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Sample records for action control evidence

  1. Conscious Control over Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown. PMID:26113753

  2. Prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases through evidence-based public health: Implementing the NCD 2020 Action Plan

    PubMed Central

    Diem, Günter; Brownson, Ross C.; Grabauskas, Vilius; Shatchkute, Aushra; Stachenko, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    The control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) was addressed by the declaration of the 66th UN General Assembly followed by the World Health Organisation’s NCD 2020 Action Plan. There is a clear need to better apply evidence in public health settings to tackle both behaviour-related factors and the underlying social and economic conditions. This article describes concepts of evidence based public health and outlines a set of actions that are essential for a successful global NCD prevention. The authors describe the importance of knowledge translation with the goal of increasing the effectiveness of public health services, replying on both quantitative and qualitative evidence. In particular, the role of capacity building is highlighted because it is fundamental to progress in controlling NCDs. Important challenges for capacity building include the need to bridge diverse disciplines, build the evidence base across countries, and the lack of formal training in public health sciences. As brief case examples, several successful capacity building efforts are highlighted to address challenges and further evidence-based decision making. The need for a more comprehensive public health approach, addressing social, environmental and cultural conditions, has led to a whole-of government and whole-of society strategies that are now on the agenda due to efforts such as the WHO's NCD 2020 Action Plan and the Health 2020 European Policy Framework. These efforts need research to generate evidence in new areas (e.g., equity, sustainability), training to build public health capacity, and a continuous process of improvement and knowledge generation and translation. PMID:25758171

  3. Implicit and explicit control of motor actions: revisiting some early evidence.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Richard; Hardy, Lew; Oldham, Anthony

    2007-02-01

    Two studies have questioned Masters' (1992) contention that skills acquired in implicit practice conditions are less likely to fail under pressure than those acquired explicitly. The studies produced conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to revisit the designs of both studies in an attempt to clarify the situation. Thirty-two participants were allocated to one of three separate implicit training groups or an explicit training group, and practised putting golf balls. Participants were exposed to an anxiety intervention at two points during practice. Putting performance across practice and anxiety phases were analysed using the number of putts successfully completed as the main dependent variable. We found further evidence for the suggestion that motor skills are robust under pressure when acquired in implicit practice conditions. PMID:17319055

  4. On the Inclusion of Externally Controlled Actions in Action Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Knoblich, Gunther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    According to ideomotor theories, perceiving action effects produced by others triggers corresponding action representations in the observer. We tested whether this principle extends to actions performed by externally controlled limbs and tools. Participants performed a go-no-go version of a spatial compatibility task in which their own actions…

  5. Everyday robotic action: lessons from human action control

    PubMed Central

    de Kleijn, Roy; Kachergis, George; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations. PMID:24672474

  6. The role of action control and action planning on fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangyu; Gan, Yiqun; Miao, Miao; Hamilton, Kyra; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Globally, fruit and vegetable intake is lower than recommended despite being an important component to a healthy diet. Adopting or maintaining a sufficient amount of fruit and vegetables in one's diet may require not only motivation but also self-regulatory processes. Action control and action planning are two key volitional determinants that have been identified in the literature; however, it is not fully understood how these two factors operate between intention and behavior. Thus, the aim of the current study was to explore the roles of action control and action planning as mediators between intentions and dietary behavior. A longitudinal study with three points in time was conducted. Participants (N = 286) were undergraduate students and invited to participate in a health behavior survey. At baseline (Time 1), measures of intention and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed. Two weeks later (Time 2), action control and action planning were assessed as putative sequential mediators. At Time 3 (two weeks after Time 2), fruit and vegetable consumption was measured as the outcome. The results revealed action control and action planning to sequentially mediate between intention and subsequent fruit and vegetable intake, controlling for baseline behavior. Both self-regulatory constructs, action control and action planning, make a difference when moving from motivation to action. Our preliminary evidence, therefore, suggests that planning may be more proximal to fruit and vegetable intake than action control. Further research, however, needs to be undertaken to substantiate this conclusion.

  7. NAMING DYNAMIC AND STATIC ACTIONS: NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Daniel; Manzel, Kenneth; Asp, Erik; Kemmerer, David

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in identifying the neural correlates of action naming, but the bulk of previous work on this topic has utilized static stimuli. Recent research comparing the visual processing of dynamic versus static actions suggests that these two types of stimuli engage largely overlapping neural systems, raising the possibility that the higher-order processing requirements for naming dynamic and static actions might not be very different. To explore this issue in greater depth, we developed the Dynamic Action Naming Test (DANT), which consists of 158 video clips 3–5 sec in length, for each of which the participant is asked to produce the most appropriate verb. We administered the DANT to 78 brain-damaged patients drawn from our Patient Registry, and to a demographically matched group of 50 normal participants. Out of the 16 patients who performed defectively on the DANT, nearly all (15/16) had damage in the left hemisphere. Lesion analysis indicated that the frontal operculum was the most frequent area of damage in the 15 patients; also, damage to the posterolateral temporal-occipital sector (in and near MT) was specifically related to defective dynamic action naming. Most of the brain-damaged participants (n = 71) also received our Static Action Naming Test (SANT), and we found that performances on verb items that were common across the DANT and SANT were highly correlated (R = .91). Moreover, patients who failed the DANT almost invariably also failed the SANT. These findings lend further support to the hypothesis that there is considerable commonality in the neural systems underlying the use of verbs to orally name dynamic and static actions, a conclusion that is in turn compatible with the concept of “representational momentum.” Our results also contribute more generally to the rapidly growing field of research on embodied cognition. PMID:18486456

  8. Playing Action Video Games Improves Visuomotor Control.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The findings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be beneficial training tools for driving. PMID:27485132

  9. Playing Action Video Games Improves Visuomotor Control.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The findings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be beneficial training tools for driving.

  10. Shared neural processes support semantic control and action understanding

    PubMed Central

    Davey, James; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Costigan, Alison; Murphy, Nik; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Hallam, Glyn; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Executive–semantic control and action understanding appear to recruit overlapping brain regions but existing evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses and neuropsychology lacks spatial precision; we therefore manipulated difficulty and feature type (visual vs. action) in a single fMRI study. Harder judgements recruited an executive–semantic network encompassing medial and inferior frontal regions (including LIFG) and posterior temporal cortex (including pMTG). These regions partially overlapped with brain areas involved in action but not visual judgements. In LIFG, the peak responses to action and difficulty were spatially identical across participants, while these responses were overlapping yet spatially distinct in posterior temporal cortex. We propose that the co-activation of LIFG and pMTG allows the flexible retrieval of semantic information, appropriate to the current context; this might be necessary both for semantic control and understanding actions. Feature selection in difficult trials also recruited ventral occipital–temporal areas, not implicated in action understanding. PMID:25658631

  11. Impulsive action: emotional impulses and their control

    PubMed Central

    Frijda, Nico H.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Rietveld, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel theoretical view on impulsive action, integrating thus far separate perspectives on non-reflective action, motivation, emotion regulation, and impulse control. We frame impulsive action in terms of directedness of the individual organism toward, away, or against other givens – toward future states and away from one’s present state. First, appraisal of a perceived or thought-of event or object on occasion, rapidly and without premonition or conscious deliberation, triggers a motive to modify one’s relation to that event or object. Situational specifics of the event as perceived and appraised motivate and guide selection of readiness for a particular kind of purposive action. Second, perception of complex situations can give rise to multiple appraisals, multiple motives, and multiple simultaneous changes in action readiness. Multiple states of action readiness may interact in generating action, by reinforcing or attenuating each other, thereby yielding impulse control. We show how emotion control can itself result from a motive state or state of action readiness. Our view links impulsive action mechanistically to states of action readiness, which is the central feature of what distinguishes one kind of emotion from another. It thus provides a novel theoretical perspective to the somewhat fragmented literature on impulsive action. PMID:24917835

  12. Power effects on cognitive control: Turning conflict into action.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Petra C; Kleiman, Tali; Amodio, David M

    2015-06-01

    Power is known to promote effective goal pursuit, especially when it requires one to overcome distractions or bias. We proposed that this effect involves the ability to engage and implement cognitive control. In Study 1, we demonstrated that power enhances behavioral performance on a response conflict task and that it does so by enhancing controlled processing rather than by reducing automatic processing. In Study 2, we used an event-related potential index of anterior cingulate activity to test whether power effects on control were due to enhanced conflict sensitivity or action implementation. Power did not significantly affect neural sensitivity to conflict; rather, high power was associated with a stronger link between conflict processing and intended action, relative to low power. These findings suggest a new perspective on how social factors can affect controlled processing and offer new evidence regarding the transition between conflict detection and the implementation of action control.

  13. Deciding as Intentional Action: Control over Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Common-sense folk psychology and mainstream philosophy of action agree about decisions: these are under an agent's direct control, and are thus intentional actions for which agents can be held responsible. I begin this paper by presenting a problem for this view. In short, since the content of the motivational attitudes that drive deliberation and decision remains open-ended until the moment of decision, it is unclear how agents can be thought to exercise control over what they decide at the moment of deciding. I note that this problem might motivate a non-actional view of deciding—a view that decisions are not actions, but are instead passive events of intention acquisition. For without an understanding of how an agent might exercise control over what is decided at the moment of deciding, we lack a good reason for maintaining commitment to an actional view of deciding. However, I then offer the required account of how agents exercise control over decisions at the moment of deciding. Crucial to this account is an understanding of the relation of practical deliberation to deciding, an understanding of skilled deliberative activity, and the role of attention in the mental action of deciding. PMID:26321765

  14. The Social Determinants of Tuberculosis: From Evidence to Action

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, Delia; Evans, Carlton A.; Adato, Michelle; Petticrew, Mark; Porter, John D. H.

    2011-01-01

    Growing consensus indicates that progress in tuberculosis control in the low- and middle-income world will require not only investment in strengthening tuberculosis control programs, diagnostics, and treatment but also action on the social determinants of tuberculosis. However, practical ideas for action are scarcer than is notional support for this idea. We developed a framework based on the recent World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health and on current understanding of the social determinants of tuberculosis. Interventions from outside the health sector—specifically, in social protection and urban planning—have the potential to strengthen tuberculosis control. PMID:21330583

  15. Vicarious motor activation during action perception: beyond correlational evidence

    PubMed Central

    Avenanti, Alessio; Candidi, Matteo; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Neurophysiological and imaging studies have shown that seeing the actions of other individuals brings about the vicarious activation of motor regions involved in performing the same actions. While this suggests a simulative mechanism mediating the perception of others' actions, one cannot use such evidence to make inferences about the functional significance of vicarious activations. Indeed, a central aim in social neuroscience is to comprehend how vicarious activations allow the understanding of other people's behavior, and this requires to use stimulation or lesion methods to establish causal links from brain activity to cognitive functions. In the present work, we review studies investigating the effects of transient manipulations of brain activity or stable lesions in the motor system on individuals' ability to perceive and understand the actions of others. We conclude there is now compelling evidence that neural activity in the motor system is critical for such cognitive ability. More research using causal methods, however, is needed in order to disclose the limits and the conditions under which vicarious activations are required to perceive and understand actions of others as well as their emotions and somatic feelings. PMID:23675338

  16. How embodied is action language? Neurological evidence from motor diseases.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Juan F; Kargieman, Lucila; Sinay, Vladimiro; Gershanik, Oscar; Gelormini, Carlos; Amoruso, Lucia; Roca, María; Pineda, David; Trujillo, Natalia; Michon, Maëva; García, Adolfo M; Szenkman, Daniela; Bekinschtein, Tristán; Manes, Facundo; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2014-05-01

    Although motor-language coupling is now being extensively studied, its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this sense, a crucial opposition has emerged between the non-representational and the representational views of embodiment. The former posits that action language is grounded on the non-brain motor system directly engaged by musculoskeletal activity - i.e., peripheral involvement of ongoing actions. Conversely, the latter proposes that such grounding is afforded by the brain's motor system - i.e., activation of neural areas representing motor action. We addressed this controversy through the action-sentence compatibility effect (ACE) paradigm, which induces a contextual coupling of motor actions and verbal processing. ACEs were measured in three patient groups - early Parkinson's disease (EPD), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and acute transverse myelitis (ATM) patients - as well as their respective healthy controls. NMO and ATM constitute models of injury to non-brain motor areas and the peripheral motor system, whereas EPD provides a model of brain motor system impairment. In our study, EPD patients exhibited impaired ACE and verbal processing relative to healthy participants, NMO, and ATM patients. These results indicate that the processing of action-related words is mainly subserved by a cortico-subcortical motor network system, thus supporting a brain-based embodied view on action language. More generally, our findings are consistent with contemporary perspectives for which action/verb processing depends on distributed brain networks supporting context-sensitive motor-language coupling. PMID:24594627

  17. Willingness to Communicate and Action Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Doucette, Jesslyn

    2010-01-01

    Being willing to communicate is part of becoming fluent in a second language, which often is the ultimate goal of L2 learners. Julius Kuhl's theory of action control is introduced as an expansion of the conceptual framework for the study of Willingness to Communicate. Kuhl proposed three key concepts, preoccupation, volatility, and hesitation,…

  18. Human and Rodent Homologies in Action Control: Corticostriatal Determinants of Goal-Directed and Habitual Action

    PubMed Central

    Balleine, Bernard W; O'Doherty, John P

    2010-01-01

    Recent behavioral studies in both humans and rodents have found evidence that performance in decision-making tasks depends on two different learning processes; one encoding the relationship between actions and their consequences and a second involving the formation of stimulus–response associations. These learning processes are thought to govern goal-directed and habitual actions, respectively, and have been found to depend on homologous corticostriatal networks in these species. Thus, recent research using comparable behavioral tasks in both humans and rats has implicated homologous regions of cortex (medial prefrontal cortex/medial orbital cortex in humans and prelimbic cortex in rats) and of dorsal striatum (anterior caudate in humans and dorsomedial striatum in rats) in goal-directed action and in the control of habitual actions (posterior lateral putamen in humans and dorsolateral striatum in rats). These learning processes have been argued to be antagonistic or competing because their control over performance appears to be all or none. Nevertheless, evidence has started to accumulate suggesting that they may at times compete and at others cooperate in the selection and subsequent evaluation of actions necessary for normal choice performance. It appears likely that cooperation or competition between these sources of action control depends not only on local interactions in dorsal striatum but also on the cortico-basal ganglia network within which the striatum is embedded and that mediates the integration of learning with basic motivational and emotional processes. The neural basis of the integration of learning and motivation in choice and decision-making is still controversial and we review some recent hypotheses relating to this issue. PMID:19776734

  19. Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…

  20. Learning, attentional control and action video games

    PubMed Central

    Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.

    2012-01-01

    While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on ‘action video games’ produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. PMID:22440805

  1. Learning, attentional control, and action video games.

    PubMed

    Green, C S; Bavelier, D

    2012-03-20

    While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on 'action video games' produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning.

  2. Modelling the control of interceptive actions.

    PubMed Central

    Beek, P J; Dessing, J C; Peper, C E; Bullock, D

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, several phenomenological dynamical models have been formulated that describe how perceptual variables are incorporated in the control of motor variables. We call these short-route models as they do not address how perception-action patterns might be constrained by the dynamical properties of the sensory, neural and musculoskeletal subsystems of the human action system. As an alternative, we advocate a long-route modelling approach in which the dynamics of these subsystems are explicitly addressed and integrated to reproduce interceptive actions. The approach is exemplified through a discussion of a recently developed model for interceptive actions consisting of a neural network architecture for the online generation of motor outflow commands, based on time-to-contact information and information about the relative positions and velocities of hand and ball. This network is shown to be consistent with both behavioural and neurophysiological data. Finally, some problems are discussed with regard to the question of how the motor outflow commands (i.e. the intended movement) might be modulated in view of the musculoskeletal dynamics. PMID:14561342

  3. Crossmodal action selection: evidence from dual-task compatibility.

    PubMed

    Huestegge, Lynn; Koch, Iring

    2010-06-01

    Response-related mechanisms of multitasking were studied by analyzing simultaneous processing of responses in different modalities (i.e., crossmodal action). Participants responded to a single auditory stimulus with a saccade, a manual response (single-task conditions), or both (dual-task condition). We used a spatially incompatible stimulus-response mapping for one task, but not for the other. Critically, inverting these mappings varied temporal task overlap in dual-task conditions while keeping spatial incompatibility across responses constant. Unlike previous paradigms, temporal task overlap was manipulated without utilizing sequential stimulus presentation, which might induce strategic serial processing. The results revealed dual-task costs, but these were not affected by an increase of temporal task overlap. This finding is evidence for parallel response selection in multitasking. We propose that crossmodal action is processed by a central mapping-selection mechanism in working memory and that the dual-task costs are mainly caused by mapping-related crosstalk.

  4. The role of action prediction and inhibitory control for joint action coordination in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Haartsen, R; Stapel, J C; Hunnius, S

    2015-11-01

    From early in life, young children eagerly engage in social interactions. Yet, they still have difficulties in performing well-coordinated joint actions with others. Adult literature suggests that two processes are important for smooth joint action coordination: action prediction and inhibitory control. The aim of the current study was to disentangle the potential role of these processes in the early development of joint action coordination. Using a simple turn-taking game, we assessed 2½-year-old toddlers' joint action coordination, focusing on timing variability and turn-taking accuracy. In two additional tasks, we examined their action prediction capabilities with an eye-tracking paradigm and examined their inhibitory control capabilities with a classic executive functioning task (gift delay task). We found that individual differences in action prediction and inhibitory action control were distinctly related to the two aspects of joint action coordination. Toddlers who showed more precision in their action predictions were less variable in their action timing during the joint play. Furthermore, toddlers who showed more inhibitory control in an individual context were more accurate in their turn-taking performance during the joint action. On the other hand, no relation between timing variability and inhibitory control or between turn-taking accuracy and action prediction was found. The current results highlight the distinct role of action prediction and inhibitory action control for the quality of joint action coordination in toddlers. Underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and implications for processes involved in joint action coordination in general are discussed. PMID:26150055

  5. Subliminal Priming of Actions Influences Sense of Control over Effects of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenke, Dorit; Fleming, Stephen M.; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The experience of controlling one's own actions, and through them events in the outside world, is a pervasive feature of human mental life. Two experiments investigated the relation between this sense of control and the internal processes involved in action selection and cognitive control. Action selection was manipulated by subliminally priming…

  6. An action plan for tobacco control at regional level.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R; Brown, J S; Hodgson, P; Kyle, D; Reed, D; Wallace, B

    1999-07-01

    Smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death in the UK; killing over 120 000 people each year, contributing to inequalities in health, exacerbating and causing poverty. Smoking has increased steadily among children since 1988 and more recently, among young adults. The current context in the UK is highly favourable for introducing comprehensive tobacco control measures. This paper summarises a regional action plan for tobacco control. Actions at district and regional levels are outlined to establish a comprehensive local tobacco control framework and complement national tobacco control measures. Measures include: a 'SWOT' analysis of current activity; systematic monitoring of smoking prevalence, attitudes to smoking, and the impact of tobacco control interventions; provision of effective smoking cessation support to a minimum standard throughout the health service; increased coverage of smoke-free public places and workplaces; enforcement of legislation on illegal sales to children and against smuggling and selling illegally imported tobacco; paid and unpaid mass media campaigns; and systematic lobbying for fiscal and legislative measures. One of the key components of the plan is the introduction of evidence-based tobacco control strategies at district levels. These should include a performance framework with clear organisational and managerial accountability and employ a co-ordinated, multiagency, partnership approach. Priority groups should be identified. Strategies should seek to engage the public to build support for tobacco control measures. Sufficient time, staff, resources and training must be allocated to tobacco control work and progress towards objectives monitored.

  7. An action plan for tobacco control at regional level.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R; Brown, J S; Hodgson, P; Kyle, D; Reed, D; Wallace, B

    1999-07-01

    Smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death in the UK; killing over 120 000 people each year, contributing to inequalities in health, exacerbating and causing poverty. Smoking has increased steadily among children since 1988 and more recently, among young adults. The current context in the UK is highly favourable for introducing comprehensive tobacco control measures. This paper summarises a regional action plan for tobacco control. Actions at district and regional levels are outlined to establish a comprehensive local tobacco control framework and complement national tobacco control measures. Measures include: a 'SWOT' analysis of current activity; systematic monitoring of smoking prevalence, attitudes to smoking, and the impact of tobacco control interventions; provision of effective smoking cessation support to a minimum standard throughout the health service; increased coverage of smoke-free public places and workplaces; enforcement of legislation on illegal sales to children and against smuggling and selling illegally imported tobacco; paid and unpaid mass media campaigns; and systematic lobbying for fiscal and legislative measures. One of the key components of the plan is the introduction of evidence-based tobacco control strategies at district levels. These should include a performance framework with clear organisational and managerial accountability and employ a co-ordinated, multiagency, partnership approach. Priority groups should be identified. Strategies should seek to engage the public to build support for tobacco control measures. Sufficient time, staff, resources and training must be allocated to tobacco control work and progress towards objectives monitored. PMID:10483077

  8. Cognitive enhancement through action video game training: great expectations require greater evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bisoglio, Joseph; Michaels, Timothy I.; Mervis, Joshua E.; Ashinoff, Brandon K.

    2014-01-01

    Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence-based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects. PMID:24600427

  9. Cognitive enhancement through action video game training: great expectations require greater evidence.

    PubMed

    Bisoglio, Joseph; Michaels, Timothy I; Mervis, Joshua E; Ashinoff, Brandon K

    2014-01-01

    Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence-based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects.

  10. The voluntary control of facial action units in adults.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Pierre; Perron, Mélanie; Beaupré, Martin

    2010-04-01

    We investigated adults' voluntary control of 20 facial action units theoretically associated with 6 basic emotions (happiness, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, and disgust). Twenty young adults were shown video excerpts of facial action units and asked to reproduce them as accurately as possible. Facial Action Coding System (FACS; Ekman & Friesen, 1978a) coding of the facial productions showed that young adults succeeded in activating 18 of the 20 target actions units, although they often coactivated other action units. Voluntary control was clearly better for some action units than for others, with a pattern of differences between action units consistent with previous work in children and adolescents.

  11. Electrochemical biofilm control: mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Istanbullu, Ozlem; Babauta, Jerome; Nguyen, Hung Duc; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been previously demonstrated that an electrical current can be used to control biofilm growth on metal surfaces, the literature results are conflicting and there is no accepted mechanism of action. One of the suggested mechanisms is the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on metal surfaces. However, there are literature studies in which H2O2 could not be detected in the bulk solution. This is most likely because H2O2 was produced at a low concentration near the surface and could not be detected in the bulk solution. The goals of this research were (1) to develop a well-controlled system to explain the mechanism of action of the bioelectrochemical effect on 316L stainless steel (SS) surfaces and (2) to test whether the produced H2O2 can reduce cell growth on metal surfaces. It was found that H2O2 was produced near 316L SS surfaces when a negative potential was applied. The H2O2 concentration increased towards the surface, while the dissolved oxygen decreased when the SS surface was polarized to −600 mVAg/AgCl. When polarized and non-polarized surfaces with identical Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms were continuously fed with air-saturated growth medium, the polarized surfaces showed minimal biofilm growth while there was significant biofilm growth on the non-polarized surfaces. Although there was no detectable H2O2 in the bulk solution, it was found that the surface concentration of H2O2 was able to prevent biofilm growth. PMID:22827804

  12. Do Endogenous and Exogenous Action Control Compete for Perception?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfister, Roland; Heinemann, Alexander; Kiesel, Andrea; Thomaschke, Roland; Janczyk, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Human actions are guided either by endogenous action plans or by external stimuli in the environment. These two types of action control seem to be mediated by neurophysiologically and functionally distinct systems that interfere if an endogenously planned action suddenly has to be performed in response to an exogenous stimulus. In this case, the…

  13. Evidence for the Automatic Evaluation of Self-Generated Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarts, Kristien; De Houwer, Jan; Pourtois, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of simple actions is swiftly determined through specific monitoring brain systems. However, it remains unclear whether this evaluation is accompanied by a rapid and compatible emotional appraisal of the action that allows to mark incorrect actions as negative/bad and conversely correct actions as positive/good. In this study, we used…

  14. Action controls dopaminergic enhancement of reward representations

    PubMed Central

    Guitart-Masip, Marc; Chowdhury, Rumana; Sharot, Tali; Dayan, Peter; Duzel, Emrah; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine is widely observed to signal anticipation of future rewards and thus thought to be a key contributor to affectively charged decision making. However, the experiments supporting this view have not dissociated rewards from the actions that lead to, or are occasioned by, them. Here, we manipulated dopamine pharmacologically and examined the effect on a task that explicitly dissociates action and reward value. We show that dopamine enhanced the neural representation of rewarding actions, without significantly affecting the representation of reward value as such. Thus, increasing dopamine levels with levodopa selectively boosted striatal and substantia nigra/ventral tegmental representations associated with actions leading to reward, but not with actions leading to the avoidance of punishment. These findings highlight a key role for dopamine in the generation of appetitively motivated actions. PMID:22529363

  15. Modulation of the action control system by social intention: unexpected social requests override preplanned action.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Becchio, Cristina; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2009-10-01

    Four experiments investigated the influence of a sudden social request on the kinematics of a preplanned action. In Experiment 1, participants were requested to grasp an object and then locate it within a container (unperturbed trials). On 20% of trials, a human agent seated nearby the participant unexpectedly stretched out her arm and unfolded her hand as if to ask for the object (perturbed trials). In the remaining 3 experiments, similar procedures were adopted except that (a) the human was replaced by a robotic agent, (b) the gesture performed by the human agent did not imply a social request, and (c) the gaze of the human agent was not available. Only when the perturbation was characterized by a social request involving a human agent were there kinematic changes to the action directed toward the target. Conversely, no effects on kinematics were evident when the perturbation was caused by the robotic agent or by a human agent performing a nonsocial gesture. These findings are discussed in the light of current theories proposed to explain the effects of social context on the control of action.

  16. Experimental evidence for action imitation in killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    PubMed

    Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Comparative experimental studies of imitative learning have focused mainly on primates and birds. However, cetaceans are promising candidates to display imitative learning as they have evolved in socioecological settings that have selected for large brains, complex sociality, and coordinated predatory tactics. Here we tested imitative learning in killer whales, Orcinus orca. We used a 'do-as-other-does' paradigm in which 3 subjects witnessed a conspecific demonstrator's performance that included 15 familiar and 4 novel behaviours. The three subjects (1) learned the copy command signal 'Do that' very quickly, that is, 20 trials on average; (2) copied 100 % of the demonstrator's familiar and novel actions; (3) achieved full matches in the first attempt for 8-13 familiar behaviours (out of 15) and for the 2 novel behaviours (out of 2) in one subject; and (4) took no longer than 8 trials to accurately copy any familiar behaviour, and no longer than 16 trials to copy any novel behaviour. This study provides experimental evidence for body imitation, including production imitation, in killer whales that is comparable to that observed in dolphins tested under similar conditions. These findings suggest that imitative learning may underpin some of the group-specific traditions reported in killer whales in the field.

  17. Youth Excel: towards a pan-Canadian platform linking evidence and action for prevention.

    PubMed

    Riley, Barbara L; Manske, Steve; Cameron, Roy

    2011-05-15

    Population-level intervention is required to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases. It also promotes health for those living with established risk factors and illness. In this article, the authors describe a vision and approach for continuously improving population-level programs and policies within and beyond the health sector. The vision and approach are anchored in contemporary thinking about what is required to link evidence and action in the field of population and public health. The authors believe that, as a cancer prevention and control community, organizations and practitioners must be able to use the best available evidence to inform action and continually generate evidence that improves prevention policies and programs on an ongoing basis. These imperatives require leaders in policy, practice, and research fields to work together to jointly plan, conduct, and act on relevant evidence. The Propel Center and colleagues are implementing this approach in Youth Excel-a pan-Canadian initiative that brings together national and provincial organizations from health and education sectors and capitalizes on a history of collaboration. The objective of Youth Excel is to build sustainable capacity for knowledge development and exchange that can guide and redirect prevention efforts in a rapidly evolving social environment. This goal is to contribute to creating health-promoting environments and to accelerate progress in preventing cancer and other diseases among youth and young adults and in the wider population. Although prevention is the aim, health-promoting environments also can support health gains for individuals of all ages and with established illness. In addition, the approach Youth Excel is taking to link evidence and action may be applicable to early intervention and treatment components of cancer control.

  18. Paradoxes of Social Control: Children's Perspectives and Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Marsha

    1998-01-01

    Describes an action research project that explored whether internally negotiated group control was possible among preadolescents in school settings. Presents John Dewey's thoughts on social control. Discusses study of students' perspectives and actions concerning authority issues and social control. Describes a social studies curriculum used to…

  19. Evidence that the flux control coefficient of the respiratory chain is high during gluconeogenesis from lactate in hepatocytes from starved rats. Implications for the hormonal control of gluconeogenesis and action of hypoglycaemic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, H J; Smyth, J E; Quinlan, P T; Halestrap, A P

    1987-01-01

    1. Increasing concentrations of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), a mild respiratory-chain inhibitor [Halestrap (1987) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 927, 280-290], caused progressive inhibition of glucose production from lactate + pyruvate by hepatocytes from starved rats incubated in the presence or absence of oleate and gluconeogenic hormones. 2. No significant changes in tissue ATP content were observed, but there were concomitant decreases in ketone-body output and cytochrome c reduction and increases in NADH fluorescence and the ratios of [lactate]/[pyruvate] and [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate]. 3. The inhibition by DCMU of palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by isolated liver mitochondria was used to calculate a flux control coefficient of the respiratory chain towards gluconeogenesis. In the presence of 1 mM-oleate, the calculated values were 0.61, 0.39 and 0.25 in the absence of hormone and in the presence of glucagon or phenylephrine respectively, consistent with activation of the respiratory chain in situ as previously suggested [Quinlan & Halestrap (1986) Biochem. J. 236, 789-800]. 4. Cytoplasmic oxaloacetate concentrations were shown to decrease under these conditions, implying inhibition of pyruvate carboxylase. 5. Inhibition of gluconeogenesis from fructose and dihydroxyacetone was also observed with DCMU and was accompanied by an increased output of lactate + pyruvate, suggesting that activation of pyruvate kinase was occurring. With the latter substrate, measurements of tissue ADP and ATP contents showed that DCMU caused a small fall in [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. 6. Two inhibitors of fatty acid oxidation, pent-4-enoate and 2-tetradecylglycidate, were shown to abolish and to decrease respectively the effects of hormones, but not valinomycin, on gluconeogenesis from lactate + pyruvate, without changing tissue ATP content. 7. It is concluded that the hormonal increase in mitochondrial matrix volume stimulates fatty acid oxidation and respiratory

  20. The Evidence for the Effectiveness of Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, H. Skipton; Marquardt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    For the past 50 years, organizations and individuals around the world have reported success in their use of action learning programs to solve problems, develop leaders, build teams and transform their corporate cultures. However, very little rigorous research has been conducted to determine the effectiveness of action learning. The authors…

  1. Continuous Improvement in Action: Educators' Evidence Use for School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannata, Marisa; Redding, Christopher; Rubin, Mollie

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the article is the process educators use to interpret data to turn it into usable knowledge (Honig & Coburn, 2008) while engaging in a continuous improvement process. The authors examine the types of evidence educators draw upon, its perceived relevance, and the social context in which the evidence is examined. Evidence includes…

  2. The predictive chameleon: evidence for anticipated social action.

    PubMed

    Genschow, Oliver; Brass, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated that movement observation leads to an activation of a corresponding motor representation in the observer. Recent theoretical accounts have put forward the idea that such motor simulation serves an anticipatory function. In line with this assumption, the results from 2 experiments indicate that merely observing an event in someone else (e.g., nose wrinkling) triggers the anticipated action in the observer (e.g., nose scratching). Moreover, extending recent findings on ideomotor action, our second experiment suggests that this anticipated action effect is based on inferring the other person's desire to act. Thus, our research demonstrates the existence of a link between inferring another person's desire to move and the release of an action that matches this desire. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  3. Embodied representation of tool-use action verbs and hand action verbs: evidence from a tone judgment task.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua

    2011-04-15

    Many studies have found that language comprehension involves sensory-motor system. However, the relationship between word form and embodied semantic representation still lacks evidence. The current fMRI study used Chinese tool-use action verbs, hand action verbs and a Mandarin lexical tone task to explore the issue. In the tone task, all verbs showed strong effects in hand motor areas. However, the contrasts between the hand action verbs and the tool-use action verbs yielded differences mainly in tone processing areas, and the hand action verbs had stronger effects. The ROI analyses indicated consistent result pattern with the contrast analyses. In short, these results revealed that word processing involves basic sensory-motor information automatically, whereas the fine grained information which distinguishes among different semantics can be hindered by the processing of word form.

  4. Insulin action in the human brain: evidence from neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, S; Heni, M; Fritsche, A; Preissl, H

    2015-06-01

    Thus far, little is known about the action of insulin in the human brain. Nonetheless, recent advances in modern neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG), have made it possible to investigate the action of insulin in the brain in humans, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of brain insulin resistance and obesity. Using MEG, the clinical relevance of the action of insulin in the brain was first identified, linking cerebral insulin resistance with peripheral insulin resistance, genetic predisposition and weight loss success in obese adults. Although MEG is a suitable tool for measuring brain activity mainly in cortical areas, fMRI provides high spatial resolution for cortical as well as subcortical regions. Thus, the action of insulin can be detected within all eating behaviour relevant regions, which include regions deeply located within the brain, such as the hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem, as well as regions within the striatum. In this review, we outline recent advances in the field of neuroimaging aiming to investigate the action of insulin in the human brain using different routes of insulin administration. fMRI studies have shown a significant insulin-induced attenuation predominantly in the occipital and prefrontal cortical regions and the hypothalamus, successfully localising insulin-sensitive brain regions in healthy, mostly normal-weight individuals. However, further studies are needed to localise brain areas affected by insulin resistance in obese individuals, which is an important prerequisite for selectively targeting brain insulin resistance in obesity.

  5. Direct evidence of cognitive control without perceptual awareness.

    PubMed

    Ocampo, Brenda; Al-Janabi, Shahd; Finkbeiner, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    A central question within the domain of human cognition is whether or not the ability to replace a current action with a new one (i.e., cognitive control) depends on a conscious appreciation of the environmental change that necessitates the new behavior. Specifically, it is not yet known if non-consciously perceived stimuli can trigger the modification of a currently ongoing action. We show for the first time that individuals are able to use non-consciously perceived information to modify the course and outcome of an ongoing action. Participants were presented with a masked (i.e., subliminal) 'stop' or 'go-on' prime stimulus whilst performing a routine reach-to-touch action. Despite being invisible to participants, the stop primes produced more hesitations mid-flight and more movement reversals than the go-on primes. This new evidence directly establishes that cognitive control (i.e., the ability to modify a currently ongoing action) does not depend on a conscious appreciation of the environmental trigger. PMID:25404552

  6. Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial on the immunomodulating activities of low- and high-dose bromelain after oral administration - new evidence on the antiinflammatory mode of action of bromelain.

    PubMed

    Müller, Silke; März, Reinhard; Schmolz, Manfred; Drewelow, Bernd; Eschmann, Klaus; Meiser, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Bromelain has been used for treatment of inflammatory diseases for decades. However, the exact mechanism of action remains poorly understood. While in vitro investigations have shown conflicting effects on the release of various cytokines, no in vivo data were available. In this study, the effects on inflammation-related cytokines of two doses of bromelain were tested in a single dose placebo-controlled 3 × crossover randomized clinical trial. Cytokine circadian profiles were used to investigate the effects of bromelain on the human immune system by using stimulated whole-blood leukocytes. The effects seen in these cultures demonstrated a significant shift in the circadian profiles of the Th1 cell mediator interferon gamma (IFNγ; p < 0.043) after bromelain 3000 FIP (Fédération Internationale Pharmaceutique) units, and trends in those of the Th2-type cytokine IL-5 as well as the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. This suggests a general effect on the antigen-specific (T cell) compartment of the human immune system. This is the first time that bromelain has been shown to modulate the cellular responses of lymphocyte after oral use. It is postulated that the immunomodulating effect of bromelain observed in this trial is part of its known antiinflammatory activities. Further investigations will be necessary to verify the relevance of these findings to a diseased immune system.

  7. Action Recognition Depends on Observer’s Level of Action Control and Social Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Ondobaka, Sasha; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; de Lange, Floris P.; Bekkering, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Humans recognize both the movement (physical) goals and action (conceptual) goals of individuals with whom they are interacting. Here, we assessed whether spontaneous recognition of others’ goals depends on whether the observers control their own behavior at the movement or action level. We also examined the relationship between individual differences in empathy and ASD-like traits, and the processing of other individual’s movement and action goals that are known to be encoded in the “mirroring” and “mentalizing” brain networks. In order to address these questions, we used a computer-based card paradigm that made it possible to independently manipulate movement and action congruency of observed and executed actions. In separate blocks, participants were instructed to select either the right or left card (movement-control condition) or the higher or lower card (action-control condition), while we manipulated action- and movement-congruency of both actors’ goals. An action-congruency effect was present in all conditions and the size of this effect was significantly correlated with self-reported empathy and ASD-like traits. In contrast, movement-congruency effects were only present in the movement-control block and were strongly dependent on action-congruency. These results illustrate that spontaneous recognition of others’ behavior depends on the control scheme that is currently adopted by the observer. The findings suggest that deficits in action recognition are related to abnormal synthesis of perceived movements and prior conceptual knowledge that are associated with activations in the “mirroring” and “mentalizing” cortical networks. PMID:24303046

  8. Ethical Principles in Practice: Evidence from Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Liz

    2008-01-01

    A significant challenge for all participants in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project, including the Ministry of Education, the local project teams (LPT) and mentors, was the lack of availability of a single ethics approval process for the project in its entirety and, in particular, one that could accommodate…

  9. Diversity Challenged: Evidence on the Impact of Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    This collection of papers explores research on how increasing minority enrollment changes and enriches the educational process. The papers are: (1) "Student Diversity and Higher Learning" (Neil L. Rudenstine); (2) "A Policy Framework for Reconceptualizing the Legal Debate Concerning Affirmative Action in Higher Education" (Scott R. Palmer); (3)…

  10. The organization of perception and action in complex control skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard A.; Jagacinski, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt was made to describe the perceptual, cognitive, and action processes that account for highly skilled human performance in complex task environments. In order to study such a performance in a controlled setting, a laboratory task was constructed and three experiments were performed using human subjects. A general framework was developed for describing the organization of perceptual, cognitive, and action process.

  11. Gestalt Principles in the Control of Motor Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Stuart T.; Jagacinski, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    We argue that 4 fundamental gestalt phenomena in perception apply to the control of motor action. First, a motor gestalt, like a perceptual gestalt, is holistic in the sense that it is processed as a single unit. This notion is consistent with reaction time results indicating that all gestures for a brief unit of action must be programmed prior to…

  12. Regulating Cognitive Control through Approach-Avoidance Motor Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Severine; Holland, Rob W.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, the regulatory function of approach-avoidance cues in activating cognitive control processes was investigated. It was hypothesized that avoidance motor actions, relative to approach motor actions, increase the recruitment of cognitive resources, resulting in better performance on tasks that draw on these capacities. In Study 1,…

  13. The role of action effects in 12-month-olds' action control: a comparison of televised model and live model.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette M; Hauf, Petra; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated differences in infant imitation after watching a televised model and a live model and addressed the issue of whether action effects influence infants' action control in both cases. In a 2x2 design, 12-month-old infants observed a live or a televised model performing a three-step action sequence, in which either the 2nd or the 3rd action step was combined with an acoustical action effect. We assumed that infants would use the observed action-effect relations for their own action control in the test phase afterwards. Even though results exhibited differences in the absolute amount of imitation between the two demonstration groups, both groups showed similar result patterns regarding the action effect manipulation: infants imitated the action step that was followed by a salient action effect more often and mostly as the first target action, emphasizing the important role of action effects in infants' action control. PMID:17138306

  14. Action Planning and the Timescale of Evidence Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Pfeffer, Thomas; Jentgens, Pia; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual decisions are based on the temporal integration of sensory evidence for different states of the outside world. The timescale of this integration process varies widely across behavioral contexts and individuals, and it is diagnostic for the underlying neural mechanisms. In many situations, the decision-maker knows the required mapping between perceptual evidence and motor response (henceforth termed "sensory-motor contingency") before decision formation. Here, the integrated evidence can be directly translated into a motor plan and, indeed, neural signatures of the integration process are evident as build-up activity in premotor brain regions. In other situations, however, the sensory-motor contingencies are unknown at the time of decision formation. We used behavioral psychophysics and computational modeling to test if knowledge about sensory-motor contingencies affects the timescale of perceptual evidence integration. We asked human observers to perform the same motion discrimination task, with or without trial-to-trial variations of the mapping between perceptual choice and motor response. When the mapping varied, it was either instructed before or after the stimulus presentation. We quantified the timescale of evidence integration under these different sensory-motor mapping conditions by means of two approaches. First, we analyzed subjects' discrimination threshold as a function of stimulus duration. Second, we fitted a dynamical decision-making model to subjects' choice behavior. The results from both approaches indicated that observers (i) integrated motion information for several hundred ms, (ii) used a shorter than optimal integration timescale, and (iii) used the same integration timescale under all sensory-motor mappings. We conclude that the mechanisms limiting the timescale of perceptual decisions are largely independent from long-term learning (under fixed mapping) or rapid acquisition (under variable mapping) of sensory-motor contingencies

  15. Standardized Action Modules for Humanoid Robot Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csaszar, Ambrus

    2005-01-01

    Humanoid robots could reduce the risks of hazardous work by replacing humans in dangerous environments and they could be useful helpers in environments designed primarily for humans. Currently, no robot is capable enough to fulfill either of these roles for any practical application, and the Humanoid Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Bio-Inspired Technologies and Systems group is striving to change that. For this summer, our goal was to endow a Fujitsu HOAP 2 humanoid robot with the necessary intelligence and knowledge to autonomously assemble a cubical frame structure from tubular bars and corner joints. Performing such a complicated task requires that the robot have a robust control architecture that allows for a multitude of abilities and Operation modes. We have designed and implemented a modular control architecture that allows reusability of existing code and the integration of work by many team members into the larger control system while providing an easy way to implement later improvements. Such a control system has allowed us to achieve important milestones in the humanoid robot assembly task.

  16. Evidence for fast dynamo action in a chaotic web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, A. D.; Childress, S.

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of a magnetic field in a chaotic web is studied. The model flow possessing the web is closely related to the nearly integrable ABC flow with A = B and C much less than 1. The magnetic diffusivity is taken to be zero and the field is followed using the Cauchy solution. It is found that the flow folds the magnetic field constructively, in the sense that the average magnetic field in a chaotic region grows exponentially in time. This is suggestive of fast dynamo action, although the effect of diffusion of the strong streamwise magnetic field remains to be assessed.

  17. Evidence for opponent-process actions of intravenous cocaine.

    PubMed

    Ettenberg, A; Raven, M A; Danluck, D A; Necessary, B D

    1999-11-01

    The present experiment was devised to test a prediction of the Opponent-Process Theory of drug action. This theory presumes that the initial affective experience of a subject treated with cocaine would be diametrically different immediately after administration compared to some point later in time when the positive impact of the drug had subsided. A conditioned place-preference procedure was employed in which a novel environment was paired with the effects of cocaine either immediately after, 5 min after, or 15 min after an intravenous injection of 0.75 mg/kg cocaine. It was hypothesized that animals would come to prefer environments associated with the immediate positive effects of cocaine and avoid environments associated with the drug's subsequent negative effects. The results confirmed this hypothesis. While the 0-min delay and 5-min delay groups exhibited conditioned preferences for the cocaine-paired environment, the 15-min delay group came to avoid the side of the preference apparatus paired with cocaine. These data, therefore, serve as additional support for an Opponent-Process account of cocaine's actions.

  18. The Cognitive Representation of Intending Not to Act: Evidence for Specific Non-Action-Effect Binding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Simone; Brass, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    The question how we represent voluntary action on a cognitive level has recently become of increasing interest to researchers studying motor control. However, so far it has been neglected how we represent the voluntary omission of an action. In our attempt to investigate the representation of voluntary non-actions we demonstrated binding effects…

  19. Do Bans on Affirmative Action Hurt Minority Students? Evidence from the Texas Top 10% Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Kalena E.

    2010-01-01

    In light of the recent bans on affirmative action in higher education, this paper provides new evidence on the effects of alternative admissions policies on the persistence and college completion of minority students. I find that the change from affirmative action to the Top 10% Plan in Texas decreased both retention and graduation rates of…

  20. Action identification of drinking and self-control.

    PubMed

    Palfai, Tibor P; Ostafin, Brian D

    2010-03-01

    A number of investigators have proposed that self-control over addictive behaviors may be influenced by the way individuals mentally represent their actions. Previous research based on questionnaires has suggested that those who report higher-level identifications of their alcohol use behavior may exhibit more difficulty controlling their alcohol use (Wegner, Vallacher, & Dizadji, 1989). However, it is unclear whether this association is because of characteristic ways of mentally representing specific drinking events or the fact that those who have more impaired control consume more alcohol and drink across a broader array of situations. The current study sought to address this question by examining the association between impaired control over alcohol and action identification of drinking behavior in a structured laboratory drinking task. Ninety-one young adult hazardous drinkers (21-35 years) completed the Impaired Control Over Alcohol Scale (Heather, Tebbut, Mattick, & Zamir, 1993) and an alcohol consumption task. Participants then completed a Likert scale measure to assess action identification of their drinking behavior. Results showed that those who reported greater impaired control over alcohol experienced the drinking task at higher-level action identification even when accounting for alcohol consumption variables. These findings are consistent with the view that higher-level identification of alcohol use behavior may hinder self-control (Wegner et al., 1989), and that self-management approaches may be enhanced through strategies to address mental representation of action.

  1. Impulsivity and predictive control are associated with suboptimal action-selection and action-value learning in regular gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Matthew S.M.; Jocham, Gerhard; Hunt, Laurence T.; Behrens, Timothy E.J.; Rogers, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Heightened impulsivity and cognitive biases are risk factors for gambling problems. However, little is known about precisely how these factors increase the risks of gambling-related harm in vulnerable individuals. Here, we modelled the behaviour of eighty-seven community-recruited regular, but not clinically problematic, gamblers during a binary-choice reinforcement-learning game, to characterise the relationships between impulsivity, cognitive biases, and the capacity to make optimal action selections and learn about action-values. Impulsive gamblers showed diminished use of an optimal (Bayesian-derived) probability estimate when selecting between candidate actions, and showed slower learning rates and enhanced non-linear probability weighting while learning action values. Critically, gamblers who believed that it is possible to predict winning outcomes (as 'predictive control') failed to use the game's reinforcement history to guide their action selections. Extensive evidence attests to the ease with which gamblers can erroneously perceive structure in the reinforcement history of games when there is none. Our findings demonstrate that the generic and specific risk factors of impulsivity and cognitive biases can interfere with the capacity of some gamblers to utilise structure when it is available in the reinforcement history of games, potentially increasing their risks of sustaining gambling-related harms. PMID:27274706

  2. CIGARETTE SMOKING AND HIV: MORE EVIDENCE FOR ACTION

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Nancy R.

    2011-01-01

    As many as 50–70% of persons infected with HIV are current smokers. Compelling evidence concerning the risks of cigarette smoking to persons living with HIV urges the inclusion of smoking treatment protocols in contemporary models of HIV care. Yet in spite of growing awareness of this problem, persons living with HIV are not being effectively treated for tobacco use. To further an understanding of contributing factors and define directions for evidenced-based intervention, factors associated with smoking behavior among persons living with HIV are examined. PMID:19537958

  3. Luteinizing hormone: Evidence for direct action in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Blair, Jeffrey A; Bhatta, Sabina; McGee, Henry; Casadesus, Gemma

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Hormonal dysfunction due to aging, especially during menopause, plays a substantial role in cognitive decline as well as the progression and development of neurodegenerative diseases. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis has long been implicated in changes in behavior and neuronal morphology. Most notably, estrogens have proven beneficial in the healthy brain through a host of different mechanisms. Recently, luteinizing hormone (LH) has emerged as a candidate for further investigation for its role in the CNS. The basis of this is that both LH and the LH receptor are expressed in the brain, and serum levels of LH correlate with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease (AD) incidence. The study of LH in cognition and AD primarily focuses on evaluating the effects of downregulation of this peptide. This literature has shown that decreasing peripheral LH, through a variety of pharmacological interventions, reduces cognitive deficits in ovariectomy and AD models. However, few studies have researched the direct actions of LH on neurons and glial cells. Here we summarize the role of luteinizing hormone in modulating cognition, and we propose a mechanism that underlies a role for brain LH in this process.

  4. Being Active and Impulsive: The Role of Goals for Action and Inaction in Self-Control.

    PubMed

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Noguchi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    Although self-control often requires behavioral inaction (i.e., not eating a piece of cake), the process of inhibiting impulsive behavior is commonly characterized as cognitively active (i.e., actively exerting self-control). Two experiments examined whether motivation for action or inaction facilitates self-control behavior in the presence of tempting stimuli. Experiment 1 used a delay discounting task to assess the ability to delay gratification with respect to money. Experiment 2 used a Go/No-Go task to assess the ability to inhibit a dominant but incorrect motor response to the words "condom" and "sex". The results demonstrate that goals for inaction promote self-control, whereas goals for action promote impulsive behavior. These findings are discussed in light of recent evidence suggesting that goals for action and inaction modulate physiological resources that promote behavioral execution. PMID:23766548

  5. Evidence-Based Management and Action-at-a-Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Roger; Breen, Rosanna; Jenkins, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Organisational change in UK higher education has resulted in control of the student learning environment passing from specific disciplines such as psychology to central management teams and university-wide course frameworks. This poses the general question of how disciplines can exert influence upon broad pedagogic issues, when their control…

  6. What predicts intention-behavior discordance? A review of the action control framework.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2013-10-01

    The physical activity intention-behavior gap is a focus of considerable research. The purpose of this article is to overview contemporary evidence for predictors of this intention-behavior discordance using the action control framework developed in our laboratories. We propose the hypothesis that intention-behavior discordance is from motivational (affective attitude, perceived behavioral control), self-regulatory (behavioral processes), and habitual (automaticity) constructs. PMID:23873134

  7. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Regional focus

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from presentations, discussions and debates addressing major policy and programmatic responses to HIV in six geographical regions: Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America, Caribbean, and Middle East and North Africa. It draws from AIDS 2008 Leadership and Community Programmes, particularly the six regional sessions, and Global Village activities. While the epidemiological, cultural and socio-economic contexts in these regions vary considerably, several common, overarching principles and themes emerged. They include: advancing basic human rights, particularly for vulnerable and most at risk populations; ensuring the sustainability of the HIV response through long-term, predictable financing; strengthening health systems; investing in strategic health information; and improving accountability and the involvement of civil society in the response to AIDS. Equally important is the need to address political barriers to implementing evidence-based interventions such as opioid substitution therapy (OST), needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), comprehensive sexuality education for youth, and sexual and reproductive rights. Finally, these regional discussions emphasized the need for legislative and policy reforms related to structural barriers facing women and girls, MSM, IDUs, sex workers and migrant populations. PMID:19811672

  8. Model-based hierarchical reinforcement learning and human action control.

    PubMed

    Botvinick, Matthew; Weinstein, Ari

    2014-11-01

    Recent work has reawakened interest in goal-directed or 'model-based' choice, where decisions are based on prospective evaluation of potential action outcomes. Concurrently, there has been growing attention to the role of hierarchy in decision-making and action control. We focus here on the intersection between these two areas of interest, considering the topic of hierarchical model-based control. To characterize this form of action control, we draw on the computational framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning, using this to interpret recent empirical findings. The resulting picture reveals how hierarchical model-based mechanisms might play a special and pivotal role in human decision-making, dramatically extending the scope and complexity of human behaviour.

  9. Model-based hierarchical reinforcement learning and human action control

    PubMed Central

    Botvinick, Matthew; Weinstein, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has reawakened interest in goal-directed or ‘model-based’ choice, where decisions are based on prospective evaluation of potential action outcomes. Concurrently, there has been growing attention to the role of hierarchy in decision-making and action control. We focus here on the intersection between these two areas of interest, considering the topic of hierarchical model-based control. To characterize this form of action control, we draw on the computational framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning, using this to interpret recent empirical findings. The resulting picture reveals how hierarchical model-based mechanisms might play a special and pivotal role in human decision-making, dramatically extending the scope and complexity of human behaviour. PMID:25267822

  10. Molecular substrates of action control in cortico-striatal circuits

    PubMed Central

    Shiflett, Michael W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the molecular mechanisms in the striatum that mediate reward-based learning and action control during instrumental conditioning. Experiments assessing the neural bases of instrumental conditioning have uncovered functional circuits in the striatum, including dorsal and ventral striatal sub-regions, involved in action-outcome learning, stimulus-response learning, and the motivational control of action by reward-associated cues. Integration of dopamine (DA) and glutamate neurotransmission within these striatal sub-regions is hypothesized to enable learning and action control through its role in shaping synaptic plasticity and cellular excitability. The extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) appears to be particularly important for reward-based learning and action control due to its sensitivity to combined DA and glutamate receptor activation and its involvement in a range of cellular functions. ERK activation in striatal neurons is proposed to have a dual role in both the learning and performance factors that contribute to instrumental conditioning through its regulation of plasticity-related transcription factors and its modulation of intrinsic cellular excitability. Furthermore, perturbation of ERK activation by drugs of abuse may give rise to behavioral disorders such as addiction. PMID:21704115

  11. Affordance-controlled bifurcations of action patterns in martial arts.

    PubMed

    Hristovski, Robert; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte

    2006-10-01

    Effects of participant-target distance and perceived handstriking efficiency on emergent behavior in the martial art of boxing were investigated, revealing affordance-controlled nonlinear dynamical effects (i.e. bifurcations) within the participant--target system. Results established the existence of critical values of scaled distances for emergence of first time excitations and annihilations of a diverse range of boxing actions i.e. on the appearance and dissolution of jabs, hooks and uppercuts. Reasons for the action diversity were twofold: (a) topological discontinuous changes (bifurcations) in the number of possible handstrikes, i.e. motor solutions to the hitting task; (b) fine modification of probabilities of emergence of striking patterns. Exploitation of a 'strikeability' affordance available in scaled distance-to-target information by boxers led to a diversity of emergent actions through a cascade of bifurcations in the task perceptual-motor work space. Data suggested that perceived efficiency (E) of an action changed as a function of scaled distance (D) and was correlated with the probability of occurrence of action patterns (P), exhibiting the following dependence P = P(E(D)). The implication is that probability of occurrence (P) depends on efficiency (E), which in turn depends on scaled distance (D) to the target. Accordingly, scaled distance-dependent perceived efficiency seems a viable candidate for a contextual (control) parameter to describe the nonlinear dynamics of striking actions in boxing.

  12. Mitigation of Remedial Action Schemes by Decentralized Robust Governor Control

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei

    2014-04-15

    This paper presents transient stability improvement by a new distributed hierarchical control architecture (DHC). The integration of remedial action schemes (RAS) to the distributed hierarchical control architecture is studied. RAS in power systems are designed to maintain stability and avoid undesired system conditions by rapidly switching equipment and/or changing operating points according to predetermined rules. The acceleration trend relay currently in use in the US western interconnection is an example of RAS that trips generators to maintain transient stability. The link between RAS and DHC is through fast acting robust turbine/governor control that can also improve transient stability. In this paper, the influence of the decentralized robust turbine/governor control on the design of RAS is studied. Benefits of combining these two schemes are increasing power transfer capability and mitigation of RAS generator tripping actions; the later benefit is shown through simulations.

  13. Muscular Proprioception Contributes to the Control of Interceptive Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastin, Julien; Calvin, Sarah; Montagne, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    The authors proposed a model of the control of interceptive action over a ground plane (Chardenon, Montagne, Laurent, & Bootsma, 2004). This model is based on the cancellation of the rate of change of the angle between the current position of the target and the direction of displacement (i.e., the bearing angle). While several sources of visual…

  14. Implementation of evidence-based health care using action research: An emancipatory approach.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Luciana; Soares, Cassia Baldini

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study is to discuss the emancipatory approach to action research as an appropriate methodology for workers' meaningful implementation of evidence-based health care. Implementation of evidence-based health care using action research is well supported by the literature. There are various approaches to action research, and they are coherent with the objectives and methods elected to develop the investigation. It is not clear which approach of action research is responsible for meaningful worker engagement in changing praxis. This is a discussion paper based on our experiences and supported by literature on collective health. Health care is defined as a social praxis, dependent upon the capitalist mode of production in which health workers engage themselves in a labour process that has negative (as alienation) as well as positive (as creativity) meanings. Emancipatory changes of social praxis through implementation of evidence-based health care require that participants understand the positive and negative meanings of their work and engage health workers in a conscious and intentional collaborative educational process. Implementation of evidence-based health care through emancipatory action research is capable of overcoming alienation and changing social practice through a participatory meaningful process of knowledge translation. PMID:27562664

  15. Dynamic Simulation and Static Matching for Action Prediction: Evidence from Body Part Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Accurately predicting other people's actions may involve two processes: internal real-time simulation (dynamic updating) and matching recently perceived action images (static matching). Using a priming of body parts, this study aimed to differentiate the two processes. Specifically, participants played a motion-controlled video game with…

  16. TERRA Battery Thermal Control Anomaly - Simulation and Corrective Actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grob, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    The TERRA spacecraft was launched in December 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, becoming the flagship of NASA's Earth Observing System program to gather data on how the planet's processes create climate. Originally planned as a 5 year mission, it still provides valuable science data after nearly 10 years on orbit. On October 13th, 2009 at 16:23z following a routine inclination maneuver, TERRA experienced a battery cell failure and a simultaneous failure of several battery heater control circuits used to maintain cell temperatures and gradients within the battery. With several cells nearing the minimum survival temperature, preventing the electrolyte from freezing was the first priority. After several reset attempts and power cycling of the control electronics failed to reestablish control authority on the primary side of the controller, it was switched to the redundant side, but anomalous performance again prevented full heater control of the battery cells. As the investigation into the cause of the anomaly and corrective action continued, a battery thermal model was developed to be used in determining the control ability remaining and to simulate and assess corrective actions. Although no thermal model or detailed reference data of the battery was available, sufficient information was found to allow a simplified model to be constructed, correlated against pre-anomaly telemetry, and used to simulate the thermal behavior at several points after the anomaly. It was then used to simulate subsequent corrective actions to assess their impact on cell temperatures. This paper describes the rapid development of this thermal model, including correlation to flight data before and after the anomaly., along with a comparative assessment of the analysis results used to interpret the telemetry to determine the extent of damage to the thermal control hardware, with near-term corrective actions and long-term operations plan to overcome the anomaly.

  17. Comparative investigations of manual action representations: evidence that chimpanzees represent the costs of potential future actions involving tools

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Scott H.; Povinelli, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to adjust one's ongoing actions in the anticipation of forthcoming task demands is considered as strong evidence for the existence of internal action representations. Studies of action selection in tool use reveal that the behaviours that we choose in the present moment differ depending on what we intend to do next. Further, they point to a specialized role for mechanisms within the human cerebellum and dominant left cerebral hemisphere in representing the likely sensory costs of intended future actions. Recently, the question of whether similar mechanisms exist in other primates has received growing, but still limited, attention. Here, we present data that bear on this issue from a species that is a natural user of tools, our nearest living relative, the chimpanzee. In experiment 1, a subset of chimpanzees showed a non-significant tendency for their grip preferences to be affected by anticipation of the demands associated with bringing a tool's baited end to their mouths. In experiment 2, chimpanzees' initial grip preferences were consistently affected by anticipation of the forthcoming movements in a task that involves using a tool to extract a food reward. The partial discrepancy between the results of these two studies is attributed to the ability to accurately represent differences between the motor costs associated with executing the two response alternatives available within each task. These findings suggest that chimpanzees are capable of accurately representing the costs of intended future actions, and using those predictions to select movements in the present even in the context of externally directed tool use. PMID:22106426

  18. Parkinson's disease disrupts both automatic and controlled processing of action verbs.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Conant, Lisa L; Binder, Jeffrey R; Blindauer, Karen; Hiner, Bradley; Spangler, Katie; Desai, Rutvik H

    2013-10-01

    The problem of how word meaning is processed in the brain has been a topic of intense investigation in cognitive neuroscience. While considerable correlational evidence exists for the involvement of sensory-motor systems in conceptual processing, it is still unclear whether they play a causal role. We investigated this issue by comparing the performance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with that of age-matched controls when processing action and abstract verbs. To examine the effects of task demands, we used tasks in which semantic demands were either implicit (lexical decision and priming) or explicit (semantic similarity judgment). In both tasks, PD patients' performance was selectively impaired for action verbs (relative to controls), indicating that the motor system plays a more central role in the processing of action verbs than in the processing of abstract verbs. These results argue for a causal role of sensory-motor systems in semantic processing.

  19. Parkinson's disease disrupts both automatic and controlled processing of action verbs.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Conant, Lisa L; Binder, Jeffrey R; Blindauer, Karen; Hiner, Bradley; Spangler, Katie; Desai, Rutvik H

    2013-10-01

    The problem of how word meaning is processed in the brain has been a topic of intense investigation in cognitive neuroscience. While considerable correlational evidence exists for the involvement of sensory-motor systems in conceptual processing, it is still unclear whether they play a causal role. We investigated this issue by comparing the performance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with that of age-matched controls when processing action and abstract verbs. To examine the effects of task demands, we used tasks in which semantic demands were either implicit (lexical decision and priming) or explicit (semantic similarity judgment). In both tasks, PD patients' performance was selectively impaired for action verbs (relative to controls), indicating that the motor system plays a more central role in the processing of action verbs than in the processing of abstract verbs. These results argue for a causal role of sensory-motor systems in semantic processing. PMID:22910144

  20. Gestalt principles in the control of motor action.

    PubMed

    Klapp, Stuart T; Jagacinski, Richard J

    2011-05-01

    We argue that 4 fundamental gestalt phenomena in perception apply to the control of motor action. First, a motor gestalt, like a perceptual gestalt, is holistic in the sense that it is processed as a single unit. This notion is consistent with reaction time results indicating that all gestures for a brief unit of action must be programmed prior to initiation of any part of the movement. Additional reaction time results related to initiation of longer responses are consistent with processing in terms of a sequence of indivisible motor gestalts. Some actions (e.g., many involving coordination of the hands) can be carried out effectively only if represented as a unitary gestalt. Second, a perceptual gestalt is independent of specific sensory receptors, as evidenced by perceptual constancy. In a similar manner a motor gestalt can be represented independently of specific muscular effectors, thereby allowing motor constancy. Third, just as a perceptual pattern (e.g., a Necker cube) is exclusively structured into only 1 of its possible configurations at any moment in time, processing prior to action is limited to 1 motor gestalt. Fourth, grouping in apparent motion leads to stream segregation in visual and auditory perception; this segregation is present in motor action and is dependent on the temporal rate. We discuss congruence of gestalt phenomena across perception and motor action (a) in relation to a unitary perceptual-motor code, (b) with respect to differences in the role of awareness, and (c) in conjunction with separate neural pathways for conscious perception and motor control.

  1. A Limb Action Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller and a newly developed limb action detection program (LADP, i.e., a new software program that turns a Wii Remote Controller into a precise limb action detector). This study was…

  2. Evidence-Based Practice and School Libraries: Interconnections of Evidence, Advocacy, and Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    2015-01-01

    This author states that a professional focus on evidence based practice (EBP) for school libraries emerged from the International Association of School Librarianship conference when he presented the concept. He challenged the school library profession to actively engage in professional and reflective practices that chart, measure, document, and…

  3. Action Research: A Personal Epiphany and Journey with Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    The author reveals in this article that her action research journey in the land of evidence-based practice was not her own idea. She writes that she was lured by the profession's finest scholars who advocated for reflective dispositions for practitioners to improve their practice and demonstrate the school librarian's critical role in teaching and…

  4. Abnormalities in the awareness and control of action.

    PubMed Central

    Frith, C D; Blakemore, S J; Wolpert, D M

    2000-01-01

    Much of the functioning of the motor system occurs without awareness. Nevertheless, we are aware of some aspects of the current state of the system and we can prepare and make movements in the imagination. These mental representations of the actual and possible states of the system are based on two sources: sensory signals from skin and muscles, and the stream of motor commands that have been issued to the system. Damage to the neural substrates of the motor system can lead to abnormalities in the awareness of action as well as defects in the control of action. We provide a framework for understanding how these various abnormalities of awareness can arise. Patients with phantom limbs or with anosognosia experience the illusion that they can move their limbs. We suggest that these representations of movement are based on streams of motor commands rather than sensory signals. Patients with utilization behaviour or with delusions of control can no longer properly link their intentions to their actions. In these cases the impairment lies in the representation of intended movements. The location of the neural damage associated with these disorders suggests that representations of the current and predicted state of the motor system are in parietal cortex, while representations of intended actions are found in prefrontal and premotor cortex. PMID:11205340

  5. Evidence for sequential action of Rab5 and Rab7 GTPases in prevacuolar organelle partitioning.

    PubMed

    Bottanelli, Francesca; Gershlick, David C; Denecke, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    GTPases of the Rab5 and Rab7 families were shown to control vacuolar sorting but their specific subcellular localization is controversial in plants. Here, we show that both the canonical as well as the plant-specific Rab5 reside at the newly discovered 'late prevacuolar compartment' (LPVC) while Rab7 partitions to the vacuolar membrane when expressed at low levels. Higher expression levels of wild-type Rab5 GTPases but not Rab7 lead to dose-dependent inhibition of biosynthetic vacuolar transport. In the case of Ara6, this included aberrant co-localization with markers for earlier post-Golgi compartments including the trans-Golgi network. However, nucleotide-free mutants of all three GTPases (Rha1, Ara6 and Rab7) cause stronger dose-dependent inhibition of vacuolar sorting. In addition, nucleotide-free Rha1 led to a later maturation defect and co-localization of markers for the prevacuolar compartment (PVC) and the LPVC. The corresponding Rab7 mutant strongly inhibited vacuolar delivery without merging of PVC and LPVC markers. Evidence for functional differentiation of the Rab5 family members is underlined by the fact that mutant Rha1 expression can be suppressed by increasing wild-type Rha1 levels while mutant Ara6 specifically titrates the nucleotide exchange factor Vps9. A model describing the sequential action of Rab5 and Rab7 GTPases is presented in the light of the current observations.

  6. Adaptive Pole Placement Controllers For Robotic Manipulators With Predictive Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaynak, Okyay; Hoyer, Helmut

    1987-10-01

    This paper proposes two pole assignment control schemes for robotic manipulators, based on an anticipatory action. In one, the control objective is for the velocity tracking error to decay with a prespecified dynamics. In the other, a generalised cost function is minimized and the weighting factors in the cost function are determined to achieve desired closed loop pole locations for the tracking error. The prediction scheme used ensures a high degree of robustness against system-model mismatch as demonstrated by the simulation results presented.

  7. Decoding Actions and Emotions in Deaf Children: Evidence from a Biological Motion Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Amanda Katherine; Heaton, Pamela; Deruelle, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the recognition of emotional and non-emotional biological movements in children with severe and profound deafness. Twenty-four deaf children, together with 24 control children matched on mental age and 24 control children matched on chronological age, were asked to identify a person's actions, subjective states,…

  8. Clinical practice guideline development manual: A quality-driven approach for translating evidence into action

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Richard M.; Shiffman, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Guidelines translate best evidence into best practice. A well-crafted guideline promotes quality by reducing healthcare variations, improving diagnostic accuracy, promoting effective therapy, and discouraging ineffective – or potentially harmful – interventions. Despite a plethora of published guidelines, methodology is often poorly defined and varies greatly within and among organizations. Purpose This manual describes the principles and practices used successfully by the American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery to produce quality-driven, evidence-based guidelines using efficient and transparent methodology for action-ready recommendations with multi-disciplinary applicability. The development process, which allows moving from conception to completion in twelve months, emphasizes a logical sequence of key action statements supported by amplifying text, evidence profiles, and recommendation grades that link action to evidence. Conclusions As clinical practice guidelines become more prominent as a key metric of quality healthcare, organizations must develop efficient production strategies that balance rigor and pragmatism. Equally important, clinicians must become savvy in understanding what guidelines are – and are not – and how they are best utilized to improve care. The information in this manual should help clinicians and organizations achieve these goals. PMID:19464525

  9. A Virtual Information-Action Workspace for Command and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintern, Gavan; Naikar, Neelam

    2002-10-01

    Information overload has become a critical challenge within military Command and Control. However, the problem is not so much one of too much information but of abundant information that is poorly organized and poorly represented. In addition, the capabilities to test the effects of decisions before they are implemented and to monitor the progress of events after a decision is implemented are primitive. A virtual information-action workspace could be designed to resolve these issues. The design of such a space would require a detailed understanding of the specific information needed to support decision making in Command and Control. That information can be obtained with the use of knowledge acquisition and knowledge representation tools from the field of applied cognitive psychology. In addition, it will be necessary to integrate forms for perception and action into a virtual space that will support access to the information and that will provide means for testing and implementing decisions. This paper presents a rationale for a virtual information-action workspace and outlines an approach to its design.

  10. Strengthening the evidence and action on multi-sectoral partnerships in public health: an action research initiative

    PubMed Central

    Willis, C. D.; Greene, J. K.; Abramowicz, A.; Riley, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The Public Health Agency of Canada’s Multi-sectoral Partnerships Initiative, administered by the Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention (CCDP), brings together diverse partners to design, implement and advance innovative approaches for improving population health. This article describes the development and initial priorities of an action research project (a learning and improvement strategy) that aims to facilitate continuous improvement of the CCDP’s partnership initiative and contribute to the evidence on multi-sectoral partnerships. Methods: The learning and improvement strategy for the CCDP’s multi-sectoral partnership initiative was informed by (1) consultations with CCDP staff and senior management, and (2) a review of conceptual frameworks to do with multi-sectoral partnerships. Consultations explored the development of the multi-sectoral initiative, barriers and facilitators to success, and markers of effectiveness. Published and grey literature was reviewed using a systematic search strategy with findings synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Consultations and the review highlighted the importance of understanding partnership impacts, developing a shared vision, implementing a shared measurement system and creating opportunities for knowledge exchange. With that in mind, we propose a six-component learning and improvement strategy that involves (1) prioritizing learning needs, (2) mapping needs to evidence, (3) using relevant data-collection methods, (4) analyzing and synthesizing data, (5) feeding data back to CCDP staff and teams and (6) taking action. Initial learning needs include investigating partnership reach and the unanticipated effects of multi-sectoral partnerships for individuals, groups, organizations or communities. Conclusion: While the CCDP is the primary audience for the learning and improvement strategy, it may prove useful for a range of audiences, including other government departments and external

  11. Banishing the Control Homunculi in Studies of Action Control and Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, Ian P. L.; Chambers, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, human self-control has fascinated scientists and nonscientists alike. Current theories often attribute it to an executive control system. But even though executive control receives a great deal of attention across disciplines, most aspects of it are still poorly understood. Many theories rely on an ill-defined set of “homunculi” doing jobs like “response inhibition” or “updating” without explaining how they do so. Furthermore, it is not always appreciated that control takes place across different timescales. These two issues hamper major advances. Here we focus on the mechanistic basis for the executive control of actions. We propose that at the most basic level, action control depends on three cognitive processes: signal detection, action selection, and action execution. These processes are modulated via error-correction or outcome-evaluation mechanisms, preparation, and task rules maintained in working and long-term memory. We also consider how executive control of actions becomes automatized with practice and how people develop a control network. Finally, we discuss how the application of this unified framework in clinical domains can increase our understanding of control deficits and provide a theoretical basis for the development of novel behavioral change interventions. PMID:25419227

  12. Azelaic Acid: Evidence-based Update on Mechanism of Action and Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Brian C; Wu, Wesley; Rosen, Ted

    2015-09-01

    Azelaic acid is a complex molecule with many diverse activities. The latter include anti-infective and anti-inflammatory action. The agent also inhibits follicular keratinization and epidermal melanogenesis. Due to the wide variety of biological activities, azelaic acid has been utilized as a management tool in a broad spectrum of disease states and cutaneous disorders. This paper reviews the clinical utility of azelaic acid, noting the quality of the evidence supporting each potential use. PMID:26355614

  13. Importance of perceptual representation in the visual control of action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, Jack M.; Beall, Andrew C.; Kelly, Jonathan W.; Macuga, Kristen L.

    2005-03-01

    In recent years, many experiments have demonstrated that optic flow is sufficient for visually controlled action, with the suggestion that perceptual representations of 3-D space are superfluous. In contrast, recent research in our lab indicates that some visually controlled actions, including some thought to be based on optic flow, are indeed mediated by perceptual representations. For example, we have demonstrated that people are able to perform complex spatial behaviors, like walking, driving, and object interception, in virtual environments which are rendered visible solely by cyclopean stimulation (random-dot cinematograms). In such situations, the absence of any retinal optic flow that is correlated with the objects and surfaces within the virtual environment means that people are using stereo-based perceptual representations to perform the behavior. The fact that people can perform such behaviors without training suggests that the perceptual representations are likely the same as those used when retinal optic flow is present. Other research indicates that optic flow, whether retinal or a more abstract property of the perceptual representation, is not the basis for postural control, because postural instability is related to perceived relative motion between self and the visual surroundings rather than to optic flow, even in the abstract sense.

  14. Evidence for a distributed hierarchy of action representation in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Grafton, Scott T.; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.

    2007-01-01

    Complex human behavior is organized around temporally distal outcomes. Behavioral studies based on tasks such as normal prehension, multi-step object use and imitation establish the existence of relative hierarchies of motor control. The retrieval errors in apraxia also support the notion of a hierarchical model for representing action in the brain. In this review, three functional brain imaging studies of action observation using the method of repetition suppression are used to identify a putative neural architecture that supports action understanding at the level of kinematics, object centered goals and ultimately, motor outcomes. These results, based on observation, may match a similar functional anatomic hierarchy for action planning and execution. If this is true, then the findings support a functional anatomic model that is distributed across a set of interconnected brain areas that are differentially recruited for different aspects of goal oriented behavior, rather than a homogeneous mirror neuron system for organizing and understanding all behavior. PMID:17706312

  15. Visual control of movement patterns and the grammar of action.

    PubMed

    Smyth, M M

    1989-05-01

    In this experiment adult subjects copied three types of material (letters, reversed letters and geometric shapes) with and without sight of the hand and the writing trace. Without vision the number of movement segments decreased and the sequence and direction of movements were altered. This means that subjects did not use a fixed stored representation to produce items nor did they obey the rules of Goodnow and Levine's (1973) grammar of action. When spatial location is made more difficult by the removal of vision, movement production is simplified to reduce the number of relocations required. The use of consistent directions of movement depends on the ability to use visual control of spatial location.

  16. μ-Crystallin controls muscle function through thyroid hormone action.

    PubMed

    Seko, Daiki; Ogawa, Shizuka; Li, Tao-Sheng; Taimura, Akihiro; Ono, Yusuke

    2016-05-01

    μ-Crystallin (Crym), a thyroid hormone-binding protein, is abnormally up-regulated in the muscles of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, a dominantly inherited progressive myopathy. However, the physiologic function of Crym in skeletal muscle remains to be elucidated. In this study, Crym was preferentially expressed in skeletal muscle throughout the body. Crym-knockout mice exhibited a significant hypertrophy of fast-twitch glycolytic type IIb fibers, causing an increase in grip strength and high intensity running ability in Crym-null mice. Genetic inactivation of Crym or blockade of Crym by siRNA-mediated knockdown up-regulated the gene expression of fast-glycolytic contractile fibers in satellite cell-derived myotubes in vitro These alterations in Crym-inactivated muscle were rescued by inhibition of thyroid hormone, even though Crym is a positive regulator of thyroid hormone action in nonmuscle cells. The results demonstrated that Crym is a crucial regulator of muscle plasticity, controlling metabolic and contractile properties of myofibers, and thus the selective inactivation of Crym may be a potential therapeutic target for muscle-wasting diseases, such as muscular dystrophies and age-related sarcopenia.-Seko, D., Ogawa, S., Li, T.-S., Taimura, A., Ono, Y. μ-Crystallin controls muscle function through thyroid hormone action. PMID:26718889

  17. Evaluation of evidence for infection as a mode of action for induction of rat lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Jane C; Jinot, Jennifer; DeVoney, Danielle; Gift, Jeff S

    2008-03-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) released a 2006 report questioning the relationship of aspartame exposure with increased incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in a European Ramazzini Foundation (ERF) rat study. The EFSA report suggested that the lymphoma/leukemia findings were most likely explained by infection in the rat colony. The ERF has also conducted the only available long-term oral study of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Thus, using the EFSA report as support, some have now raised questions about the human relevance of MTBE-associated hemolymphoreticular tumors reported by the ERF in female rats as well as whether their incidence was elevated above background levels. In this report, we discuss the hypothesized mode of action (MOA) of infection-induced lymphoma and its relevance to MTBE-associated lymphomas. We address the relationship of rat strain and study duration to lymphoma susceptibility and review evidence of low background rates of this tumor in control animals at the ERF, similar survival rates for female rats at the ERF and National Toxicology Program (NTP), and chemical- and gender-specificity of tumor induction for this type of tumor in studies at the ERF. We find that the background incidence of hemolymphoreticular tumors in female rats in the MTBE study is consistent with contemporaneous studies at the ERF and that there is an exposure-related effect, which is unlikely to be due to infections. We examine more recent tumor classification schemes for lymphomas, which support the combination of lymphoblastic leukemias and lymphomas reported by Belpoggi et al. ([1995] Toxicol Ind Health 11:119-149; [1998] Eur J Oncol 3:201-206).

  18. Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario

    2007-03-15

    Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal (Cry) and Cytolitic (Cyt) protein families are a diverse group of proteins with activity against insects of different orders--Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and also against other invertebrates such as nematodes. Their primary action is to lyse midgut epithelial cells by inserting into the target membrane and forming pores. Among this group of proteins, members of the 3-Domain Cry family are used worldwide for insect control, and their mode of action has been characterized in some detail. Phylogenetic analyses established that the diversity of the 3-Domain Cry family evolved by the independent evolution of the three domains and by swapping of domain III among toxins. Like other pore-forming toxins (PFT) that affect mammals, Cry toxins interact with specific receptors located on the host cell surface and are activated by host proteases following receptor binding resulting in the formation of a pre-pore oligomeric structure that is insertion competent. In contrast, Cyt toxins directly interact with membrane lipids and insert into the membrane. Recent evidence suggests that Cyt synergize or overcome resistance to mosquitocidal-Cry proteins by functioning as a Cry-membrane bound receptor. In this review we summarize recent findings on the mode of action of Cry and Cyt toxins, and compare them to the mode of action of other bacterial PFT. Also, we discuss their use in the control of agricultural insect pests and insect vectors of human diseases. PMID:17198720

  19. Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A small group of teachers at one Illinois high school is helping to effect and promote change. Through the Action Research Laboratory (ARL), teams of teachers conduct collaborative action research to improve classroom practices. Data from the first two years of the ARL indicate that teachers are eager to participate in, and have thrived in, their…

  20. Processing implicit control: evidence from reading times

    PubMed Central

    McCourt, Michael; Green, Jeffrey J.; Lau, Ellen; Williams, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Sentences such as “The ship was sunk to collect the insurance” exhibit an unusual form of anaphora, implicit control, where neither anaphor nor antecedent is audible. The non-finite reason clause has an understood subject, PRO, that is anaphoric; here it may be understood as naming the agent of the event of the host clause. Yet since the host is a short passive, this agent is realized by no audible dependent. The putative antecedent to PRO is therefore implicit, which it normally cannot be. What sorts of representations subserve the comprehension of this dependency? Here we present four self-paced reading time studies directed at this question. Previous work showed no processing cost for implicit vs. explicit control, and took this to support the view that PRO is linked syntactically to a silent argument in the passive. We challenge this conclusion by reporting that we also find no processing cost for remote implicit control, as in: “The ship was sunk. The reason was to collect the insurance.” Here the dependency crosses two independent sentences, and so cannot, we argue, be mediated by syntax. Our Experiments 1–4 examined the processing of both implicit (short passive) and explicit (active or long passive) control in both local and remote configurations. Experiments 3 and 4 added either “3 days ago” or “just in order” to the local conditions, to control for the distance between the passive and infinitival verbs, and for the predictability of the reason clause, respectively. We replicate the finding that implicit control does not impose an additional processing cost. But critically we show that remote control does not impose a processing cost either. Reading times at the reason clause were never slower when control was remote. In fact they were always faster. Thus, efficient processing of local implicit control cannot show that implicit control is mediated by syntax; nor, in turn, that there is a silent but grammatically active argument in

  1. Grasping the diagonal: controlling attention to illusory stimuli for action and perception.

    PubMed

    Stöttinger, Elisabeth; Aigner, Stefan; Hanstein, Klara; Perner, Josef

    2009-03-01

    Since the pioneering work of [Aglioti, S., DeSouza, J. F., & Goodale, M. A. (1995). Size-contrast illusions deceive the eye but not the hand. Current Biology, 5(6), 679-685] visual illusions have been used to provide evidence for the functional division of labour within the visual system-one system for conscious perception and the other system for unconscious guidance of action. However, these studies were criticised for attentional mismatch between action and perception conditions and for the fact that grip size is not determined by the size of an object but also by surrounding obstacles. Stoettinger and Perner [Stoettinger, E., & Perner, J., (2006). Dissociating size representations for action and for conscious judgment: Grasping visual illusions without apparent obstacles. Consciousness and Cognition, 15, 269-284] used the diagonal illusion controlling for the influence of surrounding features on grip size and bimanual grasping to rule out attentional mismatch. Unfortunately, the latter objective was not fully achieved. In the present study, attentional mismatch was avoided by using only the dominant hand for action and for indicating perceived size. Results support the division of labour: Grip aperture follows actual size independent of illusory effects, while finger-thumb span indications of perceived length are clearly influenced by the illusion.

  2. How (and why) the visual control of action differs from visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Goodale, Melvyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Vision not only provides us with detailed knowledge of the world beyond our bodies, but it also guides our actions with respect to objects and events in that world. The computations required for vision-for-perception are quite different from those required for vision-for-action. The former uses relational metrics and scene-based frames of reference while the latter uses absolute metrics and effector-based frames of reference. These competing demands on vision have shaped the organization of the visual pathways in the primate brain, particularly within the visual areas of the cerebral cortex. The ventral ‘perceptual’ stream, projecting from early visual areas to inferior temporal cortex, helps to construct the rich and detailed visual representations of the world that allow us to identify objects and events, attach meaning and significance to them and establish their causal relations. By contrast, the dorsal ‘action’ stream, projecting from early visual areas to the posterior parietal cortex, plays a critical role in the real-time control of action, transforming information about the location and disposition of goal objects into the coordinate frames of the effectors being used to perform the action. The idea of two visual systems in a single brain might seem initially counterintuitive. Our visual experience of the world is so compelling that it is hard to believe that some other quite independent visual signal—one that we are unaware of—is guiding our movements. But evidence from a broad range of studies from neuropsychology to neuroimaging has shown that the visual signals that give us our experience of objects and events in the world are not the same ones that control our actions. PMID:24789899

  3. Coastal foredune evolution: evidence for physical control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.; Zarnetske, P. L.; Mull, J.; Hacker, S.; Seabloom, E.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal dunes in the US Pacific Northwest, comprising approximately 45% of the Oregon and Washington coasts, were historically managed to maximize coastal protection through the planting of two invasive beach grass species, European beach grass (Ammophila arenaria), and American beach grass (Ammophila breviligulata). The switch in dominance from native, Elymus mollis, to invasive dune species resulted in a complete state change in coastal dune systems. Prior to the invasion of the exotic species, native dune plants formed small hillocks or short parallel ridges depending on sand supply. In contrast, the invasive beach grasses create stable foredunes, with dune ridges reaching as much as 15 to 20 meters tall which intercept sand and decrease sand supply to the back dune. Currently pressure exists to manage some of these biogeomorphic systems for ecosystem restoration rather than solely for coastal protection. To balance these competing management objectives it has become crucial to quantify the relative importance of physical versus ecological controls on coastal dune evolution over various time and space scales. In this paper we examine the remarkable evolution of the foredunes within the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) from 1988 to 2010, a time period in which quantitative topographic surveys are bracketed by quantitative ecological surveys of grass cover dominance. Most of the region’s foredunes were severely eroded during the two extraordinary winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Niño event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Nina event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches and foredunes have, for the most part, experienced significant seaward progradation and vertical accretion. Across the mouth of the Columbia River significant gradients exist in both the ecological (grass species dominance and density) and physical (shoreline change rates) parameters that are thought to be first order controls on coastal dune geomorphology. These gradients allow us to test

  4. Facial Action and Emotional Language: ERP Evidence that Blocking Facial Feedback Selectively Impairs Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Davis, Joshua D; Winkielman, Piotr; Coulson, Seana

    2015-11-01

    There is a lively and theoretically important debate about whether, how, and when embodiment contributes to language comprehension. This study addressed these questions by testing how interference with facial action impacts the brain's real-time response to emotional language. Participants read sentences about positive and negative events (e.g., "She reached inside the pocket of her coat from last winter and found some (cash/bugs) inside it.") while ERPs were recorded. Facial action was manipulated within participants by asking participants to hold chopsticks in their mouths using a position that allowed or blocked smiling, as confirmed by EMG. Blocking smiling did not influence ERPs to the valenced words (e.g., cash, bugs) but did influence ERPs to final words of sentences describing positive events. Results show that affectively positive sentences can evoke smiles and that such facial action can facilitate the semantic processing indexed by the N400 component. Overall, this study offers causal evidence that embodiment impacts some aspects of high-level comprehension, presumably involving the construction of the situation model.

  5. Facial Action and Emotional Language: ERP Evidence that Blocking Facial Feedback Selectively Impairs Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Davis, Joshua D; Winkielman, Piotr; Coulson, Seana

    2015-11-01

    There is a lively and theoretically important debate about whether, how, and when embodiment contributes to language comprehension. This study addressed these questions by testing how interference with facial action impacts the brain's real-time response to emotional language. Participants read sentences about positive and negative events (e.g., "She reached inside the pocket of her coat from last winter and found some (cash/bugs) inside it.") while ERPs were recorded. Facial action was manipulated within participants by asking participants to hold chopsticks in their mouths using a position that allowed or blocked smiling, as confirmed by EMG. Blocking smiling did not influence ERPs to the valenced words (e.g., cash, bugs) but did influence ERPs to final words of sentences describing positive events. Results show that affectively positive sentences can evoke smiles and that such facial action can facilitate the semantic processing indexed by the N400 component. Overall, this study offers causal evidence that embodiment impacts some aspects of high-level comprehension, presumably involving the construction of the situation model. PMID:26244721

  6. Action video games and improved attentional control: Disentangling selection- and response-based processes.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that experience with action video games is associated with improvements in a host of cognitive tasks. Evidence from paradigms that assess aspects of attention has suggested that action video game players (AVGPs) possess greater control over the allocation of attentional resources than do non-video-game players (NVGPs). Using a compound search task that teased apart selection- and response-based processes (Duncan, 1985), we required participants to perform an oculomotor capture task in which they made saccades to a uniquely colored target (selection-based process) and then produced a manual directional response based on information within the target (response-based process). We replicated the finding that AVGPs are less susceptible to attentional distraction and, critically, revealed that AVGPs outperform NVGPs on both selection-based and response-based processes. These results not only are consistent with the improved-attentional-control account of AVGP benefits, but they suggest that the benefit of action video game playing extends across the full breadth of attention-mediated stimulus-response processes that impact human performance. PMID:25772554

  7. Action video games and improved attentional control: Disentangling selection- and response-based processes.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that experience with action video games is associated with improvements in a host of cognitive tasks. Evidence from paradigms that assess aspects of attention has suggested that action video game players (AVGPs) possess greater control over the allocation of attentional resources than do non-video-game players (NVGPs). Using a compound search task that teased apart selection- and response-based processes (Duncan, 1985), we required participants to perform an oculomotor capture task in which they made saccades to a uniquely colored target (selection-based process) and then produced a manual directional response based on information within the target (response-based process). We replicated the finding that AVGPs are less susceptible to attentional distraction and, critically, revealed that AVGPs outperform NVGPs on both selection-based and response-based processes. These results not only are consistent with the improved-attentional-control account of AVGP benefits, but they suggest that the benefit of action video game playing extends across the full breadth of attention-mediated stimulus-response processes that impact human performance.

  8. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG) playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control), as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control. PMID:26655929

  9. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG) playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control), as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control. PMID:26655929

  10. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG) playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control), as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control.

  11. Knowing when not to swing: EEG evidence that enhanced perception-action coupling underlies baseball batter expertise.

    PubMed

    Muraskin, Jordan; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Given a decision that requires less than half a second for evaluating the characteristics of the incoming pitch and generating a motor response, hitting a baseball potentially requires unique perception-action coupling to achieve high performance. We designed a rapid perceptual decision-making experiment modeled as a Go/No-Go task yet tailored to reflect a real scenario confronted by a baseball hitter. For groups of experts (Division I baseball players) and novices (non-players), we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while they performed the task. We analyzed evoked EEG single-trial variability, contingent negative variation (CNV), and pre-stimulus alpha power with respect to the expert vs. novice groups. We found strong evidence for differences in inhibitory processes between the two groups, specifically differential activity in supplementary motor areas (SMA), indicative of enhanced inhibitory control in the expert (baseball player) group. We also found selective activity in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and orbital gyrus in the expert group, suggesting an enhanced perception-action coupling in baseball players that differentiates them from matched controls. In sum, our results show that EEG correlates of decision formation can be used to identify neural markers of high-performance athletes.

  12. Knowing when not to swing: EEG evidence that enhanced perception-action coupling underlies baseball batter expertise.

    PubMed

    Muraskin, Jordan; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Given a decision that requires less than half a second for evaluating the characteristics of the incoming pitch and generating a motor response, hitting a baseball potentially requires unique perception-action coupling to achieve high performance. We designed a rapid perceptual decision-making experiment modeled as a Go/No-Go task yet tailored to reflect a real scenario confronted by a baseball hitter. For groups of experts (Division I baseball players) and novices (non-players), we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while they performed the task. We analyzed evoked EEG single-trial variability, contingent negative variation (CNV), and pre-stimulus alpha power with respect to the expert vs. novice groups. We found strong evidence for differences in inhibitory processes between the two groups, specifically differential activity in supplementary motor areas (SMA), indicative of enhanced inhibitory control in the expert (baseball player) group. We also found selective activity in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and orbital gyrus in the expert group, suggesting an enhanced perception-action coupling in baseball players that differentiates them from matched controls. In sum, our results show that EEG correlates of decision formation can be used to identify neural markers of high-performance athletes. PMID:26299795

  13. Motivational tuning of fronto-subthalamic connectivity facilitates control of action impulses.

    PubMed

    Herz, Damian M; Christensen, Mark S; Bruggemann, Norbert; Hulme, Oliver J; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2014-02-26

    It is critical for survival to quickly respond to environmental stimuli with the most appropriate action. This task becomes most challenging when response tendencies induced by relevant and irrelevant stimulus features are in conflict, and have to be resolved in real time. Inputs from the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are thought to support this function, but the connectivity and causality of these regions in calibrating motor control has not been delineated. In this study, we combined off-line noninvasive brain stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging, while young healthy human participants performed a modified version of the Simon task. We show that impairing pre-SMA function by noninvasive brain stimulation improved control over impulsive response tendencies, but only when participants were explicitly rewarded for fast and accurate responses. These effects were mediated by enhanced activation and connectivity of the IFG-STN pathway. These results provide causal evidence for a pivotal role of the IFG-STN pathway during action control. Additionally, they suggest a parallel rather than hierarchical organization of the pre-SMA-STN and IFG-STN pathways, since interruption of pre-SMA function can enhance IFG-STN connectivity and improve control over inappropriate responses.

  14. One action system or two? Evidence for common central preparatory mechanisms in voluntary and stimulus-driven actions.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gethin; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Waszak, Florian

    2011-11-16

    Human behavior is comprised of an interaction between intentionally driven actions and reactions to changes in the environment. Existing data are equivocal concerning the question of whether these two action systems are independent, involve different brain regions, or overlap. To address this question we investigated whether the degree to which the voluntary action system is activated at the time of stimulus onset predicts reaction times to external stimuli. We recorded event-related potentials while participants prepared and executed left- or right-hand voluntary actions, which were occasionally interrupted by a stimulus requiring either a left- or right-hand response. In trials where participants successfully performed the stimulus-driven response, increased voluntary motor preparation was associated with faster responses on congruent trials (where participants were preparing a voluntary action with the same hand that was then required by the target stimulus), and slower responses on incongruent trials. This suggests that early hand-specific activity in medial frontal cortex for voluntary action trials can be used by the stimulus-driven system to speed responding. This finding questions the clear distinction between voluntary and stimulus-driven action systems. PMID:22090496

  15. Causal role of the sensorimotor cortex in action simulation: neuropsychological evidence.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Skrap, Miran; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida

    2011-08-01

    Interest in sensorimotor cortex involvement in higher cognitive functions has recently been revived, although whether the cortex actually contributes to the simulation of body part movements has not yet been established. Neurosurgical patients with selective lesions to the hand sensorimotor representation offer a unique opportunity to demonstrate that the sensorimotor cortex plays a causal role in hand action simulations. Patients with damage to hand representation showed a selective deficit in simulating hand movements compared with object movements (Experiment 1). This deficit extended to objects when the patients imagined moving them with their own hands while maintaining the ability to visualize them rotating in space (Experiment 2). The data provide conclusive evidence for a causal role of the sensorimotor cortex in the continuous update of sensorimotor representations while individuals mentally simulate motor acts. PMID:20849231

  16. Three speech sounds, one motor action: Evidence for speech-motor disparity from English flap production

    PubMed Central

    Derrick, Donald; Stavness, Ian; Gick, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The assumption that units of speech production bear a one-to-one relationship to speech motor actions pervades otherwise widely varying theories of speech motor behavior. This speech production and simulation study demonstrates that commonly occurring flap sequences may violate this assumption. In the word “Saturday,” a sequence of three sounds may be produced using a single, cyclic motor action. Under this view, the initial upward tongue tip motion, starting with the first vowel and moving to contact the hard palate on the way to a retroflex position, is under active muscular control, while the downward movement of the tongue tip, including the second contact with the hard palate, results from gravity and elasticity during tongue muscle relaxation. This sequence is reproduced using a three-dimensional computer simulation of human vocal tract biomechanics and differs greatly from other observed sequences for the same word, which employ multiple targeted speech motor actions. This outcome suggests that a goal of a speaker is to produce an entire sequence in a biomechanically efficient way at the expense of maintaining parity within the individual parts of the sequence. PMID:25786960

  17. Poverty and child health in the UK: using evidence for action

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Sophie; Anwar, Elspeth; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-01-01

    There are currently high levels of child poverty in the UK, and for the first time in almost two decades child poverty has started to rise in absolute terms. Child poverty is associated with a wide range of health-damaging impacts, negative educational outcomes and adverse long-term social and psychological outcomes. The poor health associated with child poverty limits children's potential and development, leading to poor health and life chances in adulthood. This article outlines some key definitions with regard to child poverty, reviews the links between child poverty and a range of health, developmental, behavioural and social outcomes for children, describes gaps in the evidence base and provides an overview of current policies relevant to child poverty in the UK. Finally, the article outlines how child health professionals can take action by (1) supporting policies to reduce child poverty, (2) providing services that reduce the health consequences of child poverty and (3) measuring and understanding the problem and assessing the impact of action. PMID:26857824

  18. On-line and Model-based Approaches to the Visual Control of Action

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaiyong; Warren, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Two general approaches to the visual control of action have emerged in last few decades, known as the on-line and model-based approaches. The key difference between them is whether action is controlled by current visual information or on the basis of an internal world model. In this paper, we evaluate three hypotheses: strong on-line control, strong model-based control, and a hybrid solution that combines on-line control with weak off-line strategies. We review experimental research on the control of locomotion and manual actions, which indicates that (a) an internal world model is neither sufficient nor necessary to control action at normal levels of performance; (b) current visual information is necessary and sufficient to control action at normal levels; and (c) under certain conditions (e.g. occlusion) action is controlled by less accurate, simple strategies such as heuristics, visual-motor mappings, or spatial memory. We conclude that the strong model-based hypothesis is not sustainable. Action is normally controlled on-line when current information is available, consistent with the strong on-line control hypothesis. In exceptional circumstances, action is controlled by weak, context-specific, off-line strategies. This hybrid solution is comprehensive, parsimonious, and able to account for a variety of tasks under a range of visual conditions. PMID:25454700

  19. Predicting others' actions via grasp and gaze: evidence for distinct brain networks.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Richard; Cross, Emily S; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2012-07-01

    During social interactions, how do we predict what other people are going to do next? One view is that we use our own motor experience to simulate and predict other people's actions. For example, when we see Sally look at a coffee cup or grasp a hammer, our own motor system provides a signal that anticipates her next action. Previous research has typically examined such gaze and grasp-based simulation processes separately, and it is not known whether similar cognitive and brain systems underpin the perception of object-directed gaze and grasp. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine to what extent gaze- and grasp-perception rely on common or distinct brain networks. Using a 'peeping window' protocol, we controlled what an observed actor could see and grasp. The actor could peep through one window to see if an object was present and reach through a different window to grasp the object. However, the actor could not peep and grasp at the same time. We compared gaze and grasp conditions where an object was present with matched conditions where the object was absent. When participants observed another person gaze at an object, left anterior inferior parietal lobule (aIPL) and parietal operculum showed a greater response than when the object was absent. In contrast, when participants observed the actor grasp an object, premotor, posterior parietal, fusiform and middle occipital brain regions showed a greater response than when the object was absent. These results point towards a division in the neural substrates for different types of motor simulation. We suggest that left aIPL and parietal operculum are involved in a predictive process that signals a future hand interaction with an object based on another person's eye gaze, whereas a broader set of brain areas, including parts of the action observation network, are engaged during observation of an ongoing object-directed hand action.

  20. Eye movements and the control of actions in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Land, Michael F

    2006-05-01

    The patterns of eye movement that accompany static activities such as reading have been studied since the early 1900s, but it is only since head-mounted eye trackers became available in the 1980s that it has been possible to study active tasks such as walking, driving, playing ball games and ordinary everyday activities like food preparation. This review examines the ways that vision contributes to the organization of such activities, and in particular how eye movements are used to locate the information needed by the motor system in the execution of each act. Major conclusions are that the eyes are proactive, typically seeking out the information required in the second before each act commences, although occasional 'look ahead' fixations are made to establish the locations of objects for use further into the future. Gaze often moves on before the last act is complete, indicating the presence of an information buffer. Each task has a characteristic but flexible pattern of eye movements that accompanies it, and this pattern is similar between individuals. The eyes rarely visit objects that are irrelevant to the action, and the conspicuity of objects (in terms of low-level image statistics) is much less important than their role in the task. Gaze control may involve movements of eyes, head and trunk, and these are coordinated in a way that allows for both flexibility of movement and stability of gaze. During the learning of a new activity, the eyes first provide feedback on the motor performance, but as this is perfected they provide feed-forward direction, seeking out the next object to be acted upon.

  1. Sense of Control Depends on Fluency of Action Selection, Not Motor Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambon, Valerian; Haggard, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sense of agency refers to the feeling of controlling one's own actions, and, through these actions, events in the outside world. Sense of agency is widely held to involve a retrospective inference based on matching actual effects of an action with its expected effects. We hypothesise a second, prospective aspect of sense of agency, reflecting the…

  2. Controlling Asthma New Guidelines. New Medications. New Action Plans.

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. New Guidelines. New Medications. New Action Plans. People everywhere and in every age ... I am putting the finishing touches on my new studio album that we hope to have out ...

  3. Visual control of an action discrimination in pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Muhammad A. J.; Asen, Yael; Cook, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing and categorizing behavior is essential for all animals. The visual and cognitive mechanisms underlying such action discriminations are not well understood, especially in nonhuman animals. To identify the visual bases of action discriminations, four pigeons were tested in a go/no-go procedure to examine the contribution of different visual features in a discrimination of walking and running actions by different digital animal models. Two different tests with point-light displays derived from studies of human biological motion failed to support transfer of the learned action discrimination from fully figured models. Tests with silhouettes, contours, and the selective deletion or occlusion of different parts of the models indicated that information about the global motions of the entire model was critical to the discrimination. This outcome, along with earlier results, suggests that the pigeons' discrimination of these locomotive actions involved a generalized categorization of the sequence of configural poses. Because the motor systems for locomotion and flying in pigeons share little in common with quadruped motions, the pigeons' discrimination of these behaviors creates problems for motor theories of action recognition based on mirror neurons or related notions of embodied cognition. It suggests instead that more general motion and shape mechanisms are sufficient for making such discriminations, at least in birds. PMID:24879863

  4. Modulation of the Action Control System by Social Intention: Unexpected Social Requests Override Preplanned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Luisa; Becchio, Cristina; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the influence of a sudden social request on the kinematics of a preplanned action. In Experiment 1, participants were requested to grasp an object and then locate it within a container (unperturbed trials). On 20% of trials, a human agent seated nearby the participant unexpectedly stretched out her arm and unfolded…

  5. Learning to Control Actions: Transfer Effects following a Procedural Cognitive Control Computerized Training

    PubMed Central

    Shahar, Nitzan; Meiran, Nachshon

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have addressed action control training. In the current study, participants were trained over 19 days in an adaptive training task that demanded constant switching, maintenance and updating of novel action rules. Participants completed an executive functions battery before and after training that estimated processing speed, working memory updating, set-shifting, response inhibition and fluid intelligence. Participants in the training group showed greater improvement than a no-contact control group in processing speed, indicated by reduced reaction times in speeded classification tasks. No other systematic group differences were found across the different pre-post measurements. Ex-Gaussian fitting of the reaction-time distribution revealed that the reaction time reduction observed among trained participants was restricted to the right tail of the distribution, previously shown to be related to working memory. Furthermore, training effects were only found in classification tasks that required participants to maintain novel stimulus-response rules in mind, supporting the notion that the training improved working memory abilities. Training benefits were maintained in a 10-month follow-up, indicating relatively long-lasting effects. The authors conclude that training improved action-related working memory abilities. PMID:25799443

  6. Flexible Control of Safety Margins for Action Based on Environmental Variability

    PubMed Central

    Hadjiosif, Alkis M.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the risk of slip, grip force (GF) control includes a safety margin above the force level ordinarily sufficient for the expected load force (LF) dynamics. The current view is that this safety margin is based on the expected LF dynamics, amounting to a static safety factor like that often used in engineering design. More efficient control could be achieved, however, if the motor system reduces the safety margin when LF variability is low and increases it when this variability is high. Here we show that this is indeed the case by demonstrating that the human motor system sizes the GF safety margin in proportion to an internal estimate of LF variability to maintain a fixed statistical confidence against slip. In contrast to current models of GF control that neglect the variability of LF dynamics, we demonstrate that GF is threefold more sensitive to the SD than the expected value of LF dynamics, in line with the maintenance of a 3-sigma confidence level. We then show that a computational model of GF control that includes a variability-driven safety margin predicts highly asymmetric GF adaptation between increases versus decreases in load. We find clear experimental evidence for this asymmetry and show that it explains previously reported differences in how rapidly GFs and manipulatory forces adapt. This model further predicts bizarre nonmonotonic shapes for GF learning curves, which are faithfully borne out in our experimental data. Our findings establish a new role for environmental variability in the control of action. PMID:26085634

  7. What are they up to? The role of sensory evidence and prior knowledge in action understanding.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Valerian; Domenech, Philippe; Pacherie, Elisabeth; Koechlin, Etienne; Baraduc, Pierre; Farrer, Chlöé

    2011-01-01

    Explaining or predicting the behaviour of our conspecifics requires the ability to infer the intentions that motivate it. Such inferences are assumed to rely on two types of information: (1) the sensory information conveyed by movement kinematics and (2) the observer's prior expectations--acquired from past experience or derived from prior knowledge. However, the respective contribution of these two sources of information is still controversial. This controversy stems in part from the fact that "intention" is an umbrella term that may embrace various sub-types each being assigned different scopes and targets. We hypothesized that variations in the scope and target of intentions may account for variations in the contribution of visual kinematics and prior knowledge to the intention inference process. To test this hypothesis, we conducted four behavioural experiments in which participants were instructed to identify different types of intention: basic intentions (i.e. simple goal of a motor act), superordinate intentions (i.e. general goal of a sequence of motor acts), or social intentions (i.e. intentions accomplished in a context of reciprocal interaction). For each of the above-mentioned intentions, we varied (1) the amount of visual information available from the action scene and (2) participant's prior expectations concerning the intention that was more likely to be accomplished. First, we showed that intentional judgments depend on a consistent interaction between visual information and participant's prior expectations. Moreover, we demonstrated that this interaction varied according to the type of intention to be inferred, with participant's priors rather than perceptual evidence exerting a greater effect on the inference of social and superordinate intentions. The results are discussed by appealing to the specific properties of each type of intention considered and further interpreted in the light of a hierarchical model of action representation. PMID

  8. Differential effects of age-of-acquisition for concrete nouns and action verbs: evidence for partly distinct representations?

    PubMed

    Boulenger, Véronique; Décoppet, Nathalie; Roy, Alice C; Paulignan, Yves; Nazir, Tatjana A

    2007-04-01

    There is growing evidence that words that are acquired early in life are processed faster and more accurately than words acquired later, even by adults. As neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have implicated different brain networks in the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns, the present study was aimed at contrasting reaction times to early and later-acquired action verbs and concrete nouns, in order to determine whether effects of word learning age express differently for the two types of words. Our results show that while word frequency affected both types of words in the same way, distinct learning age effects were observed for action verbs and concrete nouns. A further experiment specified that this difference was observed for verbs describing actions belonging to the human motor repertoire, but not for verbs denoting actions past this repertoire (e.g., to neigh). We interpret these data within a recently emerging framework according to which language processing is associated with sensory motor programs.

  9. Micro-control actions of segmented actuators on shallow paraboloidal shell reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, S.; Hickey, G.; Ding, J. H.; Tzou, H. S.

    2002-01-01

    Shallow paraboloidal shells of revolution are common components for reflectors, mirrors, etc. This study is to investigate the micro-control actions and distributed control effectiveness of precision paraboloidal shell structures laminated with segmented actuator patches.

  10. The effect of action video game playing on sensorimotor learning: Evidence from a movement tracking task.

    PubMed

    Gozli, Davood G; Bavelier, Daphne; Pratt, Jay

    2014-10-12

    Research on the impact of action video game playing has revealed performance advantages on a wide range of perceptual and cognitive tasks. It is not known, however, if playing such games confers similar advantages in sensorimotor learning. To address this issue, the present study used a manual motion-tracking task that allowed for a sensitive measure of both accuracy and improvement over time. When the target motion pattern was consistent over trials, gamers improved with a faster rate and eventually outperformed non-gamers. Performance between the two groups, however, did not differ initially. When the target motion was inconsistent, changing on every trial, results revealed no difference between gamers and non-gamers. Together, our findings suggest that video game playing confers no reliable benefit in sensorimotor control, but it does enhance sensorimotor learning, enabling superior performance in tasks with consistent and predictable structure.

  11. The effect of action video game playing on sensorimotor learning: Evidence from a movement tracking task.

    PubMed

    Gozli, Davood G; Bavelier, Daphne; Pratt, Jay

    2014-10-12

    Research on the impact of action video game playing has revealed performance advantages on a wide range of perceptual and cognitive tasks. It is not known, however, if playing such games confers similar advantages in sensorimotor learning. To address this issue, the present study used a manual motion-tracking task that allowed for a sensitive measure of both accuracy and improvement over time. When the target motion pattern was consistent over trials, gamers improved with a faster rate and eventually outperformed non-gamers. Performance between the two groups, however, did not differ initially. When the target motion was inconsistent, changing on every trial, results revealed no difference between gamers and non-gamers. Together, our findings suggest that video game playing confers no reliable benefit in sensorimotor control, but it does enhance sensorimotor learning, enabling superior performance in tasks with consistent and predictable structure. PMID:25318081

  12. Motivationally significant self-control: enhanced action withholding involves the right inferior frontal junction.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, David A; Upton, Daniel J; Moore, Jennifer; Hester, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life, people use self-control to withhold actions. This ability is particularly important when the consequences of action withholding have an impact on the individual's well-being. Despite its importance, it is unclear as to how the neural nodes implicated in action withholding contribute to this real-world type of self-control. By modifying an action withholding paradigm, the go/no-go task, we examined how the brain exerts self-control during a scenario in which the implications of withholding an action are meaningful and motivationally significant. A successfully withheld response contributed to long-term monetary rewards, whereas failure to withhold a response incurred an immediate monetary punishment. Compared with neutral action withholding, participants significantly improved their performance when these contingencies were applied. Crucially, although the right IFG and pre-SMA were found to promote overall action withholding, the enhancement in behavioral performance relative to a neutral condition was only reflected by a physiological change in a region encompassing the right inferior frontal junction and precentral gyrus. We speculate that the ability to flexibly modulate attention to goal-relevant stimuli is crucial to enhanced, motivationally driven action withholding and that this ability is subserved by the right inferior frontal junction. These findings suggest that control-modulating factors, rather than action withholding processes per se, can be critical to improving motivationally significant action withholding outcomes. PMID:25115186

  13. Dopamine depletion affects communicative intentionality in Parkinson's disease patients: Evidence from action kinematics.

    PubMed

    Straulino, Elisa; Scaravilli, Tomaso; Castiello, Umberto

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate communication is at the heart of successful, healthy social interactions in humans. Deficits in social communication are a hallmark of several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Yet, very little research has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms underlying these issues. It has been suggested that dopamine is a candidate neurotransmitter system involved in stimulating communication in individuals that are not highly motivated to communicate. A typical model to study dopaminergic dysfunctions in humans is represented by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, who show motor, cognitive and motivational symptoms. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of social communication on actions in non-demented PD patients receiving dopamine replacement therapy (Levodopa = l-Dopa) and in neurologically healthy control participants. Patients' ability to modulate motor patterning depending on the communicative intention motivating the action to be performed was evaluated both in "on" (with l-Dopa) and "off" (without l-Dopa) states. In two main conditions, participants were requested to reach towards, grasp an object, and either simply lift it (individual condition) or lift it with the intent to communicate a meaning to a partner (communicative condition). Movements' kinematics was recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The results indicate that kinematics is sensitive to communicative intention and that l-Dopa treatment has positive effects on translating communicative intentions into specific motor patterns in PD patients. Although the to-be-grasped object remained the same both the controls and the PD patients in an 'on' state adopted different kinematic patterning for the 'individual' and the 'communication' conditions. The PD patients in the 'off' state, instead, were unable to kinematically differentiate between the two conditions. We contend that social and communicative impairments are associated with abnormalities in

  14. Delayed Visual Feedback of One’s Own Action Promotes Sense of Control for Auditory Events

    PubMed Central

    Kawabe, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Sense of control refers to one’s feelings to control environmental events through one’s own action. A prevailing view is that the sense of control is strong (or is not diminished) when predicted sensory signals, which are generated in motor control mechanisms, are consistent with afferent sensory signals. Such intact sense of control often leads to the misjudgment of temporal relation between timings of one’s action and its effect (so-called, intentional binding). The present study showed that the intentional binding could be enhanced by the delayed visual feedback of an agent’s action. We asked participants to press a button to produce a tone as action outcome. In some conditions, they were given the delayed visual feedback of their button press. Participants judged whether the onset of the auditory outcome was delayed from the timing of their button press. Consequently, delay detection thresholds were significantly higher when the feedback was given 0.2 and 0.4 s delays than when no feedback was displayed to the participants. The results indicate that action agents misjudge the timing of their action (button press) in the presence of the delayed visual feedback of their action. Interestingly, delay detection thresholds were strongly correlated with the subjective magnitude of the sense of control. Thus, the sense of control is possibly determined by cross-modal processing for action-related and outcome-related sensory signals. PMID:26635552

  15. Delayed Visual Feedback of One's Own Action Promotes Sense of Control for Auditory Events.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Sense of control refers to one's feelings to control environmental events through one's own action. A prevailing view is that the sense of control is strong (or is not diminished) when predicted sensory signals, which are generated in motor control mechanisms, are consistent with afferent sensory signals. Such intact sense of control often leads to the misjudgment of temporal relation between timings of one's action and its effect (so-called, intentional binding). The present study showed that the intentional binding could be enhanced by the delayed visual feedback of an agent's action. We asked participants to press a button to produce a tone as action outcome. In some conditions, they were given the delayed visual feedback of their button press. Participants judged whether the onset of the auditory outcome was delayed from the timing of their button press. Consequently, delay detection thresholds were significantly higher when the feedback was given 0.2 and 0.4 s delays than when no feedback was displayed to the participants. The results indicate that action agents misjudge the timing of their action (button press) in the presence of the delayed visual feedback of their action. Interestingly, delay detection thresholds were strongly correlated with the subjective magnitude of the sense of control. Thus, the sense of control is possibly determined by cross-modal processing for action-related and outcome-related sensory signals. PMID:26635552

  16. Evidence Against a Central Control Model of Timing in Typing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentner, Donald R.

    The evidence for the Terzuolo and Viviani central control model of timing in typing was questioned, using data collected from skilled typists and data published by Terzuolo and Viviani. (In this model keystroke times are generated in parallel from centrally stored, word-specific timing patterns. Differences in overall time to type a given word are…

  17. Is recursion language-specific? Evidence of recursive mechanisms in the structure of intentional action.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Giuseppe; Adenzato, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    In their 2002 seminal paper Hauser, Chomsky and Fitch hypothesize that recursion is the only human-specific and language-specific mechanism of the faculty of language. While debate focused primarily on the meaning of recursion in the hypothesis and on the human-specific and syntax-specific character of recursion, the present work focuses on the claim that recursion is language-specific. We argue that there are recursive structures in the domain of motor intentionality by way of extending John R. Searle's analysis of intentional action. We then discuss evidence from cognitive science and neuroscience supporting the claim that motor-intentional recursion is language-independent and suggest some explanatory hypotheses: (1) linguistic recursion is embodied in sensory-motor processing; (2) linguistic and motor-intentional recursions are distinct and mutually independent mechanisms. Finally, we propose some reflections about the epistemic status of HCF as presenting an empirically falsifiable hypothesis, and on the possibility of testing recursion in different cognitive domains. PMID:24762973

  18. Is recursion language-specific? Evidence of recursive mechanisms in the structure of intentional action.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Giuseppe; Adenzato, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    In their 2002 seminal paper Hauser, Chomsky and Fitch hypothesize that recursion is the only human-specific and language-specific mechanism of the faculty of language. While debate focused primarily on the meaning of recursion in the hypothesis and on the human-specific and syntax-specific character of recursion, the present work focuses on the claim that recursion is language-specific. We argue that there are recursive structures in the domain of motor intentionality by way of extending John R. Searle's analysis of intentional action. We then discuss evidence from cognitive science and neuroscience supporting the claim that motor-intentional recursion is language-independent and suggest some explanatory hypotheses: (1) linguistic recursion is embodied in sensory-motor processing; (2) linguistic and motor-intentional recursions are distinct and mutually independent mechanisms. Finally, we propose some reflections about the epistemic status of HCF as presenting an empirically falsifiable hypothesis, and on the possibility of testing recursion in different cognitive domains.

  19. Embodied Action Improves Cognition in Children: Evidence from a Study Based on Piagetian Conservation Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Mariana; Carro, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Converging evidence highlights the relevance of embodied cognition in learning processes. In this study we evaluate whether embodied action (enaction) improves cognitive understanding in children. Using the Piagetian conservation tasks in 6–7 year olds, we analyzed quantity conservation conceptualization in children who were active participants in the transformation process and compared these results to those of children who were mere observers of an adult's demonstration (as traditionally conducted). The investigation was performed with 105 first-graders. Conservation tasks were demonstrated to half the children, while the other half actively carried out the transformation of matter. Our findings showed that active manipulation of the material helped children recognize quantity invariance in a higher proportion than when the demonstration was only observed. That is, their enactive experience enabled them to comprehend conservation phenomena more easily than if they were merely passive observers. The outcome of this research thus emphasizes how active participation benefits cognitive processes in learning contexts, promoting autonomy, and agency during childhood. PMID:27047420

  20. Children's Imitation of Causal Action Sequences Is Influenced by Statistical and Pedagogical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Daphna; Gopnik, Alison; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Shafto, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Children are ubiquitous imitators, but how do they decide which actions to imitate? One possibility is that children rationally combine multiple sources of information about which actions are necessary to cause a particular outcome. For instance, children might learn from contingencies between action sequences and outcomes across repeated…

  1. Differential Effects of Age-of-Acquisition for Concrete Nouns and Action Verbs: Evidence for Partly Distinct Representations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulenger, Veronique; Decoppet, Nathalie; Roy, Alice C.; Paulignan, Yves; Nazir, Tatjana A.

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence that words that are acquired early in life are processed faster and more accurately than words acquired later, even by adults. As neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have implicated different brain networks in the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns, the present study was aimed at contrasting reaction…

  2. Effect of eplerenone on insulin action in essential hypertension: a randomised, controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    McMurray, E M; Wallace, I R; Ennis, C; Hunter, S J; Atkinson, A B; Bell, P M

    2014-10-01

    An association exists between hyperaldosteronism, hypertension and impaired insulin action. Eplerenone is a selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist; however, little is known about its effects on insulin action. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of eplerenone on insulin action in hypertensive adults, using the hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. A randomised, controlled, double-blind, crossover design was employed. After a 6-week washout period, hypertensive, non-diabetic patients were treated with either eplerenone 25 mg twice daily or doxazosin 2 mg twice daily for 12 weeks. After each treatment period, insulin action was assessed by a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp, with isotope dilution methodology. After washout, treatment groups were crossed over. Fifteen patients completed the study. There were no differences in fasting glucose, or fasting insulin between treatment with eplerenone or doxazosin. The measure of overall insulin sensitivity, exogenous glucose infusion rates during the last 30 min of the clamp, was similar with both treatments; 23.4 (3.9) μmol kg(-1) min(-1) after eplerenone and 23.3 (3.6) μmol kg(-1) min(-1) after doxazosin (P=0.83). Isotopically determined fasting endogenous glucose production rates were similar after both treatments (eplerenone 9.4 (0.6) μmol kg(-1) min(-1) vs doxazosin 10.6 (0.7) μmol kg(-1) min(-1)). There was a trend for lower endogenous glucose production rates during hyperinsulinaemia following eplerenone compared with doxazosin (2.0 (0.8) μmol kg(-1) min(-1) vs 4.1 (0.9) μmol kg(-1) min(-1)). There was no difference in insulin stimulated peripheral glucose utilisation rates after treatment with eplerenone or doxazosin (25.4 (3.6) μmol kg(-1) min(-1) vs 27.0 (3.9) μmol kg(-1) min(-1)). This study gives reassuring evidence of the neutral effect of eplerenone on insulin action in hypertensive, non-diabetic patients.

  3. From evidence to action to deliver a healthy start for the next generation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Elizabeth; McDougall, Lori; Lawn, Joy E; Gupta, Anuradha; Claeson, Mariam; Pillay, Yogan; Presern, Carole; Lukong, Martina Baye; Mann, Gillian; Wijnroks, Marijke; Azad, Kishwar; Taylor, Katherine; Beattie, Allison; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Chopra, Mickey

    2014-08-01

    attention to increasing of health worker numbers and skills with attention to high-quality childbirth care for newborn babies as well as mothers and children; and (5) evaluation, tracking coverage of priority interventions and packages of care with clear accountability to accelerate progress and reach the poorest groups. The Every Newborn Action Plan provides an evidence-based roadmap towards care for every woman, and a healthy start for every newborn baby, with a right to be counted, survive, and thrive wherever they are born.

  4. From evidence to action to deliver a healthy start for the next generation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Elizabeth; McDougall, Lori; Lawn, Joy E; Gupta, Anuradha; Claeson, Mariam; Pillay, Yogan; Presern, Carole; Lukong, Martina Baye; Mann, Gillian; Wijnroks, Marijke; Azad, Kishwar; Taylor, Katherine; Beattie, Allison; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Chopra, Mickey

    2014-08-01

    attention to increasing of health worker numbers and skills with attention to high-quality childbirth care for newborn babies as well as mothers and children; and (5) evaluation, tracking coverage of priority interventions and packages of care with clear accountability to accelerate progress and reach the poorest groups. The Every Newborn Action Plan provides an evidence-based roadmap towards care for every woman, and a healthy start for every newborn baby, with a right to be counted, survive, and thrive wherever they are born. PMID:24853599

  5. Thiazolidinediones and Fractures: Evidence from Translating Research into Action for Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bilik, Dori; McEwen, Laura N.; Brown, Morton B.; Pomeroy, Nathan E.; Kim, Catherine; Asao, Keiko; Crosson, Jesse C.; Duru, O. Kenrik; Ferrara, Assiamira; Hsiao, Victoria C.; Karter, Andrew J.; Lee, Pearl G.; Marrero, David G.; Selby, Joe V.; Subramanian, Usha; Herman, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Thiazolidinedione (TZD) treatment has been associated with fractures. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between TZD treatment and fractures in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: Using data from Translating Research into Action for Diabetes, a multicenter prospective observational study of diabetes care in managed care, we conducted a matched case-control study to assess the odds of TZD exposure in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without fractures. We identified 786 cases based on fractures detected in health plan administrative data. Up to four controls without any fracture diagnoses were matched to each case. Controls were matched on health plan, date of birth within 5 yr, sex, race/ethnicity, and body mass index within 5 kg/m2. We performed conditional logistic regression for premenopausal and postmenopausal women and men to assess the odds of exposure to potential risk factors for fracture, including medications, self-reported limited mobility, and lower-extremity amputations. Results: We found statistically significant increased odds of exposure to TZDs, glucocorticoids, loop diuretics, and self-reported limited mobility for women 50 yr of age and older with fractures. Exposure to both loop diuretics and TZDs, glucocorticoids, and insulin and limited mobility and lower-extremity amputation were associated with fractures in men. Conclusion: Postmenopausal women taking TZDs and the subset of men taking both loop diuretics and TZDs were at increased risk for fractures. In postmenopausal women, risk was associated with higher TZD dose. No difference between rosiglitazone and pioglitazone was apparent. PMID:20631021

  6. Mechanisms of action of spa therapies in rheumatic diseases: what scientific evidence is there?

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Cantarini, Luca; Guidelli, Giacomo Maria; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Spa therapy represents a popular treatment for many rheumatic diseases. The mechanisms by which immersion in mineral or thermal water or the application of mud alleviates suffering in rheumatic diseases are not fully understood. The net benefit is probably the result of a combination of factors, with mechanical, thermal and chemical effects among the most prominent ones. Buoyancy, immersion, resistance and temperature all play important roles. According to the gate theory, pain relief may be due to the pressure and temperature of the water on skin; hot stimuli may influence muscle tone and pain intensity, helping to reduce muscle spasm and to increase the pain threshold. Mud-bath therapy increases plasma β-endorphin levels and secretion of corticotrophin, cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin. It has recently been demonstrated that thermal mud-pack therapy induces a reduction in the circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), important mediators of inflammation and pain. Spa therapy has been found to cause an increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), which stimulates cartilage metabolism, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). There is also evidence of the positive action of mud-packs and thermal baths on the oxidant/antioxidant system, with a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species. Overall, thermal stress has an immunosuppressive effect. Many other non-specific factors may also contribute to the beneficial effects observed after spa therapy in some rheumatic diseases, including effects on cardiovascular risk factors, and changes in the environment, pleasant surroundings and the absence of work duties.

  7. Do infants provide evidence that the mirror system is involved in action understanding?

    PubMed

    Southgate, Victoria

    2013-09-01

    The mirror neuron theory of action understanding makes predictions concerning how the limited motor repertoire of young infants should impact on their ability to interpret others' actions. In line with this theory, an increasing body of research has identified a correlation between infants' abilities to perform an action, and their ability to interpret that action as goal-directed when performed by others. In this paper, I will argue that the infant data does by no means unequivocally support the mirror neuron theory of action understanding and that alternative interpretations of the data should be considered. Furthermore, some of this data can be better interpreted in terms of an alternative view, which holds that the role of the motor system in action perception is more likely to be one of enabling the observer to predict, after a goal has been identified, how that goal will be attained.

  8. Religion and action control: Faith-specific modulation of the Simon effect but not Stop-Signal performance.

    PubMed

    Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S; Scorolli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M

    2011-08-01

    Previous findings suggest that religion has a specific impact on attentional processes. Here we show that religion also affects action control. Experiment 1 compared Dutch Calvinists and Dutch atheists, matched for age, sex, intelligence, education, and cultural and socio-economic background, and Experiment 2 compared Italian Catholics with matched Italian seculars. As expected, Calvinists showed a smaller and Catholics a larger Simon effect than nonbelievers, while performance of the groups was comparable in the Stop-Signal task. This pattern suggests that religions emphasizing individualism or collectivism affects action control in specific ways, presumably by inducing chronic biases towards a more "exclusive" or "inclusive" style of decision-making. Interestingly, there was no evidence that religious practice affects inhibitory skills.

  9. Tobacco control: National Action Plan for NCD Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania; Mirza, Zafar; Mohamud, Khalif Bile; Latif, Ehsan; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Jafarey, Naeem A

    2004-12-01

    Reliance on revenue generated from tobacco is one of the fundamental barriers to effective tobacco control in Pakistan. The tobacco control component of the National Action Plan for Non-Communicable Diseases Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD) deems it critical to address this issue. A range of policy and environmental strategies are part of this comprehensive effort; these involve regulating access and limiting demand through restrictions on advertising, marketing, promotion and through price and taxation. The NAP-NCD also encompasses community and school interventions, enforcement of tobacco control policies, cessation programmes, mass media counter-marketing campaigns for both prevention and cessation, and surveillance and evaluation of efforts. As part of NAP-NCD, surveillance of tobacco use has been integrated with a population-based NCD surveillance system. Featuring tobacco prominently as part of an NCD behavioural change strategy and providing wide-ranging information relevant to all aspects of tobacco prevention and control and smoking cessation have been identified as priority area in NAP-NCD. Other priority areas include the gradual phasing out of all types of advertising and eventually a complete ban on advertising; allocation of resources for policy and operational research around tobacco and building capacity in the health system in support of tobacco control. NAP-NCD also stresses on the need to develop and enforce legislation on smuggling contrabands and counterfeiting and legislation to subject tobacco to stringent regulations governing pharmaceutical products. The adoption of measures to discourage tobacco cultivation and assist with crop diversification; integration of guidance on tobacco use cessation into health services and insuring the availability and access to nicotine replacement therapy are also part of NAP-NCD.

  10. Evidence implementation: Development of an online methodology from the knowledge-to-action model of knowledge translation.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Craig; Stephenson, Matthew; Lizarondo, Lucylynn; van Den Hoek, Joan; Harrison, Margaret

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes an online facilitation for operationalizing the knowledge-to-action (KTA) model. The KTA model incorporates implementation planning that is optimally suited to the information needs of clinicians. The can-implement(©) is an evidence implementation process informed by the KTA model. An online counterpart, the can-implement.pro(©) , was developed to enable greater dissemination and utilization of the can-implement(©) process. The driver for this work was health professionals' need for facilitation that is iterative, informed by context and localized to the specific needs of users. The literature supporting this paper includes evaluation studies and theoretical concepts relevant to KTA model, evidence implementation and facilitation. Nursing and other health disciplines require a skill set and resources to successfully navigate the complexity of organizational requirements, inter-professional leadership and day-to-day practical management to implement evidence into clinical practice. The can-implement.pro(©) provides an accessible, inclusive system for evidence implementation projects. There is empirical support for evidence implementation informed by the KTA model, which in this phase of work has been developed for online uptake. Nurses and other clinicians seeking to implement evidence could benefit from the directed actions, planning advice and information embedded in the phases and steps of can-implement.pro(©) . PMID:27562662

  11. The Emergence of a Novel Representation from Action: Evidence from Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boncoddo, Rebecca; Dixon, James A.; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Recent work in embodied cognition has proposed that representations and actions are inextricably linked. The current study examines a developmental account of this relationship. Specifically, we propose that children's actions are foundational for novel representations. Thirty-two preschoolers, aged 3.4 to 5.7 years, were asked to solve a set of…

  12. Affirmative Action in Education: Evidence From Engineering College Admissions in India. NBER Working Paper No. 13926

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Marianne; Hanna, Rema; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2008-01-01

    Many countries mandate affirmative action in university admissions for traditionally disadvantaged groups. Little is known about either the efficacy or costs of these programs. This paper examines affirmative action in engineering colleges in India for "lower-caste" groups. We find that it successfully targets the financially disadvantaged: the…

  13. Object Manipulation and Motion Perception: Evidence of an Influence of Action Planning on Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann, Oliver; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated the bidirectional coupling of perception and action in the context of object manipulations and motion perception. Participants prepared to grasp an X-shaped object along one of its 2 diagonals and to rotate it in a clockwise or a counterclockwise direction. Action execution had to be delayed until the…

  14. Simulating the Epidemiological and Economic Impact of Paratuberculosis Control Actions in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Christiansen, Lasse E.; Toft, Nils; Rattenborg, Erik; Halasa, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new mechanistic bioeconomic model for simulating the spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) within a dairy cattle herd. The model includes age-dependent susceptibility for infection; age-dependent sensitivity for detection; environmental MAP build up in five separate areas of the farm; in utero infection; infection via colostrum and waste milk, and it allows for realistic culling (i.e., due to other diseases) by including a ranking system. We calibrated the model using a unique dataset from Denmark, including 102 random farms with no control actions against spread of MAP. Likewise, four control actions recommended in the Danish MAP control program were implemented in the model based on reported management strategies in Danish dairy herds in a MAP control scheme. We tested the model parameterization in a sensitivity analysis. We show that a test-and-cull strategy is on average the most cost-effective solution to decrease the prevalence and increase the total net revenue on a farm with low hygiene, but not more profitable than no control strategy on a farm with average hygiene. Although it is possible to eradicate MAP from the farm by implementing all four control actions from the Danish MAP control program, it was not economically attractive since the expenses for the control actions outweigh the benefits. Furthermore, the three most popular control actions against the spread of MAP on the farm were found to be costly and inefficient in lowering the prevalence when used independently. PMID:27777933

  15. Hierarchy of hormone action controlling apical hook development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Bartolomé, Javier; Arana, María V; Vandenbussche, Filip; Zádníková, Petra; Minguet, Eugenio G; Guardiola, Vicente; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Benkova, Eva; Alabadí, David; Blázquez, Miguel A

    2011-08-01

    The apical hook develops in the upper part of the hypocotyl when seeds buried in the soil germinate, and serves to protect cotyledons and the shoot apical meristem from possible damage caused by pushing through the soil. The curvature is formed through differential cell growth that occurs at the two opposite sides of the hypocotyl, and it is established by a gradient of auxin activity and refined by the coordinated action of auxin and ethylene. Here we show that gibberellins (GAs) promote hook development through the transcriptional regulation of several genes of the ethylene and auxin pathways in Arabidopsis. The level of GA activity determines the speed of hook formation and the extent of the curvature during the formation phase independently of ethylene, probably by modulating auxin transport and response through HLS1, PIN3, and PIN7. Moreover, GAs cooperate with ethylene in preventing hook opening, in part through the induction of ethylene production mediated by ACS5/ETO2 and ACS8.

  16. A unique concept for automatically controlling the braking action of wheeled vehicles during minimum distance stops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthlome, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Test results of a unique automatic brake control system are outlined and a comparison is made of its mode of operation to that of an existing skid control system. The purpose of the test system is to provide automatic control of braking action such that hydraulic brake pressure is maintained at a near constant, optimum value during minimum distance stops.

  17. Internal Controls for Accounting Areas. Alliance Action Information Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Internal controls are important to ensure your Parent Center's resources are well protected. Steps should be taken to ensure that finance transactions are authorized by management, executed properly and on time, and recorded appropriately. Some centers may not have staff with all of the titles used in the procedures presented in this paper.…

  18. Linking actions and emotions: evidence from 15- and 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Repacholi, Betty M

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated 15- and 18-month-olds' understanding of the link between actions and emotions. Infants watched a videotape in which three adult models performed an action on an object. Each adult expressed the same emotion (positive, negative, or neutral affect) on completion of the action. Infants were subsequently given 20 seconds to interact with the object. Infants were less likely to perform the target action after the models' expressed negative as opposed to positive or neutral affect. Although infants' imitative behaviour was influenced by the models' emotional displays, this social referencing effect was not apparent in their more general object-directed behaviour. For instance, infants in the negative emotion condition were just as quick to touch the object and spent the same amount of time touching the object as did infants in the neutral and positive emotion conditions. These findings suggest that infants understood that the models' negative affect was in response to the action, rather than the object itself. Infants apparently used this negative emotional information to appraise the action as one that was 'undesirable' or 'bad'. Consequently, infants were now loath to reproduce the action themselves. PMID:19994573

  19. 5 CFR 835.605 - OPM action as a result of consideration of evidence submitted as a result of the notice of intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OPM action as a result of consideration... Collection of Debts by Federal Tax Refund Offset § 835.605 OPM action as a result of consideration of evidence submitted as a result of the notice of intent. (a) Consideration of evidence. If, as a result...

  20. From action representation to action execution: exploring the links between cognitive and biomechanical levels of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Land, William M.; Volchenkov, Dima; Bläsing, Bettina E.; Schack, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Along with superior performance, research indicates that expertise is associated with a number of mediating cognitive adaptations. To this extent, extensive practice is associated with the development of general and task-specific mental representations, which play an important role in the organization and control of action. Recently, new experimental methods have been developed, which allow for investigating the organization and structure of these representations, along with the functional structure of the movement kinematics. In the current article, we present a new approach for examining the overlap between skill representations and motor output. In doing so, we first present an architecture model, which addresses links between biomechanical and cognitive levels of motor control. Next, we review the state of the art in assessing memory structures underlying complex action. Following we present a new spatio-temporal decomposition method for illuminating the functional structure of movement kinematics, and finally, we apply these methods to investigate the overlap between the structure of motor representations in memory and their corresponding kinematic structures. Our aim is to understand the extent to which the output at a kinematic level is governed by representations at a cognitive level of motor control. PMID:24065915

  1. Morphology of fluvial networks on Titan: Evidence for structural control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burr, Devon M.; Drummond, Sarah A.; Cartwright, Richard; Black, Benjamin A.; Perron, J. Taylor

    2013-09-01

    Although Titan’s surface shows clear evidence of erosional modification, such as fluvial incision, evidence for tectonism has been less apparent. On Earth, fluvial networks with strongly preferred orientations are often associated with structural features, such as faults or joints, that influence flow or erodibility. We delineated and classified the morphologies of fluvial drainages on Titan and discovered evidence of structural control. Fluvial networks were delineated both on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images covering ∼40% of Titan from the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper up through T71 and on visible light images of the Huygens landing site collected by the Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR). The delineated networks were assigned to one of three morphologic classes-dendritic, parallel or rectangular-using a quantitative terrestrial drainage pattern classification algorithm modified for use with Titan data. We validated our modified algorithm by applying it to synthetic fluvial networks produced by a landscape evolution model with no structural control of drainage orientations, and confirmed that only a small fraction of the networks are falsely identified as structurally controlled. As a second validation, we confirmed that our modified algorithm correctly classifies terrestrial networks that are classified in multiple previous works as rectangular. Application of this modified algorithm to our Titan networks results in a classification of rectangular for one-half of the SAR and DISR networks. A review of the geological context of the four terrestrial rectangular networks indicates that tensional stresses formed the structures controlling those terrestrial drainages. Based on the similar brittle response of rock and cryogenic ice to stress, we infer that structures formed under tension are the most likely cause of the rectangular Titan networks delineated here. The distribution of these rectangular networks suggests that tensional stresses on Titan may

  2. Are owners' reports of their dogs' 'guilty look' influenced by the dogs' action and evidence of the misdeed?

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Tkalčić, Mladenka; Clayton, Nicola S

    2015-02-01

    While dog owners claim that their dogs' greeting behaviour after having performed a misdeed indicates the dogs' 'guilt', current experimental evidence suggests that dogs show these 'guilty look' behaviours as a response to being scolded by their owners. Given reports that 'guilty look' behaviours are shown also in the absence of being scolded, we investigated whether the dogs' own actions or the evidence of a misdeed might serve as triggering cues. We manipulated whether or not dogs ate a 'forbidden' food item and whether or not the food was visible upon the owners' return. Based on their dogs' greeting behaviour, owners stated that their dog had eaten the food no more than expected by chance. In addition, dogs' greeting behaviours were not affected by their own action or the presence or absence of the food. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis that dogs show the 'guilty look' in the absence of a concurrent negative reaction by their owners.

  3. Are owners' reports of their dogs' 'guilty look' influenced by the dogs' action and evidence of the misdeed?

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Tkalčić, Mladenka; Clayton, Nicola S

    2015-02-01

    While dog owners claim that their dogs' greeting behaviour after having performed a misdeed indicates the dogs' 'guilt', current experimental evidence suggests that dogs show these 'guilty look' behaviours as a response to being scolded by their owners. Given reports that 'guilty look' behaviours are shown also in the absence of being scolded, we investigated whether the dogs' own actions or the evidence of a misdeed might serve as triggering cues. We manipulated whether or not dogs ate a 'forbidden' food item and whether or not the food was visible upon the owners' return. Based on their dogs' greeting behaviour, owners stated that their dog had eaten the food no more than expected by chance. In addition, dogs' greeting behaviours were not affected by their own action or the presence or absence of the food. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis that dogs show the 'guilty look' in the absence of a concurrent negative reaction by their owners. PMID:25562192

  4. Further evidence against a direct genotoxic mode of action for arsenic-induced cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Catherine B.; Leszczynska, Joanna; Hickey, Christina; Rossman, Toby G.

    2007-08-01

    Arsenic in drinking water, a mixture of arsenite and arsenate, is associated with increased skin and other cancers in Asia and Latin America, but not the United States. Arsenite alone in drinking water does not cause skin cancers in experimental animals; therefore, it is not a complete carcinogen in skin. We recently showed that low concentrations of arsenite enhanced the tumorigenicity of solar UV irradiation in hairless mice, suggesting arsenic cocarcinogenesis with sunlight in skin cancer and perhaps with different carcinogenic partners for lung and bladder tumors. Cocarcinogenic mechanisms could include blocking DNA repair, stimulating angiogenesis, altering DNA methylation patterns, dysregulating cell cycle control, induction of aneuploidy and blocking apoptosis. Arsenicals are documented clastogens but not strong mutagens, with weak mutagenic activity reported at highly toxic concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Previously, we showed that arsenite, but not monomethylarsonous acid (MMA[III]), induced delayed mutagenesis in HOS cells. Here, we report new data on the mutagenicity of the trivalent methylated arsenic metabolites MMA(III) and dimethylarsinous acid [DMA(III)] at the gpt locus in Chinese hamster G12 cells. Both methylated arsenicals seemed mutagenic with apparent sublinear dose responses. However, significant mutagenesis occurred only at highly toxic concentrations of MMA(III). Most mutants induced by MMA(III) and DMA(III) exhibited transgene deletions. Some non-deletion mutants exhibited altered DNA methylation. A critical discussion of cell survival leads us to conclude that clastogenesis occurs primarily at highly cytotoxic arsenic concentrations, casting further doubt as to whether a genotoxic mode of action (MOA) for arsenicals is supportable.

  5. Differentiating between precursor and control variables when analyzing reasoned action theories.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Brown, Larry; Diclemente, Ralph; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Salazar, Laura

    2010-02-01

    This paper highlights the distinction between precursor and control variables in the context of reasoned action theory. Here the theory is combined with structural equation modeling to demonstrate how age and past sexual behavior should be situated in a reasoned action analysis. A two wave longitudinal survey sample of African-American adolescents is analyzed where the target behavior is having vaginal sex. Results differ when age and past behavior are used as control variables and when they are correctly used as precursors. Because control variables do not appear in any form of reasoned action theory, this approach to including background variables is not correct when analyzing data sets based on the theoretical axioms of the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Theory of Planned Behavior, or the Integrative Model.

  6. Sustained interactions between perception and action in visual extinction and neglect: evidence from sequential pointing.

    PubMed

    Kitadono, Keiko; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2009-05-01

    Interactions between perception and action were examined by assessing the effects of action programming on extinction and neglect. In an extension of prior work, effects of sequential motor programming were assessed under conditions in which attention was first directed to an ipsilesional stimulus. Despite pointing and reporting a stimulus on the ipsilesional side first, programming a second action to the contralesional side reduced the spatial deficit on report, improving the report of contralesional stimuli (relative to when the patient just pointed to the ipsilesional side) while decreasing the report of ipsilesional items. The data suggest that perception and action interact through motor feedback to early visual coding, helping a patient overcome a lack of visual awareness to contralesional stimuli. This is effective even when attention has to be disengaged from the ipsilesional side suggesting that motor programming decreases ipsilesional capture and exerts a sustained influence on perception.

  7. Action Control of Autonomous Agents in Continuous Valued Space Using RFCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirakawa, Shinichi; Nagao, Tomoharu

    Researches on action control of autonomous agents and multiple agents have attracted increasing attentions in recent years. The general method using action control of agents are neural network, genetic programming and reinforcement learning. In this study, we use neural network for action control of autonomous agents. Our method determines the structure and parameter of neural network in evolution. We proposed Flexibly Connected Neural Network (FCN) previously as a method of constructing arbitrary neural networks with optimized structures and parameters to solve unknown problems. FCN was applied to action control of an autonomous agent and showed experimentally that it is effective for perceptual aliasing problems. All of the experiments of FCN, however, are in only grid space. In this paper, we propose a new method based on FCN which can decide correct action in real and continuous valued space. The proposed method which called Real valued FCN (RFCN) optimizes input-output functions of each units, parameters of the input-output functions and speed of each units. In order to examine the effectiveness, we applied the proposed method to action control of an autonomous agent to solve continuous valued maze problems.

  8. Cervical cancer control in Latin America: A call to action.

    PubMed

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Herold, Christina I; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Dizon, Don S; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Del Carmen, Marcela; Randall, Tom C; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline M; Goss, Paul E

    2016-02-15

    Cervical cancer (CC) is second most common cause of cancer in Latin America and is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women. In 2015, an estimated 74,488 women will be diagnosed with CC in Latin America and 31,303 will die of the disease. CC mortality is projected to increase by 45% by 2030 despite human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening efforts. In this setting, the goal was of the current study was to examine CC control efforts in Latin America and identify deficiencies in these efforts that could be addressed to reduce CC incidence and mortality. The authors found that HPV vaccination has been introduced in the majority of Latin American countries, and there is now a need to monitor the success (or shortcomings) of these programs and to ensure that these programs are sustainable. This topic was also reviewed in light of emerging data demonstrating that visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV DNA testing without Papanicolaou tests have efficacy from a screening perspective and are good alternatives to cytology-based screening programs. Overall, there is a need to build capacity for CC control in Latin America and the best strategy will depend on the country/region and must be tailored to meet the needs of the population as well as available resources.

  9. Light, heat, action: neural control of fruit fly behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Owald, David; Lin, Suewei; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a popular model to investigate fundamental principles of neural circuit operation. The sophisticated genetics and small brain permit a cellular resolution understanding of innate and learned behavioural processes. Relatively recent genetic and technical advances provide the means to specifically and reproducibly manipulate the function of many fly neurons with temporal resolution. The same cellular precision can also be exploited to express genetically encoded reporters of neural activity and cell-signalling pathways. Combining these approaches in living behaving animals has great potential to generate a holistic view of behavioural control that transcends the usual molecular, cellular and systems boundaries. In this review, we discuss these approaches with particular emphasis on the pioneering studies and those involving learning and memory. PMID:26240426

  10. Evidence Supporting a Role for SMAD2/3 in Bovine Early Embryonic Development: Potential Implications for Embryotropic Actions of Follistatin1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Rajput, Sandeep K.; Lee, Kyung-Bon; Wang, Dongliang; Huang, Juncheng; Folger, Joseph K.; Knott, Jason G.; Zhang, Jiuzhen; Smith, George W.

    2015-01-01

    The TGF-beta-SMAD signaling pathway is involved in regulation of various aspects of female reproduction. However, the intrinsic functional role of SMADs in early embryogenesis remains poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that treatment with follistatin, an activin (TGF-beta superfamily ligand)-binding protein, is beneficial for bovine early embryogenesis and specific embryotropic actions of follistatin are dependent on SMAD4. Because SMAD4 is a common SMAD that can bind both SMAD2/3 and SMAD1/5, the objective of this study was to further determine the intrinsic role of SMAD2/3 in the control of early embryogenesis and delineate if embryotropic actions of follistatin in early embryos are SMAD2/3 dependent. By using a combination of pharmacological and small interfering RNA-mediated inhibition of SMAD2/3 signaling in the presence or absence of follistatin treatment, our results indicate that SMAD2 and SMAD3 are both required for bovine early embryonic development and stimulatory actions of follistatin on 8- to 16-cell and that blastocyst rates, but not early cleavage, are muted when SMAD2/3 signaling is inhibited. SMAD2 deficiency also results in reduced expression of the bovine trophectoderm cell-specific gene CTGF. In conclusion, the present work provides evidence supporting a functional role of SMAD2/3 in bovine early embryogenesis and that specific stimulatory actions of follistatin are not observed in the absence of SMAD2/3 signaling. PMID:26289443

  11. I control therefore I do: judgments of agency influence action selection.

    PubMed

    Karsh, N; Eitam, B

    2015-05-01

    Our sense of being agents, that is of willingly controlling both our own bodies and the external environment is ubiquitous if thin. Empirical and theoretical work on this 'sense of agency' has documented motivational, cognitive and neural influences on implicit (out of awareness) and explicit (conscious) judgments of agency. For example, fluency of action selection processes has been recently shown to affect judgments of one's degree of control over an external event. However, it is an open question whether and how such judgments of agency act as input to other processes. In this study we demonstrate that the opposite relationship between action selection and judgment of agency also exists. Specifically, we show that manipulating one's objective control over the environment influences both the speed and the frequency of performing an action associated with that control. This pattern bears a striking resemblance to the effect that tangible rewards have on action selection and suggests that positive control feedback is rewarding to the organism, consequently affecting action selection. If further corroborated this 'reward from control' may explain everyday addictions such as prolonged engagement in arcade games and pathological behaviors, such as stereotypy. PMID:25724007

  12. Programming or inhibiting action: evidence for differential autonomic nervous system response patterns.

    PubMed

    Collet, C; Dittmar, A; Vernet-Maury, E

    1999-06-01

    In the general context of decision-making analysis, the aim of this study was to investigate autonomic nervous system activity when movement execution is inhibited just before onset. Using a 'Go/NoGo' paradigm, 16 subjects (nine males and seven females) had to intercept green table-tennis balls thrown by a robot, with the inner side of their hand and by arm extension. Conversely, they had to inhibit movement programming when a red ball was thrown. Results were displayed in terms of success or failure in view of the aim of each trial. Electrodermal, thermo-vascular and cardio-respiratory parameters were continuously recorded from the non-dominant hand. Results showed that the duration of autonomic responses was significantly longer in action than in inhibition. Temperature responses were negative but significantly more marked in action. Instantaneous respiratory frequency amplitude responses were positive in both action and inhibition conditions, but higher in action. Instantaneous heart rate responses confirmed that inhibition elicits cardiac deceleration. Autonomic responses were shown capable of distinguishing action from inhibition, thus reflecting central nervous system functioning. Results are discussed in terms of autonomic response specificity. PMID:10437637

  13. The emergence of a novel representation from action: evidence from preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Boncoddo, Rebecca; Dixon, James A; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2010-03-01

    Recent work in embodied cognition has proposed that representations and actions are inextricably linked. The current study examines a developmental account of this relationship. Specifically, we propose that children's actions are foundational for novel representations. Thirty-two preschoolers, aged 3.4 to 5.7 years, were asked to solve a set of simple gear-system problems. Participants' motions and verbalizations were coded to establish the strategies they used. The preschoolers initially solved the problems by simulating the turning and pushing of the gears. Subsequently, most participants discovered a new representation of the problems: the turning direction of the gears alternates. Results show that the number of actions that embodied alternation information, during their simulation of the system, predicted the later emergence of the higher-order representation (i.e. that the gears alternate turning direction). Thus, it appears that the preschoolers discovered a new representation based on their own actions. These results are consistent with the developmental embodiment hypothesis: actions are central to the emergence of new representations.

  14. A common coding framework in self-other interaction: evidence from joint action task.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Chin; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Jing, Jung-Tai; Hung, Daisy L; Tzeng, Ovid J-L

    2006-11-01

    Many of our actions are influenced by the social context. Traditional approach attributes the influence of the social context to arousal state changes in a socially promotive way. The ideomotor approach, which postulates common coding between perceived events and intended actions, uses a conceptual scheme of ideomotor compatibility to explain self-other interaction. In this study, we recorded reaction times (RTs) and event-related potentials in a Go/NoGo task with stimulus-response (S-R) compatibility arrangement to examine how the social context affects self-other interaction. Although the social facilitation theory predicted that RTs would be faster when acting together with audience rather than acting alone, the ideomotor theory predicted S-R compatibility effects only for the joint condition. The results revealed S-R compatibility on the RTs, lateralized readiness potential of the Go trials, and P3 of the NoGo trials in the joint condition, which were in line with the predictions of the ideomotor theory. Owing to the anticipation of other's actions, self and other's actions are internally and unintentionally coded at the representational level and their functional equivalency can be realized through a common coding framework between perception and action systems. Social facilitation theory was not supported, because we found no significant data differences depending on the setting. PMID:16799815

  15. Feeling of control of an action after supra and subliminal haptic distortions.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Sébastien; Poncelet, Patrick Eric; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne; Capobianco, Antonio; Dufour, André; Brochard, Renaud; Ott, Laurent; Giersch, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Here we question the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the feeling of control that can be modulated even when the feeling of being the author of one's own action is intact. With a haptic robot, participants made series of vertical pointing actions on a virtual surface, which was sometimes postponed by a small temporal delay (15 or 65 ms). Subjects then evaluated their subjective feeling of control. Results showed that after temporal distortions, the hand-trajectories were adapted effectively but that the feeling of control decreased significantly. This was observed even in the case of subliminal distortions for which subjects did not consciously detect the presence of a distortion. Our findings suggest that both supraliminal and subliminal temporal distortions that occur within a healthy perceptual-motor system impact the conscious experience of the feeling of control of self-initiated motor actions. PMID:25965942

  16. Feeling of control of an action after supra and subliminal haptic distortions.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Sébastien; Poncelet, Patrick Eric; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne; Capobianco, Antonio; Dufour, André; Brochard, Renaud; Ott, Laurent; Giersch, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Here we question the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the feeling of control that can be modulated even when the feeling of being the author of one's own action is intact. With a haptic robot, participants made series of vertical pointing actions on a virtual surface, which was sometimes postponed by a small temporal delay (15 or 65 ms). Subjects then evaluated their subjective feeling of control. Results showed that after temporal distortions, the hand-trajectories were adapted effectively but that the feeling of control decreased significantly. This was observed even in the case of subliminal distortions for which subjects did not consciously detect the presence of a distortion. Our findings suggest that both supraliminal and subliminal temporal distortions that occur within a healthy perceptual-motor system impact the conscious experience of the feeling of control of self-initiated motor actions.

  17. Toward a Psychophysics of Agency: Detecting Gain and Loss of Control over Auditory Action Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repp, Bruno H.; Knoblich, Gunther

    2007-01-01

    Theories of agency--the feeling of being in control of one's actions and their effects--emphasize either perceptual or cognitive aspects. This study addresses both aspects simultaneously in a finger-tapping paradigm. The tasks required participants to detect when synchronization of their taps with computer-controlled tones changed to…

  18. Evidence for direct control of eye movements during reading.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Michael; Slattery, Timothy J; Yang, Jinmian; Kliegl, Reinhold; Rayner, Keith

    2013-10-01

    It is well established that fixation durations during reading vary with processing difficulty, but there are different views on how oculomotor control, visual perception, shifts of attention, and lexical (and higher cognitive) processing are coordinated. Evidence for a one-to-one translation of input delay into saccadic latency would provide a much needed constraint for current theoretical proposals. Here, we tested predictions of such a direct-control perspective using the stimulus-onset delay (SOD) paradigm. Words in sentences were initially masked and, on fixation, were individually unmasked with a delay (0-, 33-, 66-, 99-ms SODs). In Experiment 1, SODs were constant for all words in a sentence; in Experiment 2, SODs were manipulated on target words, while nontargets were unmasked without delay. In accordance with predictions of direct control, nonzero SODs entailed equivalent increases in fixation durations in both experiments. Yet, a population of short fixations pointed to rapid saccades as a consequence of low-level information at nonoptimal viewing positions rather than of lexical processing. Implications of these results for theoretical accounts of oculomotor control are discussed.

  19. Do Affirmative Action Bans Lower Minority College Enrollment and Attainment?: Evidence from Statewide Bans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backes, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Using institutional data on race-specific college enrollment and completion, I examine whether minority students were less likely to enroll in a four-year public college or receive a degree following a statewide affirmative action ban. As in previous studies, I find that black and Hispanic enrollment dropped at the top institutions; however, there…

  20. Interactive Context Integration in Children? Evidence from an Action Memory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecklenbrauker, Silvia; Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Goergens, N. Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Action-object phrases (e.g., "lift the bottle") are remembered better if they have been enacted rather than learned verbally. This enactment effect is largest in free recall for phrases with objects (e.g., "bottle") present because these phrases can be interactively encoded with those context objects ("interactive context integration") that serve…

  1. The Theory of Reasoned Action and Self-Construal: Evidence from Three Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Levine, Timothy R.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of self-construals on the attitudinal and normative components of the Theory of Reasoned Action in the cultures of Korea, Hawaii, and the mainland United States. Finds that undergraduate students in all three locations scored higher on independence than interdependence, and culture appears to affect the extent to which…

  2. Comparing Multilingual Children with SLI to Their Bilectal Peers: Evidence from Object and Action Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Michaelides, Michalis; Theodorou, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of the increasing number of multilingual children with atypical language development around the world, this study reports research results on grammatical word class processing involving children with specific language impairment (SLI). The study investigates lexical retrieval of verbs (through picture-naming actions) and…

  3. Impact of Action Learning on Entrepreneurial Traits and Inclination: Evidence from a Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Hilleas Chi Hang; Man, Thomas Wing Yan

    2012-01-01

    Based on a comparative survey supplemented with focus group interviews, it was found that an action learning activity in an entrepreneurship programme produced both positive and negative results with regard to the entrepreneurial traits of students and their inclination towards entrepreneurship, depending on the influence of external and…

  4. Health Inequity in People with Intellectual Disabilities: From Evidence to Action Applying an Appreciative Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naaldenberg, Jenneken; Banks, Roger; Lennox, Nick; Ouellette-Kunz, Hélène; Meijer, Marijke; Lantman-de Valk, Henny van Schrojenstein

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current understanding of health inequities in people with intellectual disabilities does not readily translate into improvements in health status or health care. To identify opportunities for action, the 2013 IASSIDD health SIRG conference organized ten intensive workshops. Materials and methods: The workshops each addressed…

  5. Social categorization and cooperation in motor joint action: evidence for a joint end-state comfort.

    PubMed

    Dötsch, Dominik; Schubö, Anna

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated to what extent group membership affects an actor's representation of their partner's task in cooperative joint action. Participants performed a joint pick-and-place task in a naturalistic, breakfast-table-like paradigm which allowed the demonstration of varying degrees of cooperation. Participants transported a wooden cup from one end of a table to the other, with one actor moving it to an intermediate position from where their partner transported it to a goal position. Hand and finger movements were recorded via 3D motion tracking to assess actors' cooperative behavior. Before the joint action task was performed, participants were categorized as belonging to the same or to different groups, supposedly based on an assessment of their cognitive processing styles. Results showed that the orientation of the actors' fingers when picking up the cup was affected by its required angle at the goal position. When placing the cup at the intermediate position, most actors adapted the rotation of the cup's handle to the joint action goal, thereby facilitating the partner's subsequent movement. Male actors demonstrated such cooperative behavior only when performing the task together with an ingroup partner, while female actors demonstrated cooperative behavior irrespective of social categorization. These results suggest that actors tend to represent a partner's end-state comfort and integrate it into their own movement planning in cooperative joint action. However, social factors like group membership may modulate this tendency. PMID:25963752

  6. Reflecting on Evidence: Leaders Use Action Research to Improve Their Teacher Performance Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on an action research (AR) project with six public high school leaders (reviewers) who volunteered to engage in an 18 month project to overcome their own defensiveness in addressing concerns with teachers (reviewees) whose performance they were evaluating. In the paper I outline how I acted as a coach in a long-term development…

  7. The medial frontal-prefrontal network for altered awareness and control of action in corticobasal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moore, James W.; Rae, Charlotte L.; Rittman, Timothy; Altena, Ellemarije; Haggard, Patrick; Rowe, James B.

    2014-01-01

    The volitional impairments of alien limb and apraxia are a defining feature of the corticobasal syndrome, but a limited understanding of their neurocognitive aetiology has hampered progress towards effective treatments. Here we combined several key methods to investigate the mechanism of impairments in voluntary action in corticobasal syndrome. We used a quantitative measure of awareness of action that is based on well-defined processes of motor control; structural and functional anatomical information; and evaluation against the clinical volitional disorders of corticobasal syndrome. In patients and healthy adults we measured ‘intentional binding’, the perceived temporal attraction between voluntary actions and their sensory effects. Patients showed increased binding of the perceived time of actions towards their effects. This increase correlated with the severity of alien limb and apraxia, which we suggest share a core deficit in motor control processes, through reduced precision in voluntary action signals. Structural neuroimaging analyses showed the behavioural variability in patients was related to changes in grey matter volume in pre-supplementary motor area, and changes in its underlying white matter tracts to prefrontal cortex. Moreover, changes in functional connectivity at rest between the pre-supplementary motor area and prefrontal cortex were proportional to changes in binding. These behavioural, structural and functional results converge to reveal the frontal network for altered awareness and control of voluntary action in corticobasal syndrome, and provide candidate markers to evaluate new therapies. PMID:24293266

  8. 17 CFR 204.54 - Commission action as a result of consideration of evidence submitted in response to the notice of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of consideration of evidence submitted in response to the notice of intent. 204.54 Section 204.54... Refund Offset § 204.54 Commission action as a result of consideration of evidence submitted in response to the notice of intent. (a) Consideration of evidence. If, as a result of the Notice of Intent,...

  9. Joints and their relations as critical features in action discrimination: evidence from a classification image method.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Lu, Hongjing

    2015-01-20

    Classifying an action as a runner or a walker is a seemingly effortless process. However, it is difficult to determine which features are used with hypothesis-driven research, because biological motion stimuli generally consist of about a dozen joints, yielding an enormous number of potential relationships among them. Here, we develop a hypothesis-free approach based on a classification image method, using experimental data from relatively few trials (∼1,000 trials per subject). Employing ambiguous actions morphed between a walker and a runner, we identified three types of features that play important roles in discriminating bipedal locomotion presented in a side view: (a) critical joint feature, supported by the finding that the similarity of the movements of feet and wrists to prototypical movements of these joints were most reliably used across all participants; (b) structural features, indicated by contributions from almost all other joints, potentially through a form-based analysis; and (c) relational features, revealed by statistical correlations between joint contributions, specifically relations between the two feet, and relations between the wrists/elbow and the hips. When the actions were inverted, only critical joint features remained to significantly influence discrimination responses. When actions were presented with continuous depth rotation, critical joint features and relational features associated strongly with responses. Using a double-pass paradigm, we estimated that the internal noise is about twice as large as the external noise, consistent with previous findings. Overall, our novel design revealed a rich set of critical features that are used in action discrimination. The visual system flexibly selects a subset of features depending on viewing conditions.

  10. Improving the health of populations - evidence for policy and practice action.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Gilbert

    2009-11-01

    The evidence-based movement has greatly improved how health scientists review literature. It has also resulted in improvements in the conduct and reporting of primary studies. Its impact in the practice of clinical medicine has been greater than in public health, both in terms of practice and policy decisions. In order to substantially improve population health, there needs to be a paradigm shift in academia - evidence should be guided by the needs of practitioners and policymakers in terms of relevance and timeliness.

  11. Why in 2016 are patients with hypertension not 100% controlled? A call to action.

    PubMed

    Redon, Josep; Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Schmieder, Roland E; Volpe, Massimo; Weiss, Thomas W

    2016-08-01

    The objective is to consider the problem of high blood pressure (BP), a leading global risk factor, associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of treatment guidelines and a wide range of therapies, BP control is suboptimal in many countries. Recent data indicate that only around 40% of patients manage to achieve an adequate level of BP control. A group of international experts in the field of hypertension met in 2008 to consider this problem. The resulting white paper delivered an urgent call to action and identified six key issues for improving BP control. In 2015, a working group of investigators spontaneously undertook an action with the primary aim of considering the current hypertension management situation in Europe, to discuss whether the situation had changed since 2008 and to determine what can be learnt from the projects in other continents, such as the Canadian Hypertension Education Program, which has shown that higher levels of BP control can be achieved across a general population. The working group identified the main challenges affecting the improvement of BP control today and suggests five key actions: identify the BP treatment target of less than 140/90 mmHg for the majority of patients, simplify treatment strategies and encourage pill reduction, decrease therapeutic inertia, improve patient empowerment, and involve healthcare systems and reduce the prevailing focus on drug costs in many healthcare systems. Implementing key actions identified by the working group may help to improve achievement of better BP control across Europe. PMID:27270186

  12. Nuts and legume seeds for cardiovascular risk reduction: scientific evidence and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rávila G M; Gomes, Aline C; Naves, Maria M V; Mota, João F

    2015-06-01

    Consumption of tree nuts and legume seeds is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. The reduction in blood lipids and in inflammatory and oxidative processes exhibited by bioactive compounds such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibers, phenolic compounds, tocopherols, phospholipids, carotenoids, some minerals, and arginine, has stimulated research on the mechanisms of action of these substances through distinct experimental approaches. It is, therefore, important to know the metabolic effect of each nut and legume seed or the mixture of them to choose the most suitable nutritional interventions in clinical practice. The aim of this narrative bibliographic review was to investigate the effects of tree nuts and legume seeds on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk, as well as their mechanisms of action with regard to lipid profiles, insulin resistance, arterial pressure, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The findings indicate that a mixture of nuts and legume seeds optimizes the protective effect against cardiovascular risk. PMID:26011909

  13. Neural representations of kinematic laws of motion: evidence for action-perception coupling.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Eran; Casile, Antonino; Levit-Binnun, Nava; Giese, Martin A; Hendler, Talma; Flash, Tamar

    2007-12-18

    Behavioral and modeling studies have established that curved and drawing human hand movements obey the 2/3 power law, which dictates a strong coupling between movement curvature and velocity. Human motion perception seems to reflect this constraint. The functional MRI study reported here demonstrates that the brain's response to this law of motion is much stronger and more widespread than to other types of motion. Compliance with this law is reflected in the activation of a large network of brain areas subserving motor production, visual motion processing, and action observation functions. Hence, these results strongly support the notion of similar neural coding for motion perception and production. These findings suggest that cortical motion representations are optimally tuned to the kinematic and geometrical invariants characterizing biological actions. PMID:18079289

  14. Nuts and legume seeds for cardiovascular risk reduction: scientific evidence and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rávila G M; Gomes, Aline C; Naves, Maria M V; Mota, João F

    2015-06-01

    Consumption of tree nuts and legume seeds is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. The reduction in blood lipids and in inflammatory and oxidative processes exhibited by bioactive compounds such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibers, phenolic compounds, tocopherols, phospholipids, carotenoids, some minerals, and arginine, has stimulated research on the mechanisms of action of these substances through distinct experimental approaches. It is, therefore, important to know the metabolic effect of each nut and legume seed or the mixture of them to choose the most suitable nutritional interventions in clinical practice. The aim of this narrative bibliographic review was to investigate the effects of tree nuts and legume seeds on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk, as well as their mechanisms of action with regard to lipid profiles, insulin resistance, arterial pressure, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The findings indicate that a mixture of nuts and legume seeds optimizes the protective effect against cardiovascular risk.

  15. EEG activations during intentional inhibition of voluntary action: an electrophysiological correlate of self-control?

    PubMed

    Walsh, E; Kühn, S; Brass, M; Wenke, D; Haggard, P

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of volition is the internal decision whether to act or to withhold an action. We used EEG frequency analysis of sensorimotor rhythms to investigate brain activity when people prepare and then cancel a voluntary action. Participants used a rotating clock-hand to report when they experienced the intention to press a key with their right hand, even on trials where they freely decided to inhibit movement at the last moment. On action trials, we observed the classical pattern of reduced beta-band spectral power prior to movement, followed by beta rebound after movement. On inhibition trials where participants prepared but then cancelled a movement, we found a left frontal increase in spectral power (event-related synchronisation: ERS) peaking 12 ms before the perceived intention to move. This neural correlate of intentional inhibition was significantly different from the activity at the corresponding moment in action trials. The results are discussed in the context of a recent model of voluntary action (WWW model; Brass & Haggard, 2008). Planned actions can be subjected to a final predictive check which either commits actions for execution or suspends and withholds them. The neural mechanism of intentional inhibition may play an important role in self-control.

  16. Towards a common framework of grounded action cognition: Relating motor control, perception and cognition.

    PubMed

    Gentsch, Antje; Weber, Arne; Synofzik, Matthis; Vosgerau, Gottfried; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The relation between motor control and action cognition - including action-related thoughts and action-related perception - has been subject to controversial discussions in the last three decades. During these decades, cognitive neuroscience has been increasingly confronted with a huge variety of different accounts trying to understand and explain the relation between these systems, their interdependencies and the mediating mechanisms by establishing notions such as "internal models", "simulation" or "shared representation". These accounts, however, include a large array of partly overlapping, partly contradictory theories using similar terms for different mechanisms and different terms for similar mechanisms. In the absence of a systematic work-up and comparison, this array of accounts and theories leads to confusion in the field, duplication of experimental work, and unconnected parallelism of theory formation within and between different disciplines. Here we provide a systematic comparison of current models and prospective theories that deal with the relation between cognition, perception and motor control mechanisms. In a second step, we propose "grounded action cognition" as a comprehensive metatheoretical framework which defines different hypothetical possibilities of the relations between these domains, offers systematic insights into current models and theories and last but not least may help to increase comparability of empirical research in the domain of action and action cognition.

  17. Motor control hierarchy in joint action that involves bimanual force production

    PubMed Central

    Masumoto, Junya

    2015-01-01

    The concept of hierarchical motor control has been viewed as a means of progressively decreasing the number of variables manipulated by each higher control level. We tested the hypothesis that turning an individual bimanual force-production task into a joint (two-participant) force-production task would lead to positive correlation between forces produced by the two hands of the individual participant (symmetric strategy) to enable negative correlation between forces produced by two participants (complementary strategy). The present study consisted of individual and joint tasks that involved both unimanual and bimanual conditions. In the joint task, 10 pairs of participants produced periodic isometric forces, such that the sum of forces that they produced matched a target force cycling between 5% and 10% of maximum voluntary contraction at 1 Hz. In the individual task, individuals attempted to match the same target force. In the joint bimanual condition, the two hands of each participant adopted a symmetric strategy of force, whereas the two participants adopted a complementary strategy of force, highlighting that the bimanual action behaved as a low level of a hierarchy, whereas the joint action behaved as an upper level. The complementary force production was greater interpersonally than intrapersonally. However, whereas the coherence was highest at 1 Hz in all conditions, the frequency synchrony was stronger intrapersonally than interpersonally. Moreover, whereas the bimanual action exhibited a smaller error and variability of force than the unimanual action, the joint action exhibited a less-variable interval and force than the individual action. PMID:25904710

  18. Food security and nutrition interventions in response to the AIDS epidemic: assessing global action and evidence.

    PubMed

    Aberman, Noora-Lisa; Rawat, Rahul; Drimie, Scott; Claros, Joan M; Kadiyala, Suneetha

    2014-10-01

    The number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy in developing countries has increased dramatically. The last decade has brought an increased understanding of the interconnectedness between HIV/AIDS, food insecurity, and undernutrition and a surge of evidence on how to address the food security and nutrition dimensions of the epidemic. We review this evidence as well as the corresponding evolution of policy support for incorporating food security and nutrition concerns into HIV programming. The available evidence, although varied in scope and methodologies, shows that nutrition supplementation and safety nets in the form of food assistance and livelihood interventions have potential in certain contexts to improve food security and nutrition outcomes in an HIV/AIDS context. In the face of funding uncertainties and competing priorities, we must maintain momentum towards effective and sustainable solutions to the epidemic through continued systematic research to inform policy and through the strengthening of monitoring systems to dynamically inform intervention development.

  19. Are our actions aligned with our evidence? The skinny on changing the landscape of obesity.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita Bonnie; Steiner, Elizabeth; Escarce, José J; Collins, Rebecca L

    2013-03-01

    Recent debate about the role of food deserts in the United States (i.e., places that lack access to healthy foods) has prompted discussion on policies being enacted, including efforts that encourage the placement of full-service supermarkets into food deserts. Other initiatives to address obesogenic neighborhood features include land use zoning and parks renovations. Yet, there is little evidence to demonstrate that such policies effect change. While we suspect most researchers and policymakers would agree that effective neighborhood change could be a powerful tool in combating obesity, we desperately need strong and sound evidence to guide decisions about where and how to invest.

  20. An action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents and its application.

    PubMed

    Su, Mang; Li, Fenghua; Tang, Zhi; Yu, Yinyan; Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents. Firstly, we define a describing model for structured documents and analyze the application scenarios. The describing model could support the permission management on chapters, pages, sections, words, and pictures of structured documents. Secondly, based on the action-based access control (ABAC) model, we propose a fine-grained control protocol for structured documents by introducing temporal state and environmental state. The protocol covering different stages from document creation, to permission specification and usage control are given by using the Z-notation. Finally, we give the implementation of our mechanism and make the comparisons between the existing methods and our mechanism. The result shows that our mechanism could provide the better solution of fine-grained access control for structured documents in complicated networks. Moreover, it is more flexible and practical.

  1. An Action-Based Fine-Grained Access Control Mechanism for Structured Documents and Its Application

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mang; Li, Fenghua; Tang, Zhi; Yu, Yinyan; Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents. Firstly, we define a describing model for structured documents and analyze the application scenarios. The describing model could support the permission management on chapters, pages, sections, words, and pictures of structured documents. Secondly, based on the action-based access control (ABAC) model, we propose a fine-grained control protocol for structured documents by introducing temporal state and environmental state. The protocol covering different stages from document creation, to permission specification and usage control are given by using the Z-notation. Finally, we give the implementation of our mechanism and make the comparisons between the existing methods and our mechanism. The result shows that our mechanism could provide the better solution of fine-grained access control for structured documents in complicated networks. Moreover, it is more flexible and practical. PMID:25136651

  2. The role of synergies within generative models of action execution and recognition: A computational perspective. Comment on "Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by A. D'Ausilio et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Donnarumma, Francesco; Iodice, Pierpaolo; Prevete, Roberto; Dindo, Haris

    2015-03-01

    Controlling the body - given its huge number of degrees of freedom - poses severe computational challenges. Mounting evidence suggests that the brain alleviates this problem by exploiting "synergies", or patterns of muscle activities (and/or movement dynamics and kinematics) that can be combined to control action, rather than controlling individual muscles of joints [1-10].

  3. Affirmative Action and University Fit: Evidence from Proposition 209. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1224

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcidiacono, Peter; Aucejo, Esteban; Coate, Patrick; Hotz, V. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Proposition 209 banned the use of racial preferences in admissions at public colleges in California. We analyze unique data for all applicants and enrollees within the University of California (UC) system before and after Prop 209. After Prop 209, graduation rates increased by 4.4%. We present evidence that certain institutions are better at…

  4. Visual Experience Determines the Use of External Reference Frames in Joint Action Control

    PubMed Central

    Dolk, Thomas; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; Fiehler, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Vision plays a crucial role in human interaction by facilitating the coordination of one's own actions with those of others in space and time. While previous findings have demonstrated that vision determines the default use of reference frames, little is known about the role of visual experience in coding action-space during joint action. Here, we tested if and how visual experience influences the use of reference frames in joint action control. Dyads of congenitally-blind, blindfolded-sighted, and seeing individuals took part in an auditory version of the social Simon task, which required each participant to respond to one of two sounds presented to the left or right of both participants. To disentangle the contribution of external—agent-based and response-based—reference frames during joint action, participants performed the task with their respective response (right) hands uncrossed or crossed over one another. Although the location of the auditory stimulus was completely task-irrelevant, participants responded overall faster when the stimulus location spatially corresponded to the required response side than when they were spatially non-corresponding: a phenomenon known as the social Simon effect (SSE). In sighted participants, the SSE occurred irrespective of whether hands were crossed or uncrossed, suggesting the use of external, response-based reference frames. Congenitally-blind participants also showed an SSE, but only with uncrossed hands. We argue that congenitally-blind people use both agent-based and response-based reference frames resulting in conflicting spatial information when hands are crossed and, thus, canceling out the SSE. These results imply that joint action control functions on the basis of external reference frames independent of the presence or (transient/permanent) absence of vision. However, the type of external reference frames used for organizing motor control in joint action seems to be determined by visual experience. PMID

  5. Preliminary evidence for a postsynaptic action of beta-bungarotoxin in mammalian skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storella, R. J.; Schouchoff, A. L.; Fujii, M.; Hill, J.; Fletcher, J. E.; Jiang, M. S.; Smith, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Two hours after treatment with beta-bungarotoxin (0.34-0.4 microM), when there was complete neuromuscular block, the peak contracture response to 50 microM succinylcholine was significantly reduced by about 35% in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. Additionally, significant phospholipase A2 activity was detected on primary cell cultures from skeletal muscle which were incubated for 2 hr with concentrations of beta-bungarotoxin greater than or equal to 0.1 microM. Thus, beta-bungarotoxin appears to have pharmacologically and biochemically detectable postsynaptic actions in mammalian muscle systems.

  6. Collective action control by goals and plans: applying a self-regulation perspective to group performance.

    PubMed

    Wieber, Frank; Thürmer, J Lukas; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    In celebration of the 125th anniversary of The American Journal of Psychology, this article discusses a seminal publication by Marjorie Shaw (1932) on small group performance in the rational solution of complex problems. We then propose an approach for the effective regulation of group goal striving based on the collective action control perspective. From this perspective, group performance might be hindered by a collective intention-behavior gap: Groups fail to act on their intentions despite being strongly committed to the collective goal, knowing what the necessary actions are, and being capable of performing them. To reduce this gap, we suggest specific if-then plans (implementation intentions) in which groups specify when, where, and how to act toward their collective goal as an easily applicable self-regulation strategy to automate collective action control. Studies in which implementation intentions improved group performance in hidden profile, escalation of commitment, and cooperation task paradigms are reported and discussed.

  7. Testosterone Modulates Altered Prefrontal Control of Emotional Actions in Psychopathic Offenders123

    PubMed Central

    von Borries, Anna Katinka Louise; Bulten, Berend Hendrik; Verkes, Robbert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Psychopathic individuals are notorious for their controlled goal-directed aggressive behavior. Yet, during social challenges, they often show uncontrolled emotional behavior. Healthy individuals can control their social emotional behavior through anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) downregulation of neural activity in the amygdala, with testosterone modulating aPFC–amygdala coupling. This study tests whether individual differences in this neuroendocrine system relate to the paradoxical lack of emotional control observed in human psychopathic offenders. Emotional control was operationalized with an fMRI-adapted approach–avoidance task requiring rule-driven control over rapid emotional responses. Fifteen psychopathic offenders and 19 matched healthy control subjects made approaching and avoiding movements in response to emotional faces. Control of social emotional behavior was required during affect-incongruent trials, when participants had to override affect-congruent, automatic action tendencies and select the opposite response. Psychopathic offenders showed less control-related aPFC activity and aPFC–amygdala coupling during trials requiring control of emotional actions, when compared with healthy control subjects. This pattern was particularly pronounced in psychopathic individuals with high endogenous testosterone levels. These findings suggest that reduced prefrontal coordination underlies reduced behavioral control in psychopathic offenders during emotionally provoking situations. Even though the modest sample size warrants replication, the modulatory role of endogenous testosterone on the aPFC–amygdala circuit suggests a neurobiological substrate of individual differences that is relevant for the advancement of treatment and the reduction of recidivism. PMID:26878057

  8. The linear synchronization measures of uterine EMG signals: Evidence of synchronized action potentials during propagation.

    PubMed

    Domino, Malgorzata; Pawlinski, Bartosz; Gajewski, Zdzislaw

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of synchronization between myoelectric signals can give new insights into the functioning of the complex system of porcine myometrium. We propose a model of uterine contractions according to the hypothesis of action potentials similarity which is possible to detect during propagation in the uterine wall. We introduce similarity measures based on the concept of synchronization as used in matching linear signals such as electromyographic (EMG) time series data. The aim was to present linear measures to assess synchronization between contractions in different topographic regions of the uterus. We use the cross-correlation function (ƒx,y[l], ƒy,z[l]) and the cross-coherence function (Cxy[ƒ], Cyz[ƒ]) to assess synchronization between three data series of a diestral uterine EMG bundles in porcine reproductive tract. Spontaneous uterine activity was recorded using telemetry method directly by three-channel transmitter and three silver bipolar needle electrodes sutured on different topographic regions of the reproductive tract in the sow. The results show the usefulness of the cross-coherence function in that synchronization between uterine horn and corpus uteri for multiple action potentials (bundles) could be observed. The EMG bundles synchronization may be used to investigate the direction and velocity of EMG signals propagation in porcine reproductive tract. PMID:27570104

  9. Spatial Representations in Older Adults are Not Modified by Action: Evidence from Tool Use

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Matthew C.; Bloesch, Emily K.; Davoli, Christopher C.; Panting, Nicholas D.; Abrams, Richard A.; Brockmole, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of embodied perception hold that the visual system is calibrated by both the body schema and the action system, allowing for adaptive action-perception responses. One example of embodied perception involves the effects of tool-use on distance perception, in which wielding a tool with the intention to act upon a target appears to bring that object closer. This tool-based spatial compression (i.e., tool-use effect) has been studied exclusively with younger adults, but it is unknown whether the phenomenon exists with older adults. In this study, we examined the effects of tool use on distance perception in younger and older adults in two experiments. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults estimated the distances of targets just beyond peripersonal space while either wielding a tool or pointing with the hand. Younger adults, but not older adults, estimated targets to be closer after reaching with a tool. In Experiment 2, younger and older adults estimated the distance to remote targets while using either a baton or laser pointer. Younger adults displayed spatial compression with the laser pointer compared to the baton, although older adults did not. Taken together, these findings indicate a generalized absence of the tool-use effect in older adults during distance estimation suggesting that the visuomotor system of older adults does not remap from peripersonal to extrapersonal spatial representations during tool use. PMID:26052886

  10. The Australian government's review of positron emission tomography: evidence-based policy-making in action.

    PubMed

    Ware, Robert E; Francis, Hilton W; Read, Kenneth E

    2004-06-21

    The Commonwealth Government constituted the Medicare Services Advisory Committee (MSAC) to implement its commitment to entrench the principles of evidence-based medicine in Australian clinical practice. With its recent review of positron emission tomography (PETReview), the Commonwealth intervened in an established MSAC process, and sanctioned the stated objective to restrict expenditure on the technology. In our opinion: The evaluation of evidence by PETReview was fundamentally compromised by a failure to meet the terms of reference, poor science, poor process and unique decision-making benchmarks. By accepting the recommendations of PETReview, the Commonwealth is propagating information which is not of the highest quality. The use of inferior-quality information for decision-making by doctors, patients and policy-makers is likely to harm rather than enhance healthcare outcomes. PMID:15200360

  11. Update on the mechanism of action of bimatoprost: a review and discussion of new evidence.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Achim H-P; Woodward, David F

    2004-03-01

    Bimatoprost is a pharmacologically unique and highly efficacious anti-glaucoma agent. It appears to mimic the activity of the prostamides, which are biosynthesized from the natural endocannabinoid anandamide by the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2). Bimatoprost has also been suggested to lower intraocular pressure by behaving as a prodrug or, alternatively, by stimulating FP receptors directly. These three distinctly different hypotheses for the mechanism of bimatoprost activity are discussed in the light of current evidence. PMID:15016556

  12. Do Bans on Affirmative Action Hurt Minority Students? Evidence from the Texas Top 10% Plan. Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 10-168

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Kalena E.

    2010-01-01

    In light of the recent bans on affirmative action in higher education, this paper provides new evidence on the effects of alternative admissions policies on the persistence and college completion of minority students. I find that the change from affirmative action to the Top 10% Plan in Texas decreased both retention and graduation rates of…

  13. Evaluating Cognitive Action Control Using Eye-Movement Analysis: An Oculomotor Adaptation of the Simon Task

    PubMed Central

    Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Naudet, Florian; Dondaine, Thibaut; Auffret, Manon; Robert, Gabriel; Drapier, Dominique; Argaud, Soizic; Vérin, Marc; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive action control has been extensively studied using conflict tasks such as the Simon task. In most recent studies, this process has been investigated in the light of the dual route hypothesis and more specifically of the activation-suppression model using distributional analyses. Some authors have suggested that cognitive action control assessment is not specific to response modes. In this study we adapted the Simon task, using oculomotor responses instead of manual responses, in order to evaluate whether the resolution of conflict induced by a two-dimensional stimulus yielded similar results to what is usually reported in tasks with manual responses. Results obtained from 43 young healthy participants revealed the typical congruence effect, with longer reaction times (RT) and lesser accuracy in the incongruent condition. Conditional accuracy functions (CAF) also revealed a higher proportion of fast errors in the incongruent condition and delta plots confirmed that conflict resolution was easier, as the time taken to respond increased. These results are very similar to what has been reported in the literature. Furthermore, our observations are in line with the assumptions of the activation-suppression model, in which automatic activation in conflict situations is captured in the fastest responses and selective inhibition of cognitive action control needs time to build up. Altogether, our results suggest that conflict resolution has core mechanisms whatever the response mode, manual or oculomotor. Using oculomotor responses in such tasks could be of interest when investigating cognitive action control in patients with severe motor disorders. PMID:26973499

  14. Evaluating Cognitive Action Control Using Eye-Movement Analysis: An Oculomotor Adaptation of the Simon Task.

    PubMed

    Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Naudet, Florian; Dondaine, Thibaut; Auffret, Manon; Robert, Gabriel; Drapier, Dominique; Argaud, Soizic; Vérin, Marc; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive action control has been extensively studied using conflict tasks such as the Simon task. In most recent studies, this process has been investigated in the light of the dual route hypothesis and more specifically of the activation-suppression model using distributional analyses. Some authors have suggested that cognitive action control assessment is not specific to response modes. In this study we adapted the Simon task, using oculomotor responses instead of manual responses, in order to evaluate whether the resolution of conflict induced by a two-dimensional stimulus yielded similar results to what is usually reported in tasks with manual responses. Results obtained from 43 young healthy participants revealed the typical congruence effect, with longer reaction times (RT) and lesser accuracy in the incongruent condition. Conditional accuracy functions (CAF) also revealed a higher proportion of fast errors in the incongruent condition and delta plots confirmed that conflict resolution was easier, as the time taken to respond increased. These results are very similar to what has been reported in the literature. Furthermore, our observations are in line with the assumptions of the activation-suppression model, in which automatic activation in conflict situations is captured in the fastest responses and selective inhibition of cognitive action control needs time to build up. Altogether, our results suggest that conflict resolution has core mechanisms whatever the response mode, manual or oculomotor. Using oculomotor responses in such tasks could be of interest when investigating cognitive action control in patients with severe motor disorders. PMID:26973499

  15. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions controlling the material after discharge. 230.72 Section 230.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... discharge to minimize impact, for instance during periods of unusual high water flows, wind, wave, and...

  16. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions controlling the material after discharge. 230.72 Section 230.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... discharge to minimize impact, for instance during periods of unusual high water flows, wind, wave, and...

  17. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions controlling the material after discharge. 230.72 Section 230.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... discharge to minimize impact, for instance during periods of unusual high water flows, wind, wave, and...

  18. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions controlling the material after discharge. 230.72 Section 230.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... discharge to minimize impact, for instance during periods of unusual high water flows, wind, wave, and...

  19. Looking before You Leap: A Theory of Motivated Control of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Scerif, Gaia; Hollis, Christopher P.; Batty, Martin J.; Groom, Madeleine J.; Liotti, Mario; Liddle, Peter F.

    2009-01-01

    The acquisition of volitional control depends, in part, on developing the ability to countermand a planned action. Many tasks have been used to tap the efficiency of this process, but few studies have investigated how it may be modulated by participants' motivation. Multiple mechanisms may be involved in the deliberate exercise of caution when…

  20. Self-Efficacy, Planning and Action Control in an Oral Self-Care Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Guangyu; Sun, Caiyun; Knoll, Nina; Hamilton, Kyra; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate a theory-guided intervention on oral self-care and examine the possible mechanisms among self-regulatory factors, two brief intervention arms were compared, an information-based education treatment and a self-regulation treatment focusing on planning and action control. Young adults (N = 284; aged 18-29 years) were assessed at baseline…

  1. Action Control and Dispositional Hope: An Examination of Their Effect on Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papantoniou, Georgia; Moraitou, Despina; Katsadima, Effie; Dinou, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The present study examined the effect of action control (i.e., disengagement, initiative, and persistence) and dispositional hope (i.e., pathways thought, and agency thinking) on self-regulated learning strategy use (i.e., cognitive, metacognitive, and resource management) and course achievement. Method: A total of 275 undergraduate…

  2. Managing research evidence to inform action: influencing HIV policy to protect marginalised populations in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Sarah; Zaheer, Hasan Abbas; Tawil, Oussama; O'Dwyer, Michael; Buse, Kent

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Our aim was to demonstrate that an understanding of the process of how research may (or may not) influence policy and practice is crucial to leverage research findings and bring about evidence-informed policy and its implementation. We describe a process of research design and execution, based on theories of the relationship between evidence and public policy-making, which sought to improve the uptake of evidence into the HIV policy-making process in Pakistan. We designed and implemented specific strategies in research methods, management and dissemination to increase the policy influence by recommendations from a multi-disciplinary research project. Research to policy is complex, rarely linear and causal attribution is problematic. Nonetheless, we believe that, in part, some of the current changes in HIV policy and practice in Pakistan may be due to the managed process of research influence. We offer four key recommendations for those concerned with improving the chances of seeing their research incorporated into policy and practice - these are (1) involve stakeholders in research management; (2) set realistic expectations of research impact; (3) invest in long-term research-policy-maker relationships; and (4) build capacity of end users to use research to demand policy change. PMID:22385331

  3. Evidence for Action on HIV Treatment and Care Systems in low and middle-income countries: background and introduction.

    PubMed

    Ross, David A; South, Annabelle; Weller, Ian; Hakim, James

    2012-12-01

    Despite the unprecedented scale-up of treatment for HIV in low and middle-income countries over the past decade, 49% of adults and 77% of children in need of HIV treatment still do not have access to it. ART programmes that were initially set up as an emergency response now need to be adapted to ensure that they include all the essential components and are well integrated with other health services; meet the needs of special groups, including children, adolescents, pregnant women and older people; address the mental health needs of HIV-positive people; and monitor as well as report their impact in valid and comparable ways.This supplement is an output from the Evidence for Action on HIV Treatment and Care Systems research programme consortium. Evidence for Action was a 5-year, multidisciplinary research programme, which ran from 2006 to 2011, with partners in India, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia and the United Kingdom.The primary aim of this supplement is to stimulate reflection and provide guidance on what should be in the package of HIV treatment and care systems, as national programmes look to maintain the major advances of the past decade and scale-up treatment to the other 50% of people in need of it.

  4. Are owners' reports of their dogs’ ‘guilty look’ influenced by the dogs’ action and evidence of the misdeed?

    PubMed Central

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Tkalčić, Mladenka; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2015-01-01

    While dog owners claim that their dogs’ greeting behaviour after having performed a misdeed indicates the dogs' ‘guilt’, current experimental evidence suggests that dogs show these ‘guilty look’ behaviours as a response to being scolded by their owners. Given reports that ‘guilty look’ behaviours are shown also in the absence of being scolded, we investigated whether the dogs' own actions or the evidence of a misdeed might serve as triggering cues. We manipulated whether or not dogs ate a ‘forbidden’ food item and whether or not the food was visible upon the owners’ return. Based on their dogs’ greeting behaviour, owners stated that their dog had eaten the food no more than expected by chance. In addition, dogs’ greeting behaviours were not affected by their own action or the presence or absence of the food. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis that dogs show the ‘guilty look’ in the absence of a concurrent negative reaction by their owners. PMID:25562192

  5. Mode of action of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A, a lethal control agent of dreissenid mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae).

    PubMed

    Molloy, Daniel P; Mayer, Denise A; Giamberini, Laure; Gaylo, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) has demonstrated promise as an efficacious and selective agent for the control of macrofouling Dreissena spp. mussels. Herein, we report trials to investigate the mode of action of this biocontrol agent against Dreissena polymorpha, the zebra mussel. Exposure to dead Pf-CL145A cells achieved the same temporal pattern and percentage mussel mortality as did live cells, thereby excluding infection as the possible lethal mode of action. Histological analysis revealed pathologies consistent with the cause of death being intoxicating natural products associated with Pf-CL145A cells. Irrespective of whether the mussels were exposed to live or dead Pf-CL145A cells, examination of tissues from histological sections revealed that: (1) at the end of the 24-h treatment period there was massive hemocyte infiltration into the lumina of both the digestive gland and stomach; and (2) mussel deaths occurred following lysis and necrosis of the digestive gland and sloughing of stomach epithelium. These trials provide strong evidence that the lethal mode of action of Pf-CL145A is intoxication. PMID:23313118

  6. Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Substrate Specificity: Evidence for New Modes of Action

    PubMed Central

    Göttle, Martin; Dove, Stefan; Seifert, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Since the isolation of Bacillus anthracis exotoxins in the 1960s, the detrimental activity of edema factor (EF) was considered as adenylyl cyclase activity only. Yet the catalytic site of EF was recently shown to accomplish cyclization of cytidine 5′-triphosphate, uridine 5′-triphosphate and inosine 5′-triphosphate, in addition to adenosine 5′-triphosphate. This review discusses the broad EF substrate specificity and possible implications of intracellular accumulation of cyclic cytidine 3′:5′-monophosphate, cyclic uridine 3′:5′-monophosphate and cyclic inosine 3′:5′-monophosphate on cellular functions vital for host defense. In particular, cAMP-independent mechanisms of action of EF on host cell signaling via protein kinase A, protein kinase G, phosphodiesterases and CNG channels are discussed. PMID:22852066

  7. Evidence for action on improving the maternal and newborn health workforce: The basis for quality care.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jim; Sochas, Laura; Cometto, Giorgio; Matthews, Zoë

    2016-01-01

    Ambitious new goals to end preventable maternal and newborn deaths will not only require increased coverage but also improved quality of care. Unfortunately, current levels of quality in the delivery of maternal and newborn care are low in high-burden countries, for reasons that are intimately linked with inadequate planning and management of the maternal and newborn health workforce. The Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health is a key opportunity to strengthen global and country-level accountability frameworks for the health workforce and its capacity to deliver quality care. In order to succeed, maternal and newborn health specialists must embrace this strategy and its linkages with the new Global Strategy for Women's, Children's, and Adolescents' Health; action is needed across high- and low-income countries; and any accountability framework must be underpinned by ambitious, measurable indicators and strengthened data collection on human resources for health.

  8. Modulation of ethanol-intake by morphine: Evidence for a central site of action

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, K.D.; Reid, L.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that subcutaneous administration of low doses of morphine increase, while subcutaneous naloxone decreases, ethanol-intake in rats. However, the site of action of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake remains unclear. In an attempt to elucidate this issue, seven graded doses of morphine were given intracerebroventricularly to rats 15 min prior to an opportunity to consume water and sweetened alcoholic beverage for 2 hr. Two lower doses of intracerebroventricular morphine reliably increased ethanol-intake, while higher doses decreased intake of water. Preference ratios were reliably increased by morphine doses of 1 {mu}g and higher. The present data provide support for a central site of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake.

  9. Evidence for a Novel Mechanism of Antimicrobial Action of a Cyclic R-,W-Rich Hexapeptide

    PubMed Central

    Scheinpflug, Kathi; Krylova, Oxana; Nikolenko, Heike; Thurm, Charley; Dathe, Margitta

    2015-01-01

    The development of antimicrobial peptides as new class of antibiotic agents requires structural characterisation and understanding of their diverse mechanisms of action. As the cyclic hexapeptide cWFW (cyclo(RRRWFW)) does not exert its rapid cell killing activity by membrane permeabilisation, in this study we investigated alternative mechanisms of action, such as peptide translocation into the cytoplasm and peptide interaction with components of the phospholipid matrix of the bacterial membrane. Using fluorescence microscopy and an HPLC-based strategy to analyse peptide uptake into the cells we could confirm the cytoplasmic membrane as the major peptide target. However, unexpectedly we observed accumulation of cWFW at distinct sites of the membrane. Further characterisation of peptide-membrane interaction involved live cell imaging to visualise the distribution of the lipid cardiolipin (CL) and isothermal titration calorimetry to determine the binding affinity to model membranes with different bacterial lipid compositions. Our results demonstrate a distribution of the cyclic peptide similar to that of cardiolipin within the membrane and highly preferred affinity of cWFW for CL-rich phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) matrices. These observations point to a novel mechanism of antimicrobial killing for the cyclic hexapeptide cWFW which is neither based on membrane permeabilisation nor translocation into the cytoplasm but rather on preferred partitioning into particular lipid domains. As the phospholipids POPE/CL play a key role in the dynamic organisation of bacterial membranes we discuss the consequences of this peptide-lipid-interaction and outline the impact on antimicrobial peptide research. PMID:25875357

  10. Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, G. C.; Hanifin, J. P.; Greeson, J. M.; Byrne, B.; Glickman, G.; Gerner, E.; Rollag, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    The photopigment in the human eye that transduces light for circadian and neuroendocrine regulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an action spectrum for light-induced melatonin suppression that could help elucidate the ocular photoreceptor system for regulating the human pineal gland. Subjects (37 females, 35 males, mean age of 24.5 +/- 0.3 years) were healthy and had normal color vision. Full-field, monochromatic light exposures took place between 2:00 and 3:30 A.M. while subjects' pupils were dilated. Blood samples collected before and after light exposures were quantified for melatonin. Each subject was tested with at least seven different irradiances of one wavelength with a minimum of 1 week between each nighttime exposure. Nighttime melatonin suppression tests (n = 627) were completed with wavelengths from 420 to 600 nm. The data were fit to eight univariant, sigmoidal fluence-response curves (R(2) = 0.81-0.95). The action spectrum constructed from these data fit an opsin template (R(2) = 0.91), which identifies 446-477 nm as the most potent wavelength region providing circadian input for regulating melatonin secretion. The results suggest that, in humans, a single photopigment may be primarily responsible for melatonin suppression, and its peak absorbance appears to be distinct from that of rod and cone cell photopigments for vision. The data also suggest that this new photopigment is retinaldehyde based. These findings suggest that there is a novel opsin photopigment in the human eye that mediates circadian photoreception.

  11. Visual control of braking in goal-directed action and sport.

    PubMed

    Bardy, B G; Warren, W H

    1997-12-01

    Reaching a moving object, avoiding an obstacle, or controlling a rotation are common requirements of experts in sport and goal-directed action. Since the original analysis of optic flow, a large number of studies have addressed the problem of perception and control of braking. In this paper, the perception-action strategies described for deceleration control are reviewed; driving, docking, landing, somersaulting, running and reaching are analysed. The role played by 'tau dot', the first temporal derivative of tau, is shown to be critical. However, the so-called constant tau-dot strategy proposed to explain how we regulate our deceleration in such circumstances is critically examined and rejected. New directions in the problem of braking control are proposed that emphasize: (1) the advantage of tau-dot over other kinematic variables; (2) the task specificity of tau-dot; (3) the need to consider tau-dot as a control variable; and (4) the role played by the controller dynamics in the perception-action loop. Several directions for future research are suggested. PMID:9486438

  12. Impact of postprandial glucose control on diabetes-related complications: How is the evidence evolving?

    PubMed

    Madsbad, Sten

    2016-03-01

    Conflicting findings in the literature and lack of long-term definitive outcome studies have led to difficulty in drawing conclusions about the role of postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes and its complications. Recent scientific publications support the role of postprandial glucose (PPG) as a key contributor to overall glucose control and a predictor of microvascular and macrovascular events. However, the need remains for definitive evidence to support the precise relationship between PPG excursions and the development and progression of cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Drawing firm conclusions on the relationship between PPG and microvascular and macrovascular complications is challenged by the absence of antidiabetic agents that can specifically exert their action on PPG alone, without a basal glucose-lowering effect. Areas under investigation include interventions that more closely approximate 'normal' physiological postprandial responses, as well as technologies that advance the mode of insulin delivery or optimize methods to sense glycemic levels and variation. In conclusion, the precise role of postprandial hyperglycemia in relation to development of diabetic complications is unclarified and is one of the remaining unanswered questions in diabetes. Nevertheless, current evidence supports PPG control as an important strategy to consider in the comprehensive management plan of individuals with diabetes. PMID:26541075

  13. A development framework for promoting evidence-based policy action: drawing on experiences in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Hornby, P; Perera, H S R

    2002-01-01

    Most developing countries have embarked on one form or another of 'health sector reform' as a result of the global trend for health and health care reform that has emerged during the past decade. One consequence is that the issue of health sector performance is moving higher on the agenda of many developing countries, and particularly that of the corporate performance of health sector staff. Along with this movement has come increased attention to strengthening evidence-based management decision-making. To date, studies on measuring health sector performance, have had little impact on developing country health systems and have been limited to explorations primarily at an operational level. However, there is a growing recognition that there is a need to strengthen the policy function of ministries and their ability to monitor policy impact. Sri Lanka is one country that has identified the need to strengthen policy at national level. Many developing countries, like Sri Lanka, are familiar with input, process and output dimensions of operational performance. However, most are not ready to engage in routine performance assessment that can strengthen policy processes at national level. This paper explores (1) the implication and the use of indicators to support evidence based policy decision-making, and (2) the complexity of doing so in Ministries of Health that are undergoing some form of health sector reform. The paper emphasizes that new forms of organizational support are required for performance management at policy level. A conceptual framework for managing the collection and use of performance evidence is developed, including proposals for the introduction of outcome indicators into that process. The paper concludes with recommendations on initiatives required to develop appropriate organizational and technical capacity to engage with performance management at policy level and for further research towards creating ministries of health as 'learning organizations

  14. Neural Evidence for the Flexible Control of Mental Representations.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A; Drysdale, Andrew T; Postle, Bradley R

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed to explore neural evidence for the simultaneous engagement of multiple mental codes while retaining a visual object in short-term memory (STM) and, if successful, to explore the neural bases of strategic prioritization among these codes. We used multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data to track patterns of brain activity associated with three common mental codes: visual, verbal, and semantic. When participants did not know which dimension of a sample stimulus would be tested, patterns of brain activity during the memory delay indicated that a visual representation was quickly augmented with both verbal and semantic re-representations of the stimulus. The verbal code emerged as most highly activated, consistent with a canonical visual-to-phonological recoding operation in STM. If participants knew which dimension of a sample stimulus would be tested, brain activity patterns were biased toward the probe-relevant stimulus dimension. Interestingly, probe-irrelevant neural states persisted at an intermediate level of activation when they were potentially relevant later in the trial, but dropped to baseline when cued to be irrelevant. These results reveal the neural dynamics underlying the creation and retention of mental codes, and they illustrate the flexible control that humans can exert over these representations. PMID:24935778

  15. Conscientiousness, extroversion, and action control: comparing moderate and vigorous physical activity.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; de Groot, Ruben; van den Putte, Bas; Rhodes, Ryan

    2009-12-01

    The present study explored the influence of the Big Five dimensions extroversion and conscientiousness on action control regarding both moderate and vigorous physical activity within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Prospective data were available from 186 respondents, who completed measures of intention, cognitive and affective attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, extroversion, conscientiousness, and physical activity at T1. Four weeks later, physical activity was assessed again. Respondents were grouped into four profiles: nonintenders, successful nonintenders, unsuccessful intenders, and successful intenders. Logistic regression analyses revealed that successful enactment in moderate physical activity was associated with extroversion, subjective norm, and affective attitude, whereas successful enactment in vigorous physical activity was associated with conscientiousness. Findings illustrate the differential role played by personality dimensions and TPB concepts in the explanation of moderate and vigorous physical activity action control.

  16. Direct Evidence for the Economy of Action: Glucose and the Perception of Geographical Slant

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Simone; Zadra, Jonathan R.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    2012-01-01

    When locomoting in a physically challenging environment, the body draws upon available energy reserves to accommodate increased metabolic demand. Ingested glucose supplements the body’s energy resources, whereas non-caloric sweetener does not. Two experiments demonstrate that participants who had consumed a glucose-containing drink perceived a hills slant to be less steep than did participants who had consumed a drink containing non-caloric sweetener. The glucose manipulation influenced participants’ explicit awareness of hill slant but, as predicted, it did not affect a visually-guided action of orienting a tilting palmboard to be parallel to the hill. Measured individual differences in factors related to bioenergetic state such as fatigue, sleep quality, fitness, mood, and stress also affected perception such that lower energetic states were associated with steeper perceptions of hill slant. This research shows that the perception of the environment’s spatial layout is influenced by the energetic resources available for locomotion within it. Our findings are consistent with the view that spatial perceptions are influenced by bioenergetic factors. PMID:20514996

  17. Evidences from action spectra for a specific participation of chlorophyll b in photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    MYERS, J; FRENCH, C S

    1960-03-01

    Rate of oxygen evolution in photosynthesis was measured as the current from a polarized platinum electrode covered by a thin layer of Chlorella. The arrangement gave a reproducibly measurable rate of photosynthesis proportional to light intensity at the low levels used and gave rapid response to changes in illumination. Two phenomena have been explored. The Emerson effect was observed as an enhancement of photosynthesis in long wavelength red light (700 mmicro) when shorter wavelengths were added. Two light beams of wavelengths 653 and 700 mmicro when presented together gave a photosynthetic rate about 25 per cent higher than the sum of the rates obtained separately. Large and reproducible transients in rate of oxygen evolution were observed accompanying change in illumination between two wavelengths adjusted in intensity to support equal steady rates of photosynthesis. The transients were found not to be specifically related to long wavelength red light. Both enhancement and the transients have identical action spectra which are interpreted as demonstrating a specific photochemical participation of chlorophyll b.

  18. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions. PMID:26785867

  19. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions.

  20. Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: Issues, Evidence and Implications for Clinical Actions

    PubMed Central

    Kohnert, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    A clear understanding of how to best provide clinical serves to bilingual children with suspected or confirmed primary language impairment (PLI) is predicated on understanding typical development in dual-language learners as well as the PLI profile. This article reviews general characteristics of children learning two languages, including three that challenge the diagnosis and treatment of PLI; uneven distribution of abilities in the child's two languages, cross-linguistic associations within bilingual learners, and individual variation in response to similar social circumstances. The diagnostic category of PLI (also referred to in the literature as specific language impairment or SLI) is described with attention to how language impairment, in the face of otherwise typical development, manifests in children learning two languages. Empirical evidence related to differential diagnosis of PLI in bilingual children is then reviewed and issues related to the generalization of treatment gains in dual-language learners with PLI are introduced. PMID:20371080

  1. Decalage in Infants' Knowledge about Occlusion and Containment Events: Converging Evidence from Action Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Baillargeon, Renee

    2006-01-01

    In the present research, 6-month-old infants consistently searched for a tall toy behind a tall as opposed to a short occluder. However, when the same toy was hidden inside a tall or a short container, only older, 7.5-month-old infants searched for the tall toy inside the tall container. These and control results (1) confirm previous…

  2. Easy to learn, hard to suppress: The impact of learned stimulus-outcome associations on subsequent action control.

    PubMed

    van Wouwe, N C; van den Wildenberg, W P M; Ridderinkhof, K R; Claassen, D O; Neimat, J S; Wylie, S A

    2015-12-01

    The inhibition of impulsive response tendencies that conflict with goal-directed action is a key component of executive control. An emerging literature reveals that the proficiency of inhibitory control is modulated by expected or unexpected opportunities to earn reward or avoid punishment. However, less is known about how inhibitory control is impacted by the processing of task-irrelevant stimulus information that has been associated previously with particular outcomes (reward or punishment) or response tendencies (action or inaction). We hypothesized that stimulus features associated with particular action-valence tendencies, even though task irrelevant, would modulate inhibitory control processes. Participants first learned associations between stimulus features (color), actions, and outcomes using an action-valence learning task that orthogonalizes action (action, inaction) and valence (reward, punishment). Next, these stimulus features were embedded in a Simon task as a task-irrelevant stimulus attribute. We analyzed the effects of action-valence associations on the Simon task by means of distributional analysis to reveal the temporal dynamics. Learning patterns replicated previously reported biases; inherent, Pavlovian-like mappings (action-reward, inaction-punishment avoidance) were easier to learn than mappings conflicting with these biases (action-punishment avoidance, inaction-reward). More importantly, results from two experiments demonstrated that the easier to learn, Pavlovian-like action-valence associations interfered with the proficiency of inhibiting impulsive actions in the Simon task. Processing conflicting associations led to more proficient inhibitory control of impulsive actions, similar to Simon trials without any association. Fast impulsive errors were reduced for trials associated with punishment in comparison to reward trials or trials without any valence association. These findings provide insight into the temporal dynamics of task

  3. Conceptual unifying constraints override sensorimotor interference during anticipatory control of bimanual actions.

    PubMed

    Franz, Elizabeth A; McCormick, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Traditional approaches to research on bimanual coordination focus on sensorimotor interference, motor programming, and effects of perception and feedback guidance; surprisingly, little is known about high-level conceptual constraints that might unify separate movements into coordinated actions. We investigated two possible forms of high-level unifying representations on anticipatory control (i.e., reaction time: RT) in two-limb (bimanual) movements. Specifically, we adapted a paradigmatic bimanual task involving reaching to targets by adding two novel manipulations. One involved a visual-perceptual manipulation in which target-objects were presented either separately (i.e., two circles) or as a unified object (i.e., two circles connected by a bar). The other involved variants on language representation to elicit separate action plans (i.e., separate instructional commands joined by 'and') or unified action plans (i.e., a single verb applying to both hands). Typical forms of sensorimotor interference were virtually abolished when these unifying constraints were available. These findings provide strong support for the theoretical account that unifying conceptual representations are primary forms of bimanual constraint. Findings further suggest that the organization and content of the language used to form action representations can strongly influence anticipatory planning of bimanual actions.

  4. Dietary garlic and hip osteoarthritis: evidence of a protective effect and putative mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patterns of food intake and prevalent osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee were studied using the twin design to limit the effect of confounding factors. Compounds found in associated food groups were further studied in vitro. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted in a large population-based volunteer cohort of twins. Food intake was evaluated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire; OA was determined using plain radiographs. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI and physical activity. Subsequent in vitro studies examined the effects of allium-derived compounds on the expression of matrix-degrading proteases in SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells. Results Data were available, depending on phenotype, for 654-1082 of 1086 female twins (median age 58.9 years; range 46-77). Trends in dietary analysis revealed a specific pattern of dietary intake, that high in fruit and vegetables, showed an inverse association with hip OA (p = 0.022). Consumption of 'non-citrus fruit' (p = 0.015) and 'alliums' (p = 0.029) had the strongest protective effect. Alliums contain diallyl disulphide which was shown to abrogate cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase expression. Conclusions Studies of diet are notorious for their confounding by lifestyle effects. While taking account of BMI, the data show an independent effect of a diet high in fruit and vegetables, suggesting it to be protective against radiographic hip OA. Furthermore, diallyl disulphide, a compound found in garlic and other alliums, represses the expression of matrix-degrading proteases in chondrocyte-like cells, providing a potential mechanism of action. PMID:21143861

  5. Action of trimebutine in cat and rabbit colon: evidence of an opioid-like effect.

    PubMed

    Blanquet, F; Bouvier, M; Gonella, J

    1985-09-01

    Because trimebutine (TMB) is a drug that modulates colonic motility, we have attempted to determine the modifications of electrical activity underlying the motor effects of this drug. Experiments have been carried out on cat colon in vivo and on rabbit proximal colon in vivo and in vitro. The action of TMB (0.5-2 mg/kg in vivo; 10(-7) M-10(-6) M in vitro) consisted of an initiation or of an increase of spike potential activity that was unaffected by atropine (0.1 mg/kg for the cat, 2-3 mg/kg in vivo and 10(-6) M in vitro for the rabbit) and by hexamethonium (1.5 mg/kg for the cat and 2 mg/kg in vivo or 10(-6) M in vitro for the rabbit). In the cat under atropine, spike activity became cyclical, i.e., bursts of spikes were interrupted by periods of electrical silence. In the cat, TMB decreased the amplitude of excitatory junction potentials. Under atropine, TMB induced rhythmic variations in the amplitude of inhibitory junction potentials for 30 to 40 min. In the rabbit under TMB, excitatory junction potentials were enhanced whereas inhibitory junction potential amplitude was decreased. All the effects of TMB on spontaneous activity as well as on junction potentials are very similar to those observed in a previous work with morphine and enkephalins. The effects of TMB, unaffected by guanethidine, were antagonized by naloxone (2 mg/kg in vivo, 10(-6) M in vitro). These results suggest that opiate receptors, presumably located on intramural neurons, are involved in the effects of TMB.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2993591

  6. Willed action and its impairments.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, M

    1998-09-01

    Actions are goal-directed behaviours that usually involve movem ent. There is evidence that intentional self-generated actions (willed actions) are controlled differently from routine, stereotyped actions that are externally triggered by environmental stimuli. We review evidence from investigations using positron emission tomography (PET), recordings of movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and conclude that willed actions are controlled by a network of frontal cortical (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, anterior cingulate) and subcortical (thalamus and basal ganglia) areas. We also consider evidence suggesting that some of the cognitive and motor deficits of patients with frontal lesions, Parkinson's disease, or schizophrenia as well as apathy and abulia and rarer phenomena such as primary obsessional slowness can be considered as reflecting im pairment of willed actions. We propose that the concept of a willed action system based on the frontostriatal circuits provides a useful framework for integrating the cognitive, motor, and motivational deficits found in these disorders. Problems remaining to be resolved include: identification of the component processes of willed actions; the specific and differential role played by each of the frontal cortical and subcortical areas in the control of willed actions; the specific mechanisms of impairm ent of willed actions in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and frontal damage; and the precise role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the willed action system. PMID:22448836

  7. Emerging cardiovascular actions of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1: potential therapeutic benefits beyond glycaemic control?

    PubMed Central

    Grieve, David J; Cassidy, Roslyn S; Green, Brian D

    2009-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone secreted by the small intestine in response to nutrient ingestion. It has wide-ranging effects on glucose metabolism, including stimulation of insulin release, inhibition of glucagon secretion, reduction of gastric emptying and augmentation of satiety. Importantly, the insulinotropic actions of GLP-1 are uniquely dependent on ambient glucose concentrations, and it is this particular characteristic which has led to its recent emergence as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. Although the major physiological function of GLP-1 appears to be in relation to glycaemic control, there is growing evidence to suggest that it may also play an important role in the cardiovascular system. GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) are expressed in the heart and vasculature of both rodents and humans, and recent studies have demonstrated that GLP-1R agonists have wide-ranging cardiovascular actions, such as modulation of heart rate, blood pressure, vascular tone and myocardial contractility. Importantly, it appears that these agents may also have beneficial effects in the setting of cardiovascular disease (CVD). For example, GLP-1 has been found to exert cardioprotective actions in experimental models of dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertensive heart failure and myocardial infarction (MI). Preliminary clinical studies also indicate that GLP-1 infusion may improve cardiac contractile function in chronic heart failure patients with and without diabetes, and in MI patients after successful angioplasty. This review will discuss the current understanding of GLP-1 biology, examine its emerging cardiovascular actions in both health and disease and explore the potential use of GLP-1 as a novel treatment for CVD. PMID:19681866

  8. Do motion controllers make action video games less sedentary? A randomized experiment.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1)) produced 0.10 kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1) (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17) greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1), P = .048). All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior.

  9. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kort, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America.Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme.The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010.

  10. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

  11. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    PubMed

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  12. Need for Affect, Need for Cognition, and the Intention-Fruit Consumption Relationship: An Action-Control Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Keer, Mario; van den Putte, Bas; Neijens, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Predictors of action-control profiles are useful targets for health behaviour change interventions, but action-control research has not focused on fruit consumption and has not yet included need for affect and need for cognition, despite the demonstrated usefulness of these variables in a broad range of research. The role of these…

  13. Influences of Children's and Adolescents' Action-Control Processes on School Achievement, Peer Relationships, and Coping with Challenging Life Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhof, G. John; Little, Todd D.

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation represents a core aspect of human functioning that influences positive development across the life span. This chapter focuses on the action-control model, a key facet of self-regulation during childhood and early adolescence. The authors discuss the development of action-control beliefs, paying particular attention to their…

  14. 21 CFR 1404.635 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy settle a debarment or suspension action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy settle a debarment or suspension action? 1404.635 Section 1404.635 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG... Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1404.635 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy settle a...

  15. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  16. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  17. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  18. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  19. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the...

  20. The Riccati equation, imprimitive actions and symplectic forms. [with application to decentralized optimal control problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garzia, M. R.; Loparo, K. A.; Martin, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    This paper looks at the structure of the solution of a matrix Riccati differential equation under a predefined group of transformations. The group of transformations used is an expanded form of the feedback group. It is shown that this group of transformations is a subgroup of the symplectic group. The orbits of the Riccati differential equation under the action of this group are studied and it is seen how these techniques apply to a decentralized optimal control problem.

  1. Adaptive control of human action: the role of outcome representations and reward signals

    PubMed Central

    Marien, Hans; Aarts, Henk; Custers, Ruud

    2013-01-01

    The present paper aims to advance the understanding of the control of human behavior by integrating two lines of literature that so far have led separate lives. First, one line of literature is concerned with the ideomotor principle of human behavior, according to which actions are represented in terms of their outcomes. The second line of literature mainly considers the role of reward signals in adaptive control. Here, we offer a combined perspective on how outcome representations and reward signals work together to modulate adaptive control processes. We propose that reward signals signify the value of outcome representations and facilitate the recruitment of control resources in situations where behavior needs to be maintained or adapted to attain the represented outcome. We discuss recent research demonstrating how adaptive control of goal-directed behavior may emerge when outcome representations are co-activated with positive reward signals. PMID:24058352

  2. Molecular and biochemical evidence for the involvement of calcium/calmodulin in auxin action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    -dependent manner suggests that calcium/CaM regulate ZmSAUR1 at the post-translational level. Our data provide the first direct evidence for the involvement of calcium/CaM-mediated signaling in auxin-mediated signal transduction.

  3. 2003 Sitewide Institutional Controls Annual Assessment Report for Hanford CERCLA Response Action

    SciTech Connect

    TEIMOURI, A.E.

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this assessment as specified in the Institutional Controls (IC) Plan was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of ICs associated with ''Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980'' (CERCLA) Records of Decision (RODs); and (2) to identify corrective actions as necessary. Additionally, this assessment covered an assessment of sitewide ICs at the Hanford Site. The IC Plan was approved by the Tri-Party agencies July 2002, ''Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan for Hanford CERCLA Response Actions,'' DOE/RL-2001-41, Revision 0. The goal of the Plan was to identify ICs for current CERCLA response actions, describe how they are implemented and maintained, and serve as a reference for the selection of ICs in the future. Section 4.2 of the IC Plan summarizes the objectives for the assessment as follows: ''A focused and periodic self-assessment and reporting of ICs provides for an evaluation of the effectiveness of the controls and the opportunity for cost-effective improvements.

  4. Scaling up of physical activity interventions in Brazil: how partnerships and research evidence contributed to policy action.

    PubMed

    Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Hallal, Pedro C; Reis, Rodrigo S; Simoes, Eduardo J; Malta, Deborah C; Pratt, Michael; Brownson, Ross C

    2013-12-01

    The global health burden due to physical inactivity is enormous and growing. There is a need to consider new ways of generating evidence and to identify the role of government in promoting physical activity at the population level. In this paper, we summarize key findings from a large-scale cross-national collaboration to understand physical activity promotion in Brazil. We describe the main aspects of the partnership of Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) that sustained the collaborative effort for eight years and describe how the evidence gathered from the collaboration triggered political action in Brazil to scale up a physical activity intervention at the national level. Project GUIA is a cross-national multidisciplinary research partnership designed to understand and evaluate current efforts for physical activity promotion at the community level in Latin America. This example of scaling up is unprecedented for promoting health in the region and is an example that must be followed and evaluated.

  5. Scaling up of physical activity interventions in Brazil: how partnerships and research evidence contributed to policy action

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Simoes, Eduardo J.; Malta, Deborah C.; Pratt, Michael; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    The global health burden due to physical inactivity is enormous and growing. There is a need to consider new ways of generating evidence and to identify the role of government in promoting physical activity at the population level. In this paper, we summarize key findings from a large-scale cross-national collaboration to understand physical activity promotion in Brazil. We describe the main aspects of the partnership of Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) that sustained the collaborative effort for eight years and describe how the evidence gathered from the collaboration triggered political action in Brazil to scale up a physical activity intervention at the national level. Project GUIA is a cross-national multidisciplinary research partnership designed to understand and evaluate current efforts for physical activity promotion at the community level in Latin America. This example of scaling up is unprecedented for promoting health in the region and is an example that must be followed and evaluated. PMID:24323944

  6. Is there a domain-general cognitive structuring system? Evidence from structural priming across music, math, action descriptions, and language.

    PubMed

    Van de Cavey, Joris; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processing in many domains (e.g., sentence comprehension, music listening, and math solving) requires sequential information to be organized into an integrational structure. There appears to be some overlap in integrational processing across domains, as shown by cross-domain interference effects when for example linguistic and musical stimuli are jointly presented (Koelsch, Gunter, Wittfoth, & Sammler, 2005; Slevc, Rosenberg, & Patel, 2009). These findings support theories of overlapping resources for integrational processing across domains (cfr. SSIRH Patel, 2003; SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). However, there are some limitations to the studies mentioned above, such as the frequent use of unnaturalistic integrational difficulties. In recent years, the idea has risen that evidence for domain-generality in structural processing might also be yielded though priming paradigms (cfr. Scheepers, 2003). The rationale behind this is that integrational processing across domains regularly requires the processing of dependencies across short or long distances in the sequence, involving respectively less or more syntactic working memory resources (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010), and such processing decisions might persist over time. However, whereas recent studies have shown suggestive priming of integrational structure between language and arithmetics (though often dependent on arithmetic performance, cfr. Scheepers et al., 2011; Scheepers & Sturt, 2014), it remains to be investigated to what extent we can also find evidence for priming in other domains, such as music and action (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). Experiment 1a showed structural priming from the processing of musical sequences onto the position in the sentence structure (early or late) to which a relative clause was attached in subsequent sentence completion. Importantly, Experiment 1b showed that a similar structural manipulation based on non-hierarchically ordered color sequences did not yield any priming effect

  7. Is there a domain-general cognitive structuring system? Evidence from structural priming across music, math, action descriptions, and language.

    PubMed

    Van de Cavey, Joris; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processing in many domains (e.g., sentence comprehension, music listening, and math solving) requires sequential information to be organized into an integrational structure. There appears to be some overlap in integrational processing across domains, as shown by cross-domain interference effects when for example linguistic and musical stimuli are jointly presented (Koelsch, Gunter, Wittfoth, & Sammler, 2005; Slevc, Rosenberg, & Patel, 2009). These findings support theories of overlapping resources for integrational processing across domains (cfr. SSIRH Patel, 2003; SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). However, there are some limitations to the studies mentioned above, such as the frequent use of unnaturalistic integrational difficulties. In recent years, the idea has risen that evidence for domain-generality in structural processing might also be yielded though priming paradigms (cfr. Scheepers, 2003). The rationale behind this is that integrational processing across domains regularly requires the processing of dependencies across short or long distances in the sequence, involving respectively less or more syntactic working memory resources (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010), and such processing decisions might persist over time. However, whereas recent studies have shown suggestive priming of integrational structure between language and arithmetics (though often dependent on arithmetic performance, cfr. Scheepers et al., 2011; Scheepers & Sturt, 2014), it remains to be investigated to what extent we can also find evidence for priming in other domains, such as music and action (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). Experiment 1a showed structural priming from the processing of musical sequences onto the position in the sentence structure (early or late) to which a relative clause was attached in subsequent sentence completion. Importantly, Experiment 1b showed that a similar structural manipulation based on non-hierarchically ordered color sequences did not yield any priming effect

  8. Implementation research design: integrating participatory action research into randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Leykum, Luci K; Pugh, Jacqueline A; Lanham, Holly J; Harmon, Joel; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2009-01-01

    Background A gap continues to exist between what is known to be effective and what is actually delivered in the usual course of medical care. The goal of implementation research is to reduce this gap. However, a tension exists between the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge through implementation trials, and the inherent differences between healthcare organizations that make standard interventional approaches less likely to succeed. The purpose of this paper is to explore the integration of participatory action research and randomized controlled trial (RCT) study designs to suggest a new approach for studying interventions in healthcare settings. Discussion We summarize key elements of participatory action research, with particular attention to its collaborative, reflective approach. Elements of participatory action research and RCT study designs are discussed and contrasted, with a complex adaptive systems approach used to frame their integration. Summary The integration of participatory action research and RCT design results in a new approach that reflects not only the complex nature of healthcare organizations, but also the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge regarding the implementation process. PMID:19852784

  9. Action-Effect Codes in and before the Central Bottleneck: Evidence from the Psychological Refractory Period Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paelecke, Marko; Kunde, Wilfried

    2007-01-01

    Voluntary motor actions aim at and are thus governed by predictable action effects. Therefore, representations of an action's effects normally must become activated prior to the action itself. In 5 psychological refractory period experiments the authors investigated whether the activation of such effect representations coincides with the response…

  10. The Economics of Tobacco Control: Evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Tauras, John A.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviors, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the ITC Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximize the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes. PMID:24500268

  11. Perception-action map learning in controlled multiscroll systems applied to robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Arena, Paolo; De Fiore, Sebastiano; Fortuna, Luigi; Patané, Luca

    2008-12-01

    In this paper a new technique for action-oriented perception in robots is presented. The paper starts from exploiting the successful implementation of the basic idea that perceptual states can be embedded into chaotic attractors whose dynamical evolution can be associated with sensorial stimuli. In this way, it can be possible to encode, into the chaotic dynamics, environment-dependent patterns. These have to be suitably linked to an action, executed by the robot, to fulfill an assigned mission. This task is addressed here: the action-oriented perception loop is closed by introducing a simple unsupervised learning stage, implemented via a bio-inspired structure based on the motor map paradigm. In this way, perceptual meanings, useful for solving a given task, can be autonomously learned, based on the environment-dependent patterns embedded into the controlled chaotic dynamics. The presented framework has been tested on a simulated robot and the performance have been successfully compared with other traditional navigation control paradigms. Moreover an implementation of the proposed architecture on a Field Programmable Gate Array is briefly outlined and preliminary experimental results on a roving robot are also reported. PMID:19123629

  12. Computational perspectives on forebrain microcircuits implicated in reinforcement learning, action selection, and cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Daniel; Tan, Can Ozan; John, Yohan J

    2009-01-01

    Abundant new information about signaling pathways in forebrain microcircuits presents many challenges, and opportunities for discovery, to computational neuroscientists who strive to bridge from microcircuits to flexible cognition and action. Accurate treatment of microcircuit pathways is especially critical for creating models that correctly predict the outcomes of candidate neurological therapies. Recent models are trying to specify how cortical circuits that enable planning and voluntary actions interact with adaptive subcortical microcircuits in the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are strongly implicated in reinforcement learning, and in all behavior and cognition over which the frontal lobes exert flexible control. The persisting role of the basal ganglia shows that ancient vertebrate designs for motivated action selection proved adaptable enough to support many "modern" behavioral innovations, including fluent generation of language and speech. This paper summarizes how recent models have incorporated realistic representations of microcircuit features, and have begun to trace their computational implications. Also summarized are recent empirical discoveries that provide guidance regarding how to formulate the rules for synaptic modification that govern learning in cortico-striatal pathways. Such efforts are contributing to an emerging synthesis based on an interlocking set of computational hypotheses regarding cortical interactions with basal ganglia and thalamic nuclei. These hypotheses specify how specialized microcircuits solve learning and control problems inherent to the brain's parallel design.

  13. Perception-action map learning in controlled multiscroll systems applied to robot navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, Paolo; De Fiore, Sebastiano; Fortuna, Luigi; Patané, Luca

    2008-12-01

    In this paper a new technique for action-oriented perception in robots is presented. The paper starts from exploiting the successful implementation of the basic idea that perceptual states can be embedded into chaotic attractors whose dynamical evolution can be associated with sensorial stimuli. In this way, it can be possible to encode, into the chaotic dynamics, environment-dependent patterns. These have to be suitably linked to an action, executed by the robot, to fulfill an assigned mission. This task is addressed here: the action-oriented perception loop is closed by introducing a simple unsupervised learning stage, implemented via a bio-inspired structure based on the motor map paradigm. In this way, perceptual meanings, useful for solving a given task, can be autonomously learned, based on the environment-dependent patterns embedded into the controlled chaotic dynamics. The presented framework has been tested on a simulated robot and the performance have been successfully compared with other traditional navigation control paradigms. Moreover an implementation of the proposed architecture on a Field Programmable Gate Array is briefly outlined and preliminary experimental results on a roving robot are also reported.

  14. Perception-action map learning in controlled multiscroll systems applied to robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Arena, Paolo; De Fiore, Sebastiano; Fortuna, Luigi; Patané, Luca

    2008-12-01

    In this paper a new technique for action-oriented perception in robots is presented. The paper starts from exploiting the successful implementation of the basic idea that perceptual states can be embedded into chaotic attractors whose dynamical evolution can be associated with sensorial stimuli. In this way, it can be possible to encode, into the chaotic dynamics, environment-dependent patterns. These have to be suitably linked to an action, executed by the robot, to fulfill an assigned mission. This task is addressed here: the action-oriented perception loop is closed by introducing a simple unsupervised learning stage, implemented via a bio-inspired structure based on the motor map paradigm. In this way, perceptual meanings, useful for solving a given task, can be autonomously learned, based on the environment-dependent patterns embedded into the controlled chaotic dynamics. The presented framework has been tested on a simulated robot and the performance have been successfully compared with other traditional navigation control paradigms. Moreover an implementation of the proposed architecture on a Field Programmable Gate Array is briefly outlined and preliminary experimental results on a roving robot are also reported.

  15. Looking before you leap: a theory of motivated control of action.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Elizabeth B; Scerif, Gaia; Hollis, Christopher P; Batty, Martin J; Groom, Madeleine J; Liotti, Mario; Liddle, Peter F

    2009-07-01

    The acquisition of volitional control depends, in part, on developing the ability to countermand a planned action. Many tasks have been used to tap the efficiency of this process, but few studies have investigated how it may be modulated by participants' motivation. Multiple mechanisms may be involved in the deliberate exercise of caution when incentives are provided. For example, control may involve modulation of the efficiency of the countermanding process, and/or inhibitory modulation of the impulse to go. One of the most commonly used paradigms to assess control of action is the Stop Signal Task, in which a primary Go stimulus is occasionally followed by a countermanding Stop signal, allowing a Stop Signal Reaction Time (SSRT) to be inferred as the outcome of a "horse race" between the go and countermanding processes. Here, we present a computational model in which high task motivation modulates proactive pre-stimulus inhibition of the go response. This allows responses to be calibrated so as to fall within a time-window that maximizes the probability of success, regardless of trial type, but does not decrease the observed SSRT. We report empirical support for the model from a sample of typically developing children, and discuss the broader implications for operationalizing measures of volitional control. PMID:19409540

  16. Looking before you leap: a theory of motivated control of action.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Elizabeth B; Scerif, Gaia; Hollis, Christopher P; Batty, Martin J; Groom, Madeleine J; Liotti, Mario; Liddle, Peter F

    2009-07-01

    The acquisition of volitional control depends, in part, on developing the ability to countermand a planned action. Many tasks have been used to tap the efficiency of this process, but few studies have investigated how it may be modulated by participants' motivation. Multiple mechanisms may be involved in the deliberate exercise of caution when incentives are provided. For example, control may involve modulation of the efficiency of the countermanding process, and/or inhibitory modulation of the impulse to go. One of the most commonly used paradigms to assess control of action is the Stop Signal Task, in which a primary Go stimulus is occasionally followed by a countermanding Stop signal, allowing a Stop Signal Reaction Time (SSRT) to be inferred as the outcome of a "horse race" between the go and countermanding processes. Here, we present a computational model in which high task motivation modulates proactive pre-stimulus inhibition of the go response. This allows responses to be calibrated so as to fall within a time-window that maximizes the probability of success, regardless of trial type, but does not decrease the observed SSRT. We report empirical support for the model from a sample of typically developing children, and discuss the broader implications for operationalizing measures of volitional control.

  17. Activated Stat5 trafficking Via Endothelial Cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles Controls IL-3 Pro-angiogenic Paracrine Action.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Giusy; Dentelli, Patrizia; Togliatto, Gabriele; Rosso, Arturo; Gili, Maddalena; Gallo, Sara; Deregibus, Maria Chiara; Camussi, Giovanni; Brizzi, Maria Felice

    2016-05-09

    Soluble factors and cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) control vascular cell fate during inflammation. The present study investigates the impact of Interleukin 3 (IL-3) on EV release by endothelial cells (ECs), the mechanisms involved in EV release and paracrine actions. We found that IL-3 increases EV release, which is prevented by IL-3Ralpha blockade. EVs released upon IL-3 stimulation were able to induce pro-angiogenic signals as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay performed on the promoter region of cyclin D1 and tridimensional tube-like structure formation. We herein demonstrate that these effects rely on the transfer of miR-126-3p, pre-miR-126 and, more importantly, of activated signal transduction and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5) from IL-3-EV cargo into recipient ECs. We show, using the dominant negative form (ΔN)STAT5 and an activated STAT5 (1*6STAT5) constructs, that STAT5 drives IL-3-mediated EV release, miR-126-3p and pSTAT5 content. Finally, using EVs recovered from ΔNSTAT5 expressing ECs, we provide evidence that miR-126-3p and pSTAT5 trafficking is relevant for IL-3-mediated paracrine pro-angiogenic signals. These results indicate that IL-3 regulates EC-EV release, cargo and IL-3 angiogenic paracrine action via STAT5. Moreover, these results provide evidence that EC-derived IL-3-EVs can serve as pro-angiogenic clinical delivery wound healing devices.

  18. Activated Stat5 trafficking Via Endothelial Cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles Controls IL-3 Pro-angiogenic Paracrine Action

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Giusy; Dentelli, Patrizia; Togliatto, Gabriele; Rosso, Arturo; Gili, Maddalena; Gallo, Sara; Deregibus, Maria Chiara; Camussi, Giovanni; Brizzi, Maria Felice

    2016-01-01

    Soluble factors and cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) control vascular cell fate during inflammation. The present study investigates the impact of Interleukin 3 (IL-3) on EV release by endothelial cells (ECs), the mechanisms involved in EV release and paracrine actions. We found that IL-3 increases EV release, which is prevented by IL-3Ralpha blockade. EVs released upon IL-3 stimulation were able to induce pro-angiogenic signals as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay performed on the promoter region of cyclin D1 and tridimensional tube-like structure formation. We herein demonstrate that these effects rely on the transfer of miR-126-3p, pre-miR-126 and, more importantly, of activated signal transduction and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5) from IL-3-EV cargo into recipient ECs. We show, using the dominant negative form (ΔN)STAT5 and an activated STAT5 (1*6STAT5) constructs, that STAT5 drives IL-3-mediated EV release, miR-126-3p and pSTAT5 content. Finally, using EVs recovered from ΔNSTAT5 expressing ECs, we provide evidence that miR-126-3p and pSTAT5 trafficking is relevant for IL-3-mediated paracrine pro-angiogenic signals. These results indicate that IL-3 regulates EC-EV release, cargo and IL-3 angiogenic paracrine action via STAT5. Moreover, these results provide evidence that EC-derived IL-3-EVs can serve as pro-angiogenic clinical delivery wound healing devices. PMID:27157262

  19. Evidence and control of bifurcations in a respiratory system

    SciTech Connect

    Goldin, Matías A. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2013-12-15

    We studied the pressure patterns used by domestic canaries in the production of birdsong. Acoustically different sound elements (“syllables”) were generated by qualitatively different pressure gestures. We found that some ubiquitous transitions between syllables can be interpreted as bifurcations of a low dimensional dynamical system. We interpreted these results as evidence supporting a model in which different timescales interact nonlinearly.

  20. Technology consumption and cognitive control: Contrasting action video game experience with media multitasking.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: (1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and (2) playing action video games (a particular subtype of video games). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, whereas playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. Because these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impacts of technology use on attention. Across four tasks (AX-continuous performance, N-back, task-switching, and filter tasks), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we showed that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports, though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking sometimes performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers, suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video-game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly, this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together, these findings show that media consumption can have complex and counterintuitive effects on attentional control. PMID:26474982

  1. Technology consumption and cognitive control: Contrasting action video game experience with media multitasking.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: (1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and (2) playing action video games (a particular subtype of video games). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, whereas playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. Because these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impacts of technology use on attention. Across four tasks (AX-continuous performance, N-back, task-switching, and filter tasks), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we showed that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports, though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking sometimes performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers, suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video-game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly, this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together, these findings show that media consumption can have complex and counterintuitive effects on attentional control.

  2. An Action Dependent Heuristic Dynamic Programming-controlled Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage for Transient Stability Augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinpu; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yu, Xiaopeng

    To enhance the stability of power system, the active power and reactive power can be absorbed from or released to Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit according to system power requirements. This paper proposes a control strategy based on action dependent heuristic dynamic programing (ADHDP) which can control SMES to improve the stability of electric power system with on-line learning ability. Based on back propagation (BP) neural network, ADHDP approximates the optimal control solution of nonlinear system through iteration step by step. This on-line learning ability improves its performance by learning from its own mistakes through reinforcement signal from external environment, so that it can adjust the neural network weights according to the back propagation error to achieve optimal control performance. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, simulation tests are carried out in Matlab/Simulink. And a conventional Proportional-Integral (PI) controlled method is used to compare the performance of ADHDP. Simulation results show that the proposed controller demonstrates superior damping performance on power system oscillation caused by three-phase fault and wind power fluctuation over the PI controller.

  3. Evidence for TNFα Action on Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurotransmission in the Central Amygdala: A Brain Site Influenced by Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Zhen; Criswell, Hugh E.; Breese, George R.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety-like responses to stress are accompanied by elevation of brain cytokine-mRNAs. Because cytokines microinjected into central-amygdala (CeA) substitute for stress in a behavioral paradigm, the possibility was raised that cytokines increased by stress influence behavior by affecting CeA-neural activity. Previously, cytokines increased firing-rate of CeA-neurons comparable to that induced by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). In this investigation, tumor-necrosis-factor-α (TNFα) increased amplitude, but not frequency of mEPSCs from CeA-neurons. Additionally, TNFα decreased the threshold for triggering action potentials from CeA-neurons without altering membrane-properties during current-clamp recording. Glutamate-receptor-antagonist blockade of mEPSCs and the TNFα-induced reduction in firing threshold implicated glutamate in these changes. A phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase-antagonist prevented the TNFα-induced increased in amplitude of mEPSCs, documenting a TNFα intracellular influence. Additionally, TNFα increased frequency, but not amplitude of mIPSCs. CRF-receptor-antagonists were found to prevent the TNFα-induced increase in mIPSC-frequency, without altering the TNFα-induced amplitude increase in mEPSCs or the reduced threshold for action-potentials by TNFα. To clarify how TNFα was increasing CRF-release in the presence of tetrodotoxin, the possibility tested was whether preventing glial-activation would prevent this elevated mIPSC-frequency blocked by CRF-receptor antagonists. Minocycline, which blocks glial activation, prevented the TNFα-induced increase in mIPSC-frequency—a finding consistent with glia contributing to the CRF-involvement in this TNFα action. To fully understand the means by which a CRF1-receptor-antagonist and minocycline prevent TNFα from increasing mIPSC-frequency will require further clarification. Nonetheless, these data provide convincing evidence that release of TNFα by stress could influence GABA- and glutamate

  4. Load speed regulation in compliant mechanical transmission systems using feedback and feedforward control actions.

    PubMed

    Raul, P R; Dwivedula, R V; Pagilla, P R

    2016-07-01

    The problem of controlling the load speed of a mechanical transmission system consisting of a belt-pulley and gear-pair is considered. The system is modeled as two inertia (motor and load) connected by a compliant transmission. If the transmission is assumed to be rigid, then using either the motor or load speed feedback provides the same result. However, with transmission compliance, due to belts or long shafts, the stability characteristics and performance of the closed-loop system are quite different when either motor or load speed feedback is employed. We investigate motor and load speed feedback schemes by utilizing the singular perturbation method. We propose and discuss a control scheme that utilizes both motor and load speed feedback, and design an adaptive feedforward action to reject load torque disturbances. The control algorithms are implemented on an experimental platform that is typically used in roll-to-roll manufacturing and results are shown and discussed. PMID:27126600

  5. The Efficacy of Air Pollution Control Efforts: Evidence from AURA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, Russell R.; Canty, Tim; Duncan, Bryan N.; Hao, He; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Vinnikov, Konstatin

    2014-01-01

    Observations of NO2, SO2, and H2CO from OMI on AURA provide an excellent record of pollutant concentrations for the past decade. Abatement strategies to control criteria pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have met with varying degrees of success. Sulfur controls had a profound impact on local SO2 concentrations and a measurable impact on PM2.5. Although substantial effort has gone into VOC control, ozone in the eastern US has responded dramatically to NOx emissions controls.

  6. Network Influences on Dissemination of Evidence-Based Guidelines in State Tobacco Control Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Douglas A.; Wald, Lana M.; Carothers, Bobbi J.; Bach, Laura E.; Harris, Jenine K.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known regarding the social network relationships that influence dissemination of evidence-based public health practices and policies. In public health, it is critical that evidence-based guidelines, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's "Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs," are…

  7. Mixed control for perception and action: timing and error correction in rhythmic ball-bouncing.

    PubMed

    Siegler, I A; Bazile, C; Warren, W H

    2013-05-01

    The task of bouncing a ball on a racket was adopted as a model system for investigating the behavioral dynamics of rhythmic movement, specifically how perceptual information modulates the dynamics of action. Two experiments, with sixteen participants each, were carried out to definitively answer the following questions: How are passive stability and active stabilization combined to produce stable behavior? What informational quantities are used to actively regulate the two main components of the action-the timing of racket oscillation and the correction of errors in bounce height? We used a virtual ball-bouncing setup to simultaneously perturb gravity (g) and ball launch velocity (v b) at impact. In Experiment 1, we tested the control of racket timing by varying the ball's upward half-period t up while holding its peak height h p constant. Conversely, in Experiment 2, we tested error correction by varying h p while holding t up constant. Participants adopted a mixed control mode in which information in the ball's trajectory is used to actively stabilize behavior on a cycle-by-cycle basis, in order to keep the system within or near the passively stable region. The results reveal how these adjustments are visually controlled: the period of racket oscillation is modulated by the half-period of the ball's upward flight, and the change in racket velocity from the previous impact (via a change in racket amplitude) is governed by the error to the target. PMID:23515627

  8. Post-error action control is neurobehaviorally modulated under conditions of constant speeded response

    PubMed Central

    Soshi, Takahiro; Ando, Kumiko; Noda, Takamasa; Nakazawa, Kanako; Tsumura, Hideki; Okada, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Post-error slowing (PES) is an error recovery strategy that contributes to action control, and occurs after errors in order to prevent future behavioral flaws. Error recovery often malfunctions in clinical populations, but the relationship between behavioral traits and recovery from error is unclear in healthy populations. The present study investigated the relationship between impulsivity and error recovery by simulating a speeded response situation using a Go/No-go paradigm that forced the participants to constantly make accelerated responses prior to stimuli disappearance (stimulus duration: 250 ms). Neural correlates of post-error processing were examined using event-related potentials (ERPs). Impulsivity traits were measured with self-report questionnaires (BIS-11, BIS/BAS). Behavioral results demonstrated that the commission error for No-go trials was 15%, but PES did not take place immediately. Delayed PES was negatively correlated with error rates and impulsivity traits, showing that response slowing was associated with reduced error rates and changed with impulsivity. Response-locked error ERPs were clearly observed for the error trials. Contrary to previous studies, error ERPs were not significantly related to PES. Stimulus-locked N2 was negatively correlated with PES and positively correlated with impulsivity traits at the second post-error Go trial: larger N2 activity was associated with greater PES and less impulsivity. In summary, under constant speeded conditions, error monitoring was dissociated from post-error action control, and PES did not occur quickly. Furthermore, PES and its neural correlate (N2) were modulated by impulsivity traits. These findings suggest that there may be clinical and practical efficacy of maintaining cognitive control of actions during error recovery under common daily environments that frequently evoke impulsive behaviors. PMID:25674058

  9. Sustained vs. Transient Cognitive Control: Evidence of a Behavioral Dissociation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funes, Maria Jesus; Lupianez, Juan; Humphreys, Glyn

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two well known effects associated with cognitive control, conflict adaptation (the Gratton effect) and conflict context (proportion congruent effects), reflect a single common or separate control systems. To test this we examined if these two effects generalized from one kind of conflict to another by using a…

  10. Further evidences for the mode of action of the larvicidal m-pentadecadienyl-phenol isolated from Myracrodruon urundeuva seeds against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Souza, Terezinha M; Menezes, Erika S Bezerra; Oliveira, Rodrigo V; Almeida Filho, Luiz Carlos P; Martins, Jorge M; Moreno, Frederico B; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O; Moura, Arlindo A Araripe; Carvalho, Ana F Urano

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, dengue fever is considered the most important arbovirosis worldwide and its control is still based upon combating the vector Aedes aegypti. Besides monitoring of mosquito populations resistant to conventional insecticides, the search for new environmentally safe insecticides and conduction of molecular studies focusing on the elucidation of mode of action and possible resistance mechanisms are considered the key for a sustainable management of the mosquito vector. Thus, the present work aimed to assess changes in protein expression of 3rd-instar larvae of Ae. aegypti after exposure to the natural insecticide m-pentadecadienyl-phenol. Bidimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry resulted in identification of 12 proteins differentially expressed between control and treated groups. Larvae exposed to the toxic compound for 24h showed elevated detoxification response (glutathione-S-transferase), increased levels of stress-related proteins (HSP70) as well as evidence of lysosome stabilization to enable survival. Furthermore, expression of proteins involved in protection of peritrophic membrane and metabolism of lipids indicated systemic effect of toxic effects in treated larvae.

  11. [Social control in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): discourse, action and reaction].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Maria Caldeira; Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Dallari, Sueli Gandolfi

    2013-08-01

    This article seeks to describe and analyze the dynamics of social participation, from the standpoint of the social representations of the City Health Councillors of Belo Horizonte on the significance of social control. A methodological approach was used, backed by qualitative research techniques: semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Three years after the survey, documentary research was conducted to check for signs of institutional reaction seeking to minimize or even to overcome the difficulties reported. It was ascertained that the City Health Council political institution activated several mechanisms to improve their techniques of action and organization and also the commitment of stakeholders to this forum. PMID:23896915

  12. [Social control in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): discourse, action and reaction].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Maria Caldeira; Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Dallari, Sueli Gandolfi

    2013-08-01

    This article seeks to describe and analyze the dynamics of social participation, from the standpoint of the social representations of the City Health Councillors of Belo Horizonte on the significance of social control. A methodological approach was used, backed by qualitative research techniques: semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Three years after the survey, documentary research was conducted to check for signs of institutional reaction seeking to minimize or even to overcome the difficulties reported. It was ascertained that the City Health Council political institution activated several mechanisms to improve their techniques of action and organization and also the commitment of stakeholders to this forum.

  13. From Monitoring Users to Controlling User Actions: A New Perspective on the User-Centred Approach to CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Qing

    2007-01-01

    It is argued in this article that user actions need to be monitored to understand what has happened during the learning process. Monitoring on its own is not enough; user actions also need to be controlled to some degree so that users can receive the guidance they need to help them to the successful completion of the learning tasks in CALL…

  14. Evidence that convergence rather than accommodation controls intermittent distance exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study considered whether vergence drives accommodation or accommodation drives vergence during the control of distance exotropia for near fixation. High accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios are often used to explain this control, but the role of convergence to drive accommodation (the CA/C relationship) is rarely considered. Atypical CA/C characteristics could equally, or better, explain common clinical findings. Methods 19 distance exotropes, aged 4-11 years, were compared while controlling their deviation with 27 non-exotropic controls aged 5-9 years. Simultaneous vergence and accommodation responses were measured to a range of targets incorporating different combinations of blur, disparity and looming cues at four fixation distances between 2m and 33cm. Stimulus and response AC/A and CA/C ratios were calculated. Results Accommodation responses for near targets (p=0.017) response gains (p=0.026) were greater in the exotropes than the controls. Despite higher clinical stimulus AC/A ratios, the distance exotropes showed lower laboratory response AC/A ratios (p=0.02), but significantly higher CA/C ratios (p=0.02). All the exotropes, whether the angle changed most with lenses (“controlled by accommodation”) or on occlusion (“controlled by fusion”), used binocular disparity not blur as their main cue to target distance. Conclusions Increased vergence demand to control intermittent distance exotropia for near also drives significantly more accommodation. Minus lens therapy is more likely to act by correcting over-accommodation driven by controlling convergence, rather than by inducing blur-driven vergence. The use of convergence as a major drive to accommodation explains many clinical characteristics of distance exotropia, including apparently high near stimulus AC/A ratios. PMID:22280437

  15. Development of Object Control in the First Year: Emerging Category Discrimination and Generalization in Infants’ Adaptive Selection of Action

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Clay; Bornstein, Marc H.; Banerjee, Abhilasha

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the development of adaptive generalization in infants’ object-directed actions. Infants of 9 and 12 months participated in an object manipulation task with stimulus objects comprising two categories that differed in shape and weight and that bore a consistent shape/weight correspondence. Weight differences between categories affected infants’ actions required to handle objects effectively. Infants manually explored objects from both categories and then were tested for their selection of different actions between categories and their generalization to novel exemplars within categories. Nine-month-olds provided no evidence of category differentiation and generalization, however 12-month-olds adapted their actions selectively for objects of each category and generalized those actions to novel objects within categories. A second sample of 9-month-olds who were examined in a simplified task using just one object per weight level successfully adapted their actions by weight. Together, the findings provide evidence for the development of selection and generalization in manipulative action across the second half of the first year of life. PMID:23772823

  16. Suppressing a motivationally-triggered action tendency engages a response control mechanism that prevents future provocation

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Scott M.; Alvernaz, Dominic; Tonnesen, Alexandra; Linderman, David; Aron, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Reward-predicting stimuli can induce maladaptive behavior by provoking action tendencies that conflict with long-term goals. Earlier, we showed that when human participants were permitted to respond for a reward in the presence of a task-irrelevant, reward-predicting stimulus (i.e. goCS+ trials), the CS+ provoked an action tendency to respond compared to when a non-rewarding CS− stimulus was present (i.e. goCS− trials). However, when participants were not permitted to respond, response suppression was recruited to mitigate the action tendency that was triggered by the motivating CS+ stimulus (i.e. on nogoCS+ trials) (Freeman, Razhas, & Aron, 2014). Here we tested the hypothesis that repeated response suppression over a motivationally-triggered action tendency would reduce subsequent CS+ provocation. We compared groups of participants who had different proportions of nogoCS+ trials, and we measured CS+ provocation on go trials via reaction time. Our results showed that CS+ provocation on go trials was reduced monotonically as the proportion of nogoCS+ trials increased. Further analysis showed that these group differences were best explained by reduced provocation on goCS+ trials that followed nogoCS+ (compared to nogoCS−) trials. Follow-up experiments using a neurophysiological index of motor activity replicated these effects and also suggested that, following nogoCS+ trials, a response suppression mechanism was in place to help prevent subsequent CS+ provocation. Thus, our results show that performing response suppression in the face of a motivating stimulus not only controls responding at that time, but also prevents provocation in the near future. PMID:25592370

  17. Suppressing a motivationally-triggered action tendency engages a response control mechanism that prevents future provocation.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott M; Alvernaz, Dominic; Tonnesen, Alexandra; Linderman, David; Aron, Adam R

    2015-02-01

    Reward-predicting stimuli can induce maladaptive behavior by provoking action tendencies that conflict with long-term goals. Earlier, we showed that when human participants were permitted to respond for a reward in the presence of a task-irrelevant, reward-predicting stimulus (i.e. goCS+ trials), the CS+ provoked an action tendency to respond compared to when a non-rewarding CS- stimulus was present (i.e. goCS- trials). However, when participants were not permitted to respond, response suppression was recruited to mitigate the action tendency that was triggered by the motivating CS+ stimulus (i.e. on nogoCS+ trials) (Freeman et al., 2014). Here we tested the hypothesis that repeated response suppression over a motivationally-triggered action tendency would reduce subsequent CS+ provocation. We compared groups of participants who had different proportions of nogoCS+ trials, and we measured CS+ provocation on go trials via reaction time. Our results showed that CS+ provocation on go trials was reduced monotonically as the proportion of nogoCS+ trials increased. Further analysis showed that these group differences were best explained by reduced provocation on goCS+ trials that followed nogoCS+ (compared to nogoCS-) trials. Follow-up experiments using a neurophysiological index of motor activity replicated these effects and also suggested that, following nogoCS+ trials, a response suppression mechanism was in place to help prevent subsequent CS+ provocation. Thus, our results show that performing response suppression in the face of a motivating stimulus not only controls responding at that time, but also prevents provocation in the near future.

  18. An evidence-based process for evaluating infection control policies.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Stacey S; Lara, Gregory L; Courts, Monique R; Wanzer, Linda J; Bibb, Sandra C Garmon

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe evidence-based criteria for evaluating the appropriateness of policies for decontamination of noncritical equipment. An integrated literature review, guided by the Stetler Research Utilization Model and Bibb-Wanzer Identifying, Organizing, and Synthesizing strategy, provided the framework. A confirmatory search and document review process guided identification of documents and data extraction. Data synthesis was conducted using manifest content analysis. Five major criteria for disinfecting noncritical items were identified: use of personal protective equipment, removal of contamination, cleaning items before disinfecting, low-level disinfectant use, and following manufacturers' recommendations for disinfectants.

  19. Bilingualism modulates dual mechanisms of cognitive control: Evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julia; Yudes, Carolina; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J; Bajo, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioral findings with the AX-Continous Performance Task (AX-CPT; Morales et al., 2013) show that bilinguals only outperform monolinguals under conditions that require the highest adjustment between monitoring (proactive) and inhibitory (reactive) control, which supports the idea that bilingualism modulates the coordination of different control mechanisms. In an ERP experiment we aimed to further investigate the role that bilingualism plays in the dynamic combination of proactive and reactive control in the AX-CPT. Our results strongly indicate that bilingualism facilitates an effective adjustment between both components of cognitive control. First, we replicated previous behavioral results. Second, ERP components indicated that bilingualism influences the conflict monitoring, response inhibition and error monitoring components of control (as indexed by the N2 and P3a elicited by the probe and the error-related negativity following incorrect responses, respectively). Thus, bilinguals exerted higher reactive control than monolinguals but only when they needed to overcome the competing cue-information. These findings join others in suggesting that a better understanding of the cognitive benefits of bilingualism may require consideration of a multi-component perspective. PMID:25448864

  20. Bilingualism modulates dual mechanisms of cognitive control: Evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julia; Yudes, Carolina; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J; Bajo, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioral findings with the AX-Continous Performance Task (AX-CPT; Morales et al., 2013) show that bilinguals only outperform monolinguals under conditions that require the highest adjustment between monitoring (proactive) and inhibitory (reactive) control, which supports the idea that bilingualism modulates the coordination of different control mechanisms. In an ERP experiment we aimed to further investigate the role that bilingualism plays in the dynamic combination of proactive and reactive control in the AX-CPT. Our results strongly indicate that bilingualism facilitates an effective adjustment between both components of cognitive control. First, we replicated previous behavioral results. Second, ERP components indicated that bilingualism influences the conflict monitoring, response inhibition and error monitoring components of control (as indexed by the N2 and P3a elicited by the probe and the error-related negativity following incorrect responses, respectively). Thus, bilinguals exerted higher reactive control than monolinguals but only when they needed to overcome the competing cue-information. These findings join others in suggesting that a better understanding of the cognitive benefits of bilingualism may require consideration of a multi-component perspective.

  1. A Domain-Specific System for Representing Knowledge of Both Man-Made Objects and Human Actions. Evidence from a Case with an Association of Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannuscorps, Gilles; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We report the single-case study of a brain-damaged individual, JJG, presenting with a conceptual deficit and whose knowledge of living things, man-made objects, and actions was assessed. The aim was to seek for empirical evidence pertaining to the issue of how conceptual knowledge of objects, both living things and man-made objects, is related to…

  2. Stimulus onset predictability modulates proactive action control in a Go/No-go task

    PubMed Central

    Berchicci, Marika; Lucci, Giuliana; Spinelli, Donatella; Di Russo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the presence/absence of visual cues specifying the onset of an upcoming, action-related stimulus modulates pre-stimulus brain activity, associated with the proactive control of goal-directed actions. To this aim we asked 12 subjects to perform an equal probability Go/No-go task with four stimulus configurations in two conditions: (1) uncued, i.e., without any external information about the timing of stimulus onset; and (2) cued, i.e., with external visual cues providing precise information about the timing of stimulus onset. During task both behavioral performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Behavioral results showed faster response times in the cued than uncued condition, confirming existing literature. ERPs showed novel results in the proactive control stage, that started about 1 s before the motor response. We observed a slow rising prefrontal positive activity, more pronounced in the cued than the uncued condition. Further, also pre-stimulus activity of premotor areas was larger in cued than uncued condition. In the post-stimulus period, the P3 amplitude was enhanced when the time of stimulus onset was externally driven, confirming that external cueing enhances processing of stimulus evaluation and response monitoring. Our results suggest that different pre-stimulus processing come into play in the two conditions. We hypothesize that the large prefrontal and premotor activities recorded with external visual cues index the monitoring of the external stimuli in order to finely regulate the action. PMID:25964751

  3. Results of a randomized controlled trial of mental illness self-management using Wellness Recovery Action Planning.

    PubMed

    Cook, Judith A; Copeland, Mary Ellen; Jonikas, Jessica A; Hamilton, Marie M; Razzano, Lisa A; Grey, Dennis D; Floyd, Carol B; Hudson, Walter B; Macfarlane, Rachel T; Carter, Tina M; Boyd, Sherry

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a peer-led illness self-management intervention called Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) by comparing it with usual care. The primary outcome was reduction of psychiatric symptoms, with secondary outcomes of increased hopefulness, and enhanced quality of life (QOL). A total of 519 adults with severe and persistent mental illness were recruited from outpatient community mental health settings in 6 Ohio communities and randomly assigned to the 8-week intervention or a wait-list control condition. Outcomes were assessed at end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up using an intent-to-treat mixed-effects random regression analysis. Compared to controls, at immediate postintervention and at 6-month follow-up, WRAP participants reported: (1) significantly greater reduction over time in Brief Symptom Inventory Global Symptom Severity and Positive Symptom Total, (2) significantly greater improvement over time in hopefulness as assessed by the Hope Scale total score and subscale for goal directed hopefulness, and (3) enhanced improvement over time in QOL as assessed by the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF environment subscale. These results indicate that peer-delivered mental illness self-management training reduces psychiatric symptoms, enhances participants' hopefulness, and improves their QOL over time. This confirms the importance of peer-led wellness management interventions, such as WRAP, as part of a group of evidence-based recovery-oriented services.

  4. Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Mental Illness Self-management Using Wellness Recovery Action Planning

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Judith A.; Copeland, Mary Ellen; Jonikas, Jessica A.; Hamilton, Marie M.; Razzano, Lisa A.; Grey, Dennis D.; Floyd, Carol B.; Hudson, Walter B.; Macfarlane, Rachel T.; Carter, Tina M.; Boyd, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a peer-led illness self-management intervention called Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) by comparing it with usual care. The primary outcome was reduction of psychiatric symptoms, with secondary outcomes of increased hopefulness, and enhanced quality of life (QOL). A total of 519 adults with severe and persistent mental illness were recruited from outpatient community mental health settings in 6 Ohio communities and randomly assigned to the 8-week intervention or a wait-list control condition. Outcomes were assessed at end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up using an intent-to-treat mixed-effects random regression analysis. Compared to controls, at immediate postintervention and at 6-month follow-up, WRAP participants reported: (1) significantly greater reduction over time in Brief Symptom Inventory Global Symptom Severity and Positive Symptom Total, (2) significantly greater improvement over time in hopefulness as assessed by the Hope Scale total score and subscale for goal directed hopefulness, and (3) enhanced improvement over time in QOL as assessed by the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF environment subscale. These results indicate that peer-delivered mental illness self-management training reduces psychiatric symptoms, enhances participants’ hopefulness, and improves their QOL over time. This confirms the importance of peer-led wellness management interventions, such as WRAP, as part of a group of evidence-based recovery-oriented services. PMID:21402724

  5. Herbal Remedies for Coccidiosis Control: A Review of Plants, Compounds, and Anticoccidial Actions.

    PubMed

    Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Kuo, Tien-Fen; Wu, Yueh-Chen; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the bane of the poultry industry causing considerable economic loss. Eimeria species are known as protozoan parasites to cause morbidity and death in poultry. In addition to anticoccidial chemicals and vaccines, natural products are emerging as an alternative and complementary way to control avian coccidiosis. In this review, we update recent advances in the use of anticoccidial phytoextracts and phytocompounds, which cover 32 plants and 40 phytocompounds, following a database search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Four plant products commercially available for coccidiosis are included and discussed. We also highlight the chemical and biological properties of the plants and compounds as related to coccidiosis control. Emphasis is placed on the modes of action of the anticoccidial plants and compounds such as interference with the life cycle of Eimeria, regulation of host immunity to Eimeria, growth regulation of gut bacteria, and/or multiple mechanisms. Biological actions, mechanisms, and prophylactic/therapeutic potential of the compounds and extracts of plant origin in coccidiosis are summarized and discussed. PMID:27429634

  6. Herbal Remedies for Coccidiosis Control: A Review of Plants, Compounds, and Anticoccidial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Wu, Yueh-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the bane of the poultry industry causing considerable economic loss. Eimeria species are known as protozoan parasites to cause morbidity and death in poultry. In addition to anticoccidial chemicals and vaccines, natural products are emerging as an alternative and complementary way to control avian coccidiosis. In this review, we update recent advances in the use of anticoccidial phytoextracts and phytocompounds, which cover 32 plants and 40 phytocompounds, following a database search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Four plant products commercially available for coccidiosis are included and discussed. We also highlight the chemical and biological properties of the plants and compounds as related to coccidiosis control. Emphasis is placed on the modes of action of the anticoccidial plants and compounds such as interference with the life cycle of Eimeria, regulation of host immunity to Eimeria, growth regulation of gut bacteria, and/or multiple mechanisms. Biological actions, mechanisms, and prophylactic/therapeutic potential of the compounds and extracts of plant origin in coccidiosis are summarized and discussed. PMID:27429634

  7. Priorities for action on the social determinants of health: Empirical evidence on the strongest associations with life expectancy in 54 low-income countries, 1990-2012.

    PubMed

    Hauck, K; Martin, S; Smith, P C

    2016-10-01

    The WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health set out an impressive collection of policy proposals on the social determinants of health. However, a serious weakness for securing implementation is the difficulty for policymakers in identifying priorities for action. The objective of this study is to determine a small set of the most influential determinants using existing data and an empirical approach. 45 Indicators from the World Bank's World Development Indicators are selected to measure attainment for the determinants proposed by the Commission. Panel data models of life expectancy at birth for 54 low-income countries over the years 1990-2012 (1188 country-years) are estimated. Each determinant is subjected to a robustness test using Extreme Bound Analysis, to determine the stability of its estimated impact on life expectancy. For 20 robust and significant determinants the magnitude of association with life expectancy is determined. The largest average increases in life expectancy at 14.5 months per capita is associated with a one standard deviation reduction in HIV prevalence among children, followed by advances in gender equality at 9.4 months. Improvements in life expectancy between 6 and 9 months are associated with agricultural production, political stability, access to clean water and sanitation, good governance, and primary school enrolment. Improvements below 6 months are associated with increases in private health expenditure and overseas development assistance, and control of armed conflict and HIV prevalence among men. There is no evidence that national income, public spending on healthcare and education, secondary schooling, terms of international trade, employment, debt service and relief, out-of-pocket expenditures, agricultural ex- or imports, lifestock production, foreign investment, urbanization or environmental degradation are robustly associated with population health. Results provide support for the relevance of some proposed

  8. Priorities for action on the social determinants of health: Empirical evidence on the strongest associations with life expectancy in 54 low-income countries, 1990-2012.

    PubMed

    Hauck, K; Martin, S; Smith, P C

    2016-10-01

    The WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health set out an impressive collection of policy proposals on the social determinants of health. However, a serious weakness for securing implementation is the difficulty for policymakers in identifying priorities for action. The objective of this study is to determine a small set of the most influential determinants using existing data and an empirical approach. 45 Indicators from the World Bank's World Development Indicators are selected to measure attainment for the determinants proposed by the Commission. Panel data models of life expectancy at birth for 54 low-income countries over the years 1990-2012 (1188 country-years) are estimated. Each determinant is subjected to a robustness test using Extreme Bound Analysis, to determine the stability of its estimated impact on life expectancy. For 20 robust and significant determinants the magnitude of association with life expectancy is determined. The largest average increases in life expectancy at 14.5 months per capita is associated with a one standard deviation reduction in HIV prevalence among children, followed by advances in gender equality at 9.4 months. Improvements in life expectancy between 6 and 9 months are associated with agricultural production, political stability, access to clean water and sanitation, good governance, and primary school enrolment. Improvements below 6 months are associated with increases in private health expenditure and overseas development assistance, and control of armed conflict and HIV prevalence among men. There is no evidence that national income, public spending on healthcare and education, secondary schooling, terms of international trade, employment, debt service and relief, out-of-pocket expenditures, agricultural ex- or imports, lifestock production, foreign investment, urbanization or environmental degradation are robustly associated with population health. Results provide support for the relevance of some proposed

  9. The Bivalency Effect: Evidence for Flexible Adjustment of Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

    2012-01-01

    When bivalent stimuli (i.e., stimuli with features for two different tasks) appear occasionally, performance is slower on subsequent univalent stimuli. This "bivalency effect" reflects an adjustment of cognitive control arising from the more demanding context created by bivalent stimuli. So far, it has been investigated only on task switch trials,…

  10. How preparation changes the need for top-down control of the basal ganglia when inhibiting premature actions.

    PubMed

    Jahfari, Sara; Verbruggen, Frederick; Frank, Michael J; Waldorp, Lourens J; Colzato, Lorenza; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Forstmann, Birte U

    2012-08-01

    Goal-oriented signals from the prefrontal cortex gate the selection of appropriate actions in the basal ganglia. Key nodes within this fronto-basal ganglia action regulation network are increasingly engaged when one anticipates the need to inhibit and override planned actions. Here, we ask how the advance preparation of action plans modulates the need for fronto-subcortical control when a planned action needs to be withdrawn. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected while human participants performed a stop task with cues indicating the likelihood of a stop signal being sounded. Mathematical modeling of go trial responses suggested that participants attained a more cautious response strategy when the probability of a stop signal increased. Effective connectivity analysis indicated that, even in the absence of stop signals, the proactive engagement of the full control network is tailored to the likelihood of stop trial occurrence. Importantly, during actual stop trials, the strength of fronto-subcortical projections was stronger when stopping had to be engaged reactively compared with when it was proactively prepared in advance. These findings suggest that fronto-basal ganglia control is strongest in an unpredictable environment, where the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the optimization of reactive control. Importantly, these results further indicate that the advance preparation of action plans reduces the need for reactive fronto-basal ganglia communication to gate voluntary actions. PMID:22875921

  11. The impact of social action funds on child health in a conflict affected country: evidence from Angola.

    PubMed

    Djimeu, Eric W

    2014-04-01

    Although recent evidence shows significant and long-lasting detrimental effects of armed conflict on child health, there is lack of studies rigorously assessing the effectiveness of different social and economic development interventions aiming to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this study assesses the impact of health projects and water, sanitation, and waste management interventions financed by the Angola Social Action Fund (ASAF) from 1994 to 2001 on child health. I use data from Inquérito aos Agregados Familiares sobre Despesas e Receitas 2000/2001(IDR 2001), a household survey on expenditures and incomes conducted between February 2000 and February 2001 in Angola. IDR 2001 uses a stratified sampling design in which 12 households were surveyed in a random fashion in each aldeia (village) in rural areas and bairro (neighborhood) in urban areas. Using propensity score matching, a fixed effects model, and propensity-based weighted regression, I find that ASAF leads to a statistically significant increase of the height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) by 0.335 standard deviations of children less than 5 years. This finding is robust to different implementations of the propensity score model specification and when conducting the sensitivity analysis of hidden bias. The main result that emerges from an analysis of heterogeneous effects shows that ASAF has no impact on children living in war displaced households. Despite many challenges faced by conflict affected countries, social funds which are one the key instruments of the World Bank used to promote development at the local level can be used to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. For children living in war displaced households, specific interventions should be designed to mitigate the impact of armed conflict.

  12. The impact of social action funds on child health in a conflict affected country: evidence from Angola.

    PubMed

    Djimeu, Eric W

    2014-04-01

    Although recent evidence shows significant and long-lasting detrimental effects of armed conflict on child health, there is lack of studies rigorously assessing the effectiveness of different social and economic development interventions aiming to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this study assesses the impact of health projects and water, sanitation, and waste management interventions financed by the Angola Social Action Fund (ASAF) from 1994 to 2001 on child health. I use data from Inquérito aos Agregados Familiares sobre Despesas e Receitas 2000/2001(IDR 2001), a household survey on expenditures and incomes conducted between February 2000 and February 2001 in Angola. IDR 2001 uses a stratified sampling design in which 12 households were surveyed in a random fashion in each aldeia (village) in rural areas and bairro (neighborhood) in urban areas. Using propensity score matching, a fixed effects model, and propensity-based weighted regression, I find that ASAF leads to a statistically significant increase of the height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) by 0.335 standard deviations of children less than 5 years. This finding is robust to different implementations of the propensity score model specification and when conducting the sensitivity analysis of hidden bias. The main result that emerges from an analysis of heterogeneous effects shows that ASAF has no impact on children living in war displaced households. Despite many challenges faced by conflict affected countries, social funds which are one the key instruments of the World Bank used to promote development at the local level can be used to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. For children living in war displaced households, specific interventions should be designed to mitigate the impact of armed conflict. PMID:24530615

  13. Evidence for feedback control of pineal melatonin secretion.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Herring, Kamillya L; Walton, James C; Fonken, Laura K; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-05-10

    Melatonin is the principle hormonal product of the pineal gland. It is secreted with a robust daily rhythm, peaking near the middle of the night. During the daytime, concentrations remain very low, as exposure to light robustly suppresses its secretion. The regulation of melatonin by light is well-characterized, but an interesting feature of the daily melatonin rhythm is that its peak occurs near the middle of the night and then levels begin to drop hours before morning light exposure. The mechanism underlying the light-independent drop in melatonin during late night remains unspecified. Feedback control is one mechanism of hormone regulation, but no studies thus far have explored the possibility of such regulation in the pineal of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). The pineal gland and SCN express melatonin receptors, and melatonin regulates its own receptor density in the brain. We investigated the possibility of feedback control of melatonin by administering melatonin receptor antagonists to female white-footed mice and then measuring plasma melatonin concentrations. In the first experiment, we observed that luzindole, a dual MT1/MT2 receptor antagonist administered 1h after lights off, caused an increase in plasma melatonin both 1 and 2h later. In a second experiment, we did not observe a change in melatonin concentrations following injection of an antagonist specific for the MT2 subtype. These results suggest the possibility of feedback control of melatonin release, occurring preferentially through the MT1 receptor subtype. PMID:23528860

  14. Building the evidence base for global tobacco control.

    PubMed Central

    Corrao, M. A.; Guindon, G. E.; Cokkinides, V.; Sharma, N.

    2000-01-01

    The tobacco control movement needs a global information system permitting routine monitoring of the tobacco trade, tobacco farming, the tobacco industry, the prevalence of tobacco use, associated mortality, and national resources for combating tobacco. The Tobacco Control Country Profiles database, a data collection initiative led by the American Cancer Society in collaboration with WHO and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, represents the first step in the development of such a system. Baseline data on several indicators of tobacco use were obtained from 191 Member States of WHO, two Associate Members, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China (Hong Kong SAR), China (Province of Taiwan) and the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The methods used to compile the data are described in the present paper. Selected indicators from the database were analysed in order to demonstrate the potential utility and value of data derived from an information system devoted to tobacco control. The analyses covered gender-specific smoking prevalence by WHO Region, per capita cigarette consumption by Human Development Index (HDI) category, and average real annual percentage changes in cigarette prices between 1990 and 1999 for selected countries in each category. In 1998, men were almost four times more likely than women to be smokers. The prevalence of smoking among men was highest in the Western Pacific Region. The differential in gender-specific smoking prevalence was narrowest in the Region of the Americas and the European Region. It was wider in the South-East Asia Region and the Western Pacific Region. The lowest and highest per capita consumption of manufactured cigarettes occurred in the lowest and highest HDI categories respectively. In the medium HDI category, China's growing cigarette consumption after 1975 had a major bearing on the rise in per capita consumption. Cigarette price trends suggest that there is considerable scope for increasing taxes on tobacco

  15. Evidence-based control of plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Santos, A

    2003-01-01

    Most adults brush and floss inadequately, and constant education and/or reinforcement is often required. Bacteria are usually left behind with mechanical oral health routines, and chemotherapeutic agents may have a key role as adjuncts to daily home-care. To date, two antiseptic mouthwashes have received the ADA Seal of Acceptance: Peridex (Zila Pharmaceuticals, Phoenix, AZ, USA; CHX, chlorhexidine) and Listerine (Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Morris Plains, NJ, USA; essential oil (EO) mouthwash). CHX has a strong affinity for tooth and tissue surfaces, but can cause brown staining on the teeth and tongue. Patients must also wait until all traces of toothpaste are removed before rinsing with CHX. Long-term use of an EO mouthwash is microbiologically safe, with no changes observed in the bacterial composition of supragingival plaque, and no evidence of antimicrobial resistance. A number of trials have demonstrated the long-term plaque- and gingivitis-reducing properties of both CHX and EO mouthwashes. These studies clearly demonstrate that these agents have lasting efficacy, and can access hard-to-reach areas.

  16. Evidence-based control of plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Santos, A

    2003-01-01

    Most adults brush and floss inadequately, and constant education and/or reinforcement is often required. Bacteria are usually left behind with mechanical oral health routines, and chemotherapeutic agents may have a key role as adjuncts to daily home-care. To date, two antiseptic mouthwashes have received the ADA Seal of Acceptance: Peridex (Zila Pharmaceuticals, Phoenix, AZ, USA; CHX, chlorhexidine) and Listerine (Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Morris Plains, NJ, USA; essential oil (EO) mouthwash). CHX has a strong affinity for tooth and tissue surfaces, but can cause brown staining on the teeth and tongue. Patients must also wait until all traces of toothpaste are removed before rinsing with CHX. Long-term use of an EO mouthwash is microbiologically safe, with no changes observed in the bacterial composition of supragingival plaque, and no evidence of antimicrobial resistance. A number of trials have demonstrated the long-term plaque- and gingivitis-reducing properties of both CHX and EO mouthwashes. These studies clearly demonstrate that these agents have lasting efficacy, and can access hard-to-reach areas. PMID:12787197

  17. Experimental Studies on Model Reference Adaptive Control with Integral Action Employing a Rotary Encoder and Tachometer Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Shu-Nan; Bai, Yu-Guang; Liu, Lei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive law with an integral action is designed and implemented on a DC motor by employing a rotary encoder and tachometer sensors. The stability is proved by using the Lyapunov function. The tracking errors asymptotically converge to zero according to the Barbalat lemma. The tracking performance is specified by a reference model, the convergence rate of Lyapunov function is specified by the matrix Q and the control action and the state weighting are restricted by the matrix Γ. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control. The maximum errors of the position and velocity with the integral action are reduced from 0.4 V and 1.5 V to 0.2 V and 0.4 V, respectively. The adaptive control with the integral action gives satisfactory performance, even when it suffers from input disturbance. PMID:23575034

  18. Stronger Discounting of External Cause by Action in Human Adults: Evidence for an Action-Based Hypothesis of Visual Collision Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsumatsu, Hidemichi

    2013-01-01

    When an actor performs an action on an external object, the actor feels that he or she is exerting a force on that object. By extension, when an observer views a collision between 2 objects, he or she is able to perceive the force that is exerted on the objects during the collision. The latter case is puzzling, as force is not a visual feature per…

  19. Two types of action error: electrophysiological evidence for separable inhibitory and sustained attention neural mechanisms producing error on go/no-go tasks.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Redmond G; Dockree, Paul M; Bellgrove, Mark A; Turin, Alessandra; Ward, Seamus; Foxe, John J; Robertson, Ian H

    2009-01-01

    Disentangling the component processes that contribute to human executive control is a key challenge for cognitive neuroscience. Here, we employ event-related potentials to provide electrophysiological evidence that action errors during a go/no-go task can result either from sustained attention failures or from failures of response inhibition, and that these two processes are temporally and physiologically dissociable, although the behavioral error--a nonintended response--is the same. Thirteen right-handed participants performed a version of a go/no-go task in which stimuli were presented in a fixed and predictable order, thus encouraging attentional drift, and a second version in which an identical set of stimuli was presented in a random order, thus placing greater emphasis on response inhibition. Electrocortical markers associated with goal maintenance (late positivity, alpha synchronization) distinguished correct and incorrect performance in the fixed condition, whereas errors in the random condition were linked to a diminished N2-P3 inhibitory complex. In addition, the amplitude of the error-related negativity did not differ between correct and incorrect responses in the fixed condition, consistent with the view that errors in this condition do not arise from a failure to resolve response competition. Our data provide an electrophysiological dissociation of sustained attention and response inhibition.

  20. Hierarchical Control and Skilled Typing: Evidence for Word-Level Control over the Execution of Individual Keystrokes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Matthew J. C.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2010-01-01

    Routine actions are commonly assumed to be controlled by hierarchically organized processes and representations. In the domain of typing theories, word-level information is assumed to activate the constituent keystrokes required to type each letter in a word. We tested this assumption directly using a novel single-letter probe technique. Subjects…

  1. Control of dengue: Consensus views of Endemic Disease Control Agents and Community Health Agents on their integrated action.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, João Paulo de Morais; Oliveira, Ellen Synthia Fernandes de; Teixeira, Ricardo Antônio Gonçalves; Lemos, Cristiane Lopes Simão; Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2016-08-01

    Dengue is one of Brazil's most important public health challenges. Activities for its prevention and control have been based on the strategy of integrated management proposed in health policies, in which the central actors are the Endemic Disease Control Agent(ACE) and the Community Health Agent (ACS). This study analyzes consensus opinions produced by ACSs and ACEs on theactions for incorporating ACEs into the teams of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). It is a qualitative study from a large municipality in Brazil in which dengue is endemic, using a focus group of professionals that is subsequently analyzed using Collective Subject Discourse Analysis, supported by WebQDA. The results indicate consensus positions in relation to the following subjects: I) difficulty in the process of integration of ACSs and ACEs for control of dengue; II) inclusion of ACEs in the primary healthcare of the ESF; and III) absence of monitoring and assessment of the integrated actions. In conclusion, there are needs: to make participants more aware, seeking changes in behavior; to offer an environment of support to those involved with training courses about dengue; and to monitor the process of integration, and evaluate it periodically, creating indicators of quality and quantity. PMID:27557006

  2. Evidence of Metacognitive Control by Humans and Monkeys in a Perceptual Categorization Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Joshua S.

    2010-01-01

    Metacognition research has focused on the degree to which nonhuman primates share humans' capacity to monitor their cognitive processes. Convincing evidence now exists that monkeys can engage in metacognitive monitoring. By contrast, few studies have explored metacognitive control in monkeys, and the available evidence of metacognitive control…

  3. Evidence for predatory control of the invasive round goby

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Stapanian, M.A.; Witzel, L.D.; Einhouse, D.W.; Pothoven, S.A.; Whitford, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    We coupled bioenergetics modeling with bottom trawl survey results to evaluate the capacity of piscivorous fish in eastern Lake Erie to exert predatory control of the invading population of round goby Neogobius melanostomus. In the offshore (>20 m deep) waters of eastern Lake Erie, burbot Lota lota is a native top predator, feeding on a suite of prey fishes. The round goby invaded eastern Lake Erie during the late 1990s, and round goby population size increased dramatically during 1999–2004. According to annual bottom trawl survey results, round goby abundance in offshore waters peaked in 2004, but then declined during 2004–2008. Coincidentally, round goby became an important component of burbot diet beginning in 2003. Using bottom trawling and gill netting, we estimated adult burbot abundance and age structure in eastern Lake Erie during 2007. Diet composition and energy density of eastern Lake Erie burbot were also determined during 2007. This information, along with estimates of burbot growth, burbot mortality, burbot water temperature regime, and energy densities of prey fish from the literature, were incorporated into a bioenergetics model application to estimate annual consumption of round goby by the adult burbot population. Results indicated that the adult burbot population in eastern Lake Erie annually consumed 1,361 metric tons of round goby. Based on the results of bottom trawling, we estimated the biomass of yearling and older round goby in offshore waters eastern Lake Erie during 2007–2008 to be 2,232 metric tons. Thus, the adult burbot population was feeding on round goby at an annual rate equal to 61% of the estimated round goby standing stock. We concluded that the burbot population had high potential to exert predatory control on round goby in offshore waters of eastern Lake Erie.

  4. JacksonBot - Design, Simulation and Optimal Control of an Action Painting Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, Michael; Mombaur, Katja; Schubert, Alexander

    We present the robotics platform JacksonBot which is capable to produce paintings inspired by the Action Painting style of Jackson Pollock. A dynamically moving robot arm splashes color from a container at the end effector on the canvas. The paintings produced by this platform rely on a combination of the algorithmic generation of robot arm motions with random effects of the splashing color. The robot can be considered as a complex and powerful tool to generate art works programmed by a user. Desired end effector motions can be prescribed either by mathematical functions, by point sequences or by data glove motions. We have evaluated the effect of different shapes of input motions on the resulting painting. In order to compute the robot joint trajectories necessary to move along a desired end effector path, we use an optimal control based approach to solve the inverse kinematics problem.

  5. Control and Plasticity of the Presynaptic Action Potential Waveform at Small CNS Nerve Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Hoppa, Michael B.; Gouzer, Geraldine; Armbruster, Moritz; Ryan, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The steep dependence of exocytosis on Ca2+ entry at nerve terminals implies that voltage control of both Ca2+ channel opening and the driving force for Ca2+ entry are powerful levers in sculpting synaptic efficacy. Using fast, genetically encoded voltage indicators in dissociated primary neurons, we show that at small nerve terminals K+ channels constrain the peak voltage of the presynaptic action potential (APSYN) to values much lower than those at cell somas. This key APSYN property additionally shows adaptive plasticity: manipulations that increase presynaptic Ca2+ channel abundance and release probability result in a commensurate lowering of the APSYN peak and narrowing of the waveform, while manipulations that decrease presynaptic Ca2+ channel abundance do the opposite. This modulation is eliminated upon blockade of Kv3.1 and Kv1 channels. Our studies thus reveal that adaptive plasticity in the APSYN waveform serves as an important regulator of synaptic function. PMID:25447742

  6. Granger Causality Mapping during Joint Actions Reveals Evidence for Forward Models That Could Overcome Sensory-Motor Delays

    PubMed Central

    Kokal, Idil; Keysers, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Studies investigating joint actions have suggested a central role for the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS) because of the close link between perception and action provided by these brain regions [1], [2], [3]. In contrast, our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment demonstrated that the BOLD response of the pMNS does not suggest that it directly integrates observed and executed actions during joint actions [4]. To test whether the pMNS might contribute indirectly to the integration process by sending information to brain areas responsible for this integration (integration network), here we used Granger causality mapping (GCM) [5]. We explored the directional information flow between the anterior sites of the pMNS and previously identified integrative brain regions. We found that the left BA44 sent more information than it received to both the integration network (left thalamus, right middle occipital gyrus and cerebellum) and more posterior nodes of the pMNS (BA2). Thus, during joint actions, two anatomically separate networks therefore seem effectively connected and the information flow is predominantly from anterior to posterior areas of the brain. These findings suggest that the pMNS is involved indirectly in joint actions by transforming observed and executed actions into a common code and is part of a generative model that could predict the future somatosensory and visual consequences of observed and executed actions in order to overcome otherwise inevitable neural delays. PMID:20975836

  7. [Ultrasonic aspirator with controllable suction system--variable action suction adapter and clinical experience with it].

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, S; Shimano, H; Kuroiwa, T

    2000-12-01

    While the ultrasonic aspirator (UA) has been widely used as one of the indispensable tools in the field of neurosurgery, a potential risk when using the present UA is injury to the neurovascular structures due to ultrasonic pulverization and constant forceful suction power. We have devised a small variable action suction adapter that can be used in a similar manner to conventional surgical suction tubes. The UA control unit and the handpiece used in this study were the Sonopet UST-2000 and HA-01, respectively (M & M Corporation Tokyo, Japan). The handpiece is slim, with the mid-portion diameter of 13 mm, and it weighs 100 grams. A variable action suction adapter was made from polycarbonate of 15 x 12 x 13 mm in size. The adapter was connected to the suction tube using a Y-shaped connector (Fig. 2 A), which was integrated into the handpiece. The suction power is regulated by variably closing the oval-shaped hole. The adapter can be variously placed on and rotated around the handpiece (Fig. 2 B and C) so that either the right or left hand handles it in a similar fashion to conventional suction tubes. We used this UA in surgery for 8 patients with large brain tumors (meningioma in 5 cases, metastatic brain tumor in 2 cases and glioma in one case). It reduced the risk of suction-related injury to the neurovascular structures and was handled in a similar manner to conventional suction tubes. This adapter ensures the complete control of suction power, which will reduce the risk of suction injury.

  8. Temporal stability of the action-perception cycle for postural control in a moving visual environment.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, T M; Schöner, G; Gielen, C C

    1994-01-01

    When standing human subjects are exposed to a moving visual environment, the induced postural sway forms a stable temporal relationship with the visual information. We have investigated this relationship experimentally with a new set-up in which a computer generates video images which correspond to the motion of a 3D environment. The suggested mean distance to a sinusoidally moving wall is varied and the temporal relationship to induced sway is analysed (1) in terms of the fluctuations of relative phase between visual and sway motion and (2) in terms of the relaxation time of relative phase as determined from the rate of recovery of the stable relative phase pattern following abrupt changes in the visual motion pattern. The two measures are found to converge to a well-defined temporal stability of the action-perception cycle. Furthermore, we show that this temporal stability is a sensitive measure of the strength of the action-perception coupling. It decreases as the distance of the visual scene from the observer increases. This fact and the increase of mean relative phase are consistent with predictions of a linear second-order system driven by the visual expansion rate. However, the amplitude of visual sway decreases little as visual distance increases, in contradiction to the predictions, and is suggestive of a process that actively generates sway. The visual expansion rate on the optic array is found to decrease strongly with visual distance. This leads to the conclusion that postural control in a moving visual environment cannot be understood simply in terms of minimization of retinal slip, and that dynamic coupling of vision into the postural control system must be taken into account. PMID:8187859

  9. The efference cascade, consciousness, and its self: naturalizing the first person pivot of action control

    PubMed Central

    Merker, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    The 20 billion neurons of the neocortex have a mere hundred thousand motor neurons by which to express cortical contents in overt behavior. Implemented through a staggered cortical “efference cascade” originating in the descending axons of layer five pyramidal cells throughout the neocortical expanse, this steep convergence accomplishes final integration for action of cortical information through a system of interconnected subcortical way stations. Coherent and effective action control requires the inclusion of a continually updated joint “global best estimate” of current sensory, motivational, and motor circumstances in this process. I have previously proposed that this running best estimate is extracted from cortical probabilistic preliminaries by a subcortical neural “reality model” implementing our conscious sensory phenomenology. As such it must exhibit first person perspectival organization, suggested to derive from formating requirements of the brain's subsystem for gaze control, with the superior colliculus at its base. Gaze movements provide the leading edge of behavior by capturing targets of engagement prior to contact. The rotation-based geometry of directional gaze movements places their implicit origin inside the head, a location recoverable by cortical probabilistic source reconstruction from the rampant primary sensory variance generated by the incessant play of collicularly triggered gaze movements. At the interface between cortex and colliculus lies the dorsal pulvinar. Its unique long-range inhibitory circuitry may precipitate the brain's global best estimate of its momentary circumstances through multiple constraint satisfaction across its afferents from numerous cortical areas and colliculus. As phenomenal content of our sensory awareness, such a global best estimate would exhibit perspectival organization centered on a purely implicit first person origin, inherently incapable of appearing as a phenomenal content of the sensory

  10. Evidence for predictive control in lifting series of virtual objects.

    PubMed

    Mawase, Firas; Karniel, Amir

    2010-06-01

    The human motor control system gracefully behaves in a dynamic and time varying environment. Here, we explored the predictive capabilities of the motor system in a simple motor task of lifting a series of virtual objects. When a subject lifts an object, she/he uses an expectation of the weight of the object to generate a motor command. All models of motor learning employ learning algorithms that essentially expect the future to be similar to the previously experienced environment. In this study, we asked subjects to lift a series of increasing weights and determined whether they extrapolated from past experience and predicted the next weight in the series even though that weight had never been experienced. The grip force at the beginning of the lifting task is a clean indication of the motor expectation. In contrast to the motor learning literature asserting adaptation by means of expecting a weighted average based on past experience, our results suggest that the motor system is able to predict the subsequent weight that follows a series of increasing weights.

  11. Feedback loop process for controlling inertial cavitation: experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, Claude; Sabraoui, Abbas; Reslan, Lina; Bera, Jean-Christophe; Gilles, Bruno; Mestas, Jean-Louis

    2011-09-01

    Applications involving cavitation mechanisms, such as sonoporation, are irreproducible in the case of a fixed-intensity sonication, due to the non-stationary behavior of cavitation. We then propose to work at a fixed-cavitation level instead of under fixed-intensity sonication conditions. For this purpose a regulated cavitation generator has been developed in a stationary wave field configuration, which allows regulation of the cavitation level during sonication by modulating the applied acoustic intensity with a feedback loop based on acoustic cavitation measurements. The cavitation level indicator was quantified by the broadband spectrum noise level relative to inertial cavitation events. This generated inertial cavitation was characterized by both acoustic and chemical measurements, quantifying hydroxyl radicals produced by water sonolysis. While the cavitation level is obtained with a 40% standard deviation for fixed applied acoustic intensities in the range [0.01 3.44] W/cm2, the regulated generator reproduces the cavitation level with a standard deviation of 3%. The results show that the hydroxyl radical production is better correlated with the cavitation level setting than with the applied acoustic intensity, highlighting the fact that broadband noise is a good indicator of inertial cavitation, with greatest interest for cavitation monitoring. In summary, the regulated device generates a cavitation level that is reproducible, repeatable and stable in time. This system produces reproducible effects that allow consideration of biological applications such as sonoporation to be independent of the experimental ultrasound device, as confirmed by transfection efficiency and cell cytotoxicity studies. Thus, this feedback loop process presents interesting perspectives for monitoring and controlling in-vivo cavitation.

  12. Possible mechanism of action of 2-hydroxylated estradiol on the positive feedback control for LH release in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ladosky, W; Azambuja, H M; Schneider, H T

    1983-07-01

    Evidence was given to support a positive role of 2-hydroxyestradiol on the LH surge. The catecholestrogen may act by its catechol A ring on the nucleus arcuatus COMT, consequently leaving the noradrenaline free. The result may be a longer action on the peptidergic terminal in the median eminence and an increase in the LH secretion by the pituitary. This assumption is supported by the observations that the catecholestrogen effect can be mimicked by homocystein, an aminoacid able also to inhibit COMT activity, having neither a steroid nor a catechol structure. The fact that alpha-MIT is able to prevent homocystein-induced increase in LH suggests that it is acting by protecting the local increase of the catecholamine. After ten years of intensive effort to understand the possible physiological role of the catecholestrogens, attention was mostly paid to its structural similarity to estrogen and a great deal of effort was made to understand its function by acting upon the estrogen receptor in the cytosol. The evidence for catecholestrogen action upon COMT, an outside membrane enzyme involved in the process of catecholamine degradation, supports the idea of a catechol action for 2-OHE2. The present evidence strongly supports the physiological importance of the catechol group in the 2-OHE2 in its action mechanism. However, a true physiological role for the catecholestrogens remains to be solved. The evidence we bring confirms once more that catecholestrogens may have a function and explains a new mechanism of action. However, the basic question concerning the true amount of catecholestrogen existing in the hypothalamic nuclei, either brought by the blood stream or locally produced, still needs to be solved: we cannot say whether the mechanism we described is a functioning one, whether it is just brought about by the experimental increase of the catecholestrogen or the artificial blockage of COMT.

  13. Mechanisms of fusicoccin action: evidence for concerted modulations of secondary K(+) transport in a higher plant cell.

    PubMed

    Clint, G M; Blatt, M R

    1989-12-01

    Fusicoccin (FC) has long been known to promote K(+) uptake in higher plant cells, including stomatal guard cells, yet the precise mechanism behind this enhancement remains uncertain. Membrane hyperpolarization, thought to arise from primary H(+) pumping stimulated in FC, could help drive K(+) uptake, but the extent to which FC stimulates influx and uptake frequently exceeds any reasonable estimates from Constant Field Theory based on changes in the free-running membrane potential (V m) alone; furthermore, unidirectional flux analyses have shown that in the toxin K(+) ((86)Rb(+)) exchange plummets to 10% of the control (G.M. Clint and E.A.C. MacRobbie 1984, J. Exp. Bot.35 180-192). Thus, the activities of specific pathways for K(+) movement across the membrane could be modified in FC. We have explored a role for K(+) channels in mediating these fluxes in guard cells ofVicia faba L. The correspondence between FC-induced changes in chemical ((86)Rb(+)) flux and in electrical current under voltage clamp was followed, using the K(+) channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) to probe tracer and charge movement through K(+)-selective channels. Parallel flux and electrical measurements were carried out when cells showed little evidence of primary pump activity, thus simplifying analyses. Under these conditions, outward-directed K(+) channel current contributed appreciably to charge balance maintainingV m, and adding 10 mM TEA to block the current depolarized (positive-going)V m; TEA also reduced(86)Rb(+) efflux by 68-80%. Following treatments with 10 μM FC, both K(+) channel current and(86)Rb(+) efflux decayed, irreversbly and without apparent lag, to 10%-15% of the controls and with equivalent half-times (approx. 4 min). Fusicoccin also enhanced(86)Rb(+) influx by 13.9-fold, but the influx proved largely insensitive to TEA. Overall, FC promotednet cation uptake in 0.1 mM K(+) (Rb(+)), despite membrane potentials which were 30-60 mVpositive of the K(+) equilibrium

  14. Sharing Control: Developing Research Literacy through Community-Based Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juergensmeyer, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests that the methodology of community-based action research provides concrete strategies for fostering effective community problem solving. To argue for a community research pedagogy, the author draws upon past and present scholarship in action research and participatory action research, experiences teaching an undergraduate…

  15. On the evidence for human use and control of fire at Schöningen.

    PubMed

    Stahlschmidt, Mareike C; Miller, Christopher E; Ligouis, Bertrand; Hambach, Ulrich; Goldberg, Paul; Berna, Francesco; Richter, Daniel; Urban, Brigitte; Serangeli, Jordi; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    When and how humans began to control fire has been a central debate in Paleolithic archaeology for decades. Fire plays an important role in technology, social organization, subsistence, and manipulation of the environment and is widely seen as a necessary adaptation for the colonization of northern latitudes. Many researchers view purported hearths, burnt wooden implements, and heated flints from Schöningen as providing the best evidence for the control of fire in the Lower Paleolithic of Northern Europe. Here we present results of a multianalytical study of the purported hearths along with a critical examination of other possible evidence of human use or control of fire at Schöningen. We conclude that the analyzed features and artifacts present no convincing evidence for human use or control of fire. Our study also shows that a multianalytical, micro-contextual approach is the best methodology for evaluating claims of early evidence of human-controlled fire. We advise caution with macroscopic, qualitative identification of combustion features, burnt flint, and burnt wood without the application of such techniques as micromorphology, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, organic petrology, luminescence, and analysis of mineral magnetic parameters. The lack of evidence for the human control of fire at Schöningen raises the possibility that fire control was not a necessary adaptation for the human settlement of northern latitudes in the Lower Paleolithic. PMID:26087650

  16. On the evidence for human use and control of fire at Schöningen.

    PubMed

    Stahlschmidt, Mareike C; Miller, Christopher E; Ligouis, Bertrand; Hambach, Ulrich; Goldberg, Paul; Berna, Francesco; Richter, Daniel; Urban, Brigitte; Serangeli, Jordi; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    When and how humans began to control fire has been a central debate in Paleolithic archaeology for decades. Fire plays an important role in technology, social organization, subsistence, and manipulation of the environment and is widely seen as a necessary adaptation for the colonization of northern latitudes. Many researchers view purported hearths, burnt wooden implements, and heated flints from Schöningen as providing the best evidence for the control of fire in the Lower Paleolithic of Northern Europe. Here we present results of a multianalytical study of the purported hearths along with a critical examination of other possible evidence of human use or control of fire at Schöningen. We conclude that the analyzed features and artifacts present no convincing evidence for human use or control of fire. Our study also shows that a multianalytical, micro-contextual approach is the best methodology for evaluating claims of early evidence of human-controlled fire. We advise caution with macroscopic, qualitative identification of combustion features, burnt flint, and burnt wood without the application of such techniques as micromorphology, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, organic petrology, luminescence, and analysis of mineral magnetic parameters. The lack of evidence for the human control of fire at Schöningen raises the possibility that fire control was not a necessary adaptation for the human settlement of northern latitudes in the Lower Paleolithic.

  17. Precision Medicine Intelligence - evidence scoring evaluating the clinical actionability of BRAF V600E in multiple non-melanoma solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, A

    2016-07-01

    With the ever-increasing growth of next-generation sequencing literature, how can researchers and clinicians assess clinical actionability and utility and objectively assign confidence to gene variant-phenotype associations? This article presents an informatics solution for clinical interpretation of patient-derived genomic and molecular data containing manually curated scientific evidence supporting gene variant-disease and -drug response phenotypes in somatic cancers. An algorithm for direct evidence scoring will be used to demonstrate the diverse utility of BRAF V600E in treating many common cancers.

  18. [Consequences for health policy on zoonosis control--national and international actions].

    PubMed

    Kothmann, G

    1999-08-01

    A review is given on the current state of German and European legislation concerning the control of zoonotic diseases. In the past considerable success was achieved when eliminating or reducing zoonosis such as brucellosis or tuberculosis in Germany and in Europe. Today foodborne infections such as salmonellosis or EHEC are dominating. A series of seven different federal laws and their legal regulations are involved in zoonosis control in Germany. In Europe the Council Directive 92/117/EEC, amended by directive 97/22/EU represents a framework for all Member States which have to deliver yearly trend reports on the sources of infections from areas such as human medicine, veterinary medicine and feed production. The data reports are concentrating on salmonellosis, tuberculosis, brucellosis and trichinellosis. Some data are given on the incidence of human salmonellosis in the Member States. There are existing two European reference laboratories for zoonotic diseases and six national labs in Germany. The aim of the new strategy is to fight the infectious agents of zoonotic diseases on farm level already. The most urgent task is to amend and adapt the directive for zoonosis. The necessary actions are under way on European level. PMID:10488644

  19. Biological actions of silver nanoparticles embedded in titanium controlled by micro-galvanic effects.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Xuanyong; Meng, Fanhao; Chu, Paul K

    2011-01-01

    Titanium embedded with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using a single step silver plasma immersion ion implantation (Ag-PIII) demonstrate micro-galvanic effects that give rise to both controlled antibacterial activity and excellent compatibility with osteoblasts. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that nanoparticles with average sizes of about 5 nm and 8 nm are formed homogeneously on the titanium surface after undergoing Ag-PIII for 0.5 h and 1 h, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate that those nanoparticles are metallic silver produced on and underneath the titanium surface via a local nucleation process from the solid solution of α-Ti(Ag). The Ag-PIII samples inhibit the growth of both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli while enhancing proliferation of the osteoblast-like cell line MG63. Electrochemical polarization and Zeta potential measurements demonstrate that the low surface toxicity and good cytocompatibility are related to the micro-galvanic effect between the Ag NPs and titanium matrix. Our results show that the physico-chemical properties of the Ag NPs are important in the control of the cytotoxicity and this study opens a new window for the design of nanostructured surfaces on which the biological actions of the Ag NPs can be accurately tailored.

  20. Evidence and decision making: tobacco control policy and legislation in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Hideki; Khuong, Tuan A; Ngo, Anh D; Hill, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) in Vietnam is currently drafting the Tobacco Harm Prevention Law. The government requested the MOH to provide evidence on the strategies proposed in the draft law as part of its submission to the National Assembly. This study examines the availability and strength of evidence and its relationship to policy stakeholders' positions towards policy instruments proposed in the law. Several qualitative methods were employed including documentary analysis, key informant interviews, focus group discussion and a key stakeholders' survey. Contradictory findings were identified over the role of evidence. While there is high demand for local evidence, the availability and strength of evidence are not always aligned with stakeholders' positions with respect to different strategies. Stakeholders' positions are shaped by competing interests on the basis of their perceptions of the socioeconomic implications and health consequences of tobacco control. Claims of limited availability of evidence are often used to justify the maintenance of the status quo, a position that is seen to protect the state-owned tobacco industry and state revenue. Local evidence of the impact of tobacco on population health is argued to be 'one-sided' and evidence of selected interventions discounted. Compelling and comprehensive local evidence, including those addressing economic concerns, is acutely needed in order to proceed with the current legislation process. For evidence to play a critical role, it needs to engage those ministries responsible for the tobacco industry itself and the economic development.

  1. Evidence and decision making: tobacco control policy and legislation in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Hideki; Khuong, Tuan A; Ngo, Anh D; Hill, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) in Vietnam is currently drafting the Tobacco Harm Prevention Law. The government requested the MOH to provide evidence on the strategies proposed in the draft law as part of its submission to the National Assembly. This study examines the availability and strength of evidence and its relationship to policy stakeholders' positions towards policy instruments proposed in the law. Several qualitative methods were employed including documentary analysis, key informant interviews, focus group discussion and a key stakeholders' survey. Contradictory findings were identified over the role of evidence. While there is high demand for local evidence, the availability and strength of evidence are not always aligned with stakeholders' positions with respect to different strategies. Stakeholders' positions are shaped by competing interests on the basis of their perceptions of the socioeconomic implications and health consequences of tobacco control. Claims of limited availability of evidence are often used to justify the maintenance of the status quo, a position that is seen to protect the state-owned tobacco industry and state revenue. Local evidence of the impact of tobacco on population health is argued to be 'one-sided' and evidence of selected interventions discounted. Compelling and comprehensive local evidence, including those addressing economic concerns, is acutely needed in order to proceed with the current legislation process. For evidence to play a critical role, it needs to engage those ministries responsible for the tobacco industry itself and the economic development. PMID:22859376

  2. Top-Down Control of Visual Alpha Oscillations: Sources of Control Signals and Their Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Rajagovindan, Rajasimhan; Han, Sahng-Min; Ding, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Alpha oscillations (8-12 Hz) are thought to inversely correlate with cortical excitability. Goal-oriented modulation of alpha has been studied extensively. In visual spatial attention, alpha over the region of visual cortex corresponding to the attended location decreases, signifying increased excitability to facilitate the processing of impending stimuli. In contrast, in retention of verbal working memory, alpha over visual cortex increases, signifying decreased excitability to gate out stimulus input to protect the information held online from sensory interference. According to the prevailing model, this goal-oriented biasing of sensory cortex is effected by top-down control signals from frontal and parietal cortices. The present study tests and substantiates this hypothesis by (a) identifying the signals that mediate the top-down biasing influence, (b) examining whether the cortical areas issuing these signals are task-specific or task-independent, and (c) establishing the possible mechanism of the biasing action. High-density human EEG data were recorded in two experimental paradigms: a trial-by-trial cued visual spatial attention task and a modified Sternberg working memory task. Applying Granger causality to both sensor-level and source-level data we report the following findings. In covert visual spatial attention, the regions exerting top-down control over visual activity are lateralized to the right hemisphere, with the dipoles located at the right frontal eye field (FEF) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) being the main sources of top-down influences. During retention of verbal working memory, the regions exerting top-down control over visual activity are lateralized to the left hemisphere, with the dipoles located at the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) being the main source of top-down influences. In both experiments, top-down influences are mediated by alpha oscillations, and the biasing effect is likely achieved via an inhibition

  3. Amiloride Clinical Trial In Optic Neuritis (ACTION) protocol: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Justin B; Elston, John; Evangelou, Nikos; Gerry, Stephen; Fugger, Lars; Kennard, Christopher; Kong, Yazhuo; Palace, Jacqueline; Craner, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neurodegeneration is a widely accepted contributor to the development of long-term disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). While current therapies in MS predominantly target inflammation and reduce relapse rate they have been less effective at preventing long-term disability. The identification and evaluation of effective neuroprotective therapies within a trial paradigm are key unmet needs. Emerging evidence supports amiloride, a licenced diuretic, as a neuroprotective agent in MS through acid sensing ion channel blockade. Optic neuritis (ON) is a common manifestation of MS with correlates of inflammation and neurodegeneration measurable within the visual pathways. Amiloride Clinical Trial In Optic Neuritis (ACTION) will utilise a multimodal approach to assess the neuroprotective efficacy of amiloride in acute ON. Methods and analysis 46 patients will be recruited within 28 days from onset of ON visual symptoms and randomised on a 1:1 basis to placebo or amiloride 10 mg daily. Double-blinded treatment groups will be balanced for age, sex and visual loss severity by a random-deterministic minimisation algorithm. The primary objective is to demonstrate that amiloride is neuroprotective in ON as assessed by scanning laser polarimetry of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness at 6 months in the affected eye compared to the unaffected eye at baseline. RNFL in combination with further retinal measures will also be assessed by optical coherence tomography. Secondary outcome measures on brain MRI will include cortical volume, diffusion-weighted imaging, resting state functional MRI, MR spectroscopy and magnetisation transfer ratio. In addition, high and low contrast visual acuity, visual fields, colour vision and electrophysiology will be assessed alongside quality of life measures. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was given by the south central Oxford B research ethics committee (REC reference: 13/SC/0022). The findings

  4. Executive Control of Language in the Bilingual Brain: Integrating the Evidence from Neuroimaging to Neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis Georges; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Golestani, Narly

    2011-01-01

    In this review we will focus on delineating the neural substrates of the executive control of language in the bilingual brain, based on the existing neuroimaging, intracranial, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and neuropsychological evidence. We will also offer insights from ongoing brain-imaging studies into the development of expertise in multilingual language control. We will concentrate specifically on evidence regarding how the brain selects and controls languages for comprehension and production. This question has been addressed in a number of ways and using various tasks, including language switching during production or perception, translation, and interpretation. We will attempt to synthesize existing evidence in order to bring to light the neural substrates that are crucial to executive control of language. PMID:21954391

  5. [Mechanism of action and control in the digestion of proteins and peptides in humans].

    PubMed

    Frenhani, P B; Burini, R C

    1999-01-01

    This review aims to report the major control mechanisms of protein and peptides digestion of special interest in human patients. Regarding protein assimilation its digestive process begins at the stomach with some not so indispensable actions comparatively to those of duodenal/jejunal lumen. However even the intestine processes are partially under gastric secretion control. Proteolytic enzyme activities are related to protein structure and amino acid constituents, tertiary and quartenary structures need HCl denaturation prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Thereafter the exopeptidases are guided by either NH2 (aminopeptidases) or COOH (carboxypeptidases) terminals of the molecule while endopeptidases are oriented by the specific amino acids constituents of the peptide. Both dietary and luminal secreted proteins and polypeptides undergo to either limited or complete proteolysis resulting basic or neutral free-amino acids (40%) or dioctapeptides. The brush border peptidases continue to degrade oligopeptide to di-tripeptides and neutral free-amino acids. Some peptides are uptaked by the enterocytes whose cytosolic peptidases complete the hydrolysis. Hence the digestive products flowing in the portal vein are mainly free-amino acids from either luminal or cytosolic hydrolysis and some di-tripeptides intactly absorbed. Both mechanical and chemical processes of digestion are under neural (vagal), neuroendocrinal (acetilcholine), endocrinal (gastrin, secretin and cholecystokinin) or paracrinal (histamine) controls. The gastric phase (hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen secretions) is activated by gastrin, histamine and acetilcholine which respond to both dietary-amino acids (tryptophan and phenylalanine) and mechanic distention of stomach. The pancreatic secretion is stimulated by either cephalic or gastric phases and has influence on the intestinal phase of digestion. The intestinal types of cells S and I release secretin and cholecystokinin respectively in response of acid quimo

  6. Is the Motor System Necessary for Processing Action and Abstract Emotion Words? Evidence from Focal Brain Lesions.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Felix R; Frey, Dietmar; Arana, Sophie; von Saldern, Sarah; Picht, Thomas; Vajkoczy, Peter; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas, contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. Still, a possible role of sensorimotor areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. Recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g., "love") which resembles activation patterns seen for action words. But are the activated areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded Lexical Decision Task on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories - related to food, animals, tools, and abstract-emotional concepts - was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor systems next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left supplementary motor area was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or 'epiphenomenal' to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into modality

  7. Is the Motor System Necessary for Processing Action and Abstract Emotion Words? Evidence from Focal Brain Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Felix R.; Frey, Dietmar; Arana, Sophie; von Saldern, Sarah; Picht, Thomas; Vajkoczy, Peter; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas, contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. Still, a possible role of sensorimotor areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. Recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g., “love”) which resembles activation patterns seen for action words. But are the activated areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded Lexical Decision Task on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories – related to food, animals, tools, and abstract-emotional concepts – was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor systems next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left supplementary motor area was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or ‘epiphenomenal’ to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into

  8. The effect of behavioral preferences on skill acquisition in determining unspecified, suitable action patterns to control humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Taiki; Watanabe, Tetsuyou

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the effect of behavioral preferences on learning efficiency when attempting to determine unspecified, but suitable action sequences for unfamiliar tasks. The goal of this research was to develop a skill acquisition support system for the elderly to aid them in using unfamiliar IT products, particularly those of welfare systems. Here, behavioral preference is defined as the type of action sequences that people would prefer to adopt for completing unfamiliar tasks. To achieve this goal, this research investigated the action sequences of participants when they attempt to control the posture of an unfamiliar humanoid robot with an unfamiliar controller. The participants were assigned the task of making the humanoid stand on one foot. Machine-learning-based methods were presented for analyzing the behavioral preferences. The analysis results indicate that participants having behavioral preferences of adopting random action sequences can complete the task in a much shorter time, compared to participants having a behavioral preference of adopting action sequences similar to those of previous actions.

  9. Effects of being imitated on motor responses evoked by pain observation: exerting control determines action tendencies when perceiving pain in others.

    PubMed

    De Coster, Lize; Andres, Michael; Brass, Marcel

    2014-05-14

    Brain-imaging research has shown that experiencing pain oneself and perceiving pain in others lead to a similar pattern of activation, suggesting that the latter is based on internal simulation of the observed pain. Further evidence for this idea stems from transcranial magnetic stimulation measuring corticospinal excitability (CSE). It has been demonstrated that our motor cortex is involved whenever we observe another person receiving painful stimulation to the hand (Avenanti et al., 2005). However, both decreases and increases of CSE have been described during pain observation, so the exact nature of these CSE changes has remained unclear so far. In the present study, we hypothesized that CSE changes are determined by the control that the observer has over the hand that receives painful stimulation. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the control over the observed hand using a paradigm in which participants' movements are being imitated by a hand on screen-giving them full control over the hand-or not. Consistent with previous results, we evidenced a decrease in CSE when participants experienced no control over the hand that received painful stimulation. In contrast, inducing control resulted in an increase in CSE. We conclude that exerting control over the observed hand leads to a completely altered action tendency. Whereas an anesthetic response is typically observed in the absence of control, increasing control induces motor facilitation reminiscent of preparation of an avoidance response. PMID:24828648

  10. Action of Systemic Nematicides in Control of Xiphinema iindex on Grape.

    PubMed

    Hafez, S L; Raski, D J; Lear, B

    1981-01-01

    In greenhouse tests using potted grape plants three nematicides, aldicarb 10 G at 4.5 ai/ha, phenamiphos 15 G at 22 kg ai/ha, and oxamyl liquid at 4.5 kg ai/ha, were tested against Xiphinema index on 'Thompson Seedless' grape. Different timings for chemical treatments and X. index inoculations were used to determine some of the aspects of the mode of action. When nematodes and nematicides were applied simultaneously, nematodes were reduced from the initial 500 to the averages 5, 1, and 4, respectively, for aldicarb, phenamiphos, and oxamyl. Similar counts (respectively, 3, 1, and 2) were obtained when the nematicides were added first and the nematodes 14 d later. Nematode counts were 83, 112, and 1,346 when nematicides were applied first, and 14 days later plants were washed free of soil, repotted in untreated soil, and then inoculated. In untreated controls the population increased to an average of 2,703. Plant growth was inversely related to the level of nematode population resulting from the treatment.

  11. An ERK/Cdk5 axis controls the diabetogenic actions of PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Banks, Alexander S; McAllister, Fiona E; Camporez, João Paulo G; Zushin, Peter-James H; Jurczak, Michael J; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Shulman, Gerald I; Gygi, Steven P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2015-01-15

    Obesity-linked insulin resistance is a major precursor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Previous work has shown that phosphorylation of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) at serine 273 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) stimulates diabetogenic gene expression in adipose tissues. Inhibition of this modification is a key therapeutic mechanism for anti-diabetic drugs that bind PPARγ, such as the thiazolidinediones and PPARγ partial agonists or non-agonists. For a better understanding of the importance of this obesity-linked PPARγ phosphorylation, we created mice that ablated Cdk5 specifically in adipose tissues. These mice have both a paradoxical increase in PPARγ phosphorylation at serine 273 and worsened insulin resistance. Unbiased proteomic studies show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinases are activated in these knockout animals. Here we show that ERK directly phosphorylates serine 273 of PPARγ in a robust manner and that Cdk5 suppresses ERKs through direct action on a novel site in MAP kinase/ERK kinase (MEK). Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of MEK and ERK markedly improves insulin resistance in both obese wild-type and ob/ob mice, and also completely reverses the deleterious effects of the Cdk5 ablation. These data show that an ERK/Cdk5 axis controls PPARγ function and suggest that MEK/ERK inhibitors may hold promise for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25409143

  12. Effectiveness of female controlled barrier methods in preventing sexually transmitted infections and HIV: current evidence and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    Minnis, A; Padian, N

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of female controlled physical and chemical barrier methods in preventing STI/HIV transmission, to examine recent reviews on microbicide development, and to highlight promising research directions. To discuss challenges in conducting effectiveness research and in translating results to public health intervention. Methods: Systematic review of articles that examined the disease prevention effectiveness of at least one female controlled barrier method. Review of conference abstracts that presented clinical and preclinical microbicide data. Results: Randomised controlled trials provide evidence that female condoms confer as much protection from STIs as male condoms. Observational studies suggest that the diaphragm protects against STI pathogens. Several microbicide effectiveness studies are under way and new directions, such as adaptation of therapeutic agents as preventive products, are being examined. Substantial attention is now given to product formulation and novel delivery strategies. Combining microbicide products with different mechanisms of action as well as combining chemical and physical barriers will be necessary to maximise prevention effectiveness. Conclusions: Increased investment in the development and identification of female controlled barrier methods offers promise that additional products will be available in the years ahead. Generalising trial results to a community setting, promoting products that may be less effective than male condoms, and bringing an effective product to scale introduce public health challenges that warrant attention. The need for female controlled barrier methods that provide women with the opportunity to take an active role in reducing their STI/HIV risk are urgently needed and constitute an essential tool to prevent continued spread of these infections. PMID:15923284

  13. Building the evidence base for effective tobacco control policies: the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (the ITC Project).

    PubMed

    Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Shopland, D R

    2006-06-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a seminal event in tobacco control and in global health. Scientific evidence guided the creation of the FCTC, and as the treaty moves into its implementation phase, scientific evidence can be used to guide the formulation of evidence-based tobacco control policies. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project) is a transdisciplinary international collaboration of tobacco control researchers who have created research studies to evaluate and understand the psychosocial and behavioural impact of FCTC policies as they are implemented in participating ITC countries, which together are inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers. This introduction to the ITC Project supplement of Tobacco Control presents a brief outline of the ITC Project, including a summary of key findings to date. The overall conceptual model and methodology of the ITC Project--involving representative national cohort surveys created from a common conceptual model, with common methods and measures across countries--may hold promise as a useful paradigm in efforts to evaluate and understand the impact of population-based interventions in other important domains of health, such as obesity. PMID:16754940

  14. Interactions between wave action and grazing control the distribution of intertidal macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Per R; Granhag, Lena; Moschella, Paula S; Aberg, Per; Hawkins, Stephen J; Thompson, Richard C

    2006-05-01

    Canopy-forming macroalgae are key species on temperate rocky shores. However, there is a lack of understanding of how the relative balance of physical and biological factors controls the establishment and persistence of intertidal macroalgae. Here we present an integrated study of the relative importance of wave-induced forces and grazing for the recruitment and survival of the canopy-forming intertidal macroalgae Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis. A set of overtopped breakwaters provided a nearly unconfounded gradient in wave exposure between seaward and landward sides. A biomechanical analysis was performed based on empirical measurements of maximum drag forces in breaking waves, a model of long-term maximum wave height, and the breaking stress of Fucus spp. The estimated maximum flow speed (7-8 m/s) on the seaward side of the breakwaters was predicted to completely dislodge or prune Fucus spp. larger than approximately 10 cm, while dislodgment was highly unlikely on the landward side for all sizes. Experimental transplantation of Fucus spp. supported the biomechanical analysis but also suggested that mechanical abrasion may further limit survival in wave-exposed locations. Experimental removal of the limpet Patella vulgata, which was the principal grazer at this site, resulted in recruitment of Fucus spp. on the seaward side. We present a model of limpet grazing that indicates that limpet densities >5-20 individuals/m2 provide a proximate mechanism preventing establishment of Fucus spp., whereas wave action >2 m/s reduces persistence through dislodgment and battering. In a conceptual model we further propose that recruitment and survival of juvenile Fucus spp. are controlled indirectly by wave exposure through higher limpet densities at exposed locations. This model predicts that climate change, and in particular an increased frequency of storm events in the northeast Atlantic, will restrict fucoids to more sheltered locations. PMID:16761596

  15. Additional Evidence of the Trypanocidal Action of (−)-Elatol on Amastigote Forms through the Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Desoti, Vânia Cristina; Lazarin-Bidóia, Danielle; Sudatti, Daniela Bueno; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Ueda-Nakamura, Tania; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli

    2014-01-01

    Chagas’ disease, a vector-transmitted infectious disease, is caused by the protozoa parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Drugs that are currently available for the treatment of this disease are unsatisfactory, making the search for new chemotherapeutic agents a priority. We recently described the trypanocidal action of (−)-elatol, extracted from the macroalga Laurencia dendroidea. However, nothing has been described about the mechanism of action of this compound on amastigotes that are involved in the chronic phase of Chagas’ disease. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of (−)-elatol on the formation of superoxide anions (O2•−), DNA fragmentation, and autophagy in amastigotes of T. cruzi to elucidate the possible mechanism of the trypanocidal action of (−)-elatol. Treatment of the amastigotes with (−)-elatol increased the formation of O2•− at all concentrations of (−)-elatol assayed compared with untreated parasites. Increased fluorescence was observed in parasites treated with (−)-elatol, indicating DNA fragmentation and the formation of autophagic compartments. The results suggest that the trypanocidal action of (−)-elatol might involve the induction of the autophagic and apoptotic death pathways triggered by an imbalance of the parasite’s redox metabolism. PMID:25257785

  16. Using Data Comparison and Interpretation to Develop Procedural Understandings in the Primary Classroom: Case Study Evidence from Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Paul; Siraj-Blatchford, John

    2006-01-01

    The development of a science education that includes a focus upon the nature of science suggests the need for "pedagogic tools" that can be used to engage children with the procedural understandings that are central to the scientific approach to enquiry. This paper reports on a collaborative action research project that focused on the use of…

  17. Signed language and human action processing: evidence for functional constraints on the human mirror-neuron system.

    PubMed

    Corina, David P; Knapp, Heather Patterson

    2008-12-01

    In the quest to further understand the neural underpinning of human communication, researchers have turned to studies of naturally occurring signed languages used in Deaf communities. The comparison of the commonalities and differences between spoken and signed languages provides an opportunity to determine core neural systems responsible for linguistic communication independent of the modality in which a language is expressed. The present article examines such studies, and in addition asks what we can learn about human languages by contrasting formal visual-gestural linguistic systems (signed languages) with more general human action perception. To understand visual language perception, it is important to distinguish the demands of general human motion processing from the highly task-dependent demands associated with extracting linguistic meaning from arbitrary, conventionalized gestures. This endeavor is particularly important because theorists have suggested close homologies between perception and production of actions and functions of human language and social communication. We review recent behavioral, functional imaging, and neuropsychological studies that explore dissociations between the processing of human actions and signed languages. These data suggest incomplete overlap between the mirror-neuron systems proposed to mediate human action and language.

  18. Bacteriocins: modes of action and potentials in food preservation and control of food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Abee, T; Krockel, L; Hill, C

    1995-12-01

    -negative bacteria possess an additional layer, the so-called outer membrane which is composed of phospholipids, proteins and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and this membrane is impermeable to most molecules. Nevertheless, the presence of porins in this layer will allow the free diffusion of molecules with a molecular mass below 600 Da. The smallest bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria are approximately 3 kDa and are thus too large to reach their target, the cytoplasmic membrane (Klaenhammer, 1993; Stiles and Hastings, 1991). However, Stevens et al. (1991) and Ray (1993) have demonstrated that Salmonella species and other Gram-negative bacteria become sensitive to nisin after exposure to treatments that change the permeability barrier properties of the outer membrane (see below). This review will focus on the mode of action of lantibiotics (class I) and class II LAB bacteriocins and their potentials in food preservation and control of food poisoning.

  19. Exam Preparation: The Influence of Action Control, Procrastination and Examination Experience on Students' Goal Intention and Implementation Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In the framework of the intention-behavior-gap analysis in relation to exam preparation I examined whether intention--subdivided into goal and implementation intention--is influenced directly by the determinants action control, procrastination and examination experience which is consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior and…

  20. Coding Controlled and Triggered Cursor Movements as Action Effects: Influences on the Auditory Simon Effect for Wheel-Rotation Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dong-Yuan Debbie; Procter, Robert W.; Pick, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments investigated influences of irrelevant action effects on response selection in Simon tasks for which tone pitch was relevant and location irrelevant, and responses were clockwise-counterclockwise wheel rotations. When the wheel controlled left-right movement of a cursor in a direction opposite an instructed left-right hand-movement…

  1. Religion and Action Control: Faith-Specific Modulation of the Simon Effect but Not Stop-Signal Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Scorolli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that religion has a specific impact on attentional processes. Here we show that religion also affects action control. Experiment 1 compared Dutch Calvinists and Dutch atheists, matched for age, sex, intelligence, education, and cultural and socio-economic background, and Experiment 2 compared Italian Catholics with…

  2. Action Control, Motivated Strategies, and Integrative Motivation as Predictors of Language Learning Affect and the Intention to Continue Learning French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Blackie, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the relative ability of variables from three motivational frameworks to predict four non-linguistic outcomes of language learning. The study examines Action Control Theory with its measures of (1) hesitation, (2) volatility and (3) rumination. The study also examined Pintrich's expectancy-value model that uses measures…

  3. Breaking a habit: a further role of the phonological loop in action control.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Erina; Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J; Saito, Satoru

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has suggested that keeping track of a task goal in rapid task switching may depend on the phonological loop component of working memory. In this study, we investigated whether the phonological loop plays a similar role when a single switch extending over several trials is required after many trials on which one has performed a competing task. Participants were shown pairs of digits varying in numerical and physical size, and they were required to decide which digit was numerically or physically larger. An experimental cycle consisted of four blocks of 24 trials. In Experiment 1, participants in the task change groups performed the numerical-size judgment task during the first three blocks, and then changed to the physical-size judgment task in the fourth. Participants in the continuation groups performed only the physical-size judgment task throughout all four blocks. We found negative effects of articulatory suppression on the fourth block, but only in the task change groups. Experiment 2 was a replication, with the modification that both groups received identical instructions and practice. Experiment 3 was a further replication using numerical-size judgment as the target task. The results showed a pattern similar to that from Experiment 1, with negative effects of articulatory suppression found only in the task change group. The congruity of numerical and physical size had a reliable effect on performance in all three experiments, but unlike the task change, it did not reliably interact with articulatory suppression. The results suggest that in addition to its well-established role in rapid task switching, the phonological loop also contributes to active goal maintenance in longer-term action control. PMID:23595305

  4. Different mechanisms for role relations versus verb-action congruence effects: evidence from ERPs in picture-sentence verification.

    PubMed

    Knoeferle, Pia; Urbach, Thomas P; Kutas, Marta

    2014-10-01

    Extant accounts of visually situated language processing do make general predictions about visual context effects on incremental sentence comprehension; these, however, are not sufficiently detailed to accommodate potentially different visual context effects (such as a scene-sentence mismatch based on actions versus thematic role relations, e.g., (Altmann & Kamide, 2007; Knoeferle & Crocker, 2007; Taylor & Zwaan, 2008; Zwaan & Radvansky, 1998)). To provide additional data for theory testing and development, we collected event-related brain potentials (ERPs) as participants read a subject-verb-object sentence (500 ms SOA in Experiment 1 and 300 ms SOA in Experiment 2), and post-sentence verification times indicating whether or not the verb and/or the thematic role relations matched a preceding picture (depicting two participants engaged in an action). Though incrementally processed, these two types of mismatch yielded different ERP effects. Role-relation mismatch effects emerged at the subject noun as anterior negativities to the mismatching noun, preceding action mismatch effects manifest as centro-parietal N400s greater to the mismatching verb, regardless of SOAs. These two types of mismatch manipulations also yielded different effects post-verbally, correlated differently with a participant's mean accuracy, verbal working memory and visual-spatial scores, and differed in their interactions with SOA. Taken together these results clearly implicate more than a single mismatch mechanism for extant accounts of picture-sentence processing to accommodate.

  5. Translating working memory into action: behavioral and neural evidence for using motor representations in encoding visuo-spatial sequences.

    PubMed

    Langner, Robert; Sternkopf, Melanie A; Kellermann, Tanja S; Grefkes, Christian; Kurth, Florian; Schneider, Frank; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-07-01

    The neurobiological organization of action-oriented working memory is not well understood. To elucidate the neural correlates of translating visuo-spatial stimulus sequences into delayed (memory-guided) sequential actions, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants encoded sequences of four to seven dots appearing on fingers of a left or right schematic hand. After variable delays, sequences were to be reproduced with the corresponding fingers. Recall became less accurate with longer sequences and was initiated faster after long delays. Across both hands, encoding and recall activated bilateral prefrontal, premotor, superior and inferior parietal regions as well as the basal ganglia, whereas hand-specific activity was found (albeit to a lesser degree during encoding) in contralateral premotor, sensorimotor, and superior parietal cortex. Activation differences after long versus short delays were restricted to motor-related regions, indicating that rehearsal during long delays might have facilitated the conversion of the memorandum into concrete motor programs at recall. Furthermore, basal ganglia activity during encoding selectively predicted correct recall. Taken together, the results suggest that to-be-reproduced visuo-spatial sequences are encoded as prospective action representations (motor intentions), possibly in addition to retrospective sensory codes. Overall, our study supports and extends multi-component models of working memory, highlighting the notion that sensory input can be coded in multiple ways depending on what the memorandum is to be used for.

  6. Different mechanisms for role relations versus verb-action congruence effects: evidence from ERPs in picture-sentence verification.

    PubMed

    Knoeferle, Pia; Urbach, Thomas P; Kutas, Marta

    2014-10-01

    Extant accounts of visually situated language processing do make general predictions about visual context effects on incremental sentence comprehension; these, however, are not sufficiently detailed to accommodate potentially different visual context effects (such as a scene-sentence mismatch based on actions versus thematic role relations, e.g., (Altmann & Kamide, 2007; Knoeferle & Crocker, 2007; Taylor & Zwaan, 2008; Zwaan & Radvansky, 1998)). To provide additional data for theory testing and development, we collected event-related brain potentials (ERPs) as participants read a subject-verb-object sentence (500 ms SOA in Experiment 1 and 300 ms SOA in Experiment 2), and post-sentence verification times indicating whether or not the verb and/or the thematic role relations matched a preceding picture (depicting two participants engaged in an action). Though incrementally processed, these two types of mismatch yielded different ERP effects. Role-relation mismatch effects emerged at the subject noun as anterior negativities to the mismatching noun, preceding action mismatch effects manifest as centro-parietal N400s greater to the mismatching verb, regardless of SOAs. These two types of mismatch manipulations also yielded different effects post-verbally, correlated differently with a participant's mean accuracy, verbal working memory and visual-spatial scores, and differed in their interactions with SOA. Taken together these results clearly implicate more than a single mismatch mechanism for extant accounts of picture-sentence processing to accommodate. PMID:25216075

  7. Chlordiazepoxide enhances the anxiogenic action of CGS 8216 in the social interaction test: evidence for benzodiazepine withdrawal?

    PubMed

    File, S E; Pellow, S

    1985-07-01

    The benzodiazepine receptor 'inverse agonist' CGS 8216 has a specific anxiogenic action in the social interaction test that cannot be reversed by other compounds acting at the benzodiazepine site: Ro 15-1788, FG 7142 or beta-CCE. We tried to reverse the anxiogenic effect with chlordiazepoxide, which is able to antagonise the anxiogenic effects of several other compounds acting at benzodiazepine or related sites. Chlordiazepoxide given acutely (10-20 mg/kg) was unable to antagonise the anxiogenic action of CGS 8216 (5-10 mg/kg); instead there was a tendency to enhance its effects. The effects of chlordiazepoxide after 5 days pretreatment were then assessed, since chronic treatment is necessary to reverse the anxiogenic actions of Ro 15-1788 and Ro 5-4864. At 5 mg/kg chronically, chlordiazepoxide was unable to antagonise the anxiogenic effect of CGS 8216, and at 20 mg/kg there was a significant enhancement of the effects of CGS 8216 on social interaction without an effect on locomotor activity. These results are discussed in terms of withdrawal from benzodiazepine treatment.

  8. A domain-specific system for representing knowledge of both man-made objects and human actions. Evidence from a case with an association of deficits.

    PubMed

    Vannuscorps, Gilles; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-07-01

    We report the single-case study of a brain-damaged individual, JJG, presenting with a conceptual deficit and whose knowledge of living things, man-made objects, and actions was assessed. The aim was to seek for empirical evidence pertaining to the issue of how conceptual knowledge of objects, both living things and man-made objects, is related to conceptual knowledge of actions at the functional level. We first found that JJG's conceptual knowledge of both man-made objects and actions was similarly impaired while his conceptual knowledge of living things was spared as well as his knowledge of unique entities. We then examined whether this pattern of association of a conceptual deficit for both man-made objects and actions could be accounted for, first, by the "sensory/functional" and, second, the "manipulability" account for category-specific conceptual impairments advocated within the Feature-Based-Organization theory of conceptual knowledge organization, by assessing, first, patient's knowledge of sensory compared to functional features, second, his knowledge of manipulation compared to functional features and, third, his knowledge of manipulable compared to non-manipulable objects and actions. The later assessment also allowed us to evaluate an account for the deficits in terms of failures of simulating the hand movements implied by manipulable objects and manual actions. The findings showed that, contrary to the predictions made by the "sensory/functional", the "manipulability", and the "failure-of-simulating" accounts for category-specific conceptual impairments, the patient's association of deficits for both man-made objects and actions was not associated with a disproportionate impairment of functional compared to sensory knowledge or of manipulation compared to functional knowledge; manipulable items were not more impaired than non-manipulable items either. In the general discussion, we propose to account for the patient's association of deficits by the

  9. Challenges and Opportunities for Typhoid Fever Control: A Call for Coordinated Action.

    PubMed

    Steele, A Duncan; Hay Burgess, Deborah C; Diaz, Zoey; Carey, Megan E; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2016-03-15

    The burden of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi is substantial and has high impact in toddlers and young children. This burden is relatively well documented in Asia, and this supplement provides new data on the substantial burden in several sub-Saharan African countries. Challenges in standardized surveillance and imperfect diagnostic tools have resulted in patchy local disease data, which are not well acknowledged or integrated into local country evidence and health awareness for decision making. There is a need to strengthen diagnostics for the generation of burden data in country. Furthermore, the guidelines and training for treatment of enteric fever cases in Africa are sorely needed to help mitigate the inappropriate use of antimicrobial treatment. Classic water safety and access to sanitation development remain powerful tools for the control of typhoid fever, yet the huge economic costs and long timelines are unlikely to provide a short- to middle-term solution. Emerging threats, including multidrug resistance and increasing urbanization in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, warrant focused attention to shorter-term interventions including immunization, and must include vaccine strategies with the new typhoid conjugate vaccines. PMID:26933019

  10. Challenges and Opportunities for Typhoid Fever Control: A Call for Coordinated Action

    PubMed Central

    Steele, A. Duncan; Hay Burgess, Deborah C.; Diaz, Zoey; Carey, Megan E.; Zaidi, Anita K. M.

    2016-01-01

    The burden of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi is substantial and has high impact in toddlers and young children. This burden is relatively well documented in Asia, and this supplement provides new data on the substantial burden in several sub-Saharan African countries. Challenges in standardized surveillance and imperfect diagnostic tools have resulted in patchy local disease data, which are not well acknowledged or integrated into local country evidence and health awareness for decision making. There is a need to strengthen diagnostics for the generation of burden data in country. Furthermore, the guidelines and training for treatment of enteric fever cases in Africa are sorely needed to help mitigate the inappropriate use of antimicrobial treatment. Classic water safety and access to sanitation development remain powerful tools for the control of typhoid fever, yet the huge economic costs and long timelines are unlikely to provide a short- to middle-term solution. Emerging threats, including multidrug resistance and increasing urbanization in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, warrant focused attention to shorter-term interventions including immunization, and must include vaccine strategies with the new typhoid conjugate vaccines. PMID:26933019

  11. Challenges and Opportunities for Typhoid Fever Control: A Call for Coordinated Action.

    PubMed

    Steele, A Duncan; Hay Burgess, Deborah C; Diaz, Zoey; Carey, Megan E; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2016-03-15

    The burden of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi is substantial and has high impact in toddlers and young children. This burden is relatively well documented in Asia, and this supplement provides new data on the substantial burden in several sub-Saharan African countries. Challenges in standardized surveillance and imperfect diagnostic tools have resulted in patchy local disease data, which are not well acknowledged or integrated into local country evidence and health awareness for decision making. There is a need to strengthen diagnostics for the generation of burden data in country. Furthermore, the guidelines and training for treatment of enteric fever cases in Africa are sorely needed to help mitigate the inappropriate use of antimicrobial treatment. Classic water safety and access to sanitation development remain powerful tools for the control of typhoid fever, yet the huge economic costs and long timelines are unlikely to provide a short- to middle-term solution. Emerging threats, including multidrug resistance and increasing urbanization in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, warrant focused attention to shorter-term interventions including immunization, and must include vaccine strategies with the new typhoid conjugate vaccines.

  12. Evidence That Science Locus of Control Orientation Can Be Modified Through Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haury, David L.

    A desire to foster enduring, positive attitudes toward science teaching among elementary school teachers led to a study of self-perceptions. On the basis of evidence for strong links between locus of control orientation and attitudes, an attempt was made to enhance internality through instruction. A quasi-experimental research strategy was…

  13. No Evidence for Threat-Induced Spatial Prioritization of Somatosensory Stimulation during Pain Control Using a Synchrony Judgment Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    Topical research efforts on attention to pain often take a critical look at the modulatory role of top-down factors. For instance, it has been shown that the fearful expectation of pain at a location of the body directs attention towards that body part. In addition, motivated attempts to control this pain were found to modulate this prioritization effect. Such studies have often used a temporal order judgment task, requiring participants to judge the order in which two stimuli are presented by indicating which one they perceived first. As this constitutes a forced-choice response format, such studies may be subject to response bias. The aim of the current study was to address this concern. We used a ternary synchrony judgment paradigm, in which participants judged the order in which two somatosensory stimuli occurred. Critically, participants now also had the option to give a ‘simultaneous’ response when they did not perceive a difference. This way we eliminated the need for guessing, and thus reduced the risk of response bias. One location was threatened with the possibility of pain in half of the trials, as predicted by an auditory cue. Additionally, half of the participants (pain control group) were encouraged to avoid pain stimuli by executing a quick button press. The other half (comparison group) performed a similar action, albeit unrelated to the occurrence of pain. Our data did not support threat-induced spatial prioritization, nor did we find evidence that pain control attempts influenced attention in any way. PMID:27270456

  14. 37 CFR 1.116 - Amendments and affidavits or other evidence after final action and prior to appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN... except as provided in § 1.981 or as permitted by § 41.77(b)(1) of this title. (e) An affidavit or other... evidence is necessary and was not earlier presented. (f) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (e)...

  15. Bacteriocins: modes of action and potentials in food preservation and control of food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Abee, T; Krockel, L; Hill, C

    1995-12-01

    -negative bacteria possess an additional layer, the so-called outer membrane which is composed of phospholipids, proteins and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and this membrane is impermeable to most molecules. Nevertheless, the presence of porins in this layer will allow the free diffusion of molecules with a molecular mass below 600 Da. The smallest bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria are approximately 3 kDa and are thus too large to reach their target, the cytoplasmic membrane (Klaenhammer, 1993; Stiles and Hastings, 1991). However, Stevens et al. (1991) and Ray (1993) have demonstrated that Salmonella species and other Gram-negative bacteria become sensitive to nisin after exposure to treatments that change the permeability barrier properties of the outer membrane (see below). This review will focus on the mode of action of lantibiotics (class I) and class II LAB bacteriocins and their potentials in food preservation and control of food poisoning. PMID:8750665

  16. Evidence for the role of DNA strand passage in the mechanism of action of microcin B17 on DNA gyrase.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Olivier A; Maxwell, Anthony

    2005-03-22

    Microcin B17 (MccB17) is a DNA gyrase poison; in previous work, this bacterial toxin was found to slowly and incompletely inhibit the reactions of supercoiling and relaxation of DNA by gyrase and to stabilize the cleavage complex, depending on the presence of ATP and the DNA topology. We now show that the action of MccB17 on the gyrase ATPase reaction and cleavage complex formation requires a linear DNA fragment of more than 150 base pairs. MccB17 is unable to stimulate the ATPase reaction by stabilizing the weak interactions between short linear DNA fragments (70 base pairs or less) and gyrase, in contrast with the quinolone ciprofloxacin. However, MccB17 can affect the ATP-dependent relaxation of DNA by gyrase lacking its DNA-wrapping or ATPase domains. From these findings, we propose a mode of action of MccB17 requiring a DNA molecule long enough to allow the transport of a segment through the DNA gate of the enzyme. Furthermore, we suggest that MccB17 may trap a transient intermediate state of the gyrase reaction present only during DNA strand passage and enzyme turnover. The proteolytic signature of MccB17 from trypsin treatment of the full enzyme requires DNA and ATP and shows a protection of the C-terminal 47-kDa domain of gyrase, indicating the involvement of this domain in the toxin mode of action and consistent with its proposed role in the mechanism of DNA strand passage. We suggest that the binding site of MccB17 is in the C-terminal domain of GyrB.

  17. An evidence-based vector control strategy for military deployments: the British Army experience.

    PubMed

    Croft, A M; Baker, D; von Bertele, M J

    2001-01-01

    We describe the British Army's current strategy for controlling arthropod vectors of disease during overseas deployments. Military commanders and medical officers have different, but complementary responsibilities in achieving vector control. In this paper we define a hierarchy of evidence-based vector control guidelines. Field guidelines must be based on the best available research evidence, preferably that derived from pragmatic randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and from systematic reviews of trials. Assessing the effectiveness of different vector control measures involves a trade-off between the relative benefits and harm of different technology options. There is compelling scientific evidence that bed nets and screens treated with a pyrethroid insecticide are highly effective in protecting against nocturnally active, anthropophilic arthropods (including ectoparasites), and will reduce the incidence of malaria, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis and Chagas' disease. Etofenprox and deltamethrin are the safest pyrethroids, and permethrin the least safe. Vector control strategies of probable effectiveness are the use of insecticide-treated clothing, the wearing of protective clothing, and the correct use of DEET-based topical insect repellents. Aerosol insecticides are of debatable effectiveness. Other effective vector control measures, of limited usefulness during deployments, include electric fans, mosquito coils/vaporising mats, and smoke. "Biological" vector control measures, and insect buzzers/electrocuters are ineffective. Practical insect avoidance measures, based on an understanding of vector biology, complete the military vector-control arsenal. We conclude that practical insect avoidance measures, combined with pyrethroid-treated nets and clothing, and DEET-based topical repellents, can achieve almost 100% protection against biting arthropods. PMID:11584666

  18. Does self-control improve with practice? Evidence from a six-week training program.

    PubMed

    Miles, Eleanor; Sheeran, Paschal; Baird, Harriet; Macdonald, Ian; Webb, Thomas L; Harris, Peter R

    2016-08-01

    Can self-control be improved through practice? Several studies have found that repeated practice of tasks involving self-control improves performance on other tasks relevant to self-control. However, in many of these studies, improvements after training could be attributable to methodological factors (e.g., passive control conditions). Moreover, the extent to which the effects of training transfer to real-life settings is not yet clear. In the present research, participants (N = 174) completed a 6-week training program of either cognitive or behavioral self-control tasks. We then tested the effects of practice on a range of measures of self-control, including lab-based and real-world tasks. Training was compared with both active and no-contact control conditions. Despite high levels of adherence to the training tasks, there was no effect of training on any measure of self-control. Trained participants did not, for example, show reduced ego depletion effects, become better at overcoming their habits, or report exerting more self-control in everyday life. Moderation analyses found no evidence that training was effective only among particular groups of participants. Bayesian analyses suggested that the data were more consistent with a null effect of training on self-control than with previous estimates of the effect of practice. The implication is that training self-control through repeated practice does not result in generalized improvements in self-control. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Self-regulatory predictors of eating disorder symptoms: Understanding the contributions of action control and willpower beliefs.

    PubMed

    Reese, Elizabeth D; Pollert, Garrett A; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    Action orientation, or the ability to regulate both positive and negative affect to perform goal-directed action, has been associated with eating behavior in previous research. Additionally, differences in beliefs about self-control have been shown to influence behavior, but it is unclear how these beliefs impact disordered eating behavior or how they may interact with other self-regulatory mechanisms to predict eating outcomes. In this study, 1128 participants were recruited online via Amazon Mechanical Turk to answer questions about self-regulation constructs and eating behavior. A three-way moderated regression analysis was used to assess relationships between two subtypes of action orientation (failure-related action orientation, or AOF, which describes an ability to up-regulate positive affect, and decision-related action orientation, or AOD, which describes an ability to down-regulate negative affect), willpower beliefs, and binge eating. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction between AOD, AOF, and willpower beliefs such that the interaction between AOF and willpower beliefs was only significant for those with low AOD. These findings suggest an ability to down-regulate negative affect (high AOF) is a protective factor against increased disordered eating, though this may not be the case for individuals with an inability to up-regulate positive affect (low AOD) and simultaneously ascribe to beliefs that willpower is a limited resource.

  20. Self-regulatory predictors of eating disorder symptoms: Understanding the contributions of action control and willpower beliefs.

    PubMed

    Reese, Elizabeth D; Pollert, Garrett A; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    Action orientation, or the ability to regulate both positive and negative affect to perform goal-directed action, has been associated with eating behavior in previous research. Additionally, differences in beliefs about self-control have been shown to influence behavior, but it is unclear how these beliefs impact disordered eating behavior or how they may interact with other self-regulatory mechanisms to predict eating outcomes. In this study, 1128 participants were recruited online via Amazon Mechanical Turk to answer questions about self-regulation constructs and eating behavior. A three-way moderated regression analysis was used to assess relationships between two subtypes of action orientation (failure-related action orientation, or AOF, which describes an ability to up-regulate positive affect, and decision-related action orientation, or AOD, which describes an ability to down-regulate negative affect), willpower beliefs, and binge eating. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction between AOD, AOF, and willpower beliefs such that the interaction between AOF and willpower beliefs was only significant for those with low AOD. These findings suggest an ability to down-regulate negative affect (high AOF) is a protective factor against increased disordered eating, though this may not be the case for individuals with an inability to up-regulate positive affect (low AOD) and simultaneously ascribe to beliefs that willpower is a limited resource. PMID:26643592

  1. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease are associated with dysfunction in stimulus valuation but not action valuation.

    PubMed

    Piray, Payam; Zeighami, Yashar; Bahrami, Fariba; Eissa, Abeer M; Hewedi, Doaa H; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2014-06-01

    A substantial subset of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suffers from impulse control disorders (ICDs), which are side effects of dopaminergic medication. Dopamine plays a key role in reinforcement learning processes. One class of reinforcement learning models, known as the actor-critic model, suggests that two components are involved in these reinforcement learning processes: a critic, which estimates values of stimuli and calculates prediction errors, and an actor, which estimates values of potential actions. To understand the information processing mechanism underlying impulsive behavior, we investigated stimulus and action value learning from reward and punishment in four groups of participants: on-medication PD patients with ICD, on-medication PD patients without ICD, off-medication PD patients without ICD, and healthy controls. Analysis of responses suggested that participants used an actor-critic learning strategy and computed prediction errors based on stimulus values rather than action values. Quantitative model fits also revealed that an actor-critic model of the basal ganglia with different learning rates for positive and negative prediction errors best matched the choice data. Moreover, whereas ICDs were associated with model parameters related to stimulus valuation (critic), PD was associated with parameters related to action valuation (actor). Specifically, PD patients with ICD exhibited lower learning from negative prediction errors in the critic, resulting in an underestimation of adverse consequences associated with stimuli. These findings offer a specific neurocomputational account of the nature of compulsive behaviors induced by dopaminergic drugs. PMID:24899705

  2. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease are associated with dysfunction in stimulus valuation but not action valuation.

    PubMed

    Piray, Payam; Zeighami, Yashar; Bahrami, Fariba; Eissa, Abeer M; Hewedi, Doaa H; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2014-06-01

    A substantial subset of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suffers from impulse control disorders (ICDs), which are side effects of dopaminergic medication. Dopamine plays a key role in reinforcement learning processes. One class of reinforcement learning models, known as the actor-critic model, suggests that two components are involved in these reinforcement learning processes: a critic, which estimates values of stimuli and calculates prediction errors, and an actor, which estimates values of potential actions. To understand the information processing mechanism underlying impulsive behavior, we investigated stimulus and action value learning from reward and punishment in four groups of participants: on-medication PD patients with ICD, on-medication PD patients without ICD, off-medication PD patients without ICD, and healthy controls. Analysis of responses suggested that participants used an actor-critic learning strategy and computed prediction errors based on stimulus values rather than action values. Quantitative model fits also revealed that an actor-critic model of the basal ganglia with different learning rates for positive and negative prediction errors best matched the choice data. Moreover, whereas ICDs were associated with model parameters related to stimulus valuation (critic), PD was associated with parameters related to action valuation (actor). Specifically, PD patients with ICD exhibited lower learning from negative prediction errors in the critic, resulting in an underestimation of adverse consequences associated with stimuli. These findings offer a specific neurocomputational account of the nature of compulsive behaviors induced by dopaminergic drugs.

  3. Control of steroid receptor dynamics and function by genomic actions of the cochaperones p23 and Bag-1L

    PubMed Central

    Cato, Laura; Neeb, Antje; Brown, Myles

    2014-01-01

    Molecular chaperones encompass a group of unrelated proteins that facilitate the correct assembly and disassembly of other macromolecular structures, which they themselves do not remain a part of. They associate with a large and diverse set of coregulators termed cochaperones that regulate their function and specificity. Amongst others, chaperones and cochaperones regulate the activity of several signaling molecules including steroid receptors, which upon ligand binding interact with discrete nucleotide sequences within the nucleus to control the expression of diverse physiological and developmental genes. Molecular chaperones and cochaperones are typically known to provide the correct conformation for ligand binding by the steroid receptors. While this contribution is widely accepted, recent studies have reported that they further modulate steroid receptor action outside ligand binding. They are thought to contribute to receptor turnover, transport of the receptor to different subcellular localizations, recycling of the receptor on chromatin and even stabilization of the DNA-binding properties of the receptor. In addition to these combined effects with molecular chaperones, cochaperones are reported to have additional functions that are independent of molecular chaperones. Some of these functions also impact on steroid receptor action. Two well-studied examples are the cochaperones p23 and Bag-1L, which have been identified as modulators of steroid receptor activity in nuclei. Understanding details of their regulatory action will provide new therapeutic opportunities of controlling steroid receptor action independent of the widespread effects of molecular chaperones. PMID:25422595

  4. Realigning government action with public health evidence: the legal and policy environment affecting sex work and HIV in Asia.

    PubMed

    Gruskin, Sofia; Pierce, Gretchen Williams; Ferguson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has shed light on how government regulation of sex work directly affects the health and well-being of sex workers, their families and communities. A review of the public health evidence highlights the need for supportive legal and policy environments, yet criminalisation of sex work remains standard around the world. Emerging evidence, coupled with evolving political ideologies, is increasingly shaping legal environments that promote the rights and health of sex workers but even as new legislation is created, contradictions often exist with standing problematic legislation. As a region, Asia provides a compelling example in that progressive HIV policies often sit side by side with laws that criminalise sex work. Data from the 21 Asian countries reporting under the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV in 2010 were analysed to provide evidence of how countries' approach to sex-work regulation might affect HIV-related outcomes. Attention to the links between law and HIV-related outcomes can aid governments to meet their international obligations and ensure appropriate legal environments that cultivate the safe and healthy development and expression of sexuality, ensure access to HIV and other related services and promote and protect human rights.

  5. Neurophysiological evidence of an association between cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes in young children

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Sharon L.; Schroder, Hans S.; Moran, Tim P.; Durbin, C. Emily; Moser, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between cognitive control and affective processes, such as defensive reactivity, are intimately involved in healthy and unhealthy human development. However, cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes are often studied in isolation and rarely examined in early childhood. To address these gaps, we examined the relationships between multiple neurophysiological measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity in young children. Specifically, we assessed two event-related potentials thought to index cognitive control processes – the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) – measured across two tasks, and two markers of defensive reactivity processes – startle reflex and resting parietal asymmetry – in a sample of 3- to 7-year old children. Results revealed that measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity were related such that evidence of poor cognitive control (smaller ERN) was associated with high defensive reactivity (larger startle and greater right relative to left parietal activity). The strength of associations between the ERN and measures of defensive reactivity did not vary by age, providing evidence that poor cognitive control relates to greater defensive reactivity across early childhood years. PMID:26386550

  6. From randomized controlled trials to evidence grading schemes: current state of evidence-based practice in social sciences.

    PubMed

    Boruch, Robert; Rui, Ning

    2008-11-01

    With the advance of web search and navigation technology, enormous amount of information, non-information, and misinformation may be obtained in milliseconds in response to questions about 'what works' in social sciences. Today, policy makers in non-medical public service arenas are under increasing pressure to make sound decisions based on scientific evidence. Some of these decisions are a matter of legal requirement. This paper shows how such movements are closely aligned with the evolution of organizations that develop and apply evidence standards and evidence grading schemes within the social science communities. The current state of evidence-based practice in social sciences is examined by reviewing the latest development of randomized trials and evidence grading schemes in the fields of education, criminal justice, and social welfare. Studies conducted under the auspices of the Campbell Collaboration and What Works Clearinghouse are used to illustrate ingredients of evidence grading schemes, graphic display of results of systematic reviews, and discrepancies of evidence derived from randomized trials and non-experimental trials. Furthermore, it is argued that the use of evidence on 'what works' depends on the potential users' awareness, understanding of the evidence, as well as their capacity and willingness to use it. Awareness and understanding depends on the world wide web and its augmentations, while capacity and willingness depends more on incentives to use good evidence and on political and ethical values. Implications for the future development of evidence grading organizations are discussed.

  7. Control of optical transmittance of fat tissue slices at NIR photodynamic action mediated by indocyanine green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, I. Y.; Doubrovsky, V. A.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2013-02-01

    The changes in optical transmittance of human adipose cell layers sensitized by indocyanine green (ICG) as a result of photodynamic action were found and studied. It was revealed experimentally that due to the selective action of laser radiation on fat tissue sensitized by ICG the spatial distribution of its optical transmittance becomes more homogeneous. The statistical computer processing of digital images allowed one to estimate tissue optical transmittance, its spatial and temporal distributions. These quantitative estimations correlated well with the visible changes of tissue images. The measurements carried out gave an opportunity to suggest the interpretation of the phenomenon observed.

  8. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Action of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Evidence from In Vitro and In Vivo Models

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation is a noninvasive technique that has been experimentally tested for a number of psychiatric and neurological conditions. Preliminary observations suggest that this approach can indeed influence a number of cellular and molecular pathways that may be disease relevant. However, the mechanisms of action underlying its beneficial effects are largely unknown and need to be better understood to allow this therapy to be used optimally. In this review, we summarize the physiological responses observed in vitro and in vivo, with a particular emphasis on cellular and molecular cascades associated with inflammation, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and neuroplasticity recruited by direct current stimulation, a topic that has been largely neglected in the literature. A better understanding of the neural responses to transcranial direct current stimulation is critical if this therapy is to be used in large-scale clinical trials with a view of being routinely offered to patients suffering from various conditions affecting the central nervous system. PMID:25522391

  9. Shared and Distinct Neuroanatomic Regions Critical for Tool-related Action Production and Recognition: Evidence from 131 Left-hemisphere Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, Leyla Y; Watson, Christine E; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2015-12-01

    The inferior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobe have been characterized as human homologues of the monkey "mirror neuron" system, critical for both action production (AP) and action recognition (AR). However, data from brain lesion patients with selective impairment on only one of these tasks provide evidence of neural and cognitive dissociations. We sought to clarify the relationship between AP and AR, and their critical neural substrates, by directly comparing performance of 131 chronic left-hemisphere stroke patients on both tasks--to our knowledge, the largest lesion-based experimental investigation of action cognition to date. Using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping, we found that lesions to primary motor and somatosensory cortices and inferior parietal lobule were associated with disproportionately impaired performance on AP, whereas lesions to lateral temporo-occipital cortex were associated with a relatively rare pattern of disproportionately impaired performance on AR. In contrast, damage to posterior middle temporal gyrus was associated with impairment on both AP and AR. The distinction between lateral temporo-occipital cortex, critical for recognition, and posterior middle temporal gyrus, important for both tasks, suggests a rough gradient from modality-specific to abstract representations in posterior temporal cortex, the first lesion-based evidence for this phenomenon. Overall, the results of this large patient study help to bring closure to a long-standing debate by showing that tool-related AP and AR critically depend on both common and distinct left hemisphere neural substrates, most of which are external to putative human mirror regions. PMID:26351989

  10. Evidence from action and fluorescence spectra that UV-induced violet-blue-green fluorescence enhances leaf photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Mantha, S V; Johnson, G A; Day, T A

    2001-03-01

    We assessed the contribution of UV-induced violet-blue-green leaf fluorescence to photosynthesis in Poa annua, Sorghum halepense and Nerium oleander by measuring UV-induced fluorescence spectra (280-380 nm excitation, 400-550 nm emission) from leaf surfaces and determining the monochromatic UV action spectra for leaf photosynthetic O2-evolution. Peak fluorescence emission wavelengths from leaf surfaces ranged from violet (408 nm) to blue (448 nm), while excitation peaks for these maxima ranged from 333 to 344 nm. Action spectra were developed by supplementing monochromatic radiation from 280 to 440 nm, in 20 nm increments, to a visible nonsaturating background of 500 mumol m-2 s-1 photosynthetically active radiation and measuring photosynthetic O2-evolution rates. Photosynthetic rates tended to be higher with the 340 nm supplement than with higher or lower wavelength UV supplements. Comparing photosynthetic rates with the 340 nm supplement to those with the 400 nm supplement, the percentage enhancement in photosynthetic rates at 340 nm ranged from 7.8 to 9.8%. We suspect that 340 nm UV improves photosynthetic rates via fluorescence that provides violet-blue-green photons for photosynthetic energy conversion because (1) the peak excitation wavelength (340 nm) for violet-blue-green fluorescence from leaves was also the most effective UV wavelength at enhancing photosynthetic rates, and (2) the magnitude of photosynthetic enhancements attributable to supplemental 340 nm UV was well correlated (R2 = 0.90) with the apparent intensity of 340 nm UV-induced violet-blue-green fluorescence emission from leaves.

  11. Mirroring and the development of action understanding.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Amanda L; Gerson, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in the monkey motor cortex has inspired wide-ranging hypotheses about the potential relationship between action control and social cognition. In this paper, we consider the hypothesis that this relationship supports the early development of a critical aspect of social understanding, the ability to analyse others' actions in terms of goals. Recent investigations of infant action understanding have revealed rich connections between motor development and the analysis of goals in others' actions. In particular, infants' own goal-directed actions influence their analysis of others' goals. This evidence indicates that the cognitive systems that drive infants' own actions contribute to their analysis of goals in others' actions. These effects occur at a relatively abstract level of analysis both in terms of the structure infants perceive in others' actions and relevant structure in infants' own actions. Although the neural bases of these effects in infants are not yet well understood, current evidence indicates that connections between action production and action perception in infancy involve the interrelated neural systems at work in generating planned, intelligent action. PMID:24778377

  12. Upper limb children action-observation training (UP-CAT): a randomised controlled trial in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rehabilitation for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) aimed to improve function of the impaired upper limb (UL) uses a wide range of intervention programs. A new rehabilitative approach, called Action-Observation Therapy, based on the recent discovery of mirror neurons, has been used in adult stroke but not in children. The purpose of the present study is to design a randomised controlled trial (RCT) for evaluating the efficacy of Action-Observation Therapy in improving UL activity in children with HCP. Methods/Design The trial is designed according to CONSORT Statement. It is a randomised, evaluator-blinded, match-pair group trial. Children with HCP will be randomised within pairs to either experimental or control group. The experimental group will perform an Action-Observation Therapy, called UP-CAT (Upper Limb-Children Action-Observation Training) in which they will watch video sequences showing goal-directed actions, chosen according to children UL functional level, combined with motor training with their hemiplegic UL. The control group will perform the same tailored actions after watching computer games. A careful revision of psychometric properties of UL outcome measures for children with hemiplegia was performed. Assisting Hand Assessment was chosen as primary measure and, based on its calculation power, a sample size of 12 matched pairs was established. Moreover, Melbourne and ABILHAND-Kids were included as secondary measures. The time line of assessments will be T0 (in the week preceding the onset of the treatment), T1 and T2 (in the week after the end of the treatment and 8 weeks later, respectively). A further assessment will be performed at T3 (24 weeks after T1), to evaluate the retention of effects. In a subgroup of children enrolled in both groups functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, exploring the mirror system and sensory-motor function, will be performed at T0, T1 and T2. Discussion The paper aims to describe the

  13. The supply and demand for pollution control: Evidence from wastewater treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, V.D.; Schwarz, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determination of pollution control from wastewater treatment plants as an economic decision facing local or regional regulators. Pollution control is measured by plant design effluent concentration levels and is fully endogenous in a supply- and-demand model of treatment choice. On the supply side, plant costs are a function of the design treatment level of the plant, and on the demand side, treatment level is a function of both the costs of control and the regional or regulatory preferences for control. We find evidence that the economic model of effluent choice by local regulators has a good deal of explanatory power. We find evidence that wastewater treatment plant removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD) is sensitive to many local factors including the size of the treatment plant, the flow rate of the receiving water, the population density of the surrounding area, regional growth, state sensitivity to environmental issues, state income, and the extent to which the damages from pollution fall on other states. We find strong evidence that regulators are sensitive to capital costs in determining the design level of BOD effluent reduction at a plant. Thus, proposed reductions in federal subsidies for wastewater treatment plant construction are likely to have significant adverse effects on water quality. ?? 1992.

  14. Neurobehavioral evidence for individual differences in canine cognitive control: an awake fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Cook, Peter F; Spivak, Mark; Berns, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    Based on behavioral evidence, the domestic dog has emerged as a promising comparative model of human self-control. However, while research on human inhibition has probed heterogeneity and neuropathology through an integration of neural and behavioral evidence, there are no parallel data exploring the brain mechanisms involved in canine inhibition. Here, using a combination of cognitive testing and awake neuroimaging in domestic dogs, we provide evidence precisely localizing frontal brain regions underpinning response inhibition in this species and demonstrate the dynamic relationship between these regions and behavioral measures of control. Thirteen dogs took part in an in-scanner go/no-go task and an out-of-scanner A-not-B test. A frontal brain region was identified showing elevated neural activity for all subjects during successful inhibition in the scanner, and dogs showing greater mean brain activation in this region produced fewer false alarms. Better performance in the go/no-go task was also correlated with fewer errors in the out-of-scanner A-not-B test, suggesting that dogs show consistent neurobehavioral individual differences in cognitive control, as is seen in humans. These findings help establish parity between human and canine mechanisms of self-control and pave the way for future comparative studies examining their function and dysfunction. PMID:27062134

  15. Electrophysiological evidence for the action of a center-surround mechanism on semantic processing in the left hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Deacon, Diana; Shelley-Tremblay, John F.; Ritter, Walter; Dynowska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Physiological evidence was sought for a center-surround attentional mechanism (CSM), which has been proposed to assist in the retrieval of weakly activated items from semantic memory. The CSM operates by facilitating strongly related items in the “center” of the weakly activated area of semantic memory, and inhibiting less strongly related items in its “surround”. In this study weak activation was created by having subjects acquire the meanings of new words to a recall criterion of only 50%. Subjects who attained this approximate criterion level of performance were subsequently included in a semantic priming task, during which ERPs were recorded. Primes were newly learned rare words, and targets were either synonyms, non-synonymously related words, or unrelated words. All stimuli were presented to the RVF/LH (right visual field/left hemisphere) or the LVF/RH (left visual field/right hemisphere). Under RVF/LH stimulation the newly learned word primes produced facilitation on N400 for synonym targets, and inhibition for related targets. No differences were observed under LVF/RH stimulation. The LH thus, supports a CSM, whereby a synonym in the “center” of attention, focused on the newly learned word, is facilitated, whereas a related word in the “surround” is inhibited. The data are consistent with the view of this laboratory that semantic memory is subserved by a spreading activation system in the LH. Also consistent with our view, there was no evidence of spreading activation in the RH. The findings are discussed in the context of additional recent theories of semantic memory. Finally, the adult right hemisphere may require more learning than the LH in order to demonstrate evidence of meaning acquisition. PMID:24416022

  16. Impaired Action Control in Schizophrenia: The Role of Volitional Saccade Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Benedikt; Jager, Markus; Bottlender, Ronald; Kathmann, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients show prefrontal cortex dysfunctions of neurodevelopmental origin, but the cognitive implications of these dysfunctions are not yet understood. This study used experimental variations of oculomotor tasks to evaluate the relative roles of volitional action initiation and the inhibition of reflexive behavior. Thirty…

  17. 29 CFR 801.21 - Adverse employment action under security service and controlled substance exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Restrictions on Polygraph Usage Under Exemptions § 801.21 Adverse employment action under... current employee or prospective employee based solely on the analysis of a polygraph test chart or...

  18. 29 CFR 801.21 - Adverse employment action under security service and controlled substance exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Restrictions on Polygraph Usage Under Exemptions § 801.21 Adverse employment action under... current employee or prospective employee based solely on the analysis of a polygraph test chart or...

  19. 29 CFR 801.21 - Adverse employment action under security service and controlled substance exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Restrictions on Polygraph Usage Under Exemptions § 801.21 Adverse employment action under... current employee or prospective employee based solely on the analysis of a polygraph test chart or...

  20. 29 CFR 801.21 - Adverse employment action under security service and controlled substance exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Restrictions on Polygraph Usage Under Exemptions § 801.21 Adverse employment action under... current employee or prospective employee based solely on the analysis of a polygraph test chart or...

  1. 29 CFR 801.21 - Adverse employment action under security service and controlled substance exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Restrictions on Polygraph Usage Under Exemptions § 801.21 Adverse employment action under... current employee or prospective employee based solely on the analysis of a polygraph test chart or...

  2. Evidence for Helical Magnetic fields in Kiloparsec-Scale AGN Jets and the Action of a Cosmic Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabuzda, D. C.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopulos, I.; Kazanas, D.

    2012-01-01

    A search for transverse kiloparsec-scale gradients in Faraday rotation-measure (RM) maps of extragalactic radio sources in the literature has yielded 6 AGNs displaying continuous, monotonic RM gradients across their jets, oriented roughly orthogonal to the local jet direction. The most natural interpretation of such transverse RM gradients is that they are caused by the systematic change in the line-of-sight components of helical magnetic fields associated with these jets. All the identified transverse RM gradients increase in the counterclockwise (CCW) direction on the sky relative to the centers of these AGNs. Taken together with the results of Contopoulos et al. who found evidence for a predominance of clockwise (CW) transverse RM gradients across parsec-scale (VLBI) jets, this provides new evidence for preferred orientations of RM gradients due to helical jet magnetic fields, with a reversal from CW in the inner jets to CCW farther from the centers of activity. This can be explained by the "Poynting-Robertson cosmic-battery" mechanism, which can generate helical magnetic fields with a. characteristic "twist," which are expelled with the jet outflows. If the Poynting-Robertson battery mechanism is not operating, an alternative mechanism must be identified, which is able to explain the 'predominance of CW /CCW RM gradients on parsec/kiloparsec scales.

  3. Qualitative Differences between Bilingual Language Control and Executive Control: Evidence from Task-Switching

    PubMed Central

    Calabria, Marco; Hernández, Mireia; Branzi, Francesca M.; Costa, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that highly proficient bilinguals have comparable switch costs in both directions when they switch between languages (L1 and L2), the so-called “symmetrical switch cost” effect. Interestingly, the same symmetry is also present when they switch between L1 and a much weaker L3. These findings suggest that highly proficient bilinguals develop a language control system that seems to be insensitive to language proficiency. In the present study, we explore whether the pattern of symmetrical switch costs in language switching tasks generalizes to a non-linguistic switching task in the same group of highly proficient bilinguals. The end goal of this is to assess whether bilingual language control (bLC) can be considered as subsidiary to domain-general executive control (EC). We tested highly proficient Catalan–Spanish bilinguals both in a linguistic switching task and in a non-linguistic switching task. In the linguistic task, participants named pictures in L1 and L2 (Experiment 1) or L3 (Experiment 2) depending on a cue presented with the picture (a flag). In the non-linguistic task, the same participants had to switch between two card sorting rule-sets (color and shape). Overall, participants showed symmetrical switch costs in the linguistic switching task, but not in the non-linguistic switching task. In a further analysis, we observed that in the linguistic switching task the asymmetry of the switch costs changed across blocks, while in the non-linguistic switching task an asymmetrical switch cost was observed throughout the task. The observation of different patterns of switch costs in the linguistic and the non-linguistic switching tasks suggest that the bLC system is not completely subsidiary to the domain-general EC system. PMID:22275905

  4. Action simulation plays a critical role in deceptive action recognition.

    PubMed

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in the ability to recognize deceptive body movements. We recorded motor-evoked potentials during a faked-action discrimination (FAD) task: participants watched videos of actors lifting a cube and judged whether the actors were trying to deceive them concerning the real weight of the cube. Seeing faked actions facilitated the observers' motor system more than truthful actions in a body-part-specific manner, suggesting that motor resonance was sensitive to deceptive movements. Furthermore, we found that TMS virtual lesion to the anterior node of the action observation network, namely the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC), reduced perceptual sensitivity in the FAD task. In contrast, no change in FAD task performance was found after virtual lesions to the left temporoparietal junction (control site). Moreover, virtual lesion to the IFC failed to affect performance in a difficulty-matched spatial-control task that did not require processing of spatiotemporal (acceleration) and configurational (limb displacement) features of seen actions, which are critical to detecting deceptive intent in the actions of others. These findings indicate that the human IFC is critical for recognizing deceptive body movements and suggest that FAD relies on the simulation of subtle changes in action kinematics within the motor system.

  5. Evidence for Sublimation/Recondensation Controlling Ignition Time in HMX Thermal Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilowitz, Laura; Henson, Bryan

    2014-03-01

    Time to ignition for HMX based secondary high explosive formulations can be plotted linearly on a simple Arrhenius plot. The time to ignition is believed to be controlled by specific chemical decomposition steps with the rate limiting step being decomposition in the solid, accompanied by significant exothermicity. Subsequent exothermic chemistry involving gas phase products is also important. We have evidence for the diffusion of intact HMX molecules within hot HMX formulations. The sublimation and recondensation of HMX molecules carries significant enthalpy around a system, comparable to the enthalpy of reaction in the solid and gas phase, and can impact both the time and location of ignition. In this talk, we will present evidence that HMX sublimation and recondensation can control the time to ignition in a PBX 9501 thermal explosion.

  6. The effect of quality information on consumer health plan switching: evidence from the Buyers Health Care Action Group.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jean M; Feldman, Roger; Carlin, Caroline; Christianson, Jon

    2006-07-01

    We examine the factors that lead employees to search for health plan quality information and the effect of such information on the decision to switch plans. Extending Hirshleifer and Riley's model [Hirshleifer, J., Riley, J.G., 1979. The analytics of uncertainty and information--an expositional survey. Journal of Economic Literature 17 (December (4)), 1375-1421] of the economics of information, we develop a two-equation model of quality information awareness and switching behavior. We estimate the model using data from a random sample of 651 single employees from 16 firms that are members of the Buyers Health Care Action Group, a health care purchasing coalition in the Minneapolis-St. Paul region. Our empirical results do not support either a link between quality information and switching behavior, or between perceived health plan satisfaction and switching. We do, however, find that switching is influenced by changes in premiums and whether an individual has an existing relationship with a health care provider.

  7. Evidence for extensive heterotrophic metabolism, antioxidant action, and associated regulatory events during winter hardening in Sitka spruce

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cold acclimation in woody perennials is a metabolically intensive process, but coincides with environmental conditions that are not conducive to the generation of energy through photosynthesis. While the negative effects of low temperatures on the photosynthetic apparatus during winter have been well studied, less is known about how this is reflected at the level of gene and metabolite expression, nor how the plant generates primary metabolites needed for adaptive processes during autumn. Results The MapMan tool revealed enrichment of the expression of genes related to mitochondrial function, antioxidant and associated regulatory activity, while changes in metabolite levels over the time course were consistent with the gene expression patterns observed. Genes related to thylakoid function were down-regulated as expected, with the exception of plastid targeted specific antioxidant gene products such as thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase, components of the reactive oxygen species scavenging cycle, and the plastid terminal oxidase. In contrast, the conventional and alternative mitochondrial electron transport chains, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and redox-associated proteins providing reactive oxygen species scavenging generated by electron transport chains functioning at low temperatures were all active. Conclusions A regulatory mechanism linking thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase action with “chloroplast dormancy” is proposed. Most importantly, the energy and substrates required for the substantial metabolic remodeling that is a hallmark of freezing acclimation could be provided by heterotrophic metabolism. PMID:23631437

  8. A role for the precuneus in thought–action fusion: Evidence from participants with significant obsessive–compulsive symptoms☆

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rhiannon; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2013-01-01

    Likelihood thought–action fusion (TAF-L) refers to a cognitive bias in which individuals believe that the mere thought of a negative event increases its likelihood of occurring in reality. TAF-L is most commonly associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also present in depression, generalized anxiety disorder and psychosis. We induced TAF-L in individuals with high (High-OC, N = 23) and low (Low-OC, N = 24) levels of OC traits, and used low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to localise the accompanying electrical brain activity patterns. The results showed greater TAF-L in the High-OC than in the Low-OC group (p < .005), which was accompanied by significantly greater upper beta frequency (19–30 Hz) activity in the precuneus (p < .05). Further, the precuneus activity was positively correlated with self-reported magnitude of TAF-L (p < .01), suggesting a specific role of this region in this cognitive bias. Results are discussed with reference to self-referential processing and the default-mode network. PMID:24371793

  9. Evidence for a cyclic GMP-independent mechanism in the anti-platelet action of S-nitrosoglutathione

    PubMed Central

    Gordge, M P; Hothersall, J S; Noronha-Dutra, A A

    1998-01-01

    inhibit platelet aggregation, were all significantly diminished by the copper (I) (Cu+) chelating agent bathocuproine disulphonic acid (BCS). In contrast, BCS had no effect on either the rate of NO release, or the anti-platelet action of the non-nitrosothiol compound DEANO.Cyclic GMP accumulation in response to GSNO (10−9–10−5M) was undetectable following treatment of platelets with ODQ (100 μM), a selective inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase. Despite this abolition of guanylate cyclase stimulation, GSNO retained some ability to inhibit aggregation, indicating the presence of a cyclic GMP-independent component in its anti-platelet action. However, this component was abolished following treatment of platelets with a combination of both ODQ and BCS, suggesting that Cu+ ions were required for the cyclic GMP-independent pathway to operate.The cyclic GMP-independent action of GSNO, observed in ODQ-treated platelets, could not be explained by an increase in intra-platelet cyclic AMP.The impermeable thiol modifying agent p-chloromercuriphenylsulphonic acid (CMPS) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of aggregation of ODQ-treated platelets, accompanied by a progressive loss of detectable platelet surface thiol groups. Additional treatment with GSNO failed to increase the degree of aggregation inhibition, suggesting that a common pathway of thiol modification might be utilized by both GSNO and CMPS to elicit cyclic GMP-independent inhibition of platelet aggregation.We conclude that NO donor compounds mediate inhibition of platelet aggregation by both cyclic GMP-dependent and -independent pathways. Cyclic GMP generation is related to the rate of spontaneous release of NO from the donor compound, but transfer of the NO signal to the cyclic GMP-independent pathway may depend upon a cellular system which involves both copper (I) (Cu+) ions and surface membrane thiol groups. The potent anti-platelet action of GSNO results from its ability to exploit this cyclic

  10. Participatory Action Research in the Implementing Process of Evidence-Based Intervention to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Project Design of the “Healthy Future” Study

    PubMed Central

    Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design of the developmental project Healthy Future that aims to implement a new evidence-based program for the prevention of childhood obesity and collaboration and sharing of work between specialist and community health care professionals in parts of a county in western Norway. Methods. Comprehensive participatory planning and evaluation (CPPE) process as an action-oriented research approach was chosen, using mixed data sources, mixed methods, and triangulation. Discussion. A bottom-up approach might decrease the barriers when new evidence-based childhood prevention interventions are going to be implemented. It is crucial not only to build partnership and shared understanding, motivation, and vision, but also to consider the frames of the organizations, such as competencies, and time to carry out the interventions at the right level of health care service and adapt to the overweight children and their families needs. Conclusion. The developmental process of new health care programs is complex and multileveled and requires a framework to guide the process. By CPPE approach evidence-based health care practice can be delivered based on research, user knowledge, and provider knowledge in the field of childhood overweight and obesity in a certain context. PMID:23956843

  11. Internal quality control in point-of-care testing: where's the evidence?

    PubMed

    Holt, Helen; Freedman, Danielle B

    2016-03-01

    ISO 22870 standards require protocols for performance of internal quality control for all point-of-care testing devices and training of users in its theory and practice. However, the unique setting of point-of-care testing (i.e. processes conducted by non-scientific users) means that laboratory internal quality control programmes do not easily translate to point-of-care testing. In addition, while the evidence base for internal quality control within the laboratory has been increasing, the equivalent literature surrounding point-of-care testing is very limited. This has led to wide variation in what is considered acceptable practice for internal quality control at the point of care. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that internal quality control is an area of deficiency in point-of-care testing. Internal quality control protocols used at point-of-care testing should be defined based on risk management. The protocol will therefore be dependent on analyser complexity and availability of inbuilt system checks, the risk associated with release of an incorrect patient result as well as frequency of use. The emphasis should be on designing an effective internal quality control protocol as opposed to the inherent tendency of introducing high-frequency quality control. Typically a simple pass or fail criterion is used for internal quality control in point-of-care testing based on whether internal quality control results fall within assigned ranges. While simply taught, such criteria can require broad internal quality control ranges to decrease the probability of false rejection (also reducing the probability of error detection). Customized internal quality control ranges, two-tier acceptance systems and assay-specific internal quality control can be used to improve error detection rates.

  12. Internal quality control in point-of-care testing: where's the evidence?

    PubMed

    Holt, Helen; Freedman, Danielle B

    2016-03-01

    ISO 22870 standards require protocols for performance of internal quality control for all point-of-care testing devices and training of users in its theory and practice. However, the unique setting of point-of-care testing (i.e. processes conducted by non-scientific users) means that laboratory internal quality control programmes do not easily translate to point-of-care testing. In addition, while the evidence base for internal quality control within the laboratory has been increasing, the equivalent literature surrounding point-of-care testing is very limited. This has led to wide variation in what is considered acceptable practice for internal quality control at the point of care. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that internal quality control is an area of deficiency in point-of-care testing. Internal quality control protocols used at point-of-care testing should be defined based on risk management. The protocol will therefore be dependent on analyser complexity and availability of inbuilt system checks, the risk associated with release of an incorrect patient result as well as frequency of use. The emphasis should be on designing an effective internal quality control protocol as opposed to the inherent tendency of introducing high-frequency quality control. Typically a simple pass or fail criterion is used for internal quality control in point-of-care testing based on whether internal quality control results fall within assigned ranges. While simply taught, such criteria can require broad internal quality control ranges to decrease the probability of false rejection (also reducing the probability of error detection). Customized internal quality control ranges, two-tier acceptance systems and assay-specific internal quality control can be used to improve error detection rates. PMID:26486440

  13. Sensory gain control (amplification) as a mechanism of selective attention: electrophysiological and neuroimaging evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Hillyard, S A; Vogel, E K; Luck, S J

    1998-01-01

    Both physiological and behavioral studies have suggested that stimulus-driven neural activity in the sensory pathways can be modulated in amplitude during selective attention. Recordings of event-related brain potentials indicate that such sensory gain control or amplification processes play an important role in visual-spatial attention. Combined event-related brain potential and neuroimaging experiments provide strong evidence that attentional gain control operates at an early stage of visual processing in extrastriate cortical areas. These data support early selection theories of attention and provide a basis for distinguishing between separate mechanisms of attentional suppression (of unattended inputs) and attentional facilitation (of attended inputs). PMID:9770220

  14. Managing and Mitigating the Health Risks of Climate Change: Calling for Evidence-Informed Policy and Action

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Shilu; Confalonieri, Ulisses; Ebi, Kristie; Olsen, Jorn

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Climate change affects many natural and social systems and processes that are essential for life. It disrupts the Earth’s life-support systems that underpin the world’s capacity to supply adequate food and fresh water, and it disturbs the eco-physical buffering against natural disasters. Epidemiologists need to develop and improve research and monitoring programs to better understand the scale and immediacy of the threat of climate change to human health and to act within a much larger and more comprehensive framework. To address one of the greatest environmental issues of our lifetime, the scientific and policy-making communities should work together to formulate evidence-informed public policy to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to its inevitable impacts in this generation and, more importantly, in future generations to come. PMID:27689449

  15. [Rabies in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: analysis of surveillance and control actions in the municipal field].

    PubMed

    Moutinho, Flavio Fernando Batista; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; Paixão, Rita Leal

    2015-02-01

    Rabies is an anthropozoonosis characterized by acute viral encephalitis with a lethality rate close to 100%, and it has undergone an epidemiologic transition in which the cycle involving chiroptera is increasing in importance. The scope of this research sought to analyze the rabies surveillance and control actions carried out in municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Questionnaires were distributed to a representative sample of zoonosis control service managers proportionately calculated in accordance with the Health Regions, according to the State Regionalization Guidance Plan. The data gathered was recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. Based on the results attained, the conclusion reached is that the rabies surveillance and control actions were being unsatisfactorily conducted, especially for items related to the monitoring of vampire bat colonies, viral circulation surveillance, notification and monitoring of suspect or aggressive animals, quantification of dog population and population control of stray dogs. The surveillance and control of rabies was being neglected, and was not a priority in the health services in the municipalities evaluated. PMID:25715151

  16. Innoversity in knowledge-for-action and adaptation to climate change: the first steps of an 'evidence-based climatic health' transfrontier training program.

    PubMed

    Lapaige, Véronique; Essiembre, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear to the international scientific community that climate change is real and has important consequences for human health. To meet these new challenges, the World Health Organization recommends reinforcing the adaptive capacity of health systems. One of the possible avenues in this respect is to promote awareness and knowledge translation in climatic health, at both the local and global scales. Within such perspective, two major themes have emerged in the field of public health research: 1) the development of advanced training adapted to 'global environment' change and to the specific needs of various groups of actors (doctors, nurses, public health practitioners, health care managers, public service managers, local communities, etc) and 2) the development of strategies for implementing research results and applying various types of evidence to the management of public health issues affected by climate change. Progress on these two fronts will depend on maximum innovation in transdisciplinary and transsectoral collaborations. The general purpose of this article is to present the program of a new research and learning chair designed for this double set of developmental objectives - a chair that emphasizes 'innoversity' (the dynamic relationship between innovation and diversity) and 'transfrontier ecolearning for adaptive actions'. The Écoapprentissages, santé mentale et climat collaborative research chair (University of Montreal and Quebec National Public Health Institute) based in Montreal is a center for 'transdisciplinary research' on the transfrontier knowledge-for-action that can aid adaptation of the public health sector, the public mental health sector, and the public service sector to climate change, as well as a center for complex collaborations on evidence-based climatic health 'training'. This program-focused article comprises two main sections. The first section presents the 'general' and 'specific contexts' in which the

  17. Innoversity in knowledge-for-action and adaptation to climate change: the first steps of an 'evidence-based climatic health' transfrontier training program.

    PubMed

    Lapaige, Véronique; Essiembre, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear to the international scientific community that climate change is real and has important consequences for human health. To meet these new challenges, the World Health Organization recommends reinforcing the adaptive capacity of health systems. One of the possible avenues in this respect is to promote awareness and knowledge translation in climatic health, at both the local and global scales. Within such perspective, two major themes have emerged in the field of public health research: 1) the development of advanced training adapted to 'global environment' change and to the specific needs of various groups of actors (doctors, nurses, public health practitioners, health care managers, public service managers, local communities, etc) and 2) the development of strategies for implementing research results and applying various types of evidence to the management of public health issues affected by climate change. Progress on these two fronts will depend on maximum innovation in transdisciplinary and transsectoral collaborations. The general purpose of this article is to present the program of a new research and learning chair designed for this double set of developmental objectives - a chair that emphasizes 'innoversity' (the dynamic relationship between innovation and diversity) and 'transfrontier ecolearning for adaptive actions'. The Écoapprentissages, santé mentale et climat collaborative research chair (University of Montreal and Quebec National Public Health Institute) based in Montreal is a center for 'transdisciplinary research' on the transfrontier knowledge-for-action that can aid adaptation of the public health sector, the public mental health sector, and the public service sector to climate change, as well as a center for complex collaborations on evidence-based climatic health 'training'. This program-focused article comprises two main sections. The first section presents the 'general' and 'specific contexts' in which the

  18. The adaptability of self-action perception and movement control when the limb is passively versus actively moved.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Brendan D; Franks, Ian M; Inglis, J Timothy; Chua, Romeo

    2012-03-01

    Research suggests that perceptual experience of our movements adapts together with movement control when we are the agents of our actions. Is this agency critical for perceptual and motor adaptation? We had participants view cursor feedback during elbow extension-flexion movements when they (1) actively moved their arm, or (2) had their arm passively moved. We probed adaptation of movement perception by having participants report the reversal point of their unseen movement. We probed adaptation of movement control by having them aim to a target. Perception and control of active movement were influenced by both types of exposure, although adaptation was stronger following active exposure. Furthermore, both types of exposure led to a change in the perception of passive movements. Our findings support the notion that perception and control adapt together, and they suggest that some adaptation is due to recalibrated proprioception that arises independently of active engagement with the environment.

  19. Addressing the social and environmental determinants of urban health equity: evidence for action and a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Akerman, Marco; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresan, Jacob; Marmot, Michael; Melin, Thomas; Vlahov, David

    2011-10-01

    Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world's population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges--economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development challenges in the 21st century. In all countries, rich and poor, the move to urban living has been both good and bad for population health, and has contributed to the unequal distribution of health both within countries (the urban-rural divide) and within cities (the rich-poor divide). In this series of papers, we demonstrate that urban planning and design and urban social conditions can be good or bad for human health and health equity depending on how they are set up. We argue that climate change mitigation and adaptation need to go hand-in-hand with efforts to achieve health equity through action in the social determinants. And we highlight how different forms of governance can shape agendas, policies, and programs in ways that are inclusive and health-promoting or perpetuate social exclusion, inequitable distribution of resources, and the inequities in health associated with that. While today we can describe many of the features of a healthy and sustainable city, and the governance and planning processes needed to achieve these ends, there is still much to learn, especially with respect to tailoring these concepts and applying them in the cities of lower- and middle-income countries. By outlining an integrated research agenda, we aim to assist researchers, policy makers, service providers, and funding bodies/donors to better support, coordinate, and undertake research that is organized around a conceptual framework that positions health, equity, and sustainability as central

  20. Action video gaming and cognitive control: playing first person shooter games is associated with improvement in working memory but not action inhibition.

    PubMed

    Colzato, Lorenza S; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Zmigrod, Sharon; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-03-01

    The interest in the influence of videogame experience in our daily life is constantly growing. "First Person Shooter" (FPS) games require players to develop a flexible mindset to rapidly react and monitor fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to inhibit erroneous actions. This study investigated whether and to which degree experience with such videogames generalizes to other cognitive control tasks. Experienced video game players (VGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed on a N-back task and a stop-signal paradigm that provide a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of the monitoring and updating of working memory (WM) and response inhibition (an index of behavioral impulsivity), respectively. VGPs were faster and more accurate in the monitoring and updating of WM than NVGPs, which were faster in reacting to go signals, but showed comparable stopping performance. Our findings support the idea that playing FPS games is associated with enhanced flexible updating of task-relevant information without affecting impulsivity.

  1. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection. Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement. Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure. PMID:19811671

  2. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others.

  3. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. PMID:25352805

  4. Transmission at voltage-clamped giant synapse of the squid: evidence for cooperativity of presynaptic calcium action.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S J; Augustine, G J; Charlton, M P

    1985-01-01

    Synaptic transmission was studied at the squid giant synapse with voltage clamp control of both presynaptic and postsynaptic cells. Because presynaptic voltage gradients can complicate interpretation of electrophysiological data obtained from this preparation, we used local Ca application to restrict Ca influx and transmitter release to a short and relatively isopotential portion of the elongated presynaptic terminal. Under these conditions, we found that postsynaptic current varies approximately as the third power of presynaptic Ca current. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that several Ca ions cooperate in triggering secretion of a single transmitter quantum. PMID:2982166

  5. Language control in bilingual language comprehension: evidence from the maze task.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Most empirical evidence on switch costs is based on bilingual production and interpreted as a result of inhibitory control. It is unclear whether such a top-down control process exists in language switching during comprehension. This study investigates whether a non-lexical switch cost is involved in reading code-switched sentences and its relation to language dominance with cross-script bilingual readers. A maze task is adopted in order to separate top-down inhibitory effects, from lexical effects driven by input. The key findings are: (1) switch costs were observed in both L1-L2 and L2-L1 directions; (2) these effects were driven by two mechanisms: lexical activation and inhibitory control; (3) language dominance modulated the lexical effects, but did not affect the inhibitory effects. These results suggest that a language control mechanism is involved in bilingual reading, even though the control process is not driven by selection as in production. At the theoretical level, these results lend support for the Inhibitory Control model during language switching in comprehension; while the BIA/BIA+ model needs to incorporate a top-down control mechanism to be able to explain the current findings. PMID:26347675

  6. Language control in bilingual language comprehension: evidence from the maze task

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Most empirical evidence on switch costs is based on bilingual production and interpreted as a result of inhibitory control. It is unclear whether such a top–down control process exists in language switching during comprehension. This study investigates whether a non-lexical switch cost is involved in reading code-switched sentences and its relation to language dominance with cross-script bilingual readers. A maze task is adopted in order to separate top–down inhibitory effects, from lexical effects driven by input. The key findings are: (1) switch costs were observed in both L1–L2 and L2–L1 directions; (2) these effects were driven by two mechanisms: lexical activation and inhibitory control; (3) language dominance modulated the lexical effects, but did not affect the inhibitory effects. These results suggest that a language control mechanism is involved in bilingual reading, even though the control process is not driven by selection as in production. At the theoretical level, these results lend support for the Inhibitory Control model during language switching in comprehension; while the BIA/BIA+ model needs to incorporate a top–down control mechanism to be able to explain the current findings. PMID:26347675

  7. How Early is Infants' Attention to Objects and Actions Shaped by Culture? New Evidence from 24-Month-Olds Raised in the US and China

    PubMed Central

    Waxman, Sandra R.; Fu, Xiaolan; Ferguson, Brock; Geraghty, Kathleen; Leddon, Erin; Liang, Jing; Zhao, Min-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that the culture in which we are raised shapes the way that we attend to the objects and events that surround us. What remains unclear, however, is how early any such culturally-inflected differences emerge in development. Here, we address this issue directly, asking how 24-month-old infants from the US and China deploy their attention to objects and actions in dynamic scenes. By analyzing infants' eye movements while they observed dynamic scenes, the current experiment revealed striking convergences, overall, in infants' patterns of visual attention in the two communities, but also pinpointed a brief period during which their attention reliably diverged. This divergence, though modest, suggested that infants from the US devoted relatively more attention to the objects and those from China devoted relatively more attention to the actions in which they were engaged. This provides the earliest evidence for strong overlap in infants' attention to objects and events in dynamic scenes, but also raises the possibility that by 24 months, infants' attention may also be shaped subtly by the culturally-inflected attentional proclivities characteristic of adults in their cultural communities. PMID:26903905

  8. A framework for developing an evidence-based, comprehensive tobacco control program

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco control is an area where the translation of evidence into policy would seem to be straightforward, given the wealth of epidemiological, behavioural and other types of research available. Yet, even here challenges exist. These include information overload, concealment of key (industry-funded) evidence, contextualization, assessment of population impact, and the changing nature of the threat. Methods In the context of Israel's health targeting initiative, Healthy Israel 2020, we describe the steps taken to develop a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. We elaborate on the following: a) scientific issues influencing the choice of tobacco control strategies; b) organization of existing evidence of effectiveness of interventions into a manageable form, and c) consideration of relevant philosophical and political issues. We propose a framework for developing a plan and illustrate this process with a case study in Israel. Results Broad consensus exists regarding the effectiveness of most interventions, but current recommendations differ in the emphasis they place on different strategies. Scientific challenges include integration of complex and sometimes conflicting information from authoritative sources, and lack of estimates of population impact of interventions. Philosophical and political challenges include the use of evidence-based versus innovative policymaking, the importance of individual versus governmental responsibility, and whether and how interventions should be prioritized. The proposed framework includes: 1) compilation of a list of potential interventions 2) modification of that list based on local needs and political constraints; 3) streamlining the list by categorizing interventions into broad groupings of related interventions; together these groupings form the basis of a comprehensive plan; and 4) refinement of the plan by comparing it to existing comprehensive plans. Conclusions Development of a comprehensive tobacco control plan

  9. Action control is mediated by prefrontal BDNF and glucocorticoid receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Gourley, Shannon L; Swanson, Andrew M; Jacobs, Andrea M; Howell, Jessica L; Mo, Michelle; Dileone, Ralph J; Koleske, Anthony J; Taylor, Jane R

    2012-12-11

    Stressor exposure biases decision-making strategies from those based on the relationship between actions and their consequences to others restricted by stimulus-response associations. Chronic stressor exposure also desensitizes glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and diminishes motivation to acquire food reinforcement, although causal relationships are largely not established. We show that a history of chronic exposure to the GR ligand corticosterone or acute posttraining GR blockade with RU38486 makes rodents less able to perform actions based on their consequences. Thus, optimal GR binding is necessary for the consolidation of new response-outcome learning. In contrast, medial prefrontal (but not striatal) BDNF can account for stress-related amotivation, in that selective medial prefrontal cortical Bdnf knockdown decreases break-point ratios in a progressive-ratio task. Knockdown also increases vulnerability to RU38486. Despite the role of BDNF in dendritic spine reorganization, deep-layer spine remodeling does not obviously parallel progressive-ratio response patterns, but treatment with the Na(+)-channel inhibitor riluzole reverses corticosteroid-induced motivational deficits and restores prefrontal BDNF expression after corticosterone. We argue that when prefrontal neurotrophin systems are compromised, and GR-mediated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis feedback is desensitized (as in the case of chronic stress hormone exposure), amotivation and inflexible maladaptive response strategies that contribute to stress-related mood disorders result. PMID:23185000

  10. Controls and constrains of the membrane disrupting action of Aurein 1.2

    PubMed Central

    Shahmiri, Mahdi; Enciso, Marta; Mechler, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Aurein 1.2 is a 13 residue antimicrobial peptide secreted by the Australian tree frog Litoria Aurea. It is a surface-acting membrane disrupting peptide that permeabilizes bacterial membranes via the carpet mechanism; the molecular details of this process are mostly unknown. Here the mechanism of action of Aurein 1.2 was investigated with an emphasis on the role of membrane charge and C-terminal amidation of the peptide. Using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) fingerprinting it was found that the membrane charge correlates with membrane affinity of the peptide, however the binding and the membrane disrupting processes are not charge driven; increased membrane charge reduces the membrane disrupting activity. Coarse grain simulations revealed that phenylalanine residues act as membrane anchors. Accordingly Aurein 1.2 has the ability to bind to any membrane. Furthermore, bundling precludes membrane disruption in case of wild type peptides, while non C-terminal amidated peptides form random aggregates leading to detachment from the membrane. Hence C-terminal amidation is crucial for Aurein 1.2 action. Our results suggest that Aurein 1.2 acts via aggregation driven membrane penetration. The concomitant change in the tension of the outer leaflet imposes a spontaneous curvature on the membrane, leading to disintegration. PMID:26574052

  11. Controls and constrains of the membrane disrupting action of Aurein 1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmiri, Mahdi; Enciso, Marta; Mechler, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Aurein 1.2 is a 13 residue antimicrobial peptide secreted by the Australian tree frog Litoria Aurea. It is a surface-acting membrane disrupting peptide that permeabilizes bacterial membranes via the carpet mechanism; the molecular details of this process are mostly unknown. Here the mechanism of action of Aurein 1.2 was investigated with an emphasis on the role of membrane charge and C-terminal amidation of the peptide. Using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) fingerprinting it was found that the membrane charge correlates with membrane affinity of the peptide, however the binding and the membrane disrupting processes are not charge driven; increased membrane charge reduces the membrane disrupting activity. Coarse grain simulations revealed that phenylalanine residues act as membrane anchors. Accordingly Aurein 1.2 has the ability to bind to any membrane. Furthermore, bundling precludes membrane disruption in case of wild type peptides, while non C-terminal amidated peptides form random aggregates leading to detachment from the membrane. Hence C-terminal amidation is crucial for Aurein 1.2 action. Our results suggest that Aurein 1.2 acts via aggregation driven membrane penetration. The concomitant change in the tension of the outer leaflet imposes a spontaneous curvature on the membrane, leading to disintegration.

  12. Evidence for distinct brain networks in the control of rule-based motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Granek, Joshua A; Sergio, Lauren E

    2015-08-01

    Reach guidance when the spatial location of the viewed target and hand movement are incongruent (i.e., decoupled) necessitates use of explicit cognitive rules (strategic control) or implicit recalibration of gaze and limb position (sensorimotor recalibration). In a patient with optic ataxia (OA) and bilateral superior parietal lobule damage, we recently demonstrated an increased reliance on strategic control when the patient performed a decoupled reach (Granek JA, Pisella L, Stemberger J, Vighetto A, Rossetti Y, Sergio LE. PLoS One 8: e86138, 2013). To more generally understand the fundamental mechanisms of decoupled visuomotor control and to more specifically test whether we could distinguish these two modes of movement control, we tested healthy participants in a cognitively demanding dual task. Participants continuously counted backward while simultaneously reaching toward horizontal (left or right) or diagonal (equivalent to top-left or top-right) targets with either veridical or rotated (90°) cursor feedback. By increasing the overall neural load and selectively compromising potentially overlapping neural circuits responsible for strategic control, the complex dual task served as a noninvasive means to disrupt the integration of a cognitive rule into a motor action. Complementary to our previous results observed in patients with optic ataxia, here our dual task led to greater performance deficits during movements that required an explicit rule, implying a selective disruption of strategic control in decoupled reaching. Our results suggest that distinct neural processing is required to control these different types of reaching because in considering the current results and previous patient results together, the two classes of movement could be differentiated depending on the type of interference. PMID:26133796

  13. Evidence for distinct brain networks in the control of rule-based motor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Granek, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Reach guidance when the spatial location of the viewed target and hand movement are incongruent (i.e., decoupled) necessitates use of explicit cognitive rules (strategic control) or implicit recalibration of gaze and limb position (sensorimotor recalibration). In a patient with optic ataxia (OA) and bilateral superior parietal lobule damage, we recently demonstrated an increased reliance on strategic control when the patient performed a decoupled reach (Granek JA, Pisella L, Stemberger J, Vighetto A, Rossetti Y, Sergio LE. PLoS One 8: e86138, 2013). To more generally understand the fundamental mechanisms of decoupled visuomotor control and to more specifically test whether we could distinguish these two modes of movement control, we tested healthy participants in a cognitively demanding dual task. Participants continuously counted backward while simultaneously reaching toward horizontal (left or right) or diagonal (equivalent to top-left or top-right) targets with either veridical or rotated (90°) cursor feedback. By increasing the overall neural load and selectively compromising potentially overlapping neural circuits responsible for strategic control, the complex dual task served as a noninvasive means to disrupt the integration of a cognitive rule into a motor action. Complementary to our previous results observed in patients with optic ataxia, here our dual task led to greater performance deficits during movements that required an explicit rule, implying a selective disruption of strategic control in decoupled reaching. Our results suggest that distinct neural processing is required to control these different types of reaching because in considering the current results and previous patient results together, the two classes of movement could be differentiated depending on the type of interference. PMID:26133796

  14. Innoversity in knowledge-for-action and adaptation to climate change: the first steps of an ‘evidence-based climatic health’ transfrontier training program

    PubMed Central

    Lapaige, Véronique; Essiembre, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear to the international scientific community that climate change is real and has important consequences for human health. To meet these new challenges, the World Health Organization recommends reinforcing the adaptive capacity of health systems. One of the possible avenues in this respect is to promote awareness and knowledge translation in climatic health, at both the local and global scales. Within such perspective, two major themes have emerged in the field of public health research: 1) the development of advanced training adapted to ‘global environment’ change and to the specific needs of various groups of actors (doctors, nurses, public health practitioners, health care managers, public service managers, local communities, etc) and 2) the development of strategies for implementing research results and applying various types of evidence to the management of public health issues affected by climate change. Progress on these two fronts will depend on maximum innovation in transdisciplinary and transsectoral collaborations. The general purpose of this article is to present the program of a new research and learning chair designed for this double set of developmental objectives – a chair that emphasizes ‘innoversity’ (the dynamic relationship between innovation and diversity) and ‘transfrontier ecolearning for adaptive actions’. The Écoapprentissages, santé mentale et climat collaborative research chair (University of Montreal and Quebec National Public Health Institute) based in Montreal is a center for ‘transdisciplinary research’ on the transfrontier knowledge-for-action that can aid adaptation of the public health sector, the public mental health sector, and the public service sector to climate change, as well as a center for complex collaborations on evidence-based climatic health ‘training’. This program-focused article comprises two main sections. The first section presents the ‘general’ and

  15. Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction.

    PubMed

    Morters, Michelle K; Restif, Olivier; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Wood, James L N; Conlan, Andrew J K

    2013-01-01

    Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization. Despite the evidence that culling fails to control canine rabies, efforts to reduce canine population density continue in many parts of the world. The rationale for reducing population density is that rabies transmission is density-dependent, with disease incidence increasing directly with host density. This may be based, in part, on an incomplete interpretation of historical field data for wildlife, with important implications for disease control in dog populations. Here, we examine historical and more recent field data, in the context of host ecology and epidemic theory, to understand better the role of density in rabies transmission and the reasons why culling fails to control rabies. We conclude that the relationship between host density, disease incidence and other factors is complex and may differ between species. This highlights the difficulties of interpreting field data and the constraints of extrapolations between species, particularly in terms of control policies. We also propose that the complex interactions between dogs and people may render culling of free-roaming dogs ineffective irrespective of the relationship between host density and disease incidence. We conclude that vaccination is the most effective means to control rabies in all species.

  16. Action for Environmental Quality. Standards and Enforcement for Air and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting and enforcing environmental quality standards for the nation. With the Clean Air Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-604) and the Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-500), the first truly nationwide control programs were established. This booklet is designed to inform the public…

  17. Mode of Action and Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in the Control of Caterpillars and Stink Bugs in Soybean Culture.

    PubMed

    Schünemann, Rogério; Knaak, Neiva; Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment. Little is known about the actual toxicity of Bt to Hemiptera, since these insects present sucking mouthparts, which hamper toxicity assays with artificial diets containing toxins of this bacterium. In recent studies of cytotoxicity with the gut of different hemipterans, susceptibility in the mechanism of action of delta-endotoxins has been demonstrated, which can generate promising subsidies for the control of these insect pests in soybean. This paper aims to review the studies related to the selection, application and mode of action of Bt in the biological control of the major pest of soybean, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and an analysis of advances in research on the use of Bt for control hemipterans.

  18. Mode of Action and Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in the Control of Caterpillars and Stink Bugs in Soybean Culture

    PubMed Central

    Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment. Little is known about the actual toxicity of Bt to Hemiptera, since these insects present sucking mouthparts, which hamper toxicity assays with artificial diets containing toxins of this bacterium. In recent studies of cytotoxicity with the gut of different hemipterans, susceptibility in the mechanism of action of delta-endotoxins has been demonstrated, which can generate promising subsidies for the control of these insect pests in soybean. This paper aims to review the studies related to the selection, application and mode of action of Bt in the biological control of the major pest of soybean, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and an analysis of advances in research on the use of Bt for control hemipterans. PMID:24575310

  19. Task Control Signals in Pediatric Tourette Syndrome Show Evidence of Immature and Anomalous Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Church, Jessica A.; Wenger, Kristin K.; Dosenbach, Nico U. F.; Miezin, Francis M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2009-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a pediatric movement disorder that may affect control signaling in the brain. Previous work has proposed a dual-networks architecture of control processing involving a task-maintenance network and an adaptive control network (Dosenbach et al., 2008). A prior resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) analysis in TS has revealed functional immaturity in both putative control networks, with “anomalous” correlations (i.e., correlations outside the typical developmental range) limited to the adaptive control network (Church et al., 2009). The present study used functional MRI (fMRI) to study brain activity related to adaptive control (by studying start-cues signals), and to task-maintenance (by studying signals sustained across a task set). Two hypotheses from the previous rs-fcMRI results were tested. First, adaptive control (i.e., start-cue) activity will be altered in TS, including activity inconsistent with typical development (“anomalous”). Second, group differences found in task-maintenance (i.e., sustained) activity will be consistent with functional immaturity in TS. We examined regions found through a direct comparison of adolescents with and without TS, as well as regions derived from a previous investigation that showed differences between unaffected children and adults. The TS group showed decreased start-cue signal magnitude in regions where start-cue activity is unchanged over typical development, consistent with anomalous adaptive control. The TS group also had higher magnitude sustained signals in frontal cortex regions that overlapped with regions showing differences over typical development, consistent with immature task-maintenance in TS. The results demonstrate task-related fMRI signal differences anticipated by the atypical functional connectivity found previously in adolescents with TS, strengthening the evidence for functional immaturity and anomalous signaling in control networks in adolescents with TS

  20. A Randomized Controlled Study to Compare Conventional and Evidence Based Treatment Protocols in Fresh Compound Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Kanika; Singh, Girish Kumar; Kumar, Santosh; Avasthi, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A recent concept review in Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS) outlines evidence to control peri-operative infections in compound fractures. However, evidence for impact of adopting a protocol combining measures that have some evidence is lacking in literature. The present method of treatment at King George’s Medical University (KGMU) is representative of the conventional practice of managing compound fractures in India and is an appropriate control for trial against the Experimental Evidence Based Protocol (EBP). Aim To study the additional impact of adopting Evidence Based Protocol on parameters defining infection rate and bone union. Materials and Methods This randomized controlled study was conducted at the orthopaedics department of KGMU. Two hundred and twenty six patients of compound fractures of both bone leg, age > 12y were randomized to two groups. One group received standard treatment and the experimental group received treatment as per JBJS review. Statistical Analysis Random allocation was tested by comparing baseline characteristics of the two groups. The two groups were compared for all the outcome variables in terms of time to a negative wound culture, time to wound healing, time to union at fracture site and time to achieve complete range of motion at knee joint. Results Random allocation was successful. EBP group reported significantly lesser time to a negative culture report from wound (mean in conventional=4.619, experimental=1.9146, p=0.0006), lesser time to bony union (mean in conventional=23.8427 weeks, experimental=22.8125 weeks, p=0.0027), lesser time to wound healing (mean in conventional=14.4425 weeks experimental=10.4513 weeks, p=0.0032), and a lesser duration of hospital stay (mean in conventional=6.5982 days, experimental=4.5000 days, p=0.0343). Conclusion EBP based on the guidelines suggested by Fletcher et al., significantly shorten the time taken for achieving a negative culture and hasten wound and fracture

  1. Evaluation and control of ergonomics actions in federal public service: the case of FIOCRUZ-RJ.

    PubMed

    Ricarta, Simone L Santa Isabel; Vidala, Mario Cesar Rodriguez; Bonfattia, Renato José

    2012-01-01

    This article presents information about the development of the dissertation. Deals with the production of ergonomic diagnosis in the environments and work processes of an important center of research and development in Public Health, FIOCRUZ. Critically evaluates the performance of a team promoting and facilitating the process of implementing ergonomic changes suggested. Through analysis of documents and statements by some managers and representatives of Human Resources was possible to identify the factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation process, linking them to the organization of the institution and conduct of the agents involved. Finally, it makes a reflection on practice, results and developments involved in the processes of change initiated by the ergonomic actions, proposing its replication along with other institutes of the Civilian Personnel of Federal Public Administration.

  2. Evaluation and control of ergonomics actions in federal public service: the case of FIOCRUZ-RJ.

    PubMed

    Ricarta, Simone L Santa Isabel; Vidala, Mario Cesar Rodriguez; Bonfattia, Renato José

    2012-01-01

    This article presents information about the development of the dissertation. Deals with the production of ergonomic diagnosis in the environments and work processes of an important center of research and development in Public Health, FIOCRUZ. Critically evaluates the performance of a team promoting and facilitating the process of implementing ergonomic changes suggested. Through analysis of documents and statements by some managers and representatives of Human Resources was possible to identify the factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation process, linking them to the organization of the institution and conduct of the agents involved. Finally, it makes a reflection on practice, results and developments involved in the processes of change initiated by the ergonomic actions, proposing its replication along with other institutes of the Civilian Personnel of Federal Public Administration. PMID:22316778

  3. Binding Action and Emotion in Social Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Francesca; Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Costantini, Marcello; Salone, Anatolia; Arciero, Giampiero; Mazzola, Viridiana; Ferro, Filippo Maria; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    In social life actions are tightly linked with emotions. The integration of affective- and action-related information has to be considered as a fundamental component of appropriate social understanding. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at investigating whether an emotion (Happiness, Anger or Neutral) dynamically expressed by an observed agent modulates brain activity underlying the perception of his grasping action. As control stimuli, participants observed the same agent either only expressing an emotion or only performing a grasping action. Our results showed that the observation of an action embedded in an emotional context (agent’s facial expression), compared with the observation of the same action embedded in a neutral context, elicits higher neural response at the level of motor frontal cortices, temporal and occipital cortices, bilaterally. Particularly, the dynamic facial expression of anger modulates the re-enactment of a motor representation of the observed action. This is supported by the evidence that observing actions embedded in the context of anger, but not happiness, compared with a neutral context, elicits stronger activity in the bilateral pre-central gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, besides the pre-supplementary motor area, a region playing a central role in motor control. Angry faces not only seem to modulate the simulation of actions, but may also trigger motor reaction. These findings suggest that emotions exert a modulatory role on action observation in different cortical areas involved in action processing. PMID:23349792

  4. An Interdependent Model of Central/Peripheral Chemoreception: Evidence and Implications for Ventilatory Control

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Curtis A.; Forster, Hubert V.; Blain, Grégory M.; Dempsey, Jerome A.

    2010-01-01

    In this review we discuss the implications for ventilatory control of newer evidence suggesting that central and peripheral chemoreceptors are not functionally separate but rather that they are dependent upon one another such that the sensitivity of the medullary chemoreceptors is critically determined by input from the carotid body chemoreceptors and vice versa i.e., they are interdependent. We examine potential interactions of the interdependent central and carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors with other ventilatory-related inputs such as central hypoxia, lung stretch, and exercise. The limitations of current approaches addressing this question are discussed and future studies are suggested. PMID:20206717

  5. Binding space and time through action.

    PubMed

    Binetti, N; Hagura, N; Fadipe, C; Tomassini, A; Walsh, V; Bestmann, S

    2015-04-22

    Space and time are intimately coupled dimensions in the human brain. Several lines of evidence suggest that space and time are processed by a shared analogue magnitude system. It has been proposed that actions are instrumental in establishing this shared magnitude system. Here we provide evidence in support of this hypothesis, by showing that the interaction between space and time is enhanced when magnitude information is acquired through action. Participants observed increases or decreases in the height of a visual bar (spatial magnitude) while judging whether a simultaneously presented sequence of acoustic tones had accelerated or decelerated (temporal magnitude). In one condition (Action), participants directly controlled the changes in bar height with a hand grip device, whereas in the other (No Action), changes in bar height were externally controlled but matched the spatial/temporal profile of the Action condition. The sign of changes in bar height biased the perceived rate of the tone sequences, where increases in bar height produced apparent increases in tone rate. This effect was amplified when the visual bar was actively controlled in the Action condition, and the strength of the interaction was scaled by the magnitude of the action. Subsequent experiments ruled out that this was simply explained by attentional factors, and additionally showed that a monotonic mapping is also required between grip force and bar height in order to bias the perception of the tones. These data provide support for an instrumental role of action in interfacing spatial and temporal quantities in the brain.

  6. Evidence for synergistic control of glutamate biosynthesis by glutamate dehydrogenases and glutamate in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Stannek, Lorena; Thiele, Martin J; Ischebeck, Till; Gunka, Katrin; Hammer, Elke; Völker, Uwe; Commichau, Fabian M

    2015-09-01

    In the Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis glutamate is synthesized by the glutamine synthetase and the glutamate synthase (GOGAT). During growth with carbon sources that exert carbon catabolite repression, the rocG glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) gene is repressed and the transcription factor GltC activates the expression of the GOGAT encoding gltAB genes. In the presence of amino acids of the glutamate family, the GDH RocG is synthesized and the enzyme prevents GltC from binding to DNA. The dual control of glutamate biosynthesis allows the efficient utilization of the available nutrients. Here we provide genetic and biochemical evidence that, like RocG, also the paralogous GDH GudB can inhibit the transcription factor GltC, thereby controlling glutamate biosynthesis. Contradictory previous observations show that high level of GDH activity does not result in permanent inhibition of GltC. By controlling the intracellular levels of glutamate through feeding with exogenous arginine, we observed that the GDH-dependent control of GltC and thus expression of the gltAB genes inversely correlates with the glutamate pool. These results suggest that the B. subtilis GDHs RocG and GudB in fact act as glutamate sensors. In conclusion, the GDH-mediated control of glutamate biosynthesis seems to depend on the intracellular glutamate concentration. PMID:25711804

  7. Three key regions for supervisory attentional control: Evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Cieslik, Edna C.; Mueller, Veronika I.; Eickhoff, Claudia R.; Langner, Robert; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    The supervisory attentional system has been proposed to mediate non-routine, goal-oriented behaviour by guiding the selection and maintenance of the goal-relevant task schema. Here, we aimed to delineate the brain regions that mediate these high-level control processes via neuroimaging meta-analysis. In particular, we investigated the core neural correlates of a wide range of tasks requiring supervisory control for the suppression of a routine action in favour of another, non-routine one. Our sample comprised n = 173 experiments employing go/no-go, stop-signal, Stroop or spatial interference tasks. Consistent convergence across all four paradigm classes was restricted to right anterior insula and inferior frontal junction, with anterior midcingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area being consistently involved in all but the go/no-go task. Taken together with lesion studies in patients, our findings suggest that the controlled activation and maintenance of adequate task schemata relies, across paradigms, on a right-dominant midcingulo-insular-inferior frontal core network. This also implies that the role of other prefrontal and parietal regions may be less domain-general than previously thought. PMID:25446951

  8. Action and Traction: Cytoskeletal Control of Receptor Triggering at the Immunological Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Comrie, William A.; Burkhardt, Janis K.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that F-actin dynamics drive the micron-scale cell shape changes required for migration and immunological synapse (IS) formation. In addition, recent evidence points to a more intimate role for the actin cytoskeleton in promoting T cell activation. Mechanotransduction, the conversion of mechanical input into intracellular biochemical changes, is thought to play a critical role in several aspects of immunoreceptor triggering and downstream signal transduction. Multiple molecules associated with signaling events at the IS have been shown to respond to physical force, including the TCR, costimulatory molecules, adhesion molecules, and several downstream adapters. In at least some cases, it is clear that the relevant forces are exerted by dynamics of the T cell actomyosin cytoskeleton. Interestingly, there is evidence that the cytoskeleton of the antigen-presenting cell also plays an active role in T cell activation, by countering the molecular forces exerted by the T cell at the IS. Since actin polymerization is itself driven by TCR and costimulatory signaling pathways, a complex relationship exists between actin dynamics and receptor activation. This review will focus on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanosensitive aspects of T cell activation, paying specific attention to how F-actin-directed forces applied from both sides of the IS fit into current models of receptor triggering and activation. PMID:27014258

  9. Action-effect binding by observational learning.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus; van Dam, Wessel; Hunnius, Sabine; Lindemann, Oliver; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-10-01

    The acquisition of bidirectional action-effect associations plays a central role in the ability to intentionally control actions. Humans learn about actions not only through active experience, but also through observing the actions of others. In Experiment 1, we examined whether action-effect associations can be acquired by observational learning. To this end, participants observed how a model repeatedly pressed two buttons during an observation phase. Each of the buttonpresses led to a specific tone (action effect). In a subsequent test phase, the tones served as target stimuli to which the participants had to respond with buttonpresses. Reaction times were shorter if the stimulus-response mapping in the test phase was compatible with the action-effect association in the observation phase. Experiment 2 excluded the possibility that the impact of perceived action effects on own actions was driven merely by an association of spatial features with the particular tones. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the presence of an agent is necessary to acquire novel action-effect associations through observation. Altogether, the study provides evidence for the claim that bidirectional action-effect associations can be acquired by observational learning. Our findings are discussed in the context of the idea that the acquisition of action-effect associations through observation is an important cognitive mechanism subserving the human ability for social learning.

  10. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for weight control: Model, evidence, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Jason; Kendra, Kathleen E.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral weight loss programs achieve substantial short-term weight loss; however attrition and poor weight loss maintenance remain significant problems. Recently, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been used in an attempt to improve long-term outcomes. This conceptual article outlines the standard behavioral and ACT approach to weight control, discusses potential benefits and obstacles to combing approaches, briefly reviews current ACT for weight control outcome research, and highlights significant empirical questions that remain. The current evidence suggests that ACT could be useful as an add-on treatment, or in a combined format, for improving long-term weight loss outcomes. Larger studies with longer follow-up are needed as well as studies that aim to identify how best to combine standard treatments and ACT and also who would benefit most from these approaches. PMID:25419510

  11. Graph analysis of functional brain networks for cognitive control of action in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander; Heitger, Marcus H; Leunissen, Inge; Dhollander, Thijs; Sunaert, Stefan; Dupont, Patrick; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2012-04-01

    Patients with traumatic brain injury show clear impairments in behavioural flexibility and inhibition that often persist beyond the time of injury, affecting independent living and psychosocial functioning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that patients with traumatic brain injury typically show increased and more broadly dispersed frontal and parietal activity during performance of cognitive control tasks. We constructed binary and weighted functional networks and calculated their topological properties using a graph theoretical approach. Twenty-three adults with traumatic brain injury and 26 age-matched controls were instructed to switch between coordination modes while making spatially and temporally coupled circular motions with joysticks during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results demonstrated that switching performance was significantly lower in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with control subjects. Furthermore, although brain networks of both groups exhibited economical small-world topology, altered functional connectivity was demonstrated in patients with traumatic brain injury. In particular, compared with controls, patients with traumatic brain injury showed increased connectivity degree and strength, and higher values of local efficiency, suggesting adaptive mechanisms in this group. Finally, the degree of increased connectivity was significantly correlated with poorer switching task performance and more severe brain injury. We conclude that analysing the functional brain network connectivity provides new insights into understanding cognitive control changes following brain injury.

  12. Effects of the Positive Action programme on problem behaviours in elementary school students: a matched-pair randomised control trial in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Li, Kin-Kit; Washburn, Isaac; DuBois, David L; Vuchinich, Samuel; Ji, Peter; Brechling, Vanessa; Day, Joseph; Beets, Michael W; Acock, Alan C; Berbaum, Michael; Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian R

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the effects of the Positive Action (PA) programme in Chicago Public Schools on problem behaviours among a cohort of elementary school students from grade three through grade five. Using a matched-pair, randomised control design with 14 elementary schools, approximately 510 fifth-graders self-reported lifetime substance use, serious violence-related behaviour, and current bullying and disruptive behaviours. Three-level (i.e. students nested within schools within school pairs) overdispersed Poisson models were used to examine programme effects on the number of items endorsed for each of the four outcomes. Findings indicated that students in the intervention endorsed 31% fewer substance use behaviours (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.69), 37% fewer violence-related behaviours (IRR = 0.63) and 41% fewer bullying behaviours (IRR = 0.59), respectively, compared to students in the control schools. Reduction in reported disruptive behaviours was of a similar magnitude (27%, IRR = 0.73), but was not statistically significant. These results replicate findings of an earlier randomised trial of the PA programme and extend evidence of its effectiveness to youth attending large urban school systems.

  13. Gender differences in condom use prediction with Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour: the role of self-efficacy and control.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Silva, A; Sánchez-García, M; Nunes, C; Martins, A

    2007-10-01

    There is much evidence that demonstrates that programs and interventions based on the theoretical models of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) have been effective in the prevention of the sexual transmission of HIV. The objective of this work is to compare the effectiveness of both models in the prediction of condom use, distinguishing two components inside the variable Perceived Behavioural Control of the TPB model: self-efficacy and control. The perspective of gender differences is also added. The study was carried out in a sample of 601 Portuguese and Spanish university students. The results show that the females have a higher average in all the TPB variables than males, except in the frequency of condom use: females request the use of condoms less frequently than males. On the other hand, for both females and males the TPB model predicts better condom-use intention than the TRA. However there are no differences between the two models in relation to the prediction of condom-use behaviour. For prediction of intention, the most outstanding variable among females is attitude, while among males they are subjective norm and self-efficacy. Finally, we analyze the implications of these data from a theoretical and practical point of view.

  14. Gender differences in condom use prediction with Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour: the role of self-efficacy and control.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Silva, A; Sánchez-García, M; Nunes, C; Martins, A

    2007-10-01

    There is much evidence that demonstrates that programs and interventions based on the theoretical models of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) have been effective in the prevention of the sexual transmission of HIV. The objective of this work is to compare the effectiveness of both models in the prediction of condom use, distinguishing two components inside the variable Perceived Behavioural Control of the TPB model: self-efficacy and control. The perspective of gender differences is also added. The study was carried out in a sample of 601 Portuguese and Spanish university students. The results show that the females have a higher average in all the TPB variables than males, except in the frequency of condom use: females request the use of condoms less frequently than males. On the other hand, for both females and males the TPB model predicts better condom-use intention than the TRA. However there are no differences between the two models in relation to the prediction of condom-use behaviour. For prediction of intention, the most outstanding variable among females is attitude, while among males they are subjective norm and self-efficacy. Finally, we analyze the implications of these data from a theoretical and practical point of view. PMID:18058403

  15. Complementary and dose-dependent action of AtCCS52A isoforms in endoreduplication and plant size control.

    PubMed

    Baloban, Mikhail; Vanstraelen, Marleen; Tarayre, Sylvie; Reuzeau, Christophe; Cultrone, Antonietta; Mergaert, Peter; Kondorosi, Eva

    2013-06-01

    · The dimension of organs depends on the number and the size of their component cells. Formation of polyploid cells by endoreduplication cycles is predominantly associated with increases in the cell size and implicated in organ growth. In plants, the CCS52A proteins play a major role in the switch from mitotic to endoreduplication cycles controlling thus the number of mitotic cells and the endoreduplication events in the differentiating cells. · Arabidopsis has two CCS52A isoforms; AtCCS52A1 and AtCCS52A2. Here we focused on their roles in endoreduplication and cell size control during plant development. We demonstrate their complementary and dose-dependent actions that are dependent on their expression patterns. Moreover, the impact of CCS52A overexpression on organ size in transgenic plants was dependent on the expression level; while enhanced expression of the CCS52A genes positively correlated with the ploidy levels, organ sizes were negatively affected by strong overexpression whereas milder overexpression resulted in a significant increase in the organ sizes. · Taken together, these finding support both complementary and dose-dependent actions for the Arabidopsis CCS52A isoforms in plant development and demonstrate that elevated ectopic CCS52A expression positively correlates with organ size, opening a route to higher biomass production.

  16. [A school program for dengue control in Honduras: from knowledge to action].

    PubMed

    Avila Montes, Gustavo Adolfo; Araujo, Roxana; Leontsini, Elli; Orellana Herrera, Gabriel; Fernández Cerna, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    The Environmental School Program (PEA, for its Spanish acronym), a dengue control initiative focused on primary schools that took place during 2005-2010 in several cities in Honduras, is described. The environmental health program was designed to increase knowledge and develop skills in the identification and control of Aedes aegypti breeding sites, as well as in water and solid waste management. The results, as measured by behavioral change and reduced larval indices, were satisfactory in the majority of the participating schools. The initiative involved not only children, but also their parents and teachers. In addition to reducing larval indices, PEA was successful in promoting community participation in environmental issues, particularly Aedes control. The inclusion of this educational content in the primary school curriculum in Honduras remains pending.

  17. Who responds to financial incentives for weight loss? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Paloyo, Alfredo R; Reichert, Arndt R; Reuss-Borst, Monika; Tauchmann, Harald

    2015-11-01

    There is a paucity of evidence on the heterogeneous impacts of financial incentives on weight loss. Between March 2010 and January 2012, in a randomized controlled trial, we assigned 700 obese persons to three experimental arms. We test whether particular subgroups react differently to financial incentives for weight loss. Two treatment groups obtained a cash reward (€150 and €300 with 237 and 229 participants, respectively) for achieving an individually-assigned target weight within four months; the control group (234 participants) was not incentivized. Participants and administrators were not blinded to the intervention. We find that monetary rewards effectively induced obese individuals to reduce weight across all subgroups. However, there is no evidence for treatment-effect heterogeneity for those groups that were incentivized. Among those who were in the €300 group, statistically significant and large weight losses were observed for women, singles, and those who are not working (all above 4 kg in four months). In addition, the magnitude of the reward matters only for women and migrants. The effectiveness of financial incentives to reduce weight nevertheless raises sensitive ethical issues that should be taken into consideration by policymakers. PMID:26448164

  18. Control of acidity development on solid sulfur due to bacterial action.

    PubMed

    Crescenzi, Francesco; Crisari, Antonella; Dangeli, Edoardo; Nardella, Alessandro

    2006-11-01

    The global production of sulfur, which is currently obtained almost exclusively as an involuntary byproduct of the oil and gas industry, is exceeding the market demand so that long term storage or even definitive disposal of elemental sulfur is often needed to handle production surplus. The storage of large quantities of elemental sulfur calls for solidifying liquid sulfur in huge blocks, hundred meters wide on each side and as high as 20 meters. Sulfur, in presence of water and air, can be oxidized to sulfuric acid by a ubiquitous microorganism: Thiobacillus. On large blocks, this natural phenomenon may lead to soil and water acidification. Research projects have addressed suppression of Thiobacilli activity to prevent acidification, but no industrial applications have been reported. This work describes the inhibition of sulfur biological oxidation attainable by exposing sulfur to a high ionic strength environment. The bacteriostatic action is produced by contacting sulfur with a solution of an inorganic salt, such as sodium chloride, having an ionic strength similar to sea water. Possible ways to exploit the inhibitory effect to prevent the generation of acidity from sulfur storage blocks are suggested. PMID:17144310

  19. Delayed action insecticides and their role in mosquito and malaria control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuncheng; Gourley, Stephen A; Liu, Rongsong

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the management of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. One possible approach to slowing down the evolution of resistance is to use late-life-acting (LLA) insecticides that selectively kill only the old mosquitoes that transmit malaria, thereby reducing selection pressure favoring resistance. In this paper we consider an age-structured compartmental model for malaria with two mosquito strains that differ in resistance to insecticide, using an SEI approach to model malaria in the mosquitoes and thereby incorporating the parasite developmental times for the two strains. The human population is modeled using an SEI approach. We consider both conventional insecticides that target all adult mosquitoes, and LLA insecticides that target only old mosquitoes. According to linearised theory the potency of the insecticide affects mainly the speed of evolution of resistance. Mutations that confer resistance can also affect other parameters such as mean adult life span and parasite developmental time. For both conventional and LLA insecticides the stability of the malaria-free equilibrium, with only the resistant mosquito strain present, depends mainly on these other parameters. This suggests that the main long term role of an insecticide could be to induce genetic changes that have a desirable effect on a vital parameter such as adult life span. However, when this equilibrium is unstable, numerical simulations suggest that a potent LLA insecticide can slow down the spread of malaria in humans but that the timing of its action is very important.

  20. [Actions for legionellosis prevention and control: a challenge for public health in Spain].

    PubMed

    Gea-Izquierdo, Enrique; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Haro-García, Luis

    2012-06-01

    Legionellosis is a respiratory disease originating in systems that produce aerosol and contain Legionella sp. In recent decades, Spain has developed a regulatory framework for prevention and control of legionellosis. This article describes the epidemiology of legionellosis and the importance of controlling the transmission of bacteria in the fight against the disease. In that regard, it becomes clear the role of reviewing critical facilities and the inclusion of new ones in the preventive legislation, the estimation of risk, and the improvement in the diagnostic processes and progress in new prevention protocols.

  1. INL SITEWIDE INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS, AND OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE PLAN FOR CERCLA RESPONSE ACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    JOLLEY, WENDELL L

    2008-02-05

    On November 9, 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality approved the 'Record of Decision Experimental Breeder Reactor-I/Boiling Water Reactor Experiment Area and Miscellaneous Sites', which required a Site-wide institutional controls plan for the then Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (now known as the Idaho National Laboratory). This document, first issued in June 2004, fulfilled that requirement. This revision identifies and consolidates the institutional controls and operations and maintenance requirements into a single document.

  2. Co-lateralized bilingual mechanisms for reading in single and dual language contexts: evidence from visual half-field processing of action words in proficient bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Krefta, Marlena; Michałowski, Bartosz; Kowalczyk, Jacek; Króliczak, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    When reading, proficient bilinguals seem to engage the same cognitive circuits regardless of the language in use. Yet, whether or not such “bilingual” mechanisms would be lateralized in the same way in distinct—single or dual—language contexts is a question for debate. To fill this gap, we tested 18 highly proficient Polish (L1) —English (L2) childhood bilinguals whose task was to read aloud one of the two laterally presented action verbs, one stimulus per visual half field. While in the single-language blocks only L1 or L2 words were shown, in the subsequent mixed-language blocks words from both languages were concurrently displayed. All stimuli were presented for 217 ms followed by masks in which letters were replaced with hash marks. Since in non-simultaneous bilinguals the control of language, skilled actions (including reading), and representations of action concepts are typically left lateralized, the vast majority of our participants showed the expected, significant right visual field advantage for L1 and L2, both for accuracy and response times. The observed effects were nevertheless associated with substantial variability in the strength of the lateralization of the mechanisms involved. Moreover, although it could be predicted that participants' performance should be better in a single-language context, accuracy was significantly higher and response times were significantly shorter in a dual-language context, irrespective of the language tested. Finally, for both accuracy and response times, there were significant positive correlations between the laterality indices (LIs) of both languages independent of the context, with a significantly greater left-sided advantage for L1 vs. L2 in the mixed-language blocks, based on LIs calculated for response times. Thus, despite similar representations of the two languages in the bilingual brain, these results also point to the functional separation of L1 and L2 in the dual-language context. PMID:26300834

  3. Autonomy for sensor-rich vehicles: Interaction between sensing and control actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Gabriel M.

    While autonomous vehicles have the potential to enable many revolutionary technologies, assisting people through unprecedented automation, they introduce many challenges in control system design. One step toward increasing their autonomy is to formulate an optimization problem that exploits models connecting the effects of the sensing and control systems to optimize the performance of the overall system. Using these models, the robots are able to intelligently experiment with their environment to work toward achieving their goals. This thesis presents techniques to directly exploit the connection between sensing and control, focusing on algorithms for mobile sensors and mobile sensor networks. Algorithms are developed to compute information theoretic quantities using a particle filter representation of the probability distributions over the states being estimated. To make the approach scalable to increasing network size, single-node and pairwise-node approximations to the mutual information are derived for general probability density models, with analytical bounds on the error incurred, and computation time that is polynomial in the number of sensors. The pairwise-node approximation is proven to be a more accurate objective function than the single-node approximation. A decentralized optimization algorithm is presented to implement these techniques, using a novel collision avoidance method incorporating hybrid control. The characteristics of these algorithms are explored in simulation of autonomous search using three sensing modalities: range, bearing, and magnetic rescue beacon. For each sensing modality, the behavior of these non-parametric methods are compared and contrasted with the results of linearized methods. The proposed methods produce similar results in some scenarios, yet they capture effects in more general scenarios not possible with linearized methods. Monte Carlo results demonstrate that the pairwise-node approximation provides superior performance

  4. Out of control: Evidence for anterior insula involvement in motor impulsivity and reactive aggression

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Alexander T.; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Schuhmann, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Inhibiting impulsive reactions while still defending one’s vital resources is paramount to functional self-control and successful development in a social environment. However, this ability of successfully inhibiting, and thus controlling one’s impulsivity, often fails, leading to consequences ranging from motor impulsivity to aggressive reactions following provocation. Although inhibitory failure represents the underlying mechanism, the neurocognition of social aggression and motor response inhibition have traditionally been investigated in separation. Here, we aimed to directly investigate and compare the neural mechanisms underlying the failure of inhibition across those different modalities of self-control. We used functional imaging to reveal the overlap in neural correlates between failed motor response inhibition (measured by a go/no-go task) and reactive aggression (measured by the Taylor aggression paradigm) in healthy males. The core overlap of neural correlates was located in the anterior insula, suggesting common anterior insula involvement in motor impulsivity as well as reactive aggression. This evidence regarding an overarching role of the anterior insula across different modalities of self-control enables an integrative perspective on insula function and a better integration of cognitive, social and emotional factors into a comprehensive model of impulsivity. Furthermore, it can eventually lead to a better understanding of clinical syndromes involving inhibitory deficits. PMID:24837479

  5. Social Priming Improves Cognitive Control in Elderly Adults—Evidence from the Simon Task

    PubMed Central

    Aisenberg, Daniela; Cohen, Noga; Pick, Hadas; Tressman, Iris; Rappaport, Michal; Shenberg, Tal; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social priming of cognitive states affects the inhibitory process in elderly adults, as aging is related to deficits in inhibitory control. Forty-eight elderly adults and 45 young adults were assigned to three groups and performed a cognitive control task (Simon task), which was followed by 3 different manipulations of social priming (i.e., thinking about an 82 year-old person): 1) negative—characterized by poor cognitive abilities, 2) neutral—characterized by acts irrelevant to cognitive abilities, and 3) positive—excellent cognitive abilities. After the manipulation, the Simon task was performed again. Results showed improvement in cognitive control effects in seniors after the positive manipulation, indicated by a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Simon and interference effects, but not after the neutral and negative manipulations. Furthermore, a healthy pattern of sequential effect (Gratton) that was absent before the manipulation in all 3 groups appeared after the positive manipulation. Namely, the Simon effect was only present after congruent but not after incongruent trials for the positive manipulation group. No influence of manipulations was found in young adults. These meaningful results were replicated in a second experiment and suggest a decrease in conflict interference resulting from positive cognitive state priming. Our study provides evidence that an implicit social concept of a positive cognitive condition in old age can affect the control process of the elderly and improve cognitive abilities. PMID:25635946

  6. List-wide control is not entirely elusive: evidence from picture-word Stroop.

    PubMed

    Bugg, Julie M; Chanani, Swati

    2011-10-01

    Stroop interference is attenuated in mostly incongruent lists, as compared with mostly congruent ones. This finding is referred to as the list-wide proportion congruence effect. The traditional interpretation refers to the strategic biasing of attention via list-wide control. In mostly incongruent lists, attention is biased away from the irrelevant words, whereas in mostly congruent lists, words are more fully processed. According to the item-specific account, the list-wide proportion congruence effect reflects stimulus-driven mechanisms, and not list-wide control. The unambiguous evidence available to date strongly favors the item-specific account. Using a picture-word Stroop task, we demonstrate a list-wide proportion congruence effect for 50% congruent items that are embedded in mostly incongruent and mostly congruent lists. This novel finding illustrates that the list-wide proportion congruence effect is not entirely dependent on item-specific contributions and supports the list-wide control account. We discuss factors impacting the emergence of list-wide control in Stroop tasks.

  7. Changes of right-hemispheric activation after constraint-induced, intensive language action therapy in chronic aphasia: fMRI evidence from auditory semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Bettina; Difrancesco, Stephanie; Harrington, Karen; Evans, Samuel; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    The role of the two hemispheres in the neurorehabilitation of language is still under dispute. This study explored the changes in language-evoked brain activation over a 2-week treatment interval with intensive constraint induced aphasia therapy (CIAT), which is also called intensive language action therapy (ILAT). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess brain activation in perilesional left hemispheric and in homotopic right hemispheric areas during passive listening to high and low-ambiguity sentences and non-speech control stimuli in chronic non-fluent aphasia patients. All patients demonstrated significant clinical improvements of language functions after therapy. In an event-related fMRI experiment, a significant increase of BOLD signal was manifest in right inferior frontal and temporal areas. This activation increase was stronger for highly ambiguous sentences than for unambiguous ones. These results suggest that the known language improvements brought about by intensive constraint-induced language action therapy at least in part relies on circuits within the right-hemispheric homologs of left-perisylvian language areas, which are most strongly activated in the processing of semantically complex language.

  8. Reduced attentional capture in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Hickey, Clayton; Theeuwes, Jan; Kingstone, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that playing action video games improves performance on a number of attention-based tasks. However, it remains unclear whether action video game experience primarily affects endogenous or exogenous forms of spatial orienting. To examine this issue, action video game players and non-action video game players performed an attentional capture task. The results show that action video game players responded quicker than non-action video game players, both when a target appeared in isolation and when a salient, task-irrelevant distractor was present in the display. Action video game players additionally showed a smaller capture effect than did non-action video game players. When coupled with the findings of previous studies, the collective evidence indicates that extensive experience with action video games may enhance players' top-down attentional control, which, in turn, can modulate the negative effects of bottom-up attentional capture.

  9. Lipid-lowering therapies, glucose control and incident diabetes: evidence, mechanisms and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Zafrir, Barak; Jain, Mohit

    2014-08-01

    Lipid-lowering therapies constitute an essential part in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases and are consistently shown to reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes in wide-scale populations. Recently, there is increased awareness of the possibility that lipid-lowering drugs may affect glucose control and insulin resistance. This phenomenon is reported in all classes of lipid-modifying agents, with differential effects of distinct drugs. Since the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and diabetes is rising, and lipid-modifying therapies are widely used to reduce the cardiovascular burden in these populations, it is of importance to examine the relationship between lipid-lowering drugs, glycemic control and incident diabetes. In the current review we discuss the evidence, ranging from experimental studies to randomized controlled clinical trials and meta-analyses, of how lipid-modifying therapies affect glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Cumulative data suggest that both statins and niacin are associated with increased risk of impaired glucose control and development of new-onset diabetes, as opposed to bile-acid sequestrants which display concomitant moderate lipid and glucose lowering effects, and fibrates (particularly the pan-PPAR agonist bezafibrate) which may produce beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Ezetimibe is implied to ameliorate metabolic markers such as hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, with yet little support from clinical trials, while fish oils which in experimental studies produce favorable effects on insulin sensitivity, although studied extensively, continue to show inconclusive effects on glucose homeostasis in patients with diabetes. Suggested mechanisms of how lipid-modifying agents affect glucose control and their clinical implications in this context, are summarized. PMID:24952127

  10. Use of Evidence-Based Practices and Resources Among Comprehensive Cancer Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Steele, C. Brooke; Rose, John M.; Chovnick, Gary; Townsend, Julie S.; Stockmyer, Chrisandra K.; Fonseka, Jamila; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Context While efforts to promote use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for cancer control have increased, questions remain whether this will result in widespread adoption of EBPs (eg, Guide to Community Preventive Services interventions) by comprehensive cancer control (CCC) programs. Objective To examine use of EBPs among CCC programs to develop cancer control plans and select interventions. Design Conducted Web-based surveys of and telephone interviews with CCC program staff between March and July 2012. Setting CCC programs funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP). Participants Sixty-one CCC program directors. Main Outcome Measures 1) Use of and knowledge/attitudes about EBPs and related resources and 2) EBP-related technical assistance needs. Results Seventy-five percent of eligible program directors reported use of EBPs to a moderate or great extent to address program objectives. Benefits of using EBPS included their effectiveness has been proven, they are an efficient use of resources, and they lend credibility to an intervention. Challenges to using EBPs included resource limitations, lack of culturally appropriate interventions, and limited skills adapting EBPs for local use. Most respondents had heard of and used Web sites for The Guide to Community Preventive Services (95% and 91%, respectively) and Cancer Control P.L.A.N.E.T. (98% and 75%, respectively). Training needs included how to adapt an EBP and its materials for cultural appropriateness (state 78%, tribe 86%, territory 80%) and how to maintain the fidelity of an EBP (state 75%, tribe 86%, territory 60%). Conclusions While awareness, knowledge, and use of EBPs and related resources are high, respondents identified numerous challenges and training needs. The findings from this study may be used to enhance technical assistance provided to NCCCP grantees related to selecting and implementing EBPs. PMID:24402431

  11. Tuberculosis control in prisons, from research to action: the Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, experience.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Alexandra; Larouzé, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    The high tuberculosis (TB) rates observed in the Brazilian prison population highlights the need for more efficient TB control measures in this population, especially in the state of Rio de Janeiro where detection rates are 30 times higher than in the general population. We present results of epidemiological, biomathematics modelling, molecular biology, psychosocological, architectural and juridical studies carried out in this state in order to assess the situation and to develop TB control strategies adapted to the specificities of the prison context. The implementation of these strategies implies to take into account the day-to-day realty of prison life and to turn more effective the supervision of the prison health system by instances in charge of monitoring the fulfillment of sentences, so as to guarantee access of prisoners to health in conformity with international and national laws. PMID:27383341

  12. Hidden action or hidden strategy: China's control of its national oil companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, Charles

    China's rapid economic growth has been accompanied by parallel growth in energy demand, particularly in demand for oil. Due to political and economic constraints on domestic reform, the CPC has focused on the international dimension through the creation of vertically integrated national oil companies. The foreign investments of these companies have become increasingly controversial due to the high levels of political and financial support afforded them by the CPC. I measure control by employing a model of institutional constraints on state-owned enterprises in conjunction with a managerial variant of Principal Agent theory well suited to political analyses. I conclude that the combination of institutional overlap, the process which led to the formation of the CNOCs as they currently exist and the current overseas activities of the CNOCs all demonstrate that the CPC is in control of the CNOCs.

  13. A simple heuristic for Internet-based evidence search in primary care: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Eberbach, Andreas; Becker, Annette; Rochon, Justine; Finkemeler, Holger; Wagner, Achim; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) are confronted with a wide variety of clinical questions, many of which remain unanswered. Methods In order to assist GPs in finding quick, evidence-based answers, we developed a learning program (LP) with a short interactive workshop based on a simple three-step-heuristic to improve their search and appraisal competence (SAC). We evaluated the LP effectiveness with a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants (intervention group [IG] n=20; control group [CG] n=31) rated acceptance and satisfaction and also answered 39 knowledge questions to assess their SAC. We controlled for previous knowledge in content areas covered by the test. Results Main outcome – SAC: within both groups, the pre–post test shows significant (P=0.00) improvements in correctness (IG 15% vs CG 11%) and confidence (32% vs 26%) to find evidence-based answers. However, the SAC difference was not significant in the RCT. Other measures Most workshop participants rated “learning atmosphere” (90%), “skills acquired” (90%), and “relevancy to my practice” (86%) as good or very good. The LP-recommendations were implemented by 67% of the IG, whereas 15% of the CG already conformed to LP recommendations spontaneously (odds ratio 9.6, P=0.00). After literature search, the IG showed a (not significantly) higher satisfaction regarding “time spent” (IG 80% vs CG 65%), “quality of information” (65% vs 54%), and “amount of information” (53% vs 47%). Conclusion Long-standing established GPs have a good SAC. Despite high acceptance, strong learning effects, positive search experience, and significant increase of SAC in the pre–post test, the RCT of our LP showed no significant difference in SAC between IG and CG. However, we suggest that our simple decision heuristic merits further investigation. PMID:27563264

  14. The virtual library in action: Collaborative international control of high-energy physics pre-print

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitz, P.A.; Addis, L.; Galic, H.; Johnson, T.

    1996-02-01

    This paper will discuss how control of the grey literature in high-energy physics pre-prints developed through a collaborative effort of librarians and physicists. It will highlight the critical steps in the development process and describe one model of a rapidly evolving virtual library for high-energy physics information. In conclusion, this paper will extend this physics model to other areas of grey literature management.

  15. Refrigerator with variable capacity compressor and cycle priming action through capacity control and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Litch, Andrew D.; Wu, Guolian

    2016-03-15

    A refrigerator appliance (and associated method) that includes a condenser, evaporator and a multi-capacity compressor. The appliance also includes a pressure reducing device arranged within an evaporator-condenser refrigerant circuit, and a valve system for directing or restricting refrigerant flow through the device. The appliance further includes a controller for operating the compressor upon the initiation of a compressor ON-cycle at a priming capacity above a nominal capacity for a predetermined or calculated duration.

  16. Having a goal to stop action is associated with advance control of specific motor representations.

    PubMed

    Claffey, Michael P; Sheldon, Sarah; Stinear, Cathy M; Verbruggen, Frederick; Aron, Adam R

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of cognitive control consists in the ability to stop oneself from making inappropriate responses. In an earlier study we demonstrated that there are different mechanisms for stopping: global and selective [Aron, A. R., Verbruggen, F. (2008). Stop the presses: Dissociating a selective from a global mechanism for stopping. Psychological Science, 19(11) 1146-1153]. We argued that participants are more likely to use a global mechanism when speed is of the essence, whereas they are more likely to use a selective mechanism when they have foreknowledge of which response tendency they may need to stop. Here we further investigate the relationship between foreknowledge and selective stopping. In Experiment 1 we adapted the earlier design to show that individual differences in recall accuracy for the stopping goal correlate with the selectivity of the stopping. This confirms that encoding and using a foreknowledge memory cue is a key enabler for a selective stopping mechanism. In Experiment 2, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to test the hypothesis that foreknowledge "sets up" a control set whereby control is applied onto the response representation that may need to be stopped in the future. We applied TMS to the left motor cortex and measured motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right hand while participants performed a similar behavioral paradigm as Experiment 1. In the foreknowledge period, MEPs were significantly reduced for trials where the right hand was the one that might need to be stopped relative to when it was not. This shows that having a goal of what response may need to be stopped in the future consists in applying advance control onto a specific motor representation.

  17. Using Markov Models of Fault Growth Physics and Environmental Stresses to Optimize Control Actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bole, Brian; Goebel, Kai; Vachtsevanos, George

    2012-01-01

    A generalized Markov chain representation of fault dynamics is presented for the case that available modeling of fault growth physics and future environmental stresses can be represented by two independent stochastic process models. A contrived but representatively challenging example will be presented and analyzed, in which uncertainty in the modeling of fault growth physics is represented by a uniformly distributed dice throwing process, and a discrete random walk is used to represent uncertain modeling of future exogenous loading demands to be placed on the system. A finite horizon dynamic programming algorithm is used to solve for an optimal control policy over a finite time window for the case that stochastic models representing physics of failure and future environmental stresses are known, and the states of both stochastic processes are observable by implemented control routines. The fundamental limitations of optimization performed in the presence of uncertain modeling information are examined by comparing the outcomes obtained from simulations of an optimizing control policy with the outcomes that would be achievable if all modeling uncertainties were removed from the system.

  18. Spacecraft dynamics under the action of Y-dot magnetic control law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavoli, Alessandro; Giulietti, Fabrizio; Avanzini, Giulio; De Matteis, Guido

    2016-05-01

    The paper investigates the dynamic behavior of a spacecraft when a single magnetic torque-rod is used for achieving a pure spin condition by means of the so-called Y-dot control law. Global asymptotic convergence to a pure spin condition is proven on analytical grounds when the dipole moment is proportional to the rate of variation of the component of the magnetic field along the desired spin axis. Convergence of the spin axis towards the orbit normal is then explained by estimating the average magnetic control torque over one orbit. The validity of the analytical results, based on some simplifying assumptions and approximations, is finally investigated by means of numerical simulation for a fully non-linear attitude dynamic model, featuring a tilted dipole model for Earth's magnetic field. The analysis aims to support, in the framework of a sound mathematical basis, the development of effective control laws in realistic mission scenarios. Results are presented and discussed for relevant test cases.

  19. Is participation contagious? Evidence from a household vector control campaign in urban Peru

    PubMed Central

    Buttenheim, Alison M.; Paz-Soldan, Valerie; Barbu, Corentin; Skovira, Christine; Calderón, Javier Quintanilla; Riveros, Lina Margot Mollesaca; Cornejo, Juan Oswaldo; Small, Dylan S.; Bicchieri, Christina; Naquira, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives High rates of household participation are critical to the success of door-to-door vector control campaigns. We used the Health Belief Model to assess determinants of participation, including neighbor participation as a cue to action, in a Chagas disease vector control campaign in Peru. Methods We evaluated clustering of participation among neighbors; estimated participation as a function of household infestation status, neighborhood type, and number of participating neighbors; and described reported reasons for refusal to participate in a district of 2911 households. Results We observed significant clustering of participation along city blocks (p< .0001). Participation was significantly higher for households in new vs. established neighborhoods, for infested households, and for households with more participating neighbors. The effect of neighbor participation was greater in new neighborhoods. Conclusions Results support a “contagion” model of participation, highlighting the possibility that one or two participating households can tip a block towards full participation. Future campaigns can leverage these findings by making participation more visible, by addressing stigma associated with spraying, and by employing group incentives to spray. PMID:24062411

  20. Effects of an evidence service on health-system policy makers' use of research evidence: A protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health-system policy makers need timely access to synthesised research evidence to inform the policy-making process. No efforts to address this need have been evaluated using an experimental quantitative design. We developed an evidence service that draws inputs from Health Systems Evidence, which is a database of policy-relevant systematic reviews. The reviews have been (a) categorised by topic and type of review; (b) coded by the last year searches for studies were conducted and by the countries in which included studies were conducted; (c) rated for quality; and (d) linked to available user-friendly summaries, scientific abstracts, and full-text reports. Our goal is to evaluate whether a "full-serve" evidence service increases the use of synthesized research evidence by policy analysts and advisors in the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC) as compared to a "self-serve" evidence service. Methods/design We will conduct a two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT), along with a follow-up qualitative process study in order to explore the findings in greater depth. For the RCT, all policy analysts and policy advisors (n = 168) in a single division of the MOHLTC will be invited to participate. Using a stratified randomized design, participants will be randomized to receive either the "full-serve" evidence service (database access, monthly e-mail alerts, and full-text article availability) or the "self-serve" evidence service (database access only). The trial duration will be ten months (two-month baseline period, six-month intervention period, and two month cross-over period). The primary outcome will be the mean number of site visits/month/user between baseline and the end of the intervention period. The secondary outcome will be participants' intention to use research evidence. For the qualitative study, 15 participants from each trial arm (n = 30) will be purposively sampled. One-on-one semi-structured interviews will be conducted by

  1. Role of neurons and glia in the CNS actions of the renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular control

    PubMed Central

    de Kloet, Annette D.; Liu, Meng; Rodríguez, Vermalí; Krause, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite tremendous research efforts, hypertension remains an epidemic health concern, leading often to the development of cardiovascular disease. It is well established that in many instances, the brain plays an important role in the onset and progression of hypertension via activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Further, the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and of glial cell-mediated proinflammatory processes have independently been linked to this neural control and are, as a consequence, both attractive targets for the development of antihypertensive therapeutics. Although it is clear that the predominant effector peptide of the RAS, ANG II, activates its type-1 receptor on neurons to mediate some of its hypertensive actions, additional nuances of this brain RAS control of blood pressure are constantly being uncovered. One of these complexities is that the RAS is now thought to impact cardiovascular control, in part, via facilitating a glial cell-dependent proinflammatory milieu within cardiovascular control centers. Another complexity is that the newly characterized antihypertensive limbs of the RAS are now recognized to, in many cases, antagonize the prohypertensive ANG II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-mediated effects. That being said, the mechanism by which the RAS, glia, and neurons interact to regulate blood pressure is an active area of ongoing research. Here, we review the current understanding of these interactions and present a hypothetical model of how these exchanges may ultimately regulate cardiovascular function. PMID:26084692

  2. Role of neurons and glia in the CNS actions of the renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular control.

    PubMed

    de Kloet, Annette D; Liu, Meng; Rodríguez, Vermalí; Krause, Eric G; Sumners, Colin

    2015-09-01

    Despite tremendous research efforts, hypertension remains an epidemic health concern, leading often to the development of cardiovascular disease. It is well established that in many instances, the brain plays an important role in the onset and progression of hypertension via activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Further, the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and of glial cell-mediated proinflammatory processes have independently been linked to this neural control and are, as a consequence, both attractive targets for the development of antihypertensive therapeutics. Although it is clear that the predominant effector peptide of the RAS, ANG II, activates its type-1 receptor on neurons to mediate some of its hypertensive actions, additional nuances of this brain RAS control of blood pressure are constantly being uncovered. One of these complexities is that the RAS is now thought to impact cardiovascular control, in part, via facilitating a glial cell-dependent proinflammatory milieu within cardiovascular control centers. Another complexity is that the newly characterized antihypertensive limbs of the RAS are now recognized to, in many cases, antagonize the prohypertensive ANG II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-mediated effects. That being said, the mechanism by which the RAS, glia, and neurons interact to regulate blood pressure is an active area of ongoing research. Here, we review the current understanding of these interactions and present a hypothetical model of how these exchanges may ultimately regulate cardiovascular function.

  3. Factors Influencing the Decisions and Actions of Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers in Three Plausible NextGen Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter

    2011-01-01

    In the current air traffic management (ATM) system, pilots and air traffic controllers have well-established roles and responsibilities: pilots fly aircraft and are concerned with energy management, fuel efficiency, and passenger comfort; controllers separate aircraft and are concerned with safety and management of traffic flows. Despite having different goals and obligations, both groups must be able to effectively communicate and interact with each other for the ATM system to work. This interaction will become even more challenging as traffic volume increases dramatically in the near future. To accommodate this increase, by 2025 the national air transportation system in the U.S. will go through a transformation that will modernize the ATM system and make it safer, more effective, and more efficient. This new system, NextGen, will change how pilots and controllers perform their tasks by incorporating advanced technologies and employing new procedures. It will also distribute responsibility between pilots, controllers and automation over such tasks as maintaining aircraft separation. The present chapter describes three plausible concepts of operations that allocate different ATM responsibilities to these groups. We describe how each concept changes the role of each operator and the types of decisions and actions performed by them.

  4. Prevention and control of mental illnesses and mental health: National Action Plan for NCD Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania; Minhas, Fareed A; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Badar, Asma; Mohamud, Khalif Bile

    2004-12-01

    As part of the National Action Plan for Non-communicable Disease Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD), mental illnesses have been grouped alongside non-communicable diseases (NCD) within a combined strategic framework in order to synchronize public health actions. The systematic approach for mental illnesses is centred on safeguarding the rights of the mentally ill, reducing stigma and discrimination, and de-institutionalisation and rehabilitation of the mentally ill in the community outlining roles of healthcare providers, the community, legislators and policy makers. The approach has implications for support functions in a number of areas including policy building, manpower and material development and research. Priority action areas for mental health as part of NAP-NCD include the integration of surveillance of mental illnesses in a comprehensive population-based NCD surveillance system; creating awareness about mental health as part of an integrated NCD behavioural change communication strategy; integration of mental health with primary healthcare; the development of sustainable public health infrastructure to support community mental health initiatives; building capacity of the health system in support of prevention and control activities; effective implementation of existing legislation and harmonizing working relationships with law enforcing agencies. NAP-NCD also stresses on the need to integrate mental health into health services as part of a sustainable and integrated medical education programme for all categories of healthcare providers and the availability of essential psychotropic drugs at all healthcare levels. It lays emphasis on protecting the interests of special groups such as prisoners, refugees and displaced persons, women, children and individuals with disabilities. Furthermore, it promotes need-based research for contemporary mental health issues. PMID:15745329

  5. Open or close the gate - stomata action under the control of phytohormones in drought stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Daszkowska-Golec, Agata; Szarejko, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Two highly specialized cells, the guard cells that surround the stomatal pore, are able to integrate environmental and endogenous signals in order to control the stomatal aperture and thereby the gas exchange. The uptake of CO2 is associated with a loss of water by leaves. Control of the size of the stomatal aperture optimizes the efficiency of water use through dynamic changes in the turgor of the guard cells. The opening and closing of stomata is regulated by the integration of environmental signals and endogenous hormonal stimuli. The various different factors to which the guard cells respond translates into the complexity of the network of signaling pathways that control stomatal movements. The perception of an abiotic stress triggers the activation of signal transduction cascades that interact with or are activated by phytohormones. Among these, abscisic acid (ABA), is the best-known stress hormone that closes the stomata, although other phytohormones, such as jasmonic acid, brassinosteroids, cytokinins, or ethylene are also involved in the stomatal response to stresses. As a part of the drought response, ABA may interact with jasmonic acid and nitric oxide in order to stimulate stomatal closure. In addition, the regulation of gene expression in response to ABA involves genes that are related to ethylene, cytokinins, and auxin signaling. In this paper, recent findings on phytohormone crosstalk, changes in signaling pathways including the expression of specific genes and their impact on modulating stress response through the closing or opening of stomata, together with the highlights of gaps that need to be elucidated in the signaling network of stomatal regulation, are reviewed.

  6. Mode of action human relevance (species concordance) framework: Evolution of the Bradford Hill considerations and comparative analysis of weight of evidence.

    PubMed

    Meek, M E Bette; Palermo, Christine M; Bachman, Ammie N; North, Colin M; Jeffrey Lewis, R

    2014-06-01

    The mode of action human relevance (MOA/HR) framework increases transparency in systematically considering data on MOA for end (adverse) effects and their relevance to humans. This framework continues to evolve as experience increases in its application. Though the MOA/HR framework is not designed to address the question of "how much information is enough" to support a hypothesized MOA in animals or its relevance to humans, its organizing construct has potential value in considering relative weight of evidence (WOE) among different cases and hypothesized MOA(s). This context is explored based on MOA analyses in published assessments to illustrate the relative extent of supporting data and their implications for dose-response analysis and involved comparisons for chemical assessments on trichloropropane, and carbon tetrachloride with several hypothesized MOA(s) for cancer. The WOE for each hypothesized MOA was summarized in narrative tables based on comparison and contrast of the extent and nature of the supporting database versus potentially inconsistent or missing information. The comparison was based on evolved Bradford Hill considerations rank ordered to reflect their relative contribution to WOE determinations of MOA taking into account increasing experience in their application internationally. This clarification of considerations for WOE determinations as a basis for comparative analysis is anticipated to contribute to increasing consistency in the application of MOA/HR analysis and potentially, transparency in separating science judgment from public policy considerations in regulatory risk assessment.

  7. Pleiotropic Actions of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) in Dysregulated Metabolic Homeostasis, Inflammation and Cancer: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Antonio Simone; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Nigro, Angela; Sofo, Vincenza; Salmeri, Francesca Maria; Rossetti, Paola; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Rizzo, Gianluca; Buscema, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have demonstrated a lot of important effects in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism and in the correct functioning of adipose tissue. Recently, many studies have evaluated a possible effect of PPARs on tumor cells. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of PPARs, their action and their future prospective; Methods: Narrative review aimed to synthesize cutting-edge evidence retrieved from searches of computerized databases; Results: PPARs play a key role in metabolic diseases, which include several cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, impaired immunity and the increasing risk of cancer; in particular, PPARα and PPARβ/δ mainly enable energy combustion, while PPARγ contributes to energy storage by enhancing adipogenesis; Conclusion: PPAR agonists could represent interesting types of molecules that can treat not only metabolic diseases, but also inflammation and cancer. Additional research is needed for the identification of high-affinity, high-specificity agonists for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and other metabolic diseases. Further studies are needed also to elucidate the role of PPARs in cancer. PMID:27347932

  8. Evidence of direct thermal action upon the vestibular receptors in the caloric test. A re-interpretation of the data of Coats and Smith.

    PubMed

    Hood, J D

    1989-01-01

    Although Bárány's convection theory has gained wide acceptance, there is strong evidence that the caloric response may include a component resulting from direct thermal stimulation of the vestibular end organs. It is argued on theoretical grounds that important new information could be obtained from a precise determination of the neutral head positions at which caloric irrigation fails to elicit a response. Although experimental studies using a bracketing procedure proved unsuccessful for this purpose, a re-examination of the extensive studies of Coats and Smith revealed that this information was already available. Reinterpreted in this way, their data clearly indicate that the hot and cold components resulting from direct thermal action equate to 42% and 34% respectively of the responses obtained in the planes of maximum reactivity. This is of sufficient magnitude to account for the anomalous findings in Spacelab I. Because of non-linearity in the relationship between neural discharge evoked by caloric irrigation and nystagmus magnitude, this component may be significantly less in the conventional caloric position. For this and other reasons there would seem to be no good reason to re-evaluate the clinical reliability of the caloric test.

  9. Synergistic action of master transcription factors controls epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hongyuan; Liu, Yuwei; Xue, Mengzhu; Liu, Haiyue; Du, Shaowei; Zhang, Liwen; Wang, Peng

    2016-04-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex multistep process in which phenotype switches are mediated by a network of transcription factors (TFs). Systematic characterization of all dynamic TFs controlling EMT state transitions, especially for the intermediate partial-EMT state, represents a highly relevant yet largely unexplored task. Here, we performed a computational analysis that integrated time-course EMT transcriptomic data with public cistromic data and identified three synergistic master TFs (ETS2, HNF4A and JUNB) that regulate the transition through the partial-EMT state. Overexpression of these regulators predicted a poor clinical outcome, and their elimination readily abolished TGF-β-induced EMT. Importantly, these factors utilized a clique motif, physically interact and their cumulative binding generally characterized EMT-associated genes. Furthermore, analyses of H3K27ac ChIP-seq data revealed that ETS2, HNF4A and JUNB are associated with super-enhancers and the administration of BRD4 inhibitor readily abolished TGF-β-induced EMT. These findings have implications for systematic discovery of master EMT regulators and super-enhancers as novel targets for controlling metastasis. PMID:26926107

  10. Synergistic action of master transcription factors controls epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hongyuan; Liu, Yuwei; Xue, Mengzhu; Liu, Haiyue; Du, Shaowei; Zhang, Liwen; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex multistep process in which phenotype switches are mediated by a network of transcription factors (TFs). Systematic characterization of all dynamic TFs controlling EMT state transitions, especially for the intermediate partial-EMT state, represents a highly relevant yet largely unexplored task. Here, we performed a computational analysis that integrated time-course EMT transcriptomic data with public cistromic data and identified three synergistic master TFs (ETS2, HNF4A and JUNB) that regulate the transition through the partial-EMT state. Overexpression of these regulators predicted a poor clinical outcome, and their elimination readily abolished TGF-β-induced EMT. Importantly, these factors utilized a clique motif, physically interact and their cumulative binding generally characterized EMT-associated genes. Furthermore, analyses of H3K27ac ChIP-seq data revealed that ETS2, HNF4A and JUNB are associated with super-enhancers and the administration of BRD4 inhibitor readily abolished TGF-β-induced EMT. These findings have implications for systematic discovery of master EMT regulators and super-enhancers as novel targets for controlling metastasis. PMID:26926107

  11. No evidence of intelligence improvement after working memory training: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Redick, Thomas S; Shipstead, Zach; Harrison, Tyler L; Hicks, Kenny L; Fried, David E; Hambrick, David Z; Kane, Michael J; Engle, Randall W

    2013-05-01

    Numerous recent studies seem to provide evidence for the general intellectual benefits of working memory training. In reviews of the training literature, Shipstead, Redick, and Engle (2010, 2012) argued that the field should treat recent results with a critical eye. Many published working memory training studies suffer from design limitations (no-contact control groups, single measures of cognitive constructs), mixed results (transfer of training gains to some tasks but not others, inconsistent transfer to the same tasks across studies), and lack of theoretical grounding (identifying the mechanisms responsible for observed transfer). The current study compared young adults who received 20 sessions of practice on an adaptive dual n-back program (working memory training group) or an adaptive visual search program (active placebo-control group) with a no-contact control group that received no practice. In addition, all subjects completed pretest, midtest, and posttest sessions comprising multiple measures of fluid intelligence, multitasking, working memory capacity, crystallized intelligence, and perceptual speed. Despite improvements on both the dual n-back and visual search tasks with practice, and despite a high level of statistical power, there was no positive transfer to any of the cognitive ability tests. We discuss these results in the context of previous working memory training research and address issues for future working memory training studies.

  12. Control and eradication of tuberculosis in cattle: a systematic review of economic evidence.

    PubMed

    Caminiti, A; Pelone, F; LaTorre, G; De Giusti, M; Saulle, R; Mannocci, A; Sala, M; Della Marta, U; Scaramozzino, P

    2016-07-16

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of zoonotic importance for which control and eradication programmes have been carried out in many countries for decades. While the impact of these programmes on public health is still uncertain, the impact on trade is significant because of movement restrictions for animals, costs of testing and culling. The objective of this systematic review was to provide a contribution to the general debate over costs against benefits for the control and eradication of bovine TB in cattle. The search strategy was performed on four electronic databases following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The selection process, data abstraction and quality appraisal were carried out according to the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. The search identified 66 articles out of which eight fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The evidence gathered in this review by combining the conclusions of the most methodologically sound articles supports the idea that, when multiple cost and benefit components are taken into account, efforts to control or eradicate bovine TB may be effective in reducing disease prevalence, economically viable and worth doing. PMID:27422918

  13. No evidence of a control group response in exercise randomised controlled trials in people with schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Brendon; Rosenbaum, Simon; Ward, Philip B; Barreto Schuch, Felipe; Vancampfort, Davy

    2015-10-30

    Increased control group responses (CGR) make it more difficult to establish the effectiveness of interventions to improve symptoms in schizophrenia. We conducted a meta-analysis of CGR within randomised control trials (RCTs) comparing exercise and a control condition in people with schizophrenia. We found no evidence of a CGR for total, positive or negative symptoms. Control group responses do not negatively impact exercise RCTs that have clearly demonstrated substantial beneficial effects of exercise in this population.

  14. Action-centered display design: Observations and conclusions to HMI by applying digital I and C in main control rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Treier, C.; Zeck, K.; Weich, A.; Schildheuer, R.

    2006-07-01

    With the increasing use of digital I and C systems, the shift personnel in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has the chance to dispose of new supporting methods that influence their actions directly or indirectly. Besides the automation of monitoring and control functions, the task- and problem-oriented increased number of (current state) information in screen based displays is to be mentioned. A few released screen based displays of a German NPP illustrate the influence on the course of action. Therefore the design of displays won't only be determined by the operating mode in future but displays themselves are influencing the operating mode offering both very compact and dynamic information that can directly be used in the operating mode. In order to be able to take these future key functions adequately and early into consideration when designing screen based displays, the development of design instruments like Style Guides with Good Practice methods and construction catalogues both on a company and on an company spanning level is essential: a challenging task for economy and science and also for standardization committees that shall be illustrated in the following report. (authors)

  15. Effects of an evidence service on community-based AIDS service organizations' use of research evidence: A protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To support the use of research evidence by community-based organizations (CBOs) we have developed 'Synthesized HIV/AIDS Research Evidence' (SHARE), which is an evidence service for those working in the HIV sector. SHARE consists of several components: an online searchable database of HIV-relevant systematic reviews (retrievable based on a taxonomy of topics related to HIV/AIDS and open text search); periodic email updates; access to user-friendly summaries; and peer relevance assessments. Our objective is to evaluate whether this 'full serve' evidence service increases the use of research evidence by CBOs as compared to a 'self-serve' evidence service. Methods/design We will conduct a two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT), along with a follow-up qualitative process study to explore the findings in greater depth. All CBOs affiliated with Canadian AIDS Society (n = 120) will be invited to participate and will be randomized to receive either the 'full-serve' version of SHARE or the 'self-serve' version (a listing of relevant systematic reviews with links to records on PubMed and worksheets that help CBOs find and use research evidence) using a simple randomized design. All management and staff from each organization will be provided access to the version of SHARE that their organization is allocated to. The trial duration will be 10 months (two-month baseline period, six-month intervention period, and two month crossover period), the primary outcome measure will be the mean number of logins/month/organization (averaged across the number of users from each organization) between baseline and the end of the intervention period. The secondary outcome will be intention to use research evidence as measured by a survey administered to one key decision maker from each organization. For the qualitative study, one key organizational decision maker from 15 organizations in each trial arm (n = 30) will be purposively sampled. One-on-one semi-structured interviews

  16. Direct Evidence for Vision-based Control of Flight Speed in Budgerigars.

    PubMed

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated whether, and, if so, how birds use vision to regulate the speed of their flight. Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, were filmed in 3-D using high-speed video cameras as they flew along a 25 m tunnel in which stationary or moving vertically oriented black and white stripes were projected on the side walls. We found that the birds increased their flight speed when the stripes were moved in the birds' flight direction, but decreased it only marginally when the stripes were moved in the opposite direction. The results provide the first direct evidence that Budgerigars use cues based on optic flow, to regulate their flight speed. However, unlike the situation in flying insects, it appears that the control of flight speed in Budgerigars is direction-specific. It does not rely solely on cues derived from optic flow, but may also be determined by energy constraints. PMID:26046799

  17. Evidence that the ZNT3 protein controls the total amount of elemental zinc in synaptic vesicles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linkous, D.H.; Flinn, J.M.; Koh, J.Y.; Lanzirotti, A.; Bertsch, P.M.; Jones, B.F.; Giblin, L.J.; Frederickson, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    The ZNT3 protein decorates the presynaptic vesicles of central neurons harboring vesicular zinc, and deletion of this protein removes staining for zinc. However, it has been unclear whether only histochemically reactive zinc is lacking or if, indeed, total elemental zinc is missing from neurons lacking the Slc30a3 gene, which encodes the ZNT3 protein. The limitations of conventional histochemical procedures have contributed to this enigma. However, a novel technique, microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence, reveals that the normal 2- to 3-fold elevation of zinc concentration normally present in the hippocampal mossy fibers is absent in Slc30a3 knockout (ZNT3) mice. Thus, the ZNT3 protein evidently controls not only the "stainability" but also the actual mass of zinc in mossy-fiber synaptic vesicles. This work thus confirms the metal-transporting role of the ZNT3 protein in the brain. ?? The Histochemical Society, Inc.

  18. Direct Evidence for Vision-based Control of Flight Speed in Budgerigars

    PubMed Central

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated whether, and, if so, how birds use vision to regulate the speed of their flight. Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, were filmed in 3-D using high-speed video cameras as they flew along a 25 m tunnel in which stationary or moving vertically oriented black and white stripes were projected on the side walls. We found that the birds increased their flight speed when the stripes were moved in the birds’ flight direction, but decreased it only marginally when the stripes were moved in the opposite direction. The results provide the first direct evidence that Budgerigars use cues based on optic flow, to regulate their flight speed. However, unlike the situation in flying insects, it appears that the control of flight speed in Budgerigars is direction-specific. It does not rely solely on cues derived from optic flow, but may also be determined by energy constraints. PMID:26046799

  19. Human memory retrieval and inhibitory control in the brain: beyond correlational evidence.

    PubMed

    Penolazzi, Barbara; Stramaccia, Davide Francesco; Braga, Miriam; Mondini, Sara; Galfano, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Retrieving information from long-term memory can result in the episodic forgetting of related material. One influential account states that this retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) phenomenon reflects inhibitory mechanisms called into play to decrease retrieval competition. Recent neuroimaging studies suggested that the prefrontal cortex, which is critically engaged in inhibitory processing, is also involved in retrieval competition situations. Here, we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to address whether inhibitory processes could be causally linked to RIF. tDCS was administered over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the retrieval-practice phase in a standard retrieval-practice paradigm. Sixty human participants were randomly assigned to anodal, cathodal, or sham-control groups. The groups showed comparable benefits for practiced items. In contrast, unlike both the sham and anodal groups, the cathodal group exhibited no RIF. This pattern is interpreted as evidence for a causal role of inhibitory mechanisms in episodic retrieval and forgetting. PMID:24806685

  20. Controlling ecological bias in evidence synthesis of trials reporting on collapsed and overlapping covariate categories.

    PubMed

    Govan, L; Ades, A E; Weir, C J; Welton, N J; Langhorne, P

    2010-05-30

    Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials based on aggregated data is vulnerable to ecological bias if trial results are pooled over covariates that influence the outcome variable, even when the covariate does not modify the treatment effect, or is not associated with the treatment. This paper shows how, when trial results are aggregated over different levels of covariates, the within-study covariate distribution, and the effects of both covariates and treatments can be simultaneously estimated, and ecological bias reduced. Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are used. The method is applied to a mixed treatment comparison evidence synthesis of six alternative approaches to post-stroke inpatient care. Results are compared with a model using only the stratified covariate data available, where each stratum is treated as a separate trial, and a model using fully aggregated data, where no covariate data are used. PMID:20191599