenic action for propiconazole.

  19. Addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-01

    The following is an addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, DOE/NV--1275, dated May 2008. This addendum expands upon information provided in the May 2008 plan. It provides specific details regarding samples to be collected at Corrective Action Sites 15-01-05 and 29-01-01. It also provides discussion and rationale for establishing the spatial boundaries of Corrective Action Sites.

  20. The mass-action law based algorithm for cost-effective approach for cancer drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ting-Chao

    2011-01-01

    The mass-action law based system analysis via mathematical induction and deduction lead to the generalized theory and algorithm that allows computerized simulation of dose-effect dynamics with small size experiments using a small number of data points in vitro, in animals, and in humans. The median-effect equation of the mass-action law deduced from over 300 mechanism specific-equations has been shown to be the unified theory that serves as the common-link for complicated biomedical systems. After using the median-effect principle as the common denominator, its applications are mechanism-independent, drug unit-independent, and dynamic order-independent; and can be used generally for single drug analysis or for multiple drug combinations in constant-ratio or non-constant ratios. Since the "median" is the common link and universal reference point in biological systems, these general enabling lead to computerized quantitative bio-informatics for econo-green bio-research in broad disciplines. Specific applications of the theory, especially relevant to drug discovery, drug combination, and clinical trials, have been cited or illustrated in terms of algorithms, experimental design and computerized simulation for data analysis. Lessons learned from cancer research during the past fifty years provide a valuable opportunity to reflect, and to improve the conventional divergent approach and to introduce a new convergent avenue, based on the mass-action law principle, for the efficient cancer drug discovery and the low-cost drug development.

  1. Report on Action Research: An Analysis of the Effects of a Six Step Approach to Direct Vocabulary Instruction on Student Achievement at the Middle School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haystead, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the findings of an analysis of a series of action research projects conducted by Goshen Community Schools at the middle school level. During the 2008-2009 school year, six teachers at Goshen Middle School participated in independent action research studies regarding the extent to which a six step approach to direct vocabulary…

  2. Time-dependent viscometry study of endoglucanase action on xyloglucan: A real-time approach.

    PubMed

    Spier, Vivian Cristina; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Ibrahim, Amid Tony; Scholze Baum, Jéssica C; Silveira, Joana Lea M; de Freitas, Rilton Alves

    2015-11-01

    Hydrolysis of xyloglucan from Tamarindus indica and Hymenaea courbaril seeds with endoglucanase (EGII), which randomly breaks the (1→4)-linked β-glycosidic bonds of the polymer chain, was monitored in real time using time-dependent viscometry analysis (TDV). For both samples there was a decrease in the intrinsic viscosity ([η]), viscosity average molar mass (Mv), radius de gyration (Rg) and persistence length (Lp) immediately after the addition of the enzyme. It was observed the formation of oligosaccharides and oligomers composed of ∼2 units, up to 140min. Galactose-containing side chains two positions away from the non-substituted glucose, modulated the action of EGII, and the complete hydrolysis of the XG oligomers occurred after 24h. The results demonstrate for the first time the real-time degradation of xyloglucan as well the macromolecular and oligosaccharide composition during the EGII hydrolysis process.

  3. Questions raised by a reasoned action approach: comment on Ogden (2003).

    PubMed

    Ajzen, Icek; Fishbein, Martin

    2004-07-01

    In her critique of social cognition or reasoned action models, J. Ogden (see record 2003-05896-016) claimed that such models are not falsifiable and thus cannot be tested, that the postulated relations among model components are true by definition, and that questionnaires used to test the models may create rather than assess cognitions and thus influence later behavior. The authors of this comment challenge all 3 arguments and contend that the findings Ogden regarded as requiring rejection of the models are, in fact, consistent with them, that there is good evidence for the validity of measures used to assess the models' major constructs, and that the effect of completing a questionnaire on cognitions and subsequent behavior is an empirical question. PMID:15264981

  4. A facet approach to extending the normative component of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Donald, I; Cooper, S R

    2001-12-01

    Using facet theory, this study addresses the weak explanatory power of normative influence in theories of reasoned action or planned behaviour. A broad normative construct is hypothesized as being characterized by two facets--social unit and behavioural modality--each of which is examined in relation to recreational drug use. A questionnaire was developed from the facets and administered to undergraduate students. Data (N = 181) were analysed using Smallest Space Analysis (SSA). The results suggest that the facets provide an adequate description of the normative construct and that personal and social normative beliefs, behavioural norms and behavioural intentions can be distinguished empirically. The results also lend partial support to Ajzen's (1988; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977) principle of compatibility. Implications for how social influence is operationalized and conceptualized are also discussed.

  5. Questions raised by a reasoned action approach: comment on Ogden (2003).

    PubMed

    Ajzen, Icek; Fishbein, Martin

    2004-07-01

    In her critique of social cognition or reasoned action models, J. Ogden (see record 2003-05896-016) claimed that such models are not falsifiable and thus cannot be tested, that the postulated relations among model components are true by definition, and that questionnaires used to test the models may create rather than assess cognitions and thus influence later behavior. The authors of this comment challenge all 3 arguments and contend that the findings Ogden regarded as requiring rejection of the models are, in fact, consistent with them, that there is good evidence for the validity of measures used to assess the models' major constructs, and that the effect of completing a questionnaire on cognitions and subsequent behavior is an empirical question.

  6. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project approach to building dismantlement and demolition

    SciTech Connect

    Spittler, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    When remediation began at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), there were 41 buildings on site. Twenty-nine of these buildings were ancillary structures and were not used for processing radioactive material. Most of these have been torn down. The remaining 12 buildings were used for uranium and thorium processing or were major support structures, such as the laboratory. Two of the buildings were major processing operations occurred were successfully demolished in February of this year. Demolition of all structures will be complete in September of this year. To give an understanding of the magnitude of the work, the following is a description of the physical characteristics of the green salt building. This building was used to convert brown oxide (UO3) to green salt (UF4), which is the last intermediate step in purifying the mostly yellow cake feed material into uranium metal.

  7. Effective action approach and Carlson-Goldman mode in d-wave superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, Sergei G.; Beck, Hans

    2002-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the Carlson-Goldman (CG) mode in two-dimensional clean d-wave superconductors using the effective ``phase-only'' action formalism. In conventional s-wave superconductors, it is known that the CG mode is observed as a peak in the structure factor of the pair susceptibility S(Ω,K) only just below the transition temperature Tc and only in dirty systems. On the other hand, our analytical results support the statement by Ohashi and Takada [Phys. Rev. B 62, 5971 (2000)] that in d-wave superconductors the CG mode can exist in clean systems down to much lower temperatures, T~0.1Tc. We also consider the manifestations of the CG mode in the density-density and current-current correlators and discuss the gauge independence of the obtained results.

  8. A facet approach to extending the normative component of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Donald, I; Cooper, S R

    2001-12-01

    Using facet theory, this study addresses the weak explanatory power of normative influence in theories of reasoned action or planned behaviour. A broad normative construct is hypothesized as being characterized by two facets--social unit and behavioural modality--each of which is examined in relation to recreational drug use. A questionnaire was developed from the facets and administered to undergraduate students. Data (N = 181) were analysed using Smallest Space Analysis (SSA). The results suggest that the facets provide an adequate description of the normative construct and that personal and social normative beliefs, behavioural norms and behavioural intentions can be distinguished empirically. The results also lend partial support to Ajzen's (1988; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977) principle of compatibility. Implications for how social influence is operationalized and conceptualized are also discussed. PMID:11795070

  9. Time-dependent viscometry study of endoglucanase action on xyloglucan: A real-time approach.

    PubMed

    Spier, Vivian Cristina; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Ibrahim, Amid Tony; Scholze Baum, Jéssica C; Silveira, Joana Lea M; de Freitas, Rilton Alves

    2015-11-01

    Hydrolysis of xyloglucan from Tamarindus indica and Hymenaea courbaril seeds with endoglucanase (EGII), which randomly breaks the (1→4)-linked β-glycosidic bonds of the polymer chain, was monitored in real time using time-dependent viscometry analysis (TDV). For both samples there was a decrease in the intrinsic viscosity ([η]), viscosity average molar mass (Mv), radius de gyration (Rg) and persistence length (Lp) immediately after the addition of the enzyme. It was observed the formation of oligosaccharides and oligomers composed of ∼2 units, up to 140min. Galactose-containing side chains two positions away from the non-substituted glucose, modulated the action of EGII, and the complete hydrolysis of the XG oligomers occurred after 24h. The results demonstrate for the first time the real-time degradation of xyloglucan as well the macromolecular and oligosaccharide composition during the EGII hydrolysis process. PMID:26297307

  10. A Behavioral Approach to Building Cognitive Foundations for Effective Thought and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Eric; Pappas, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    This research documents the process and results of an approach to teaching university undergraduates intentional self-development skills designed to promote self-generated goals, routines, and lifestyle choices. These skills may provide effective behavioral foundations for developing metacognitive awareness, intentionality, and individual…

  11. Mode of Action (MOA) and Dose-Response Approaches for Nuclear Receptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The presence of sub-threshold doses for non-cancer and (in appropriate cases) cancer has been the dominant paradigm for the practice of risk assessment, but the application of dose-response modeling approaches that include a threshold have been questioned in a 2009 NRC ...

  12. Indian Communities in Action: A Case Study Approach to Community Development Among Southwestern Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessel, Robert A., Jr.

    Designed as a stimulus for American Indian educational development, these examples of community development programs among the Southwestern Indians are presented via the case study approach in the interest of analyzation of both positive and negative experiences. Specifically, this book presents case studies of: (1) the Round Rock School on the…

  13. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Health Action Process Approach Inventory for Healthful Diet Among Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rohani, Hosein; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghaderi, Arsalan; bidkhori, Mohammad; Raei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Long-term effects of diabetes could be prevented or delayed by adopting a proper diet. The aim of this study was to adapt and provide a pilot test using health action process approach (HAPA)-based inventory to capable of capturing significant determinants of healthful diet for diabetics. Methods: The inventory was reviewed by eight diabetes patients and verbal feedbacks with regard the comprehension, item relevance, and potential new content were obtained. Then, the inventory items were evaluated by an expert panel. Next exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to assess the scale constructs. Criterion validity was measured by Pearson correlation. Finally, reliability measures of internal consistency and test-retest analysis were determined. Results: A total of 121 diabetic patients participated in this study. EFA extracted seven factors (risk-perception, action self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, maintenance self-efficacy, action and coping planning, behavioral intention, and recovery self-efficacy) explaining 81.14% of the total variance. There were significant correlations between behavioral intentions and both outcome expectancies (r = 0.55, P < 0.05) and action self-efficacy (r = 0.31, P < 0.004) and small to moderate correlations (rs = 23–40) between behavior and the volitional constructs of the HAPA model. Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.65 to 0.95 and intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.71 to 0.92 indicated an acceptable internal consistency. Conclusions: Developed scales were valid and reliable for measuring HAPA variables to be used with type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Further examination with minority persons is warranted. PMID:27195101

  14. A Systems Biology Approach for Identifying Hepatotoxicant Groups Based on Similarity in Mechanisms of Action and Chemical Structure.

    PubMed

    Hebels, Dennie G A J; Rasche, Axel; Herwig, Ralf; van Westen, Gerard J P; Jennen, Danyel G J; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2016-01-01

    When evaluating compound similarity, addressing multiple sources of information to reach conclusions about common pharmaceutical and/or toxicological mechanisms of action is a crucial strategy. In this chapter, we describe a systems biology approach that incorporates analyses of hepatotoxicant data for 33 compounds from three different sources: a chemical structure similarity analysis based on the 3D Tanimoto coefficient, a chemical structure-based protein target prediction analysis, and a cross-study/cross-platform meta-analysis of in vitro and in vivo human and rat transcriptomics data derived from public resources (i.e., the diXa data warehouse). Hierarchical clustering of the outcome scores of the separate analyses did not result in a satisfactory grouping of compounds considering their known toxic mechanism as described in literature. However, a combined analysis of multiple data types may hypothetically compensate for missing or unreliable information in any of the single data types. We therefore performed an integrated clustering analysis of all three data sets using the R-based tool iClusterPlus. This indeed improved the grouping results. The compound clusters that were formed by means of iClusterPlus represent groups that show similar gene expression while simultaneously integrating a similarity in structure and protein targets, which corresponds much better with the known mechanism of action of these toxicants. Using an integrative systems biology approach may thus overcome the limitations of the separate analyses when grouping liver toxicants sharing a similar mechanism of toxicity.

  15. A Systems Biology Approach for Identifying Hepatotoxicant Groups Based on Similarity in Mechanisms of Action and Chemical Structure.

    PubMed

    Hebels, Dennie G A J; Rasche, Axel; Herwig, Ralf; van Westen, Gerard J P; Jennen, Danyel G J; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2016-01-01

    When evaluating compound similarity, addressing multiple sources of information to reach conclusions about common pharmaceutical and/or toxicological mechanisms of action is a crucial strategy. In this chapter, we describe a systems biology approach that incorporates analyses of hepatotoxicant data for 33 compounds from three different sources: a chemical structure similarity analysis based on the 3D Tanimoto coefficient, a chemical structure-based protein target prediction analysis, and a cross-study/cross-platform meta-analysis of in vitro and in vivo human and rat transcriptomics data derived from public resources (i.e., the diXa data warehouse). Hierarchical clustering of the outcome scores of the separate analyses did not result in a satisfactory grouping of compounds considering their known toxic mechanism as described in literature. However, a combined analysis of multiple data types may hypothetically compensate for missing or unreliable information in any of the single data types. We therefore performed an integrated clustering analysis of all three data sets using the R-based tool iClusterPlus. This indeed improved the grouping results. The compound clusters that were formed by means of iClusterPlus represent groups that show similar gene expression while simultaneously integrating a similarity in structure and protein targets, which corresponds much better with the known mechanism of action of these toxicants. Using an integrative systems biology approach may thus overcome the limitations of the separate analyses when grouping liver toxicants sharing a similar mechanism of toxicity. PMID:27311473

  16. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121, Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 is currently listed in Appendix III of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO, 1996) and consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CASs 12-01-01 and 12-01-02 are located to the west of the Area 12 Camp, and CAS 12-22-26 is located near the U-12g Tunnel, also known as G-tunnel, in Area 12 (Figure 1). The aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) present at CASs 12-01-01 and 12-01-02 will be removed and disposed of at an appropriate facility. Soil below the ASTs will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted with chemicals or radioactivity above action levels. If impacted soil above action levels is present, the soil will be excavated and disposed of at an appropriate facility. The CAS 12-22-26 site is composed of two overlapping areas, one where drums had formerly been stored, and the other where an AST was used to dispense diesel for locomotives used at G-tunnel. This area is located above an underground radioactive materials area (URMA), and within an area that may have elevated background radioactivity because of containment breaches during nuclear tests and associated tunnel reentry operations. CAS 12-22-26 does not include the URMA or the elevated background radioactivity. An AST that had previously been used to store liquid magnesium chloride (MgCl) was properly disposed of several years ago, and releases from this tank are not an environmental concern. The diesel AST will be removed and disposed of at an appropriate facility. Soil at the former drum area and the diesel AST area will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted by releases, from the drums or the

  17. On the Nature of the Semiotic Structure of the Didactic Action: The Joint Action Theory in Didactics within a Comparative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensevy, Gérard; Gruson, Brigitte; Forest, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we first sketch the joint action theory paradigm from a general viewpoint in sciences of culture. Then we specify this generic description by focusing on the joint action theory in didactics (JATD). We elaborate on three currently developed elements of the theory: the reticence-expression dialectics; the contract-milieu dialectics,…

  18. An information-theoretic approach to motor action decoding with a reconfigurable parallel architecture.

    PubMed

    Craciun, Stefan; Brockmeier, Austin J; George, Alan D; Lam, Herman; Príncipe, José C

    2011-01-01

    Methods for decoding movements from neural spike counts using adaptive filters often rely on minimizing the mean-squared error. However, for non-Gaussian distribution of errors, this approach is not optimal for performance. Therefore, rather than using probabilistic modeling, we propose an alternate non-parametric approach. In order to extract more structure from the input signal (neuronal spike counts) we propose using minimum error entropy (MEE), an information-theoretic approach that minimizes the error entropy as part of an iterative cost function. However, the disadvantage of using MEE as the cost function for adaptive filters is the increase in computational complexity. In this paper we present a comparison between the decoding performance of the analytic Wiener filter and a linear filter trained with MEE, which is then mapped to a parallel architecture in reconfigurable hardware tailored to the computational needs of the MEE filter. We observe considerable speedup from the hardware design. The adaptation of filter weights for the multiple-input, multiple-output linear filters, necessary in motor decoding, is a highly parallelizable algorithm. It can be decomposed into many independent computational blocks with a parallel architecture readily mapped to a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and scales to large numbers of neurons. By pipelining and parallelizing independent computations in the algorithm, the proposed parallel architecture has sublinear increases in execution time with respect to both window size and filter order. PMID:22255367

  19. Microemulgel: an overwhelming approach to improve therapeutic action of drug moiety.

    PubMed

    Ashara, Kalpesh C; Paun, Jalpa S; Soniwala, M M; Chavda, J R; Mendapara, Vishal P; Mori, Nitin M

    2016-07-01

    As compared to gel and other topical preparations microemulgel has been prepared by screening of oils, emulsifier, and co-emulsifier on bases of solubility of an API in it. An API has high solubility and oil may also have more or less pharmacological property, so it may assist the therapeutic action of API. Due to presence of oil portion, it leads to more penetration of API in the skin. Oil Micelle Size was less than 500 nm which provides more area for absorption of API in the skin so more penetration and more effective than macro-emulsion. Microemulgel has an advantage of emulgel that has dual benefits of micro-emulsion and gel and several other desirable properties like good consistency, thyrotrophic, greaseless, easily spreadable as well as removable, emollient, non-staining, water soluble, longer shelf-life, bio-friendly, transparent, pleasant appearance, ability of patients for self-medication, termination of medications will be easy, etc. PMID:27330376

  20. A critical Action Research approach to curriculum development in a laboratory-based chemical engineering course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Scott R.

    This dissertation is a report of an attempt to critically evaluate a novel laboratory course from within the context of a chemical engineering curriculum. The research was done in a college classroom-laboratory setting, entrenched in the everydayness of classroom activities. All of the students, instructors, and educational researchers were knowing participants in this Action Research study. The students, a mixture of juniors, seniors, & graduate students, worked together on semester-long projects in groups that were mixed by age, gender and academic level. Qualitative techniques were used to gather different forms of representations of the students and instructors' experiences. Emergent patterns from the data gave strength to emergent knowledge claims that informed the instructors and the researcher about what the students were learning about performing experimental work and communicating results with their peers and instructor. The course challenged and in some cases changed the conceptions of instruction previously held by the students and the instructors. The course did not proceed without problems, yet the majority of these problems were overcome by the design of the course. Assertions and recommendations for improvement and application to other educational contexts are suggested.

  1. An Organ System Approach to Explore the Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytoprotective Actions of Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Ashim; Bath, Sundeep; Elbarbry, Fawzy

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a phenolic phytochemical, with a stilbene backbone, derived from edible plants such as grape and peanut. It is a bioactive molecule with physiological effects on multiple organ systems. Its effects range from the neuroprotective to the nephroprotective, including cardiovascular, neuronal, and antineoplastic responses as a part of its broad spectrum of action. In this review, we examine the effects of resveratrol on the following organ systems: the central nervous system, including neurological pathology such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease; the cardiovascular system, including disorders such as atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; the kidneys, including primary and secondary nephropathies and nephrolithiasis; multiple forms of cancer; and metabolic syndromes including diabetes. We emphasize commonalities in extracellular matrix protein alterations and intracellular signal transduction system induction following resveratrol treatment. We summarize the known anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective effects of resveratrol across disparate organ systems. Additionally, we analyze the available literature regarding the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol formulations used in these studies. Finally, we critically examine select clinical trials documenting a lack of effect following resveratrol treatment. PMID:26180596

  2. Site action, environmental justice and an urban community: A unique approach at a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Seppi, P.K.; Richman, L.R.; Wireman, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) project at the Diamond Alkali Superfund Site is an example of how technical, environmental justice, and community relations issues all affect actions at a Superfund Site. The Diamond Alkali Superfund Site is divided into two operable units. The site consists of the former pesticides manufacturing facility at 80 and 120 Lister Avenue in Newark, New Jersey, and the adjoining six mile reach of the Passaic River known as the ``Passaic River Study Area``. EPA has negotiated Consent Orders with the Potentially Responsible Party (PRP) to design and construct the selected containment remedy at the land-based properties, and to conduct the Remedial Investigation (RI) of the river under EPA oversight. Pesticides, dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals and other hazardous substances have been found at the Site. Evidence indicates that the ecology of the Passaic River has been adversely impacted by the presence of these hazardous substances. The State of New Jersey issued a ban on the consumption of fish and crabs from affected sections of the Passaic River; yet reportedly, many residents still consume seafood from the river. Community relations at the Site had deteriorated because of the community`s lack of trust and loss of confidence in EPA. To address these issues, EPA has implemented an innovative public outreach program to improve how it communicates with racial minority and low-income communities living in the vicinity of the Site, and to involve them in the decision-making process.

  3. Kinetics of rouleau formation. I. A mass action approach with geometric features.

    PubMed Central

    Samsel, R W; Perelson, A S

    1982-01-01

    In the presence of certain macromolecules, such as fibrinogen, immunoglobulin, dextran, and polylysine, erythrocytes tend to aggregate and form cylindrical clusters called "rouleaux" in which cells resemble coins in a stack. The aggregates may remain cylindrical or they may branch, forming tree, and networklike structures. Using the law of mass action and notions from polymer chemistry, we derive expressions describing the kinetics of the early phase of aggregation. Our models generalize work initiated by Ponder in 1927 who used the Smoluchowski equation to predict the concentration of rouleaux of different sizes. There are two novel features to our generalization. First, we allow erythrocytes that collide near the end of a stack of cells to move to the end of the cylinder and elongate it. Second, we incorporate geometric information into our models and describe the kinetics of branched rouleau formation. From our models we can predict the concentration of rouleaux with n cells and b branches, the mean number of cells per rouleau, the mean number of branches per rouleau, and the average length of a branch. Comparisons are made with the available experimental data. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 9 PMID:7059652

  4. A bioconjugate approach toward squalamine mimics: Insight into the mechanism of biological action.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Hua; Shao, Xue-Bin; Moellering, Robert; Wennersten, Christine; Regen, Steven L

    2006-01-01

    A short and efficient synthesis has been devised for a family of squalamine mimics, based on the use of cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, putrescine, and spermine as starting materials. Those mimics that contain two facially amphiphilic sterol-spermidine conjugates show strong antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria; their corresponding activities against a broad spectrum of Gram-negative bacteria are relatively moderate. Larger mimics, containing four such sterol-spermidine conjugates, exhibit very weak activities. Reversal of the pendent spermidine moiety and a putrescine linkage on the A- and D-rings had little consequence on the antibacterial activity for the most active of the squalamine mimics, which contained two sterol-polyamine units; similar results were obtained with squalamine mimics made from only one sterol unit. Detailed structure-activity measurements, in combination with kinetic studies carried out using liposomes as model membranes, support a mechanism of action involving noncovalent dimers as ion transporting species, most probably via the formation of pores or channels. PMID:17105239

  5. Climate stabilization wedges in action: a systems approach to energy sustainability for Hawaii Island.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah; Chertow, Marian

    2009-04-01

    Pacala and Socolow developed a framework to stabilize global greenhouse gas levels for the next fifty years using wedges of constant size representing an increasing use of existing technologies and approaches for energy efficiency, carbon free generation, renewables, and carbon storage. The research presented here applies their approach to Hawaii Island, with modifications to support local scale analysis and employing a "bottom-up" methodology that allows for wedges of various sizes. A discretely bounded spatial unit offers a testing ground for a holistic approach to improving the energy sector with the identification of local options and limitations to the implementation of a comprehensive energy strategy. Nearly 80% of total primary energy demand across all sectors for Hawaii Island is currently met using petroleum-based fuels.The Sustainable Energy Plan scenario included here presents an internally consistent set of recommendations bounded by local constraints in areas such as transportation efficiency, centralized renewable generation (e.g., geothermal, wind), reduction in transmission losses, and improved building efficiency. This scenario shows thatthe demand for primary energy in 2030 could be reduced by 23% through efficiency measures while 46% could be met by renewable generation, resulting in only 31% of the projected demand being met by fossil fuels. In 2030, the annual releases of greenhouse gases would be 3.2 Mt CO2-eq/year under the Baseline scenario, while the Sustainable Energy Plan would reduce this to 1.2 Mt CO2-eq/year--an annual emissions rate 40% below 2006 levels and 10% below 1990 levels. The total for greenhouse gas emissions during the 24-year study period (2007 to 2030) is 59.9 Mt CO2-eq under the Baseline scenario and 32.5 Mt CO2-eq under the Sustainable Energy Plan scenario. Numerous combinations of efficiency and renewable energy options can be employed in a manner that stabilizes the greenhouse gas emissions of Hawaii Island.

  6. Climate stabilization wedges in action: a systems approach to energy sustainability for Hawaii Island.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah; Chertow, Marian

    2009-04-01

    Pacala and Socolow developed a framework to stabilize global greenhouse gas levels for the next fifty years using wedges of constant size representing an increasing use of existing technologies and approaches for energy efficiency, carbon free generation, renewables, and carbon storage. The research presented here applies their approach to Hawaii Island, with modifications to support local scale analysis and employing a "bottom-up" methodology that allows for wedges of various sizes. A discretely bounded spatial unit offers a testing ground for a holistic approach to improving the energy sector with the identification of local options and limitations to the implementation of a comprehensive energy strategy. Nearly 80% of total primary energy demand across all sectors for Hawaii Island is currently met using petroleum-based fuels.The Sustainable Energy Plan scenario included here presents an internally consistent set of recommendations bounded by local constraints in areas such as transportation efficiency, centralized renewable generation (e.g., geothermal, wind), reduction in transmission losses, and improved building efficiency. This scenario shows thatthe demand for primary energy in 2030 could be reduced by 23% through efficiency measures while 46% could be met by renewable generation, resulting in only 31% of the projected demand being met by fossil fuels. In 2030, the annual releases of greenhouse gases would be 3.2 Mt CO2-eq/year under the Baseline scenario, while the Sustainable Energy Plan would reduce this to 1.2 Mt CO2-eq/year--an annual emissions rate 40% below 2006 levels and 10% below 1990 levels. The total for greenhouse gas emissions during the 24-year study period (2007 to 2030) is 59.9 Mt CO2-eq under the Baseline scenario and 32.5 Mt CO2-eq under the Sustainable Energy Plan scenario. Numerous combinations of efficiency and renewable energy options can be employed in a manner that stabilizes the greenhouse gas emissions of Hawaii Island. PMID

  7. Action approach to cosmological perturbations: the second-order metric in matter dominance

    SciTech Connect

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Creminelli, Paolo; Vernizzi, Filippo; Norena, Jorge

    2008-08-15

    We study nonlinear cosmological perturbations during post-inflationary evolution, using the equivalence between a perfect barotropic fluid and a derivatively coupled scalar field with Lagrangian [-({partial_derivative}{phi}){sup 2}]{sup (1+w)/2w}. Since this Lagrangian is just a special case of k-inflation, this approach is analogous to the one employed in the study of non-Gaussianities from inflation. We use this method to derive the second-order metric during matter dominance in the comoving gauge directly as a function of the primordial inflationary perturbation {zeta}. Going to Poisson gauge, we recover the metric previously derived in the literature.

  8. Low dose evaluation of the antiandrogen flutamide following a Mode of Action approach.

    PubMed

    Sarrabay, A; Hilmi, C; Tinwell, H; Schorsch, F; Pallardy, M; Bars, R; Rouquié, D

    2015-12-15

    The dose-response characterization of endocrine mediated toxicity is an on-going debate which is controversial when exploring the nature of the dose-response curve and the effect at the low-end of the curve. To contribute to this debate we have assessed the effects of a wide range of dose levels of the antiandrogen flutamide (FLU) on 7-week male Wistar rats. FLU was administered by oral gavage at doses of 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10mg/kg/day for 28 days. To evaluate the reproducibility, the study was performed 3 times. The molecular initiating event (MIE; AR antagonism), the key events (LH increase, Leydig cell proliferation and hyperplasia increases) and associated events involved in the mode of action (MOA) of FLU induced testicular toxicity were characterized to address the dose response concordance. Results showed no effects at low doses (<0.1mg/kg/day) for the different key events studied. The histopathological changes (Leydig cell hyperplasia) observed at 1 and 10mg/kg/day were associated with an increase in steroidogenesis gene expression in the testis from 1mg/kg/day, as well as an increase in testosterone blood level at 10mg/kg/day. Each key event dose-response was in good concordance with the MOA of FLU on the testis. From the available results, only monotonic dose-response curves were observed for the MIE, the key events, associated events and in effects observed in other sex related tissues. All the results, so far, show that the reference endocrine disruptor FLU induces threshold effects in a standard 28-day toxicity study on adult male rats. PMID:26485406

  9. Wildlife connectivity approaches and best practices in U.S. state wildlife action plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacher, Iara; Wilkerson, Marit L.

    2014-01-01

    As habitat loss and fragmentation threaten biodiversity on large geographic scales, creating and maintaining connectivity of wildlife populations is an increasingly common conservation objective. To assess the progress and success of large-scale connectivity planning, conservation researchers need a set of plans that cover large geographic areas and can be analyzed as a single data set. The state wildlife action plans (SWAPs) fulfill these requirements. We examined 50 SWAPs to determine the extent to which wildlife connectivity planning, via linkages, is emphasized nationally. We defined linkage as connective land that enables wildlife movement. For our content analysis, we identified and quantified 6 keywords and 7 content criteria that ranged in specificity and were related to linkages for wide-ranging terrestrial vertebrates and examined relations between content criteria and statewide data on focal wide-ranging species, spending, revenue, and conserved land. Our results reflect nationwide disparities in linkage conservation priorities and highlight the continued need for wildlife linkage planning. Only 30% or less of the 50 SWAPs fulfilled highly specific content criteria (e.g., identifying geographic areas for linkage placement or management). We found positive correlations between our content criteria and statewide data on percent conserved land, total focal species, and spending on parks and recreation. We supplemented our content analysis with interviews with 17 conservation professionals to gain specific information about state-specific context and future directions of linkage conservation. Based on our results, relevant literature, and interview responses, we suggest the following best practices for wildlife linkage conservation plans: collect ecologically meaningful background data; be specific; establish community-wide partnerships; and incorporate sociopolitical and socioeconomic information.

  10. Wildlife connectivity approaches and best practices in U.S. state wildlife action plans.

    PubMed

    Lacher, Iara; Wilkerson, Marit L

    2014-02-01

    As habitat loss and fragmentation threaten biodiversity on large geographic scales, creating and maintaining connectivity of wildlife populations is an increasingly common conservation objective. To assess the progress and success of large-scale connectivity planning, conservation researchers need a set of plans that cover large geographic areas and can be analyzed as a single data set. The state wildlife action plans (SWAPs) fulfill these requirements. We examined 50 SWAPs to determine the extent to which wildlife connectivity planning, via linkages, is emphasized nationally. We defined linkage as connective land that enables wildlife movement. For our content analysis, we identified and quantified 6 keywords and 7 content criteria that ranged in specificity and were related to linkages for wide-ranging terrestrial vertebrates and examined relations between content criteria and statewide data on focal wide-ranging species, spending, revenue, and conserved land. Our results reflect nationwide disparities in linkage conservation priorities and highlight the continued need for wildlife linkage planning. Only 30% or less of the 50 SWAPs fulfilled highly specific content criteria (e.g., identifying geographic areas for linkage placement or management). We found positive correlations between our content criteria and statewide data on percent conserved land, total focal species, and spending on parks and recreation. We supplemented our content analysis with interviews with 17 conservation professionals to gain specific information about state-specific context and future directions of linkage conservation. Based on our results, relevant literature, and interview responses, we suggest the following best practices for wildlife linkage conservation plans: collect ecologically meaningful background data; be specific; establish community-wide partnerships; and incorporate sociopolitical and socioeconomic information. PMID:24372554

  11. Wildlife connectivity approaches and best practices in U.S. state wildlife action plans.

    PubMed

    Lacher, Iara; Wilkerson, Marit L

    2014-02-01

    As habitat loss and fragmentation threaten biodiversity on large geographic scales, creating and maintaining connectivity of wildlife populations is an increasingly common conservation objective. To assess the progress and success of large-scale connectivity planning, conservation researchers need a set of plans that cover large geographic areas and can be analyzed as a single data set. The state wildlife action plans (SWAPs) fulfill these requirements. We examined 50 SWAPs to determine the extent to which wildlife connectivity planning, via linkages, is emphasized nationally. We defined linkage as connective land that enables wildlife movement. For our content analysis, we identified and quantified 6 keywords and 7 content criteria that ranged in specificity and were related to linkages for wide-ranging terrestrial vertebrates and examined relations between content criteria and statewide data on focal wide-ranging species, spending, revenue, and conserved land. Our results reflect nationwide disparities in linkage conservation priorities and highlight the continued need for wildlife linkage planning. Only 30% or less of the 50 SWAPs fulfilled highly specific content criteria (e.g., identifying geographic areas for linkage placement or management). We found positive correlations between our content criteria and statewide data on percent conserved land, total focal species, and spending on parks and recreation. We supplemented our content analysis with interviews with 17 conservation professionals to gain specific information about state-specific context and future directions of linkage conservation. Based on our results, relevant literature, and interview responses, we suggest the following best practices for wildlife linkage conservation plans: collect ecologically meaningful background data; be specific; establish community-wide partnerships; and incorporate sociopolitical and socioeconomic information.

  12. Tools for thoughtful action: the role of ecosystem approaches to health in enhancing public health.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jena C; Mergler, Donna; Parkes, Margot W; Saint-Charles, Johanne; Spiegel, Jerry; Waltner-Toews, David; Yassi, Annalee; Woollard, Robert F

    2010-01-01

    The intimate interdependence of human health and the ecosystems in which we are embedded is now a commonplace observation. For much of the history of public health, this was not so obvious. After over a century of focus on diseases, their biologic causes and the correction of exposures (clean water and air) and facilitation of responses (immunizations and nutrition), public health discourse shifted to embrace the concept of determinants of health as extending to social, economic and environmental realms. This moved the discourse and science of public health into an unprecedented level of complexity just as public concern about the environment heightened. To address multifactorial, dynamic impacts on health, a new paradigm was needed which would overcome the separation of humans and ecosystems. Ecosystem approaches to health arose in the 1990s from a rich background of intellectual ferment as Canada wrestled with diverse problems ranging from Great Lakes contamination to zoonotic diseases. Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) played a lead role in supporting an international community of scientists and scholars who advanced ecosystem approaches to health. These collective efforts have enabled a shift to a research paradigm that embraces transdisciplinarity, social justice, gender equity, multi-stakeholder participation and sustainability.

  13. A systems biology approach to understanding the mechanisms of action of chinese herbs for treatment of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Bohui; Xu, Xue; Wang, Xia; Yu, Hua; Li, Xiuxiu; Tao, Weiyang; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) involves a broad range of empirical testing and refinement and plays an important role in the health maintenance for people all over the world. However, due to the complexity of Chinese herbs, a full understanding of TCM's action mechanisms is still unavailable despite plenty of successful applications of TCM in the treatment of various diseases, including especially cardiovascular diseases (CVD), one of the leading causes of death. Thus in the present work, by incorporating the chemical predictors, target predictors and network construction approaches, an integrated system of TCM has been constructed to systematically uncover the underlying action mechanisms of TCM. From three representative Chinese herbs, i.e., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen and Corydalis yanhusuo WT Wang which have been widely used in CVD treatment, by combinational use of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) screening and network pharmacology techniques, we have generated 64 bioactive ingredients and identified 54 protein targets closely associated with CVD, of which 29 are common targets (52.7%) of the three herbs. The result provides new information on the efficiency of the Chinese herbs for the treatment of CVD and also explains one of the basic theories of TCM, i.e., "multiple herbal drugs can treat one disease". The predicted potential targets were then mapped to target-disease and target-signal pathway connections, which revealed the relationships of the active ingredients with their potential targets, diseases and signal systems. This means that for the first time, the action mechanism of these three important Chinese herbs for the treatment of CVD is uncovered, by generating and identifying both their active ingredients and novel targets specifically related to CVD, which clarifies some of the common conceptions in TCM, and thus provides clues to modernize such specific herbal medicines. PMID:23202964

  14. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-30

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996 [as amended February 2008]). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. (1) CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt; (2) CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2); (3) CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm; (4) CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area; (5) CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area; (6) CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area; (7) CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area; (8) CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area; (9) CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area; (10) CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area; (11) CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a; (12) CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site; (13) CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil; (14) CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10; and (15) CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky). Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107. CAU 107 closure activities will consist of verifying that the current postings required under Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835 are in place and implementing use restrictions (URs) at two sites, CAS 03-23-29 and CAS 18-23-02. The current radiological postings combined with the URs are adequate administrative controls to limit site access and worker dose.

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-03-31

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996 [as amended February 2008]). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. {sm_bullet} CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2){sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a{sm_bullet} CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site{sm_bullet} CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil{sm_bullet} CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10{sm_bullet} CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky) Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107.

  16. A Systems Biology Approach to Understanding the Mechanisms of Action of Chinese Herbs for Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bohui; Xu, Xue; Wang, Xia; Yu, Hua; Li, Xiuxiu; Tao, Weiyang; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) involves a broad range of empirical testing and refinement and plays an important role in the health maintenance for people all over the world. However, due to the complexity of Chinese herbs, a full understanding of TCM’s action mechanisms is still unavailable despite plenty of successful applications of TCM in the treatment of various diseases, including especially cardiovascular diseases (CVD), one of the leading causes of death. Thus in the present work, by incorporating the chemical predictors, target predictors and network construction approaches, an integrated system of TCM has been constructed to systematically uncover the underlying action mechanisms of TCM. From three representative Chinese herbs, i.e., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen and Corydalis yanhusuo WT Wang which have been widely used in CVD treatment, by combinational use of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) screening and network pharmacology techniques, we have generated 64 bioactive ingredients and identified 54 protein targets closely associated with CVD, of which 29 are common targets (52.7%) of the three herbs. The result provides new information on the efficiency of the Chinese herbs for the treatment of CVD and also explains one of the basic theories of TCM, i.e., “multiple herbal drugs can treat one disease”. The predicted potential targets were then mapped to target-disease and target-signal pathway connections, which revealed the relationships of the active ingredients with their potential targets, diseases and signal systems. This means that for the first time, the action mechanism of these three important Chinese herbs for the treatment of CVD is uncovered, by generating and identifying both their active ingredients and novel targets specifically related to CVD, which clarifies some of the common conceptions in TCM, and thus provides clues to modernize such specific herbal medicines. PMID

  17. Systematic discovery of drug action mechanisms by an integrated chemical genomics approach: identification of functional disparities between azacytidine and decitabine

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yao-Yu; Huang, Tsui-Chin; Lo, Hsiang-Ling; Jhan, Jyun-Yan; Chen, Shui-Tein; Yang, Pei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Polypharmacology (the ability of a drug to affect more than one molecular target) is considered a basic property of many therapeutic small molecules. Herein, we used a chemical genomics approach to systematically analyze polypharmacology by integrating several analytical tools, including the LINCS (Library of Integrated Cellular Signatures), STITCH (Search Tool for Interactions of Chemicals), and WebGestalt (WEB-based GEne SeT AnaLysis Toolkit). We applied this approach to identify functional disparities between two cytidine nucleoside analogs: azacytidine (AZA) and decitabine (DAC). AZA and DAC are structurally and mechanistically similar DNA-hypomethylating agents. However, their metabolism and destinations in cells are distinct. Due to their differential incorporation into RNA or DNA, functional disparities between AZA and DAC are expected. Indeed, different cytotoxicities of AZA and DAC toward human colorectal cancer cell lines were observed, in which cells were more sensitive to AZA. Based on a polypharmacological analysis, we found that AZA transiently blocked protein synthesis and induced an acute apoptotic response that was antagonized by concurrently induced cytoprotective autophagy. In contrast, DAC caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase associated with p53 induction. Therefore, our study discriminated functional disparities between AZA and DAC, and also demonstrated the value of this chemical genomics approach that can be applied to discover novel drug action mechanisms. PMID:27036028

  18. Community College Students' Health Insurance Enrollment, Maintenance, and Talking With Parents Intentions: An Application of the Reasoned Action Approach.

    PubMed

    Huhman, Marian; Quick, Brian L; Payne, Laura

    2016-05-01

    A primary objective of health care reform is to provide affordable and quality health insurance to individuals. Currently, promotional efforts have been moderately successful in registering older, more mature adults yet comparatively less successful in registering younger adults. With this challenge in mind, we conducted extensive formative research to better understand the attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of community college students. More specifically, we examined how each relates to their intentions to enroll in a health insurance plan, maintain their current health insurance plan, and talk with their parents about their parents having health insurance. In doing so, we relied on the revised reasoned action approach advanced by Fishbein and his associates (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010; Yzer, 2012, 2013). Results showed that the constructs predicted intentions to enroll in health insurance for those with no insurance and for those with government-sponsored insurance and intentions to maintain insurance for those currently insured. Our study demonstrates the applicability of the revised reasoned action framework within this context and is discussed with an emphasis on the practical and theoretical contributions.

  19. Community College Students' Health Insurance Enrollment, Maintenance, and Talking With Parents Intentions: An Application of the Reasoned Action Approach.

    PubMed

    Huhman, Marian; Quick, Brian L; Payne, Laura

    2016-05-01

    A primary objective of health care reform is to provide affordable and quality health insurance to individuals. Currently, promotional efforts have been moderately successful in registering older, more mature adults yet comparatively less successful in registering younger adults. With this challenge in mind, we conducted extensive formative research to better understand the attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of community college students. More specifically, we examined how each relates to their intentions to enroll in a health insurance plan, maintain their current health insurance plan, and talk with their parents about their parents having health insurance. In doing so, we relied on the revised reasoned action approach advanced by Fishbein and his associates (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010; Yzer, 2012, 2013). Results showed that the constructs predicted intentions to enroll in health insurance for those with no insurance and for those with government-sponsored insurance and intentions to maintain insurance for those currently insured. Our study demonstrates the applicability of the revised reasoned action framework within this context and is discussed with an emphasis on the practical and theoretical contributions. PMID:27054607

  20. The Study of the Development of Writing Skill in the Textbooks of the Action-Oriented Approach, a Case of Iranian Learners of FFL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradian, Motahareh; Rahmatian, Rouholah

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the written competence and corpus of Iranian learners of French at two levels (A1 and A2). The data were collected in a quantified and qualified manner with auto evaluation grids and narrative text writing to analyze the action-oriented approach textbooks' efficiency in writing. Basically the approach of the three manuals,…

  1. Physiological approaches to understanding molecular actions on dorsolateral prefrontal cortical neurons underlying higher cognitive processing

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Min; ARNSTEN, Amy F.T.

    2015-01-01

    Revealing how molecular mechanisms influence higher brain circuits in primates will be essential for understanding how genetic insults lead to increased risk of cognitive disorders. Traditionally, modulatory influences on higher cortical circuits have been examined using lesion techniques, where a brain region is depleted of a particular transmitter to determine how its loss impacts cognitive function. For example, depletion of catecholamines or acetylcholine from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex produces striking deficits in working memory abilities. More directed techniques have utilized direct infusions of drug into a specific cortical site to try to circumvent compensatory changes that are common following transmitter depletion. The effects of drug on neuronal firing patterns are often studied using iontophoresis, where a minute amount of drug is moved into the brain using a tiny electrical current, thus minimizing the fluid flow that generally disrupts neuronal recordings. All of these approaches can be compared to systemic drug administration, which remains a key arena for the development of effective therapeutics for human cognitive disorders. Most recently, viral techniques are being developed to be able to manipulate proteins for which there is no developed pharmacology, and to allow optogenetic manipulations in primate cortex. As the association cortices greatly expand in brain evolution, research in nonhuman primates is particularly important for understanding the modulatory regulation of our highest order cognitive operations. PMID:26646567

  2. A Multiplatform Metabolomic Approach to the Basis of Antimonial Action and Resistance in Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Castilho-Martins, Emerson A.; Tavares, Marina F. M.; Barbas, Coral; López-Gonzálvez, Ángeles; Rivas, Luis

    2015-01-01

    There is a rising resistance against antimony drugs, the gold-standard for treatment until some years ago. That is a serious problem due to the paucity of drugs in current clinical use. In a research to reveal how these drugs affect the parasite during treatment and to unravel the underlying basis for their resistance, we have employed metabolomics to study treatment in Leishmania infantum promastigotes. This was accomplished first through the untargeted analysis of metabolic snapshots of treated and untreated parasites both resistant and responders, utilizing a multiplatform approach to give the widest as possible coverage of the metabolome, and additionally through novel monitoring of the origin of the detected alterations through a 13C traceability experiment. Our data stress a multi-target metabolic alteration with treatment, affecting in particular the cell redox system that is essential to cope with detoxification and biosynthetic processes. Additionally, relevant changes were noted in amino acid metabolism. Our results are in agreement with other authors studying other Leishmania species. PMID:26161866

  3. Physiological approaches to understanding molecular actions on dorsolateral prefrontal cortical neurons underlying higher cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Arnsten, Amy F T

    2015-11-18

    Revealing how molecular mechanisms influence higher brain circuits in primates will be essential for understanding how genetic insults lead to increased risk of cognitive disorders. Traditionally, modulatory influences on higher cortical circuits have been examined using lesion techniques, where a brain region is depleted of a particular transmitter to determine how its loss impacts cognitive function. For example, depletion of catecholamines or acetylcholine from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex produces striking deficits in working memory abilities. More directed techniques have utilized direct infusions of drug into a specific cortical site to try to circumvent compensatory changes that are common following transmitter depletion. The effects of drug on neuronal firing patterns are often studied using iontophoresis, where a minute amount of drug is moved into the brain using a tiny electrical current, thus minimizing the fluid flow that generally disrupts neuronal recordings. All of these approaches can be compared to systemic drug administration, which remains a key arena for the development of effective therapeutics for human cognitive disorders. Most recently, viral techniques are being developed to be able to manipulate proteins for which there is no developed pharmacology, and to allow optogenetic manipulations in primate cortex. As the association cortices greatly expand in brain evolution, research in nonhuman primates is particularly important for understanding the modulatory regulation of our highest order cognitive operations. PMID:26646567

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 538: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 538: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. It has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. A SAFER may be performed when the following criteria are met: (1) Conceptual corrective actions are clearly identified (although some degree of investigation may be necessary to select a specific corrective action before completion of the Corrective Action Investigation [CAI]). (2) Uncertainty of the nature, extent, and corrective action must be limited to an acceptable level of risk. (3) The SAFER Plan includes decision points and criteria for making data quality objective (DQO) decisions. The purpose of the investigation will be to document and verify the adequacy of existing information; to affirm the decision for either clean closure, closure in place, or no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action. The actual corrective action selected will be based on characterization activities implemented under this SAFER Plan. This SAFER Plan identifies decision points developed in cooperation with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and where DOE will reach consensus with NDEP before beginning the next phase of work.

  5. A multi-scale approach to cost/benefit analyses of landslide prevention vs. post-event actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salbego, G.; Floris, M.; Busnardo, E.; Toaldo, M.

    2015-02-01

    The main aim of this paper is to test economic benefits of landslide prevention measures vs. post-event emergency actions. To this end, small and large scale analyses were performed in a training area located in the North-Eastern Italian pre-Alps that was hit by an exceptional rainfall event occurred in November 2010. At the small-scale, landslide susceptibility was initially assessed using a simple probabilistic analysis, which allowed to highlight the main landslide conditioning factors and the most hazardous areas. However, this approach revealed to be quite insufficient to reach planned goals, so a large-scale case-by-case analysis was performed: a study case was defined, according to landslide occurrence frequency and assessment of elements at risk. Numerical modeling demonstrated that remedial works carried out after the landslide - water-removal intervention such as a drainage trench - could have improved slope stability if applied before its occurrence. Then, a cost-benefit analysis was finally employed. It defined that prevention would have been economically convenient compared to a non-preventive and passive attitude, allowing a 30% saving relative to total costs. Therefore, this kind of approach could be actually used as a mean toward preventive soil protection not only within the investigated case study, but also in all those hazardous areas where preventive measures are needed.

  6. Facilitating progress in health behaviour theory development and modification: the reasoned action approach as a case study.

    PubMed

    Head, Katharine J; Noar, Seth M

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the question: what are barriers to health behaviour theory development and modification, and what potential solutions can be proposed? Using the reasoned action approach (RAA) as a case study, four areas of theory development were examined: (1) the theoretical domain of a theory; (2) tension between generalisability and utility, (3) criteria for adding/removing variables in a theory, and (4) organisational tracking of theoretical developments and formal changes to theory. Based on a discussion of these four issues, recommendations for theory development are presented, including: (1) the theoretical domain for theories such as RAA should be clarified; (2) when there is tension between generalisability and utility, utility should be given preference given the applied nature of the health behaviour field; (3) variables should be formally removed/amended/added to a theory based on their performance across multiple studies and (4) organisations and researchers with a stake in particular health areas may be best suited for tracking the literature on behaviour-specific theories and making refinements to theory, based on a consensus approach. Overall, enhancing research in this area can provide important insights for more accurately understanding health behaviours and thus producing work that leads to more effective health behaviour change interventions.

  7. Facilitating progress in health behaviour theory development and modification: the reasoned action approach as a case study.

    PubMed

    Head, Katharine J; Noar, Seth M

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the question: what are barriers to health behaviour theory development and modification, and what potential solutions can be proposed? Using the reasoned action approach (RAA) as a case study, four areas of theory development were examined: (1) the theoretical domain of a theory; (2) tension between generalisability and utility, (3) criteria for adding/removing variables in a theory, and (4) organisational tracking of theoretical developments and formal changes to theory. Based on a discussion of these four issues, recommendations for theory development are presented, including: (1) the theoretical domain for theories such as RAA should be clarified; (2) when there is tension between generalisability and utility, utility should be given preference given the applied nature of the health behaviour field; (3) variables should be formally removed/amended/added to a theory based on their performance across multiple studies and (4) organisations and researchers with a stake in particular health areas may be best suited for tracking the literature on behaviour-specific theories and making refinements to theory, based on a consensus approach. Overall, enhancing research in this area can provide important insights for more accurately understanding health behaviours and thus producing work that leads to more effective health behaviour change interventions. PMID:25053006

  8. Gene expression signature-based approach identifies a pro-resolving mechanism of action for histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Melendez, T; Dalli, J; Perretti, M

    2013-01-01

    Despite several therapies being currently available to treat inflammatory diseases, new drugs to treat chronic conditions with less side effects and lower production costs are still needed. An innovative approach to drug discovery, the Connectivity Map (CMap), shows how integrating genome-wide gene expression data of drugs and diseases can accelerate this process. Comparison of genome-wide gene expression data generated with annexin A1 (AnxA1) with the CMap revealed significant alignment with gene profiles elicited by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), what made us to hypothesize that AnxA1 might mediate the anti-inflammatory actions of HDACIs. Addition of HDACIs (valproic acid, sodium butyrate and thricostatin A) to mouse macrophages caused externalization of AnxA1 with concomitant inhibition of cytokine gene expression and release, events that occurred independently as this inhibition was retained in AnxA1 null macrophages. In contrast, novel AnxA1-mediated functions for HDACIs could be unveiled, including promotion of neutrophil apoptosis and macrophage phagocytosis, both steps crucial for effective resolution of inflammation. In a model of acute resolving inflammation, administration of valproic acid and sodium butyrate to mice at the peak of disease accelerated resolution processes in wild type, but much more modestly in AnxA1 null mice. Deeper analyses revealed a role for endogenous AnxA1 in the induction of neutrophil death in vivo by HDACIs. In summary, interrogation of the CMap revealed an unexpected association between HDACIs and AnxA1 that translated in mechanistic findings with particular impact on the processes that regulate the resolution of inflammation. We propose non-genomic modulation of AnxA1 in immune cells as a novel mechanism of action for HDACIs, which may underlie their reported efficacy in models of chronic inflammatory pathologies. PMID:23222458

  9. Using a distribution and conservation status weighted hotspot approach to identify areas in need of conservation action to benefit Idaho bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

  10. Developing the practice context to enable more effective pain management with older people: an action research approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper, which draws upon an Emancipatory Action Research (EAR) approach, unearths how the complexities of context influence the realities of nursing practice. While the intention of the project was to identify and change factors in the practice context that inhibit effective person-centred pain management practices with older people (65 years or older), reflective critical engagement with the findings identified that enhancing pain management practices with older people was dependent on cultural change in the unit as a whole. Methods An EAR approach was utilised. The project was undertaken in a surgical unit that conducted complex abdominal surgery. Eighty-five percent (n = 48) of nursing staff participated in the two-year project (05/NIR02/107). Data were obtained through the use of facilitated critical reflection with nursing staff. Results Three key themes (psychological safety, leadership, oppression) and four subthemes (power, horizontal violence, distorted perceptions, autonomy) were found to influence the way in which effective nursing practice was realised. Within the theme of 'context,' effective leadership and the creation of a psychologically safe environment were key elements in the enhancement of all aspects of nursing practice. Conclusions Whilst other research has identified the importance of 'practice context' and models and frameworks are emerging to address this issue, the theme of 'psychological safety' has been given little attention in the knowledge translation/implementation literature. Within the principles of EAR, facilitated reflective sessions were found to create 'psychologically safe spaces' that supported practitioners to develop effective person-centred nursing practices in complex clinical environments. PMID:21284857

  11. [Constructivist evaluation, under an integrating and intersectoral approach, of actions of the Disque Idoso Project in Sobral (CE, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cibelly Aliny Siqueira Lima; Teófilo, Tiago José Silveira

    2010-09-01

    The population aging in Brazil and in the world is a reason for an epidemic inquietude. So, the violence against senior people has been considered a problem of public health. This study takes as context the health need of seniors that suffer of violence, aiming to evaluate in a constructive way the Disque Idoso Project in Sobral (Ceará, Brazil). We used Furtado's Constructivist Method of Evaluation, which provides practices of participative evaluation. Trying to reach such perspective, we are guided by paths of the integrative approach (inter, multi and transdisciplinary) and intersectoral. We accomplished the focal groups with representatives of the sections of health, social assistance, justice and senior, the benefited by the project as well as others that contribute to its development. When interacting with the professionals that act in the project headquarters we understood that there is a fear in publishing their work, because there is not structure to enlarge the attendance. The group believes that the efficiency of its actions is limited due to the lack of transport and other professionals. For the professionals of the support social networks, the project should look for intersectoral performance, once it intends to reach a complete attendance. For the seniors, the project is quite valid and needs to be consolidated in the district.

  12. Predictors of FIFA 11+ Implementation Intention in Female Adolescent Soccer: An Application of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) Model.

    PubMed

    McKay, Carly D; Merrett, Charlotte K; Emery, Carolyn A

    2016-01-01

    The Fédération Internationale de Football (FIFA) 11+ warm-up program is efficacious at preventing lower limb injury in youth soccer; however, there has been poor adoption of the program in the community. The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) behavior change model in predicting intention to use the FIFA 11+ in a sample of 12 youth soccer teams (coaches n = 10; 12-16 year old female players n = 200). A bespoke cross-sectional questionnaire measured pre-season risk perceptions, outcome expectancies, task self-efficacy, facilitators, barriers, and FIFA 11+ implementation intention. Most coaches (90.0%) and players (80.0%) expected the program to reduce injury risk but reported limited intention to use it. Player data demonstrated an acceptable fit to the hypothesized model (standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.08; root mean square of error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.06 (0.047-0.080); comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.93; Tucker Lewis index (TLI) = 0.91) Task self-efficacy (β = 0.53, p ≤ 0.01) and outcome expectancies (β = 0.13 p ≤ 0.05) were positively associated with intention, but risk perceptions were not (β = -0.02). The findings suggest that the HAPA model is appropriate for use in this context, and highlight the need to target task self-efficacy and outcome expectancies in FIFA 11+ implementation strategies.

  13. Using the health action process approach to predict and improve health outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    MacPhail, Mariana; Mullan, Barbara; Sharpe, Louise; MacCann, Carolyn; Todd, Jemma

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the predictive utility of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) and test a HAPA-based healthy eating intervention, in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods The study employed a prospective, randomized, controlled trial design. The 4-month intervention consisted of self-guided HAPA-based workbooks in addition to two telephone calls to assist participants with the program implementation, and was compared to “treatment as usual”. Participants (n=87) completed health measures (diet, body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, lipid levels, and diabetes distress) and HAPA measures prior to the intervention and again upon completion 4 months later. Results The overall HAPA model predicted BMI, although only risk awareness and recovery self-efficacy were significant independent contributors. Risk awareness, intentions, and self-efficacy were also independent predictors of health outcomes; however, the HAPA did not predict healthy eating. No significant time × condition interaction effects were found for diet or any HAPA outcome measures. Conclusion Despite the success of HAPA in predicting health outcomes for those with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the intervention was unsuccessful in changing healthy eating or any of the other measured variables, and alternative low-cost health interventions for those with type 2 diabetes mellitus should be explored. PMID:25342914

  14. Predictors of FIFA 11+ Implementation Intention in Female Adolescent Soccer: An Application of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) Model.

    PubMed

    McKay, Carly D; Merrett, Charlotte K; Emery, Carolyn A

    2016-01-01

    The Fédération Internationale de Football (FIFA) 11+ warm-up program is efficacious at preventing lower limb injury in youth soccer; however, there has been poor adoption of the program in the community. The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) behavior change model in predicting intention to use the FIFA 11+ in a sample of 12 youth soccer teams (coaches n = 10; 12-16 year old female players n = 200). A bespoke cross-sectional questionnaire measured pre-season risk perceptions, outcome expectancies, task self-efficacy, facilitators, barriers, and FIFA 11+ implementation intention. Most coaches (90.0%) and players (80.0%) expected the program to reduce injury risk but reported limited intention to use it. Player data demonstrated an acceptable fit to the hypothesized model (standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.08; root mean square of error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.06 (0.047-0.080); comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.93; Tucker Lewis index (TLI) = 0.91) Task self-efficacy (β = 0.53, p ≤ 0.01) and outcome expectancies (β = 0.13 p ≤ 0.05) were positively associated with intention, but risk perceptions were not (β = -0.02). The findings suggest that the HAPA model is appropriate for use in this context, and highlight the need to target task self-efficacy and outcome expectancies in FIFA 11+ implementation strategies. PMID:27399746

  15. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration (SAFER) plan for corrective action unit 412: clean slate I plutonium dispersion (TTR) tonopah test range, Nevada, revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 412. CAU 412 is located on the Tonopah Test Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-01CS, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1997 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 412 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 412 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information and determine whether the CAU 412 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU.The following summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 412:• Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information.• If no COCs are present, establish clean closure as the corrective action. • If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions will be evaluated with the stakeholders (NDEP, USAF).• Confirm the preferred closure option is sufficient to protect human health and the environment.

  16. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2010-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area (TTR). Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 408 comprises Corrective Action Site TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. Clean closure of CAU 408 will be accomplished by removal of munitions and explosives of concern within seven target areas and potential disposal pits. The target areas were used to perform submunitions related tests for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of CAU 408 is limited to submunitions released from DOE activities. However, it is recognized that the presence of other types of unexploded ordnance and munitions may be present within the target areas due to the activities of other government organizations. The CAU 408 closure activities consist of: • Clearing bomblet target areas within the study area. • Identifying and remediating disposal pits. • Collecting verification samples. • Performing radiological screening of soil. • Removing soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include unexploded submunitions, explosives, Resource Conservation Recovery Act metals, and depleted uranium. Contaminants are not expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results.

  17. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites. CAU 398, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996), and consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1): (1) CAS 25-44-01 , a fuel spill on soil that covers a concrete pad. The origins and use of the spill material are unknown, but the spill is suspected to be railroad bedding material. (2) CAS 25-44-02, a spill of liquid to the soil from leaking drums. (3) CAS 25-44-03, a spill of oil from two leaking drums onto a concrete pad and surrounding soil. (4) CAS 25-44-04, a spill from two tanks containing sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide used for a water demineralization process. (5) CAS 25-25-02, a fuel or oil spill from leaking drums that were removed in 1992. (6) CAS 25-25-03, an oil spill adjacent to a tipped-over drum. The source of the drum is not listed, although it is noted that the drum was removed in 1991. (7) CAS 25-25-04, an area on the north side of the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility, where oils and cooling fluids from metal machining operations were poured directly onto the ground. (8) CAS 25-25-05, an area of oil and/or hydraulic fluid spills beneath the heavy equipment once stored there. (9) CAS 25-25-06, an area of diesel fuel staining beneath two generators that have since been removed. (10) CAS 25-25-07, an area of hydraulic oil spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside X-Tunnel. (11) CAS 25-25-08, an area of hydraulic fluid spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside Y-Tunnel. (12) CAS 25-25-16, a diesel fuel spill from an above-ground storage tank located near Building 3320 at Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) that was removed in 1998. (13) CAS 25-25-17, a hydraulic oil spill

  18. The Health Action Process Approach as a Motivational Model of Dietary Self-Management for People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chung-Yi; Lynch, Ruth Torkelson; Chan, Fong; Rose, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the health action process approach (HAPA) as a motivational model for dietary self-management for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Quantitative descriptive research design using path analysis was used. Participants were 209 individuals with MS recruited from the National MS Society and a…

  19. Re-Imagining "Bildung Zur Humanität": How I Developed the Dialogos Approach to Practical Philosophy through Action Inquiry Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helskog, Guro Hansen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an account of how I developed the Dialogos approach to practical philosophy through action inquiry research. The process of development is understood as a contribution to the reconstruction of the notion "Bildung zur Humanität" as an ideal in education. Core perspectives, traditions and purposes involved in the action…

  20. Join Us in a Participatory Approach to Training, Learning & Production. A Practical Guide to the Action Training Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frings, A.; And Others

    This handbook is intended to help trainers and development workers plan and conduct training programs based on the Action Training Model (ATM). The ATM combines training with action and learning with production by building upon participants' knowledge and learning needs and involving participants in a process of active learning and cooperative…

  1. From Monitoring Users to Controlling User Actions: A New Perspective on the User-Centred Approach to CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Qing

    2007-01-01

    It is argued in this article that user actions need to be monitored to understand what has happened during the learning process. Monitoring on its own is not enough; user actions also need to be controlled to some degree so that users can receive the guidance they need to help them to the successful completion of the learning tasks in CALL…

  2. An "Acción" Approach to Affirmative Action: Hispanic-Serving Institutions as Spaces for Fostering Epistemic Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Leslie D.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, readers are asked to suspend conventional notions of affirmative action as a policy that ensures equitable admissions practices to the nation's most elite post secondary institutions, and instead to consider how affirmative action might be understood as a way to challenge the relations of power that govern the legitimation of…

  3. Predictors of FIFA 11+ Implementation Intention in Female Adolescent Soccer: An Application of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) Model

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Carly D.; Merrett, Charlotte K.; Emery, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    The Fédération Internationale de Football (FIFA) 11+ warm-up program is efficacious at preventing lower limb injury in youth soccer; however, there has been poor adoption of the program in the community. The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) behavior change model in predicting intention to use the FIFA 11+ in a sample of 12 youth soccer teams (coaches n = 10; 12–16 year old female players n = 200). A bespoke cross-sectional questionnaire measured pre-season risk perceptions, outcome expectancies, task self-efficacy, facilitators, barriers, and FIFA 11+ implementation intention. Most coaches (90.0%) and players (80.0%) expected the program to reduce injury risk but reported limited intention to use it. Player data demonstrated an acceptable fit to the hypothesized model (standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.08; root mean square of error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.06 (0.047–0.080); comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.93; Tucker Lewis index (TLI) = 0.91) Task self-efficacy (β = 0.53, p ≤ 0.01) and outcome expectancies (β = 0.13 p ≤ 0.05) were positively associated with intention, but risk perceptions were not (β = −0.02). The findings suggest that the HAPA model is appropriate for use in this context, and highlight the need to target task self-efficacy and outcome expectancies in FIFA 11+ implementation strategies. PMID:27399746

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. It has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. A SAFER may be performed when the following criteria are met: (1) Conceptual corrective actions are clearly identified (although some degree of investigation may be necessary to select a specific corrective action before completion of the Corrective Action Investigation [CAI]); (2) Uncertainty of the nature, extent, and corrective action must be limited to an acceptable level of risk; (3) The SAFER Plan includes decision points and criteria for making data quality objective (DQO) decisions. The purpose of the investigation will be to document and verify the adequacy of existing information; to affirm the decision for clean closure, closure in place, or no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action. The actual corrective action selected will be based on characterization activities implemented under this SAFER Plan. This SAFER Plan identifies decision points developed in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP), where the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) will reach consensus with the NDEP before beginning the next phase of work. Corrective Action Unit 553 is located in Areas 19 and 20 of the NTS, approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: 19-99-01, Mud Spill; 19-99-11, Mud Spill; 20-09-09, Mud Spill; and 20-99-03, Mud Spill. There is sufficient information and process

  5. A new approach to the characterization of subtle errors in everyday action: implications for mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Sarah C; Giovannetti, Tania; Sestito, John; Libon, David J

    2014-01-01

    Mild functional difficulties have been associated with early cognitive decline in older adults and increased risk for conversion to dementia in mild cognitive impairment, but our understanding of this decline has been limited by a dearth of objective methods. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of a new system to code subtle errors on an established performance-based measure of everyday action and described preliminary findings within the context of a theoretical model of action disruption. Here 45 older adults completed the Naturalistic Action Test (NAT) and neuropsychological measures. NAT performance was coded for overt errors, and subtle action difficulties were scored using a novel coding system. An inter-rater reliability coefficient was calculated. Validity of the coding system was assessed using a repeated-measures ANOVA with NAT task (simple versus complex) and error type (overt versus subtle) as within-group factors. Correlation/regression analyses were conducted among overt NAT errors, subtle NAT errors, and neuropsychological variables. The coding of subtle action errors was reliable and valid, and episodic memory breakdown predicted subtle action disruption. Results suggest that the NAT can be useful in objectively assessing subtle functional decline. Treatments targeting episodic memory may be most effective in addressing early functional impairment in older age.

  6. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 124: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Draft), Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 124, Areas 8, 15, and 16 Storage Tanks, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 124 consists of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8, 15, and 16 of the Nevada Test Site as follows: • 08-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 15-02-01, Irrigation Piping • 16-02-03, Underground Storage Tank • 16-02-04, Fuel Oil Piping • 16-99-04, Fuel Line (Buried) and UST This plan provides the methodology of field activities necessary to gather information to close each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 124 using the SAFER process.

  7. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 430, buried depleted uranium artillery round No. 1, Tonopah test range

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This plan addresses actions necessary for the restoration and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 430, Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1 (Corrective Action Site No. TA-55-003-0960), a buried and unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) artillery test projectile with high explosives (HE), at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in south-central Nevada. It describes activities that will occur at the site as well as the steps that will be taken to gather adequate data to obtain a notice of completion from Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan.

  8. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 113: Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Building Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Smith

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure in place of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 113 Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility (R-MAD). CAU 113 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-04-01, R-MAD Facility (Figures 1-2). This plan provides the methodology for closure in place of CAU 113. The site contains radiologically impacted and hazardous material. Based on preassessment field work, there is sufficient process knowledge to close in place CAU 113 using the SAFER process. At a future date when funding becomes available, the R-MAD Building (25-3110) will be demolished and inaccessible radiologic waste will be properly disposed in the Area 3 Radiological Waste Management Site (RWMS).

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 411. Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis), Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 411, Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis). CAU 411 is located on the Nevada Test and Training Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), NAFR-23-01, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1996 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 411 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 411 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, and to determine whether the CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU. The results of the field investigation will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on November 20, 2014, by representatives of NDEP, the U.S. Air Force (USAF), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine whether CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. The following text summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 411; Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information; If COCs are no longer present, establish clean closure as the corrective action; If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions

  10. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117: Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada With Errata Sheets, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Pat Matthews

    2007-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117, Pluto Disassembly Facility, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 117 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 26-41-01, located in Area 26 of the Nevada Test Site. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing CAS 26-41-01. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 117 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before finalizing the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary following SAFER activities. This will be presented in a Closure Report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The site will be investigated to meet the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 27, 2007, by representatives of NDEP; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for CAS 26-41-01 in CAU 117.

  11. A Network Pharmacology Approach to Determine Active Compounds and Action Mechanisms of Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian Decoction for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiying; Zhao, Linhua; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Yuyu; Wang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Liu, Hongxing; Li, Shao; Tong, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulae can be valuable therapeutic strategies and drug discovery resources. However, the active ingredients and action mechanisms of most TCM formulae remain unclear. Therefore, the identification of potent ingredients and their actions is a major challenge in TCM research. In this study, we used a network pharmacology approach we previously developed to help determine the potential antidiabetic ingredients from the traditional Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction (GGQLD) formula. We predicted the target profiles of all available GGQLD ingredients to infer the active ingredients by clustering the target profile of ingredients with FDA-approved antidiabetic drugs. We also applied network target analysis to evaluate the links between herbal ingredients and pharmacological actions to help explain the action mechanisms of GGQLD. According to the predicted results, we confirmed that a novel antidiabetic ingredient from Puerariae Lobatae radix (Ge-Gen), 4-Hydroxymephenytoin, increased the insulin secretion in RIN-5F cells and improved insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The network pharmacology strategy used here provided a powerful means for identifying bioactive ingredients and mechanisms of action for TCM herbal formulae, including Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction. PMID:24527048

  12. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 575: Area 15 Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 575, Area 15 Miscellaneous Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). CAU 575 comprises the following four corrective action sites (CASs) located in Area 15 of the Nevada National Security Site: 15-19-02, Waste Burial Pit, 15-30-01, Surface Features at Borehole Sites, 15-64-01, Decontamination Area, 15-99-03, Aggregate Plant This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 575 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, to affirm the predicted corrective action decisions, and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective actions. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval.

  13. Anger fosters action. Fast responses in a motor task involving approach movements toward angry faces and bodies.

    PubMed

    de Valk, Josje M; Wijnen, Jasper G; Kret, Mariska E

    2015-01-01

    Efficiently responding to others' emotions, especially threatening expressions such as anger and fear, can have great survival value. Previous research has shown that humans have a bias toward threatening stimuli. Most of these studies focused on facial expressions, yet emotions are expressed by the whole body, and not just by the face. Body language contains a direct action component, and activates action preparation areas in the brain more than facial expressions. Hence, biases toward threat may be larger following threatening bodily expressions as compared to facial expressions. The current study investigated reaction times of movements directed toward emotional bodies and faces. For this purpose, a new task was developed where participants were standing in front of a computer screen on which angry, fearful, and neutral faces and bodies were presented which they had to touch as quickly as possible. Results show that participants responded faster to angry than to neutral stimuli, regardless of the source (face or body). No significant difference was observed between fearful and neutral stimuli, demonstrating that the threat bias was not related to the negativity of the stimulus, but likely to the directness of the threat in relation to the observer. Whereas fearful stimuli might signal an environmental threat that requires further exploration before action, angry expressions signal a direct threat to the observer, asking for immediate action. This study provides a novel and implicit method to directly test the speed of actions toward emotions from the whole body. PMID:26388793

  14. Discourses of dementia: a call for an ethnographic, action research approach to care in linguistically and culturally diverse environments.

    PubMed

    Müller, Nicole; Guendouzi, Jacqueline A

    2009-08-01

    The methods of ethnography and action research have much to offer to the field of speech-language pathology, particularly as our clinical populations are becoming increasingly diverse. We suggest that practicing speech-language pathologists and students, as well as researchers, will benefit from strategies that use the methods of participatory action research and ethnography as guiding principles to their work. Ethnography seeks to discover meaningful structures in a culture from the perspective of those whose culture it is. Action research, which shares a methodological basis with ethnography, is undertaken with the aim of improving the functioning of the social institution, practice, or structure investigated for the benefit of those most closely involved with that institution or practice. By way of illustration, we use data collected during fieldwork in Louisiana, involving persons with dementia from linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds.

  15. Understanding African American Women’s Decisions to Buy and Eat Dark Green Leafy Vegetables: An Application of the Reasoned Action Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sheats, Jylana L.; Middlestadt, Susan E.; Ona, Fernando F.; Juarez, Paul D.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine intentions to buy and eat dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV). Design Cross-sectional survey assessing demographics, behavior, intention, and Reasoned Action Approach constructs (attitude, perceived norm, self-efficacy). Setting Marion County, Indiana. Participants African American women responsible for buying and preparing household food. Main Outcome Measure(s) Reasoned Action Approach constructs explaining intentions to buy and eat DGLV. Analysis Summary statistics, Pearson correlations, and multiple regression analyses. Results Among participants (n = 410, mean age = 43 y), 76% and 80%, respectively, reported buying and eating DGLV in the past week. Mean consumption was 1.5 cups in the past 3 days. Intentions to buy (r = 0.20, P < .001) and eat (r = 0.23, P < .001) DGLV were positively associated with consumption. Reasoned Action Approach constructs explained 71.2% of the variance in intention to buy, and 60.9% of the variance in intention to eat DGLV. Attitude (β = .63) and self-efficacy (β = .24) related to buying and attitude (β = .60) and self-efficacy (β = .23) related to eating DGLV explained significant amounts of variance in intentions to buy and eat more DGLV. Perceived norm was unrelated to either intention to buy or eat DGLV. Conclusions and Implications Interventions designed for this population of women should aim to improve DGLV-related attitudes and self-efficacy. PMID:24021457

  16. A Non-Blaming Chance and Action Approach to Therapy with Sexually Explicit Media Overuse: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this clinical presentation a non-blaming, non-judgmental approach to overuse of sexually explicit media (SEM) is introduced. This approach normalizes the problem and sees it in the context of evolution and market forces. It is claimed that such an approach contributes to change and strengthens the therapeutic alliance. A new technique utilizing…

  17. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 540: Spill Sites Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0, with Errata

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, Laura

    2005-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 540, Spill Sites, identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. Corrective Action Unit 540 consists of the nine following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 12 and 19 of the Nevada Test Site: (1) 12-44-01, ER 12-1, Well Site Release; (2) 12-99-01, Oil Stained Dirt; (3) 19-25-02, Oil Spill; (4) 19-25-04, Oil Spill; (5) 19-25-05, Oil Spill; (6) 19-25-06, Oil Spill; (7) 19-25-07, Oil Spill; (8) 19-25-08, Oil Spills (3); and (9) 19-44-03, U-19bf Drill Site Release. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 540 using the SAFER process. The data quality objective process developed for this CAU identified the following expected closure options: (1) investigation and confirmation that no contamination exists above the final action levels (FALs), leading to a no further action declaration; (2) characterization of the nature and extent of contamination, leading to closure in place with use restrictions; or (3) clean closure by remediation and verification. The expected closure options were selected based on available information including contaminants of potential concern (COPC), future land use, and assumed risks. A decision flow process was developed to define an approach necessary to achieve closure. There are two decisions that need to be resolved for closure. Decision I is to conduct an investigation to determine whether COPCs are present in concentrations exceeding the FALs. If COPCs are found to be present above FALs, excavation of the contaminated material will occur with the collection of confirmation samples to ensure

  18. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  19. Influencing Teacher Efficacy through Action Research: The Implementation of an Embedded, Standards-Based Professional Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Payne, Taisha C.

    2013-01-01

    This action research study examined the implementation and impact of a job-embedded professional development intervention that included professional learning community (PLC) sessions and individualized feedback and coaching. Participants in the study were eight high school teachers who had historically demonstrated poor classroom performance and…

  20. Forecast-based financing: an approach for catalyzing humanitarian action based on extreme weather and climate forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan de Perez, E.; van den Hurk, B.; van Aalst, M.; Jongman, B.; Klose, T.; Suarez, P.

    2014-05-01

    Disaster risk reduction efforts traditionally focus on long-term preventative measures or post-disaster response. Outside of these, there are many short-term actions, such as evacuation, that can be implemented in the period of time between a warning and a potential disaster to reduce the risk of impacts. However, this precious window of opportunity is regularly overlooked in the case of climate and weather forecasts, which can indicate heightened risk of disaster but are rarely used to initiate preventative action. Barriers range from the protracted debate over the best strategy for intervention to the inherent uncomfortableness on the part of donors to invest in a situation that will "likely" arrive but is not certain. In general, it is unclear what levels of forecast probability and magnitude are "worth" reacting to. Here, we propose a novel forecast-based financing system to automatically trigger action based on climate forecasts or observations. The system matches threshold forecast probabilities with appropriate actions, disburses required funding when threshold forecasts are issued, and develops Standard Operating Procedures that contain the mandate to act when these threshold forecasts are issued. We detail the methods that can be used to establish such a system, and provide illustrations from several pilot cases. Ultimately, such as system can be scaled up in disaster-prone areas worldwide to improve effectiveness at reducing the risk of disaster.

  1. Forecast-based financing: an approach for catalyzing humanitarian action based on extreme weather and climate forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan de Perez, E.; van den Hurk, B.; van Aalst, M. K.; Jongman, B.; Klose, T.; Suarez, P.

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk reduction efforts traditionally focus on long-term preventative measures or post-disaster response. Outside of these, there are many short-term actions, such as evacuation, that can be implemented in the period of time between a warning and a potential disaster to reduce the risk of impacts. However, this precious window of opportunity is regularly overlooked in the case of climate and weather forecasts, which can indicate heightened risk of disaster but are rarely used to initiate preventative action. Barriers range from the protracted debate over the best strategy for intervention to the inherent uncomfortableness on the part of donors to invest in a situation that will likely arise but is not certain. In general, it is unclear what levels of forecast probability and magnitude are "worth" reacting to. Here, we propose a novel forecast-based financing system to automatically trigger action based on climate forecasts or observations. The system matches threshold forecast probabilities with appropriate actions, disburses required funding when threshold forecasts are issued, and develops standard operating procedures that contain the mandate to act when these threshold forecasts are issued. We detail the methods that can be used to establish such a system, and provide illustrations from several pilot cases. Ultimately, such a system can be scaled up in disaster-prone areas worldwide to improve effectiveness at reducing the risk of disaster.

  2. Beyond the Catch-22 of School-Based Social Action Programs: Toward a More Pragmatic Approach for Dealing with Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehrman, Darwyn; Schutz, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    This study examines a two-year effort to engage groups of inner-city students in community engagement projects at Social Action Charter High School, SACHS, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In this project, graduate student volunteers coached small groups of students working on community change projects, collecting data on what happened over time. Kahne…

  3. "What If? As If", An Approach to Action Research Practice: Becoming-Different in School-Age Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Eva

    2015-01-01

    When doing research, or for that matter working in school-age childcare, the researcher/teacher is required to develop a plan for her/his work in spite of knowing that unexpected things will happen. This article aims to explore the relationship between the process of planning and unexpected events in childcare practice and action research. The…

  4. Collaborative Action Research Approach Promoting Professional Development for Teachers of Students with Visual Impairment in Assistive Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argyropoulos, Vassilios; Nikolaraizi, Magda; Tsiakali, Thomai; Kountrias, Polychronis; Koutsogiorgou, Sofia-Marina; Martos, Aineias

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the framework and discusses the results of an action research project which aimed to facilitate the adoption of assistive technology devices and specialized software by teachers of students with visual impairment via a digital educational game, developed specifically for this project. The persons involved in this…

  5. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 114: Area 25 EMAD Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burmeister

    2009-08-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 114, Area 25 EMAD Facility, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 114 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs) located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site: • 25-41-03, EMAD Facility • 25-99-20, EMAD Facility Exterior Releases This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 114 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. It is anticipated that the results of the field investigation and implementation of a corrective action of clean closure will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. If it is determined that complete clean closure cannot be accomplished during the SAFER, then a hold point will have been reached and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) will be consulted to determine whether the remaining contamination will be closed under the alternative corrective action of closure in place. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to NDEP for review and approval. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 30, 2009, by representatives of NDEP; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data

  6. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  7. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechel Nevada

    2004-05-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (Tonopah Test Range). CAU 484 consists of sites located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 484 consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites: (1) CAS RG-52-007-TAML, Davis Gun Penetrator Test; (2) CAS TA-52-001-TANL, NEDS Detonation Area; (3) CAS TA-52-004-TAAL, Metal Particle Dispersion Test; (4) CAS TA-52-005-TAAL, Joint Test Assembly DU Sites; (5) CAS TA-52-006-TAPL, Depleted Uranium Site; and (6) CAS TA-54-001-TANL, Containment Tank and Steel Structure

  8. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 118: Area 27 Super Kukla Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    SciTech Connect

    David Strand

    2006-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 118, Area 27 Super Kukla Facility, identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. Corrective Action Unit 118 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), 27-41-01, located in Area 27 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Site 27-41-01 consists of the following four structures: (1) Building 5400A, Reactor High Bay; (2) Building 5400, Reactor Building and access tunnel; (3) Building 5410, Mechanical Building; and (4) Wooden Shed, a.k.a. ''Brock House''. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing the CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and site confirmation data collected in 2005 and 2006 to recommend closure of CAU 118 using the SAFER process. The Data Quality Objective process developed for this CAU identified the following expected closure option: closure in place with use restrictions. This expected closure option was selected based on available information including contaminants of potential concern, future land use, and assumed risks. There are two decisions that need to be answered for closure. Decision I is to determine the nature of contaminants of concern in environmental media or potential source material that could impact human health or the environment. Decision II is to determine whether or not sufficient information has been obtained to confirm that closure objectives were met. This decision includes determining whether the extent of any contamination remaining on site has been defined, and whether actions have been taken to eliminate exposure pathways.

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 539: Area 25 and Area 26 Railroad Tracks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2010-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 539, Areas 25 and 26 Railroad Tracks, as identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). A modification to the FFACOwas approved in May 2010 to transfer the two Railroad Tracks corrective action sites (CASs) from CAU 114 into CAU539. The two CASs are located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site: • 25-99-21, Area 25 Railroad Tracks • 26-99-05, Area 26 Railroad Tracks This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing the two CASs. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of the CAU 539 Railroad Tracks CASs using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation should support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. If it is determined that complete clean closure cannot be accomplished during the SAFER, then a hold point will have been reached and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) will be consulted to determine whether the remaining contamination will be closed under the alternative corrective action of closure in place with use restrictions. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the NDEP for review and approval. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on December 14, 2009, by representatives of U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Navarro Nevada Environmental Services, LLC (NNES); and National Security Technologies

  10. [Femicide Across Europe COST Action, a transnational cooperation network for the study of and approach to femicide in Europe].

    PubMed

    Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Otero-García, Laura; Boira, Santiago; Marcuello, Chaime; Vives Cases, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Femicide or the murder of women because of their gender is a recognised public health problem as well as a serious violation of human rights. Its magnitude worldwide is still unknown, given the methodological difficulties to differentiate these murders from other female homicides. The European Union programme entitled «European Cooperation in Science and Technology» (COST) launched the «Femicide across Europe» COST Action in 2013, establishing an optimal European framework for transnational cooperation among experts addressing great social and public health challenges such as femicide. This field note describes the main objectives, the participating groups of experts and the mid-term results of this experience.

  11. A Network Pharmacology Approach to Understanding the Mechanisms of Action of Traditional Medicine: Bushenhuoxue Formula for Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao-yong; Cao, Dong-sheng; Ye, Fa-qing; Xiang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has unique therapeutic effects for complex chronic diseases. However, for the lack of an effective systematic approach, the research progress on the effective substances and pharmacological mechanism of action has been very slow. In this paper, by incorporating network biology, bioinformatics and chemoinformatics methods, an integrated approach was proposed to systematically investigate and explain the pharmacological mechanism of action and effective substances of TCM. This approach includes the following main steps: First, based on the known drug targets, network biology was used to screen out putative drug targets; Second, the molecular docking method was used to calculate whether the molecules from TCM and drug targets related to chronic kidney diseases (CKD) interact or not; Third, according to the result of molecular docking, natural product-target network, main component-target network and compound-target network were constructed; Finally, through analysis of network characteristics and literature mining, potential effective multi-components and their synergistic mechanism were putatively identified and uncovered. Bu-shen-Huo-xue formula (BSHX) which was frequently used for treating CKD, was used as the case to demonstrate reliability of our proposed approach. The results show that BSHX has the therapeutic effect by using multi-channel network regulation, such as regulating the coagulation and fibrinolytic balance, and the expression of inflammatory factors, inhibiting abnormal ECM accumulation. Tanshinone IIA, rhein, curcumin, calycosin and quercetin may be potential effective ingredients of BSHX. This research shows that the integration approach can be an effective means for discovering active substances and revealing their pharmacological mechanisms of TCM. PMID:24598793

  12. A clinically applicable approach for detecting spontaneous action potential spikes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with a linear electrode array.

    PubMed

    Jahanmiri-Nezhad, Faezeh; Li, Xiaoyan; Barkhaus, Paul E; Rymer, William Z; Zhou, Ping

    2014-02-01

    Examination of spontaneous muscle activity is an important part of the routine electromyogram (EMG) in assessing neuromuscular diseases. The EMG is specifically valuable as a diagnostic test in supporting the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. High-density surface EMG is a relatively new technique that has until now been used in research but has the potential for clinical application. This study presents a simple high-density surface EMG method for automatic detection of spontaneous action potentials from surface electrode array recordings of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To reduce computational complexity while maintaining useful information from the electrode array recording, the multichannel high-density surface EMG was transferred to single-dimensional data by calculating the maximum difference across all channels of the electrode array. A spike detection threshold was then set in the single-dimensional domain to identify the firing times of each spontaneous action potential spike, whereas a spike extraction threshold was used to define the onset and offset of the spontaneous spikes. These data were used to extract the spontaneous spike waveforms from the electrode array EMG. A database of detected spontaneous spikes was thus obtained, including their waveforms, on all channels along with their corresponding firing times. This newly developed method makes use of the information from different channels of the electrode array EMG recording. It also has the primary feature of being simple and fast in implementation, with convenient parameter adjustment and user-computer interaction. Hence, it has good possibilities for clinical application.

  13. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  14. Prevention and public health approaches to trauma and traumatic stress: a rationale and a call to action

    PubMed Central

    Magruder, Kathryn M.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Thoresen, Siri; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Background The field of trauma and traumatic stress is dominated by studies on treatments for those who experience adversity from traumatic experiences. While this is important, we should not neglect the opportunity to consider trauma in a public health perspective. Such a perspective will help to develop prevention approaches as well as extend the reach of early interventions and treatments. The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction to a public health approach to trauma and traumatic stress and identify key opportunities for trauma professionals and our professional societies (such as the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies [ISTSS] and the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies [ESTSS]) to increase our societal impact by adopting such an approach. Method This paper reviews and summarizes key findings related to the public health impact of trauma. The special case of children is explored, and a case example of the Norwegian terrorist attacks in 2011 illustrates the potential for improving our response to community level traumatic events. We also discuss how professional organizations such as ESTSS and ISTSS, as well as individual trauma professionals, can and should play an important role in promoting a public health approach. Results Trauma is pervasive throughout the world and has negative impacts at the personal, family, community, and societal levels. A public health perspective may help to develop prevention approaches at all of these levels, as well as extend the reach of early interventions and treatments. Conclusions Professional organizations such as ESTSS and ISTSS can and should play an important role in promoting a public health approach. They should promote the inclusion of trauma in the global public health agenda and include public health in their activities. PMID:26996536

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 425, Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area. This CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This site will be cleaned up under the SAFER process since the volume of waste exceeds the 23 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (30 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) limit established for housekeeping sites. CAU 425 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) 09-08-001-TA09, Construction Debris Disposal Area (Figure 1). CAS 09-08-001-TA09 is an area that was used to collect debris from various projects in and around Area 9. The site is located approximately 81 meters (m) (265 feet [ft]) north of Edwards Freeway northeast of Main Lake on the TTR. The site is composed of concrete slabs with metal infrastructure, metal rebar, wooden telephone poles, and concrete rubble from the Hard Target and early Tornado Rocket sled tests. Other items such as wood scraps, plastic pipes, soil, and miscellaneous nonhazardous items have also been identified in the debris pile. It is estimated that this site contains approximately 2280 m{sup 3} (3000 yd{sup 3}) of construction-related debris.

  16. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 415: Project 57 No. 1 Plutonium Dispersion (NTTR), Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick; Burmeister, Mark

    2014-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 415, Project 57 No. 1 Plutonium Dispersion (NTTR). CAU 415 is located on Range 4808A of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) and consists of one corrective action site: NAFR-23-02, Pu Contaminated Soil. The CAU 415 site consists of the atmospheric release of radiological contaminants to surface soil from the Project 57 safety experiment conducted in 1957. The safety experiment released plutonium (Pu), uranium (U), and americium (Am) to the surface soil over an area of approximately 1.9 square miles. This area is currently fenced and posted as a radiological contamination area. Vehicles and debris contaminated by the experiment were subsequently buried in a disposal trench within the surface-contaminated, fenced area and are assumed to have released radiological contamination to subsurface soils. Potential source materials in the form of pole-mounted electrical transformers were also identified at the site and will be removed as part of closure activities.

  17. [Femicide Across Europe COST Action, a transnational cooperation network for the study of and approach to femicide in Europe].

    PubMed

    Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Otero-García, Laura; Boira, Santiago; Marcuello, Chaime; Vives Cases, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Femicide or the murder of women because of their gender is a recognised public health problem as well as a serious violation of human rights. Its magnitude worldwide is still unknown, given the methodological difficulties to differentiate these murders from other female homicides. The European Union programme entitled «European Cooperation in Science and Technology» (COST) launched the «Femicide across Europe» COST Action in 2013, establishing an optimal European framework for transnational cooperation among experts addressing great social and public health challenges such as femicide. This field note describes the main objectives, the participating groups of experts and the mid-term results of this experience. PMID:27321371

  18. A chemical biology approach reveals an opposite action between thermospermine and auxin in xylem development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Kaori; Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Shirasu, Ken; Takahashi, Taku; Motose, Hiroyasu

    2012-04-01

    Thermospermine, a structural isomer of spermine, is produced through the action of ACAULIS5 (ACL5) and suppresses xylem differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. To elucidate the molecular basis of the function of thermospermine, we screened chemical libraries for compounds that can modulate xylem differentiation in the acl5 mutant, which is deficient in thermospermine and shows a severe dwarf phenotype associated with excessive proliferation of xylem vessels. We found that the isooctyl ester of a synthetic auxin, 2,4-D, remarkably enhanced xylem vessel differentiation in acl5 seedlings. 2,4-D, 2,4-D analogs and IAA analogs, including 4-chloro IAA (4-Cl-IAA) and IAA ethyl ester, also enhanced xylem vessel formation, while IAA alone had little or no obvious effect on xylem differentiation. These effects of auxin analogs were observed only in the acl5 mutant but not in the wild type, and were suppressed by the anti-auxin, p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB) and α-(phenyl ethyl-2-one)-IAA (PEO-IAA), and also by thermospermine. Furthermore, the suppressor of acaulis51-d (sac51-d) mutation, which causes SAC51 overexpression in the absence of thermospermine and suppresses the dwarf phenotype of acl5, also suppressed the effect of auxin analogs in acl5. These results suggest that the auxin signaling that promotes xylem differentiation is normally limited by SAC51-mediated thermospermine signaling but can be continually stimulated by exogenous auxin analogs in the absence of thermospermine. The opposite action between thermospermine and auxin may fine-tune the timing and spatial pattern of xylem differentiation.

  19. Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange-LC-MS Approach to Characterize the Action of Heparan Sulfate C5-Epimerase

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Ponnusamy; Victor, Xylophone V.; Nelsen, Emily; Nguyen, Thao Kim Nu; Raman, Karthik; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans regulate a number of biological functions in many systems. Most of the functions of HS are attributed to its unique structure, consisting of sulfated and non-sulfated domains, arising from the differential presence of iduronyl and glucuronyl residues along the polysaccharide chain. A single glucuronyl C5-epimerase enzyme acts on heparan sulfate precursor, converts glucuronyl residues into iduronyl residues and modulates subsequent biosynthetic steps in vivo. The ratios of non-sulfated epimers within the polysaccharide chain have been calculated by resolving radiolabeled GlcA-AManR and IdoA-AManR disaccharides using a tedious paper chromatography technique. Radioactive assay, based on measuring either the release or incorporation of 3H at C5 carbon of uronyl residues of 3H-labeled HS precursor substrate, has been in use over three decades to characterize the action of HS C5-epimerase. We have developed a non-radioactive assay to estimate the epimerase activity through resolving GlcA-AManR and IdoA-AManR disaccharides on HPLC in conjunction with hydrogen/deuterium exchange upon epimerization protocol-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (DEEP-LC-MS). Utilizing this new, non-radioactive based assay, DEEP-LC-MS, we were able to determine the extent of both forward and reverse reaction on the same substrate catalyzed by C5-epimerase. Results from this study also provide insights into the action of C5-epimerase and provide an opportunity to delineate snapshots of biosynthetic events that occur during the HSPG assembly in the Golgi. PMID:21573838

  20. Human ergology that promotes participatory approach to improving safety, health and working conditions at grassroots workplaces: achievements and actions.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2011-12-01

    Participatory approaches are increasingly applied to improve safety, health and working conditions of grassroots workplaces in Asia. The core concepts and methods in human ergology research such as promoting real work life studies, relying on positive efforts of local people (daily life-technology), promoting active participation of local people to identify practical solutions, and learning from local human networks to reach grassroots workplaces, have provided useful viewpoints to devise such participatory training programmes. This study was aimed to study and analyze how human ergology approaches were applied in the actual development and application of three typical participatory training programmes: WISH (Work Improvement for Safe Home) with home workers in Cambodia, WISCON (Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites) with construction workers in Thailand, and WARM (Work Adjustment for Recycling and Managing Waste) with waste collectors in Fiji. The results revealed that all the three programmes, in the course of their developments, commonly applied direct observation methods of the work of target workers before devising the training programmes, learned from existing local good examples and efforts, and emphasized local human networks for cooperation. These methods and approaches were repeatedly applied in grassroots workplaces by taking advantage of their the sustainability and impacts. It was concluded that human ergology approaches largely contributed to the developments and expansion of participatory training programmes and could continue to support the self-help initiatives of local people for promoting human-centred work.

  1. Human ergology that promotes participatory approach to improving safety, health and working conditions at grassroots workplaces: achievements and actions.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2011-12-01

    Participatory approaches are increasingly applied to improve safety, health and working conditions of grassroots workplaces in Asia. The core concepts and methods in human ergology research such as promoting real work life studies, relying on positive efforts of local people (daily life-technology), promoting active participation of local people to identify practical solutions, and learning from local human networks to reach grassroots workplaces, have provided useful viewpoints to devise such participatory training programmes. This study was aimed to study and analyze how human ergology approaches were applied in the actual development and application of three typical participatory training programmes: WISH (Work Improvement for Safe Home) with home workers in Cambodia, WISCON (Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites) with construction workers in Thailand, and WARM (Work Adjustment for Recycling and Managing Waste) with waste collectors in Fiji. The results revealed that all the three programmes, in the course of their developments, commonly applied direct observation methods of the work of target workers before devising the training programmes, learned from existing local good examples and efforts, and emphasized local human networks for cooperation. These methods and approaches were repeatedly applied in grassroots workplaces by taking advantage of their the sustainability and impacts. It was concluded that human ergology approaches largely contributed to the developments and expansion of participatory training programmes and could continue to support the self-help initiatives of local people for promoting human-centred work. PMID:25665213

  2. Action with Friction: A Transactional Approach to Toddlers' Physical Meaning Making of Natural Phenomena and Processes in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaar, Susanne; Ohman, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Research into preschool education has paid a lot of attention to investigating children's conceptual development and cognitive learning about nature, with methods based on observations and verbal interviews before and after a teaching period. The purpose of this study has been to present and illustrate an approach that facilitates the analysis of…

  3. Addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2009-05-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, April 1998 as described in the document Supplemental Investigation Report for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (SIR) dated November 2008. The SIR document was approved by NDEP on December 5, 2008. The approval of the SIR document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the SIR document, this addendum consists of: • This page that refers the reader to the SIR document for additional information • The cover, title, and signature pages of the SIR document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the SIR document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for CASs: • 25-25-09, Spill H940825C (from UST 25-3101-1) • 25-25-14, Spill H940314E (from UST 25-3102-3) • 25-25-15, Spill H941020E (from UST 25-3152-1) These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove these URs because contamination is not present at these sites above the risk-based FALs

  4. Addendum 2 to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2009-05-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, April 1998 as described in the document Supplemental Investigation Report for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (SIR) dated November 2008. The SIR document was approved by NDEP on December 5, 2008. The approval of the SIR document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the SIR document, this addendum consists of: • This page that refers the reader to the SIR document for additional information • The cover, title, and signature pages of the SIR document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the SIR document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for CASs: • 12-25-08, Spill H950524F (from UST 12-B-1) • 12-25-10, Spill H950919A (from UST 12-COMM-1) These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove these URs because contamination is not present at these sites above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining these URs will be

  5. Combination of a proteomics approach and reengineering of meso scale network models for prediction of mode-of-action for tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Balabanov, Stefan; Wilhelm, Thomas; Venz, Simone; Keller, Gunhild; Scharf, Christian; Pospisil, Heike; Braig, Melanie; Barett, Christine; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Walther, Reinhard; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Schuppert, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In drug discovery, the characterisation of the precise modes of action (MoA) and of unwanted off-target effects of novel molecularly targeted compounds is of highest relevance. Recent approaches for identification of MoA have employed various techniques for modeling of well defined signaling pathways including structural information, changes in phenotypic behavior of cells and gene expression patterns after drug treatment. However, efficient approaches focusing on proteome wide data for the identification of MoA including interference with mutations are underrepresented. As mutations are key drivers of drug resistance in molecularly targeted tumor therapies, efficient analysis and modeling of downstream effects of mutations on drug MoA is a key to efficient development of improved targeted anti-cancer drugs. Here we present a combination of a global proteome analysis, reengineering of network models and integration of apoptosis data used to infer the mode-of-action of various tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines expressing wild type as well as TKI resistance conferring mutants of BCR-ABL. The inferred network models provide a tool to predict the main MoA of drugs as well as to grouping of drugs with known similar kinase inhibitory activity patterns in comparison to drugs with an additional MoA. We believe that our direct network reconstruction approach, demonstrated on proteomics data, can provide a complementary method to the established network reconstruction approaches for the preclinical modeling of the MoA of various types of targeted drugs in cancer treatment. Hence it may contribute to the more precise prediction of clinically relevant on- and off-target effects of TKIs. PMID:23326482

  6. Developing and evaluating interventions that are applicable and relevant to inpatients and those who care for them; a multiphase, pragmatic action research approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Randomised controlled trials may be of limited use to evaluate the multidisciplinary and multimodal interventions required to effectively treat complex patients in routine clinical practice; pragmatic action research approaches may provide a suitable alternative. Methods A multiphase, pragmatic, action research based approach was developed to identify and overcome barriers to nutritional care in patients admitted to a metropolitan hospital hip-fracture unit. Results Four sequential action research cycles built upon baseline data including 614 acute hip-fracture inpatients and 30 purposefully sampled clinicians. Reports from Phase I identified barriers to nutrition screening and assessment. Phase II reported post-fracture protein-energy intakes and intake barriers. Phase III built on earlier results; an explanatory mixed-methods study expanded and explored additional barriers and facilitators to nutritional care. Subsequent changes to routine clinical practice were developed and implemented by the treating team between Phase III and IV. These were implemented as a new multidisciplinary, multimodal nutritional model of care. A quasi-experimental controlled, ‘before-and-after’ study was then used to compare the new model of care with an individualised nutritional care model. Engagement of the multidisciplinary team in a multiphase, pragmatic action research intervention doubled energy and protein intakes, tripled return home discharge rates, and effected a 75% reduction in nutritional deterioration during admission in a reflective cohort of hip-fracture inpatients. Conclusions This approach allowed research to be conducted as part of routine clinical practice, captured a more representative patient cohort than previously reported studies, and facilitated exploration of barriers and engagement of the multidisciplinary healthcare workers to identify and implement practical solutions. This study demonstrates substantially different findings to those

  7. Action-Based Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansky, Amy L.; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to domain representation and planning that is fundamentally different from traditional methods; an approach based strictly on actions and their interrelationships, rather than on state-based goals and preconditions. In particular, we focus on the action-based planner COLLAGE, describe its methods for plan-construction, and contrast them with more traditional approaches to planning. Experiences with COLLAGE in realistic domains have shown that the action-based approach is not only more natural to use, but can also be more cost-efficient than traditional planning methods.

  8. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Draft of Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-28

    This plan was prepared as a characterization and closure report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 329: Area 22, Desert Rock Airstrip (DRA) Fuel Spill identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site, consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), 22-44-01, which encompasses an area contaminated by three recorded spills from a 25,000-gallon underground fuel storage tank. The tank was installed in 1980 and was imbedded in sand and gravel approximately 16 feet below the ground surface. Historically, the DRA consisted of a single runway, several portable buildings, two underground storage tanks containing aviation jet fuel, and plumbing to several refueling areas on the ramp. The constituents of potential concern from the spill were total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline or JP-4. This provides the methodology for sampling contaminated soil-vapor and soil to determine what activities, if any, are required for closure of this si te. In addition, there is sufficient process knowledge of the tank's historical use to recommend closure of CAU 329 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process. This process combines elements of the Data Quality Objectives process and the observational approach to help plan and conduct corrective actions. The study concluded that the spill is localized; therefore, it is very unlikely that the underground water supply has been or will be affected by these spills. In addition, there were high levels of carbon dioxide detected above the release which indicate that the spill is currently in the process of undergoing biological degradation and is not migrating. This CAU has been approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to be moved into Appendix III of the FFACO. Closure is expected to be in-place with administrative controls and soil-vapor sampling. A closure report will be prepared and submitted to NDEP for review and approval

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 177: Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 177, Mud Pits and Cellars, identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. Corrective Action Unit 177 consists of the 12 following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8, 9, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site: (1) 08-23-01, Mud Pit and Cellar; (2) 09-09-41, Unknown No.3 Mud Pit/Disposal Area; (3) 09-09-45, U-9bz PS No.1A Mud Pit (1) and Cellar; (4) 09-23-05, Mud Pit and Cellar; (5) 09-23-08, Mud Pit and Cellar; (6) 09-23-09, U-9itsx20 PS No.1A Cellar; (7) 10-23-02, Mud Pit and Cellar; (8) 10-23-03, Mud Pit and Cellar; (9) 19-23-01, Mud Pit and Cellar; (10) 19-23-02, Cellar and Waste Storage Area; (11) 19-23-03, Cellar with Casing; and (12) 20-23-07, Cellar. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 177 using the SAFER process. The data quality objective process developed for this CAU identified the following expected closure options: (1) investigation and confirmation that no contamination exists above the preliminary action levels (PALs), leading to a no further action declaration, or (2) characterization of the nature and extent of contamination, leading to closure in place with use restrictions. The expected closure options were selected based on available information including contaminants of potential concern, future land use, and assumed risks. A decision flow process was developed to outline the collection of data necessary to achieve closure. There are two decisions that need to be answered for closure. Decision I is to determine whether contaminants of potential concern are present in concentrations exceeding the PALs

  10. Biological approaches to characterize the mode of action of two 5-nitroindazolinone prototypes on Trypanosoma cruzi bloodstream trypomastigotes.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Berzal, Cristina; DA Silva, Cristiane França; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Batista, Marcos Meuser; Escario, José A; Arán, Vicente J; Gómez-Barrio, Alicia; Soeiro, Maria DE Nazaré C

    2016-09-01

    The phenotypic activity of two 5-nitroindazolinones, i.e. 2-benzyl-1-propyl (22) and 2-benzyl-1-butyl (24) derivatives, previously proposed as anti-Trypanosoma cruzi prototypes, was presently assayed on bloodstream trypomastigotes (BT) of the moderately drug-resistant Y strain. Further exploration of putative targets and cellular mechanisms involved in their activity was also carried out. Therefore, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution respirometry and flow cytometry procedures were performed on BT treated for up to 24 h with the respective EC50 value of each derivative. Results demonstrated that although 22 and 24 were not as active as benznidazole in this in vitro assay on BT, both compounds triggered important damages in T. cruzi that lead to the parasite death. Ultrastructural alterations included shedding events, detachment of plasma membrane and nuclear envelope, loss of mitochondrial integrity, besides the occurrence of a large number of intracellular vesicles and profiles of endoplasmic reticulum surrounding cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondrion. Moreover, both derivatives affected mitochondrion leading to this organelle dysfunction, as reflected by the inhibition in oxygen consumption and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Altogether, the findings exposed in the present study propose autophagic processes and mitochondrial machinery as part of the mode of action of both 5-nitroindazolinones 22 and 24 on T. cruzi trypomastigotes. PMID:27312370

  11. The predictive relationship between beliefs, attitudes, intentions and secondary school mathematics learning: a theory of reasoned action approach.

    PubMed

    Norwich, B; Jaeger, M

    1989-11-01

    This study investigated how attitudes and intentions about learning mathematics might be related to subsequent mathematics learning and achievement using the Ajzen and Fishbein theory of reasoned action. The sample consisted of 142 boys and girls between 12 and 14 years old in a large inner city comprehensive school who were assessed in a follow-up design over a nine-month period. Beliefs about the outcomes of learning, attitudes to learning, perceptions of significant others' prescriptions about learning, intentions to engage in learning behaviours, self and teacher reported learning behaviour and mathematics achievement were assessed at both stages. Regression analysis suggested that while the expectancy-value components of attitude did relate to learning behaviour intentions, perceived prescriptions did not relate to intentions. There was a weak relationship between the two measures of learning behaviour, but with neither measure did intention independently predict future behaviour once prior behaviour was taken into account. The best predictor of subsequent mathematics achievement was prior achievement, though teacher-reported learning behaviour did have an independent relationship with subsequent achievement. The findings are discussed in terms of the assessment of learning behaviours, the relevance of the behaviour intention construct for repeated multiple behaviours and future work on how affective variables might be related to cognitive achievements.

  12. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 465: Hydronuclear Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 465, Hydronuclear, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 465 comprises the following four corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 6 and 27 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) 00-23-01, Hydronuclear Experiment; (2) 00-23-02, Hydronuclear Experiment; (3) 00-23-03, Hydronuclear Experiment; (4) 06-99-01, Hydronuclear. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 6, 2011, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for each CAS in CAU 465. For CAU 465, two potential release components have been identified. The subsurface release component includes potential releases of radiological and nonradiological contaminants from the subsurface hydronuclear experiments and disposal boreholes. The surface release component consists of other potential releases of radiological and nonradiological contaminants to surface soils that may have occurred during the pre- and post-test activities. This plan provides the methodology for collection of the necessary information for closing each CAS component. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation, contaminant characteristics, existing regional and site groundwater models, and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 465 using the SAFER process. For potential subsurface releases, flow and transport models will be developed to integrate existing data into a conservative

  13. Evaluation of nystatin containing chitosan hydrogels as potential dual action bio-active restorative materials: in vitro approach.

    PubMed

    Perchyonok, V Tamara; Reher, Vanessa; Zhang, Shengmiao; Basson, Nicki; Grobler, Sias

    2014-11-28

    Healing is a specific biological process related to the general phenomenon of growth and tissue regeneration and is a process generally affected by several systemic conditions or as detrimental side-effects of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced inflammation of the oral mucosa. The objectives of this study is to evaluate the novel chitosan based functional drug delivery systems, which can be successfully incorporated into "dual action bioactive restorative materials", capable of inducing in vitro improved wound healing prototype and containing an antibiotic, such as nystatin, krill oil as an antioxidant and hydroxyapatite as a molecular bone scaffold, which is naturally present in bone and is reported to be successfully used in promoting bone integration when implanted as well as promoting healing. The hydrogels were prepared using a protocol as previously reported by us. The physico-chemical features, including surface morphology (SEM), release behaviors, stability of the therapeutic agent-antioxidant-chitosan, were measured and compared to the earlier reported chitosan-antioxidant containing hydrogels. Structural investigations of the reactive surface of the hydrogel are reported. Release of nystatin was investigated for all newly prepared hydrogels. Bio-adhesive studies were performed in order to assess the suitability of these designer materials. Free radical defense capacity of the biomaterials was evaluated using established in vitro model. The bio-adhesive capacity of the materials in the in vitro system was tested and quantified. It was found that the favorable synergistic effect of free radical built-in defense mechanism of the new functional materials increased sustainable bio-adhesion and therefore acted as a functional multi-dimensional restorative material with potential application in wound healing in vitro.

  14. Turning scientific approaches into practical conservation actions: the case of Comunidad Indigena de Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, A; Bocco, G; Torres, A

    2001-05-01

    Optimum natural resource management and biodiversity conservation are desirable goals. These, however, often exclude each other, since maximum economic benefits have promoted drastic reductions in biodiversity throughout the world. This dilemma confronts local stakeholders, who usually go for maximizing economic inputs, whereas other social (e.g., academic) sectors are favor conservation practices. In this paper we describe the way two scientific approaches--landscape and participatory research--were used to develop sound and durable land use scenarios. These two approaches included expert knowledge of both social and environmental conditions in indigenous communities. Our major emphasis was given to detect spatially explicit land use scenarios and capacity building in order to construct a decision support system operated by stakeholders of the Comunidad Indigena de Nuevo San Juan Parangaricutiro in Mexico. The system for decision-making was fed with data from inventories of both abiotic and biotic biodiversity components. All research, implementation, and monitoring activities were conducted in close collaboration with members of the indigenous community. As a major result we obtained a number of forest alternative uses that favor emerging markets and make this indigenous community less dependent on a single market. Furthermore, skilled members of the community are now running the automated system for decision-making. In conclusion, our results were better expressed as products with direct benefits in local livelihoods rather than pure academic outputs.

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2010-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544, Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following 20 corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 544 using the SAFER process. Using the approach approved for previous mud pit investigations (CAUs 530–535), 14 mud pits have been identified that • are either a single mud pit or a system of mud pits, • are not located in a radiologically posted area, and • have no evident biasing factors based on visual inspections. These 14 mud pits are recommended for no further action (NFA), and further field investigations will not be conducted. For the sites that do not meet the previously approved closure criteria, additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible

  16. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-08-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330, Areas 6,22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. The CAUs are currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). This CAU is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1). CAU 330 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 06-02-04 - Consists of an underground tank and piping. This CAS is close to an area that was part of the Animal Investigation Program (AIP), conducted under the U.S. Public Health Service. Its purpose was to study and perform tests on the cattle and wild animals in and around the NTS that were exposed to radionuclides. It is unknown if this tank was part of these operations. (2) CAS 22-99-06 - Is a fuel spill that is believed to be a waste oil release which occurred when Camp Desert Rock was an active facility. This CAS was originally identified as being a small depression where liquids were poured onto the ground, located on the west side of Building T-1001. This building has been identified as housing a fire station, radio station, and radio net remote and telephone switchboard. (3) CAS 23-01-02 - Is a large aboveground storage tank (AST) farm that was constructed to provide gasoline and diesel storage in Area 23. The site consists of two ASTs, a concrete foundation, a surrounding earthen berm, associated piping, and unloading stations. (4) CAS 23-25-05 - Consists of an asphalt oil spill/tar release that contains a wash covered with asphalt oil/tar material, a half buried 208-liter (L) (55-gallon [gal]) drum, rebar, and concrete located in the vicinity.

  17. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 326: Areas 6 and 27 Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    A. T. Urbon

    2001-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 326, Areas 6 and 27 Release Sites. This CAU is currently listed in the January 2001, Appendix III of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996). CAU 326 is located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASS) (Figure 1): CAS 06-25-01--Is a rupture in an underground pipe that carried heating oil (diesel) from the underground heating oil tank (Tank 6-CP-1) located to the west of Building CP-70 to the boiler in Building CP-1 in the Area 6 Control Point (CP) compound. CAS 06-25-02--A heating oil spill that is a result of overfilling an underground heating oil tank (Tank 6-DAF-5) located at the Area 6 Device Assembly Facility (DAF). CAS 06-25-04--A release of waste oil that occurred while removing used oil to from Tank 6-619-4. Tank 6-619-4 is located northwest of Building 6-619 at the Area 6 Gas Station. CAS 27-25-01--Consists of an excavation that was created in an attempt to remove impacted stained soil from the Site Maintenance Yard in Area 27. Approximately 53.5 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (70 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) of soil impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was excavated before the excavation activities were halted. The excavation activities were stopped because the volume of impacted soil exceeded estimated quantities and budget.

  18. Validation and psychometric evaluation of physical activity belief scale among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: an application of health action process approach

    PubMed Central

    Rohani, Hosein; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghaderi, Arsalan; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Sadeghi, Erfan; Bidkhori, Mohammad; Raei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moderate increase in physical activity (PA) may be helpful in preventing or postponing the complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a health action process approach (HAPA)-based PA inventory among T2DM patients. Methods: In 2015, this cross-sectional study was carried out on 203 participants recruited by convenience sampling in Isfahan, Iran. Content and face validity was confirmed by a panel of experts. The comments noted by 9 outpatients on the inventory were also investigated. Then,the items were administered to 203 T2DM patients. Construct validity was conducted using exploratory and structural equation modeling confirmatory factor analyses. Reliability was also assessed with Cronbach alpha and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: Content validity was acceptable (CVR = 0.62, CVI = 0.89). Exploratory factor analysis extracted seven factors (risk- perception, action self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, maintenance self-efficacy, action and coping planning, behavioral intention, and recovery self-efficacy) explaining 82.23% of the variation. The HAPA had an acceptable fit to the observations (χ2 = 3.21, df = 3, P = 0.38; RMSEA = 0.06; AGFI = 0.90; PGFI = 0.12). The range of Cronbach alpha and ICC for the scales was about 0.63 to 0.97 and 0.862 to 0.988, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of the present study provided an initial support for the reliability and validity of the HAPA-based PA inventory among patients with T2DM. PMID:27386421

  19. A network pharmacology approach to discover active compounds and action mechanisms of San-Cao Granule for treatment of liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shizhang; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jiabo; Su, Haibin; Luo, Shengqiang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Guo, Yanlei; Liu, Liping; Liu, Fengqun; Zhao, Qingguo; Chen, Hongge; Xiao, Xiaohe; Zhao, Pan; Zhao, Yanling

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance San-Cao Granule (SCG) has been used in patients with liver fibrosis for many years and has shown good effect. However, its mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear because of its complex chemical system. The purpose of our study is to establish a comprehensive and systemic method that can predict the mechanism of action of SCG in antihepatic fibrosis. Materials and methods In this study, a “compound–target–disease” network was constructed by combining the SCG-specific and liver fibrosis–specific target proteins with protein–protein interactions, and network pharmacology was used to screen out the underlying targets and mechanisms of SCG for treatment of liver fibrosis. Then, some key molecules of the enriched pathway were chosen to verify the effects of SCG on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA). Results This systematic approach had successfully revealed that 16 targets related to 11 SCG compounds were closely associated with liver fibrosis therapy. The pathway-enrichment analysis of them showed that the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway is relatively important. Animal experiments also proved that SCG could significantly ameliorate liver fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-β1/Smad pathway. Conclusion SCG could alleviate liver fibrosis through the molecular mechanisms predicted by network pharmacology. Furthermore, network pharmacology could provide deep insight into the pharmacological mechanisms of Chinese herbal formulas. PMID:26929602

  20. Dose-Response Analysis in the Joint Action of Two Effectors. A New Approach to Simulation, Identification and Modelling of Some Basic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Murado García, Miguel Anxo; Prieto Lage, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    In systems with several effectors, the results of dose-response (DR) experiments are usually assessed by checking them against two hypotheses: independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA). Both are useful simplifications, but do not represent the only possible responses, and avoid to a large extent the analysis of the interactions that are possible in the system. In addition, these are often applied in such a way that they produce insufficient descriptions of the problem that raises them, frequent inconclusive cases and doubtful decisions. In this work a generative approach is attempted, starting from some simple mechanisms necessarily underlying the response of an elementary biological entity to an effector agent. A set of simulations is formulated next through an equally simple system of logical rules, and several families of virtual responses are thus generated. These families include typical responses of IA and CA modes of action, other ones not less probable from a physiological point of view, and even other derived from common and expectable forms of interactions. The analysis of these responses enabled, firstly, to relate some phenomenological regularities with some general mechanistic principles, and to detect several causes by which the IA-CA dualism is necessarily ambiguous. Secondly, it allowed identifying different forms of synergy and antagonism that contribute to explain some controversial aspects of these notions. Finally, it led to propose two sets of explicit algebraic equations that describe accurately a wide diversity of possible and realistic responses. PMID:23637825

  1. Improving actions to control high blood pressure in Hispanic communities — Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health Across the U.S. Project, 2009–2012☆

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Youlian; Siegel, Paul Z.; White, Shannon; Dulin, Rick; Taylor, April

    2015-01-01

    Background Compared with the general population in the United States (U.S.), Hispanics with hypertension are less likely to be aware of their condition, to take antihypertensive medication, and to adopt healthy lifestyles to control high blood pressure. We examined whether a multi-community intervention successfully increased the prevalence of actions to control hypertension among Hispanics. Methods Annual survey from 2009–2012 was conducted in six Hispanic communities in the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) Across the U.S. project. The survey used address based sampling design that matched the geographies of intervention program. Results Age- and sex-standardized prevalences of taking hypertensive medication, changing eating habits, cutting down on salt, and reducing alcohol use significantly increased among Hispanics with self-reported hyper-tension in REACH communities. The 3-year relative percent increases were 5.8, 6.8, 7.9, and 35.2% for the four indicators, respectively. These favorable (healthier) trends occurred in both foreign-born and U.S.-born Hispanics. Conclusion This large community-based participatory intervention resulted in more Hispanic residents in the communities taking actions to control high blood pressure. PMID:26656406

  2. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration work plan for Corrective Action Unit 126: Closure of aboveground storage tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This plan addresses the closure of several aboveground storage tanks in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site. The unit is currently identified as Corrective Action Unit 126 in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order and is listed as having six Corrective Action Sites. This plan addresses the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration closure for five of the six sites. Four of the CASs are located at the Engine Test Stand complex and one is located in the Central Support Area. The sites consist of aboveground tanks, two of which were used to store diesel fuel and one stored Nalcool (an antifreeze mixture). The remaining tanks were used as part of a water demineralization process and stored either sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide, and one was used as a charcoal adsorption furnace. Closure will be completed by removal of the associated piping, tank supports and tanks using a front end loader, backhoe, and/or crane. When possible, the tanks will be salvaged as scrap metal. The piping that is not removed will be sealed using a cement grout.

  3. Modeling Approach/Strategy for Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1, with ROTC-1

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Ruskauff

    2008-06-01

    This document describes an approach for preliminary (Phase I) flow and transport modeling for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RMSM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU). This modeling will take place before the planned Phase II round of data collection to better identify the remaining data gaps before the fieldwork begins. Because of the geologic complexity, limited number of borings, and large vertical gradients, there is considerable uncertainty in the conceptual model for flow; thus different conceptual models will be evaluated, in addition to different framework and recharge models. The transport simulations will not be used to formally calculate the Contaminant Boundary at this time. The modeling (Phase II) will occur only after the available data are considered sufficient in scope and quality.

  4. Rett syndrome and the urge of novel approaches to study MeCP2 functions and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Bedogni, Francesco; Rossi, Riccardo L; Galli, Francesco; Cobolli Gigli, Clementina; Gandaglia, Anna; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2014-10-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a devastating genetic disorder that worldwide represents the most common genetic cause of severe intellectual disability in females. Most cases are caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene. Several recent studies have demonstrated that RTT mimicking animal models do not develop an irreversible condition and phenotypic rescue is possible. However, no cure for RTT has been identified so far, and patients are only given symptomatic and supportive treatments. The development of clinical applications imposes a more comprehensive knowledge of MeCP2 functional role(s) and their relevance for RTT pathobiology. Herein, we thoroughly survey the knowledge about MeCP2 structure and functions, highlighting the necessity of identifying more functional domains and the value of molecular genetics. Given that, in our opinion, RTT ultimately is generated by perturbations in gene transcription and so far no genes/pathways have been consistently linked to a dysfunctional MeCP2, we have used higher-level bioinformatic analyses to identify commonly deregulated mechanisms in MeCP2-defective samples. In this review we present our results and discuss the possible value of the utilized approach.

  5. Ethical and regulatory issues with conducting sexuality research with LGBT adolescents: a call to action for a scientifically informed approach.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian

    2011-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents experience disparities in mental and sexual health. There is also a lack of research on this population relative to other adolescents, which limits our ability to effectively address these health disparities. Researchers may unfortunately avoid conducting research with this population because of anticipated or actual experiences with difficulties in obtaining IRB approval. A case example is provided to illustrate the ethical and regulatory issues related to research with LGBT adolescents. Relevant U.S. federal and local regulations related to research on sexual and mental health with adolescents is then reviewed. Data are presented demonstrating that requiring parental consent for LGBT youth under age 18 would likely alter study result. Data are also presented on participants' appraisals of the risks and discomforts associated with research participation. The provision of such empirical data on the risks of research participation is consistent with the goal of moving the IRB process of risk/benefit assessment from being entirely subjective to being evidence-based. Finally, recommendations are provided on how to approach these issues in IRB applications and investigators are called to help to build a corpus of scholarship that can advance empirical knowledge in this area. PMID:21528402

  6. Ethical and regulatory issues with conducting sexuality research with LGBT adolescents: a call to action for a scientifically informed approach.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian

    2011-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents experience disparities in mental and sexual health. There is also a lack of research on this population relative to other adolescents, which limits our ability to effectively address these health disparities. Researchers may unfortunately avoid conducting research with this population because of anticipated or actual experiences with difficulties in obtaining IRB approval. A case example is provided to illustrate the ethical and regulatory issues related to research with LGBT adolescents. Relevant U.S. federal and local regulations related to research on sexual and mental health with adolescents is then reviewed. Data are presented demonstrating that requiring parental consent for LGBT youth under age 18 would likely alter study result. Data are also presented on participants' appraisals of the risks and discomforts associated with research participation. The provision of such empirical data on the risks of research participation is consistent with the goal of moving the IRB process of risk/benefit assessment from being entirely subjective to being evidence-based. Finally, recommendations are provided on how to approach these issues in IRB applications and investigators are called to help to build a corpus of scholarship that can advance empirical knowledge in this area.

  7. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision No. 0, August 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2001-08-21

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, as identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; CAS 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; CAS 03-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 20-16-01, Landfill; CAS 20-22-21, Drums. Sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations are the basis for the development of the phased approach chosen to address the data collection activities prior to implementing the preferred closure alternative for each CAS. The Phase I investigation will determine through collection of environmental samples from targeted populations (i.e., mud/soil cuttings above textural discontinuity) if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels (PALs) at each of the CASs. If COPCs are present above PALs, a Phase II investigation will be implemented to determine the extent of contamination to support the appropriate corrective action alternative to complete closure of the site. Groundwater impacts from potentially migrating contaminants are not expected due to the depths to groundwater and limiting hydrologic drivers of low precipitation and high evaporation rates. Future land-use scenarios limit future uses to industrial activities; therefore, future residential uses are not considered. Potential exposure routes to site workers from contaminants of concern in septage and soils include oral ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact (absorption) through in-advertent disturbance of contaminated structures and/or soils. Diesel within drilling muds is expected to be the primary COPC based on process

  8. Comparison of toxicogenomics and traditional approaches to inform mode of action and points of departure in human health risk assessment of benzo[a]pyrene in drinking water

    PubMed Central

    Labib, Sarah; Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie; Kuo, Byron; Buick, Julie K.; Lemieux, France; Williams, Andrew; Halappanavar, Sabina; Malik, Amal; Luijten, Mirjam; Aubrecht, Jiri; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Fornace, Albert J.; Swartz, Carol D.; Recio, Leslie; Yauk, Carole L.

    2015-01-01

    Toxicogenomics is proposed to be a useful tool in human health risk assessment. However, a systematic comparison of traditional risk assessment approaches with those applying toxicogenomics has never been done. We conducted a case study to evaluate the utility of toxicogenomics in the risk assessment of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a well-studied carcinogen, for drinking water exposures. Our study was intended to compare methodologies, not to evaluate drinking water safety. We compared traditional (RA1), genomics-informed (RA2) and genomics-only (RA3) approaches. RA2 and RA3 applied toxicogenomics data from human cell cultures and mice exposed to BaP to determine if these data could provide insight into BaP's mode of action (MOA) and derive tissue-specific points of departure (POD). Our global gene expression analysis supported that BaP is genotoxic in mice and allowed the development of a detailed MOA. Toxicogenomics analysis in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells demonstrated a high degree of consistency in perturbed pathways with animal tissues. Quantitatively, the PODs for traditional and transcriptional approaches were similar (liver 1.2 vs. 1.0 mg/kg-bw/day; lung 0.8 vs. 3.7 mg/kg-bw/day; forestomach 0.5 vs. 7.4 mg/kg-bw/day). RA3, which applied toxicogenomics in the absence of apical toxicology data, demonstrates that this approach provides useful information in data-poor situations. Overall, our study supports the use of toxicogenomics as a relatively fast and cost-effective tool for hazard identification, preliminary evaluation of potential carcinogens, and carcinogenic potency, in addition to identifying current limitations and practical questions for future work. PMID:25605026

  9. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  10. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  11. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 116: Area 25 Test Cell C Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-12-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C (TCC) Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 116 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (as amended February 2008) and consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 25-23-20, Nuclear Furnace Piping; and (2) CAS 25-41-05, Test Cell C Facility. CAS 25-41-05 is described in the FFACO as the TCC Facility but actually includes Building 3210 and attached concrete shield wall only. CAU 116 will be closed by demolishing Building 3210, the attached concrete shield wall, and the nuclear furnace piping. In addition, as a best management practice (BMP), Building 3211 (moveable shed) will be demolished due to its close proximity to Building 3210. This will aid in demolition and disposal operations. Radiological surveys will be performed on the demolition debris to determine the proper disposal pathway. As much of the demolition debris as space allows will be placed into the Building 3210 basement structure. After filling to capacity with demolition debris, the basement structure will be mounded or capped and closed with administrative controls. Prior to beginning demolition activities and according to an approved Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), representative sampling of surface areas that are known, suspected, or have the potential to contain hazardous constituents such as lead or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) will be performed throughout all buildings and structures. Sections 2.3.2, 4.2.2.2, 4.2.2.3, 4.3, and 6.2.6.1 address the methodologies employed that assure the solid debris placed in the basement structure will not contain contaminants of concern (COCs) above hazardous waste levels. The anticipated post

  12. A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Marmorek, David

    2004-03-01

    for future habitat restoration actions. Such designs are being developed concurrently with this project by several other groups in the Columbia Basin (RME Workgroup 2003, NMFS 2003, Hillman and Paulsen 2002, Hillman 2003). By addressing questions about habitat restoration and monitoring (in coordination with other related efforts), we hope that this project will catalyze a shift in the Basin's paradigm of habitat restoration, moving from implementation of individual watershed projects towards rigorously designed and monitored, multiwatershed, adaptive management experiments. The project involved three phases of work, which were closely integrated with various related and ongoing efforts in the region: (1) Scoping - We met with a Core Group of habitat experts and managers to scope out a set of testable habitat restoration hypotheses, identify candidate watersheds and recommend participants for a data evaluation workshop. (2) Data Assembly - We contacted over 80 scientists and managers to help evaluate the suitability of each candidate watershed's historical data for assessing the effectiveness of past restoration actions. We eventually settled on the Yakima, Wenatchee, Clearwater, and Salmon subbasins, and began gathering relevant data for these watersheds at a workshop with habitat experts and managers. Data assembly continued for several months after the workshop. (3) Data Analysis and Synthesis - We explored statistical approaches towards retrospectively analyzing the effects of restoration 'treatments' at nested spatial scales across multiple watersheds (Chapters 2-5 of this report). These analyses provided a foundation for identifying existing constraints to testing restoration hypotheses, and opportunities to overcome these constraints through improved experimental designs, monitoring protocols and project selection strategies (Chapters 6 and 7 of this report). Finally, we developed a set of recommendations to improve the design, implementation, and monitoring of

  13. The neuroscience of social relations. A comparative-based approach to empathy and to the capacity of evaluating others’ action value

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Pier F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the key questions in understanding human morality is how central are emotions in influencing our decisions and in our moral judgments. Theoretical work has proposed that empathy could play an important role in guiding our tendencies to behave altruistically or selfishly. Neurosciences suggest that one of the core elements of empathic behavior in human and nonhuman primates is the capacity to internally mimic the behavior of others, through the activation of shared motor representations. Part of the neural circuits involves parietal and premotor cortical regions (mirror system), in conjunction with other areas, such as the insula and the anterior cingulate cortex. Together with this embodied neural mechanism, there is a cognitive route in which individuals can evaluate the social situation without necessary sharing the emotional state of others. For example, several brain areas of the prefrontal cortex track the effects of one’s own behavior and of the value of one’s own actions in social contexts. It is here proposed that, moral cognition could emerge as the consequence of the activity of emotional processing brain networks, probably involving mirror mechanisms, and of brain regions that, through abstract-inferential processing, evaluate the social context and the value of actions in terms of abstract representations. A comparative-based approach to the neurobiology of social relations and decision-making may explain how complex mental faculties, such as moral judgments, have their foundations in brain networks endowed with functions related to emotional and abstract-evaluation processing of goods. It is proposed that in primate evolution these brain circuits have been coopted in the social domain to integrate mechanisms of self-reward, estimation of negative outcomes, with emotional engagement. PMID:25258451

  14. The neuroscience of social relations. A comparative-based approach to empathy and to the capacity of evaluating others' action value.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Pier F

    2014-02-01

    One of the key questions in understanding human morality is how central are emotions in influencing our decisions and in our moral judgments. Theoretical work has proposed that empathy could play an important role in guiding our tendencies to behave altruistically or selfishly. Neurosciences suggest that one of the core elements of empathic behavior in human and nonhuman primates is the capacity to internally mimic the behavior of others, through the activation of shared motor representations. Part of the neural circuits involves parietal and premotor cortical regions (mirror system), in conjunction with other areas, such as the insula and the anterior cingulate cortex. Together with this embodied neural mechanism, there is a cognitive route in which individuals can evaluate the social situation without necessary sharing the emotional state of others. For example, several brain areas of the prefrontal cortex track the effects of one's own behavior and of the value of one's own actions in social contexts. It is here proposed that, moral cognition could emerge as the consequence of the activity of emotional processing brain networks, probably involving mirror mechanisms, and of brain regions that, through abstract-inferential processing, evaluate the social context and the value of actions in terms of abstract representations. A comparative-based approach to the neurobiology of social relations and decision-making may explain how complex mental faculties, such as moral judgments, have their foundations in brain networks endowed with functions related to emotional and abstract-evaluation processing of goods. It is proposed that in primate evolution these brain circuits have been coopted in the social domain to integrate mechanisms of self-reward, estimation of negative outcomes, with emotional engagement. PMID:25258451

  15. Environmental Awareness; An Action Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Edgar L.; And Others

    In the changing world of today, man has created alarming imbalances of nature which threaten all living creatures of the earth. The public is becoming aware that severe measures must be taken to correct these imbalances. Indian people are closely attuned to their lands and resources--it is part of their traditional culture to have close ties with…

  16. The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources – findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). Methods This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Results The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. Conclusions District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to

  17. Vital Signs: Estimated Effects of a Coordinated Approach for Action to Reduce Antibiotic-Resistant Infections in Health Care Facilities — United States

    PubMed Central

    Slayton, Rachel B.; Toth, Damon; Lee, Bruce Y.; Tanner, Windy; Bartsch, Sarah M.; Khader, Karim; Wong, Kim; Brown, Kevin; McKinnell, James A.; Ray, William; Miller, Loren G.; Rubin, Michael; Kim, Diane S.; Adler, Fred; Cao, Chenghua; Avery, Lacey; Stone, Nathan T.B.; Kallen, Alexander; Samore, Matthew; Huang, Susan S.; Fridkin, Scott; Jernigan, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatments for health care–associated infections (HAIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria and Clostridium difficile are limited, and some patients have developed untreatable infections. Evidence-supported interventions are available, but coordinated approaches to interrupt the spread of HAIs could have a greater impact on reversing the increasing incidence of these infections than independent facility-based program efforts. Methods Data from CDC’s National Healthcare Safety Network and Emerging Infections Program were analyzed to project the number of health care–associated infections from antibiotic-resistant bacteria or C. difficile both with and without a large scale national intervention that would include interrupting transmission and improved antibiotic stewardship. As an example, the impact of reducing transmission of one antibiotic-resistant infection (carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae [CRE]) on cumulative prevalence and number of HAI transmission events within interconnected groups of health care facilities was modeled using two distinct approaches, a large scale and a smaller scale health care network. Results Immediate nationwide infection control and antibiotic stewardship interventions, over 5 years, could avert an estimated 619,000 HAIs resulting from CRE, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), or C. difficile. Compared with independent efforts, a coordinated response to prevent CRE spread across a group of inter-connected health care facilities resulted in a cumulative 74% reduction in acquisitions over 5 years in a 10-facility network model, and 55% reduction over 15 years in a 102-facility network model. Conclusions With effective action now, more than half a million antibiotic-resistant health care–associated infections could be prevented over 5 years. Models representing both large and small groups of interconnected health care facilities illustrate

  18. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics.

  19. Evaluation of Hybrid Theoretical Approaches for Structural Determination of a Glycine-Linked Cisplatin Derivative via Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation (IRMPD) Action Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, C C; Kimutai, B; Bao, X; Hamlow, L; Zhu, Y; Strobehn, S F; Gao, J; Berden, G; Oomens, J; Chow, C S; Rodgers, M T

    2015-11-01

    To gain a better understanding of the binding mechanism and assist in the optimization of chemical probing and drug design applications, experimental and theoretical studies of a series of amino acid-linked cisplatin derivatives are being pursued. Glyplatin (glycine-linked cisplatin) was chosen for its structural simplicity and to enable backbone effects to be separated from side-chain effects on the structure and reactivity of ornithine- and lysine-linked cisplatin (Ornplatin and Lysplatin, respectively). Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy experiments were performed on Glyplatin to characterize its structure and guide the selection of the most effective hybrid theoretical approach for determining its structure and IR spectrum. The simplicity of the Glyplatin system allows a wide variety of density functionals, treatments of the Pt center including the use of all-electron basis sets vs valence basis sets combined with an effective core potential (ECP), and basis sets for all other atoms to be evaluated at a reasonable computational cost. The results for Glyplatin provide the foundation for calculations of more complex amino acid-linked cisplatin derivatives such as Ornplatin and Lysplatin. Present results suggest that the B3LYP/mDZP/def2-TZVP hybrid method can be effectively employed for structural and IR characterization of more complex amino acid-linked cisplatin complexes and their nucleic acid derivatives.

  20. Accountable priority setting for trust in health systems - the need for research into a new approach for strengthening sustainable health action in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Byskov, Jens; Bloch, Paul; Blystad, Astrid; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Fylkesnes, Knut; Kamuzora, Peter; Kombe, Yeri; Kvåle, Gunnar; Marchal, Bruno; Martin, Douglas K; Michelo, Charles; Ndawi, Benedict; Ngulube, Thabale J; Nyamongo, Isaac; Olsen, Øystein E; Onyango-Ouma, Washington; Sandøy, Ingvild F; Shayo, Elizabeth H; Silwamba, Gavin; Songstad, Nils Gunnar; Tuba, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Despite multiple efforts to strengthen health systems in low and middle income countries, intended sustainable improvements in health outcomes have not been shown. To date most priority setting initiatives in health systems have mainly focused on technical approaches involving information derived from burden of disease statistics, cost effectiveness analysis, and published clinical trials. However, priority setting involves value-laden choices and these technical approaches do not equip decision-makers to address a broader range of relevant values - such as trust, equity, accountability and fairness - that are of concern to other partners and, not least, the populations concerned. A new focus for priority setting is needed. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an explicit ethical framework for legitimate and fair priority setting that provides guidance for decision-makers who must identify and consider the full range of relevant values. AFR consists of four conditions: i) relevance to the local setting, decided by agreed criteria; ii) publicizing priority-setting decisions and the reasons behind them; iii) the establishment of revisions/appeal mechanisms for challenging and revising decisions; iv) the provision of leadership to ensure that the first three conditions are met. REACT - "REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems" is an EU-funded five-year intervention study started in 2006, which is testing the application and effects of the AFR approach in one district each in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. The objectives of REACT are to describe and evaluate district-level priority setting, to develop and implement improvement strategies guided by AFR and to measure their effect on quality, equity and trust indicators. Effects are monitored within selected disease and programme interventions and services and within human resources and health systems management. Qualitative and quantitative methods are being applied in an action research

  1. Action Research: Trends and Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Action research continues to grow as a research tradition, yet misconceptions about what it is and is not remains, even among scholars. For example, some mistakenly believe action research is only about professional development and is not a scholarly research approach. Some assume action research must be accomplished through a collaborative…

  2. Conceptual Approach For Estimating Potential Air Toxics And Radionuclide Airborne Emissions From A Temporary Exhaust System For The 216-Z-9 Crib Removal Action

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.; Sutter, C.; O'Brien, P.; Bates, J.; Klos, B.; Teal, J.; Oates, L.

    2008-07-01

    The 216-Z-9 Crib, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in southeastern Washington State, was the site of a successful mining effort to recover plutonium from the contaminated soils at the disposal site. A CERCLA Action Memorandum (AM) issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires the removal of the buildings associated with this mining effort to facilitate a remedial action planned for the near future. The decontamination and demolition of the 216 Z-9 Crib facilities is required under a consent order between the DOE, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Removal of the buildings located on and near the concrete cover slab over the 216-Z-9 Crib will require removal of the large soil-packaging glovebox located inside the 216-Z- 9A Building. Prior to cleaning out the glovebox, it will be necessary to provide active filtered ventilation capability to ensure a negative pressure exists between the glovebox and the adjacent airspace while hands-on work proceeds within. The glovebox floor is open to the Z-9 crib cavern environment below. For this reason the crib and glovebox currently share a common airspace. The functional requirements for safely conducting work within the glovebox include provision of a negative pressure in the box of about 0.5 inches of water gage (nominal) less than the interior of the building. In addition, the building surrounding the glovebox will be maintained at a slight negative pressure with respect to outdoor ambient pressure. In order to assess the relevant and appropriate clean air requirements for the new temporary ventilation system and associated emissions monitoring, it was necessary to reliably predict the nature of the exhaust air stream. Factors used to predict the presence and concentrations of certain radionuclide particulates and certain gases considered to be air toxics, included reliability parameters, flow rates, radionuclide content, and off

  3. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians’ Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2014-01-01

    Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians’ expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers’ effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians’ perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis – proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes – of a marimbists’ expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer’s expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants’ individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants’ attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception–action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication. PMID

  4. A general genetic approach in Escherichia coli for determining the mechanism(s) of action of tumoricidal agents: application to DMP 840, a tumoricidal agent.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, P K; Sternberg, N L

    1995-09-12

    We describe here a simple and easily manipulatable Escherichia coli-based genetic system that permits us to identify bacterial gene products that modulate the sensitivity of bacteria to tumoricidal agents, such as DMP 840, a bisnaphthalimide drug. To the extent that the action of these agents is conserved, these studies may expand our understanding agents is conserved, these studies may expand our understanding of how the agents work in mammalian cells. The approach briefly is to use a library of E. coli genes that are overexpressed in a high copy number vector to select bacterial clones that are resistant to the cytotoxic effects of drugs. AtolC bacterial mutant is used to maximize permeability of cells to hydrophobic organic molecules. By using DMP 840 to model the system, we have identified two genes, designated mdaA and mdaB, that impart resistance to DMP 840 when they are expressed at elevated levels. mdaB maps to E. coli map coordinate 66, is located between the parE and parC genes, and encodes a protein of 22 kDa. mdaA maps to E. coli map coordinate 18, is located adjacent to the glutaredoxin (grx) gene, and encodes a protein of 24 kDa. Specific and regulatable overproduction of both of these proteins correlates with DMP 840 resistance. Overproduction of the MdaB protein also imparts resistance to two mammalian topoisomerase inhibitors, Adriamycin and etoposide. In contrast, overproduction of the MdaA protein produces resistance only to Adriamycin. Based on its drug-resistance properties and its location between genes that encode the two subunits of the bacterial topoisomerase IV, we suggest that mdaB acts by modulating topoisomerase IV activity. The location of the mdaA gene adjacent to grx suggests it acts by a drug detoxification mechanism.

  5. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians' Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach.

    PubMed

    Broughton, Mary C; Davidson, Jane W

    2014-01-01

    Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians' expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers' effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians' perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis - proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes - of a marimbists' expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer's expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants' individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants' attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception-action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication.

  6. WIPP Sampling and Analysis Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2000-05-23

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to fulfill requirements of Module VII, Section VII.M.2 and Table VII.1, requirement 4 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED [New Mexico Environment Department], 1999a). This SAP describes the approach for investigation of the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. This SAP addresses the current Permit requirements for a RCRA Facility Investigation(RFI) investigation of SWMUs and AOCs. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the RFI specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI work plan and report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can beentered either before or after a RFI work plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare a RFI work plan or SAP for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998).

  7. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  8. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  9. Granularity within the mirror system is not informative on action perception. Comment on "Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by D'Ausilio et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    The present work [1] reviews a part of the now vast literature on visuomotor stimulus-response associations in the domain of action observation, commonly referred to as mirror mechanism or mirror system. The aim of the study is to propose a solution to a currently debated problem, namely in what frame of reference are mirror neurons coding movement. The solution proposed here is that, if the mirror system is part of the motor system, then the motor responses to action observation must be in the same frames of reference as that generally observed in the production of voluntary actions. This idea is part of the very first conceptualizations of the mirror system ("Each time an individual sees an action done by another individual, neurons that represent that action are activated in the observer's premotor cortex. This automatically induced, motor representation of the observed action corresponds to that which is spontaneously generated during active action and whose outcome is known to the acting individual" [2]) and has been explicitly proposed earlier [3] in the attempt of reconciling the very different findings in the literature on the mirror system's frames of reference. The novelty of the present approach is the explicit reference to the 'motor synergy' theory of voluntary hand movements. This theory states that the high number of degrees of freedom intrinsic to hand anatomy is reduced by the motor system to few principal components named motor synergies that are the building blocks of voluntary behavior [4]. I am enthusiastic about two points proposed by D'Ausilio in the present review and I am skeptical about some other points.

  10. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-25

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan was prepared as a characterization and closure report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357, Mud Pits and Waste Dump, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All of the CASs are found within Yucca Flat except CAS 25-15-01 (Waste Dump). Corrective Action Site 25-15-01 is found in Area 25 in Jackass Flat. Of the 14 CASs in CAU 357, 11 are mud pits, suspected mud pits, or mud processing-related sites, which are by-products of drilling activities in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing done on the NTS. Of the remaining CASs, one CAS is a waste dump, one CAS contains scattered lead bricks, and one CAS has a building associated with Project 31.2. All 14 of the CASs are inactive and abandoned. Clean closure with no further action of CAU 357 will be completed if no contaminants are detected above preliminary action levels. A closure report will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for review and approval upon completion of the field activities. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  11. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  12. Action perception predicts action performance.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system.

  13. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration workplan for Corrective Action Unit 198: Test Cell C filter tank closure, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This plan addresses characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 198 identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The site is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 25 Test Cell C Complex. The CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-12 which includes two aboveground radioactive wastewater filter tanks. The tanks have an estimated capacity of 2,271 liters (600 gallons) each and were used to filter radioactive wastewater originating from the Test Cell C ``Nuclear Furnace 1`` testing. The tanks contain radioisotopes. Process knowledge indicates that the most likely isotopes of concern include {sup 90}Strontium and {sup 137}Cesium.

  14. Community-Involved Learning to Expand Possibilities for Vulnerable Children: A Critical Communicative, Sen's Capability, and Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung Hi

    2014-01-01

    This research, based on a case study of vulnerable children in Korea, used a mixed methods transformative approach to explore strategies to support and help disadvantaged children. The methodological approach includes three phases: a mixed methods contextual analysis, a qualitative dominant analysis based on Sen's capability approach and…

  15. Affirmative Action: A Responsible Management Approach. A Conference Sponsored by Hagerstown Junior College in Cooperation with the Maryland State Board for Community Colleges (Hagerstown, Maryland, April 25, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Board for Community Colleges, Annapolis.

    In April 1980, a conference dealing with sex equity issues and employment was co-sponsored by Hagerstown Junior College and the Maryland State Board of Education. The first keynote speaker was Marian Lang, who works with Black and Decker, Inc. facilities nationwide on the issues and problems of affirmative action. Her presentation began with a…

  16. Blogs and the Development of Plurilingual and Intercultural Competence: Report of a Co-Actional Approach in Portuguese Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo-Pfeifer, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the topic of the development of the plurilingual and intercultural competence through the integration of electronic communicative practices both in foreign language classrooms and non-formal contexts, this work aims at defining and characterizing, in view of a co-actional perspective, a "pedagogical blog", by considering it…

  17. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  18. Action Learning in the BBC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Eversley; Keevill, Joan

    2008-01-01

    This account tells the story of the development of an action learning culture in the BBC between 2002 and 2007. From its early beginnings as a sporadic, unsystematic intervention with a small number of leaders scattered throughout the organisation, action learning has now become embedded in our approach to the way we develop our leaders. In this…

  19. Action Research: Theory and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Renée N.

    2014-01-01

    Action research as a methodology is suitable for use within academic library settings. Its theoretical foundations are located in several disciplines and its applications span across many professions. In this article, an overview of the theoretical beginnings and evolution of action research is presented. Approaches generally used in conducting an…

  20. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 120: Areas 5 and 6 aboveground storage tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    This Closure Report provides documentation for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 120 of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). CAU 120 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 5 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which are approximately 130 kilometers (80 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAS 05-01-01 is located in Area 5 and consists of three 45,800-liter (12,100-gallon) aboveground storage tanks (ASTs), piping, and debris associated with Well RNM-1. CAS 06-01-01 consists of two ASTs and two tanker trailers (all portable) that were originally located at the Area 6 Cp-50 Hot Park and which had been moved to the Area 6 Waste Handling Facility. All of the items in CAU 120 have been used to contain or convey radiologically contaminated fluid that was generated during post-nuclear event activities at the NTS.

  1. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  2. "Wuwei" (Non-Action) Philosophy and Actions: Rethinking "Actions" in School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    This inquiry aims to enrich conversation regarding school reform. The author asks about what other discourses are possible when the action-oriented question of how to "act" is a major approach to "fix" current educational problems. Drawing from Taoist philosophy of "wuwei" (non-action), the author provides a frame to…

  3. THE TWO-LEVEL THEORY OF VERB MEANING: AN APPROACH TO INTEGRATING THE SEMANTICS OF ACTION WITH THE MIRROR NEURON SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, David; Castillo, Javier Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the “root.” The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the “event structure template.” We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the motor features of action verbs, these two distinct levels of semantic representation might correspond to two distinct levels of the mirror neuron system. Hypothesis 1: Root-level motor features of verb meaning are partially subserved by somatotopically mapped mirror neurons in the left primary motor and/or premotor cortices. Hypothesis 2: Template-level motor features of verb meaning are partially subserved by representationally more schematic mirror neurons in Brodmann area 44 of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Evidence has been accumulating in support of the general neuroanatomical claims made by these two hypotheses—namely, that each level of verb meaning is associated with the designated cortical areas. However, as yet no studies have satisfied all the criteria necessary to support the more specific neurobiological claims made by the two hypotheses—namely, that each level of verb meaning is associated with mirror neurons in the pertinent brain regions. This would require demonstrating that within those regions the same neuronal populations are engaged during (a) the linguistic processing of particular motor features of verb meaning, (b) the execution of actions with the corresponding motor features, and (c) the observation of actions with the corresponding motor features. PMID:18996582

  4. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  5. Everyday robotic action: lessons from human action control

    PubMed Central

    de Kleijn, Roy; Kachergis, George; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations. PMID:24672474

  6. The Key Events Dose-Response Framework: A cross-Disciplinary Mode-of-Action Based Approach to Examining Does-Response and Thresholds

    EPA Science Inventory

    the ILSI Research Foundation conveded a cross-disciplinary working group to examine current approaches for assessing dose-response and identifying safe levels of intake or exposure for four categoreis of bioactive agents: food allergens, nutrients, pathogenic microorganisms, and ...

  7. Molecular insight into the differential anti-androgenic activity of resveratrol and its natural analogs: in silico approach to understand biological actions.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandipan; Kumar, Avinash; Butt, Nasir A; Zhang, Liangfen; Williams, Raquema; Rimando, Agnes M; Biswas, Pradip K; Levenson, Anait S

    2016-05-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer. Androgen receptor reactivation during the androgen-independent stage of prostate cancer is mediated by numerous mechanisms including expression of AR mutants and splice variants that become non-responsive to conventional anti-androgenic agents. Resveratrol and its natural analogs exhibit varying degrees of anti-androgenic effects on tumor growth suppression in prostate cancer. However, the structural basis for the observed differential activity remains unknown. Here, anti-androgenic activities of resveratrol and its natural analogs, namely, pterostilbene, piceatannol and trimethoxy-resveratrol were studied in LNCaP cells expressing T877A mutant AR and atomistic simulations were employed to establish the structure activity relationship. Interestingly, essential hydrogen bonding contacts and the binding energies of resveratrol analogs with AR ligand binding domain (LBD), emerge as key differentiating factors for varying anti-androgenic action. Among all the analogs, pterostilbene exhibited strongest anti-androgenic activity and its binding energy and hydrogen bonding interactions pattern closely resembled pure anti-androgen, flutamide. Principal component analysis of our simulation studies revealed that androgenic compounds bind more strongly to AR LBD compared to anti-androgenic compounds and provide conformational stabilization of the receptor in essential subspace. The present study provides critical insight into the structure-activity relationship of the anti-androgenic action of resveratrol analogs, which can be translated further to design novel highly potent anti-androgenic stilbenes. PMID:27063447

  8. Irmpd Action Spectroscopy and Computational Approaches to Elucidate Gas-Phase Structures and Energetics of 2'-DEOXYCYTIDINE and Cytidine Sodium Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanlong; Hamlow, Lucas; He, Chenchen; Gao, Juehan; Oomens, Jos; Rodgers, M. T.

    2016-06-01

    The local structures of DNA and RNA are influenced by protonation, deprotonation and noncovalent interactions with cations. In order to determine the effects of Na+ cationization on the gas-phase structures of 2'-deoxycytidine, [dCyd+Na]+, and cytidine, [Cyd+Na]+, infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectra of these sodium cationized nucleosides are measured over the range extending from 500 to 1850 wn using the FELIX free electron laser. Complementary electronic structure calculations are performed to determine the stable low-energy conformations of these complexes. Geometry optimizations, frequency analyses, and IR spectra of these species are determined at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. Single-point energies are calculated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,2p) level of theory to determine the relative stabilities of these conformations. Comparison of the measure IRMPD action spectra and computed linear IR spectra enable the conformations accessed in the experiments to be elucidated. For both cytosine nucleosides, tridentate binding of the Na+ cation to the O2, O4' and O5' atoms of the nucleobase and sugar is observed. Present results for the sodium cationized nucleosides are compared to results for the analogous protonated forms of these nucleosides to elucidate the effects of multiple chelating interactions with the sodium cation vs. hydrogen bonding interactions in the protonated systems on the structures and stabilities of these nucleosides.

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 120: Areas 5 and 6 Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Allison Urban

    1999-06-01

    This Closure Report provides documentation for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 120. CAU 120 consists of two Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 5 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site. CAS 05-01-01 is located in Area 5 and consists of three 45,800-liter aboveground storage tanks, piping, and debris associated with Well RNM-1. CAS 06-01-01 in Area 6 consists of two aboveground storage tanks and two tanker trailers All the CAU 120 items have been used to convey or contain radiologically contaminated fluid from post-nuclear event activities at the NTS> Closure of this CAU was completed by collecting samples to identify the appropriate method of disposal for tanks, piping, debris, and tankers in each CAS. Placing low-level radioactive waste into the appropriate containers and disposing of waste in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, the Area 9 10C Landfill, and the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site.

  10. Impact of Community-Based Approach as Policy Tool: World Health Organization-Designated Safe Communities of Korea and Health Action Zones of the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Changhyun; Shin, Jihyung; Matthews, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to ascertain and identify the effectiveness of area-based initiatives as a policy tool mediated by societal and individual factors in the five World Health Organization (WHO)-designated Safe Communities of Korea and the Health Action Zones of the United Kingdom (UK). Methods The Korean National Hospital discharge in-depth injury survey from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and causes of death statistics by the Statistics Korea were used for all analyses. The trend and changes in injury rate and mortality by external causes were compared among the five WHO-designated Safe Communities in Korea. Results The injury incident rates decreased at a greater level in the Safe Communities compared with the national average. Similar results were shown for the changes in unintentional injury incident rates. In comparison of changes in mortality rate by external causes between 2005 and 2011, the rate increase in Safe Communities was higher than the national average except for Jeju, where the mortality rate by external causes decreased. Conclusion When the Healthy Action Zones of the UK and the WHO Safe Communities of Korea were examined, the outcomes were interpreted differently among the compared index, regions, and time periods. Therefore, qualitative outcomes, such as bringing the residents' attention to the safety of the communities and promoting participation and coordination of stakeholders, should also be considered as important impacts of the community-based initiatives. PMID:26981341

  11. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do. PMID:27667859

  12. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do.

  13. A novel approach for stress-induced gastritis based on paradoxical anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory action of exogenous 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine.

    PubMed

    Ock, Chan Young; Hong, Kyung Sook; Choi, Ki-Seok; Chung, Myung-Hee; Kim, Yun soo; Kim, Ju Hyun; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) attack guanine bases in DNA and form 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), which has been regarded simply as an oxidative mutagenic by-product. On the other hand, our previous report showed paradoxically ROS attenuating action of generated 8-OHdG. In the current study, both in vitro and in vivo experiments were executed in order to document anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions of 8-OHdG in cell model and to elucidate the therapeutic efficacy against water immersion restraint stress (WIRS)-induced gastritis animal model. Electron spin resonance measurements showed that 8-OHdG at >5μg/ml completely scavenged OH(-) radicals, which was further confirmed by checking 2'-7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) spectroscopy. On molecular assay, 8-OHdG antagonized the action of GTP on Rac, a small GTP binding protein, without affecting Rac-guanosine exchange factor (GEF) or phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) activity. In Raw264.7 cells, 8-OHdG was found to be associated with marked attenuations of NOX1, NOXO1, and NOXA1 accompanied with the decreased expressions of LPS-induced inflammatory mediators including COX-2, iNOS, IL-1β, and IL-6. Similarly, 8-OHdG attenuated hypoxia-induced angiogenesis and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), COX-2, iNOS, IL-8, and VEGF expressions in HUVEC cells. At transcriptional level, 8-OHdG inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, inhibitory κB kinase (IKK) β kinase activation, and decreased phospho-IκBα levels. 8-OHdG efficiently ameliorated WIRS-induced gastric mucosal injury as evidenced with improvement of gross lesion index and attenuation of engaging mediators. Taken together, exogenous 8-OHdG can be a functional molecule regulating oxidative stress-induced gastritis through either antagonizing Rac-GTP binding or blocking the signals responsible for gastric inflammatory cascade.

  14. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ``A through K`` evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site.

  15. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit No. 456: Underground storage tank release site 23-111-1, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The underground storage tank (UST) release site 23-111-1 is located in Mercury, Nevada. The site is in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, (NTS) located on the north side of Building 111. The tank associated with the release was closed in place using cement grout on September 6, 1990. The tank was not closed by removal due to numerous active underground utilities, a high-voltage transformer pad, and overhead power lines. Soil samples collected below the tank bottom at the time of tank closure activities exceeded the Nevada Administrative Code Action Level of 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) for petroleum hydrocarbons. Maximum concentrations detected were 119 mg/kg. Two passive venting wells were subsequently installed at the tank ends to monitor the progress of biodegradation at the site. Quarterly air sampling from the wells was completed for approximately one year, but was discontinued since data indicated that considerable biodegradation was not occurring at the site.

  16. Mathematical models of radiation action on living cells: From the target theory to the modern approaches. A historical and critical review.

    PubMed

    Bodgi, Larry; Canet, Aurélien; Pujo-Menjouet, Laurent; Lesne, Annick; Victor, Jean-Marc; Foray, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Cell survival is conventionally defined as the capability of irradiated cells to produce colonies. It is quantified by the clonogenic assays that consist in determining the number of colonies resulting from a known number of irradiated cells. Several mathematical models were proposed to describe the survival curves, notably from the target theory. The Linear-Quadratic (LQ) model, which is to date the most frequently used model in radiobiology and radiotherapy, dominates all the other models by its robustness and simplicity. Its usefulness is particularly important because the ratio of the values of the adjustable parameters, α and β, on which it is based, predicts the occurrence of post-irradiation tissue reactions. However, the biological interpretation of these parameters is still unknown. Throughout this review, we revisit and discuss historically, mathematically and biologically, the different models of the radiation action by providing clues for resolving the enigma of the LQ model.

  17. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  18. Communication: Wigner functions in action-angle variables, Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization, the Heisenberg correspondence principle, and a symmetrical quasi-classical approach to the full electronic density matrix.

    PubMed

    Miller, William H; Cotton, Stephen J

    2016-08-28

    It is pointed out that the classical phase space distribution in action-angle (a-a) variables obtained from a Wigner function depends on how the calculation is carried out: if one computes the standard Wigner function in Cartesian variables (p, x), and then replaces p and x by their expressions in terms of a-a variables, one obtains a different result than if the Wigner function is computed directly in terms of the a-a variables. Furthermore, the latter procedure gives a result more consistent with classical and semiclassical theory-e.g., by incorporating the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition (quantum states defined by integer values of the action variable) as well as the Heisenberg correspondence principle for matrix elements of an operator between such states-and has also been shown to be more accurate when applied to electronically non-adiabatic applications as implemented within the recently developed symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) Meyer-Miller (MM) approach. Moreover, use of the Wigner function (obtained directly) in a-a variables shows how our standard SQC/MM approach can be used to obtain off-diagonal elements of the electronic density matrix by processing in a different way the same set of trajectories already used (in the SQC/MM methodology) to obtain the diagonal elements. PMID:27586896

  19. Communication: Wigner functions in action-angle variables, Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization, the Heisenberg correspondence principle, and a symmetrical quasi-classical approach to the full electronic density matrix.

    PubMed

    Miller, William H; Cotton, Stephen J

    2016-08-28

    It is pointed out that the classical phase space distribution in action-angle (a-a) variables obtained from a Wigner function depends on how the calculation is carried out: if one computes the standard Wigner function in Cartesian variables (p, x), and then replaces p and x by their expressions in terms of a-a variables, one obtains a different result than if the Wigner function is computed directly in terms of the a-a variables. Furthermore, the latter procedure gives a result more consistent with classical and semiclassical theory-e.g., by incorporating the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition (quantum states defined by integer values of the action variable) as well as the Heisenberg correspondence principle for matrix elements of an operator between such states-and has also been shown to be more accurate when applied to electronically non-adiabatic applications as implemented within the recently developed symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) Meyer-Miller (MM) approach. Moreover, use of the Wigner function (obtained directly) in a-a variables shows how our standard SQC/MM approach can be used to obtain off-diagonal elements of the electronic density matrix by processing in a different way the same set of trajectories already used (in the SQC/MM methodology) to obtain the diagonal elements.

  20. Communication: Wigner functions in action-angle variables, Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization, the Heisenberg correspondence principle, and a symmetrical quasi-classical approach to the full electronic density matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, William H.; Cotton, Stephen J.

    2016-08-01

    It is pointed out that the classical phase space distribution in action-angle (a-a) variables obtained from a Wigner function depends on how the calculation is carried out: if one computes the standard Wigner function in Cartesian variables (p, x), and then replaces p and x by their expressions in terms of a-a variables, one obtains a different result than if the Wigner function is computed directly in terms of the a-a variables. Furthermore, the latter procedure gives a result more consistent with classical and semiclassical theory—e.g., by incorporating the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition (quantum states defined by integer values of the action variable) as well as the Heisenberg correspondence principle for matrix elements of an operator between such states—and has also been shown to be more accurate when applied to electronically non-adiabatic applications as implemented within the recently developed symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) Meyer-Miller (MM) approach. Moreover, use of the Wigner function (obtained directly) in a-a variables shows how our standard SQC/MM approach can be used to obtain off-diagonal elements of the electronic density matrix by processing in a different way the same set of trajectories already used (in the SQC/MM methodology) to obtain the diagonal elements.

  1. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Units 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, and 535, Nevada Test Site Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for the following six corrective action units (CAUs) identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996): (1) CAU 530 - LANL Preshot Mud Pits; (2) CAU 531 - LANL Postshot Mud Pits; (3) CAU 532 - LLNL Preshot Mud Pits; (4) CAU 533 - LLNL Postshot Mud Pits; (5) CAU 534 - Exploratory/Instrumentation Mud Pits; and (6) CAU 535 - Mud Pits/Disposal Areas. Corrective Action Units 530-535 consist of corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 1-10, 14, 17, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This plan provides the approach for activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing all the CASs within these CAUs. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of all CASs within CAUs 530-535 using the SAFER process. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process utilized in this investigation follows the approved risk-based closure strategy outlined in the ''Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004b). The closure strategy was developed based on available information including historical documentation of process knowledge, analytical results from previous sampling activities for contaminants of potential concern at similar mud pits located at the NTS and at off-site locations, future land-use scenarios for each NTS area, and potential exposure scenarios along with the calculated risk for human and ecological receptors.

  2. Social Action As An Objective of Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charles K.

    This paper presents a rationale for making social action a major goal of elementary and secondary school social studies education. In addition, it describes social action models, suggests social action approaches appropriate for students at various grade levels, and reviews literature on social action by public school students. Social action is…

  3. Using Action Learning for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses using action learning with different professional groups in the UK--nurses and educators. It addresses the question: To what extent is action learning an effective approach in relation to professional development, and, if so, in what way/s? The formulation and developmental processes of action learning sets are examined. The…

  4. ACAA pavement manual. Recommended practice: Coal fly ash in pozzolanic stabilized mixtures for flexible pavement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to guide pavement design engineers, materials engineers, and construction managers in the design and construction of flexible pavement systems in which low- to high-strength Pozzolanic Stabilized Mixtures' ( PSMs') serve as base layers. A PSM incorporates coal fly ash in combination with activators, aggregates and water. Each of three design methods is useful for determining the thickness of a PSM base layer for a flexible pavement system: Method A - American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) flexible pavement design procedures, using structural layer coefficients; Method B - Mechanistic pavement design procedures, using resilient modulus values for the pavement layers; and Method C - A combination of Method A and Method B, using mechanistic design concepts for determining pavement layer coefficients. PSMs offer several advantages: PSMs are strong, durable mixtures using locally available materials; PSMs are economically competitive with properly engineered full-depth asphalt or crushed stone base courses; PSMs are suited to stabilizing recycled base mixtures; and PSMs are placed and compacted with conventional construction equipment. To provide the needed guidance for capturing the long-term service and cost-saving features of a PSM design, this manual details the following: a procedure for proportioning PSMs; thickness design procedures which include base layer and asphalt wearing course; and proven techniques for PSM mixing and base layer construction.

  5. A Difference-in-Differences Approach to Assess the Effect of a Heat Action Plan on Heat-Related Mortality, and Differences in Effectiveness According to Sex, Age, and Socioeconomic Status (Montreal, Quebec)

    PubMed Central

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Bailey, Zinzi; Kaiser, David; Auger, Nathalie; King, Nicholas; Kaufman, Jay S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The impact of heat waves on mortality and health inequalities is well documented. Very few studies have assessed the effectiveness of heat action plans (HAPs) on health, and none has used quasi-experimental methods to estimate causal effects of such programs. Objectives: We developed a quasi-experimental method to estimate the causal effects associated with HAPs that allows the identification of heterogeneity across subpopulations, and to apply this method specifically to the case of the Montreal (Quebec, Canada) HAP. Methods: A difference-in-differences approach was undertaken using Montreal death registry data for the summers of 2000–2007 to assess the effectiveness of the Montreal HAP, implemented in 2004, on mortality. To study equity in the effect of HAP implementation, we assessed whether the program effects were heterogeneous across sex (male vs. female), age (≥ 65 years vs. < 65 years), and neighborhood education levels (first vs. third tertile). We conducted sensitivity analyses to assess the validity of the estimated causal effect of the HAP program. Results: We found evidence that the HAP contributed to reducing mortality on hot days, and that the mortality reduction attributable to the program was greater for elderly people and people living in low-education neighborhoods. Conclusion: These findings show promise for programs aimed at reducing the impact of extreme temperatures and health inequities. We propose a new quasi-experimental approach that can be easily applied to evaluate the impact of any program or intervention triggered when daily thresholds are reached. Citation: Benmarhnia T, Bailey Z, Kaiser D, Auger N, King N, Kaufman J. 2016. A difference-in-differences approach to assess the effect of a heat action plan on heat-related mortality, and differences in effectiveness according to sex, age, and socioeconomic status (Montreal, Quebec). Environ Health Perspect 124:1694–1699; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP203 PMID:27203433

  6. Estimation of the impacts of different homogenization approaches on the variability of temperature series in Catalonia (North Eastern-Spain), Andorra and South Eastern - France. An experiment under the umbrella of the HOME-COST action.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, E.; Prohom, M.; Mestre, O.; Esteban, P.; Kuglitsch, F. G.; Gruber, C.; Herrero, M.

    2008-12-01

    The almost unanimously accepted fact of climate change has brought many scientists to investigate the seasonal and interannual variability and change in instrumental climatic records. Unfortunately, these records are nearly always affected by homogeneity problems caused by changes in the station or its environment. The European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST) is sponsoring the action COST-ES0601: Advances in homogenisation methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME), which aims amongst others to investigate the impacts of different homogenisation ap-proaches on the observed data series. In this work, we apply different detection/correction methods (SNHT, RhTest, Caussinus-Mestre, Vincent Interpolation Method, HOM Method) to annual, sea-sonal, monthly and daily data of a multi-country quality controlled dataset (17 stations in Catalonia (NE Spain); 3 stations in Andorra and 11 stations in SE France). The different outputs are analysed and the differences in the final se-ries studied. After this experiment, we can state that - although all the applied methods im-prove the homogeneity of the original series - the conclusions extracted from the analysis of the homogenised annual, seasonal, monthly data and extreme indices derived from daily data demonstrate important differences. As an exam-ple, some methods (SNHT) tend to detect fewer breakpoints than others (Caussinus-Mestre). Even if metadata or a pre-identified list of breakpoints is available, the correction factors calculated by the different approaches differ both in annual, seasonal, monthly and daily scales. In the latter case, some methods like HOM - based on the modelling of a candidate series against a reference series - present a richest solution than others based on the mere in-terpolation of monthly factors (Vincent Method), although the former are not al-ways applicable due to lack of good reference stations. In order to identify the best performing

  7. The President`s Floodplan Management Action Plan: Formulating a watershed and ecosystem approach to flood hazard mitigation and resource protection

    SciTech Connect

    McShane, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Great Midwest Flood of 1993 focused the attention of the Nation on the human and environmental costs associated with decades of efforts to control flooding, unwise land-use decisions, and the loss and degradation of the natural resources and functions of floodplains. The disaster can also be attributed to the single purpose decision-making process and fragmented planning at all levels of government, inconsistent statutory madates, and conflicting jurisdictional responsibilities. The Executive Office of the President established a Floodplain Management Review Committee to determine the major causes and consequences of the flood and to evaluate the performance of existing floodplain management and related watershed programs. The report, Sharing the Challenge: Floodplain Management into the 21st Century, included 90 recommendations to improve floodplain management and water resources planning including the need for a more comprehensive, coordinated approach to floodplain and watershed management. Preparation of the 1994 document A Unified National Program for Floodplain Management commenced prior to the Midwest Flood of 1993 and was completed, coincidentally, concurrently with the Review Committee`s report Sharing the Challenge. Both reports urge the formulation of a more comprehensive, watershed approach to managing human activities and protecting natural systems to ensure the long term viability of riparian ecosystems and the sustainable development of riverine communities. Both reports recognize that effective floodplain management will reduce the financial burdens placed upon all levels of government to compensate property owners and governments for flood losses caused by unwise land use decisions by individuals, as well as governments. This paper focuses on the fundamental changes in Federal floodplain management policies and programs that are emerging that will affect how as a Nation manage and use our floodplain resources into the 21st Century.

  8. Mode-of-Action Uncertainty for Dual-Mode Carcinogens: A Bounding Approach for Naphthalene-Induced Nasal Tumors in Rats Based on PBPK and 2-Stage Stochastic Cancer Risk Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2007-05-11

    A relatively simple, quantitative approach is proposed to address a specific, important gap in the appr approach recommended by the USEPA Guidelines for Cancer Risk Assessment to oach address uncertainty in carcinogenic mode of action of certain chemicals when risk is extrapolated from bioassay data. These Guidelines recognize that some chemical carcinogens may have a site-specific mode of action (MOA) that is dual, involving mutation in addition to cell-killing induced hyperplasia. Although genotoxicity may contribute to increased risk at all doses, the Guidelines imply that for dual MOA (DMOA) carcinogens, judgment be used to compare and assess results obtained using separate 'linear' (genotoxic) vs. 'nonlinear' (nongenotoxic) approaches to low low-level risk extrapolation. However, the Guidelines allow the latter approach to be used only when evidence is sufficient t to parameterize a biologically based model that reliably o extrapolates risk to low levels of concern. The Guidelines thus effectively prevent MOA uncertainty from being characterized and addressed when data are insufficient to parameterize such a model, but otherwise clearly support a DMOA. A bounding factor approach - similar to that used in reference dose procedures for classic toxicity endpoints - can address MOA uncertainty in a way that avoids explicit modeling of low low-dose risk as a function of administere administered or internal dose. Even when a 'nonlinear' toxicokinetic model cannot be fully validated, implications of DMOA uncertainty on low low-dose risk may be bounded with reasonable confidence when target tumor types happen to be extremely rare. This concept was i illustrated llustrated for a likely DMOA rodent carcinogen naphthalene, specifically to the issue of risk extrapolation from bioassay data on naphthalene naphthalene-induced nasal tumors in rats. Bioassay data, supplemental toxicokinetic data, and related physiologically based p pharmacokinetic and 2 harmacokinetic 2-stage

  9. Holography in action

    SciTech Connect

    Kolekar, Sanved; Padmanabhan, T.

    2010-07-15

    The Einstein-Hilbert action and its natural generalizations to higher dimensions (like the Lanczos-Lovelock action) have certain peculiar features. All of them can be separated into a bulk and a surface term, with a specific (''holographic'') relationship between the two, so that either term can be used to extract information about the other. Further, the surface term leads to entropy of the horizons on shell. It has been argued in the past that these features are impossible to understand in the conventional approach but find a natural explanation if we consider gravity as an emergent phenomenon. We provide further support for this point of view in this paper. We describe an alternative decomposition of the Einstein-Hilbert action and the Lanczos-Lovelock action into a new pair of surface and bulk terms, such that the surface term becomes the Wald entropy on a horizon and the bulk term is the energy density (which is the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner Hamiltonian density for Einstein gravity). We show that this new pair also obeys a holographic relationship, and we give a thermodynamic interpretation of this relation in this context. Since the bulk and surface terms, in this decomposition, are related to the energy and entropy, the holographic condition can be thought of as analogous to inverting the expression for entropy given as a function of energy S=S(E,V) to obtain the energy E=E(S,V) in terms of the entropy in a normal thermodynamic system. Thus the holographic nature of the action allows us to relate the descriptions of the same system in terms of two different thermodynamic potentials. Some further possible generalizations and implications are discussed.

  10. Action simulation: time course and representational mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Anne; Parkinson, Jim; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The notion of action simulation refers to the ability to re-enact foreign actions (i.e., actions observed in other individuals). Simulating others' actions implies a mirroring of their activities, based on one's own sensorimotor competencies. Here, we discuss theoretical and experimental approaches to action simulation and the study of its representational underpinnings. One focus of our discussion is on the timing of internal simulation and its relation to the timing of external action, and a paradigm that requires participants to predict the future course of actions that are temporarily occluded from view. We address transitions between perceptual mechanisms (referring to action representation before and after occlusion) and simulation mechanisms (referring to action representation during occlusion). Findings suggest that action simulation runs in real-time; acting on newly created action representations rather than relying on continuous visual extrapolations. A further focus of our discussion pertains to the functional characteristics of the mechanisms involved in predicting other people's actions. We propose that two processes are engaged, dynamic updating and static matching, which may draw on both semantic and motor information. In a concluding section, we discuss these findings in the context of broader theoretical issues related to action and event representation, arguing that a detailed functional analysis of action simulation in cognitive, neural, and computational terms may help to further advance our understanding of action cognition and motor control. PMID:23847563

  11. mCAL: A New Approach for Versatile Multiplex Action of Cas9 Using One sgRNA and Loci Flanked by a Programmed Target Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Finnigan, Gregory C.; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing exploiting CRISPR/Cas9 has been adopted widely in academia and in the biotechnology industry to manipulate DNA sequences in diverse organisms. Molecular engineering of Cas9 itself and its guide RNA, and the strategies for using them, have increased efficiency, optimized specificity, reduced inappropriate off-target effects, and introduced modifications for performing other functions (transcriptional regulation, high-resolution imaging, protein recruitment, and high-throughput screening). Moreover, Cas9 has the ability to multiplex, i.e., to act at different genomic targets within the same nucleus. Currently, however, introducing concurrent changes at multiple loci involves: (i) identification of appropriate genomic sites, especially the availability of suitable PAM sequences; (ii) the design, construction, and expression of multiple sgRNA directed against those sites; (iii) potential difficulties in altering essential genes; and (iv) lingering concerns about “off-target” effects. We have devised a new approach that circumvents these drawbacks, as we demonstrate here using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, any gene(s) of interest are flanked upstream and downstream with a single unique target sequence that does not normally exist in the genome. Thereafter, expression of one sgRNA and cotransformation with appropriate PCR fragments permits concomitant Cas9-mediated alteration of multiple genes (both essential and nonessential). The system we developed also allows for maintenance of the integrated, inducible Cas9-expression cassette or its simultaneous scarless excision. Our scheme—dubbed mCAL for “Multiplexing of Cas9 at Artificial Loci”—can be applied to any organism in which the CRISPR/Cas9 methodology is currently being utilized. In principle, it can be applied to install synthetic sequences into the genome, to generate genomic libraries, and to program strains or cell lines so that they can be conveniently (and repeatedly

  12. mCAL: A New Approach for Versatile Multiplex Action of Cas9 Using One sgRNA and Loci Flanked by a Programmed Target Sequence.

    PubMed

    Finnigan, Gregory C; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing exploiting CRISPR/Cas9 has been adopted widely in academia and in the biotechnology industry to manipulate DNA sequences in diverse organisms. Molecular engineering of Cas9 itself and its guide RNA, and the strategies for using them, have increased efficiency, optimized specificity, reduced inappropriate off-target effects, and introduced modifications for performing other functions (transcriptional regulation, high-resolution imaging, protein recruitment, and high-throughput screening). Moreover, Cas9 has the ability to multiplex, i.e., to act at different genomic targets within the same nucleus. Currently, however, introducing concurrent changes at multiple loci involves: (i) identification of appropriate genomic sites, especially the availability of suitable PAM sequences; (ii) the design, construction, and expression of multiple sgRNA directed against those sites; (iii) potential difficulties in altering essential genes; and (iv) lingering concerns about "off-target" effects. We have devised a new approach that circumvents these drawbacks, as we demonstrate here using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae First, any gene(s) of interest are flanked upstream and downstream with a single unique target sequence that does not normally exist in the genome. Thereafter, expression of one sgRNA and cotransformation with appropriate PCR fragments permits concomitant Cas9-mediated alteration of multiple genes (both essential and nonessential). The system we developed also allows for maintenance of the integrated, inducible Cas9-expression cassette or its simultaneous scarless excision. Our scheme-dubbed mCAL for " M: ultiplexing of C: as9 at A: rtificial L: oci"-can be applied to any organism in which the CRISPR/Cas9 methodology is currently being utilized. In principle, it can be applied to install synthetic sequences into the genome, to generate genomic libraries, and to program strains or cell lines so that they can be conveniently (and repeatedly

  13. Fraser River action plan: Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This report reviews the Fraser River Action Plan, intended to foster a co-operative approach to restoring the environmental health of the Fraser watershed. Topics covered include the Plan`s ecosystem approach; the development of a new model of governance, with the goal of creating a body that would take responsibility for the well-being of the watershed; challenges and accomplishments of Plan programs; and future actions now that the Plan has ended. Completed and future programs are briefly reviewed in such areas as aquatic science, pollution, habitat, agriculture and the environment, and effects of forest practices.

  14. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2001-02-25

    This 2001 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a), and incorporates comments from the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2001 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. The permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the newest guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, the permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility’s Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit.

  15. Action Learning Research? Reflections from the Colloquium at the Third International Conference on Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghlan, David

    2013-01-01

    The case for the notion of action learning research has been posed and explored in several publications over the past few years. There is no tradition within action learning of understanding it as an approach to research. Within some academic circles, there has been a focus on the "action turn," the development of the notion of actionable…

  16. Its All Action, Its All Learning: Action Learning in SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jean; Thorpe, Richard; Anderson, Lisa; Gold, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that action learning (AL) may provide a means of successfully developing small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: The literature around SME learning suggests a number of processes are important for SME learning which similarity, it is argued, are encompassed in AL. AL may…

  17. The Take Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Take Action Project (TAP) was created to help middle school students take informed and effective action on science-related issues. The seven steps of TAP ask students to (1) choose a science-related problem of interest to them, (2) research their problem, (3) select an action to take on the problem, (4) plan that action, (5) take action, (6)…

  18. The development of action planning in a joint action context.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus

    2016-07-01

    The ability to act jointly with another person is a fundamental requirement for participation in social life. The current study examines the development of action planning in a joint action context. In 4 experiments, 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children as well as a group of adults (n = 196) interacted with another person to operate a novel apparatus. Their task was to hand the experimenter a tool with which she could activate 1 of 2 different effects on the apparatus. The elicitation of each effect required participants to grasp and insert the tool in a particular orientation. We assessed whether participants planned their grasping and reaching action in such a way that it enabled the partner to efficiently handle the tool, that is, anticipating the final end state of the joint activity. We found that 3-year-old children did not adjust their behavior to accommodate the other's action and that they did not increase their performance over multiple trials. Five- and 7-year-old children initially showed a tendency to plan their action in an egocentric manner (i.e., showed a form of egocentrism), but improved their joint action performance over time. Adult participants demonstrated joint action planning from the beginning. Interestingly, 3- and 5-year-old children were able to plan their grasp efficiently when acting alone on the apparatus. Yet, having first-hand experience with the task before acting with a partner did not facilitate performance in the joint action task for younger children. Overall, the study informs current approaches on the psychological basis and ontogenetic origins of joint action in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337512

  19. Talent Management: Emphasis on Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Recent discussions among HR practitioners in higher education have focused on talent management; specifically, the concept of developing a college or university talent management approach balanced between planning and action. Talent management as a planning tool looks very similar to workforce planning, but where HR will experience a real…

  20. Moral Functioning as Mediated Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappan, Mark B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that it is quite useful, both theoretically and empirically, to adopt a socio-cultural approach to the study of moral development. This entails viewing "moral functioning" as a form of mediated action, and moral development as the process by which persons gradually appropriate a variety of "moral mediational means". Mediated…

  1. Object-Driven and Temporal Action Rules Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajja, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, I present my complete research work in the field of action rules, more precisely object-driven and temporal action rules. The drive behind the introduction of object-driven and temporally based action rules is to bring forth an adapted approach to extract action rules from a subclass of systems that have a specific nature, in which…

  2. Participatory Action Research (PAR) cum Action Research (AR) in Teacher Professional Development: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews Participatory Action Research as an approach to teacher professional development. It maps the origins of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and discusses the benefits and challenges that have been identified by other researchers in utilizing PAR approaches in conducting research. It draws ideas of combining the features of…

  3. Implementing a Tactical Approach through Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubacs-Collins, Klara

    2007-01-01

    Background: Influenced by the original observations of Bunker and Thorpe, physical education theorists began to question the effectiveness of a traditional model for teaching games and have increasingly begun to believe that concentrating only on specific motor responses (techniques) fails to take into account the contextual nature of games. Games…

  4. Habits, action sequences, and reinforcement learning

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquire and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions. PMID:22487034

  5. A Multifaceted Approach to Improve the Availability and Accessibility of Opioids for the Treatment of Cancer Pain in Serbia: Results From the International Pain Policy Fellowship (2006-2012) and Recommendations for Action.

    PubMed

    Bosnjak, Snezana M; Maurer, Martha A; Ryan, Karen M; Popovic, Ivana; Husain, S Asra; Cleary, James F; Scholten, Willem

    2016-08-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in Serbia, and at least 14,000-16,000 patients experience moderate-to-severe cancer pain every year. Cancer pain relief has been impeded by inadequate availability of opioid analgesics and barriers to their accessibility. In 2006, a Serbian oncologist was selected as an International Pain Policy Fellow. The fellow identified barriers to opioid availability in Serbia and implemented an action plan to address the unavailability of oral morphine, attitudinal and knowledge barriers about opioids, and barriers in the national opioid control policy, in collaboration with the government, local partners, and international experts, including those from the World Health Organization. Collaborative efforts resulted in availability of immediate-release oral morphine, registration of controlled-release hydromorphone, and reimbursement of oral methadone for cancer pain; numerous educational activities aimed at changing inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes toward opioids; recognition of opioids as essential medicines for palliative care in a new National Palliative Care Strategy; and recognition of the medical use of opioids as psychoactive-controlled substances for the relief of pain included in a new national law on psychoactive-controlled substances, and the development of recommendations for updating regulations on prescribing and dispensing opioids. An increase in opioid consumption at the institutional and national levels also was observed. This article outlines a multifaceted approach to improving access to strong opioids for cancer pain management and palliative care in a middle-income country and offers a potential road map to success. PMID:26988849

  6. Action goals influence action-specific perception.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Kamp, John

    2009-12-01

    We examined the processes that mediate the emergence of action-specific influences on perception that have recently been reported for baseball batting and golf putting (Witt, Linkenauger, Bakdash, & Proffitt, 2008; Witt & Proffitt, 2005). To this end, we used a Schokokusswurfmaschine: Children threw a ball at a target, which, if hit successfully, launched a ball that the children then had to catch. In two experiments, children performed either a throwing-and-catching task or a throwing-only task, in which no ball was launched. After each task, the size of the target or of the ball was estimated. Results indicate that action-specific influences on perceived size occur for objects that are related to the end goal of the action, but not for objects that are related to intermediate action goals. These results suggest that action-specific influences on perception are contingent upon the primary action goals to be achieved.

  7. Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2012-01-01

    This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

  8. Action Research: Rethinking Lewin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)

  9. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and Action Research in Context" (Cliff…

  10. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-02-14

    This 2002 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Permit Condition VII.U.3 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit) (New Mexico Environment Department [NMED], 1999a), and incorporates comments from the NMED received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2002 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. The Permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the most recent guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, and completion of the August 2001 sampling requested by the NMED, the Permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA processcan be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable

  11. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-03-05

    his 2002 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII,Permit Condition VII.U.3 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit) (New Mexico Environment Department [NMED], 1999a), and incorporates comments from the NMED received onDecember 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2002 FWP describes the program-matic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. The Permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the mostrecent guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, and completion of the August 2001 sampling requested by the NMED, the Permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may beused for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used toreplace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to

  12. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-03-05

    This 2002 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Permit Condition VII.U.3 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit) (New Mexico Environment Department [NMED], 1999a), and incorporates comments from the NMED received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2002 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. The Permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the most recent guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, and completion of the August 2001 sampling requested by the NMED, the Permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA processcan be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable

  13. Pythagorean quantization, action(s) and the arrow of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuch, Dieter

    2010-06-01

    Searching for the first well-documented attempts of introducing some kind of "quantization" into the description of nature inevitably leads to the ancient Greeks, in particular Plato and Pythagoras. The question of finding the so-called Pythagorean triples, i.e., right-angled triangles with integer length of all three sides, is, surprisingly, connected with complex nonlinear Riccati equations that occur in time-dependent quantum mechanics. The complex Riccati equation together with the usual Newtonian equation of the system, leads to a dynamical invariant with the dimension of an action. The relation between this invariant and a conserved "angular momentum" for the motion in the complex plane will be determined. The "Pythagorean quantization" shows similarities with the quantum Hall effect and leads to an interpretation of Sommerfeld's fine structure constant that involves another quantum of action, the "least Coulombic action" e2/c. Since natural evolution is characterized by irreversibility and dissipation, the question of how these aspects can be incorporated into a quantum mechanical description arises. Two effective approaches that also both possess a dynamical invariant (like the one mentioned above) will be discussed. One uses an explicitly time-dependent (linear) Hamiltonian, whereas the other leads to a nonlinear Schrödinger equation with complex logarithmic nonlinearity. Both approaches can be transformed into each other via a non-unitary transformation that involves Schrödinger's original definition of a (complex) action via the wave function.

  14. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  15. Lehrerbelastungsforschung -- Erweiterung durch ein handlungpsychologisches Belastungskonzept (Research on Teacher's Ability To Cope with Stress -- A Broadening of the Approach by Including a Psychology of Action-Concept of Stress).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Reveals that most research on teacher stress relies on personal accounts. Presents a psychology of action-concept of stress and that has been transferred to teacher's instructional activities. Argues that this psychology of action concept of stress helps develop an understanding of teachers' work and what may lead to psychological stress. (CAJ)

  16. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Affirmative Action Program. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Affirmative Action Program (AAP) serves as a working document that describes current policies, practices, and results in the area of affirmative action. It represents the Laboratory`s framework for an affirmative approach to increasing the representation of people of color and women in segments of our work force where they have been underrepresented and taking action to increase the employment of persons with disabilities and special disabled and Vietnam era veterans. The AAP describes the hierarchy of responsibility for Laboratory affirmative action, the mechanisms that exist for full Laboratory participation in the AAP, the policies and procedures governing recruitment at all levels, the Laboratory`s plan for monitoring, reporting, and evaluating affirmative action progress, and a description of special affirmative action programs and plans the Laboratory has used and will use in its efforts to increase the representation and retention of groups historically underrepresented in our work force.

  17. Action-Sentence Compatibility: The Role of Action Effects and Timing

    PubMed Central

    Diefenbach, Christiane; Rieger, Martina; Massen, Cristina; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Research on embodied approaches to language comprehension suggests that we understand linguistic descriptions of actions by mentally simulating these actions. Evidence is provided by the action-sentence compatibility effect (ACE) which shows that sensibility judgments for sentences are faster when the direction of the described action matches the response direction. In two experiments, we investigated whether the ACE relies on actions or on intended action effects. Participants gave sensibility judgments of auditorily presented sentences by producing an action effect on a screen at a location near the body or far from the body. These action effects were achieved by pressing a response button that was located in either the same spatial direction as the action effect, or in the opposite direction. We used a go/no-go task in which the direction of the to-be-produced action effect was either cued at the onset of each sentence (Experiment 1) or at different points in time before and after sentence onset (Experiment 2). Overall, results showed a relationship between the direction of the described action and the direction of the action effect. Furthermore, Experiment 2 indicated that depending on the timing between cue presentation and sentence onset, participants responded either faster when the direction of the described action matched the direction of the action effect (positive ACE), or slower (negative ACE). These results provide evidence that the comprehension of action sentences involves the activation of representations of action effects. Concurrently activated representations in sentence comprehension and action planning can lead to both priming and interference, which is discussed in the context of the theory of event coding. PMID:23734134

  18. Negation in the brain: modulating action representations.

    PubMed

    Tettamanti, Marco; Manenti, Rosa; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Falini, Andrea; Perani, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano F; Moro, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    Sentential negation is a universal syntactic feature of human languages that reverses the truth value expressed by a sentence. An intriguing question concerns what brain mechanisms underlie our ability to represent and understand the meaning of negative sentences. We approach this issue by investigating action-related language processing and the associated neural representations. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we measured brain activity in 18 healthy subjects during passive listening of sentences characterized by a factorial combination of polarity (affirmative vs. negative) and concreteness (action-related vs. abstract). Negation deactivated cortical areas and the left pallidum. Compared to abstract sentences, action-related sentences activated the left-hemispheric action-representation system. Crucially, the polarity by concreteness interactions showed that the activity within the action-representation system was specifically reduced for negative action-related vs. affirmative action-related sentences (compared to abstract sentences). Accordingly, functional integration within this system as measured by Dynamic Causal Modeling was specifically weaker for negative action-related than for affirmative action-related sentences. This modulation of action representations indicates that sentential negation transiently reduces the access to mental representations of the negated information. PMID:18771737

  19. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  20. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  1. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  2. Planning as Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly

    2004-01-01

    Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…

  3. The (un)coupling between action execution and observation. Comment on "Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by D'Ausilio, Bartoli and Maffongelli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Andrea; Ansuini, Caterina; Becchio, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    When we observe actions performed by others, our motor system resonates along with that of the observed agent [1]. The exact features of this resonant motor response, however, are unclear. Do we mirror the goal of others' actions or rather the low-kinematic features of their movements? D'Ausilio et al. suggest that this is an ill-defined problem: the mirror system plausibly replicates the same computational mechanisms implicated by motor control. Accordingly, motor synergies may not only constitute a pervasive element of motor control, but also form the fundamental unit of action observation.

  4. Action understanding as inverse planning.

    PubMed

    Baker, Chris L; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2009-12-01

    Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents' actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents' behavior based on the principle of rationality: the expectation that agents will plan approximately rationally to achieve their goals, given their beliefs about the world. The mental states that caused an agent's behavior are inferred by inverting this model of rational planning using Bayesian inference, integrating the likelihood of the observed actions with the prior over mental states. This approach formalizes in precise probabilistic terms the essence of previous qualitative approaches to action understanding based on an "intentional stance" [Dennett, D. C. (1987). The intentional stance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press] or a "teleological stance" [Gergely, G., Nádasdy, Z., Csibra, G., & Biró, S. (1995). Taking the intentional stance at 12 months of age. Cognition, 56, 165-193]. In three psychophysical experiments using animated stimuli of agents moving in simple mazes, we assess how well different inverse planning models based on different goal priors can predict human goal inferences. The results provide quantitative evidence for an approximately rational inference mechanism in human goal inference within our simplified stimulus paradigm, and for the flexible nature of goal representations that human observers can adopt. We discuss the implications of our experimental results for human action understanding in real-world contexts, and suggest how our framework might be extended to capture other kinds of mental state inferences, such as inferences about beliefs, or inferring whether an entity is an intentional agent.

  5. Approaches to Multicultural Curriculum Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the pros and cons of the contributions of ethnic additive, transformation, decision-making, and social action approaches to multicultural curriculum development. Suggests that movement from a mainstream-centric approach to social action approach is gradual and cumulative. (GG)

  6. From muscles synergies and individual goals to interpersonal synergies and shared goals: Mirror neurons and interpersonal action hierarchies. Comment on "Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by D'Ausilio et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candidi, Matteo; Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-03-01

    D'Ausilio et al. [28] must be praised for bringing attention to the important question of how human Mirror Neurons (MNs) may contribute to action perception, prediction and understanding [1] and for linking their role with the granularity of the motor system as conceptualized in the domain of action control theories. Although we think that the Authors are right in saying that the granularity of the motor system constrains the granularity of the MN system, we speculate that the contribution of MNs to action perception, prediction and understanding is also constrained by the connections between MNs and other cortical and subcortical regions, and by the identity of MNs, i.e. whether they are interneurons or pyramidal cells [2]. In other words, the functional contribution of MS depends on whether they are connected to sensory, emotional and cognitive networks for the service of action perception, prediction and understanding.

  7. The Dynamics of Perception and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, William H.

    2006-01-01

    How might one account for the organization in behavior without attributing it to an internal control structure? The present article develops a theoretical framework called behavioral dynamics that integrates an information-based approach to perception with a dynamical systems approach to action. For a given task, the agent and its environment are…

  8. Participatory Action Research and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Turnbull, Ann P.

    This paper describes collegial model approaches to the interactions between rehabilitation researchers and individuals with disabilities or their family members. The approaches, called participatory research and participatory action research, grew out of a 1989 conference sponsored by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation…

  9. Understanding affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Faye J; Iyer, Aarti; Sincharoen, Sirinda

    2006-01-01

    Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior. PMID:16318608

  10. Practicing What We Teach: Using Action Research to Learn about Teaching Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barb; Dressler, Roswita; Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Jacobsen, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In this article, action research is explored as a process for instructor reflection, professional learning and collaboration. The context for the professional learning was the teaching of graduate level education courses in which action research, in conjunction with a cohort-based, collaboratory approach to learning, was used to facilitate…

  11. Developing Managers as Learners and Researchers: Using Action Learning and Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raelin, Joseph A.; Coghlan, David

    2006-01-01

    This article takes the view that formal educational programs often miss opportunities to use the rich experiences of working managers to produce both learning and knowledge. Two alternative pedagogical approaches, action learning and action research, are proposed as contributing to management education by their respective capabilities to generate…

  12. Using Action Research and Action Learning for Entrepreneurial Network Capability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies an action research (AR) design and action learning (AL) approach to network capability development in an entrepreneurial context. Recent research suggests that networks are a viable strategy for the entrepreneurial firm to overcome the liabilities associated with newness and smallness. However, a gap emerges as few, if any,…

  13. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  14. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  15. Action-based effects on music perception.

    PubMed

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M

    2014-01-01

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance.

  16. Action-based effects on music perception

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M.

    2013-01-01

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance. PMID:24454299

  17. Interweaving reason, action, and perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennema, Claude L., Jr.

    1992-11-01

    In an attempt to understand and emulate intelligent behavior Artificial Intelligence researchers have, for the most part, taken a reductionist approach and divided their investigation into separate studies of reason, perception, and action. As a consequence, intelligent robots have been constructed using a coarse grained architecture; reasoning, perception, and action have been implemented as separate modules that interact infrequently. This paper describes an investigation into the effect of reducing this architecture granularity on the computational efficiency of the overall system. It demonstrates that introducing a fine grained integration or `interweaving' of these functions can result in significant complexity reduction. This paper introduces the `reason a little, move a little, look a little,' or RML paradigm, describes an RML navigation system, and discusses analytical and experimental results that quantify complexity reduction for planning and vision. The system details illustrate novel approaches to representation, planning, and vision. The environment is represented as a network that provides mechanisms for coping with positional uncertainty and focusing reasoning activities. Plans are constructed in three dimensions using a geometry-induced hierarchical decomposition. The approach to vision takes its lead from the way a blind man uses his cane: to verity that reason is consistent with reality.

  18. The role of synergies within generative models of action execution and recognition: A computational perspective. Comment on "Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by A. D'Ausilio et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Donnarumma, Francesco; Iodice, Pierpaolo; Prevete, Roberto; Dindo, Haris

    2015-03-01

    Controlling the body - given its huge number of degrees of freedom - poses severe computational challenges. Mounting evidence suggests that the brain alleviates this problem by exploiting "synergies", or patterns of muscle activities (and/or movement dynamics and kinematics) that can be combined to control action, rather than controlling individual muscles of joints [1-10].

  19. Confronting Power: Success Isn't Everything--but It's Not Nothing Either. A Response to "Beyond the Catch-22 of School-Based Social Action Programs: Toward a More Pragmatic Approach for Dealing with Power"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westheimer, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Fehrman and Schutz contend that the fine balance between having students experience real-world obstacles to social change and having them learn how to navigate around those obstacles can be achieved by having adults both pre-select community action projects that are both possible and meaningful to ensure a modicum of success, and jump in and…

  20. Who Needs Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginger, Ann Fagan

    1979-01-01

    Affirmative action and reverse discrimination are discussed. Facts that were omitted from the court record on the Bakke case are examined. The need for encouraging minority students and women to continue to press for school admission and for lawyers to continue to press affirmative action suits is stressed. (MC)

  1. Community-Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sarah; Mattern, Mark; Telin, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes an undergraduate course entitled Public Interest Research in which students learn research methods by conducting research on behalf of one or more community organizations. Students' work is conceived of as community action learning, a combination of participatory action research and service learning, emphasizing…

  2. Preferential Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Derrick A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the philosophical rationale for preferential affirmative action presented by Daniel C. Maguire in "A New American Justice." Maintains that self-interest bars present society's acceptance of Maguire's theories of justice, as demonstrated in negative reactions to the Harvard Law Review's affirmative action plan. (MJL)

  3. Action Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  4. Handbook for Ecology Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eber, Ronald

    This handbook has been compiled to aid concerned individuals and ecology groups more adequately define their goals, initiate good programs, and take effective action. It examines the ways a group of working individuals can become involved in action programs for ecological change. Part 1 deals with organization, preliminary organizing, structuring,…

  5. Renormalized action improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references.

  6. Action Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Murray, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific…

  7. ACTION. Annual Report 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    In this report are described projects and activities undertaken by ACTION's volunteer programs in 1974. After an introduction that notes accomplishments of the past year, a review of domestic operations discusses such programs as VISTA, University Year for ACTION, National Student Volunteer Program, Foster Grandparent Program, and others according…

  8. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention. PMID:25845648

  9. Communication (action with communicative content).

    PubMed

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term Communication generally designate the transmission of a message of concepts, feelings or needs from a speaker to a receiver by means of verbal or no verbal language. The pragmatic approach to human communication has put in evidence a further implication of this concept: every behaviour therefore has a value even when it is not intentional. Recently, a more dynamic concept of communication has been elaborated where communication means communicative action. This interpretation is the starting point for the theory of the "communicative acting" and subsequently of the so called discourse ethic elaborated by J. Habermas.

  10. Following the Action in Action Learning: Towards Ethnomethodological Studies of (Critical) Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Action learning is a pedagogical practice that helps participants learn by talking about their workplace action with fellow participants ("comrades in adversity") in their action learning set. This paper raises questions about the action in action learning, such as: how do members of an action learning set learn from and through each other? How do…

  11. Action spectra again?

    PubMed

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates

  12. Accomplishing the Goals of Affirmative Action--with or without Affirmative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Might it be possible to achieve some or all of the goals of affirmative action through an approach based on an entirely different definition of the problem? This article says "yes." Its logic rests not upon an approach that creates informal quotas for identified groups, but instead on one aimed at discovering merit in people who are members of…

  13. Conscious Control over Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown. PMID:26113753

  14. Immunization Action Coalition

    MedlinePlus

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Handouts for Patients & Staff A-Z ... Index Supplies Checklist Administering Vaccines Temperature Logs Adult Vaccination Topics of Interest Documenting Vaccination Translations Parent Handouts ...

  15. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  16. The Action Lawyers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubenow, Gerald C.

    1972-01-01

    A description of the Serrano vs. Priest class action suit in California, challenging the system of financing education through property taxes; author touches upon the possibilities for the courts becoming change agents in the struggle for social reform. (SP)

  17. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    PubMed

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand.

  18. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    PubMed

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand. PMID:12319083

  19. Action Learning as Invigoration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Terence S.

    2011-01-01

    The present account of action learning describes its adoption for pragmatic reasons by the University of the Third Age (U3A). The reason for the existence of this movement is the education of retired people. The account seeks to explain why the action learning method spread from one local U3A to another and across it to other local U3As. The case…

  20. Action, agency and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Frith, Chris D

    2014-03-01

    In a series of experiments Marc Jeannerod revealed that we have very little awareness of the details and causes of our actions. We are, however, vividly aware of being in control of our actions and this gives us a sense of responsibility. These feelings arise, first, from intentional binding which creates a perception of agency, linking an intentional action to its outcome and, second, from the counterfactual reasoning that we could have chosen some other action. These feelings of responsibility play a critical role in creating social cohesion since they allow people to be held to account for deliberate antisocial behaviour. Jeannerod's studies also showed that we are unaware of how little we know about our actions and so are happy to make up stories about the nature and causes of our behaviour. These stories often do not correspond with the underlying cognitive and neural processes, but they can be changed through instructions and through discussion with others. Our experience of responsibility for action emerges during our upbringing through exposure to our culture. This creates consensus about the causes of behaviour, but not necessarily accuracy. PMID:24036357

  1. Steamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan For Corrective Action Unit 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (November 2001, Rev. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2001-09-24

    This plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site, consists of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-25-04, UST 12-16-2 Waste Oil Release; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-03, Oil Spill; CAS 18-25-04, Spill (Diesel Fuel); CAS 29-44-01, Fuel Spill (a & b). Process knowledge is the basis for the development of the conceptual site models (CSMs). The CSMs describe the most probable scenario for current conditions at each site, and define the assumptions that are the basis for the SAFER plan. The assumptions are formulated from historical information and process knowledge. Vertical migration of contaminant(s) of potential concern (COPCs) is expected to be predominant over lateral migration in the absence of any barrier (with asphalt /concrete being the exception at least two of the CASs). Soil is the impacted or potentially impacted media at all the sites, with asphalt and/or concrete potentially impacted at two of the CASs. Radionuclides are not expected at any CAS; hydrocarbons are the primary COPC at each CAS, and can be used to guide the investigation; future land-use scenarios limit use to various nonresidential uses; and exposure scenarios are limited by future land-use scenarios to site workers. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 394 using the SAFER process. On completion of the field activities, a Closure Report will be prepared and submitted to the NDEP for review and approval.

  2. Traps and gaps in action explanation: theoretical problems of a psychology of human action.

    PubMed

    Greve, W

    2001-04-01

    This article deals with the question of whether human action can be explained empirically by a psychological theory that refers to intentions, expectancies, and evaluations as determinants. In contrast with the majority of action theories in psychology and philosophy, a logical connection between action and intention is defended and, consequently, a causal relationship between action and intention is refuted. This is illustrated by reference to one of the most widely known and applied psychological action theories: the theory of planned behavior (I. Ajzen, 1991). However, the logical-connection argument can be circumvented if the existing research findings are reinterpreted as part of a psychology of intention. This article demonstrates the value of such an approach for future research. However, the final section of the article outlines some further fundamental theoretical difficulties for this perspective. PMID:11381836

  3. Antigravity: Spin-gravity coupling in action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyatsko, Roman; Fenyk, Mykola

    2016-08-01

    The typical motions of a spinning test particle in Schwarzschild's background which show the strong repulsive action of the highly relativistic spin-gravity coupling are considered using the exact Mathisson-Papapetrou equations. An approximated approach to choice solutions of these equations which describe motions of the particle's proper center of mass is developed.

  4. Participatory Action Research: A View from Xerox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Larry A.; Argona, Dominick R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Quality of Work Life (QWL) program at the North American Manufacturing Division of Xerox Corporation and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. States that the story of QWL is a description of participatory action research. Notes that the process has become an integral and flexible approach to solving problems and…

  5. LEAD at Lunch: Inquiry, Learning, and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This account of practice discusses the author's experience in facilitating a small group of managers in health care over lunchtime utilizing an action learning approach. This was part of a larger leadership development initiative which took place in the organization and the intention was to create a more intimate, informal and safe setting whereby…

  6. Affirmative Action Training Program for Firemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBain, Z. E.

    This paper summarizes the "Affirmative Action" training of unskilled minorities for jobs as firemen. The various training approaches undertaken are discussed; some were more successful than others. Hopefully, the information provided in this report can be used by other fire departments as a basis for developing their own minority "Affirmative…

  7. Quality in Action: Closing the Loop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Chenicheri Sid; Pawley, David; Mertova, Patricie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on how an Administrative Division at a research-intensive Australian university utilised feedback data from the Learning and Growth Survey, to initiate changes. Design/methodology/approach: This paper refers to the actions taken by the Administrative Division to the results obtained from the Learning and Growth…

  8. ES H action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains planned actions to correct the deficiencies identified in the Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA), January 1991, of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL -- Albuquerque, New Mexico; Tonopah, Nevada; and Kauai, Hawaii). The Self-Assessment was conducted by a Self-Assessment Working Group consisting of 19 department managers, with support from Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) professionals, from October through December 1990. Findings from other past audits, dating back to 1985, were reviewed and compared with the PTTSA findings to determine if additional findings, key findings, or root causes were warranted. The resulting ES H Action Plan and individual planned actions were prepared by the ES H Action Plan Project Group with assistance from the Program owners/authors during February and March 1991. The plan was reviewed by SNL Management in April 1991. This document serves as a planning instrument for the Laboratories to aid in the scoping and sizing of activities related to ES H compliance for the coming five years. It will be modified as required to ensure a workload/funding balance and to address the findings resulting from the Tiger Team assessment at SNL, Albuquerque. The process of producing this document has served well to prepare SNL, Albuquerque, for the coming task of producing the required post-Tiger Team action plan document. 8 tabs.

  9. Learning to take actions

    SciTech Connect

    Khardon, R.

    1996-12-31

    We formalize a model for supervised learning of action strategies in dynamic stochastic domains, and show that pac-learning results on Occam algorithms hold in this model as well. We then identify a particularly useful bias for action strategies based on production rule systems. We show that a subset of production rule systems, including rules in predicate calculus style, small hidden state, and unobserved support predicates, is properly learnable. The bias we introduce enables the learning algorithm to invent the recursive support predicates which are used in the action strategy, and to reconstruct the internal state of the strategy. It is also shown that hierarchical strategies are learnable if a helpful teacher is available, but that otherwise the problem is computationally hard.

  10. The shape of action.

    PubMed

    Hard, Bridgette Martin; Recchia, Gabriel; Tversky, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    How do people understand the everyday, yet intricate, behaviors that unfold around them? In the present research, we explored this by presenting viewers with self-paced slideshows of everyday activities and recording looking times, subjective segmentation (breakpoints) into action units, and slide-to-slide physical change. A detailed comparison of the joint time courses of these variables showed that looking time and physical change were locally maximal at breakpoints and greater for higher level action units than for lower level units. Even when slideshows were scrambled, breakpoints were regarded longer and were more physically different from ordinary moments, showing that breakpoints are distinct even out of context. Breakpoints are bridges: from one action to another, from one level to another, and from perception to conception.

  11. Action languages: Dimensions, effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

  12. Mitigation Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  13. Time Will Show: Real Time Predictions during Interpersonal Action Perception

    PubMed Central

    Manera, Valeria; Schouten, Ben; Verfaillie, Karl; Becchio, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Predictive processes are crucial not only for interpreting the actions of individual agents, but also to predict how, in the context of a social interaction between two agents, the actions of one agent relate to the actions of a second agent. In the present study we investigated whether, in the context of a communicative interaction between two agents, observers can use the actions of one agent to predict when the action of a second agent will take place. Participants observed point-light displays of two agents (A and B) performing separate actions. In the communicative condition, the action performed by agent B responded to a communicative gesture performed by agent A. In the individual condition, agent A's communicative action was substituted with a non-communicative action. For each condition, we manipulated the temporal coupling of the actions of the two agents, by varying the onset of agent A's action. Using a simultaneous masking detection task, we demonstrated that the timing manipulation had a critical effect on the communicative condition, with the visual discrimination of agent B increasing linearly while approaching the original interaction timing. No effect of the timing manipulation was found for the individual condition. Our finding complements and extends previous evidence for interpersonal predictive coding, suggesting that the communicative gestures of one agent can serve not only to predict what the second agent will do, but also when his/her action will take place. PMID:23349992

  14. Max-Margin Action Prediction Machine.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yu; Fu, Yun

    2016-09-01

    The speed with which intelligent systems can react to an action depends on how soon it can be recognized. The ability to recognize ongoing actions is critical in many applications, for example, spotting criminal activity. It is challenging, since decisions have to be made based on partial videos of temporally incomplete action executions. In this paper, we propose a novel discriminative multi-scale kernelized model for predicting the action class from a partially observed video. The proposed model captures temporal dynamics of human actions by explicitly considering all the history of observed features as well as features in smaller temporal segments. A compositional kernel is proposed to hierarchically capture the relationships between partial observations as well as the temporal segments, respectively. We develop a new learning formulation, which elegantly captures the temporal evolution over time, and enforces the label consistency between segments and corresponding partial videos. We prove that the proposed learning formulation minimizes the upper bound of the empirical risk. Experimental results on four public datasets show that the proposed approach outperforms state-of-the-art action prediction methods. PMID:26485474

  15. Bayesian Clinical Trials in Action

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. Jack; Chu, Caleb T.

    2012-01-01

    Although the frequentist paradigm has been the predominant approach to clinical trial design since the 1940s, it has several notable limitations. The alternative Bayesian paradigm has been greatly enhanced by advancements in computational algorithms and computer hardware. Compared to its frequentist counterpart, the Bayesian framework has several unique advantages, and its incorporation into clinical trial design is occurring more frequently. Using an extensive literature review to assess how Bayesian methods are used in clinical trials, we find them most commonly used for dose finding, efficacy monitoring, toxicity monitoring, diagnosis/decision making, and for studying pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics. The additional infrastructure required for implementing Bayesian methods in clinical trials may include specialized software programs to run the study design, simulation, and analysis, and Web-based applications, which are particularly useful for timely data entry and analysis. Trial success requires not only the development of proper tools but also timely and accurate execution of data entry, quality control, adaptive randomization, and Bayesian computation. The relative merit of the Bayesian and frequentist approaches continues to be the subject of debate in statistics. However, more evidence can be found showing the convergence of the two camps, at least at the practical level. Ultimately, better clinical trial methods lead to more efficient designs, lower sample sizes, more accurate conclusions, and better outcomes for patients enrolled in the trials. Bayesian methods offer attractive alternatives for better trials. More such trials should be designed and conducted to refine the approach and demonstrate its real benefit in action. PMID:22711340

  16. Collective Action Competence: An Asset to Campus Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Charlotte R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to operationalize theories of social learning and collective action for campus sustainability practitioners at higher education institutions (IHEs) to enhance their work, and to introduce the concept of collective action competence as a practical tool. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents a…

  17. An Action-Research Project: Community Lead Poisoning Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajaram, Shireen S.

    2007-01-01

    This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…

  18. Action Learning--An Experiential Tool for Solving Organizational Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Sharon B.

    2011-01-01

    Action Learning can be effectively used in both large and small businesses and organizations by employees, stakeholders, or volunteers through this "learning by doing" approach to evaluate an issue or issues of importance to the organization. First developed in the 1940s, Action Learning has increasingly been used as a method to explore questions…

  19. Agroecology Education: Action-Oriented Learning and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles; Ostergaard, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines and evaluates the potential contributions from action learning and action research with stakeholders to higher education in agriculture and food systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on our experiences over the past two decades of running PhD courses and an MSc degree programme in Agroecology in…

  20. Improving Educational Aspirations and Outcomes through Community Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how a community action research approach supported the implementation of an educational support programme for children, parents and local educators. The aim was the creation of a learning community that acknowledged, valued and used the expertise and experience of all involved. The action reflection cycle informed the…

  1. Action and Organizational Learning in an Elevator Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Loo, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To highlight the relevance of management control in action learning programs that aim to foster organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: Literature review plus case study. The latter consists of archival analysis and multiple interviews. Findings: When action learning programs are built around singular learning experiences,…

  2. Defining actionable mutations for oncology therapeutic development.

    PubMed

    Carr, T Hedley; McEwen, Robert; Dougherty, Brian; Johnson, Justin H; Dry, Jonathan R; Lai, Zhongwu; Ghazoui, Zara; Laing, Naomi M; Hodgson, Darren R; Cruzalegui, Francisco; Hollingsworth, Simon J; Barrett, J Carl

    2016-04-26

    Genomic profiling of tumours in patients in clinical trials enables rapid testing of multiple hypotheses to confirm which genomic events determine likely responder groups for targeted agents. A key challenge of this new capability is defining which specific genomic events should be classified as 'actionable' (that is, potentially responsive to a targeted therapy), especially when looking for early indications of patient subgroups likely to be responsive to new drugs. This Opinion article discusses some of the different approaches being taken in early clinical development to define actionable mutations, and describes our strategy to address this challenge in early-stage exploratory clinical trials. PMID:27112209

  3. Hope for Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara J.; DeMoor, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Environmental consciousness-raising programs tend to emphasize the magnitude of imminent ecological disasters, if humans continue on their current trajectory. While these environmental literacy programs also call for action to avoid cataclysmic ecological changes, psychological research on "learned helplessness" suggests that information…

  4. Affirmative Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    In order to develop an affirmative action plan at Triton College, the college President appointed a committee made up of nine representatives from the various college constituencies, the majority of which were women and minorities, to determine the objectives to be achieved and how to implement them, and to establish appropriate review procedures.…

  5. Affirmative Action for Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2005-01-01

    If colleges are willing to consider "social engineering" and affirmative action to ensure the inclusion of White men, are they willing to do so for African Americans and other people of color? Will the Center for Individual Rights ride to the rescue of the White women who may be unfairly nudged out of positions for which they are "qualified" in…

  6. Jump into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Cohen, Ann; Meyer, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Jump Into Action (JIA) is a school-based team-taught program to help fifth-grade students make healthy food choices and be more active. The JIA team (physical education teacher, classroom teacher, school nurse, and parent) work together to provide a supportive environment as students set goals to improve food choices and increase activity.…

  7. From Awareness to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micklos, John, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    What inspires young people to become activists? Events such as wars or regime changes obviously raise high emotions. But some choose to get involved because they saw a need and felt compelled to take action. Young Americans have a long track record as activists. Among other things, they played a key role in the civil rights movement of the 1950s…

  8. Action for Children's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranly, Donald P.

    The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certain…

  9. Literacy Education Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clymer, Carol

    The Literacy Education Action (LEA) program was established in the fall of 1985 under the initiative of the president of the El Paso Community College (Texas). During 1985 and 1986, LEA concentrated on developing its own literacy tutoring program, including recruiting and training volunteers and community members with reading skills below the…

  10. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. PMID:26970853

  11. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  12. Economics Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, this learning package introduces intermediate grade students to basic economic concepts. The fourteen activities include the topics of consumption (4 activities), production (5), the market system (3), a pretest, and a posttest. Specific titles under consumption include The Wonderful Treasure Tree (introduction…

  13. SYRACUSE ACTION FOR YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADDINGTON, HAROLD E.; AND OTHERS

    A PROPOSAL WAS MADE TO PREVENT AND CONTROL JUVENILE DELINQUENCY BY OPENING OPPORTUNITIES AND DEVELOPING COMPETENCE AMONG DISADVANTAGED YOUTH. THE TOTAL COMMUNITY WAS MOBILIZED TO DEVELOP A PROGRAM TO ATTACK THE PROBLEM AT ALL LEVELS THEY WORKED FOR 18 MONTHS TO PLAN A SERIES OF CREATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS IN EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND COMMUNITY…

  14. From Intuition to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of principals intuitively believe that the arts belong in schools and in every child's life. Now is the time to take action on your intuition--and become an instructional leader for the arts, just as you are for every core subject. Arts-engaged principals share strategies for becoming instructional leaders for the arts.

  15. Instructional Rounds in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John E.

    2012-01-01

    "Instructional Rounds in Action" is an invaluable guide for those involved in implementing instructional rounds as the foundation and framework for systemic improvement in schools. Over the past few years, districts across the United States, Canada, and Australia have begun implementing "instructional rounds," a set of ideas and practices for…

  16. Action Research in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Action research places a powerful tool for school improvement in the hands of teachers. By highlighting the outcomes that are possible and presenting clear steps in the research process, this book is one to encourage anyone who is seeking to implement evidence-based school improvement. Eileen Piggot-Irvine uses her Problem Resolving Action…

  17. The Shape of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hard, Bridgette Martin; Recchia, Gabriel; Tversky, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How do people understand the everyday, yet intricate, behaviors that unfold around them? In the present research, we explored this by presenting viewers with self-paced slideshows of everyday activities and recording looking times, subjective segmentation (breakpoints) into action units, and slide-to-slide physical change. A detailed comparison of…

  18. School Reform in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Christine

    This study describes and analyzes the impact on student learning and the learning environment of 55 schools in Broward, Palm Beach, and Miami-Dade school districts as they implemented the schoolwide action-research framework for school improvement. Interviews, observations, document review during site visits, school framework reports, surveys,…

  19. Justifying Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helskog, Guro Hansen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I use a general philosophy of science perspective in looking at the problem of justifying action research. First I try to clarify the concept of justification, by contrasting it with the concept of validity, which seems to be used almost as a synonym in some parts of the literature. I discuss the need for taking a stand in relation…

  20. Promoting Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, John

    1994-01-01

    Outlines a lesson on the extinction process allowing students to better understand why and how species become endangered before they attempt to take action on this problem. Provides background information and describes several suggested methodologies, evaluation and enrichment ideas, six resources, and two references. (LZ)

  1. College Comedy and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rosanna

    1977-01-01

    A few materials such as yarn and scraps of paper and cloth can provide the media for recording limitless ideas from the imaginations of students. With a little encouragement and a few suggestions of actions, emotions, exaggerations and activities students will produce a vast array of amusing characters. (Author)

  2. The Constitution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

  3. Literacy Portfolios in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Sheila W.

    Intended for new and experienced teachers in grades K-8, this book takes readers through a process of thinking about how to put portfolios into action. The book models a process for making decisions about the type of portfolio, what to place in it, how to structure the interactions with it, and how to use it to evaluate student progress and report…

  4. Sustainability as Moral Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  5. Programs for Urban Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Board of Young Men's Christian Associations, New York, NY.

    This booklet contains descriptions of 150 urban action programs being conducted by Young Men's Christian Associations throughout the United States. Planning principles are included to assist those who wish to adapt the programs to local situations: involvement of people in planning; use of local indigenous leadership; planning in collaboration…

  6. Affirmative Action Fallout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Race-conscious affirmative action in higher education survived a close challenge in 2003 when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that race was a valid academic admission criteria in the "Grutter v. Bollinger" case. Two years later, a number of "pipeline" programs to help under-represented minorities gain admission to and complete graduate school have…

  7. Action Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and transfer…

  8. Conjugate flow action functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Venturi, Daniele

    2013-11-15

    We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

  9. Angels in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Xanthippi Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of the placement of action lines to show the direction of movement. The author shows some visuals of angels and discusses in details the texture of the wings, the hair and the clothing.

  10. Hierarchical human action recognition around sleeping using obscured posture information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Yuta; Sashida, Takehiko; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach for human action recognition around sleeping with the human body parts locations and the positional relationship between human and sleeping environment. Body parts are estimated from the depth image obtained by a time-of-flight (TOF) sensor using oriented 3D normal vector. Issues in action recognition of sleeping situation are the demand of availability in darkness, and hiding of the human body by duvets. Therefore, the extraction of image features is difficult since color and edge features are obscured by covers. Thus, first in our method, positions of four parts of the body (head, torso, thigh, and lower leg) are estimated by using the shape model of bodily surface constructed by oriented 3D normal vector. This shape model can represent the surface shape of rough body, and is effective in robust posture estimation of the body hidden with duvets. Then, action descriptor is extracted from the position of each body part. The descriptor includes temporal variation of each part of the body and spatial vector of position of the parts and the bed. Furthermore, this paper proposes hierarchical action classes and classifiers to improve the indistinct action classification. Classifiers are composed of two layers, and recognize human action by using the action descriptor. First layer focuses on spatial descriptor and classifies action roughly. Second layer focuses on temporal descriptor and classifies action finely. This approach achieves a robust recognition of obscured human by using the posture information and the hierarchical action recognition.

  11. Expression of nonconscious knowledge via ideomotor actions.

    PubMed

    Gauchou, Hélène L; Rensink, Ronald A; Fels, Sidney

    2012-06-01

    Ideomotor actions are behaviours that are unconsciously initiated and express a thought rather than a response to a sensory stimulus. The question examined here is whether ideomotor actions can also express nonconscious knowledge. We investigated this via the use of implicit long-term semantic memory, which is not available to conscious recall. We compared accuracy of answers to yes/no questions using both volitional report and ideomotor response (Ouija board response). Results show that when participants believed they knew the answer, responses in the two modalities were similar. But when they believed they were guessing, accuracy was at chance for volitional report (50%), but significantly higher for Ouija response (65%). These results indicate that implicit semantic memory can be expressed through ideomotor actions. They also suggest that this approach can provide an interesting new methodology for studying implicit processes in cognition. PMID:22377138

  12. Measurement Models for Reasoned Action Theory.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Quantitative researchers distinguish between causal and effect indicators. What are the analytic problems when both types of measures are present in a quantitative reasoned action analysis? To answer this question, we use data from a longitudinal study to estimate the association between two constructs central to reasoned action theory: behavioral beliefs and attitudes toward the behavior. The belief items are causal indicators that define a latent variable index while the attitude items are effect indicators that reflect the operation of a latent variable scale. We identify the issues when effect and causal indicators are present in a single analysis and conclude that both types of indicators can be incorporated in the analysis of data based on the reasoned action approach.

  13. A Metadata Action Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The data management problem comprises data processing and data tracking. Data processing is the creation of new data based on existing data sources. Data tracking consists of storing metadata descriptions of available data. This paper addresses the data management problem by casting it as an AI planning problem. Actions are data-processing commands, plans are dataflow programs and goals are metadata descriptions of desired data products. Data manipulation is simply plan generation and execution, and a key component of data tracking is inferring the effects of an observed plan. We introduce a new action language for data management domains, called ADILM. We discuss the connection between data processing and information integration and show how a language for the latter must be modified to support the former. The paper also discusses information gathering within a data-processing framework, and show how ADILM metadata expressions are a generalization of Local Completeness.

  14. Atoms in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    This movie produced with Berkeley Lab's TEAM 0.5 microscope shows the growth of a hole and the atomic edge reconstruction in a graphene sheet. An electron beam focused to a spot on the sheet blows out the exposed carbon atoms to make the hole. The carbon atoms then reposition themselves to find a stable configuration. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2009/03/26/atoms-in-action/

  15. Finding minimal action sequences with a simple evaluation of actions

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Animals are able to discover the minimal number of actions that achieves an outcome (the minimal action sequence). In most accounts of this, actions are associated with a measure of behavior that is higher for actions that lead to the outcome with a shorter action sequence, and learning mechanisms find the actions associated with the highest measure. In this sense, previous accounts focus on more than the simple binary signal of “was the outcome achieved?”; they focus on “how well was the outcome achieved?” However, such mechanisms may not govern all types of behavioral development. In particular, in the process of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006), actions are reinforced if they simply lead to a salient outcome because biological reinforcement signals occur too quickly to evaluate the consequences of an action beyond an indication of the outcome's occurrence. Thus, action discovery mechanisms focus on the simple evaluation of “was the outcome achieved?” and not “how well was the outcome achieved?” Notwithstanding this impoverishment of information, can the process of action discovery find the minimal action sequence? We address this question by implementing computational mechanisms, referred to in this paper as no-cost learning rules, in which each action that leads to the outcome is associated with the same measure of behavior. No-cost rules focus on “was the outcome achieved?” and are consistent with action discovery. No-cost rules discover the minimal action sequence in simulated tasks and execute it for a substantial amount of time. Extensive training, however, results in extraneous actions, suggesting that a separate process (which has been proposed in action discovery) must attenuate learning if no-cost rules participate in behavioral development. We describe how no-cost rules develop behavior, what happens when attenuation is disrupted, and relate the new mechanisms to wider computational and biological context. PMID:25506326

  16. Archetypes as action patterns.

    PubMed

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology.

  17. Platform for Action: update.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Women's Global Leadership (CWGL) has collaborated in the preparation of amendments and strategies designed to withstand the challenges being posed to the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women. Specific challenges include the inappropriate use of the word "universal" to modify "human rights." This implies that some human rights are less than universal. The strategy proposed is to accept the use of the word "universal" in this context only when it affirms principles of universality contained in the Vienna Programme of Action and not where its use would restrict the rights to which women are entitled. A second concern is over the use of the word "equity" rather than "equality" when referring to gender relations. The use of these terms will be carefully monitored to insure that "equity" not be used to undermine the principle of gender equality. The third concern is the efforts of some governments to hinder the integration of women's human rights throughout the UN system. Such efforts will be opposed. Fourth, the CWGL will seek the inclusion of language which recognizes the barriers that different groups of women face when trying to secure their rights. Finally, the CWGL will propose inclusion of language recognizing and protecting sexual orientation rights. The CWGL is also going to work to translate the abstract language of the Platform for Action into political organizing potential to insure that governments will follow through on their agreements.

  18. Archetypes as action patterns.

    PubMed

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology. PMID:19531123

  19. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  20. Human reliability in petrochemical industry: an action research.

    PubMed

    Silva, João Alexandre Pinheiro; Camarotto, João Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to identify conflicts and gaps between the operators' strategies and actions and the organizational managerial approach for human reliability. In order to achieve these goals, the research approach adopted encompasses literature review, mixing action research methodology and Ergonomic Workplace Analysis in field research. The result suggests that the studied company has a classical and mechanistic point of view focusing on error identification and building barriers through procedures, checklists and other prescription alternatives to improve performance in reliability area. However, it was evident the fundamental role of the worker as an agent of maintenance and construction of system reliability during the action research cycle.

  1. Discourse, action, rhetoric: from a perception to an action paradigm in social psychology.

    PubMed

    Durrheim, Kevin

    2012-09-01

    This article provides a personal account of how discursive social psychology has been used to understand social and political change in South Africa and to reflect on the strengths and limitations of the approach. While celebrating the shift from the perception paradigm to the genuinely social constructionist focus on discursive interaction, the article also argues for an expanded focus on embodied action.

  2. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2000-02-25

    This Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII,Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a). This work plan describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility’s Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to NMED’s guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The scope of work for the RFI Work Plan or SAP is being developed by the Permittees. The final content of the RFI Work Plan or SAP will be coordinated with the NMED for submittal on May 24, 2000. Specific project-related planning information will be included in the RFI Work Plan or SAP. The SWMU program at WIPP began in 1994 under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory authority. NMED subsequently received regulatory authority from EPA

  3. Modelling the control of interceptive actions.

    PubMed Central

    Beek, P J; Dessing, J C; Peper, C E; Bullock, D

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, several phenomenological dynamical models have been formulated that describe how perceptual variables are incorporated in the control of motor variables. We call these short-route models as they do not address how perception-action patterns might be constrained by the dynamical properties of the sensory, neural and musculoskeletal subsystems of the human action system. As an alternative, we advocate a long-route modelling approach in which the dynamics of these subsystems are explicitly addressed and integrated to reproduce interceptive actions. The approach is exemplified through a discussion of a recently developed model for interceptive actions consisting of a neural network architecture for the online generation of motor outflow commands, based on time-to-contact information and information about the relative positions and velocities of hand and ball. This network is shown to be consistent with both behavioural and neurophysiological data. Finally, some problems are discussed with regard to the question of how the motor outflow commands (i.e. the intended movement) might be modulated in view of the musculoskeletal dynamics. PMID:14561342

  4. Action spectra for photosynthetic inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, M. M.; Flint, S.; Camp, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet action spectrum for photosynthesis inhibition was determined to fall between that of the general DNA action spectrum and the generalized plant action spectrum. The characteristics of this action spectrum suggest that a combination of pronounced increase in effectiveness with decreasing wavelength, substantial specificity for the UV-B waveband, and very diminished response in the UV-A waveband result in large radiation amplification factors when the action spectra are used as weighting functions. Attempted determination of dose/response relationships for leaf disc inhibition provided inconclusive data from which to deconvolute an action spectrum.

  5. Encoding of human action in Broca's area.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Patrik; Cantagallo, Anna; Craighero, Laila; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Roy, Alice C; Pozzo, Thierry; Calzolari, Ferdinando; Granieri, Enrico; Fadiga, Luciano

    2009-07-01

    Broca's area has been considered, for over a century, as the brain centre responsible for speech production. Modern neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence have suggested a wider functional role is played by this area. In addition to the evidence that it is involved in syntactical analysis, mathematical calculation and music processing, it has recently been shown that Broca's area may play some role in language comprehension and, more generally, in understanding actions of other individuals. As shown by functional magnetic resonance imaging, Broca's area is one of the cortical areas activated by hand/mouth action observation and it has been proposed that it may form a crucial node of a human mirror-neuron system. If, on the one hand, neuroimaging studies use a correlational approach which cannot offer a final proof for such claims, available neuropsychological data fail to offer a conclusive demonstration for two main reasons: (i) they use tasks taxing both language and action systems; and (ii) they rarely consider the possibility that Broca's aphasics may also be affected by some form of apraxia. We administered a novel action comprehension test--with almost no linguistic requirements--on selected frontal aphasic patients lacking apraxic symptoms. Patients, as well as matched controls, were shown short movies of human actions or of physical events. Their task consisted of ordering, in a temporal sequence, four pictures taken from each movie and randomly presented on the computer screen. Patient's performance showed a specific dissociation in their ability to re-order pictures of human actions (impaired) with respect to physical events (spared). Our study provides a demonstration that frontal aphasics, not affected by apraxia, are specifically impaired in their capability to correctly encode observed human actions.

  6. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.

  7. Inferring learners' knowledge from their actions.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anna N; LaMar, Michelle M; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-04-01

    Watching another person take actions to complete a goal and making inferences about that person's knowledge is a relatively natural task for people. This ability can be especially important in educational settings, where the inferences can be used for assessment, diagnosing misconceptions, and providing informative feedback. In this paper, we develop a general framework for automatically making such inferences based on observed actions; this framework is particularly relevant for inferring student knowledge in educational games and other interactive virtual environments. Our approach relies on modeling action planning: We formalize the problem as a Markov decision process in which one must choose what actions to take to complete a goal, where choices will be dependent on one's beliefs about how actions affect the environment. We use a variation of inverse reinforcement learning to infer these beliefs. Through two lab experiments, we show that this model can recover people's beliefs in a simple environment, with accuracy comparable to that of human observers. We then demonstrate that the model can be used to provide real-time feedback and to model data from an existing educational game.

  8. Inferring learners' knowledge from their actions.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anna N; LaMar, Michelle M; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-04-01

    Watching another person take actions to complete a goal and making inferences about that person's knowledge is a relatively natural task for people. This ability can be especially important in educational settings, where the inferences can be used for assessment, diagnosing misconceptions, and providing informative feedback. In this paper, we develop a general framework for automatically making such inferences based on observed actions; this framework is particularly relevant for inferring student knowledge in educational games and other interactive virtual environments. Our approach relies on modeling action planning: We formalize the problem as a Markov decision process in which one must choose what actions to take to complete a goal, where choices will be dependent on one's beliefs about how actions affect the environment. We use a variation of inverse reinforcement learning to infer these beliefs. Through two lab experiments, we show that this model can recover people's beliefs in a simple environment, with accuracy comparable to that of human observers. We then demonstrate that the model can be used to provide real-time feedback and to model data from an existing educational game. PMID:25155381

  9. Compressive Sequential Learning for Action Similarity Labeling.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jie; Liu, Li; Zhang, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Yunhong; Shao, Ling

    2016-02-01

    Human action recognition in videos has been extensively studied in recent years due to its wide range of applications. Instead of classifying video sequences into a number of action categories, in this paper, we focus on a particular problem of action similarity labeling (ASLAN), which aims at verifying whether a pair of videos contain the same type of action or not. To address this challenge, a novel approach called compressive sequential learning (CSL) is proposed by leveraging the compressive sensing theory and sequential learning. We first project data points to a low-dimensional space by effectively exploring an important property in compressive sensing: the restricted isometry property. In particular, a very sparse measurement matrix is adopted to reduce the dimensionality efficiently. We then learn an ensemble classifier for measuring similarities between pairwise videos by iteratively minimizing its empirical risk with the AdaBoost strategy on the training set. Unlike conventional AdaBoost, the weak learner for each iteration is not explicitly defined and its parameters are learned through greedy optimization. Furthermore, an alternative of CSL named compressive sequential encoding is developed as an encoding technique and followed by a linear classifier to address the similarity-labeling problem. Our method has been systematically evaluated on four action data sets: ASLAN, KTH, HMDB51, and Hollywood2, and the results show the effectiveness and superiority of our method for ASLAN.

  10. Cross-View Action Recognition via Transferable Dictionary Learning.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jingjing; Jiang, Zhuolin; Chellappa, Rama

    2016-05-01

    Discriminative appearance features are effective for recognizing actions in a fixed view, but may not generalize well to a new view. In this paper, we present two effective approaches to learn dictionaries for robust action recognition across views. In the first approach, we learn a set of view-specific dictionaries where each dictionary corresponds to one camera view. These dictionaries are learned simultaneously from the sets of correspondence videos taken at different views with the aim of encouraging each video in the set to have the same sparse representation. In the second approach, we additionally learn a common dictionary shared by different views to model view-shared features. This approach represents the videos in each view using a view-specific dictionary and the common dictionary. More importantly, it encourages the set of videos taken from the different views of the same action to have the similar sparse representations. The learned common dictionary not only has the capability to represent actions from unseen views, but also makes our approach effective in a semi-supervised setting where no correspondence videos exist and only a few labeled videos exist in the target view. The extensive experiments using three public datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms recently developed approaches for cross-view action recognition.

  11. On the Inclusion of Externally Controlled Actions in Action Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Knoblich, Gunther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    According to ideomotor theories, perceiving action effects produced by others triggers corresponding action representations in the observer. We tested whether this principle extends to actions performed by externally controlled limbs and tools. Participants performed a go-no-go version of a spatial compatibility task in which their own actions…

  12. Improving Teaching with Collaborative Action Research: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Once you've established a professional learning community (PLC), you need to get this ASCD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) action tool to ensure that your PLC stays focused on addressing teaching methods and student learning problems. This ASCD action tool explains how your PLC can use collaborative action research to…

  13. Three-dimensional Lorentz-violating action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Wotzasek, C.; Zarro, C. A. D.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate the generation of the three-dimensional Chern-Simons-like Lorentz-breaking "mixed" quadratic action via an appropriate Lorentz-breaking coupling of vector and scalar fields to the spinor field and study some features of the scalar QED with such a term. We show that the same term emerges through a nonperturbative method, namely the Julia-Toulouse approach of condensation of charges and defects.

  14. [Surgical approaches in rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P S; Duron, J-B; Bardot, J; Levet, Y; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    In the first step of rhinoplasty, the surgical approach will expose through different types of incisions and dissection planes the osteocartilaginous framework of the nasal pyramid prior to performing actions to reduce or increase the latter. This exposure can be performed by a closed approach or by an external approach--the choice depends on the type of nose and the habits of the surgeon. Far from being opposites, closed and external approaches are complementary and should be known and mastered by surgeons performing rhinoplasty.

  15. Consciousness: individuated information in action

    PubMed Central

    Jonkisz, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness – the main aim of this article –into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside), hierarchically referential (semantically ordered), bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system), and useful in action (pragmatically functional), is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. A gradational approach, however, despite its explanatory advantages, can lead to some counterintuitive consequences and theoretical problems. In most such conceptions consciousness is extended globally (attached to primitive organisms or artificial systems), but also locally (connected to certain lower-level neuronal and bodily processes). For example, according to information integration theory (as introduced recently by Tononi and Koch, 2014), even such simple artificial systems as photodiodes possess miniscule amounts of consciousness. The major challenge for this article, then, is to establish reasonable, empirically justified constraints on how extended the range of a graded consciousness could be. It is argued that conscious systems are limited globally by the ability to individuate information (where individuated information is understood as evolutionarily embedded, socially altered, and private), whereas local limitations should be determined on the basis of a hypothesis about the action-oriented nature of the processes that select states of consciousness. Using these constraints, an abstract concept of consciousness is arrived at, hopefully contributing to a more unified state of play within consciousness studies itself. PMID:26283987

  16. Neurobiological actions of cysteamine

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Fisher, L.; Mason, R.T.; Rivier, J.; Vale, W.

    1985-06-01

    Somatostatin (SS)-related peptides act within discrete brain regions to inhibit adrenal epinephrine (E) secretion, to prevent hypothermia, and to produce hyperthermia. Depletion of brain concentrations of these SS-related peptides using cysteamine (CSH) or central administration of an SS receptor antagonist increases adrenal E secretion and impairs thermoregulation. These actions of CSH and the SS receptor antagonist are reversed by administration of SS into the central nervous system. These results support the hypothesis that endogenous brain SS-related peptides are involved in the regulation of adrenal E secretion and thermoregulation.

  17. Public affairs committee actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Public Affairs Committee will create an ad hoc committee to consider possible AGU position statements concerning the effects of nuclear war.The action was taken at the May 31, 1983, meeting of the Committee at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore. Present were Carroll Ann Hodges, Chairman, and members Thomas J. Ahrens, David Cauffman, Jared Cohon, Stamatios Krimigis, Robert Murphy, Raymond Roble, and George Shaw. Also attending were the current Congressional Fellow Arthur Weissman and SPR—Cosmic Rays Section Secretary Miriam Forman.

  18. Developing an action concept inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for incorporating expert and student feedback into successive revisions of the ACI. The student feedback, including think-aloud interviews, enabled us to identify their misconceptions about action physics.

  19. Untrained Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Fail to Imitate Novel Actions

    PubMed Central

    Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Social learning research in apes has focused on social learning in the technical (problem solving) domain - an approach that confounds action and physical information. Successful subjects in such studies may have been able to perform target actions not as a result of imitation learning but because they had learnt some technical aspect, for example, copying the movements of an apparatus (i.e., different forms of emulation learning). Methods Here we present data on action copying by non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees when physical information is removed from demonstrations. To date, only one such study (on gesture copying in a begging context) has been conducted – with negative results. Here we have improved this methodology and have also added non-begging test situations (a possible confound of the earlier study). Both familiar and novel actions were used as targets. Prior to testing, a trained conspecific demonstrator was rewarded for performing target actions in view of observers. All but one of the tested chimpanzees already failed to copy familiar actions. When retested with a novel target action, also the previously successful subject failed to copy – and he did so across several contexts. Conclusion Chimpanzees do not seem to copy novel actions, and only some ever copy familiar ones. Due to our having tested only non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees, the performance of our test subjects speak more than most other studies of the general (dis-)ability of chimpanzees to copy actions, and especially novel actions. PMID:22905102

  20. Motor Execution Affects Action Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Liepelt, Roman; Birngruber, Teresa; Giese, Martin; Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of the claim that the prediction of occluded action involves real-time simulation. We report two experiments that aimed to study how real-time simulation is affected by simultaneous action execution under conditions of full, partial or no overlap between observed and executed actions. This overlap was analysed by…