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Sample records for action control evidence

  1. Actions, Action Sequences and Habits: Evidence That Goal-Directed and Habitual Action Control Are Hierarchically Organized

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral evidence suggests that instrumental conditioning is governed by two forms of action control: a goal-directed and a habit learning process. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) has been argued to underlie the goal-directed process; however, the way in which it interacts with habits and the structure of the habitual process has remained unclear. According to a flat architecture, the habitual process corresponds to model-free RL, and its interaction with the goal-directed process is coordinated by an external arbitration mechanism. Alternatively, the interaction between these systems has recently been argued to be hierarchical, such that the formation of action sequences underlies habit learning and a goal-directed process selects between goal-directed actions and habitual sequences of actions to reach the goal. Here we used a two-stage decision-making task to test predictions from these accounts. The hierarchical account predicts that, because they are tied to each other as an action sequence, selecting a habitual action in the first stage will be followed by a habitual action in the second stage, whereas the flat account predicts that the statuses of the first and second stage actions are independent of each other. We found, based on subjects' choices and reaction times, that human subjects combined single actions to build action sequences and that the formation of such action sequences was sufficient to explain habitual actions. Furthermore, based on Bayesian model comparison, a family of hierarchical RL models, assuming a hierarchical interaction between habit and goal-directed processes, provided a better fit of the subjects' behavior than a family of flat models. Although these findings do not rule out all possible model-free accounts of instrumental conditioning, they do show such accounts are not necessary to explain habitual actions and provide a new basis for understanding how goal-directed and habitual action control interact. PMID:24339762

  2. Cervical cancer control in India: taking evidence to action.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Habib Hasan; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2012-05-01

    The most prevalent types of human papillomavirus in cervical cancer in India are HPV 16 and HPV 18, found in 60.7 per cent and 16 per cent of cases respectively. A comprehensive strategy with a judicious mix of interventions on health promotion, specific protection (vaccination), early diagnosis (screening), and treatment should be instituted to prevent and control cervical cancer in India. Proponents of vaccination and screening argue for enhanced investments on these interventions based on their relative cost-effectiveness. For policymakers, the major concerns about these interventions remain affordability and cost to government. Herein we try to review comprehensively the evidence on prevention and control interventions and to recommend appropriate policies to guide public health decision-making.

  3. Action observation for upper limb function after stroke: evidence-based review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, KyeongMi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to suggest evidenced information about action observation to improve upper limb function after stroke. [Methods] A systematic review of randomized controlled trials involving adults aged 18 years or over and including descriptions of action observation for improving upper limb function was undertaken. Electronic databases were searched, including MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PEDro (the Physiotherapy Evidence Database), for articles published between 2000 to 2014. Following completion of the searches, two reviewers independently assessed the trials and extracted data using a data extraction form. The same two reviewers independently documented the methodological quality of the trials by using the PEDro scale. [Results] Five randomized controlled trials were ultimately included in this review, and four of them (80%) reported statistically significant effects for motor recovery of upper limb using action observation intervention in between groups. [Conclusion] This review of the literature presents evidence attesting to the benefits conferred on stroke patints resulting from participation in an action observation intervention. The body of literature in this field is growing steadily. Further work needs to be done to evaluate the evidence for different conditions after stroke and different duration of intervention. PMID:26644700

  4. Action Monitoring in boys with ADHD, their Nonaffected Siblings and Normal Controls: Evidence for an Endophenotype

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Bjoern; Brandeis, Daniel; Uebel, Henrik; Heinrich, Hartmut; Mueller, Ueli C.; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a very common and highly heritable child psychiatric disorder associated with dysfunctions in fronto-striatal networks that control attention and response organisation. Aim of this study was to investigate whether features of action monitoring related to dopaminergic functions represent endophenotypes which are brain functions on the pathway from genes and environmental risk factors to behaviour. Methods Action monitoring and error processing as indicated by behavioural and electrophysiological parameters during a flanker task were examined in boys with ADHD combined type according to DSM-IV (N=68), their nonaffected siblings (N=18) and healthy controls with no known family history of ADHD (N=22). Results Boys with ADHD displayed slower and more variable reaction-times. Error negativity (Ne) was smaller in boys with ADHD compared to healthy controls, while nonaffected siblings displayed intermediate amplitudes following a linear model predicted by genetic concordance. The three groups did not differ on error positivity (Pe). N2 amplitude enhancement due to conflict (incongruent flankers) was reduced in the ADHD group. Nonaffected siblings also displayed intermediate N2 enhancement. Conclusions Converging evidence from behavioural and ERP findings suggests that action monitoring and initial error processing, both related to dopaminergically modulated functions of anterior cingulate cortex, might be an endophenotype related to ADHD. PMID:18339358

  5. Conscious Control over Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown. PMID:26113753

  6. Conscious Control over Action.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-06-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges-challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown.

  7. Prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases through evidence-based public health: implementing the NCD 2020 action plan.

    PubMed

    Diem, Günter; Brownson, Ross C; Grabauskas, Vilius; Shatchkute, Aushra; Stachenko, Sylvie

    2016-09-01

    The control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) was addressed by the declaration of the 66th United Nations (UN) General Assembly followed by the World Health Organization's (WHO) NCD 2020 action plan. There is a clear need to better apply evidence in public health settings to tackle both behaviour-related factors and the underlying social and economic conditions. This article describes concepts of evidence-based public health (EBPH) and outlines a set of actions that are essential for successful global NCD prevention. The authors describe the importance of knowledge translation with the goal of increasing the effectiveness of public health services, relying on both quantitative and qualitative evidence. In particular, the role of capacity building is highlighted because it is fundamental to progress in controlling NCDs. Important challenges for capacity building include the need to bridge diverse disciplines, build the evidence base across countries and the lack of formal training in public health sciences. As brief case examples, several successful capacity-building efforts are highlighted to address challenges and further evidence-based decision making. The need for a more comprehensive public health approach, addressing social, environmental and cultural conditions, has led to government-wide and society-wide strategies that are now on the agenda due to efforts such as the WHO's NCD 2020 action plan and Health 2020: the European Policy for Health and Wellbeing. These efforts need research to generate evidence in new areas (e.g. equity and sustainability), training to build public health capacity and a continuous process of improvement and knowledge generation and translation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. The Role of Cue-Response Mapping in Motorvisual Impairment and Facilitation: Evidence for Different Roles of Action Planning and Action Control in Motorvisual Dual-Task Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomaschke, Roland; Hopkins, Brian; Miall, R. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that actions impair the visual perception of categorically action-consistent stimuli. On the other hand, actions can also facilitate the perception of spatially action-consistent stimuli. We suggest that motorvisual impairment is due to action planning processes, while motorvisual facilitation is due to action control…

  9. Antidiuretic action of angiotensin II in the river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis: evidence for endocrine control of kidney function in cyclostomes.

    PubMed

    Cobb, C S; Brown, J A; Rankin, J C

    2010-10-01

    Intravenous infusion of angiotensin II ([Asn¹ Val⁵]-Ang II) at 10⁻⁹ mol min⁻¹ kg⁻¹ body mass produced a significant antidiuresis in river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis, captured during upstream migration and maintained in fresh water. Although the renin-angiotensin hormonal system (RAS) is now recognized in jawless fishes, until this study, the role of homologous Ang II in L. fluviatilis kidney function had not been examined. This study provides the first evidence for an antidiuretic action of Ang II in cyclostomes and, in evolutionary terms, suggests a renal function for the RAS in early vertebrates.

  10. Where do action goals come from? Evidence for spontaneous action-effect binding in infants.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Stephan; Weidema, Maaike; Biro, Szilvia; Hommel, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    One of the great questions in psychology concerns how we develop to become intentional agents. Ideomotor theory suggests that intentional actions depend on, and emerge from the automatic acquisition of bidirectional action-effect associations: perceiving an action-effect sequence creates an integrated representation that can be employed for action control in the opposite order, selecting an action by anticipating its effect. We provide first evidence for the spontaneous acquisition of bidirectional action-effect associations in 9- 12-, and 18-month-olds, suggesting that the mechanism underlying action-effect integration is in place at the latest around 9 months of age.

  11. Hand Path Priming in Manual Obstacle Avoidance: Evidence that the Dorsal Stream Does Not Only Control Visually Guided Actions in Real Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jax, Steven A.; Rosenbaum, David A.

    2007-01-01

    According to a prominent theory of human perception and performance (M. A. Goodale & A. D. Milner, 1992), the dorsal, action-related stream only controls visually guided actions in real time. Such a system would be predicted to show little or no action priming from previous experience. The 3 experiments reported here were designed to determine…

  12. Hand Path Priming in Manual Obstacle Avoidance: Evidence that the Dorsal Stream Does Not Only Control Visually Guided Actions in Real Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jax, Steven A.; Rosenbaum, David A.

    2007-01-01

    According to a prominent theory of human perception and performance (M. A. Goodale & A. D. Milner, 1992), the dorsal, action-related stream only controls visually guided actions in real time. Such a system would be predicted to show little or no action priming from previous experience. The 3 experiments reported here were designed to determine…

  13. Neurophysiology of Grasping Actions: Evidence from ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Koester, Dirk; Schack, Thomas; Westerholz, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We use our hands very frequently to interact with our environment. Neuropsychology together with lesion models and intracranial recordings and imaging work yielded important insights into the functional neuroanatomical correlates of grasping, one important function of our hands, pointing toward a functional parietofrontal brain network. Event-related potentials (ERPs) register directly electrical brain activity and are endowed with high temporal resolution but have long been assumed to be susceptible to movement artifacts. Recent work has shown that reliable ERPs can be obtained during movement execution. Here, we review the available ERP work on (uni) manual grasping actions. We discuss various ERP components and how they may be related to functional components of grasping according to traditional distinctions of manual actions such as planning and control phases. The ERP results are largely in line with the assumption of a parietofrontal network. But other questions remain, in particular regarding the temporal succession of frontal and parietal ERP effects. With the low number of ERP studies on grasping, not all ERP effects appear to be coherent with one another. Understanding the control of our hands may help to develop further neurocognitive theories of grasping and to make progress in prosthetics, rehabilitation or development of technical systems for support of human actions. PMID:28066310

  14. Everyday robotic action: lessons from human action control

    PubMed Central

    de Kleijn, Roy; Kachergis, George; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations. PMID:24672474

  15. Everyday robotic action: lessons from human action control.

    PubMed

    de Kleijn, Roy; Kachergis, George; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations.

  16. The role of action control and action planning on fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangyu; Gan, Yiqun; Miao, Miao; Hamilton, Kyra; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Globally, fruit and vegetable intake is lower than recommended despite being an important component to a healthy diet. Adopting or maintaining a sufficient amount of fruit and vegetables in one's diet may require not only motivation but also self-regulatory processes. Action control and action planning are two key volitional determinants that have been identified in the literature; however, it is not fully understood how these two factors operate between intention and behavior. Thus, the aim of the current study was to explore the roles of action control and action planning as mediators between intentions and dietary behavior. A longitudinal study with three points in time was conducted. Participants (N = 286) were undergraduate students and invited to participate in a health behavior survey. At baseline (Time 1), measures of intention and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed. Two weeks later (Time 2), action control and action planning were assessed as putative sequential mediators. At Time 3 (two weeks after Time 2), fruit and vegetable consumption was measured as the outcome. The results revealed action control and action planning to sequentially mediate between intention and subsequent fruit and vegetable intake, controlling for baseline behavior. Both self-regulatory constructs, action control and action planning, make a difference when moving from motivation to action. Our preliminary evidence, therefore, suggests that planning may be more proximal to fruit and vegetable intake than action control. Further research, however, needs to be undertaken to substantiate this conclusion.

  17. Language and action control: the acquisition of action goals in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kray, Jutta; Eenshuistra, Rena; Kerstner, Hannah; Weidema, Maaike; Hommel, Bernhard

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the role of verbal labeling in 4-year-old children's acquisition of action-effect learning. The acquisition of action-effect associations was tested by having children first perform a two-choice key-pressing task in which each key press was followed by an effect (i.e., a particular sound) and then respond to the previously perceived effects under either consistent or inconsistent key-sound mappings. During acquisition, the children overtly described the actions, the effects, both the actions and the effects, or, in a control condition, something irrelevant to the actions and effects. Action-effect learning was reliable only if the description related actions to effects, even though some evidence of learning was also obtained in the control condition. In contrast, learning was prevented if only the actions or only the effects were described. The results suggest that verbal labeling plays an important role in integrating and isolating event representations.

  18. Playing Action Video Games Improves Visuomotor Control.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The findings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be beneficial training tools for driving.

  19. Impulsive action: emotional impulses and their control

    PubMed Central

    Frijda, Nico H.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Rietveld, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel theoretical view on impulsive action, integrating thus far separate perspectives on non-reflective action, motivation, emotion regulation, and impulse control. We frame impulsive action in terms of directedness of the individual organism toward, away, or against other givens – toward future states and away from one’s present state. First, appraisal of a perceived or thought-of event or object on occasion, rapidly and without premonition or conscious deliberation, triggers a motive to modify one’s relation to that event or object. Situational specifics of the event as perceived and appraised motivate and guide selection of readiness for a particular kind of purposive action. Second, perception of complex situations can give rise to multiple appraisals, multiple motives, and multiple simultaneous changes in action readiness. Multiple states of action readiness may interact in generating action, by reinforcing or attenuating each other, thereby yielding impulse control. We show how emotion control can itself result from a motive state or state of action readiness. Our view links impulsive action mechanistically to states of action readiness, which is the central feature of what distinguishes one kind of emotion from another. It thus provides a novel theoretical perspective to the somewhat fragmented literature on impulsive action. PMID:24917835

  20. Shared neural processes support semantic control and action understanding

    PubMed Central

    Davey, James; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Costigan, Alison; Murphy, Nik; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Hallam, Glyn; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Executive–semantic control and action understanding appear to recruit overlapping brain regions but existing evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses and neuropsychology lacks spatial precision; we therefore manipulated difficulty and feature type (visual vs. action) in a single fMRI study. Harder judgements recruited an executive–semantic network encompassing medial and inferior frontal regions (including LIFG) and posterior temporal cortex (including pMTG). These regions partially overlapped with brain areas involved in action but not visual judgements. In LIFG, the peak responses to action and difficulty were spatially identical across participants, while these responses were overlapping yet spatially distinct in posterior temporal cortex. We propose that the co-activation of LIFG and pMTG allows the flexible retrieval of semantic information, appropriate to the current context; this might be necessary both for semantic control and understanding actions. Feature selection in difficult trials also recruited ventral occipital–temporal areas, not implicated in action understanding. PMID:25658631

  1. Shared neural processes support semantic control and action understanding.

    PubMed

    Davey, James; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Costigan, Alison; Murphy, Nik; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Hallam, Glyn; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Executive-semantic control and action understanding appear to recruit overlapping brain regions but existing evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses and neuropsychology lacks spatial precision; we therefore manipulated difficulty and feature type (visual vs. action) in a single fMRI study. Harder judgements recruited an executive-semantic network encompassing medial and inferior frontal regions (including LIFG) and posterior temporal cortex (including pMTG). These regions partially overlapped with brain areas involved in action but not visual judgements. In LIFG, the peak responses to action and difficulty were spatially identical across participants, while these responses were overlapping yet spatially distinct in posterior temporal cortex. We propose that the co-activation of LIFG and pMTG allows the flexible retrieval of semantic information, appropriate to the current context; this might be necessary both for semantic control and understanding actions. Feature selection in difficult trials also recruited ventral occipital-temporal areas, not implicated in action understanding.

  2. The cognitive representation of intending not to act: Evidence for specific non-action-effect binding.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Simone; Brass, Marcel

    2010-10-01

    The question how we represent voluntary action on a cognitive level has recently become of increasing interest to researchers studying motor control. However, so far it has been neglected how we represent the voluntary omission of an action. In our attempt to investigate the representation of voluntary non-actions we demonstrated binding effects between voluntary non-actions and subsequent action effects (Kühn, Elsner, Prinz, & Brass, 2009). That study, however, only distinguished between acting or not acting, and did not address the question of whether non-actions are coded as general omissions or whether they can be encoded specifically as the actual negation of the action in question ("not-right" or "not-left"). Our current study provides first evidence for the specificity of representations of intentional non-actions. Additionally, we compare two ways in which the specific non-actions might be represented: an ironic representation account implying that negations are prone to be omitted and a reformulated representation account assuming that the negated action is suppressed and/or the alternative action is facilitated. Our results suggest that the representation of non-actions contains a facilitation of the alternative action rather than a suppression of the action in question.

  3. Power effects on cognitive control: Turning conflict into action.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Petra C; Kleiman, Tali; Amodio, David M

    2015-06-01

    Power is known to promote effective goal pursuit, especially when it requires one to overcome distractions or bias. We proposed that this effect involves the ability to engage and implement cognitive control. In Study 1, we demonstrated that power enhances behavioral performance on a response conflict task and that it does so by enhancing controlled processing rather than by reducing automatic processing. In Study 2, we used an event-related potential index of anterior cingulate activity to test whether power effects on control were due to enhanced conflict sensitivity or action implementation. Power did not significantly affect neural sensitivity to conflict; rather, high power was associated with a stronger link between conflict processing and intended action, relative to low power. These findings suggest a new perspective on how social factors can affect controlled processing and offer new evidence regarding the transition between conflict detection and the implementation of action control.

  4. Deciding as Intentional Action: Control over Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Common-sense folk psychology and mainstream philosophy of action agree about decisions: these are under an agent's direct control, and are thus intentional actions for which agents can be held responsible. I begin this paper by presenting a problem for this view. In short, since the content of the motivational attitudes that drive deliberation and decision remains open-ended until the moment of decision, it is unclear how agents can be thought to exercise control over what they decide at the moment of deciding. I note that this problem might motivate a non-actional view of deciding—a view that decisions are not actions, but are instead passive events of intention acquisition. For without an understanding of how an agent might exercise control over what is decided at the moment of deciding, we lack a good reason for maintaining commitment to an actional view of deciding. However, I then offer the required account of how agents exercise control over decisions at the moment of deciding. Crucial to this account is an understanding of the relation of practical deliberation to deciding, an understanding of skilled deliberative activity, and the role of attention in the mental action of deciding. PMID:26321765

  5. Introduction: evidence-based action in humanitarian crises.

    PubMed

    Dijkzeul, Dennis; Hilhorst, Dorothea; Walker, Peter

    2013-07-01

    This introductory paper sets the stage for this special issue of Disasters on evidence-based action in humanitarian crises. It reviews definition(s) of evidence and it examines the different disciplinary and methodological approaches to collecting and analysing evidence. In humanitarian action, the need for evidence-based approaches sometimes is viewed in tension with a principled approach, often unnecessarily. Choosing appropriate research methods depends on the objectives of the researcher, in particular whether the research focuses on the intervention and/or the context and the length and complexity of the causal chains involved. The paper concludes by defining some trends in evidence-based approaches in crises: the move away from inputs and outputs of humanitarian action towards outcomes and impacts; the shift towards a higher degree of partnerships in research, and the participation of users and target groups; and the acceptance of a broad array of approaches to establish evidence. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  6. Do Postures of Distal Effectors Affect the Control of Actions of Other Distal Effectors? Evidence for a System of Interactions between Hand and Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Campione, Giovanna Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether, in healthy humans, postures assumed by distal effectors affect the control of the successive grasp executed with other distal effectors. In experiments 1 and 2, participants reached different objects with their head and grasped them with their mouth, after assuming different hand postures. The postures could be implicitly associated with interactions with large or small objects. The kinematics of lip shaping during grasp varied congruently with the hand posture, i.e. it was larger or smaller when it could be associated with the grasping of large or small objects, respectively. In experiments 3 and 4, participants reached and grasped different objects with their hand, after assuming the postures of mouth aperture or closure (experiment 3) and the postures of toe extension or flexion (experiment 4). The mouth postures affected the kinematics of finger shaping during grasp, that is larger finger shaping corresponded with opened mouth and smaller finger shaping with closed mouth. In contrast, the foot postures did not influence the hand grasp kinematics. Finally, in experiment 5 participants reached-grasped different objects with their hand while pronouncing opened and closed vowels, as verified by the analysis of their vocal spectra. Open and closed vowels induced larger and smaller finger shaping, respectively. In all experiments postures of the distal effectors induced no effect, or only unspecific effects on the kinematics of the reach proximal/axial component. The data from the present study support the hypothesis that there exists a system involved in establishing interactions between movements and postures of hand and mouth. This system might have been used to transfer a repertoire of hand gestures to mouth articulation postures during language evolution and, in modern humans, it may have evolved a system controlling the interactions existing between speech and gestures. PMID:21625428

  7. Do postures of distal effectors affect the control of actions of other distal effectors? Evidence for a system of interactions between hand and mouth.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Campione, Giovanna Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether, in healthy humans, postures assumed by distal effectors affect the control of the successive grasp executed with other distal effectors. In experiments 1 and 2, participants reached different objects with their head and grasped them with their mouth, after assuming different hand postures. The postures could be implicitly associated with interactions with large or small objects. The kinematics of lip shaping during grasp varied congruently with the hand posture, i.e. it was larger or smaller when it could be associated with the grasping of large or small objects, respectively. In experiments 3 and 4, participants reached and grasped different objects with their hand, after assuming the postures of mouth aperture or closure (experiment 3) and the postures of toe extension or flexion (experiment 4). The mouth postures affected the kinematics of finger shaping during grasp, that is larger finger shaping corresponded with opened mouth and smaller finger shaping with closed mouth. In contrast, the foot postures did not influence the hand grasp kinematics. Finally, in experiment 5 participants reached-grasped different objects with their hand while pronouncing opened and closed vowels, as verified by the analysis of their vocal spectra. Open and closed vowels induced larger and smaller finger shaping, respectively. In all experiments postures of the distal effectors induced no effect, or only unspecific effects on the kinematics of the reach proximal/axial component. The data from the present study support the hypothesis that there exists a system involved in establishing interactions between movements and postures of hand and mouth. This system might have been used to transfer a repertoire of hand gestures to mouth articulation postures during language evolution and, in modern humans, it may have evolved a system controlling the interactions existing between speech and gestures.

  8. The Social Determinants of Tuberculosis: From Evidence to Action

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, Delia; Evans, Carlton A.; Adato, Michelle; Petticrew, Mark; Porter, John D. H.

    2011-01-01

    Growing consensus indicates that progress in tuberculosis control in the low- and middle-income world will require not only investment in strengthening tuberculosis control programs, diagnostics, and treatment but also action on the social determinants of tuberculosis. However, practical ideas for action are scarcer than is notional support for this idea. We developed a framework based on the recent World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health and on current understanding of the social determinants of tuberculosis. Interventions from outside the health sector—specifically, in social protection and urban planning—have the potential to strengthen tuberculosis control. PMID:21330583

  9. Vicarious motor activation during action perception: beyond correlational evidence

    PubMed Central

    Avenanti, Alessio; Candidi, Matteo; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Neurophysiological and imaging studies have shown that seeing the actions of other individuals brings about the vicarious activation of motor regions involved in performing the same actions. While this suggests a simulative mechanism mediating the perception of others' actions, one cannot use such evidence to make inferences about the functional significance of vicarious activations. Indeed, a central aim in social neuroscience is to comprehend how vicarious activations allow the understanding of other people's behavior, and this requires to use stimulation or lesion methods to establish causal links from brain activity to cognitive functions. In the present work, we review studies investigating the effects of transient manipulations of brain activity or stable lesions in the motor system on individuals' ability to perceive and understand the actions of others. We conclude there is now compelling evidence that neural activity in the motor system is critical for such cognitive ability. More research using causal methods, however, is needed in order to disclose the limits and the conditions under which vicarious activations are required to perceive and understand actions of others as well as their emotions and somatic feelings. PMID:23675338

  10. Promoting health equity in cities through evidence-based action.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Jacob; Prasad, Amit; Alwan, Ala; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

    2010-09-01

    The impact of the urban setting on health and, in particular, health inequities has been widely documented. However, only a few countries have examined their inter- or intra-city health inequalities, and few do so regularly. Information that shows the gaps between cities or within the same city is a crucial requirement to trigger appropriate local actions to promote health equity. To generate relevant evidence and take appropriate actions to tackle health inequities, local authorities need a variety of tools. In order to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of health systems performance, these tools should: (1) adopt a multi-sectorial approach; (2) link evidence to actions; (3) be simple and user-friendly; and (4) be operationally feasible and sustainable. In this paper we have illustrated the use of one such tool, The World Health Organization's Urban HEART, which guides users through a process to identify health inequities, focusing on health determinants and then developing actions based on the evidence generated. In a time of increasing financial constraints, there is a pressing need to allocate scarce resources more efficiently. Tools are needed to guide policy makers in their planning process to identify best-practice interventions that promote health equity in their cities.

  11. Automatic motor activation in the executive control of action

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Jennifer; Boy, Frédéric; Husain, Masud; Sumner, Petroc

    2012-01-01

    Although executive control and automatic behavior have often been considered separate and distinct processes, there is strong emerging and convergent evidence that they may in fact be intricately interlinked. In this review, we draw together evidence showing that visual stimuli cause automatic and unconscious motor activation, and how this in turn has implications for executive control. We discuss object affordances, alien limb syndrome, the visual grasp reflex, subliminal priming, and subliminal triggering of attentional orienting. Consideration of these findings suggests automatic motor activation might form an intrinsic part of all behavior, rather than being categorically different from voluntary actions. PMID:22536177

  12. Willingness to Communicate and Action Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Doucette, Jesslyn

    2010-01-01

    Being willing to communicate is part of becoming fluent in a second language, which often is the ultimate goal of L2 learners. Julius Kuhl's theory of action control is introduced as an expansion of the conceptual framework for the study of Willingness to Communicate. Kuhl proposed three key concepts, preoccupation, volatility, and hesitation,…

  13. Willingness to Communicate and Action Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Doucette, Jesslyn

    2010-01-01

    Being willing to communicate is part of becoming fluent in a second language, which often is the ultimate goal of L2 learners. Julius Kuhl's theory of action control is introduced as an expansion of the conceptual framework for the study of Willingness to Communicate. Kuhl proposed three key concepts, preoccupation, volatility, and hesitation,…

  14. Detection by action: neuropsychological evidence for action-defined templates in search.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, G W; Riddoch, M J

    2001-01-01

    How do we detect a target in a cluttered environment? Here we present neuropsychological evidence that detection can be based on the action afforded by a target. A patient showing symptoms of unilateral neglect following damage to the right fronto-temporal-parietal region was slow and sometimes unable to find targets when they were defined by their name or even by a salient visual property (such as their color). In contrast, he was relatively efficient at finding a target defined by the action it afforded. Two other patients with neglect showed an opposite pattern; they were better at finding a target defined by its name. The data suggest that affordances can be effective even when a brain lesion limits the use of other properties in search tasks. The findings give evidence for a direct pragmatic route from vision to action in the brain.

  15. From evidence to action: health promotion and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Julia; Allsop, Steve; Daube, Mike

    2014-04-01

    Preventing alcohol-related harm presents a range of challenges including those related to political will, competing interests with disproportionate resources, and embedded drinking cultures. On the other hand there are opportunities for health promotion, including clear evidence on both the extent of the problem and evidence-based responses and growing community support for action. Australian researchers continue to contribute substantially to the international evidence base on alcohol, generating evidence for translation into effective programs and producing policy-relevant research on which action and advocacy can be based. Successes in other public health areas also provide useful models for public health approaches to alcohol. Those engaged in health promotion have often been required to do a lot with a little, including communicating health messages on a range of themes, countering industry activities that are contrary to good public health and involvement in policy development. Coalition approaches to alcohol related harm, including links with groups outside health, have recently gained momentum and show much potential. Alcohol issues are now firmly on the agenda of the public and decision-makers, and the alcohol industry has expressed clear concern at current levels of activity. This paper will consider briefly the nature of the challenge; evidence-based approaches; achievements and developments thus far; challenges and obstacles; and the role of health promotion and the health promotion workforce.

  16. Action observation as a useful approach for enhancing recovery of verb production: new evidence from aphasia.

    PubMed

    Bonifazi, S; Tomaiuolo, F; Altoè, G; Ceravolo, M G; Provinciali, L; Marangolo, P

    2013-08-01

    Evidence exists that the observation of actions performed by others enhance word retrieval and can be used in aphasia rehabilitation to treat naming impairments. The aim of the present study was to assess to what extent action observation treatment may improve verb retrieval in chronic aphasics. This was an observational study. Patients were recruited from the Neurorehabilitation Centre of Ancona Hospital. Six aphasic patients underwent an intensive language training to improve verb naming. Language evaluation was carried out before and after the treatment. A rehabilitation therapy based on observation of actions was administered daily to each patient for two consecutive weeks. Four different rehabilitation procedures were adopted: 1) "observation of action performed by the examiner"; 2) "observation and then execution of action"; 3) "observation of videoclips of actions"; and, as a control condition; 4) "observation of action and execution of meaningless movement". In four participants, a significant improvement in verb retrieval was found for the three experimental procedures (χ² (3)=75.212, P<0.0001), with respect to the control condition. No significant improvement was observed in the two patients with severe deficits in verb semantics (χ² (3)=0.592, P=0.892). Action observation therapy may become a useful intervention strategy to promote verb retrieval in aphasic patients. The observation of videoclips of actions may be an efficacious alternative approach to traditional rehabilitation programs for lexical deficits. This finding endorses the planning of innovative low-cost interventions in language rehabilitation.

  17. Neural Basis of Action Understanding: Evidence from Sign Language Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Raphel, Kristin; Tomkovicz, Vivian; O'Grady, Lucinda; Damasio, Hanna; Bellugi, Ursula; Hickok, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Background The neural basis of action understanding is a hotly debated issue. The mirror neuron account holds that motor simulation in fronto-parietal circuits is critical to action understanding including speech comprehension, while others emphasize the ventral stream in the temporal lobe. Evidence from speech strongly supports the ventral stream account, but on the other hand, evidence from manual gesture comprehension (e.g., in limb apraxia) has led to contradictory findings. Aims Here we present a lesion analysis of sign language comprehension. Sign language is an excellent model for studying mirror system function in that it bridges the gap between the visual-manual system in which mirror neurons are best characterized and language systems which have represented a theoretical target of mirror neuron research. Methods & Procedures Twenty-one life long deaf signers with focal cortical lesions performed two tasks: one involving the comprehension of individual signs and the other involving comprehension of signed sentences (commands). Participants' lesions, as indicated on MRI or CT scans, were mapped onto a template brain to explore the relationship between lesion location and sign comprehension measures. Outcomes & Results Single sign comprehension was not significantly affected by left hemisphere damage. Sentence sign comprehension impairments were associated with left temporal-parietal damage. We found that damage to mirror system related regions in the left frontal lobe were not associated with deficits on either of these comprehension tasks. Conclusions We conclude that the mirror system is not critically involved in action understanding. PMID:24031116

  18. Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…

  19. Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…

  20. Learning, attentional control and action video games

    PubMed Central

    Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.

    2012-01-01

    While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on ‘action video games’ produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. PMID:22440805

  1. Learning, attentional control, and action video games.

    PubMed

    Green, C S; Bavelier, D

    2012-03-20

    While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on 'action video games' produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning.

  2. Modelling the control of interceptive actions.

    PubMed Central

    Beek, P J; Dessing, J C; Peper, C E; Bullock, D

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, several phenomenological dynamical models have been formulated that describe how perceptual variables are incorporated in the control of motor variables. We call these short-route models as they do not address how perception-action patterns might be constrained by the dynamical properties of the sensory, neural and musculoskeletal subsystems of the human action system. As an alternative, we advocate a long-route modelling approach in which the dynamics of these subsystems are explicitly addressed and integrated to reproduce interceptive actions. The approach is exemplified through a discussion of a recently developed model for interceptive actions consisting of a neural network architecture for the online generation of motor outflow commands, based on time-to-contact information and information about the relative positions and velocities of hand and ball. This network is shown to be consistent with both behavioural and neurophysiological data. Finally, some problems are discussed with regard to the question of how the motor outflow commands (i.e. the intended movement) might be modulated in view of the musculoskeletal dynamics. PMID:14561342

  3. Modelling the control of interceptive actions.

    PubMed

    Beek, P J; Dessing, J C; Peper, C E; Bullock, D

    2003-09-29

    In recent years, several phenomenological dynamical models have been formulated that describe how perceptual variables are incorporated in the control of motor variables. We call these short-route models as they do not address how perception-action patterns might be constrained by the dynamical properties of the sensory, neural and musculoskeletal subsystems of the human action system. As an alternative, we advocate a long-route modelling approach in which the dynamics of these subsystems are explicitly addressed and integrated to reproduce interceptive actions. The approach is exemplified through a discussion of a recently developed model for interceptive actions consisting of a neural network architecture for the online generation of motor outflow commands, based on time-to-contact information and information about the relative positions and velocities of hand and ball. This network is shown to be consistent with both behavioural and neurophysiological data. Finally, some problems are discussed with regard to the question of how the motor outflow commands (i.e. the intended movement) might be modulated in view of the musculoskeletal dynamics.

  4. Empirical evidence against placebo controls.

    PubMed

    Batra, Sadhvi; Howick, Jeremy

    2017-08-09

    The revised Declaration of Helsinki allows placebo-controlled trials to be used even when there is an established therapy, provided there are adequate 'methodological' reasons for doing so. This seems to violate the principle of beneficence: where there is an established therapy, physicians treating patients with a placebo are withholding a known effective therapy. Because of this problem, we hypothesised that clinical researchers may be unwilling to risk violating the principle of beneficence and employ placebo-controlled trials in cases where there is an established therapy. In this paper, we began to investigate this hypothesis. After summarising the arguments for and against using placebo controls in clinical practice, we exploredthe extent to which placebo-controlled trials are used in cases where there is an established therapy. To do this, we conducted as systematic search for all placebo-controlled trials published in 2015 in the five highest impact general medical journals. We identified 70 placebo-controlled trials. Of these, 66 were for indications where there was no established effective therapy. Only four used a placebo control in spite of there being an available effective therapy. The infrequent use of placebo controlled trials where established therapy exists highlights a seeming discrepancy between what the Declaration of Helsinki allows and what clinical investigators believe to be ethically acceptable. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that the Declaration of Helsinki be reconsidered, and perhaps revised, in light of actual practice. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Preschool children's control of action outcomes.

    PubMed

    Freier, Livia; Cooper, Richard P; Mareschal, Denis

    2017-03-01

    Naturalistic goal-directed behaviours require the engagement and maintenance of appropriate levels of cognitive control over relatively extended intervals of time. In two experiments, we examined preschool children's abilities to maintain top-down control throughout the course of a sequential task. Both 3- and 5-year-olds demonstrated good abilities to access goals at the lowest level of the representational hierarchy. However, only 5-year-olds consistently aligned their response choices with goals at superordinate levels. These findings suggest that the ability to maintain top-down control and adjust behavioural responses according to goals at multiple levels of abstraction undergoes a marked improvement throughout the preschool period. Results are discussed in relation to current accounts of cognitive control and the monitoring of conflict in sequential action.

  6. The role of action prediction and inhibitory control for joint action coordination in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Haartsen, R; Stapel, J C; Hunnius, S

    2015-11-01

    From early in life, young children eagerly engage in social interactions. Yet, they still have difficulties in performing well-coordinated joint actions with others. Adult literature suggests that two processes are important for smooth joint action coordination: action prediction and inhibitory control. The aim of the current study was to disentangle the potential role of these processes in the early development of joint action coordination. Using a simple turn-taking game, we assessed 2½-year-old toddlers' joint action coordination, focusing on timing variability and turn-taking accuracy. In two additional tasks, we examined their action prediction capabilities with an eye-tracking paradigm and examined their inhibitory control capabilities with a classic executive functioning task (gift delay task). We found that individual differences in action prediction and inhibitory action control were distinctly related to the two aspects of joint action coordination. Toddlers who showed more precision in their action predictions were less variable in their action timing during the joint play. Furthermore, toddlers who showed more inhibitory control in an individual context were more accurate in their turn-taking performance during the joint action. On the other hand, no relation between timing variability and inhibitory control or between turn-taking accuracy and action prediction was found. The current results highlight the distinct role of action prediction and inhibitory action control for the quality of joint action coordination in toddlers. Underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and implications for processes involved in joint action coordination in general are discussed.

  7. Assistive Technology in Australia: Integrating theory and evidence into action.

    PubMed

    Steel, Emily J; Layton, Natasha A

    2016-12-01

    Occupational therapists use a range of strategies to influence the relationship between person, environment and occupation and facilitate people's participation and inclusion in society. Technology is a fundamental environmental factor capable of enabling inclusion, and occupational therapy models articulate a role for assistive technology (AT) devices and services, but there is a gap between theory, research and practice. The context of AT provision in Australia presents systemic barriers that prevent optimal application of AT devices and services for societal health promotion and in individualised solutions. The Integrating Theory, Evidence and Action method (ITEA) was used to answer the question 'How can occupational therapy support AT provision to enable older people and people with disability?' A wide range of sources were systematically analysed to explore the complexities of AT provision in Australia. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and IMPACT(2) model are used as frameworks to reconstruct evidence into statements that summarise the theory, process and outcomes of AT provision. Analysis of the influence of the global disability rights and local policies and AT provision systems is used to highlight important aspects for occupational therapists to consider in research and practice. Pragmatic recommendations are provided to enable practitioners to translate theory and evidence into action. AT provision can be improved by focusing on evidence for and congruence between theory, process and outcomes, rather than isolated interventions. Occupational therapists should consider the influence of contextual factors on practice, and work with consumers to improve access and equity in AT provision systems. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  8. Contextual control of instrumental actions and habits

    PubMed Central

    Thrailkill, Eric A.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    After a relatively small amount of training, instrumental behavior is thought to be an action under the control of the motivational status of its goal or reinforcer. After more extended training, behavior can become habitual and insensitive to changes in reinforcer value. Recently, instrumental responding has been shown to weaken when tested outside of the training context. The present experiments compared the sensitivity of instrumental responding in rats to a context switch after training procedures that might differentially generate actions or habits. In Experiment 1, lever pressing was decremented in a new context after either short, medium, or long periods of training on either random-ratio or yoked random-interval reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 found that more minimally-trained responding was also sensitive to a context switch. Moreover, Experiment 3 showed that when the goal-directed component of responding was removed by devaluing the reinforcer, the residual responding that remained was still sensitive to the change of context. Goal-directed responding, in contrast, transferred across contexts. Experiment 4 then found that after extensive training, a habit that was insensitive to reinforcer devaluation was still decremented by a context switch. Overall, the results suggest that a context switch primarily influences instrumental habit rather than action. In addition, even a response that has received relatively minimal training may have a habit component that is insensitive to reinforcer devaluation but sensitive to the effects of a context switch. PMID:25706547

  9. Subliminal Priming of Actions Influences Sense of Control over Effects of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenke, Dorit; Fleming, Stephen M.; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The experience of controlling one's own actions, and through them events in the outside world, is a pervasive feature of human mental life. Two experiments investigated the relation between this sense of control and the internal processes involved in action selection and cognitive control. Action selection was manipulated by subliminally priming…

  10. Subliminal Priming of Actions Influences Sense of Control over Effects of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenke, Dorit; Fleming, Stephen M.; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The experience of controlling one's own actions, and through them events in the outside world, is a pervasive feature of human mental life. Two experiments investigated the relation between this sense of control and the internal processes involved in action selection and cognitive control. Action selection was manipulated by subliminally priming…

  11. An action plan for tobacco control at regional level.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R; Brown, J S; Hodgson, P; Kyle, D; Reed, D; Wallace, B

    1999-07-01

    Smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death in the UK; killing over 120 000 people each year, contributing to inequalities in health, exacerbating and causing poverty. Smoking has increased steadily among children since 1988 and more recently, among young adults. The current context in the UK is highly favourable for introducing comprehensive tobacco control measures. This paper summarises a regional action plan for tobacco control. Actions at district and regional levels are outlined to establish a comprehensive local tobacco control framework and complement national tobacco control measures. Measures include: a 'SWOT' analysis of current activity; systematic monitoring of smoking prevalence, attitudes to smoking, and the impact of tobacco control interventions; provision of effective smoking cessation support to a minimum standard throughout the health service; increased coverage of smoke-free public places and workplaces; enforcement of legislation on illegal sales to children and against smuggling and selling illegally imported tobacco; paid and unpaid mass media campaigns; and systematic lobbying for fiscal and legislative measures. One of the key components of the plan is the introduction of evidence-based tobacco control strategies at district levels. These should include a performance framework with clear organisational and managerial accountability and employ a co-ordinated, multiagency, partnership approach. Priority groups should be identified. Strategies should seek to engage the public to build support for tobacco control measures. Sufficient time, staff, resources and training must be allocated to tobacco control work and progress towards objectives monitored.

  12. Decision making and action implementation: evidence for an early visually triggered motor activation specific to potential actions.

    PubMed

    Tandonnet, Christophe; Garry, Michael I; Summers, Jeffery J

    2013-07-01

    To make a decision may rely on accumulating evidence in favor of one alternative until a threshold is reached. Sequential-sampling models differ by the way of accumulating evidence and the link with action implementation. Here, we tested a model's prediction of an early action implementation specific to potential actions. We assessed the dynamics of action implementation in go/no-go and between-hand choice tasks by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (single- or paired-pulse TMS; 3-ms interstimulus interval). Prior to implementation of the selected action, the amplitude of the motor evoked potential first increased whatever the visual stimulus but only for the hand potentially involved in the to-be-produced action. These findings suggest that visual stimuli can trigger an early motor activation specific to potential actions, consistent with race-like models with continuous transmission between decision making and action implementation.

  13. Further evidence for direct pro-resorptive actions of FSH.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Peng, Yuanzhen; Liu, Xuan; Li, Jianhua; Agrawal, Manasi; Robinson, Lisa J; Iqbal, Jameel; Blair, Harry C; Zaidi, Mone

    2010-03-26

    We confirm that FSH stimulates osteoclast formation, function and survival to enhance bone resorption. It does so via the activation of a pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i)-coupled FSH receptor that we and others have identified on murine and human osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts. FSH additionally enhances the production of several osteoclastogenic cytokines, importantly TNFalpha, likely within the bone marrow microenvironment, to augment its pro-resorptive action. FSH levels in humans rise before estrogen falls, and this hormonal change coincides with the most rapid rates of bone loss. On the basis of accumulating evidence, we reaffirm that FSH contributes to the rapid peri-menopausal and early post-menopausal bone loss, which might thus be amenable to FSH blockade.

  14. Subliminal priming of actions influences sense of control over effects of action.

    PubMed

    Wenke, Dorit; Fleming, Stephen M; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    The experience of controlling one's own actions, and through them events in the outside world, is a pervasive feature of human mental life. Two experiments investigated the relation between this sense of control and the internal processes involved in action selection and cognitive control. Action selection was manipulated by subliminally priming left or right keypress actions in response to a supraliminal visual target. The action caused the display of one of several colours as an action effect. The specific colour shown depended on whether the participant's action was compatible or incompatible with the preceding subliminal prime, and not on the prime identity alone. Unlike previous studies, therefore, the primes did not predict the to-be-expected action effects. Participants rated how much control they experienced over the different colours. Replicating previous results, compatible primes facilitated responding, whereas incompatible primes interfered with response selection. Crucially, priming also modulated the sense of control over action effects: participants experienced more control over colours produced by actions that were compatible with the preceding prime than over colours associated with prime-incompatible actions. Experiment 2 showed that this effect was not solely due to priming modulating action-effect contingencies. These results suggest that sense of control is linked to processes of selection between alternative actions, being strongest when selection is smooth and uncontested.

  15. Evidence for a role of action in colour perception.

    PubMed

    Bompas, Aline; O'Regan, J Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Action is not usually considered to play a role in colour perception. However, sensorimotor theories of perception (eg O'Regan and Noë, 2001 Behavior and Brain Science 24 939-1011) suggest that, on the contrary, the transformations created by action in the sensory input are a necessary condition for all perception. In the case of colour vision, eye movements may explain how a retina with significant irregularities in resolution and cone arrangement (Roorda and Williams, 1999 Nature 397 520-522) could permit the perception of a richly coloured world (Clark and O'Regan, 2000 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition volume 2: Pattern Recognition and Neural Networks pp 503-506; Skaff et al, 2002 16th International Conference on Pattern Recognition volume 2, pp 681-684). We provide evidence that perception of colour is modified when an artificial coupling is introduced linking eye movements and colour changes. After 40 min of wearing left-field-blue/right-field-yellow spectacles, observers' colour vision adapts so that, after removing the spectacles, white patches seem to become bluer when the eyes move rightwards and yellower when the eyes move leftwards. This induced dependence of colour perception on the direction of eye saccade is shown to be related to the amount of eye movements during exposure. This result, which cannot be explained either by retinal adaptation, or by a conditioned association between colour and side, constitutes first clear evidence for a role of eye movements in perceived colour and argues for the involvement in colour perception of neural mechanisms continuously tuned to sensorimotor contingencies.

  16. Selective reaching in macaques: evidence for action-centred attention.

    PubMed

    Bulgheroni, Maria; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Straulino, Elisa; Sartori, Luisa; D'Amico, Enrico; Castiello, Umberto

    2017-03-01

    When a monkey selects a piece of food lying on the ground from among other viable objects in the near vicinity, only the desired item governs the particular pattern and direction of the animal's reaching action. It would seem then that selection is an important component controlling the animal's action. But, we may ask, is the selection process in such cases impervious to the presence of other objects that could constitute potential obstacles to or constraints on movement execution? And if it is, in fact, pervious to other objects, do they have a direct influence on the organization of the response? The kinematics of macaques' reaching movements were examined by the current study that analysed some exemplars as they selectively reached to grasp a food item in the absence as well as in the presence of potential obstacles (i.e., stones) that could affect the arm trajectory. Changes in movement parameterization were noted in temporal measures, such as movement time, as well as in spatial ones, such as paths of trajectory. Generally speaking, the presence of stones in the vicinity of the acting hand stalled the reaching movement and affected the arm trajectory as the hand veered away from the stone even when it was not a physical obstacle. We concluded that nearby objects evoke a motor response in macaques, and the attentional mechanisms that allow for a successful action selection are revealed in the reaching path. The data outlined here concur with human studies indicating that potential obstacles are internally represented, a finding implying basic cognitive operations allowing for action selection in macaques.

  17. Cognitive enhancement through action video game training: great expectations require greater evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bisoglio, Joseph; Michaels, Timothy I.; Mervis, Joshua E.; Ashinoff, Brandon K.

    2014-01-01

    Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence-based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects. PMID:24600427

  18. Cognitive enhancement through action video game training: great expectations require greater evidence.

    PubMed

    Bisoglio, Joseph; Michaels, Timothy I; Mervis, Joshua E; Ashinoff, Brandon K

    2014-01-01

    Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence-based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects.

  19. Electrochemical biofilm control: mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Istanbullu, Ozlem; Babauta, Jerome; Nguyen, Hung Duc; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been previously demonstrated that an electrical current can be used to control biofilm growth on metal surfaces, the literature results are conflicting and there is no accepted mechanism of action. One of the suggested mechanisms is the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on metal surfaces. However, there are literature studies in which H2O2 could not be detected in the bulk solution. This is most likely because H2O2 was produced at a low concentration near the surface and could not be detected in the bulk solution. The goals of this research were (1) to develop a well-controlled system to explain the mechanism of action of the bioelectrochemical effect on 316L stainless steel (SS) surfaces and (2) to test whether the produced H2O2 can reduce cell growth on metal surfaces. It was found that H2O2 was produced near 316L SS surfaces when a negative potential was applied. The H2O2 concentration increased towards the surface, while the dissolved oxygen decreased when the SS surface was polarized to −600 mVAg/AgCl. When polarized and non-polarized surfaces with identical Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms were continuously fed with air-saturated growth medium, the polarized surfaces showed minimal biofilm growth while there was significant biofilm growth on the non-polarized surfaces. Although there was no detectable H2O2 in the bulk solution, it was found that the surface concentration of H2O2 was able to prevent biofilm growth. PMID:22827804

  20. The voluntary control of facial action units in adults.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Pierre; Perron, Mélanie; Beaupré, Martin

    2010-04-01

    We investigated adults' voluntary control of 20 facial action units theoretically associated with 6 basic emotions (happiness, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, and disgust). Twenty young adults were shown video excerpts of facial action units and asked to reproduce them as accurately as possible. Facial Action Coding System (FACS; Ekman & Friesen, 1978a) coding of the facial productions showed that young adults succeeded in activating 18 of the 20 target actions units, although they often coactivated other action units. Voluntary control was clearly better for some action units than for others, with a pattern of differences between action units consistent with previous work in children and adolescents. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Do Endogenous and Exogenous Action Control Compete for Perception?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfister, Roland; Heinemann, Alexander; Kiesel, Andrea; Thomaschke, Roland; Janczyk, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Human actions are guided either by endogenous action plans or by external stimuli in the environment. These two types of action control seem to be mediated by neurophysiologically and functionally distinct systems that interfere if an endogenously planned action suddenly has to be performed in response to an exogenous stimulus. In this case, the…

  2. Action Theory, Control and Motivation: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckensberger, L. H.; Meacham, J. A., Eds.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the symposium on action theory presented at the 1983 meeting of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development in Munich. The symposium included reactions to action theory from a variety of theoretical perspectives. (Author/RH)

  3. Evidence for the Automatic Evaluation of Self-Generated Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarts, Kristien; De Houwer, Jan; Pourtois, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of simple actions is swiftly determined through specific monitoring brain systems. However, it remains unclear whether this evaluation is accompanied by a rapid and compatible emotional appraisal of the action that allows to mark incorrect actions as negative/bad and conversely correct actions as positive/good. In this study, we used…

  4. Evidence for the Automatic Evaluation of Self-Generated Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarts, Kristien; De Houwer, Jan; Pourtois, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of simple actions is swiftly determined through specific monitoring brain systems. However, it remains unclear whether this evaluation is accompanied by a rapid and compatible emotional appraisal of the action that allows to mark incorrect actions as negative/bad and conversely correct actions as positive/good. In this study, we used…

  5. Using Evidence: How Action Learning Can Support Individual and Organisational Learning through Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Belinda; Sharp, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the use of action learning as a structured and deliberate learning process to support practitioners to implement change in an action research project. It discusses both action learning and action research before describing the context of the study. The article then goes on to discuss how the process of action learning…

  6. Modulation of the action control system by social intention: unexpected social requests override preplanned action.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Becchio, Cristina; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2009-10-01

    Four experiments investigated the influence of a sudden social request on the kinematics of a preplanned action. In Experiment 1, participants were requested to grasp an object and then locate it within a container (unperturbed trials). On 20% of trials, a human agent seated nearby the participant unexpectedly stretched out her arm and unfolded her hand as if to ask for the object (perturbed trials). In the remaining 3 experiments, similar procedures were adopted except that (a) the human was replaced by a robotic agent, (b) the gesture performed by the human agent did not imply a social request, and (c) the gaze of the human agent was not available. Only when the perturbation was characterized by a social request involving a human agent were there kinematic changes to the action directed toward the target. Conversely, no effects on kinematics were evident when the perturbation was caused by the robotic agent or by a human agent performing a nonsocial gesture. These findings are discussed in the light of current theories proposed to explain the effects of social context on the control of action.

  7. Experimental evidence for action imitation in killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    PubMed

    Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Comparative experimental studies of imitative learning have focused mainly on primates and birds. However, cetaceans are promising candidates to display imitative learning as they have evolved in socioecological settings that have selected for large brains, complex sociality, and coordinated predatory tactics. Here we tested imitative learning in killer whales, Orcinus orca. We used a 'do-as-other-does' paradigm in which 3 subjects witnessed a conspecific demonstrator's performance that included 15 familiar and 4 novel behaviours. The three subjects (1) learned the copy command signal 'Do that' very quickly, that is, 20 trials on average; (2) copied 100 % of the demonstrator's familiar and novel actions; (3) achieved full matches in the first attempt for 8-13 familiar behaviours (out of 15) and for the 2 novel behaviours (out of 2) in one subject; and (4) took no longer than 8 trials to accurately copy any familiar behaviour, and no longer than 16 trials to copy any novel behaviour. This study provides experimental evidence for body imitation, including production imitation, in killer whales that is comparable to that observed in dolphins tested under similar conditions. These findings suggest that imitative learning may underpin some of the group-specific traditions reported in killer whales in the field.

  8. Controlling Attention through Action: Observing Actions Primes Action-Related Stimulus Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Hommel, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that planning an action "backward-primes" perceptual dimension related to this action: planning a grasp facilitates the processing of visual size information, while planning a reach facilitates the processing of location information. Here we show that dimensional priming of perception through action occurs even in the…

  9. Youth Excel: towards a pan-Canadian platform linking evidence and action for prevention.

    PubMed

    Riley, Barbara L; Manske, Steve; Cameron, Roy

    2011-05-15

    Population-level intervention is required to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases. It also promotes health for those living with established risk factors and illness. In this article, the authors describe a vision and approach for continuously improving population-level programs and policies within and beyond the health sector. The vision and approach are anchored in contemporary thinking about what is required to link evidence and action in the field of population and public health. The authors believe that, as a cancer prevention and control community, organizations and practitioners must be able to use the best available evidence to inform action and continually generate evidence that improves prevention policies and programs on an ongoing basis. These imperatives require leaders in policy, practice, and research fields to work together to jointly plan, conduct, and act on relevant evidence. The Propel Center and colleagues are implementing this approach in Youth Excel-a pan-Canadian initiative that brings together national and provincial organizations from health and education sectors and capitalizes on a history of collaboration. The objective of Youth Excel is to build sustainable capacity for knowledge development and exchange that can guide and redirect prevention efforts in a rapidly evolving social environment. This goal is to contribute to creating health-promoting environments and to accelerate progress in preventing cancer and other diseases among youth and young adults and in the wider population. Although prevention is the aim, health-promoting environments also can support health gains for individuals of all ages and with established illness. In addition, the approach Youth Excel is taking to link evidence and action may be applicable to early intervention and treatment components of cancer control.

  10. Action recognition depends on observer's level of action control and social personality traits.

    PubMed

    Ondobaka, Sasha; Newman-Norlund, Roger D; de Lange, Floris P; Bekkering, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Humans recognize both the movement (physical) goals and action (conceptual) goals of individuals with whom they are interacting. Here, we assessed whether spontaneous recognition of others' goals depends on whether the observers control their own behavior at the movement or action level. We also examined the relationship between individual differences in empathy and ASD-like traits, and the processing of other individual's movement and action goals that are known to be encoded in the "mirroring" and "mentalizing" brain networks. In order to address these questions, we used a computer-based card paradigm that made it possible to independently manipulate movement and action congruency of observed and executed actions. In separate blocks, participants were instructed to select either the right or left card (movement-control condition) or the higher or lower card (action-control condition), while we manipulated action- and movement-congruency of both actors' goals. An action-congruency effect was present in all conditions and the size of this effect was significantly correlated with self-reported empathy and ASD-like traits. In contrast, movement-congruency effects were only present in the movement-control block and were strongly dependent on action-congruency. These results illustrate that spontaneous recognition of others' behavior depends on the control scheme that is currently adopted by the observer. The findings suggest that deficits in action recognition are related to abnormal synthesis of perceived movements and prior conceptual knowledge that are associated with activations in the "mirroring" and "mentalizing" cortical networks.

  11. Evidence that the flux control coefficient of the respiratory chain is high during gluconeogenesis from lactate in hepatocytes from starved rats. Implications for the hormonal control of gluconeogenesis and action of hypoglycaemic agents.

    PubMed

    Pryor, H J; Smyth, J E; Quinlan, P T; Halestrap, A P

    1987-10-15

    1. Increasing concentrations of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), a mild respiratory-chain inhibitor [Halestrap (1987) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 927, 280-290], caused progressive inhibition of glucose production from lactate + pyruvate by hepatocytes from starved rats incubated in the presence or absence of oleate and gluconeogenic hormones. 2. No significant changes in tissue ATP content were observed, but there were concomitant decreases in ketone-body output and cytochrome c reduction and increases in NADH fluorescence and the ratios of [lactate]/[pyruvate] and [beta-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate]. 3. The inhibition by DCMU of palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by isolated liver mitochondria was used to calculate a flux control coefficient of the respiratory chain towards gluconeogenesis. In the presence of 1 mM-oleate, the calculated values were 0.61, 0.39 and 0.25 in the absence of hormone and in the presence of glucagon or phenylephrine respectively, consistent with activation of the respiratory chain in situ as previously suggested [Quinlan & Halestrap (1986) Biochem. J. 236, 789-800]. 4. Cytoplasmic oxaloacetate concentrations were shown to decrease under these conditions, implying inhibition of pyruvate carboxylase. 5. Inhibition of gluconeogenesis from fructose and dihydroxyacetone was also observed with DCMU and was accompanied by an increased output of lactate + pyruvate, suggesting that activation of pyruvate kinase was occurring. With the latter substrate, measurements of tissue ADP and ATP contents showed that DCMU caused a small fall in [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. 6. Two inhibitors of fatty acid oxidation, pent-4-enoate and 2-tetradecylglycidate, were shown to abolish and to decrease respectively the effects of hormones, but not valinomycin, on gluconeogenesis from lactate + pyruvate, without changing tissue ATP content. 7. It is concluded that the hormonal increase in mitochondrial matrix volume stimulates fatty acid oxidation and respiratory

  12. The Evidence for the Effectiveness of Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, H. Skipton; Marquardt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    For the past 50 years, organizations and individuals around the world have reported success in their use of action learning programs to solve problems, develop leaders, build teams and transform their corporate cultures. However, very little rigorous research has been conducted to determine the effectiveness of action learning. The authors…

  13. Continuous Improvement in Action: Educators' Evidence Use for School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannata, Marisa; Redding, Christopher; Rubin, Mollie

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the article is the process educators use to interpret data to turn it into usable knowledge (Honig & Coburn, 2008) while engaging in a continuous improvement process. The authors examine the types of evidence educators draw upon, its perceived relevance, and the social context in which the evidence is examined. Evidence includes…

  14. Action Intentions Modulate Allocation of Visual Attention: Electrophysiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Schubö, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In line with the Theory of Event Coding (Hommel et al., 2001), action planning has been shown to affect perceptual processing – an effect that has been attributed to a so-called intentional weighting mechanism (Wykowska et al., 2009; Hommel, 2010). This paper investigates the electrophysiological correlates of action-related modulations of selection mechanisms in visual perception. A paradigm combining a visual search task for size and luminance targets with a movement task (grasping or pointing) was introduced, and the EEG was recorded while participants were performing the tasks. The results showed that the behavioral congruency effects, i.e., better performance in congruent (relative to incongruent) action-perception trials have been reflected by a modulation of the P1 component as well as the N2pc (an ERP marker of spatial attention). These results support the argumentation that action planning modulates already early perceptual processing and attention mechanisms. PMID:23060841

  15. Action-value comparisons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex control choice between goal-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Richard W.; Dezfouli, Amir; Griffiths, Kristi R.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that choice between different actions reflects the difference between their action values yet little direct evidence confirming this assumption has been reported. Here we assess whether the brain calculates the absolute difference between action values or their relative advantage, that is, the probability that one action is better than the other alternatives. We use a two-armed bandit task during functional magnetic resonance imaging and modelled responses to determine both the size of the difference between action values (D) and the probability that one action value is better (P). The results show haemodynamic signals corresponding to P in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) together with evidence that these signals modulate motor cortex activity in an action-specific manner. We find no significant activity related to D. These findings demonstrate that a distinct neuronal population mediates action-value comparisons, and reveals how these comparisons are implemented to mediate value-based decision-making. PMID:25055179

  16. Action potential influences spatial perception: Evidence for genuine top-down effects on perception.

    PubMed

    Witt, Jessica K

    2016-11-23

    The action-specific account of spatial perception asserts that a perceiver's ability to perform an action, such as hitting a softball or walking up a hill, impacts the visual perception of the target object. Although much evidence is consistent with this claim, the evidence has been challenged as to whether perception is truly impacted, as opposed to the responses themselves. These challenges have recently been organized as six pitfalls that provide a framework with which to evaluate the empirical evidence. Four case studies of action-specific effects are offered as evidence that meets the framework's high bar, and thus that demonstrates genuine perceptual effects. That action influences spatial perception is evidence that perceptual and action-related processes are intricately and bidirectionally linked.

  17. Habits as action sequences: hierarchical action control and changes in outcome value

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Lingawi, Nura W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed action involves making high-level choices that are implemented using previously acquired action sequences to attain desired goals. Such a hierarchical schema is necessary for goal-directed actions to be scalable to real-life situations, but results in decision-making that is less flexible than when action sequences are unfolded and the decision-maker deliberates step-by-step over the outcome of each individual action. In particular, from this perspective, the offline revaluation of any outcomes that fall within action sequence boundaries will be invisible to the high-level planner resulting in decisions that are insensitive to such changes. Here, within the context of a two-stage decision-making task, we demonstrate that this property can explain the emergence of habits. Next, we show how this hierarchical account explains the insensitivity of over-trained actions to changes in outcome value. Finally, we provide new data that show that, under extended extinction conditions, habitual behaviour can revert to goal-directed control, presumably as a consequence of decomposing action sequences into single actions. This hierarchical view suggests that the development of action sequences and the insensitivity of actions to changes in outcome value are essentially two sides of the same coin, explaining why these two aspects of automatic behaviour involve a shared neural structure. PMID:25267824

  18. Interaction of sound and sight during action perception: evidence for shared modality-dependent action representations.

    PubMed

    Alaerts, Kaat; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2009-10-01

    Seeing or hearing manual actions activates the mirror neuron system, i.e., specialized neurons within motor areas which fire not only when an action is performed but also when it is passively perceived. Although it has been shown that mirror neurons respond to either action-specific vision or sound, it remains a topic of debate whether and how vision and sound interact during action perception. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to explore multimodal interactions in the human motor system, namely at the level of the primary motor cortex (M1). Corticomotor excitability in M1 was measured while subjects perceived unimodal visual (V), unimodal auditory (A), or multimodal (V+A) stimuli of a simple hand action. In addition, incongruent multimodal stimuli were included, in which incongruent vision or sound was presented simultaneously with the auditory or visual action stimulus. A selective response increase was observed to the congruent multimodal stimulus as compared to the unimodal and incongruent multimodal stimuli. These findings speak in favour of 'shared' action representations in the human motor system that are evoked in a 'modality-dependent' way, i.e., they are elicited most robustly by the simultaneous presentation of congruent auditory and visual stimuli. Multimodality in the perception of hand movements bears functional similarities to speech perception, suggesting that multimodal convergence is a generic feature of the mirror system which applies to action perception in general.

  19. Leveraging Evidence-Based Practices: From Policy to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detrich, Ronnie; Keyworth, Randy; States, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Education is a public health issue. Poor educational outcomes are correlated with many health and social ills. To improve the quality of education, it will be necessary to take advantage of the leverage points of policy, evidence, and implementation science. The idea of evidence informing policy may be non-controversial, but a closer examination…

  20. Action Recognition Depends on Observer’s Level of Action Control and Social Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Ondobaka, Sasha; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; de Lange, Floris P.; Bekkering, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Humans recognize both the movement (physical) goals and action (conceptual) goals of individuals with whom they are interacting. Here, we assessed whether spontaneous recognition of others’ goals depends on whether the observers control their own behavior at the movement or action level. We also examined the relationship between individual differences in empathy and ASD-like traits, and the processing of other individual’s movement and action goals that are known to be encoded in the “mirroring” and “mentalizing” brain networks. In order to address these questions, we used a computer-based card paradigm that made it possible to independently manipulate movement and action congruency of observed and executed actions. In separate blocks, participants were instructed to select either the right or left card (movement-control condition) or the higher or lower card (action-control condition), while we manipulated action- and movement-congruency of both actors’ goals. An action-congruency effect was present in all conditions and the size of this effect was significantly correlated with self-reported empathy and ASD-like traits. In contrast, movement-congruency effects were only present in the movement-control block and were strongly dependent on action-congruency. These results illustrate that spontaneous recognition of others’ behavior depends on the control scheme that is currently adopted by the observer. The findings suggest that deficits in action recognition are related to abnormal synthesis of perceived movements and prior conceptual knowledge that are associated with activations in the “mirroring” and “mentalizing” cortical networks. PMID:24303046

  1. Ethical Principles in Practice: Evidence from Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Liz

    2008-01-01

    A significant challenge for all participants in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project, including the Ministry of Education, the local project teams (LPT) and mentors, was the lack of availability of a single ethics approval process for the project in its entirety and, in particular, one that could accommodate…

  2. Dysfunctional action control as a specific feature of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marzinzik, Frank; Herrmann, Anja; Gogarten, Jacob H; Lueschow, Andreas; Weber, Joachim E; Schindlbeck, Katharina A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2015-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by motor deficits as well as cognitive alterations, particularly concerning frontal lobe control. Here, we were interested in whether executive function is abnormal already early in PD, as well as whether this dysfunction worsens as a part of the dementia in PD. The following groups engaged in tasks addressing action control: PD patients with mild and advanced motor symptoms (aPD) without dementia, PD patients with dementia (PDD), patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy subjects (CON). Subjects either had to perform or inhibit button presses upon go and no-go cues, respectively. These cues were preceded by pre-cues, either randomly instructive of right or left hand preparation (switch condition), or repetitively instructive for one side only (non-switch condition). PDD and aPD omitted more go responses than CON. Furthermore, PDD disproportionally committed failures upon no-go cues compared to CON. In the non-switch condition, PDD performed worse than AD, whose deficits increased to the level of PDD in the switch condition. Over all PD patients, task performance correlated with disease severity. Under the switch condition, task performance was low in both PDD and AD. In the non-switch condition, this also held true for advanced PD patients (with and without dementia), but not for AD. Thus, the deficits evident in PDD appear to develop from imbalanced inhibitory-to-excitatory action control generally inherent to PD. These results specify the concept of dysexecution in PD and differentiate the cognitive profile of PDD from that of AD patients.

  3. Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial on the immunomodulating activities of low- and high-dose bromelain after oral administration - new evidence on the antiinflammatory mode of action of bromelain.

    PubMed

    Müller, Silke; März, Reinhard; Schmolz, Manfred; Drewelow, Bernd; Eschmann, Klaus; Meiser, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Bromelain has been used for treatment of inflammatory diseases for decades. However, the exact mechanism of action remains poorly understood. While in vitro investigations have shown conflicting effects on the release of various cytokines, no in vivo data were available. In this study, the effects on inflammation-related cytokines of two doses of bromelain were tested in a single dose placebo-controlled 3 × crossover randomized clinical trial. Cytokine circadian profiles were used to investigate the effects of bromelain on the human immune system by using stimulated whole-blood leukocytes. The effects seen in these cultures demonstrated a significant shift in the circadian profiles of the Th1 cell mediator interferon gamma (IFNγ; p < 0.043) after bromelain 3000 FIP (Fédération Internationale Pharmaceutique) units, and trends in those of the Th2-type cytokine IL-5 as well as the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. This suggests a general effect on the antigen-specific (T cell) compartment of the human immune system. This is the first time that bromelain has been shown to modulate the cellular responses of lymphocyte after oral use. It is postulated that the immunomodulating effect of bromelain observed in this trial is part of its known antiinflammatory activities. Further investigations will be necessary to verify the relevance of these findings to a diseased immune system.

  4. Preschool Children's Control of Action Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freier, Livia; Cooper, Richard P.; Mareschal, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Naturalistic goal-directed behaviours require the engagement and maintenance of appropriate levels of cognitive control over relatively extended intervals of time. In two experiments, we examined preschool children's abilities to maintain top-down control throughout the course of a sequential task. Both 3- and 5-year-olds demonstrated good…

  5. Action effects are coded as transitions from current to future stimulation: Evidence from compatibility effects in tracking.

    PubMed

    Kunde, Wilfried; Schmidts, Constantin; Wirth, Robert; Herbort, Oliver

    2017-03-01

    There is ample evidence that motor actions are stored in terms of, and controlled by, the sensory effects that these actions produce. At present it is unclear, though, whether action control is governed by intended sensory changes (e.g., the transition from darkness to brightness when switching on a light) or only by intended sensory end states (e.g., the light being on). The present study explored the role of sensory changes for action control. To address this issue, participants engaged in a spatial tracking task. We show that performance is determined by the compatibility between motor patterns and subsequent changes of a controlled stimulus, while the intended end state of the stimulus remains constant. Spatial compatibility increases performance even when perceptual changes of spatial features are not the primary target of control. These results suggest that intended transitions of stimulation have the potential to bias motor actions. We consider these results as an important step toward integrating closed-loop regulation approaches and ideomotor approaches of action control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The organization of perception and action in complex control skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard A.; Jagacinski, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt was made to describe the perceptual, cognitive, and action processes that account for highly skilled human performance in complex task environments. In order to study such a performance in a controlled setting, a laboratory task was constructed and three experiments were performed using human subjects. A general framework was developed for describing the organization of perceptual, cognitive, and action process.

  7. Gestalt Principles in the Control of Motor Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Stuart T.; Jagacinski, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    We argue that 4 fundamental gestalt phenomena in perception apply to the control of motor action. First, a motor gestalt, like a perceptual gestalt, is holistic in the sense that it is processed as a single unit. This notion is consistent with reaction time results indicating that all gestures for a brief unit of action must be programmed prior to…

  8. Gestalt Principles in the Control of Motor Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Stuart T.; Jagacinski, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    We argue that 4 fundamental gestalt phenomena in perception apply to the control of motor action. First, a motor gestalt, like a perceptual gestalt, is holistic in the sense that it is processed as a single unit. This notion is consistent with reaction time results indicating that all gestures for a brief unit of action must be programmed prior to…

  9. 20 CFR 725.415 - Action by the district director after development of evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... development of evidence. 725.415 Section 725.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION... District Director § 725.415 Action by the district director after development of evidence. (a) At the end... development or submission of any additional medical evidence until after he has made a final determination...

  10. Action Planning and the Timescale of Evidence Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Tobias H.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual decisions are based on the temporal integration of sensory evidence for different states of the outside world. The timescale of this integration process varies widely across behavioral contexts and individuals, and it is diagnostic for the underlying neural mechanisms. In many situations, the decision-maker knows the required mapping between perceptual evidence and motor response (henceforth termed “sensory-motor contingency”) before decision formation. Here, the integrated evidence can be directly translated into a motor plan and, indeed, neural signatures of the integration process are evident as build-up activity in premotor brain regions. In other situations, however, the sensory-motor contingencies are unknown at the time of decision formation. We used behavioral psychophysics and computational modeling to test if knowledge about sensory-motor contingencies affects the timescale of perceptual evidence integration. We asked human observers to perform the same motion discrimination task, with or without trial-to-trial variations of the mapping between perceptual choice and motor response. When the mapping varied, it was either instructed before or after the stimulus presentation. We quantified the timescale of evidence integration under these different sensory-motor mapping conditions by means of two approaches. First, we analyzed subjects’ discrimination threshold as a function of stimulus duration. Second, we fitted a dynamical decision-making model to subjects’ choice behavior. The results from both approaches indicated that observers (i) integrated motion information for several hundred ms, (ii) used a shorter than optimal integration timescale, and (iii) used the same integration timescale under all sensory-motor mappings. We conclude that the mechanisms limiting the timescale of perceptual decisions are largely independent from long-term learning (under fixed mapping) or rapid acquisition (under variable mapping) of sensory

  11. Evidence for fast dynamo action in a chaotic web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, A. D.; Childress, S.

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of a magnetic field in a chaotic web is studied. The model flow possessing the web is closely related to the nearly integrable ABC flow with A = B and C much less than 1. The magnetic diffusivity is taken to be zero and the field is followed using the Cauchy solution. It is found that the flow folds the magnetic field constructively, in the sense that the average magnetic field in a chaotic region grows exponentially in time. This is suggestive of fast dynamo action, although the effect of diffusion of the strong streamwise magnetic field remains to be assessed.

  12. How the brainstem controls orofacial behaviors comprised of rhythmic actions

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jeffrey D.; Kleinfeld, David; Wang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Mammals perform a multitude of well-coordinated orofacial behaviors such as breathing, sniffing, chewing, licking, swallowing, vocalizing, and in rodents, whisking. The coordination of these actions must occur without fault to prevent fatal blockages of the airway. Deciphering the neuronal circuitry that controls even a single action requires understanding the integration of sensory feedback and executive commands. A far greater challenge is to understand the coordination of multiple actions. Here we focus on brainstem circuits that drive rhythmic orofacial actions. We discuss three neural computational mechanisms that may enable circuits for different actions to operate without interfering with each other. We conclude with proposed experimental programs for delineating the neural control principles that have evolved to coordinate orofacial behaviors. PMID:24890196

  13. Shocking action: Facilitative effects of punishing electric shocks on action control.

    PubMed

    Eder, Andreas B; Dignath, David; Erle, Thorsten M; Wiemer, Julian

    2017-08-01

    Four experiments examined motivational effects of response-contingent electric shocks on action initiation. Although the shock was unambiguously aversive for the individual in line with subjective and functional criteria, results showed that the shock-producing action was initiated faster relative to a response producing no shock. However, no facilitation effect was found when strong shocks were delivered, ruling out increased emotional arousal as an explanation. The action was initiated faster even when the response discontinued to generate a shock. Furthermore, a control experiment with affectively neutral vibrotactile stimulations at homologous sites showed an analogous response facilitation effect. Overall, the results contradict the widespread belief that a contingency with a punishing response effect is sufficient for a response suppression. Instead, the results suggest that punishing action effects can facilitate action initiation via anticipatory feedback processes. Implications for theories and applications of punishment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Standardized Action Modules for Humanoid Robot Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csaszar, Ambrus

    2005-01-01

    Humanoid robots could reduce the risks of hazardous work by replacing humans in dangerous environments and they could be useful helpers in environments designed primarily for humans. Currently, no robot is capable enough to fulfill either of these roles for any practical application, and the Humanoid Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Bio-Inspired Technologies and Systems group is striving to change that. For this summer, our goal was to endow a Fujitsu HOAP 2 humanoid robot with the necessary intelligence and knowledge to autonomously assemble a cubical frame structure from tubular bars and corner joints. Performing such a complicated task requires that the robot have a robust control architecture that allows for a multitude of abilities and Operation modes. We have designed and implemented a modular control architecture that allows reusability of existing code and the integration of work by many team members into the larger control system while providing an easy way to implement later improvements. Such a control system has allowed us to achieve important milestones in the humanoid robot assembly task.

  15. Standardized Action Modules for Humanoid Robot Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csaszar, Ambrus

    2005-01-01

    Humanoid robots could reduce the risks of hazardous work by replacing humans in dangerous environments and they could be useful helpers in environments designed primarily for humans. Currently, no robot is capable enough to fulfill either of these roles for any practical application, and the Humanoid Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Bio-Inspired Technologies and Systems group is striving to change that. For this summer, our goal was to endow a Fujitsu HOAP 2 humanoid robot with the necessary intelligence and knowledge to autonomously assemble a cubical frame structure from tubular bars and corner joints. Performing such a complicated task requires that the robot have a robust control architecture that allows for a multitude of abilities and Operation modes. We have designed and implemented a modular control architecture that allows reusability of existing code and the integration of work by many team members into the larger control system while providing an easy way to implement later improvements. Such a control system has allowed us to achieve important milestones in the humanoid robot assembly task.

  16. Can skeletomotor action integration occur without consciousness? Evidence from unconscious action inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ayars, Alisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Morsella et al. claim that consciousness functions to integrate incompatible skeletal muscle intentions. Their primary cases of conscious skeletomotor integration involve action suppression, such as holding one's breath underwater, which requires suppressing the urge to inhale. This indicates that the authors seem to think action inhibition counts as the relevant kind of integration. I suggest that there is reason to think this kind of inhibition can occur unconsciously via unconscious inhibitory mechanisms. Unconscious inhibition therefore potentially undermines the authors' thesis. If cases of unconscious inhibition are not instances of integration, then the authors should clarify exactly what counts as integration.

  17. Evidence of facilitatory coerulospinal action in lumbar motoneurons of cats.

    PubMed

    Fung, S J; Barnes, C D

    1981-07-20

    Functional connectivity of the feline coerulospinal projection was delineated by utilizing the combined approaches of antidromic activation and electrical stimulation. We isolated 25 locus coeruleus (LC) neurons that were electrophysiologically identified and histologically verified and that could be driven by stimulating the spinal cord. Antidromicity of the spike potentials was confirmed by the constant latency, the high frequency (100 Hz) following, fractionation of the initial segment-somatodendritic potential, and collision between the antidromic and the spontaneous orthodromic spikes. The mean conduction speed was 20 +/- 8 m/sec (range = 7 to 32 m/sec). Intracellular studies revealed facilitatory LC actions in 22 lumbar motoneurons (MNs), In 13 MNs, LC activation alone produced slow-rising excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) of 3 +/- 12 mV amplitude that lasted 4-30 msec. Six of the 13 MNs discharged action potentials upon LC stimulation. In the remaining 9 MNs, no observable potential change was registered after LC activation. Antecedent LC stimulation consistently potentiated the synaptic efficacy of testing dorsal root shocks. The enhancement of synaptic activation was antagonized by systemic injection of phenoxy-benzamine (3 mg/kg). These results suggest that facilitation of MNs by the LC is at least in part mediated by distal dendritic depolarization. Those MNs that exhibited augmented excitability but no demonstrable EPSPs may have been activated by norepinephrine-mediated synaptic modulation.

  18. The Cognitive Representation of Intending Not to Act: Evidence for Specific Non-Action-Effect Binding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Simone; Brass, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    The question how we represent voluntary action on a cognitive level has recently become of increasing interest to researchers studying motor control. However, so far it has been neglected how we represent the voluntary omission of an action. In our attempt to investigate the representation of voluntary non-actions we demonstrated binding effects…

  19. The Cognitive Representation of Intending Not to Act: Evidence for Specific Non-Action-Effect Binding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Simone; Brass, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    The question how we represent voluntary action on a cognitive level has recently become of increasing interest to researchers studying motor control. However, so far it has been neglected how we represent the voluntary omission of an action. In our attempt to investigate the representation of voluntary non-actions we demonstrated binding effects…

  20. Insulin analogues: action profiles beyond glycaemic control.

    PubMed

    Eckardt, Kristin; Eckel, Jürgen

    2008-02-01

    A variety of studies have documented significant improvements in the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes after the introduction of artificial insulins. This review gives an overview of insulin analogues which are currently approved for therapeutical use. Clinical data regarding the efficiency to control blood glucose level as well as improving HbA1c level in comparison to conventional insulin preparations in type 1 and 2 diabetic patients are summarized. Furthermore, special features of insulin analogues regarding their signalling properties are discussed with focus on the proliferative effects of insulin glargine as well as some recent data of insulin detemir.

  1. Functional Dissociation between Perception and Action Is Evident Early in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Avidan, Galia; Ganel, Tzvi

    2012-01-01

    The functional distinction between vision for perception and vision for action is well documented in the mature visual system. Ganel and colleagues recently provided direct evidence for this dissociation, showing that while visual processing for perception follows Weber's fundamental law of psychophysics, action violates this law. We tracked the…

  2. Functional Dissociation between Perception and Action Is Evident Early in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Avidan, Galia; Ganel, Tzvi

    2012-01-01

    The functional distinction between vision for perception and vision for action is well documented in the mature visual system. Ganel and colleagues recently provided direct evidence for this dissociation, showing that while visual processing for perception follows Weber's fundamental law of psychophysics, action violates this law. We tracked the…

  3. Evidences for the Anti-panic Actions of Cannabidiol

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Vanessa P.; Campos, Alline C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Panic disorder (PD) is a disabling psychiatry condition that affects approximately 5% of the worldwide population. Currently, long-term selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first-line treatment for PD; however, the common side-effect profiles and drug interactions may provoke patients to abandon the treatment, leading to PD symptoms relapse. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-psychotomimetic constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant with anti-anxiety properties that has been suggested as an alternative for treating anxiety disorders. The aim of the present review was to discuss the effects and mechanisms involved in the putative anti-panic effects of CBD. METHODS electronic database was used as source of the studies selected selected based on the studies found by crossing the following keywords: cannabidiol and panic disorder; canabidiol and anxiety, cannabidiol and 5-HT1A receptor). RESULTS In the present review, we included both experimental laboratory animal and human studies that have investigated the putative anti-panic properties of CBD. Taken together, the studies assessed clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD in both animal models and healthy volunteers. CONCLUSION CBD seems to be a promising drug for the treatment of PD. However, novel clinical trials involving patients with the PD diagnosis are clearly needed to clarify the specific mechanism of action of CBD and the safe and ideal therapeutic doses of this compound. PMID:27157263

  4. Written action plans for asthma: an evidence-based review of the key components

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, P; Powell, H

    2004-01-01

    Background: Written action plans for asthma facilitate the early detection and treatment of an asthma exacerbation. Several versions of action plans have been published but the key components have not been determined. A study was undertaken to determine the impact of individual components of written action plans on asthma health outcomes. Methods: Randomised controlled trials (n = 26) that evaluated asthma action plans as part of asthma self-management education were identified. Action plans were classified as being individualised and complete if they specified when and how to increase treatment (n = 17), and as incomplete (n = 4) or non-specific (n = 5) if they did not include these instructions. Results: For individualised complete written action plans the use of 2–4 action points and the use of both inhaled (ICS) and oral (OCS) corticosteroid consistently improved asthma outcomes. Action points based on personal best peak expiratory flow (PEF) consistently improved health outcomes while those based on percentage predicted PEF did not. The efficacy of incomplete action plans was inconclusive because of insufficient data. Non-specific action plans led to improvements in knowledge and symptoms. Conclusion: Individualised written action plans based on personal best PEF, using 2–4 action points, and recommending both ICS and OCS for treatment of exacerbations consistently improve asthma health outcomes. Other variations appear less beneficial or require further study. These observations provide a guide to the types of variations possible with written action plans, and strongly support the use of individualised complete written action plans. PMID:14760143

  5. Evidence-Based Management and Action-at-a-Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Roger; Breen, Rosanna; Jenkins, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Organisational change in UK higher education has resulted in control of the student learning environment passing from specific disciplines such as psychology to central management teams and university-wide course frameworks. This poses the general question of how disciplines can exert influence upon broad pedagogic issues, when their control…

  6. Physical activity, insulin action, and diabetes prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Colberg, Sheri R

    2007-08-01

    Control of blood glucose levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) is directly affected by the balance between insulin and glucose-raising endocrine hormones, along with other metabolic factors, including fuel use and availability, exercise intensity and duration, training status, and visceral fat levels, all of which can impact the effect of physical activity on insulin action in diabetic or prediabetic individuals. Current research suggests that type 2 DM can be prevented and controlled with increased physical activity, largely through improvements in the muscles' sensitivity to insulin that are affected by changes in both glucose and fat metabolism. In addition, abnormal insulin action in the body is associated with a host of other health conditions, including cardiovascular disease and hypertension, which can be better controlled when their associations are fully understood. This article discusses the importance of varying types of physical activity on insulin action to enhance metabolic control and how they can be undertaken safely by all diabetic individuals.

  7. Executive Control of Actions Across Time and Space

    PubMed Central

    Verbruggen, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Many popular psychological accounts attribute adaptive human behavior to an “executive-control” system that regulates a lower-level “impulsive” or “associative” system. However, recent findings argue against this strictly hierarchical view. Instead, executive control of impulsive and inappropriate actions depends on an interplay between multiple basic cognitive processes. The outcome of these processes can be biased in advance. Executive-action control is also strongly influenced by personal experiences in the recent and distant past. Thus, executive control emerges from an interactive and competitive network. Main challenges for future research are to describe and understand these interactions and to put executive-action control in a wider sociocultural and evolutional context. PMID:28018053

  8. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Regional focus

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from presentations, discussions and debates addressing major policy and programmatic responses to HIV in six geographical regions: Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America, Caribbean, and Middle East and North Africa. It draws from AIDS 2008 Leadership and Community Programmes, particularly the six regional sessions, and Global Village activities. While the epidemiological, cultural and socio-economic contexts in these regions vary considerably, several common, overarching principles and themes emerged. They include: advancing basic human rights, particularly for vulnerable and most at risk populations; ensuring the sustainability of the HIV response through long-term, predictable financing; strengthening health systems; investing in strategic health information; and improving accountability and the involvement of civil society in the response to AIDS. Equally important is the need to address political barriers to implementing evidence-based interventions such as opioid substitution therapy (OST), needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), comprehensive sexuality education for youth, and sexual and reproductive rights. Finally, these regional discussions emphasized the need for legislative and policy reforms related to structural barriers facing women and girls, MSM, IDUs, sex workers and migrant populations. PMID:19811672

  9. Being Active and Impulsive: The Role of Goals for Action and Inaction in Self-Control

    PubMed Central

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores; McCulloch, Kathleen C.; Noguchi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Although self-control often requires behavioral inaction (i.e., not eating a piece of cake), the process of inhibiting impulsive behavior is commonly characterized as cognitively active (i.e., actively exerting self-control). Two experiments examined whether motivation for action or inaction facilitates self-control behavior in the presence of tempting stimuli. Experiment 1 used a delay discounting task to assess the ability to delay gratification with respect to money. Experiment 2 used a Go/No-Go task to assess the ability to inhibit a dominant but incorrect motor response to the words “condom” and “sex”. The results demonstrate that goals for inaction promote self-control, whereas goals for action promote impulsive behavior. These findings are discussed in light of recent evidence suggesting that goals for action and inaction modulate physiological resources that promote behavioral execution. PMID:23766548

  10. Being Active and Impulsive: The Role of Goals for Action and Inaction in Self-Control.

    PubMed

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Noguchi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    Although self-control often requires behavioral inaction (i.e., not eating a piece of cake), the process of inhibiting impulsive behavior is commonly characterized as cognitively active (i.e., actively exerting self-control). Two experiments examined whether motivation for action or inaction facilitates self-control behavior in the presence of tempting stimuli. Experiment 1 used a delay discounting task to assess the ability to delay gratification with respect to money. Experiment 2 used a Go/No-Go task to assess the ability to inhibit a dominant but incorrect motor response to the words "condom" and "sex". The results demonstrate that goals for inaction promote self-control, whereas goals for action promote impulsive behavior. These findings are discussed in light of recent evidence suggesting that goals for action and inaction modulate physiological resources that promote behavioral execution.

  11. Prioritizing genomic applications for action by level of evidence: a horizon-scanning method.

    PubMed

    Dotson, W D; Douglas, M P; Kolor, K; Stewart, A C; Bowen, M S; Gwinn, M; Wulf, A; Anders, H M; Chang, C Q; Clyne, M; Lam, T K; Schully, S D; Marrone, M; Feero, W G; Khoury, M J

    2014-04-01

    As evidence accumulates on the use of genomic tests and other health-related applications of genomic technologies, decision makers may increasingly seek support in identifying which applications have sufficiently robust evidence to suggest they might be considered for action. As an interim working process to provide such support, we developed a horizon-scanning method that assigns genomic applications to tiers defined by availability of synthesized evidence. We illustrate an application of the method to pharmacogenomics tests.

  12. Model-based hierarchical reinforcement learning and human action control.

    PubMed

    Botvinick, Matthew; Weinstein, Ari

    2014-11-05

    Recent work has reawakened interest in goal-directed or 'model-based' choice, where decisions are based on prospective evaluation of potential action outcomes. Concurrently, there has been growing attention to the role of hierarchy in decision-making and action control. We focus here on the intersection between these two areas of interest, considering the topic of hierarchical model-based control. To characterize this form of action control, we draw on the computational framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning, using this to interpret recent empirical findings. The resulting picture reveals how hierarchical model-based mechanisms might play a special and pivotal role in human decision-making, dramatically extending the scope and complexity of human behaviour.

  13. Model-based hierarchical reinforcement learning and human action control

    PubMed Central

    Botvinick, Matthew; Weinstein, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has reawakened interest in goal-directed or ‘model-based’ choice, where decisions are based on prospective evaluation of potential action outcomes. Concurrently, there has been growing attention to the role of hierarchy in decision-making and action control. We focus here on the intersection between these two areas of interest, considering the topic of hierarchical model-based control. To characterize this form of action control, we draw on the computational framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning, using this to interpret recent empirical findings. The resulting picture reveals how hierarchical model-based mechanisms might play a special and pivotal role in human decision-making, dramatically extending the scope and complexity of human behaviour. PMID:25267822

  14. Molecular substrates of action control in cortico-striatal circuits

    PubMed Central

    Shiflett, Michael W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the molecular mechanisms in the striatum that mediate reward-based learning and action control during instrumental conditioning. Experiments assessing the neural bases of instrumental conditioning have uncovered functional circuits in the striatum, including dorsal and ventral striatal sub-regions, involved in action-outcome learning, stimulus-response learning, and the motivational control of action by reward-associated cues. Integration of dopamine (DA) and glutamate neurotransmission within these striatal sub-regions is hypothesized to enable learning and action control through its role in shaping synaptic plasticity and cellular excitability. The extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) appears to be particularly important for reward-based learning and action control due to its sensitivity to combined DA and glutamate receptor activation and its involvement in a range of cellular functions. ERK activation in striatal neurons is proposed to have a dual role in both the learning and performance factors that contribute to instrumental conditioning through its regulation of plasticity-related transcription factors and its modulation of intrinsic cellular excitability. Furthermore, perturbation of ERK activation by drugs of abuse may give rise to behavioral disorders such as addiction. PMID:21704115

  15. What predicts intention-behavior discordance? A review of the action control framework.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2013-10-01

    The physical activity intention-behavior gap is a focus of considerable research. The purpose of this article is to overview contemporary evidence for predictors of this intention-behavior discordance using the action control framework developed in our laboratories. We propose the hypothesis that intention-behavior discordance is from motivational (affective attitude, perceived behavioral control), self-regulatory (behavioral processes), and habitual (automaticity) constructs.

  16. Evaluation of the Evidence Base for the Alcohol Industry's Actions to Reduce Drink Driving Globally.

    PubMed

    Esser, Marissa B; Bao, James; Jernigan, David H; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the evidence base for the content of initiatives that the alcohol industry implemented to reduce drink driving from 1982 to May 2015. We systematically analyzed the content of 266 global initiatives that the alcohol industry has categorized as actions to reduce drink driving. Social aspects public relations organizations (i.e., organizations funded by the alcohol industry to handle issues that may be damaging to the business) sponsored the greatest proportion of the actions. Only 0.8% (n = 2) of the sampled industry actions were consistent with public health evidence of effectiveness for reducing drink driving. The vast majority of the alcohol industry's actions to reduce drink driving does not reflect public health evidenced-based recommendations, even though effective drink-driving countermeasures exist, such as a maximum blood alcohol concentration limit of 0.05 grams per deciliter for drivers and widespread use of sobriety checkpoints.

  17. Muscular Proprioception Contributes to the Control of Interceptive Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastin, Julien; Calvin, Sarah; Montagne, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    The authors proposed a model of the control of interceptive action over a ground plane (Chardenon, Montagne, Laurent, & Bootsma, 2004). This model is based on the cancellation of the rate of change of the angle between the current position of the target and the direction of displacement (i.e., the bearing angle). While several sources of visual…

  18. 9 CFR 500.2 - Regulatory control action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulatory control action. 500.2 Section 500.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... of: (1) Insanitary conditions or practices; (2) Product adulteration or misbranding; (3)...

  19. 9 CFR 500.2 - Regulatory control action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory control action. 500.2 Section 500.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... of: (1) Insanitary conditions or practices; (2) Product adulteration or misbranding; (3)...

  20. 9 CFR 500.2 - Regulatory control action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regulatory control action. 500.2 Section 500.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... of: (1) Insanitary conditions or practices; (2) Product adulteration or misbranding; (3)...

  1. 9 CFR 500.2 - Regulatory control action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regulatory control action. 500.2 Section 500.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... of: (1) Insanitary conditions or practices; (2) Product adulteration or misbranding; (3)...

  2. 9 CFR 500.2 - Regulatory control action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regulatory control action. 500.2 Section 500.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... of: (1) Insanitary conditions or practices; (2) Product adulteration or misbranding; (3)...

  3. Muscular Proprioception Contributes to the Control of Interceptive Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastin, Julien; Calvin, Sarah; Montagne, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    The authors proposed a model of the control of interceptive action over a ground plane (Chardenon, Montagne, Laurent, & Bootsma, 2004). This model is based on the cancellation of the rate of change of the angle between the current position of the target and the direction of displacement (i.e., the bearing angle). While several sources of visual…

  4. Mitigation of Remedial Action Schemes by Decentralized Robust Governor Control

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei

    2014-04-15

    This paper presents transient stability improvement by a new distributed hierarchical control architecture (DHC). The integration of remedial action schemes (RAS) to the distributed hierarchical control architecture is studied. RAS in power systems are designed to maintain stability and avoid undesired system conditions by rapidly switching equipment and/or changing operating points according to predetermined rules. The acceleration trend relay currently in use in the US western interconnection is an example of RAS that trips generators to maintain transient stability. The link between RAS and DHC is through fast acting robust turbine/governor control that can also improve transient stability. In this paper, the influence of the decentralized robust turbine/governor control on the design of RAS is studied. Benefits of combining these two schemes are increasing power transfer capability and mitigation of RAS generator tripping actions; the later benefit is shown through simulations.

  5. Dynamic Simulation and Static Matching for Action Prediction: Evidence from Body Part Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Accurately predicting other people's actions may involve two processes: internal real-time simulation (dynamic updating) and matching recently perceived action images (static matching). Using a priming of body parts, this study aimed to differentiate the two processes. Specifically, participants played a motion-controlled video game with…

  6. Dynamic Simulation and Static Matching for Action Prediction: Evidence from Body Part Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Accurately predicting other people's actions may involve two processes: internal real-time simulation (dynamic updating) and matching recently perceived action images (static matching). Using a priming of body parts, this study aimed to differentiate the two processes. Specifically, participants played a motion-controlled video game with…

  7. Opportunities for state-level action to reduce firearm violence: proceeding from the evidence.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J; Braga, Anthony A

    2011-09-01

    Firearm violence remains an important problem, and a large body of evidence shows that guns used in crime follow generally predictable paths from manufacturer to criminal end user. Policy initiatives based on that evidence have been shown to be effective. A recently published study conducted by a leading policy organization presents new evidence and makes specific recommendations for action by state-level policymakers. Unfortunately, the study's analysis is overly simplified, and the recommendations are therefore misleading. We suggest alternatives that are evidence based.

  8. Implementation of evidence-based health care using action research: An emancipatory approach.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Luciana; Soares, Cassia Baldini

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study is to discuss the emancipatory approach to action research as an appropriate methodology for workers' meaningful implementation of evidence-based health care. Implementation of evidence-based health care using action research is well supported by the literature. There are various approaches to action research, and they are coherent with the objectives and methods elected to develop the investigation. It is not clear which approach of action research is responsible for meaningful worker engagement in changing praxis. This is a discussion paper based on our experiences and supported by literature on collective health. Health care is defined as a social praxis, dependent upon the capitalist mode of production in which health workers engage themselves in a labour process that has negative (as alienation) as well as positive (as creativity) meanings. Emancipatory changes of social praxis through implementation of evidence-based health care require that participants understand the positive and negative meanings of their work and engage health workers in a conscious and intentional collaborative educational process. Implementation of evidence-based health care through emancipatory action research is capable of overcoming alienation and changing social practice through a participatory meaningful process of knowledge translation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Comparative investigations of manual action representations: evidence that chimpanzees represent the costs of potential future actions involving tools.

    PubMed

    Frey, Scott H; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2012-01-12

    The ability to adjust one's ongoing actions in the anticipation of forthcoming task demands is considered as strong evidence for the existence of internal action representations. Studies of action selection in tool use reveal that the behaviours that we choose in the present moment differ depending on what we intend to do next. Further, they point to a specialized role for mechanisms within the human cerebellum and dominant left cerebral hemisphere in representing the likely sensory costs of intended future actions. Recently, the question of whether similar mechanisms exist in other primates has received growing, but still limited, attention. Here, we present data that bear on this issue from a species that is a natural user of tools, our nearest living relative, the chimpanzee. In experiment 1, a subset of chimpanzees showed a non-significant tendency for their grip preferences to be affected by anticipation of the demands associated with bringing a tool's baited end to their mouths. In experiment 2, chimpanzees' initial grip preferences were consistently affected by anticipation of the forthcoming movements in a task that involves using a tool to extract a food reward. The partial discrepancy between the results of these two studies is attributed to the ability to accurately represent differences between the motor costs associated with executing the two response alternatives available within each task. These findings suggest that chimpanzees are capable of accurately representing the costs of intended future actions, and using those predictions to select movements in the present even in the context of externally directed tool use.

  10. Comparative investigations of manual action representations: evidence that chimpanzees represent the costs of potential future actions involving tools

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Scott H.; Povinelli, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to adjust one's ongoing actions in the anticipation of forthcoming task demands is considered as strong evidence for the existence of internal action representations. Studies of action selection in tool use reveal that the behaviours that we choose in the present moment differ depending on what we intend to do next. Further, they point to a specialized role for mechanisms within the human cerebellum and dominant left cerebral hemisphere in representing the likely sensory costs of intended future actions. Recently, the question of whether similar mechanisms exist in other primates has received growing, but still limited, attention. Here, we present data that bear on this issue from a species that is a natural user of tools, our nearest living relative, the chimpanzee. In experiment 1, a subset of chimpanzees showed a non-significant tendency for their grip preferences to be affected by anticipation of the demands associated with bringing a tool's baited end to their mouths. In experiment 2, chimpanzees' initial grip preferences were consistently affected by anticipation of the forthcoming movements in a task that involves using a tool to extract a food reward. The partial discrepancy between the results of these two studies is attributed to the ability to accurately represent differences between the motor costs associated with executing the two response alternatives available within each task. These findings suggest that chimpanzees are capable of accurately representing the costs of intended future actions, and using those predictions to select movements in the present even in the context of externally directed tool use. PMID:22106426

  11. TERRA Battery Thermal Control Anomaly - Simulation and Corrective Actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grob, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    The TERRA spacecraft was launched in December 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, becoming the flagship of NASA's Earth Observing System program to gather data on how the planet's processes create climate. Originally planned as a 5 year mission, it still provides valuable science data after nearly 10 years on orbit. On October 13th, 2009 at 16:23z following a routine inclination maneuver, TERRA experienced a battery cell failure and a simultaneous failure of several battery heater control circuits used to maintain cell temperatures and gradients within the battery. With several cells nearing the minimum survival temperature, preventing the electrolyte from freezing was the first priority. After several reset attempts and power cycling of the control electronics failed to reestablish control authority on the primary side of the controller, it was switched to the redundant side, but anomalous performance again prevented full heater control of the battery cells. As the investigation into the cause of the anomaly and corrective action continued, a battery thermal model was developed to be used in determining the control ability remaining and to simulate and assess corrective actions. Although no thermal model or detailed reference data of the battery was available, sufficient information was found to allow a simplified model to be constructed, correlated against pre-anomaly telemetry, and used to simulate the thermal behavior at several points after the anomaly. It was then used to simulate subsequent corrective actions to assess their impact on cell temperatures. This paper describes the rapid development of this thermal model, including correlation to flight data before and after the anomaly., along with a comparative assessment of the analysis results used to interpret the telemetry to determine the extent of damage to the thermal control hardware, with near-term corrective actions and long-term operations plan to overcome the anomaly.

  12. Neural evidence for the intrinsic value of action as motivation for behavior.

    PubMed

    Miura, Naoki; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sasaki, Akihiro; Harada, Tokiko; Sadato, Norihiro

    2017-04-07

    The intrinsic value of an action refers to the inherent sense that experiencing a behavior is enjoyable even if it has no explicit outcome. Previous research has suggested that a common valuation mechanism within the reward network may be responsible for processing the intrinsic value of achieving both the outcome and external reward. However, how the intrinsic value of action is neurally represented remains unknown. We hypothesized that the intrinsic value of action is determined by an action-outcome contingency indicating the behavior is controllable and that the outcome of the action can be evaluated by this feedback. Consequently, the reward network should be activated, reflecting the generation of the intrinsic value of action. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigation of a stopwatch game in which the action-outcome contingency was manipulated. This experiment involved 36 healthy volunteers and four versions of a stopwatch game that manipulated controllability (the feeling that participants were controlling the stopwatch themselves) and outcome (a signal allowing participants to see the result of their action). A free-choice experiment was administered after the fMRI to explore preference levels for each game. The results showed that the stopwatch game with the action-outcome contingency evoked a greater degree of enjoyment because the participants chose this condition over those that lacked such a contingency. The ventral striatum and midbrain were activated only when action-outcome contingency was present. Thus, the intrinsic value of action was represented by an increase in ventral striatal and midbrain activation.

  13. Complete unconscious control: using (in)action primes to demonstrate completely unconscious activation of inhibitory control mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores

    2013-09-01

    Although robust evidence indicates that action initiation can occur unconsciously and unintentionally, the literature on action inhibition suggests that inhibition requires both conscious thought and intentionality. In prior research demonstrating automatic inhibition in response to unconsciously processed stimuli, the unconscious stimuli had previously been consciously associated with an inhibitory response within the context of the experiment, and participants had consciously formed a goal to activate inhibition processes when presented with the stimuli (because task instructions required participants to engage in inhibition when the stimuli occurred). Therefore, prior work suggests that some amount of conscious thought and intentionality are required for inhibitory control. In the present research, we recorded event-related potentials during two go/no-go experiments in which participants were subliminally primed with general action/inaction concepts that had never been consciously associated with task-specific responses. We provide the first demonstration that inhibitory control processes can be modulated completely unconsciously and unintentionally.

  14. [The action control scale for diagnosing performance in nursing students].

    PubMed

    Branco, Elen Martins da Silva Castelo; Peixoto, Mauricio Abreu Pinto; Alvim, Neide Aparecida Titonelli

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative research aimed to verify the relevance of Action Control Theory for the identification of risk for poor performance in the planning of preventive care for pressure ulcers. The action - state orientation deals with individual differences and the ability to regulate emotions, cognitions and attitudes to complete the intentional actions. The instruments used were the Student Assessment Instrument and HAKEMP 90, derived from this theory, in 46 undergraduate nursing students. The analysis showed high sensitivity (0.84) for the diagnosis of risk for poor performance and high specificity (0.90) for detecting the absence of risk in the care planning. The results suggest the HAKEMP 90 as a diagnostic tool for identifying essential elements of nursing education as active learning, regulation of cognitive processes and relevance of basic nursing care in hospital.

  15. Two distinct modes of control for object-directed action.

    PubMed

    Goodale, Melvyn A; Westwood, David A; Milner, A David

    2004-01-01

    There are multiple routes from vision to action that play a role in the production of visually guided reaching and grasping. What remain to be resolved, however, are the conditions under which these various routes are recruited in the generation of actions and the nature of the information they convey. We argue in this chapter that the production of real-time actions to visible targets depends on pathways that are separate from those mediating memory-driven actions. Furthermore, the transition from real-time to memory-driven control occurs as soon as the intended target is no longer visible. Real-time movements depend on pathways from the early visual areas through to relatively encapsulated visuomotor mechanisms in the dorsal stream. These dedicated visuomotor mechanisms, together with motor centers in the premotor cortex and brainstem, compute the absolute metrics of the target object and its position in the egocentric coordinates of the effector used to perform the action. Such real-time programming is essential for the production of accurate and efficient movements in a world where the location and disposition of a goal object with respect to the observer can change quickly and often unpredictably. In contrast, we argue that memory-driven actions make use of a perceptual representation of the target object generated by the ventral stream. Unlike the real-time visuomotor mechanisms, perception-based movement planning makes use of relational metrics and scene-based coordinates. Such computations make it possible, however, to plan and execute actions upon objects long after they have vanished from view.

  16. Gestalt principles in the control of motor action.

    PubMed

    Klapp, Stuart T; Jagacinski, Richard J

    2011-05-01

    We argue that 4 fundamental gestalt phenomena in perception apply to the control of motor action. First, a motor gestalt, like a perceptual gestalt, is holistic in the sense that it is processed as a single unit. This notion is consistent with reaction time results indicating that all gestures for a brief unit of action must be programmed prior to initiation of any part of the movement. Additional reaction time results related to initiation of longer responses are consistent with processing in terms of a sequence of indivisible motor gestalts. Some actions (e.g., many involving coordination of the hands) can be carried out effectively only if represented as a unitary gestalt. Second, a perceptual gestalt is independent of specific sensory receptors, as evidenced by perceptual constancy. In a similar manner a motor gestalt can be represented independently of specific muscular effectors, thereby allowing motor constancy. Third, just as a perceptual pattern (e.g., a Necker cube) is exclusively structured into only 1 of its possible configurations at any moment in time, processing prior to action is limited to 1 motor gestalt. Fourth, grouping in apparent motion leads to stream segregation in visual and auditory perception; this segregation is present in motor action and is dependent on the temporal rate. We discuss congruence of gestalt phenomena across perception and motor action (a) in relation to a unitary perceptual-motor code, (b) with respect to differences in the role of awareness, and (c) in conjunction with separate neural pathways for conscious perception and motor control.

  17. Interference effect of body shadow in action control.

    PubMed

    Badets, Arnaud; Toussaint, Lucette; Blandin, Yannick; Bidet-Ildei, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Observing actions performed by other persons can subsequently influence our own motor behaviours. However, it is unknown whether the shadows cast by such actions can also have an impact on the observers' actions. Here we show that the mere observation of a cast shadow can influence imitative behaviours. Specifically, participants were shown a hand picture and its associated cast shadow in a neutral position. In a 'compatible trial' the hand and the shadow that followed were turned in the same open or closed direction, whereas in an 'incompatible trial' the hand and the shadow were turned in different directions. We contrasted two experimental conditions: (i) 'hand-shadow' in which participants observed a hand and its cast shadow (the hand covered the shadow); (ii) 'hand-hand' in which participants observed a hand and another black hand (the shadow covered the hand). The participants' task was to imitate (ie by closing or opening their own hands) the hand or the cast shadow of an action. For both conditions results revealed interference (ie longer response latencies) for incompatible trials. This suggests for the first time that the mere observation of a cast shadow of a hand can influence imitative behaviours. However, time courses of the response latencies revealed that imitative effect in the hand-shadow condition was different than the imitative effect in the hand-hand condition. Therefore, we suggest considering the cast shadow of an action as an important feature during motor control for humans.

  18. Evidence-Based Practice and School Libraries: Interconnections of Evidence, Advocacy, and Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    2015-01-01

    This author states that a professional focus on evidence based practice (EBP) for school libraries emerged from the International Association of School Librarianship conference when he presented the concept. He challenged the school library profession to actively engage in professional and reflective practices that chart, measure, document, and…

  19. Evidence-Based Practice and School Libraries: Interconnections of Evidence, Advocacy, and Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    2015-01-01

    This author states that a professional focus on evidence based practice (EBP) for school libraries emerged from the International Association of School Librarianship conference when he presented the concept. He challenged the school library profession to actively engage in professional and reflective practices that chart, measure, document, and…

  20. A Limb Action Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller and a newly developed limb action detection program (LADP, i.e., a new software program that turns a Wii Remote Controller into a precise limb action detector). This study was…

  1. Abnormalities in the awareness and control of action.

    PubMed Central

    Frith, C D; Blakemore, S J; Wolpert, D M

    2000-01-01

    Much of the functioning of the motor system occurs without awareness. Nevertheless, we are aware of some aspects of the current state of the system and we can prepare and make movements in the imagination. These mental representations of the actual and possible states of the system are based on two sources: sensory signals from skin and muscles, and the stream of motor commands that have been issued to the system. Damage to the neural substrates of the motor system can lead to abnormalities in the awareness of action as well as defects in the control of action. We provide a framework for understanding how these various abnormalities of awareness can arise. Patients with phantom limbs or with anosognosia experience the illusion that they can move their limbs. We suggest that these representations of movement are based on streams of motor commands rather than sensory signals. Patients with utilization behaviour or with delusions of control can no longer properly link their intentions to their actions. In these cases the impairment lies in the representation of intended movements. The location of the neural damage associated with these disorders suggests that representations of the current and predicted state of the motor system are in parietal cortex, while representations of intended actions are found in prefrontal and premotor cortex. PMID:11205340

  2. Action Research: A Personal Epiphany and Journey with Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    The author reveals in this article that her action research journey in the land of evidence-based practice was not her own idea. She writes that she was lured by the profession's finest scholars who advocated for reflective dispositions for practitioners to improve their practice and demonstrate the school librarian's critical role in teaching and…

  3. Promoting Student Engagement through Evidence-Based Action Research with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strambler, Michael J.; McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    We present findings from a group-randomized teacher action research intervention to promote academic engagement and achievement among elementary school students. Eighteen teachers from 3 elementary schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Intervention teachers studied evidence-based instructional practices that cultivate academic…

  4. Decoding Actions and Emotions in Deaf Children: Evidence from a Biological Motion Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Amanda Katherine; Heaton, Pamela; Deruelle, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the recognition of emotional and non-emotional biological movements in children with severe and profound deafness. Twenty-four deaf children, together with 24 control children matched on mental age and 24 control children matched on chronological age, were asked to identify a person's actions, subjective states,…

  5. Decoding Actions and Emotions in Deaf Children: Evidence from a Biological Motion Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Amanda Katherine; Heaton, Pamela; Deruelle, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the recognition of emotional and non-emotional biological movements in children with severe and profound deafness. Twenty-four deaf children, together with 24 control children matched on mental age and 24 control children matched on chronological age, were asked to identify a person's actions, subjective states,…

  6. Strengthening the evidence and action on multi-sectoral partnerships in public health: an action research initiative.

    PubMed

    Willis, C D; Greene, J K; Abramowicz, A; Riley, B L

    2016-06-01

    The Public Health Agency of Canada's Multi-sectoral Partnerships Initiative, administered by the Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention (CCDP), brings together diverse partners to design, implement and advance innovative approaches for improving population health. This article describes the development and initial priorities of an action research project (a learning and improvement strategy) that aims to facilitate continuous improvement of the CCDP's partnership initiative and contribute to the evidence on multi-sectoral partnerships. The learning and improvement strategy for the CCDP's multi-sectoral partnership initiative was informed by (1) consultations with CCDP staff and senior management, and (2) a review of conceptual frameworks to do with multi-sectoral partnerships. Consultations explored the development of the multi-sectoral initiative, barriers and facilitators to success, and markers of effectiveness. Published and grey literature was reviewed using a systematic search strategy with findings synthesized using a narrative approach. Consultations and the review highlighted the importance of understanding partnership impacts, developing a shared vision, implementing a shared measurement system and creating opportunities for knowledge exchange. With that in mind, we propose a six-component learning and improvement strategy that involves (1) prioritizing learning needs, (2) mapping needs to evidence, (3) using relevant data collection methods, (4) analyzing and synthesizing data, (5) feeding data back to CCDP staff and teams and (6) taking action. Initial learning needs include investigating partnership reach and the unanticipated effects of multi-sectoral partnerships for individuals, groups, organizations or communities. While the CCDP is the primary audience for the learning and improvement strategy, it may prove useful for a range of audiences, including other government departments and external organizations interested in capturing and sharing new

  7. Strengthening the evidence and action on multi-sectoral partnerships in public health: an action research initiative

    PubMed Central

    Willis, C. D.; Greene, J. K.; Abramowicz, A.; Riley, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The Public Health Agency of Canada’s Multi-sectoral Partnerships Initiative, administered by the Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention (CCDP), brings together diverse partners to design, implement and advance innovative approaches for improving population health. This article describes the development and initial priorities of an action research project (a learning and improvement strategy) that aims to facilitate continuous improvement of the CCDP’s partnership initiative and contribute to the evidence on multi-sectoral partnerships. Methods: The learning and improvement strategy for the CCDP’s multi-sectoral partnership initiative was informed by (1) consultations with CCDP staff and senior management, and (2) a review of conceptual frameworks to do with multi-sectoral partnerships. Consultations explored the development of the multi-sectoral initiative, barriers and facilitators to success, and markers of effectiveness. Published and grey literature was reviewed using a systematic search strategy with findings synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Consultations and the review highlighted the importance of understanding partnership impacts, developing a shared vision, implementing a shared measurement system and creating opportunities for knowledge exchange. With that in mind, we propose a six-component learning and improvement strategy that involves (1) prioritizing learning needs, (2) mapping needs to evidence, (3) using relevant data-collection methods, (4) analyzing and synthesizing data, (5) feeding data back to CCDP staff and teams and (6) taking action. Initial learning needs include investigating partnership reach and the unanticipated effects of multi-sectoral partnerships for individuals, groups, organizations or communities. Conclusion: While the CCDP is the primary audience for the learning and improvement strategy, it may prove useful for a range of audiences, including other government departments and external

  8. [Evidences of physical agents action on bone metabolism and their potential clinical use].

    PubMed

    Lirani, Ana Paula R; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2005-12-01

    The action of physical agents such as low level laser therapy, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and electrical and electromagnetic fields on bone have been often studied, showing that they are able to promote osteogenesis, accelerate fracture consolidation and augment bone mass. The use of these therapeutic modalities was first based on the finding that bone is a piezoelectric material, that means it can generate polarization when deformed, transforming mechanical energy into electric energy, and this has widen therapeutic possibilities to bony tissue. The present work aims to present evidences of physiologic effects and mechanisms of action of these physical agents on bone metabolism, based on articles published in international scientific literature.

  9. Clinical practice guideline development manual: A quality-driven approach for translating evidence into action

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Richard M.; Shiffman, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Guidelines translate best evidence into best practice. A well-crafted guideline promotes quality by reducing healthcare variations, improving diagnostic accuracy, promoting effective therapy, and discouraging ineffective – or potentially harmful – interventions. Despite a plethora of published guidelines, methodology is often poorly defined and varies greatly within and among organizations. Purpose This manual describes the principles and practices used successfully by the American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery to produce quality-driven, evidence-based guidelines using efficient and transparent methodology for action-ready recommendations with multi-disciplinary applicability. The development process, which allows moving from conception to completion in twelve months, emphasizes a logical sequence of key action statements supported by amplifying text, evidence profiles, and recommendation grades that link action to evidence. Conclusions As clinical practice guidelines become more prominent as a key metric of quality healthcare, organizations must develop efficient production strategies that balance rigor and pragmatism. Equally important, clinicians must become savvy in understanding what guidelines are – and are not – and how they are best utilized to improve care. The information in this manual should help clinicians and organizations achieve these goals. PMID:19464525

  10. Clinical practice guideline development manual: a quality-driven approach for translating evidence into action.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Richard M; Shiffman, Richard N

    2009-06-01

    Guidelines translate best evidence into best practice. A well-crafted guideline promotes quality by reducing health-care variations, improving diagnostic accuracy, promoting effective therapy, and discouraging ineffective-or potentially harmful-interventions. Despite a plethora of published guidelines, methodology is often poorly defined and varies greatly within and among organizations. This manual describes the principles and practices used successfully by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery to produce quality-driven, evidence-based guidelines using efficient and transparent methodology for action-ready recommendations with multidisciplinary applicability. The development process, which allows moving from conception to completion in 12 months, emphasizes a logical sequence of key action statements supported by amplifying text, evidence profiles, and recommendation grades that link action to evidence. As clinical practice guidelines become more prominent as a key metric of quality health care, organizations must develop efficient production strategies that balance rigor and pragmatism. Equally important, clinicians must become savvy in understanding what guidelines are-and are not-and how they are best utilized to improve care. The information in this manual should help clinicians and organizations achieve these goals.

  11. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration improves action selection processes: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to accomplish a task goal, real-life environments require us to develop different action control strategies in order to rapidly react to fast-moving visual and auditory stimuli. When engaging in complex scenarios, it is essential to prioritise and cascade different actions. Recent studies have pointed to an important role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in the neuromodulation of action cascading. In this study we assessed the specific causal role of the GABA-ergic system in modulating the efficiency of action cascading by administering 800 mg of synthetic GABA or 800 mg oral of microcrystalline cellulose (placebo). In a double-blind, randomised, between-group design, 30 healthy adults performed a stop-change paradigm. Results showed that the administration of GABA, compared to placebo, increased action selection when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, and when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. These findings, involving the systemic administration of synthetic GABA, provide the first evidence for a possible causal role of the GABA-ergic system in modulating performance in action cascading. PMID:26227783

  12. Banishing the Control Homunculi in Studies of Action Control and Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Verbruggen, Frederick; McLaren, Ian P. L.; Chambers, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, human self-control has fascinated scientists and nonscientists alike. Current theories often attribute it to an executive control system. But even though executive control receives a great deal of attention across disciplines, most aspects of it are still poorly understood. Many theories rely on an ill-defined set of “homunculi” doing jobs like “response inhibition” or “updating” without explaining how they do so. Furthermore, it is not always appreciated that control takes place across different timescales. These two issues hamper major advances. Here we focus on the mechanistic basis for the executive control of actions. We propose that at the most basic level, action control depends on three cognitive processes: signal detection, action selection, and action execution. These processes are modulated via error-correction or outcome-evaluation mechanisms, preparation, and task rules maintained in working and long-term memory. We also consider how executive control of actions becomes automatized with practice and how people develop a control network. Finally, we discuss how the application of this unified framework in clinical domains can increase our understanding of control deficits and provide a theoretical basis for the development of novel behavioral change interventions. PMID:25419227

  13. ERP and behavioral evidence of increased sensory attenuation for fear-related action outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gethin

    2015-10-01

    Voluntary action selection entails the representation of the expected consequences of the action. Previous evidence suggests that accurate action-effect prediction modulates both ERP and behavioral markers of sensory processing-a phenomenon know as sensory attenuation. This may play an important role in monitoring the success or failure of our actions, or attributing agency. Nonetheless, the vast majority of studies in this domain focus on simplistic visual and auditory stimuli. Given that we rarely perform voluntary actions with the aim of generating such stimuli in social contexts, this provides little indication of the extent to which sensory attenuation operates in everyday behavior. The present study investigated ERP and behavioral measures of sensory attenuation for fearful and neutral facial expressions. Participants were trained to associate one voluntary action with the presentation of a fearful face, and another action with a neutral face. We measured both ERP responses and behavioral ratings following presentation of faces whose emotional content was either consistent or inconsistent with the action prediction. We observed significant modulation for fearful outcomes only, suggesting that sensory attenuation is heightened to stimuli of high social relevance. The N170 response was significantly attenuated for congruent fearful faces, but not for congruent neutral faces (in comparison to incongruent faces). Similarly, behavioral ratings were modulated only for fearful faces but not neutral faces. This provides new insight into how social and affective outcomes modulate sensory attenuation and may have implications for implicit sense of agency for socially relevant stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The functional neuroanatomy of decision making: prefrontal control of thought and action.

    PubMed

    Coutlee, Christopher G; Huettel, Scott A

    2012-01-05

    Humans exhibit a remarkable capacity for flexible thought and action. Despite changing internal needs and external context, individuals maintain stable goals and pursue purposeful action. Functional neuroimaging research examining the neural underpinnings of such behavioral flexibility has progressed within several distinct traditions, as evident in the largely separate literatures on "cognitive control" and on "decision making." Both topics investigate the formulation of desires and intentions, the integration of knowledge and context, and the resolution of conflict and uncertainty. Additionally, each recognizes the fundamental role of the prefrontal cortex in supporting flexible selection of behavior. But despite this notable overlap, neuroimaging studies in cognitive control and decision making have exerted only limited influence on each other, in part due to differences in their theoretical and experimental groundings. Additionally, the precise organization of control processing within prefrontal cortex has remained unclear, fostering an acceptance of vague descriptions of decision making in terms of canonical cognitive control functions such as "inhibition" or "self-control." We suggest a unifying role for models of the hierarchical organization of action selection within prefrontal cortex. These models provide an important conceptual link between decision-making phenomena and cognitive-control processes, potentially facilitating cross-fertilization between these topics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence for a distributed hierarchy of action representation in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Grafton, Scott T.; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.

    2007-01-01

    Complex human behavior is organized around temporally distal outcomes. Behavioral studies based on tasks such as normal prehension, multi-step object use and imitation establish the existence of relative hierarchies of motor control. The retrieval errors in apraxia also support the notion of a hierarchical model for representing action in the brain. In this review, three functional brain imaging studies of action observation using the method of repetition suppression are used to identify a putative neural architecture that supports action understanding at the level of kinematics, object centered goals and ultimately, motor outcomes. These results, based on observation, may match a similar functional anatomic hierarchy for action planning and execution. If this is true, then the findings support a functional anatomic model that is distributed across a set of interconnected brain areas that are differentially recruited for different aspects of goal oriented behavior, rather than a homogeneous mirror neuron system for organizing and understanding all behavior. PMID:17706312

  16. Caffeine strengthens action monitoring: evidence from the error-related negativity.

    PubMed

    Tieges, Zoë; Richard Ridderinkhof, K; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert

    2004-09-01

    The medial frontal cortex, especially the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), is involved in action monitoring. We studied the role of moderate amounts of caffeine in action monitoring as expressed by the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related brain component that reflects ACC activity. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects experiment, two caffeine doses (3 and 5 mg/kg body weight) and a placebo were administered to habitual coffee drinkers. Compared with placebo, both caffeine doses enlarged the ERN. Amplitudes of the P2 and P3 components were not affected by caffeine. Thus, the enlarged ERN after caffeine reflects a specific effect on action monitoring. We conclude that consumption of a few cups of coffee strengthens central information processing, specifically the monitoring of ongoing cognitive processes for signs of erroneous outcomes. Brain areas related to action monitoring such as the ACC presumably mediate these caffeine effects.

  17. Will is not enough: coping planning and action control as mediators in the prediction of fruit and vegetable intake.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Cristina A; Alvarez, Maria-João; Lima, Maria Luísa; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2014-11-01

    This study investigates the joint role of coping planning and action control as volitional predictors of changes in the daily consumption of fruit and vegetables. In a longitudinal online survey, 203 participants completed assessments at baseline (Time 1), 1 week (Time 2), and 2 weeks later (Time 3). Structural equation modelling was used to test a series of three nested models. In Model 1, only intention predicted behaviour; in Model 2, both coping planning and action control were tested as mediators between intention and behaviour; and Model 3 specified coping planning and action control as sequential mediators between intention and behaviour. Model 3 provided the best fit to the data. The mediating role of coping planning and action control between intention and fruit and vegetable intake was confirmed, whereby multiple mediation occurred in a sequential manner, with coping planning preceding action control. For motivated individuals who are not yet following the recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption, coping planning and action control reflect a psychological mechanism that operates in changes in fruit and vegetable consumption. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Intention formation might not be enough to change complex health behaviours, such as dietary behaviours. Volitional factors - Such as action planning - Have shown to be important for the translation of intentions into behaviour, particularly for fruit and vegetable intake. Other volitional factors such as coping planning and action control have been less studied as potential mediators between intention and fruit and vegetable intake. What does this study add? This study provides further evidence on the psychological mechanisms of fruit and vegetable intake. Coping planning and action control are shown to act jointly in the prediction of fruit and vegetable intake. A double mediation was found, attesting the translation of intention into fruit and vegetable

  18. Azelaic Acid: Evidence-based Update on Mechanism of Action and Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Brian C; Wu, Wesley; Rosen, Ted

    2015-09-01

    Azelaic acid is a complex molecule with many diverse activities. The latter include anti-infective and anti-inflammatory action. The agent also inhibits follicular keratinization and epidermal melanogenesis. Due to the wide variety of biological activities, azelaic acid has been utilized as a management tool in a broad spectrum of disease states and cutaneous disorders. This paper reviews the clinical utility of azelaic acid, noting the quality of the evidence supporting each potential use.

  19. Analysis of direct action fuzzy PID controller structures.

    PubMed

    Mann, G I; Hu, B G; Gosine, R G

    1999-01-01

    The majority of the research work on fuzzy PID controllers focuses on the conventional two-input PI or PD type controller proposed by Mamdani (1974). However, fuzzy PID controller design is still a complex task due to the involvement of a large number of parameters in defining the fuzzy rule base. This paper investigates different fuzzy PID controller structures, including the Mamdani-type controller. By expressing the fuzzy rules in different forms, each PLD structure is distinctly identified. For purpose of analysis, a linear-like fuzzy controller is defined. A simple analytical procedure is developed to deduce the closed form solution for a three-input fuzzy inference. This solution is used to identify the fuzzy PID action of each structure type in the dissociated form. The solution for single-input-single-output nonlinear fuzzy inferences illustrates the effect of nonlinearity tuning. The design of a fuzzy PID controller is then treated as a two-level tuning problem. The first level tunes the nonlinear PID gains and the second level tunes the linear gains, including scale factors of fuzzy variables. By assigning a minimum number of rules to each type, the linear and nonlinear gains are deduced and explicitly presented. The tuning characteristics of different fuzzy PID structures are evaluated with respect to their functional behaviors. The rule decoupled and one-input rule structures proposed in this paper provide greater flexibility and better functional properties than the conventional fuzzy PHD structures.

  20. Importance of perceptual representation in the visual control of action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, Jack M.; Beall, Andrew C.; Kelly, Jonathan W.; Macuga, Kristen L.

    2005-03-01

    In recent years, many experiments have demonstrated that optic flow is sufficient for visually controlled action, with the suggestion that perceptual representations of 3-D space are superfluous. In contrast, recent research in our lab indicates that some visually controlled actions, including some thought to be based on optic flow, are indeed mediated by perceptual representations. For example, we have demonstrated that people are able to perform complex spatial behaviors, like walking, driving, and object interception, in virtual environments which are rendered visible solely by cyclopean stimulation (random-dot cinematograms). In such situations, the absence of any retinal optic flow that is correlated with the objects and surfaces within the virtual environment means that people are using stereo-based perceptual representations to perform the behavior. The fact that people can perform such behaviors without training suggests that the perceptual representations are likely the same as those used when retinal optic flow is present. Other research indicates that optic flow, whether retinal or a more abstract property of the perceptual representation, is not the basis for postural control, because postural instability is related to perceived relative motion between self and the visual surroundings rather than to optic flow, even in the abstract sense.

  1. The Functional Neuroanatomy of Decision Making: Prefrontal Control of Thought and Action

    PubMed Central

    Coutlee, Christopher G.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Humans exhibit a remarkable capacity for flexible thought and action. Despite changing internal needs and external context, individuals maintain stable goals and pursue purposeful action. Functional neuroimaging research examining the neural underpinnings of such behavioral flexibility has progressed within several distinct traditions, as evident in the largely separate literatures on “cognitive control” and on “decision making.” Both topics investigate the formulation of desires and intentions, the integration of knowledge and context, and the resolution of conflict and uncertainty. Additionally, each recognizes the fundamental role of the prefrontal cortex in supporting flexible selection of behavior. But despite this notable overlap, neuroimaging studies in cognitive control and decision making have exerted only limited influence on each other, in part due to differences in their theoretical and experimental groundings. Additionally, the precise organization of control processing within prefrontal cortex has remained unclear, fostering an acceptance of vague descriptions of decision making in terms of canonical cognitive control functions such as “inhibition” or “self-control.” We suggest that a potential unifying role for models of the hierarchical organization of action selection within prefrontal cortex. These models provide an important conceptual link between decision-making phenomena and cognitive-control processes, potentially facilitating cross-fertilization between these topics. PMID:21676379

  2. Goal-directed action control in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Hilde M; de Wit, Sanne

    2014-05-01

    Repetitive behavior is a key characteristic of autism spectrum disorders. Our aim was to investigate the hypothesis that this abnormal behavioral repetition results from a tendency to over-rely on habits at the expense of flexible, goal-directed action. Twenty-four children with autism spectrum disorders and 24 age- and gender-matched controls (8-12 years) initially learned to give specific responses to different pictorial stimuli in order to gain valuable outcomes. Subsequently, in the "slips-of-action" test, some of these outcomes were no longer valuable. Children needed to refrain from responding when stimuli were shown that signaled the availability of those outcomes while continuing to respond for the still-valuable outcomes. Reliance on habits should lead to "slips of action" toward no longer valuable outcomes. Therefore, the children's ability to respond selectively for still-valuable outcomes provides a measure of relative habitual versus goal-directed control. Two additional tasks were included to control for general task characteristics (i.e. working memory and inhibition). Children with autism spectrum disorders learned equally well as controls and were not impaired at flexibly adjusting their behavior to devaluation of the outcomes or stimuli. We found no evidence for a disruption in the balance between goal-directed and habitual behavioral control in children with autism spectrum disorders.

  3. Innovations in using virtual reality to study how children cross streets in traffic: evidence for evasive action skills.

    PubMed

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Corbett, Michael; Milanovic, Melissa; Pyne, Sarah; Vierich, Robin

    2015-08-01

    Children in middle childhood are at an increased risk for injury in pedestrian environments. This study examined whether they are capable of showing evasive action (ie, adjusting crossing speed) to avoid injury when crossing streets. The study used a fully immersive virtual reality (VR) system interfaced with a three-dimensional movement measurement system so that the actual crossing behaviour of 7-10-year-old children under different traffic conditions could be precisely measured. Relating outcomes to that which would have been obtained based on using the approach of estimating walking speed and assuming a constant speed provided insights into the realised benefits of the current movement monitoring VR system. Controlling for age and sex, children showed evasive action, crossing more quickly as traffic conditions became more risky. Using an average and assuming a constant walking speed underestimated actual walking speed, failing to capture evasive action and leading to overestimation of children being hit compared with the actual incidence of hits. VR technology is a valuable tool for assessing child pedestrian behaviour. However, systems need to allow the child to cross the street so their level of pedestrian skill is appropriately measured. The current findings provide the first evidence that children are capable of implementing evasive action in reaction to risky traffic conditions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. μ-Crystallin controls muscle function through thyroid hormone action.

    PubMed

    Seko, Daiki; Ogawa, Shizuka; Li, Tao-Sheng; Taimura, Akihiro; Ono, Yusuke

    2016-05-01

    μ-Crystallin (Crym), a thyroid hormone-binding protein, is abnormally up-regulated in the muscles of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, a dominantly inherited progressive myopathy. However, the physiologic function of Crym in skeletal muscle remains to be elucidated. In this study, Crym was preferentially expressed in skeletal muscle throughout the body. Crym-knockout mice exhibited a significant hypertrophy of fast-twitch glycolytic type IIb fibers, causing an increase in grip strength and high intensity running ability in Crym-null mice. Genetic inactivation of Crym or blockade of Crym by siRNA-mediated knockdown up-regulated the gene expression of fast-glycolytic contractile fibers in satellite cell-derived myotubes in vitro These alterations in Crym-inactivated muscle were rescued by inhibition of thyroid hormone, even though Crym is a positive regulator of thyroid hormone action in nonmuscle cells. The results demonstrated that Crym is a crucial regulator of muscle plasticity, controlling metabolic and contractile properties of myofibers, and thus the selective inactivation of Crym may be a potential therapeutic target for muscle-wasting diseases, such as muscular dystrophies and age-related sarcopenia.-Seko, D., Ogawa, S., Li, T.-S., Taimura, A., Ono, Y. μ-Crystallin controls muscle function through thyroid hormone action.

  5. Muscular proprioception contributes to the control of interceptive actions.

    PubMed

    Bastin, Julien; Calvin, Sarah; Montagne, Gilles

    2006-08-01

    The authors proposed a model of the control of interceptive action over a ground plane (Chardenon, Montagne, Laurent, & Bootsma, 2004). This model is based on the cancellation of the rate of change of the angle between the current position of the target and the direction of displacement (i.e., the bearing angle). While several sources of visual information specify this angle, the contribution of proprioceptive information has not been directly tested. In this study, the authors used a virtual reality setup to study the role of proprioception when intercepting a moving target. In a series of experiments, the authors manipulated proprioceptive information by using the tendon vibration paradigm. The results revealed that proprioception is crucial not only to locate a moving target with respect to the body but also, and more importantly, to produce online displacement velocity changes to intercept a moving target. These findings emphasize the importance of proprioception in the control of interceptive action and illustrate the relevance of our model to account for the regulations produced by the participants.

  6. Prospective strategies underlie the control of interceptive actions.

    PubMed

    Bastin, Julien; Craig, Cathy; Montagne, Gilles

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether a constant bearing angle strategy could account for the displacement regulations produced by a moving observer when attempting to intercept a ball following a curvilinear path. The participants were asked to walk through a virtual environment and to change, if (deemed) necessary, their walking speed so as to intercept a moving ball that followed either a rectilinear or a curvilinear path. The results showed that ball path curvature did indeed influence the participants' displacement kinematics in a way that was predicted by adherence to a constant bearing angle strategy mode of control. Velocity modifications were found to be proportional to the magnitude of target curvature with opposing curvatures giving rise to mirror displacement velocity changes. The role of prospective strategies in the control of interceptive action is discussed.

  7. Infants Prospectively Control Reaching Based on the Difficulty of Future Actions: To What Extent Can Infants' Multiple-Step Actions Be Explained by Fitts' Law?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottwald, Janna M.; De Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora; Lindskog, Marcus; Nyström, Pär; L. Ekberg, Therese; von Hofsten, Claes; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2017-01-01

    Prospective motor control, a key element of action planning, is the ability to adjust one's actions with respect to task demands and action goals in an anticipatory manner. The current study investigates whether 14-month-olds can prospectively control their reaching actions based on the difficulty of the subsequent action. We used a reach-to-place…

  8. Infants Prospectively Control Reaching Based on the Difficulty of Future Actions: To What Extent Can Infants' Multiple-Step Actions Be Explained by Fitts' Law?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottwald, Janna M.; De Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora; Lindskog, Marcus; Nyström, Pär; L. Ekberg, Therese; von Hofsten, Claes; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2017-01-01

    Prospective motor control, a key element of action planning, is the ability to adjust one's actions with respect to task demands and action goals in an anticipatory manner. The current study investigates whether 14-month-olds can prospectively control their reaching actions based on the difficulty of the subsequent action. We used a reach-to-place…

  9. Tracking the time course of action priming on object recognition: evidence for fast and slow influences of action on perception.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Markus; Sim, Eun-Jin; Helbig, Hannah; Graf, Markus

    2011-08-01

    Perception and action are classically thought to be supported by functionally and neuroanatomically distinct mechanisms. However, recent behavioral studies using an action priming paradigm challenged this view and showed that action representations can facilitate object recognition. This study determined whether action representations influence object recognition during early visual processing stages, that is, within the first 150 msec. To this end, the time course of brain activation underlying such action priming effects was examined by recording ERPs. Subjects were sequentially presented with two manipulable objects (e.g., tools), which had to be named. In the congruent condition, both objects afforded similar actions, whereas dissimilar actions were afforded in the incongruent condition. In order to test the influence of the prime modality on action priming, the first object (prime) was presented either as picture or as word. We found an ERP effect of action priming over the central scalp as early as 100 msec after target onset for pictorial, but not for verbal primes. A later action priming effect on the N400 ERP component known to index semantic integration processes was obtained for both picture and word primes. The early effect was generated in a fronto-parietal motor network, whereas the late effect reflected activity in anterior temporal areas. The present results indicate that action priming influences object recognition through both fast and slow pathways: Action priming affects rapid visuomotor processes only when elicited by pictorial prime stimuli. However, it also modulates comparably slow conceptual integration processes independent of the prime modality.

  10. Estradiol synthesis and action at the synapse: evidence for "synaptocrine" signaling.

    PubMed

    Remage-Healey, Luke; Saldanha, Colin J; Schlinger, Barney A

    2011-01-01

    Classically, the modulation of brain function and behavior by steroid hormones was linked exclusively to secretion by peripheral endocrine glands. Subsequently, steroid actions within the brain were shown dependent upon either synthesis and secretion by peripheral organs or by production within the CNS itself using peripheral sources of precursors. Discovery of the estrogen-synthetic enzyme aromatase in brain further bolstered the latter view and served as a catalyst for expanding concepts of neurosteroidogenesis. In parallel research, several steroids, including estradiol, were found to have rapid effects on neuronal excitability, partially explained by novel actions at neuronal membranes. Recent findings from multiple levels of analysis and labs necessitate an updated view on how steroids are delivered to neural circuits. There is now considerable evidence for expression of the aromatase enzyme within synaptic boutons in the vertebrate CNS. Furthermore, additional work now directly couples rapid regulation of neuroestrogen synthesis with neurophysiological and behavioral outcomes. In this review we summarize evidence for targeted and acute synaptic estrogen synthesis and perisynaptic estrogen actions in the CNS of songbirds. We evaluate these findings in the context of criteria associated with classic neuromodulatory signaling. We term this novel form of signaling "synaptocrine," and discuss its implications.

  11. Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario

    2007-03-15

    Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal (Cry) and Cytolitic (Cyt) protein families are a diverse group of proteins with activity against insects of different orders--Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and also against other invertebrates such as nematodes. Their primary action is to lyse midgut epithelial cells by inserting into the target membrane and forming pores. Among this group of proteins, members of the 3-Domain Cry family are used worldwide for insect control, and their mode of action has been characterized in some detail. Phylogenetic analyses established that the diversity of the 3-Domain Cry family evolved by the independent evolution of the three domains and by swapping of domain III among toxins. Like other pore-forming toxins (PFT) that affect mammals, Cry toxins interact with specific receptors located on the host cell surface and are activated by host proteases following receptor binding resulting in the formation of a pre-pore oligomeric structure that is insertion competent. In contrast, Cyt toxins directly interact with membrane lipids and insert into the membrane. Recent evidence suggests that Cyt synergize or overcome resistance to mosquitocidal-Cry proteins by functioning as a Cry-membrane bound receptor. In this review we summarize recent findings on the mode of action of Cry and Cyt toxins, and compare them to the mode of action of other bacterial PFT. Also, we discuss their use in the control of agricultural insect pests and insect vectors of human diseases.

  12. Dissociation between Semantic Representations for Motion and Action Verbs: Evidence from Patients with Left Hemisphere Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Evans, Carys; Greer, Joanna; Senior, Carl; Coventry, Kenny R.; Ietswaart, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    This multiple single case study contrasted left hemisphere stroke patients (N = 6) to healthy age-matched control participants (N = 15) on their understanding of action (e.g., holding, clenching) and motion verbs (e.g., crumbling, flowing). The tasks required participants to correctly identify the matching verb or associated picture. Dissociations on action and motion verb content depending on lesion site were expected. As predicted for verbs containing an action and/or motion content, modified t-tests confirmed selective deficits in processing motion verbs in patients with lesions involving posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. In contrast, deficits in verbs describing motionless actions were found in patients with more anterior lesions sparing posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. These findings support the hypotheses that semantic representations for action and motion are behaviorally and neuro-anatomically dissociable. The findings clarify the differential and critical role of perceptual and motor regions in processing modality-specific semantic knowledge as opposed to a supportive but not necessary role. We contextualize these results within theories from both cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience that make claims over the role of sensory and motor information in semantic representation. PMID:28261070

  13. Dissociation between Semantic Representations for Motion and Action Verbs: Evidence from Patients with Left Hemisphere Lesions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lawrence J; Evans, Carys; Greer, Joanna; Senior, Carl; Coventry, Kenny R; Ietswaart, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    This multiple single case study contrasted left hemisphere stroke patients (N = 6) to healthy age-matched control participants (N = 15) on their understanding of action (e.g., holding, clenching) and motion verbs (e.g., crumbling, flowing). The tasks required participants to correctly identify the matching verb or associated picture. Dissociations on action and motion verb content depending on lesion site were expected. As predicted for verbs containing an action and/or motion content, modified t-tests confirmed selective deficits in processing motion verbs in patients with lesions involving posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. In contrast, deficits in verbs describing motionless actions were found in patients with more anterior lesions sparing posterior parietal and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. These findings support the hypotheses that semantic representations for action and motion are behaviorally and neuro-anatomically dissociable. The findings clarify the differential and critical role of perceptual and motor regions in processing modality-specific semantic knowledge as opposed to a supportive but not necessary role. We contextualize these results within theories from both cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience that make claims over the role of sensory and motor information in semantic representation.

  14. The Simon effect in action: planning and/or on-line control effects?

    PubMed

    Scorolli, Claudia; Pellicano, Antonello; Nicoletti, Roberto; Rubichi, Sandro; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-07-01

    Choice reaction tasks are performed faster when stimulus location corresponds to response location (Simon effect). This spatial stimulus-response compatibility effect affects performance at the level of action planning and execution. However, when response selection is completed before movement initiation, the Simon effect arises only at the planning level. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether when a precocious response selection is requested, the Simon effect can be detected on the kinematics characterizing the online control phase of a non-ballistic movement. Participants were presented with red or green colored squares, which could appear on the right, left, above, or below a central cross. Depending on the square's color, participants had to release one of two buttons (right/left), then reach toward and press a corresponding lateral pad. We found evidence of the Simon effect on both action planning and on-line control. Moreover, the investigation of response conflict at the level of previous trials (i.e., n-1), a factor that might determine interference at the level of the current response, revealed a conflict adaptation process across trials. Results are discussed in terms of current theories concerned with the Simon effect and the distinction between action planning and control. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Frontosubthalamic Circuits for Control of Action and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Aron, Adam R; Herz, Damian M; Brown, Peter; Forstmann, Birte U; Zaghloul, Kareem

    2016-11-09

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia appears to have a potent role in action and cognition. Anatomical and imaging studies show that different frontal cortical areas directly project to the STN via so-called hyperdirect pathways. This review reports some of the latest findings about such circuits, including simultaneous recordings from cortex and the STN in humans, single-unit recordings in humans, high-resolution fMRI, and neurocomputational modeling. We argue that a major function of the STN is to broadly pause behavior and cognition when stop signals, conflict signals, or surprise signals occur, and that the fronto-STN circuits for doing this, at least for stopping and conflict, are dissociable anatomically and in terms of their spectral reactivity. We also highlight recent evidence for synchronization of oscillations between prefrontal cortex and the STN, which may provide a preferential "window in time" for single neuron communication via long-range connections. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3611489-07$15.00/0.

  16. Facial Action and Emotional Language: ERP Evidence that Blocking Facial Feedback Selectively Impairs Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Davis, Joshua D; Winkielman, Piotr; Coulson, Seana

    2015-11-01

    There is a lively and theoretically important debate about whether, how, and when embodiment contributes to language comprehension. This study addressed these questions by testing how interference with facial action impacts the brain's real-time response to emotional language. Participants read sentences about positive and negative events (e.g., "She reached inside the pocket of her coat from last winter and found some (cash/bugs) inside it.") while ERPs were recorded. Facial action was manipulated within participants by asking participants to hold chopsticks in their mouths using a position that allowed or blocked smiling, as confirmed by EMG. Blocking smiling did not influence ERPs to the valenced words (e.g., cash, bugs) but did influence ERPs to final words of sentences describing positive events. Results show that affectively positive sentences can evoke smiles and that such facial action can facilitate the semantic processing indexed by the N400 component. Overall, this study offers causal evidence that embodiment impacts some aspects of high-level comprehension, presumably involving the construction of the situation model.

  17. Motor Imagery during Action Observation: A Brief Review of Evidence, Theory and Future Research Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Eaves, Daniel L.; Riach, Martin; Holmes, Paul S.; Wright, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) have traditionally been viewed as two separate techniques, which can both be used alongside physical practice to enhance motor learning and rehabilitation. Their independent use has largely been shown to be effective, and there is clear evidence that the two processes can elicit similar activity in the motor system. Building on these well-established findings, research has now turned to investigate the effects of their combined use. In this article, we first review the available neurophysiological and behavioral evidence for the effects of combined action observation and motor imagery (AO+MI) on motor processes. We next describe a conceptual framework for their combined use, and then discuss several areas for future research into AO+MI processes. In this review, we advocate a more integrated approach to AO+MI techniques than has previously been adopted by movement scientists and practitioners alike. We hope that this early review of an emergent body of research, along with a related set of research questions, can inspire new work in this area. We are optimistic that future research will further confirm if, how, and when this combined approach to AO+MI can be more effective in motor learning and rehabilitation settings, relative to the more traditional application of MI or AO independently. PMID:27917103

  18. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions controlling the material after... DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.72 Actions controlling the material after discharge. The effects...

  19. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions controlling the material after... DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.72 Actions controlling the material after discharge. The effects...

  20. An investigation into the relevance of action planning, theory of planned behaviour concepts, and automaticity for fruit intake action control.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Wiedemann, Amelie; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-09-01

    In the action control framework, intention-behaviour discordance is studied around public health guidelines. Although this framework has been applied to physical activity behaviours, it has only seen very limited attention regarding fruit intake. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate distributions and predictors of fruit intake intention-behaviour discordance. Prospective correlational design. Data were obtained from undergraduate students (n = 413) using validated questionnaires. Variables from the theory of planned behaviour, automaticity, and action planning were assessed at baseline, and fruit intake was assessed 2 weeks later. Data were analysed using discriminant function analyses and analyses of variance. The proportion of unsuccessful intenders ranged from 39.2% to 80.8%. There was a larger proportion of fruit intake intenders amongst those who reported strong automatic fruit intake. Action control was predicted by fruit intake automaticity and affective attitudes, but the strongest predictor was perceived behavioural control. No action planning items were related to fruit intake action control. There is considerable asymmetry in the intention-fruit intake relationship. An application of the action control framework may stimulate debate on the applicability of intention-based models at the public health level. What is already known on this subject? Intention is theorized to be a key construct in fruit intake. Studies in the physical activity domain indicate that nearly half of the people with positive intentions fail to subsequently act. What does this study add? The proportion of unsuccessful intenders ranged from 39.2% to 80.8%. Holding positive intentions is not sufficient to consume fruit at suggested public health guidelines. Perceived behavioural control is the most important predictor of fruit intake action control. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG) playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control), as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control. PMID:26655929

  2. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG) playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control), as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control.

  3. The role of evidence-based media advocacy in the promotion of tobacco control policies.

    PubMed

    Lane, Ch'uyasonqo H; Carter, Marina I

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the role of evidence-based media advocacy in the promotion of tobacco control policies. Evidence is a driving force for campaigns seeking to implement a tobacco control policy. An effective campaign is based in evidence that demonstrates why a policy should be implemented, and what the potential benefits are. Media advocacy is the process of disseminating information through the communications media where the aim is to effect action, such as a change of policy, or to alter the public's view of an issue. Discussion focuses on: 1) the importance of, and methods for, collecting and communicating evidence and information to make it clear and usable for legislators, the media, and the public; and 2) the role of earned and paid media in advancing tobacco control issues. The discussion is made within the context of a specific advocacy example; in this case the 2010 campaign to increase the tobacco tax in Mexico.

  4. Processing implicit control: evidence from reading times

    PubMed Central

    McCourt, Michael; Green, Jeffrey J.; Lau, Ellen; Williams, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Sentences such as “The ship was sunk to collect the insurance” exhibit an unusual form of anaphora, implicit control, where neither anaphor nor antecedent is audible. The non-finite reason clause has an understood subject, PRO, that is anaphoric; here it may be understood as naming the agent of the event of the host clause. Yet since the host is a short passive, this agent is realized by no audible dependent. The putative antecedent to PRO is therefore implicit, which it normally cannot be. What sorts of representations subserve the comprehension of this dependency? Here we present four self-paced reading time studies directed at this question. Previous work showed no processing cost for implicit vs. explicit control, and took this to support the view that PRO is linked syntactically to a silent argument in the passive. We challenge this conclusion by reporting that we also find no processing cost for remote implicit control, as in: “The ship was sunk. The reason was to collect the insurance.” Here the dependency crosses two independent sentences, and so cannot, we argue, be mediated by syntax. Our Experiments 1–4 examined the processing of both implicit (short passive) and explicit (active or long passive) control in both local and remote configurations. Experiments 3 and 4 added either “3 days ago” or “just in order” to the local conditions, to control for the distance between the passive and infinitival verbs, and for the predictability of the reason clause, respectively. We replicate the finding that implicit control does not impose an additional processing cost. But critically we show that remote control does not impose a processing cost either. Reading times at the reason clause were never slower when control was remote. In fact they were always faster. Thus, efficient processing of local implicit control cannot show that implicit control is mediated by syntax; nor, in turn, that there is a silent but grammatically active argument in

  5. Nonlinear signal-based control with an error feedback action for nonlinear substructuring control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enokida, Ryuta; Kajiwara, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    A nonlinear signal-based control (NSBC) method utilises the 'nonlinear signal' that is obtained from the outputs of a controlled system and its linear model under the same input signal. Although this method has been examined in numerical simulations of nonlinear systems, its application in physical experiments has not been studied. In this paper, we study an application of NSBC in physical experiments and incorporate an error feedback action into the method to minimise the error and enhance the feasibility in practice. Focusing on NSBC in substructure testing methods, we propose nonlinear substructuring control (NLSC), that is a more general form of linear substructuring control (LSC) developed for dynamical substructured systems. In this study, we experimentally and numerically verified the proposed NLSC via substructuring tests on a rubber bearing used in base-isolated structures. In the examinations, NLSC succeeded in gaining accurate results despite significant nonlinear hysteresis and unknown parameters in the substructures. The nonlinear signal feedback action in NLSC was found to be notably effective in minimising the error caused by nonlinearity or unknown properties in the controlled system. In addition, the error feedback action in NLSC was found to be essential for maintaining stability. A stability analysis based on the Nyquist criterion, which is used particularly for linear systems, was also found to be efficient for predicting the instability conditions of substructuring tests with NLSC and useful for the error feedback controller design.

  6. Action video games and improved attentional control: Disentangling selection- and response-based processes.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that experience with action video games is associated with improvements in a host of cognitive tasks. Evidence from paradigms that assess aspects of attention has suggested that action video game players (AVGPs) possess greater control over the allocation of attentional resources than do non-video-game players (NVGPs). Using a compound search task that teased apart selection- and response-based processes (Duncan, 1985), we required participants to perform an oculomotor capture task in which they made saccades to a uniquely colored target (selection-based process) and then produced a manual directional response based on information within the target (response-based process). We replicated the finding that AVGPs are less susceptible to attentional distraction and, critically, revealed that AVGPs outperform NVGPs on both selection-based and response-based processes. These results not only are consistent with the improved-attentional-control account of AVGP benefits, but they suggest that the benefit of action video game playing extends across the full breadth of attention-mediated stimulus-response processes that impact human performance.

  7. Knowing When Not to Swing: EEG Evidence that Enhanced Perception-Action Coupling Underlies Baseball Batter Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Muraskin, Jordan; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Given a decision that requires less than half a second for evaluating the characteristics of the incoming pitch and generating a motor response, hitting a baseball potentially requires unique perception-action coupling to achieve high performance. We designed a rapid perceptual decision making experiment modeled as a Go/No-Go task, yet tailored to reflect a real scenario confronted by a baseball hitter. For groups of experts (Division I baseball players) and novices (non-players) we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while they performed the task. We analyzed evoked EEG single-trial variability, contingent negative variation (CNV), and pre-stimulus alpha power with respect to the expert vs. novice groups. We found strong evidence for differences in inhibitory processes between the two groups, specifically differential activity in supplementary motor areas (SMA), indicative of enhanced inhibitory control in the expert (baseball player) group. We also found selective activity in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and orbital gyrus in the expert group, suggesting an enhanced perception-action coupling in baseball players that differentiates them from matched controls. In sum, our results show that EEG correlates of decision formation can be used to identify neural markers of high-performance athletes. PMID:26299795

  8. Knowing when not to swing: EEG evidence that enhanced perception-action coupling underlies baseball batter expertise.

    PubMed

    Muraskin, Jordan; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Given a decision that requires less than half a second for evaluating the characteristics of the incoming pitch and generating a motor response, hitting a baseball potentially requires unique perception-action coupling to achieve high performance. We designed a rapid perceptual decision-making experiment modeled as a Go/No-Go task yet tailored to reflect a real scenario confronted by a baseball hitter. For groups of experts (Division I baseball players) and novices (non-players), we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while they performed the task. We analyzed evoked EEG single-trial variability, contingent negative variation (CNV), and pre-stimulus alpha power with respect to the expert vs. novice groups. We found strong evidence for differences in inhibitory processes between the two groups, specifically differential activity in supplementary motor areas (SMA), indicative of enhanced inhibitory control in the expert (baseball player) group. We also found selective activity in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and orbital gyrus in the expert group, suggesting an enhanced perception-action coupling in baseball players that differentiates them from matched controls. In sum, our results show that EEG correlates of decision formation can be used to identify neural markers of high-performance athletes.

  9. How learning to shake a rattle affects 8-month-old infants' perception of the rattle's sound: electrophysiological evidence for action-effect binding in infancy.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus; Hunnius, Sabine; van Elk, Michiel; Bekkering, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Bidirectional action-effect associations play a fundamental role in intentional action control and the development of the mirror neuron system. However, it has been questioned if infants are able to acquire bidirectional action-effect associations (i.e., are able to intentionally control their actions). To investigate this, we trained 8-month-old infants for one week to use a novel rattle that produced a specific sound when shaken. Infants were also presented with another sound, which was not related to an action. Thereafter, infants' EEG responses to these two sounds and to an additional, unfamiliar sound were recorded. Infants displayed a stronger mu-desynchronization above cortical motor sites (i.e., motor resonance) when listening to the action-related sound than when hearing other sounds. Our results provide therefore electrophysiological evidence that infants as young as 8 months are able to acquire bidirectional action-effect associations and parallel findings of audiovisual mirror neurons in the monkey brain.

  10. Action observation treatment improves recovery of postsurgical orthopedic patients: evidence for a top-down effect?

    PubMed

    Bellelli, Giuseppe; Buccino, Giovanni; Bernardini, Bruno; Padovani, Alessandro; Trabucchi, Marco

    2010-10-01

    To assess whether action observation treatment (AOT) may also improve motor recovery in postsurgical orthopedic patients, in addition to conventional physiotherapy. Randomized controlled trial. Department of rehabilitation. Patients (N=60) admitted to our department postorthopedic surgery were randomly assigned to either a case (n=30) or control (n=30) group. Exclusion criteria were age 18 years or younger and 90 years or older, Mini-Mental State Examination score of 21 of 30 or lower, no ambulating order, advanced vision impairment, malignancy, pneumonia, or heart failure. All participants underwent conventional physiotherapy. In addition, patients in the case group were asked to observe video clips showing daily actions and to imitate them afterward. Patients in the control group were asked to observe video clips with no motor content and to execute the same actions as patients in the case group afterward. Participants were scored on functional scales at baseline and after treatment by a physician blinded to group assignment. Changes in FIM and Tinetti scale scores, and dependence on walking aids. At baseline, groups did not differ in clinical and functional scale scores. After treatment, patients in the case group scored better than patients in the control group (FIM total score, P=.02; FIM motor subscore, P=.001; Tinetti scale score, P=.04); patients in the case group were assigned more frequently to 1 crutch (P=.01). In addition to conventional physiotherapy, AOT is effective in the rehabilitation of postsurgical orthopedic patients. The present results strongly support top-down effects of this treatment in motor recovery, even in nonneurologic patients. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative weight of evidence to assess confidence in potential modes of action.

    PubMed

    Becker, Richard A; Dellarco, Vicki; Seed, Jennifer; Kronenberg, Joel M; Meek, Bette; Foreman, Jennifer; Palermo, Christine; Kirman, Chris; Linkov, Igor; Schoeny, Rita; Dourson, Michael; Pottenger, Lynn H; Manibusan, Mary K

    2017-02-20

    The evolved World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety mode of action (MOA) framework provides a structure for evaluating evidence in pathways of causally linked key events (KE) leading to adverse health effects. Although employed globally, variability in use of the MOA framework has led to different interpretations of the sufficiency of evidence in support of hypothesized MOAs. A proof of concept extension of the MOA framework is proposed for scoring confidence in the supporting data to improve scientific justification for MOA use in characterizing hazards and selecting dose-response extrapolation methods for specific chemicals. This involves selecting hypothesized MOAs, and then, for each MOA, scoring the weight of evidence (WOE) in support of causality for each KE using evolved Bradford Hill causal considerations (biological plausibility, essentiality, dose-response concordance, consistency, and analogy). This early proof of concept method is demonstrated by comparing two potential MOAs (mutagenicity and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha) for clofibrate, a rodent liver carcinogen. Quantitative confidence scoring of hypothesized MOAs is shown to be useful in characterizing the likely operative MOA. To guide method refinement and future confidence scoring for a spectrum of MOAs, areas warranting further focus and lessons learned, including the need to incorporate a narrative discussion of the weights used in the evaluation and an overall evaluation of the plausibility of the outcome, are presented.

  12. Improved control of exogenous attention in action video game players

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Matthew S.; Prinzmetal, William; Shimamura, Arthur P.; Landau, Ayelet N.

    2014-01-01

    Action video game players (VGPs) have demonstrated a number of attentional advantages over non-players. Here, we propose that many of those benefits might be underpinned by improved control over exogenous (i.e., stimulus-driven) attention. To test this we used an anti-cueing task, in which a sudden-onset cue indicated that the target would likely appear in a separate location on the opposite side of the fixation point. When the time between the cue onset and the target onset was short (40 ms), non-players (nVGPs) showed a typical exogenous attention effect. Their response times were faster to targets presented at the cued (but less probable) location compared with the opposite (more probable) location. VGPs, however, were less likely to have their attention drawn to the location of the cue. When the onset asynchrony was long (600 ms), VGPs and nVGPs were equally able to endogenously shift their attention to the likely (opposite) target location. In order to rule out processing-speed differences as an explanation for this result, we also tested VGPs and nVGPs on an attentional blink (AB) task. In a version of the AB task that minimized demands on task switching and iconic memory, VGPs and nVGPs did not differ in second target identification performance (i.e., VGPs had the same magnitude of AB as nVGPs), suggesting that the anti-cueing results were due to flexible control over exogenous attention rather than to more general speed-of-processing differences. PMID:24575061

  13. Improved control of exogenous attention in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Cain, Matthew S; Prinzmetal, William; Shimamura, Arthur P; Landau, Ayelet N

    2014-01-01

    Action video game players (VGPs) have demonstrated a number of attentional advantages over non-players. Here, we propose that many of those benefits might be underpinned by improved control over exogenous (i.e., stimulus-driven) attention. To test this we used an anti-cueing task, in which a sudden-onset cue indicated that the target would likely appear in a separate location on the opposite side of the fixation point. When the time between the cue onset and the target onset was short (40 ms), non-players (nVGPs) showed a typical exogenous attention effect. Their response times were faster to targets presented at the cued (but less probable) location compared with the opposite (more probable) location. VGPs, however, were less likely to have their attention drawn to the location of the cue. When the onset asynchrony was long (600 ms), VGPs and nVGPs were equally able to endogenously shift their attention to the likely (opposite) target location. In order to rule out processing-speed differences as an explanation for this result, we also tested VGPs and nVGPs on an attentional blink (AB) task. In a version of the AB task that minimized demands on task switching and iconic memory, VGPs and nVGPs did not differ in second target identification performance (i.e., VGPs had the same magnitude of AB as nVGPs), suggesting that the anti-cueing results were due to flexible control over exogenous attention rather than to more general speed-of-processing differences.

  14. The Strategic Control of Multiple Routes in Imitation of Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessari, Alessia; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to bring to the surface the strategic use of imitative processes in the context of a 2-route model: (a) direct imitation, used in reproducing new, meaningless actions, and (b) imitation based on stored semantic knowledge of familiar meaningful actions. Three experiments were carried out with healthy participants who…

  15. Feelings of Control: Contingency Determines Experience of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James W.; Lagnado, David; Deal, Darvany C.; Haggard, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The experience of causation is a pervasive product of the human mind. Moreover, the experience of causing an event alters subjective time: actions are perceived as temporally shifted towards their effects [Haggard, P., Clark, S., & Kalogeras, J. (2002). Voluntary action and conscious awareness. "Nature Neuroscience," 5(4), 382-385]. This temporal…

  16. Coastal foredune evolution: evidence for physical control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.; Zarnetske, P. L.; Mull, J.; Hacker, S.; Seabloom, E.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal dunes in the US Pacific Northwest, comprising approximately 45% of the Oregon and Washington coasts, were historically managed to maximize coastal protection through the planting of two invasive beach grass species, European beach grass (Ammophila arenaria), and American beach grass (Ammophila breviligulata). The switch in dominance from native, Elymus mollis, to invasive dune species resulted in a complete state change in coastal dune systems. Prior to the invasion of the exotic species, native dune plants formed small hillocks or short parallel ridges depending on sand supply. In contrast, the invasive beach grasses create stable foredunes, with dune ridges reaching as much as 15 to 20 meters tall which intercept sand and decrease sand supply to the back dune. Currently pressure exists to manage some of these biogeomorphic systems for ecosystem restoration rather than solely for coastal protection. To balance these competing management objectives it has become crucial to quantify the relative importance of physical versus ecological controls on coastal dune evolution over various time and space scales. In this paper we examine the remarkable evolution of the foredunes within the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) from 1988 to 2010, a time period in which quantitative topographic surveys are bracketed by quantitative ecological surveys of grass cover dominance. Most of the region’s foredunes were severely eroded during the two extraordinary winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Niño event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Nina event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches and foredunes have, for the most part, experienced significant seaward progradation and vertical accretion. Across the mouth of the Columbia River significant gradients exist in both the ecological (grass species dominance and density) and physical (shoreline change rates) parameters that are thought to be first order controls on coastal dune geomorphology. These gradients allow us to test

  17. Three speech sounds, one motor action: Evidence for speech-motor disparity from English flap production

    PubMed Central

    Derrick, Donald; Stavness, Ian; Gick, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The assumption that units of speech production bear a one-to-one relationship to speech motor actions pervades otherwise widely varying theories of speech motor behavior. This speech production and simulation study demonstrates that commonly occurring flap sequences may violate this assumption. In the word “Saturday,” a sequence of three sounds may be produced using a single, cyclic motor action. Under this view, the initial upward tongue tip motion, starting with the first vowel and moving to contact the hard palate on the way to a retroflex position, is under active muscular control, while the downward movement of the tongue tip, including the second contact with the hard palate, results from gravity and elasticity during tongue muscle relaxation. This sequence is reproduced using a three-dimensional computer simulation of human vocal tract biomechanics and differs greatly from other observed sequences for the same word, which employ multiple targeted speech motor actions. This outcome suggests that a goal of a speaker is to produce an entire sequence in a biomechanically efficient way at the expense of maintaining parity within the individual parts of the sequence. PMID:25786960

  18. Three speech sounds, one motor action: evidence for speech-motor disparity from English flap production.

    PubMed

    Derrick, Donald; Stavness, Ian; Gick, Bryan

    2015-03-01

    The assumption that units of speech production bear a one-to-one relationship to speech motor actions pervades otherwise widely varying theories of speech motor behavior. This speech production and simulation study demonstrates that commonly occurring flap sequences may violate this assumption. In the word "Saturday," a sequence of three sounds may be produced using a single, cyclic motor action. Under this view, the initial upward tongue tip motion, starting with the first vowel and moving to contact the hard palate on the way to a retroflex position, is under active muscular control, while the downward movement of the tongue tip, including the second contact with the hard palate, results from gravity and elasticity during tongue muscle relaxation. This sequence is reproduced using a three-dimensional computer simulation of human vocal tract biomechanics and differs greatly from other observed sequences for the same word, which employ multiple targeted speech motor actions. This outcome suggests that a goal of a speaker is to produce an entire sequence in a biomechanically efficient way at the expense of maintaining parity within the individual parts of the sequence.

  19. Sentential Negation Might Share Neurophysiological Mechanisms with Action Inhibition. Evidence from Frontal Theta Rhythm.

    PubMed

    de Vega, Manuel; Morera, Yurena; León, Inmaculada; Beltrán, David; Casado, Pilar; Martín-Loeches, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    frontal theta rhythm, which is usually considered a signature of action inhibition and control mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/366002-09$15.00/0.

  20. Are employees informed about their health care coverage? Evidence from the buyers health care action group.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jean; Feldman, Roger; Carlin, Caroline; Christianson, Jon; Davis, Linda

    2005-07-01

    More than half of all Americans receive health insurance coverage through an employer. The rising costs and escalating complexity of health insurance has led many employers to embark on extensive employee education campaigns. In 2002, 1,365 randomly selected employees from 16 Buyers Health Care Action Group firms in the Minneapolis region were surveyed to evaluate their awareness of employer-provided health plan quality information and the extent to which this information influences their enrollment decisions. The study found mixed evidence with respect to the value of employer communication. On one hand, employer communication does not significantly increase the probability that an employee responded correctly to the pharmacy benefit question posed in the survey. However, employer communication has a large effect on the awareness of quality information. How well those campaigns work, and by extension how well employees are informed about the health benefits decisions they make, is a key issue in health care today.

  1. Poverty and child health in the UK: using evidence for action

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Sophie; Anwar, Elspeth; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-01-01

    There are currently high levels of child poverty in the UK, and for the first time in almost two decades child poverty has started to rise in absolute terms. Child poverty is associated with a wide range of health-damaging impacts, negative educational outcomes and adverse long-term social and psychological outcomes. The poor health associated with child poverty limits children's potential and development, leading to poor health and life chances in adulthood. This article outlines some key definitions with regard to child poverty, reviews the links between child poverty and a range of health, developmental, behavioural and social outcomes for children, describes gaps in the evidence base and provides an overview of current policies relevant to child poverty in the UK. Finally, the article outlines how child health professionals can take action by (1) supporting policies to reduce child poverty, (2) providing services that reduce the health consequences of child poverty and (3) measuring and understanding the problem and assessing the impact of action. PMID:26857824

  2. Poverty and child health in the UK: using evidence for action.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sophie; Anwar, Elspeth; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-08-01

    There are currently high levels of child poverty in the UK, and for the first time in almost two decades child poverty has started to rise in absolute terms. Child poverty is associated with a wide range of health-damaging impacts, negative educational outcomes and adverse long-term social and psychological outcomes. The poor health associated with child poverty limits children's potential and development, leading to poor health and life chances in adulthood. This article outlines some key definitions with regard to child poverty, reviews the links between child poverty and a range of health, developmental, behavioural and social outcomes for children, describes gaps in the evidence base and provides an overview of current policies relevant to child poverty in the UK. Finally, the article outlines how child health professionals can take action by (1) supporting policies to reduce child poverty, (2) providing services that reduce the health consequences of child poverty and (3) measuring and understanding the problem and assessing the impact of action.

  3. Observing functional actions affects semantic processing of tools: evidence of a motor-to-semantic priming.

    PubMed

    De Bellis, Francesco; Ferrara, Antonia; Errico, Domenico; Panico, Francesco; Sagliano, Laura; Conson, Massimiliano; Trojano, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that activation of motor information can favor identification of related tools, thus suggesting a strict link between motor and conceptual knowledge in cognitive representation of tools. However, the involvement of motor information in further semantic processing has not been elucidated. In three experiments, we aimed to ascertain whether motor information provided by observation of actions could affect processing of conceptual knowledge about tools. In Experiment 1, healthy participants judged whether pairs of tools evoking different functional handgrips had the same function. In Experiment 2 participants judged whether tools were paired with appropriate recipients. Finally, in Experiment 3 we again required functional judgments as in Experiment 1, but also included in the set of stimuli pairs of objects having different function and similar functional handgrips. In all experiments, pictures displaying either functional grasping (aimed to use tools) or structural grasping (just aimed to move tools independently from their use) were presented before each stimulus pair. The results demonstrated that, in comparison with structural grasping, observing functional grasping facilitates judgments about tools' function when objects did not imply the same functional manipulation (Experiment 1), whereas worsened such judgments when objects shared functional grasp (Experiment 3). Instead, action observation did not affect judgments concerning tool-recipient associations (Experiment 2). Our findings support a task-dependent influence of motor information on high-order conceptual tasks and provide further insights into how motor and conceptual processing about tools can interact.

  4. Alcohol action on a neuronal membrane receptor: evidence for a direct interaction with the receptor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C; Peoples, R W; Weight, F F

    1994-01-01

    For almost a century, alcohols have been thought to produce their effects by actions on the membrane lipids of central nervous system neurons--the well known "lipid theory" of alcohol action. The rationale for this theory is the correlation of potency with oil/water or membrane/buffer partition coefficient. Although a number of recent studies have shown that alcohols can affect the function of certain neuronal neurotransmitter receptors, there is no evidence that the alcohols interact directly with these membrane proteins. In the present study, we report that inhibition of a neuronal neurotransmitter receptor, an ATP-gated ion channel, by a series of alcohols exhibits a distinct cutoff effect. For alcohols with a molecular volume of < or = 42.2 ml/mol, potency for inhibiting ATP-activated current was correlated with lipid solubility (order of potency: 1-propanol = trifluoroethanol > monochloroethanol > ethanol > methanol). However, despite increased lipid solubility, alcohols with a molecular volume of > or = 46.1 ml/mol (1-butanol, 1-pentanol, trichloroethanol, and dichloroethanol) were without effect on the ATP-activated current. The results suggest that alcohols inhibit the function of this neurotransmitter receptor by interacting with a small hydrophobic pocket on the receptor protein. PMID:8058780

  5. Predicting others' actions via grasp and gaze: evidence for distinct brain networks.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Richard; Cross, Emily S; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2012-07-01

    During social interactions, how do we predict what other people are going to do next? One view is that we use our own motor experience to simulate and predict other people's actions. For example, when we see Sally look at a coffee cup or grasp a hammer, our own motor system provides a signal that anticipates her next action. Previous research has typically examined such gaze and grasp-based simulation processes separately, and it is not known whether similar cognitive and brain systems underpin the perception of object-directed gaze and grasp. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine to what extent gaze- and grasp-perception rely on common or distinct brain networks. Using a 'peeping window' protocol, we controlled what an observed actor could see and grasp. The actor could peep through one window to see if an object was present and reach through a different window to grasp the object. However, the actor could not peep and grasp at the same time. We compared gaze and grasp conditions where an object was present with matched conditions where the object was absent. When participants observed another person gaze at an object, left anterior inferior parietal lobule (aIPL) and parietal operculum showed a greater response than when the object was absent. In contrast, when participants observed the actor grasp an object, premotor, posterior parietal, fusiform and middle occipital brain regions showed a greater response than when the object was absent. These results point towards a division in the neural substrates for different types of motor simulation. We suggest that left aIPL and parietal operculum are involved in a predictive process that signals a future hand interaction with an object based on another person's eye gaze, whereas a broader set of brain areas, including parts of the action observation network, are engaged during observation of an ongoing object-directed hand action.

  6. Adaptive fuzzy logic controller with direct action type structures for InnoSAT attitude control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakri, F. A.; Mashor, M. Y.; Sharun, S. M.; Bibi Sarpinah, S. N.; Abu Bakar, Z.

    2016-10-01

    This study proposes an adaptive fuzzy controller for attitude control system (ACS) of Innovative Satellite (InnoSAT) based on direct action type structure. In order to study new methods used in satellite attitude control, this paper presents three structures of controllers: Fuzzy PI, Fuzzy PD and conventional Fuzzy PID. The objective of this work is to compare the time response and tracking performance among the three different structures of controllers. The parameters of controller were tuned on-line by adjustment mechanism, which was an approach similar to a PID error that could minimize errors between actual and model reference output. This paper also presents a Model References Adaptive Control (MRAC) as a control scheme to control time varying systems where the performance specifications were given in terms of the reference model. All the controllers were tested using InnoSAT system under some operating conditions such as disturbance, varying gain, measurement noise and time delay. In conclusion, among all considered DA-type structures, AFPID controller was observed as the best structure since it outperformed other controllers in most conditions.

  7. On-line and Model-based Approaches to the Visual Control of Action

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaiyong; Warren, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Two general approaches to the visual control of action have emerged in last few decades, known as the on-line and model-based approaches. The key difference between them is whether action is controlled by current visual information or on the basis of an internal world model. In this paper, we evaluate three hypotheses: strong on-line control, strong model-based control, and a hybrid solution that combines on-line control with weak off-line strategies. We review experimental research on the control of locomotion and manual actions, which indicates that (a) an internal world model is neither sufficient nor necessary to control action at normal levels of performance; (b) current visual information is necessary and sufficient to control action at normal levels; and (c) under certain conditions (e.g. occlusion) action is controlled by less accurate, simple strategies such as heuristics, visual-motor mappings, or spatial memory. We conclude that the strong model-based hypothesis is not sustainable. Action is normally controlled on-line when current information is available, consistent with the strong on-line control hypothesis. In exceptional circumstances, action is controlled by weak, context-specific, off-line strategies. This hybrid solution is comprehensive, parsimonious, and able to account for a variety of tasks under a range of visual conditions. PMID:25454700

  8. Sense of Control Depends on Fluency of Action Selection, Not Motor Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambon, Valerian; Haggard, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sense of agency refers to the feeling of controlling one's own actions, and, through these actions, events in the outside world. Sense of agency is widely held to involve a retrospective inference based on matching actual effects of an action with its expected effects. We hypothesise a second, prospective aspect of sense of agency, reflecting the…

  9. Sense of Control Depends on Fluency of Action Selection, Not Motor Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambon, Valerian; Haggard, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sense of agency refers to the feeling of controlling one's own actions, and, through these actions, events in the outside world. Sense of agency is widely held to involve a retrospective inference based on matching actual effects of an action with its expected effects. We hypothesise a second, prospective aspect of sense of agency, reflecting the…

  10. Modulation of the Action Control System by Social Intention: Unexpected Social Requests Override Preplanned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Luisa; Becchio, Cristina; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the influence of a sudden social request on the kinematics of a preplanned action. In Experiment 1, participants were requested to grasp an object and then locate it within a container (unperturbed trials). On 20% of trials, a human agent seated nearby the participant unexpectedly stretched out her arm and unfolded…

  11. Modulation of the Action Control System by Social Intention: Unexpected Social Requests Override Preplanned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Luisa; Becchio, Cristina; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the influence of a sudden social request on the kinematics of a preplanned action. In Experiment 1, participants were requested to grasp an object and then locate it within a container (unperturbed trials). On 20% of trials, a human agent seated nearby the participant unexpectedly stretched out her arm and unfolded…

  12. Visual control of an action discrimination in pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Muhammad A. J.; Asen, Yael; Cook, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing and categorizing behavior is essential for all animals. The visual and cognitive mechanisms underlying such action discriminations are not well understood, especially in nonhuman animals. To identify the visual bases of action discriminations, four pigeons were tested in a go/no-go procedure to examine the contribution of different visual features in a discrimination of walking and running actions by different digital animal models. Two different tests with point-light displays derived from studies of human biological motion failed to support transfer of the learned action discrimination from fully figured models. Tests with silhouettes, contours, and the selective deletion or occlusion of different parts of the models indicated that information about the global motions of the entire model was critical to the discrimination. This outcome, along with earlier results, suggests that the pigeons' discrimination of these locomotive actions involved a generalized categorization of the sequence of configural poses. Because the motor systems for locomotion and flying in pigeons share little in common with quadruped motions, the pigeons' discrimination of these behaviors creates problems for motor theories of action recognition based on mirror neurons or related notions of embodied cognition. It suggests instead that more general motion and shape mechanisms are sufficient for making such discriminations, at least in birds. PMID:24879863

  13. Coastal foredune evolution: evidence for ecological control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarnetske, P. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Mull, J.; Hacker, S.; Seabloom, E.

    2010-12-01

    The development and modification of landscape features existing at the aquatic-terrestrial interface - estuaries, salt marshes, mangroves, lacustrine environments, rivers and streams, and coastal dunes - is one of the most striking outcomes from the interactions and feedbacks between ecology and geomorphology. These distinct biophysical features arise from interactions among sediment, vegetation, and a fluid medium (air or water). Importantly, these features provide services including habitat, resources, and protection for human and ecological systems. Across 22 years (1988-2010) and 160 kilometers of coastline, we investigate the relative contributions of physical and ecological processes in shaping coastal foredunes along the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). This system is particularly well suited to investigate this interplay because it contains significant gradients of physical (e.g., shoreline change rates) and ecological (e.g., vegetation species and densities) forces. Further, the two dominant sand binding grass species (invasive Ammophila grasses) are individually associated with different foredune morphologies through space and time (A. arenaria occurs on taller foredunes while A. breviligulata occurs on shorter foredunes). Within the last 22 years, A. breviligulata has spread and replaced much of A. arenaria as the dominant vegetation on CRLC foredunes. We hypothesize that after accounting for the primary physical drivers shaping foredunes (shoreline change rate, sediment accumulation rates, and frequency/intensity of storm events including El Niño/La Niña), we will find an ecological control or an interaction among physical and ecological forces on PNW coastal foredune geomorphology. Here we test whether any residual variation in interannual- to decadal-scale coastal foredune evolution is due to the change in Ammophila species abundance and density over this time period, and determine whether grass species are

  14. Local modulation of steroid action: rapid control of enzymatic activity

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Thierry D.; Cornil, Charlotte A.; Patte-Mensah, Christine; Meyer, Laurence; Mensah-Nyagan, A. Guy; Balthazart, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens can induce rapid, short-lived physiological and behavioral responses, in addition to their slow, but long-term, effects at the transcriptional level. To be functionally relevant, these effects should be associated with rapid modulations of estrogens concentrations. 17β-estradiol is synthesized by the enzyme aromatase, using testosterone as a substrate, but can also be degraded into catechol-estrogens via hydroxylation by the same enzyme, leading to an increase or decrease in estrogens concentration, respectively. The first evidence that aromatase activity (AA) can be rapidly modulated came from experiments performed in Japanese quail hypothalamus homogenates. This rapid modulation is triggered by calcium-dependent phosphorylations and was confirmed in other tissues and species. The mechanisms controlling the phosphorylation status, the targeted amino acid residues and the reversibility seem to vary depending of the tissues and is discussed in this review. We currently do not know whether the phosphorylation of the same amino acid affects both aromatase and/or hydroxylase activities or whether these residues are different. These processes provide a new general mechanism by which local estrogen concentration can be rapidly altered in the brain and other tissues. PMID:25852459

  15. Clinical Practice Guideline Development Manual, Third Edition: a quality-driven approach for translating evidence into action.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Richard M; Shiffman, Richard N; Robertson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines translate best evidence into best practice. A well-crafted guideline promotes quality by reducing health care variations, improving diagnostic accuracy, promoting effective therapy, and discouraging ineffective-or potentially harmful-interventions. Despite a plethora of published guidelines, methodology is often poorly defined and varies greatly within and among organizations. The third edition of this manual describes the principles and practices used successfully by the American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation to produce quality-driven, evidence-based guidelines using efficient and transparent methodology for actionable recommendations with multidisciplinary applicability. The development process emphasizes a logical sequence of key action statements supported by amplifying text, action statement profiles, and recommendation grades linking action to evidence. New material in this edition includes standards for trustworthy guidelines, updated classification of evidence levels, increased patient and public involvement, assessing confidence in the evidence, documenting differences of opinion, expanded discussion of conflict of interest, and use of computerized decision support for crafting actionable recommendations. As clinical practice guidelines become more prominent as a key metric of quality health care, organizations must develop efficient production strategies that balance rigor and pragmatism. Equally important, clinicians must become savvy in understanding what guidelines are--and are not--and how they are best used to improve care. The information in this manual should help clinicians and organizations achieve these goals.

  16. Effector- and target-independent representation of observed actions: evidence from incidental repetition priming.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Marcello; Committeri, Giorgia; Galati, Gaspare

    2008-07-01

    Simulation mechanisms are thought to play an important role in action recognition. On this view, actions are represented through the re-enactment of the observed action. Mirror neurons are thought to be the neuronal counterpart of such a process, and code actions at a rather abstract level, often generalizing across sensory modalities and effectors. In humans, attention has been focussed on the somatotopic, effector dependent representation of observed actions in the mirror system. In this series of behavioural studies, we used incidental repetition priming to determine to which degree the cognitive representation of observed actions relies on effector- and target-dependent representations. Participants were presented with images depicting meaningless or meaningful actions and pressed a button only when presented with a meaningful action. Images were classified as depicting a repeated or new action, relative to the previous image in the trial series. In the first experiment, we demonstrate a priming effect based on the repetition of an action, performed by the same effector over the same target object. In the second experiment, we demonstrate that this facilitation holds even when the same action is performed over a different target object. Finally, in the third experiment we show that the action priming effect holds even when the same action is accomplished with different effectors. These results suggest the existence of a cognitive representation of actions, automatically activated during observation, which is abstract enough to generalize across different targets for that action and different effectors performing that action.

  17. Eyes on me: an fMRI study of the effects of social gaze on action control

    PubMed Central

    Eickhoff, Simon B.; Cieslik, Edna; Shah, Nadim J.; Fink, Gereon R.; Vogeley, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Previous evidence suggests that ‘social gaze’ can not only cause shifts in attention, but also can change the perception of objects located in the direction of gaze and how these objects will be manipulated by an observer. These findings implicate differences in the neural networks sub-serving action control driven by social cues as compared with nonsocial cues. Here, we sought to explore this hypothesis by using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a stimulus–response compatibility paradigm in which participants were asked to generate spatially congruent or incongruent motor responses to both social and nonsocial stimuli. Data analysis revealed recruitment of a dorsal frontoparietal network and the locus coeruleus for the generation of incongruent motor responses, areas previously implicated in controlling attention. As a correlate for the effect of ‘social gaze’ on action control, an interaction effect was observed for incongruent responses to social stimuli in sub-cortical structures, anterior cingulate and inferior frontal cortex. Our results, therefore, suggest that performing actions in a—albeit minimal—social context significantly changes the neural underpinnings of action control and recruits brain regions previously implicated in action monitoring, the reorienting of attention and social cognition. PMID:20705602

  18. Learning to Control Actions: Transfer Effects following a Procedural Cognitive Control Computerized Training

    PubMed Central

    Shahar, Nitzan; Meiran, Nachshon

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have addressed action control training. In the current study, participants were trained over 19 days in an adaptive training task that demanded constant switching, maintenance and updating of novel action rules. Participants completed an executive functions battery before and after training that estimated processing speed, working memory updating, set-shifting, response inhibition and fluid intelligence. Participants in the training group showed greater improvement than a no-contact control group in processing speed, indicated by reduced reaction times in speeded classification tasks. No other systematic group differences were found across the different pre-post measurements. Ex-Gaussian fitting of the reaction-time distribution revealed that the reaction time reduction observed among trained participants was restricted to the right tail of the distribution, previously shown to be related to working memory. Furthermore, training effects were only found in classification tasks that required participants to maintain novel stimulus-response rules in mind, supporting the notion that the training improved working memory abilities. Training benefits were maintained in a 10-month follow-up, indicating relatively long-lasting effects. The authors conclude that training improved action-related working memory abilities. PMID:25799443

  19. Learning to control actions: transfer effects following a procedural cognitive control computerized training.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Nitzan; Meiran, Nachshon

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have addressed action control training. In the current study, participants were trained over 19 days in an adaptive training task that demanded constant switching, maintenance and updating of novel action rules. Participants completed an executive functions battery before and after training that estimated processing speed, working memory updating, set-shifting, response inhibition and fluid intelligence. Participants in the training group showed greater improvement than a no-contact control group in processing speed, indicated by reduced reaction times in speeded classification tasks. No other systematic group differences were found across the different pre-post measurements. Ex-Gaussian fitting of the reaction-time distribution revealed that the reaction time reduction observed among trained participants was restricted to the right tail of the distribution, previously shown to be related to working memory. Furthermore, training effects were only found in classification tasks that required participants to maintain novel stimulus-response rules in mind, supporting the notion that the training improved working memory abilities. Training benefits were maintained in a 10-month follow-up, indicating relatively long-lasting effects. The authors conclude that training improved action-related working memory abilities.

  20. What are they up to? The role of sensory evidence and prior knowledge in action understanding.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Valerian; Domenech, Philippe; Pacherie, Elisabeth; Koechlin, Etienne; Baraduc, Pierre; Farrer, Chlöé

    2011-02-18

    Explaining or predicting the behaviour of our conspecifics requires the ability to infer the intentions that motivate it. Such inferences are assumed to rely on two types of information: (1) the sensory information conveyed by movement kinematics and (2) the observer's prior expectations--acquired from past experience or derived from prior knowledge. However, the respective contribution of these two sources of information is still controversial. This controversy stems in part from the fact that "intention" is an umbrella term that may embrace various sub-types each being assigned different scopes and targets. We hypothesized that variations in the scope and target of intentions may account for variations in the contribution of visual kinematics and prior knowledge to the intention inference process. To test this hypothesis, we conducted four behavioural experiments in which participants were instructed to identify different types of intention: basic intentions (i.e. simple goal of a motor act), superordinate intentions (i.e. general goal of a sequence of motor acts), or social intentions (i.e. intentions accomplished in a context of reciprocal interaction). For each of the above-mentioned intentions, we varied (1) the amount of visual information available from the action scene and (2) participant's prior expectations concerning the intention that was more likely to be accomplished. First, we showed that intentional judgments depend on a consistent interaction between visual information and participant's prior expectations. Moreover, we demonstrated that this interaction varied according to the type of intention to be inferred, with participant's priors rather than perceptual evidence exerting a greater effect on the inference of social and superordinate intentions. The results are discussed by appealing to the specific properties of each type of intention considered and further interpreted in the light of a hierarchical model of action representation.

  1. What Are They Up To? The Role of Sensory Evidence and Prior Knowledge in Action Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Chambon, Valerian; Domenech, Philippe; Pacherie, Elisabeth; Koechlin, Etienne; Baraduc, Pierre; Farrer, Chlöé

    2011-01-01

    Explaining or predicting the behaviour of our conspecifics requires the ability to infer the intentions that motivate it. Such inferences are assumed to rely on two types of information: (1) the sensory information conveyed by movement kinematics and (2) the observer's prior expectations – acquired from past experience or derived from prior knowledge. However, the respective contribution of these two sources of information is still controversial. This controversy stems in part from the fact that “intention” is an umbrella term that may embrace various sub-types each being assigned different scopes and targets. We hypothesized that variations in the scope and target of intentions may account for variations in the contribution of visual kinematics and prior knowledge to the intention inference process. To test this hypothesis, we conducted four behavioural experiments in which participants were instructed to identify different types of intention: basic intentions (i.e. simple goal of a motor act), superordinate intentions (i.e. general goal of a sequence of motor acts), or social intentions (i.e. intentions accomplished in a context of reciprocal interaction). For each of the above-mentioned intentions, we varied (1) the amount of visual information available from the action scene and (2) participant's prior expectations concerning the intention that was more likely to be accomplished. First, we showed that intentional judgments depend on a consistent interaction between visual information and participant's prior expectations. Moreover, we demonstrated that this interaction varied according to the type of intention to be inferred, with participant's priors rather than perceptual evidence exerting a greater effect on the inference of social and superordinate intentions. The results are discussed by appealing to the specific properties of each type of intention considered and further interpreted in the light of a hierarchical model of action representation. PMID

  2. Endothelin: Visualization of mRNAs by in situ hybridization provides evidence for local action

    SciTech Connect

    MacCumber, M.W.; Ross, C.A.; Glaser, B.M.; Snyder, S.H. )

    1989-09-01

    Endothelin (ET) is a recently identified vasoactive peptide with three isoforms for which three genes have been cloned. The cellular sites of synthesis of this peptide have not yet been identified in vivo. Using Northern blot analysis, we have detected two forms of ET mRNA in rat tissues: a 3.7-kilobase form in the kidney, eye, and brain, a 2.5-kilobase form in the intestine, and both forms in the lung. We have localized these forms of ET mRNA in several rat tissues using in situ hybridization. In the 19-day rat fetus, ET mRNA is highest in the lung, intestine, and meninges. At high resolution, ET mRNA is localized in the lung to respiratory epithelial cells of bronchioles and apparently in blood vessels. In adult tissues, ET mRNA is present throughout the lung, in the renal medulla vasa recta, and in the iris of the eye. ET mRNA is synthesized in close proximity to ET binding sites in many organs (e.g., lung, kidney, intestine, and eye), suggesting a local action of this peptide. However, in other areas (e.g., heart and renal cortex), ET binding sites are present in the absence of ET mRNA, suggesting an action of ET from the bloodstream or from neurons. Northern blot analysis of ET mRNA in microvascular endothelial cells in culture indicates that ET is synthesized in small blood vessels and regulated similarly to its regulation in large vessels. Our results provide evidence that ET, like other regulatory peptides, may serve in several tissues as a neuromodulator or local hormone.

  3. Prevention and control of cancers: National Action Plan for NCD Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Bhurgri, Yasmin; Mohamud, Khalif Bile; Zoka, Natasha; Sultan, Faisal; Jafarey, Naeem A

    2004-12-01

    The National Action Plan for Non-communicable Diseases Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD) integrates prevention and control of cancers with a comprehensive NCD prevention framework with a specific emphasis on tobacco, diet and physical activity as cross-cutting risks. The programme prioritizes on sustainable institutional support for mature cancer registries in order to facilitate cancer surveillance; prevention of cancers and early detection as part of an integrated NCD behavioural change communication strategy and building capacity in the health system for cancer prevention and control. The programme's research agenda also includes appropriate studies to bridge critical gaps in evidence relating to appropriate and cost-effective strategies for preventing common cancers in Pakistan. To contain exposure to carcinogenic agents in the environment and in worksites, NAP-NCD stresses on the transparent enforcement of National Environmental Quality Standards; the institution to take proactive measures to contain potential risks to cancers in industrial settings; stricter enforcement of labour laws, stringent regulations governing chemical handling and the active incorporation of preventive health in the mandate of organizations providing health coverage for the labour workforce. It has also been deemed essential to study cancer trends in defined industrial settings at high-risk and to identify causal associations in order to delineate precise targets for preventive interventions in the native setting. NAP-NCD stresses on the development of institutional mechanisms with a regulatory function for cancer control; these include a National Cancer Control Council, with the mandate to uphold ethics and principles and guidelines on technical matters and a National Occupational Safety and Health Association. The Plan also prioritizes on pain relief and palliative care alongside prevention and control efforts and stresses on the need to integrate

  4. Body-specific representations of action verbs: neural evidence from right- and left-handers.

    PubMed

    Willems, Roel M; Hagoort, Peter; Casasanto, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    According to theories of embodied cognition, understanding a verb like throw involves unconsciously simulating the action of throwing, using areas of the brain that support motor planning. If understanding action words involves mentally simulating one's own actions, then the neurocognitive representation of word meanings should differ for people with different kinds of bodies, who perform actions in systematically different ways. In a test of the body-specificity hypothesis, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare premotor activity correlated with action verb understanding in right- and left-handers. Right-handers preferentially activated the left premotor cortex during lexical decisions on manual-action verbs (compared with nonmanual-action verbs), whereas left-handers preferentially activated right premotor areas. This finding helps refine theories of embodied semantics, suggesting that implicit mental simulation during language processing is body specific: Right- and left-handers, who perform actions differently, use correspondingly different areas of the brain for representing action verb meanings.

  5. Born Toon Soon: Care before and between pregnancy to prevent preterm births: from evidence to action

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Providing care to adolescent girls and women before and between pregnancies improves their own health and wellbeing, as well as pregnancy and newborn outcomes, and can also reduce the rates of preterm birth. This paper has reviewed the evidence based interventions and services for preventing preterm births; reported the findings from research priority exercise; and prescribed actions for taking this call further. Certain factors in the preconception period have been shown to increase the risk for prematurity and, therefore, preconception care services for all women of reproductive age should address these risk factors through preventing adolescent pregnancy, preventing unintended pregnancies, promoting optimal birth spacing, optimizing pre-pregnancy weight and nutritional status (including a folic acid containing multivitamin supplement, and ensuring that all adolescent girls have received complete vaccination. Preconception care must also address risk factors that may be applicable to only some women. These include screening for and management of chronic diseases, especially diabetes; sexually-transmitted infections; tobacco and smoke exposure; mental health disorders, notably depression; and intimate partner violence. The approach to research in preconception care to prevent preterm births should include a cycle of development and delivery research that evaluates how best to scale up coverage of existing, evidence-based interventions, epidemiologic research that assesses the impact of implementing these interventions, and discovery science that better elucidates the complex causal pathway of preterm birth and helps to develop new screening and intervention tools. In addition to research, policy and financial investment is crucial to increasing opportunities to implement preconception care, and rates of prematurity should be included as a tracking indicator in global and national maternal child health assessments. Declaration This article is part of a supplement

  6. Flexible Control of Safety Margins for Action Based on Environmental Variability

    PubMed Central

    Hadjiosif, Alkis M.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the risk of slip, grip force (GF) control includes a safety margin above the force level ordinarily sufficient for the expected load force (LF) dynamics. The current view is that this safety margin is based on the expected LF dynamics, amounting to a static safety factor like that often used in engineering design. More efficient control could be achieved, however, if the motor system reduces the safety margin when LF variability is low and increases it when this variability is high. Here we show that this is indeed the case by demonstrating that the human motor system sizes the GF safety margin in proportion to an internal estimate of LF variability to maintain a fixed statistical confidence against slip. In contrast to current models of GF control that neglect the variability of LF dynamics, we demonstrate that GF is threefold more sensitive to the SD than the expected value of LF dynamics, in line with the maintenance of a 3-sigma confidence level. We then show that a computational model of GF control that includes a variability-driven safety margin predicts highly asymmetric GF adaptation between increases versus decreases in load. We find clear experimental evidence for this asymmetry and show that it explains previously reported differences in how rapidly GFs and manipulatory forces adapt. This model further predicts bizarre nonmonotonic shapes for GF learning curves, which are faithfully borne out in our experimental data. Our findings establish a new role for environmental variability in the control of action. PMID:26085634

  7. The effect of action video game playing on sensorimotor learning: Evidence from a movement tracking task.

    PubMed

    Gozli, Davood G; Bavelier, Daphne; Pratt, Jay

    2014-10-12

    Research on the impact of action video game playing has revealed performance advantages on a wide range of perceptual and cognitive tasks. It is not known, however, if playing such games confers similar advantages in sensorimotor learning. To address this issue, the present study used a manual motion-tracking task that allowed for a sensitive measure of both accuracy and improvement over time. When the target motion pattern was consistent over trials, gamers improved with a faster rate and eventually outperformed non-gamers. Performance between the two groups, however, did not differ initially. When the target motion was inconsistent, changing on every trial, results revealed no difference between gamers and non-gamers. Together, our findings suggest that video game playing confers no reliable benefit in sensorimotor control, but it does enhance sensorimotor learning, enabling superior performance in tasks with consistent and predictable structure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Cognitive control and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex: reflexive reorienting, motor inhibition, and action updating

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Benjamin J.; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2011-01-01

    Delineating the functional organization of the prefrontal cortex is central to advancing models of goal-directed cognition. Considerable evidence indicates that specific forms of cognitive control are associated with distinct subregions of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), but less is known about functional specialization within the right VLPFC. We report a functional MRI meta-analysis of two prominent theories of right VLPFC function: stopping of motor responses and reflexive orienting to abrupt perceptual onsets. Along with a broader review of right VLPFC function, extant data indicate that stopping and reflexive orienting similarly recruit the inferior frontal junction (IFJ), suggesting that IFJ supports the detection of behaviorally relevant stimuli. By contrast, other right VLPFC subregions are consistently active during motor inhibition, but not reflexive reorienting tasks, with posterior-VLPFC being active during the updating of action plans and mid-VLPFC responding to decision uncertainty. These results highlight the rich functional heterogeneity that exists within right VLPFC. PMID:21486295

  9. Dopamine depletion affects communicative intentionality in Parkinson's disease patients: Evidence from action kinematics.

    PubMed

    Straulino, Elisa; Scaravilli, Tomaso; Castiello, Umberto

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate communication is at the heart of successful, healthy social interactions in humans. Deficits in social communication are a hallmark of several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Yet, very little research has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms underlying these issues. It has been suggested that dopamine is a candidate neurotransmitter system involved in stimulating communication in individuals that are not highly motivated to communicate. A typical model to study dopaminergic dysfunctions in humans is represented by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, who show motor, cognitive and motivational symptoms. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of social communication on actions in non-demented PD patients receiving dopamine replacement therapy (Levodopa = l-Dopa) and in neurologically healthy control participants. Patients' ability to modulate motor patterning depending on the communicative intention motivating the action to be performed was evaluated both in "on" (with l-Dopa) and "off" (without l-Dopa) states. In two main conditions, participants were requested to reach towards, grasp an object, and either simply lift it (individual condition) or lift it with the intent to communicate a meaning to a partner (communicative condition). Movements' kinematics was recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The results indicate that kinematics is sensitive to communicative intention and that l-Dopa treatment has positive effects on translating communicative intentions into specific motor patterns in PD patients. Although the to-be-grasped object remained the same both the controls and the PD patients in an 'on' state adopted different kinematic patterning for the 'individual' and the 'communication' conditions. The PD patients in the 'off' state, instead, were unable to kinematically differentiate between the two conditions. We contend that social and communicative impairments are associated with abnormalities in

  10. Nurse Task Shifting for Antiretroviral Treatment Services in Namibia: Implementation Research to Move Evidence into Action

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Gabrielle; Asrat, Lily; Sharma, Anjali; Hamunime, Ndapewa; Stephanus, Yvonne; Brandt, Laura; Ali, Deqa; Kaindjee-Tjituka, Francina; Natanael, Salomo; Gweshe, Justice; Feldacker, Caryl; Shihepo, Ella

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence from several sub-Saharan countries support nurse-initiated antiretroviral treatment as a feasible alternative to doctor-led models characteristic of early responses to the HIV epidemic. However, service delivery models shown to be effective in one country may not be readily adopted in another. This study used an implementation research approach to assist policy makers and other stakeholders to assess the acceptability and feasibility of task shifting in the Namibian context. Methods The Namibian Ministry of Health and Social Services implemented a Task Shifting Demonstration Project (TSDP) at 9 sites at different levels of the health system. Six months after implementation, a mixed methods evaluation was conducted. Seventy semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients, managers, doctors and nurses directly involved with the TSDP. Physician-evaluators observed and compared health service provision between doctors and nurses for 40 patients (80 observations), documenting performance in agreement with the national guidelines on 13 clinical care indicators. Results Doctors, nurses, and patients interviewed believed task shifting would improve access to and quality of HIV services. Doctors and nurses both reported an increase in nurses’ skills as a result of the project. Observation data showed doctors and nurses were in considerable agreement (>80%) with each other on all dimensions of HIV care and ≥90% on eight dimensions. To ensure success of national scale-up of the task shifting model, challenges involving infrastructure, on-going mentoring, and nursing scope of practice should be anticipated and addressed. Conclusion In combination with findings from other studies in the region, data from the TSDP provided critical and timely information to the Namibian Ministry of Health and Social Services, thus helping to move evidence into action. Small-scale implementation research projects enable stakeholders to learn by doing, and provide

  11. Motivationally significant self-control: enhanced action withholding involves the right inferior frontal junction.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, David A; Upton, Daniel J; Moore, Jennifer; Hester, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life, people use self-control to withhold actions. This ability is particularly important when the consequences of action withholding have an impact on the individual's well-being. Despite its importance, it is unclear as to how the neural nodes implicated in action withholding contribute to this real-world type of self-control. By modifying an action withholding paradigm, the go/no-go task, we examined how the brain exerts self-control during a scenario in which the implications of withholding an action are meaningful and motivationally significant. A successfully withheld response contributed to long-term monetary rewards, whereas failure to withhold a response incurred an immediate monetary punishment. Compared with neutral action withholding, participants significantly improved their performance when these contingencies were applied. Crucially, although the right IFG and pre-SMA were found to promote overall action withholding, the enhancement in behavioral performance relative to a neutral condition was only reflected by a physiological change in a region encompassing the right inferior frontal junction and precentral gyrus. We speculate that the ability to flexibly modulate attention to goal-relevant stimuli is crucial to enhanced, motivationally driven action withholding and that this ability is subserved by the right inferior frontal junction. These findings suggest that control-modulating factors, rather than action withholding processes per se, can be critical to improving motivationally significant action withholding outcomes.

  12. Body-Specific Motor Imagery of Hand Actions: Neural Evidence from Right- and Left-Handers

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Roel M.; Toni, Ivan; Hagoort, Peter; Casasanto, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    If motor imagery uses neural structures involved in action execution, then the neural correlates of imagining an action should differ between individuals who tend to execute the action differently. Here we report fMRI data showing that motor imagery is influenced by the way people habitually perform motor actions with their particular bodies; that is, motor imagery is ‘body-specific’ (Casasanto, 2009). During mental imagery for complex hand actions, activation of cortical areas involved in motor planning and execution was left-lateralized in right-handers but right-lateralized in left-handers. We conclude that motor imagery involves the generation of an action plan that is grounded in the participant's motor habits, not just an abstract representation at the level of the action's goal. People with different patterns of motor experience form correspondingly different neurocognitive representations of imagined actions. PMID:19949484

  13. Is recursion language-specific? Evidence of recursive mechanisms in the structure of intentional action.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Giuseppe; Adenzato, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    In their 2002 seminal paper Hauser, Chomsky and Fitch hypothesize that recursion is the only human-specific and language-specific mechanism of the faculty of language. While debate focused primarily on the meaning of recursion in the hypothesis and on the human-specific and syntax-specific character of recursion, the present work focuses on the claim that recursion is language-specific. We argue that there are recursive structures in the domain of motor intentionality by way of extending John R. Searle's analysis of intentional action. We then discuss evidence from cognitive science and neuroscience supporting the claim that motor-intentional recursion is language-independent and suggest some explanatory hypotheses: (1) linguistic recursion is embodied in sensory-motor processing; (2) linguistic and motor-intentional recursions are distinct and mutually independent mechanisms. Finally, we propose some reflections about the epistemic status of HCF as presenting an empirically falsifiable hypothesis, and on the possibility of testing recursion in different cognitive domains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Embodied Action Improves Cognition in Children: Evidence from a Study Based on Piagetian Conservation Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Mariana; Carro, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Converging evidence highlights the relevance of embodied cognition in learning processes. In this study we evaluate whether embodied action (enaction) improves cognitive understanding in children. Using the Piagetian conservation tasks in 6–7 year olds, we analyzed quantity conservation conceptualization in children who were active participants in the transformation process and compared these results to those of children who were mere observers of an adult's demonstration (as traditionally conducted). The investigation was performed with 105 first-graders. Conservation tasks were demonstrated to half the children, while the other half actively carried out the transformation of matter. Our findings showed that active manipulation of the material helped children recognize quantity invariance in a higher proportion than when the demonstration was only observed. That is, their enactive experience enabled them to comprehend conservation phenomena more easily than if they were merely passive observers. The outcome of this research thus emphasizes how active participation benefits cognitive processes in learning contexts, promoting autonomy, and agency during childhood. PMID:27047420

  15. Embodied Action Improves Cognition in Children: Evidence from a Study Based on Piagetian Conservation Tasks.

    PubMed

    Lozada, Mariana; Carro, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Converging evidence highlights the relevance of embodied cognition in learning processes. In this study we evaluate whether embodied action (enaction) improves cognitive understanding in children. Using the Piagetian conservation tasks in 6-7 year olds, we analyzed quantity conservation conceptualization in children who were active participants in the transformation process and compared these results to those of children who were mere observers of an adult's demonstration (as traditionally conducted). The investigation was performed with 105 first-graders. Conservation tasks were demonstrated to half the children, while the other half actively carried out the transformation of matter. Our findings showed that active manipulation of the material helped children recognize quantity invariance in a higher proportion than when the demonstration was only observed. That is, their enactive experience enabled them to comprehend conservation phenomena more easily than if they were merely passive observers. The outcome of this research thus emphasizes how active participation benefits cognitive processes in learning contexts, promoting autonomy, and agency during childhood.

  16. Review of toluene action: clinical evidence, animal studies and molecular targets

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Silvia L.; Rivera-García, María Teresa; Woodward, John J.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been known that individuals will engage in voluntary inhalation of volatile solvents for their rewarding effects. However, research into the neurobiology of these agents has lagged behind that of more commonly used drugs of abuse such as psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine. This imbalance has begun to shift in recent years as the serious effects of abused inhalants, especially among children and adolescents, on brain function and behavior have become appreciated and scientifically documented. In this review, we discuss the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of toluene, a representative member of a large class of organic solvents commonly used as inhalants. This is followed by a brief summary of the clinical and pre-clinical evidence showing that toluene and related solvents produce significant effects on brain structures and processes involved in the rewarding aspects of drugs. This is highlighted by tables highlighting toluene’s effect on behaviors (reward, motor effects, learning, etc.) and cellular proteins (e.g. voltage and ligand-gated ion channels) closely associated the actions of abused substances. These sections demonstrate not only the significant progress that has been made in understanding the neurobiological basis for solvent abuse but also reveal the challenges that remain in developing a coherent understanding of this often overlooked class of drugs of abuse. PMID:25360325

  17. Delayed Visual Feedback of One’s Own Action Promotes Sense of Control for Auditory Events

    PubMed Central

    Kawabe, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Sense of control refers to one’s feelings to control environmental events through one’s own action. A prevailing view is that the sense of control is strong (or is not diminished) when predicted sensory signals, which are generated in motor control mechanisms, are consistent with afferent sensory signals. Such intact sense of control often leads to the misjudgment of temporal relation between timings of one’s action and its effect (so-called, intentional binding). The present study showed that the intentional binding could be enhanced by the delayed visual feedback of an agent’s action. We asked participants to press a button to produce a tone as action outcome. In some conditions, they were given the delayed visual feedback of their button press. Participants judged whether the onset of the auditory outcome was delayed from the timing of their button press. Consequently, delay detection thresholds were significantly higher when the feedback was given 0.2 and 0.4 s delays than when no feedback was displayed to the participants. The results indicate that action agents misjudge the timing of their action (button press) in the presence of the delayed visual feedback of their action. Interestingly, delay detection thresholds were strongly correlated with the subjective magnitude of the sense of control. Thus, the sense of control is possibly determined by cross-modal processing for action-related and outcome-related sensory signals. PMID:26635552

  18. Neural Evidence for the Interplay between Language, Gesture, and Action: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willems, Roel M.; Hagoort, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Co-speech gestures embody a form of manual action that is tightly coupled to the language system. As such, the co-occurrence of speech and co-speech gestures is an excellent example of the interplay between language and action. There are, however, other ways in which language and action can be thought of as closely related. In this paper we will…

  19. Linking Actions and Emotions: Evidence from 15- and 18-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repacholi, Betty M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated 15- and 18-month-olds' understanding of the link between actions and emotions. Infants watched a videotape in which three adult models performed an action on an object. Each adult expressed the same emotion (positive, negative, or neutral affect) on completion of the action. Infants were subsequently given 20 seconds to…

  20. Neural Evidence for the Interplay between Language, Gesture, and Action: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willems, Roel M.; Hagoort, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Co-speech gestures embody a form of manual action that is tightly coupled to the language system. As such, the co-occurrence of speech and co-speech gestures is an excellent example of the interplay between language and action. There are, however, other ways in which language and action can be thought of as closely related. In this paper we will…

  1. Impact of action primes on implicit processing of thematic and functional similarity relations: evidence from eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Pluciennicka, Ewa; Wamain, Yannick; Coello, Yann; Kalénine, Solène

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the role of action representations in thematic and functional similarity relations between manipulable artifact objects. Recent behavioral and neurophysiological evidence indicates that while they are all relevant for manipulable artifact concepts, semantic relations based on thematic (e.g., saw-wood), specific function similarity (e.g., saw-axe), and general function similarity (e.g., saw-knife) are differently processed, and may relate to different levels of action representation. Point-light displays of object-related actions previously encoded at the gesture level (e.g., "sawing") or at the higher level of action representation (e.g., "cutting") were used as primes before participants identified target objects (e.g., saw) among semantically related and unrelated distractors (e.g., wood, feather, piano). Analysis of eye movements on the different objects during target identification informed about the amplitude and the timing of implicit activation of the different semantic relations. Results showed that action prime encoding impacted the processing of thematic relations, but not that of functional similarity relations. Semantic competition with thematic distractors was greater and earlier following action primes encoded at the gesture level compared to action primes encoded at higher level. As a whole, these findings highlight the direct influence of action representations on thematic relation processing, and suggest that thematic relations involve gesture-level representations rather than intention-level representations.

  2. Ecosystem health of the Great Barrier Reef: Time for effective management action based on evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, Jon; Pearson, Richard G.

    2016-12-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is a World Heritage site off the north-eastern coast of Australia. The GBR is worth A 15-20 billion/year to the Australian economy and provides approximately 64,000 full time jobs. Many of the species and ecosystems of the GBR are in poor condition and continue to decline. The principal causes of the decline are catchment pollutant runoff associated with agricultural and urban land uses, climate change impacts and the effects of fishing. Many important ecosystems of the GBR region are not included inside the boundaries of the World Heritage Area. The current management regime for catchment pollutant runoff and climate change is clearly inadequate to prevent further decline. We propose a refocus of management on a "Greater GBR" (containing not only the major ecosystems and species of the GBR, but also its catchment) and on a set of management actions to halt the decline of the GBR. Proposed actions include: (1) Strengthen management in the areas of the Greater GBR where ecosystems are in good condition, with Torres Strait, northern Cape York and Hervey Bay being the systems with highest current integrity; (2) Investigate methods of cross-boundary management to achieve simultaneous cost-effective terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystem protection in the Greater GBR; (3) Develop a detailed, comprehensive, costed water quality management plan for the Greater GBR; (4) Use the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act and the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act to regulate catchment activities that lead to damage to the Greater GBR, in conjunction with the relevant Queensland legislation; (5) Fund catchment and coastal management to the required level to solve pollution issues for the Greater GBR by 2025, before climate change impacts on Greater GBR ecosystems become overwhelming; (6) Continue enforcement of the zoning plan; (7) Australia to show commitment to protecting the Greater GBR through greenhouse gas emissions

  3. Evidence-Based Practice and Teacher Action-Research: A Reflection on the Nature and Direction of "Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colucci-Gray, Laura; Das, Sharmistha; Gray, Donald; Robson, Dean; Spratt, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This study was conceived as an opportunity to reflect on the place of action-research in the contested landscape of educational change in the UK where increasing emphasis has been put on the use of evidence to drive reform. In the context of a government-sponsored project in Scotland, this study looked at the impact of a scholarship initiative…

  4. Analytics4Action Evaluation Framework: A Review of Evidence-Based Learning Analytics Interventions at the Open University UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienties, Bart; Boroowa, Avinash; Cross, Simon; Kubiak, Chris; Mayles, Kevin; Murphy, Sam

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop an evidence-based framework for learning analytics whereby stakeholders can manage, evaluate, and make decisions about which types of interventions work well and under which conditions. In this article, we will work towards developing a foundation of an Analytics4Action Evaluation Framework (A4AEF) that is…

  5. Differential Effects of Age-of-Acquisition for Concrete Nouns and Action Verbs: Evidence for Partly Distinct Representations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulenger, Veronique; Decoppet, Nathalie; Roy, Alice C.; Paulignan, Yves; Nazir, Tatjana A.

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence that words that are acquired early in life are processed faster and more accurately than words acquired later, even by adults. As neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have implicated different brain networks in the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns, the present study was aimed at contrasting reaction…

  6. From evidence to action to deliver a healthy start for the next generation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Elizabeth; McDougall, Lori; Lawn, Joy E; Gupta, Anuradha; Claeson, Mariam; Pillay, Yogan; Presern, Carole; Lukong, Martina Baye; Mann, Gillian; Wijnroks, Marijke; Azad, Kishwar; Taylor, Katherine; Beattie, Allison; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Chopra, Mickey

    2014-08-02

    attention to increasing of health worker numbers and skills with attention to high-quality childbirth care for newborn babies as well as mothers and children; and (5) evaluation, tracking coverage of priority interventions and packages of care with clear accountability to accelerate progress and reach the poorest groups. The Every Newborn Action Plan provides an evidence-based roadmap towards care for every woman, and a healthy start for every newborn baby, with a right to be counted, survive, and thrive wherever they are born. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Attention to future actions: the influence of instructed S-R versus S-S mappings on attentional control.

    PubMed

    Tibboel, Helen; Liefooghe, Baptist; De Houwer, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Even though there is ample evidence that planning future actions plays a role in attentional processing (e.g., Downing Visual Cognition 11:689-703, 2000; Soto et al., Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12:248-342, 2008), it is not clear to what extent planning in itself (rather than the prior experience of the planned actions) controls attention. We suggest that attention can be biased towards stimuli that are associated with instructions for tasks that will be performed in the future even if those tasks have not yet been experienced. We performed two experiments in which participants receive instructions in which some objects were associated with a response (i.e., instructed S-R objects; "Experiment 1") or a stimulus property (i.e., instructed S-S objects; "Experiment 2"), whereas control objects were not. However, before participants were required to perform the S-R task ("Experiment 1") or perform an S-S memory task ("Experiment 2"), they performed a visual probe task in which target objects and control objects served as irrelevant cues. Our results show that attention was biased towards the S-R objects (compared to control stimuli) but not to S-S objects. These findings suggest that future plans can bias attention toward specific stimuli, but only when these stimuli are associated with a specific action. We discuss these findings in light of research concerning automatic effects of instructions and theories that view attention as a selection-for-action mechanism.

  8. Systematic implementation of evidence-based practice in a clinical nursing setting: a participatory action research project.

    PubMed

    Friesen-Storms, Jolanda H H M; Moser, Albine; van der Loo, Sandra; Beurskens, Anna J H M; Bours, Gerrie J J W

    2015-01-01

    To describe the process of implementing evidence-based practice in a clinical nursing setting. Evidence-based practice has become a major issue in nursing, it is insufficiently integrated into daily practice and its implementation is complex. Participatory action research. The main participants were nurses working in a lung unit of a rural hospital. A multi-method process of data collection was used during the observing, reflecting, planning and acting phases. Data were continuously gathered during a 24-month period from 2010 to 2012, and analysed using an interpretive constant comparative approach. Patients were consulted to incorporate their perspective. A best-practice mode of working was prevalent on the ward. The main barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practice were that nurses had little knowledge of evidence-based practice and a rather negative attitude towards it, and that their English reading proficiency was poor. The main facilitators were that nurses wanted to deliver high-quality care and were enthusiastic and open to innovation. Implementation strategies included a tailored interactive outreach training and the development and implementation of an evidence-based discharge protocol. The academic model of evidence-based practice was adapted. Nurses worked according to the evidence-based practice discharge protocol but barely recorded their activities. Nurses favourably evaluated the participatory action research process. Action research provides an opportunity to empower nurses and to tailor evidence-based practice to the practice context. Applying and implementing evidence-based practice is difficult for front-line nurses with limited evidence-based practice competencies. Adaptation of the academic model of evidence-based practice to a more pragmatic approach seems necessary to introduce evidence-based practice into clinical practice. The use of scientific evidence can be facilitated by using pre-appraised evidence. For clinical practice

  9. Interactions between perception and action programming: evidence from visual extinction and optic ataxia.

    PubMed

    Kitadono, Keiko; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2007-10-01

    We report a series of 7 experiments examining the interaction between visual perception and action programming, contrasting 2 neuropsychological cases: a case of visual extinction and a case with extinction and optic ataxia. The patients had to make pointing responses to left and right locations, whilst identifying briefly presented shapes. Different patterns of performance emerged with the two cases. The patient with "pure" extinction (i.e., extinction without optic ataxia) showed dramatic effects of action programming on perceptual report. Programming an action to the ipsilesional side increased extinction (on 2-item trials) and tended to induce neglect (on 1-item trials); this was ameliorated when the action was programmed to the contralesional side. Separable effects of using the contralesional hand and pointing to the contralesional side were apparent. In contrast, the optic ataxic patient showed few effects of congruency between the visual stimulus and the action, but extinction when an action was programmed. This effect was particularly marked when actions had to be made to peripheral locations, suggesting that it reflected reduced resources to stimuli. These effects all occurred using stimulus exposures that were completed well before actions were effected. The data demonstrate interactions between action programming and visual perception. Programming an action to the affected side with the contralesional limb reduces "pure" extinction because attention is coupled to the end point of the action. However, in a patient with deficient visuo-motor coupling (optic ataxia), programming an action can increase a spatial deficit by recruiting resources away from perceptual processing. The implications for models of perception and action are discussed.

  10. A standardized, evidence-based protocol to assess clinical actionability of genetic disorders associated with genomic variation

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Jessica Ezzell; Irving, Stephanie A.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Buchanan, Adam; Jensen, Brian; Lee, Kristy; Martin, Christa Lese; Milko, Laura; Muessig, Kristin; Niehaus, Annie D.; O'Daniel, Julianne; Piper, Margaret A.; Ramos, Erin M.; Schully, Sheri D.; Scott, Alan F.; Slavotinek, Anne; Sobreira, Nara; Strande, Natasha; Weaver, Meredith; Webber, Elizabeth M.; Williams, Marc S.; Berg, Jonathan S.; Evans, James P.; Goddard, Katrina A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Genome and exome sequencing can identify variants unrelated to the primary goal of sequencing. Detecting pathogenic variants associated with an increased risk of a medical disorder enables clinical interventions to improve future health outcomes in patients and their at-risk relatives. The Clinical Genome Resource, or ClinGen, aims to assess clinical actionability of genes and associated disorders as part of a larger effort to build a central resource of information regarding the clinical relevance of genomic variation for use in precision medicine and research. Methods: We developed a practical, standardized protocol to identify available evidence and generate qualitative summary reports of actionability for disorders and associated genes. We applied a semiquantitative metric to score actionability. Results: We generated summary reports and actionability scores for the 56 genes and associated disorders recommended by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics for return as secondary findings from clinical genome-scale sequencing. We also describe the challenges that arose during the development of the protocol that highlight important issues in characterizing actionability across a range of disorders. Conclusion: The ClinGen framework for actionability assessment will assist research and clinical communities in making clear, efficient, and consistent determinations of actionability based on transparent criteria to guide analysis and reporting of findings from clinical genome-scale sequencing. Genet Med 18 12, 1258–1268. PMID:27124788

  11. Temporal coupling due to illusory movements in bimanual actions: evidence from anosognosia for hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Pia, Lorenzo; Spinazzola, Lucia; Rabuffetti, Marco; Ferrarin, Maurizio; Garbarini, Francesca; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Driver, Jon; Berti, Anna

    2013-06-01

    In anosognosia for hemiplegia, patients may claim having performed willed actions with the paralyzed limb despite unambiguous evidence to the contrary. Does this false belief of having moved reflect the functioning of the same mechanisms that govern normal motor performance? Here, we examined whether anosognosics show the same temporal constraints known to exist during bimanual movements in healthy subjects. In these paradigms, when participants simultaneously reach for two targets of different difficulties, the motor programs of one hand affect the execution of the other. In detail, the movement time of the hand going to an easy target (i.e., near and large), while the other is going to a difficult target (i.e., far and small), is slowed with respect to unimanual movements (temporal coupling effect). One right-brain-damaged patient with left hemiplegia and anosognosia, six right-brain-damaged patients with left hemiplegia without anosognosia, and twenty healthy subjects were administered such a bimanual task. We recorded the movement times for easy and difficult targets, both in unimanual (one target) and bimanual (two targets) conditions. We found that, as healthy subjects, the anosognosic patient showed coupling effect. In bimanual asymmetric conditions (when one hand went to the easy target and the other went to the difficult target), the movement time of the non-paralyzed hand going to the easy target was slowed by the 'pretended' movement of the paralyzed hand going to the difficult target. This effect was not present in patients without anosognosia. We concluded that in anosognosic patients, the illusory movements of the paralyzed hand impose to the non-paralyzed hand the same motor constraints that emerge during the actual movements. Our data also support the view that coupling relies on central operations (i.e., activation of intention/programming system), rather than on online information from the periphery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Mechanisms of action of spa therapies in rheumatic diseases: what scientific evidence is there?

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Cantarini, Luca; Guidelli, Giacomo Maria; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Spa therapy represents a popular treatment for many rheumatic diseases. The mechanisms by which immersion in mineral or thermal water or the application of mud alleviates suffering in rheumatic diseases are not fully understood. The net benefit is probably the result of a combination of factors, with mechanical, thermal and chemical effects among the most prominent ones. Buoyancy, immersion, resistance and temperature all play important roles. According to the gate theory, pain relief may be due to the pressure and temperature of the water on skin; hot stimuli may influence muscle tone and pain intensity, helping to reduce muscle spasm and to increase the pain threshold. Mud-bath therapy increases plasma β-endorphin levels and secretion of corticotrophin, cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin. It has recently been demonstrated that thermal mud-pack therapy induces a reduction in the circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), important mediators of inflammation and pain. Spa therapy has been found to cause an increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), which stimulates cartilage metabolism, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). There is also evidence of the positive action of mud-packs and thermal baths on the oxidant/antioxidant system, with a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species. Overall, thermal stress has an immunosuppressive effect. Many other non-specific factors may also contribute to the beneficial effects observed after spa therapy in some rheumatic diseases, including effects on cardiovascular risk factors, and changes in the environment, pleasant surroundings and the absence of work duties.

  13. Interference from related actions in spoken word production: Behavioural and fMRI evidence.

    PubMed

    de Zubicaray, Greig; Fraser, Douglas; Ramajoo, Kori; McMahon, Katie

    2017-02-01

    Few investigations of lexical access in spoken word production have investigated the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in action naming. These are likely to be more complex than the mechanisms involved in object naming, due to the ways in which conceptual features of action words are represented. The present study employed a blocked cyclic naming paradigm to examine whether related action contexts elicit a semantic interference effect akin to that observed with categorically related objects. Participants named pictures of intransitive actions to avoid a confound with object processing. In Experiment 1, body-part related actions (e.g., running, walking, skating, hopping) were named significantly slower compared to unrelated actions (e.g., laughing, running, waving, hiding). Experiment 2 employed perfusion functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms involved in this semantic interference effect. Compared to unrelated actions, naming related actions elicited significant perfusion signal increases in frontotemporal cortex, including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and hippocampus, and decreases in bilateral posterior temporal, occipital and parietal cortices, including intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The findings demonstrate a role for temporoparietal cortex in conceptual-lexical processing of intransitive action knowledge during spoken word production, and support the proposed involvement of interference resolution and incremental learning mechanisms in the blocked cyclic naming paradigm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved top-down control reduces oculomotor capture: the case of action video game players.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2012-02-01

    Action video game players (AVGPs) have been demonstrated to outperform non-video-game players(NVGPs) on a range of cognitive tasks. Evidence to date suggests that AVGPs’ enhanced performance in attention based tasks can be accounted for by improved top-down control over the allocation of visuospatial attention. Thus,we propose that AVGPs provide a population that can be used to investigate the role of top-down factors in key models of attention. Previous work using AVGPs has indicated that they experience less interfering effects from a salient but task-irrelevant distractor in an attentional capture paradigm (Chisholm, Hickey, Theeuwes, & Kingstone,2010). Two fundamentally different bottom-up and top-down models of attention can account for this result. In the present study, we compared AVGP and NVGP performance in an oculomotor capture paradigm to address when and how top-down control modulates capture. In tracking eye movements, we acquired an explicit measurement of attention allocation and replicated the covert attention effect that AVGPs are quicker than NVGPs to attend to a target in the presence of a task-irrelevant distractor. Critically, our study reveals that this top-down gain is the result of fewer shifts of attention to the salient distractor, rather than faster disengagement after bottom-up capture has occurred. This supports the theory that top-down control can modulate the involuntary capture of attention [added].

  15. Ngāti and healthy: translating diabetes prevention evidence into community action.

    PubMed

    Tipene-Leach, David C; Coppell, Kirsten J; Abel, Sally; Pāhau, Helen L R; Ehau, Terry; Mann, Jim I

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major health issue in New Zealand Māori. Clinical trials have demonstrated potential for the prevention of T2DM, but whether community public health programmes aiming to prevent diabetes are effective is untested. To describe the planning and design of an intervention aiming to translate T2DM prevention clinical trial evidence into a community-wide population health intervention in a high risk predominantly Māori community. Community concerns about the diabetes burden were heard by the local diabetes nurse, herself a tribal member, and discussed with a locally raised academic. Project planning ensued. The intervention and its evaluation were designed using a participatory community development model. The planned intervention had three components: community-wide health promotion initiatives conveying healthy lifestyle messages, community education and monitoring for identified high-risk individuals and their extended families, and a structural strategy aimed at adapting local environments to support lifestyle changes. The evaluation plan involved interrupted time series surveys coupled with formative and process evaluations rather than a randomised control trial design. Consulting communities, validating community concerns and prioritising cultural and ethical issues were key steps. Time spent developing good relationships amongst the health provider and academic research team members at the outset proved invaluable, as the team were united in addressing the project planning and implementation challenges, such as funding obstacles that arose because of our ethically and culturally appropriate non-randomised control trial evaluation design. The pre-intervention survey demonstrated high rates of diabetes (13%), insulin resistance (33%) and risk factors, and provided evidence for positive, as opposed to negative, lifestyle intervention messages. Community-wide lifestyle interventions have the potential to reduce rates of type 2

  16. Randomized controlled trials in nephrology: state of the evidence and critiquing the evidence.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Joshua A; Molony, Donald A

    2012-01-01

    The randomized controlled trial (RCT) remains the "gold standard" for the evaluation of therapies. Despite some progress during the past decade, the number and quality of published RCTs addressing the core issues for patients with CKD and with renal diseases, in general, lag behind other areas in internal medicine. The paucity of robust evidence results in fewer patients receiving evidence-based therapies in nephrology and fewer rigorous systematic reviews to inform nephrology practice and health care policy. Because trials of lower methodologic rigor continue to be published, the evidence-based practitioner must evaluate new evidence from the medical literature carefully before incorporating that evidence into their clinical practice. The types of errors that may limit the validity or applicability of evidence from RCTs is outlined. A detailed discussion of the most important design elements for the conduct of a high-quality RCT is described in the text. These considerations are placed into the context of critical appraisal tools. These tools allow the clinician to efficiently assess the quality of published RCTs and to determine how the new RCT evidence should change current best practice.

  17. Action control processes in autism spectrum disorder--insights from a neurobiological and neuroanatomical perspective.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Witold X; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) encompass a range of syndromes that are characterized by social interaction impairments, verbal and nonverbal communication difficulties, and stereotypic or repetitive behaviours. Although there has been considerable progress in understanding the mechanisms underlying the changes in the 'social' and 'communicative' aspects of ASD, the neurofunctional architecture of repetitive and stereotypic behaviours, as well as other cognitive domains related to response and action control, remain poorly understood. Based on the findings of neurobiological and neuroanatomical alterations in ASD and the functional neuroanatomy and neurobiology of different action control functions, we emphasize that changes in action control processes, including response inhibition, conflict and response monitoring, task switching, dual-tasking, motor timing, and error monitoring, are important facets of ASD. These processes must be examined further to understand the executive control deficits in ASD that are related to stereotypic or repetitive behaviours as a major facet of ASD. The review shows that not all domains of action control are strongly affected in ASD. Several factors seem to determine the consistency with which alterations in cognitive control are reported. These factors relate to the relevance of neurobiological changes in ASD for the cognitive domains examined and in how far action control relies upon the adjustment of prior experience. Future directions and hypotheses are outlined that may guide basic and clinical research on action control in ASD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 9C.08: HEART RATE AS A PREDICTOR OF CARDIOVASCULAR OUTCOMES: NEW EVIDENCE FROM THE ACTION TRIAL DATABASE.

    PubMed

    Meredith, P; Elliott, H L

    2015-06-01

    Received wisdom suggests that treatments which reduce heart rate (HR), or avoid cardio-acceleration, are associated with improved cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. However, in the SIGNIFY trial in 12,049 patients with symptomatic angina, a sub-group analysis demonstrated a small but significant increase in the combined risk of CV death or non-fatal MI with the new anti-anginal agent, ivabradine, which is designed to reduce heart rate. The safety and efficacy of the long-acting calcium channel blocker, Nifedipine GITS (an established anti-anginal agent) has been confirmed via the positive results in the placebo-controlled ACTION trial in patients with stable symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). This further, retrospective analysis of the ACTION database has evaluated the inter-relationships between baseline HR, and its on-treatment changes, on subsequent cardiovascular outcomes. The retrospective analyses of the ACTION trial were performed for quintiles of HR, using the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, for baseline HR and the achieved HR after 6 weeks of the trial (by which time titration of both placebo and nifedipine GITS was complete). For baseline HR, the risk in the lowest (<56 bpm) was significantly reduced when compared to the highest quintile (HR > 72BPM) for the primary trial endpoint (HR = 0.81 CI 0.70, 0.94); any cardiovascular (CV) event (HR = 0.82 CI 0.70, 0.96); and new onset heart failure (HR = 0.48 CI 0.31, 0.74). No significant differences were apparent for myocardial infarction (MI) or debilitating stroke. In contrast, there was no evidence that on-treatment HR was predictive of outcome: for example, for the primary efficacy endpoint (any CV event, HF, MI and debilitating stroke) the event rates were similar across the quintiles of HR. Correspondingly, there was no significant HR-related treatment effect (comparing nifedipine GITS and placebo). Whilst retrospective analyses must always be interpreted with caution, these

  19. Object Manipulation and Motion Perception: Evidence of an Influence of Action Planning on Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann, Oliver; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated the bidirectional coupling of perception and action in the context of object manipulations and motion perception. Participants prepared to grasp an X-shaped object along one of its 2 diagonals and to rotate it in a clockwise or a counterclockwise direction. Action execution had to be delayed until the…

  20. The Emergence of a Novel Representation from Action: Evidence from Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boncoddo, Rebecca; Dixon, James A.; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Recent work in embodied cognition has proposed that representations and actions are inextricably linked. The current study examines a developmental account of this relationship. Specifically, we propose that children's actions are foundational for novel representations. Thirty-two preschoolers, aged 3.4 to 5.7 years, were asked to solve a set of…

  1. Object Manipulation and Motion Perception: Evidence of an Influence of Action Planning on Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann, Oliver; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated the bidirectional coupling of perception and action in the context of object manipulations and motion perception. Participants prepared to grasp an X-shaped object along one of its 2 diagonals and to rotate it in a clockwise or a counterclockwise direction. Action execution had to be delayed until the…

  2. Controlling Asthma New Guidelines. New Medications. New Action Plans.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Controlling Asthma Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... everywhere and in every age have struggled with asthma— a chronic disease that affects the airways, or ...

  3. Erroneous and correct actions have a different affective valence: evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Kristien; De Houwer, Jan; Pourtois, Gilles

    2013-10-01

    The accuracy of actions is swiftly determined through specific monitoring brain systems. Event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that error commission is associated with the generation of the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne), whereas correct actions are associated with the correct-related negativity (CRN). Although the exact functional meaning of the ERN/Ne (and CRN) component remains debated, some authors have suggested that it reflects the processing of the emotional significance of actions. However, no study to date has directly linked amplitude changes at the level of the ERN/Ne-CRN to the affective processing of actions. To decode the emotional valence of actions performed during a go/no-go task, the authors used an evaluative priming method in this study. After each action following the go/no-go stimulus, participants had to categorize an evaluative word as either positive or negative. Behavioral results showed that response errors (i.e., false alarms, FAs) performed during the go/no-go task led to a faster categorization of negative than positive words. Remarkably, this evaluative priming effect was related to the magnitude of the ERN/Ne component generated during the go/no-go task. Moreover, ERP results showed that the processing of evaluative words following FAs was influenced early on after word onset (early posterior negativity-EPN effect), while it was influenced later following correct as well as incorrect actions (late positive potential-LPP effect). Altogether, these ERP results suggest that the action-related ERN-CRN component encodes the perceived emotional significance of actions, such that early stages of evaluative word processing following these actions are influenced by this automatic process.

  4. Tobacco control: National Action Plan for NCD Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania; Mirza, Zafar; Mohamud, Khalif Bile; Latif, Ehsan; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Jafarey, Naeem A

    2004-12-01

    Reliance on revenue generated from tobacco is one of the fundamental barriers to effective tobacco control in Pakistan. The tobacco control component of the National Action Plan for Non-Communicable Diseases Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD) deems it critical to address this issue. A range of policy and environmental strategies are part of this comprehensive effort; these involve regulating access and limiting demand through restrictions on advertising, marketing, promotion and through price and taxation. The NAP-NCD also encompasses community and school interventions, enforcement of tobacco control policies, cessation programmes, mass media counter-marketing campaigns for both prevention and cessation, and surveillance and evaluation of efforts. As part of NAP-NCD, surveillance of tobacco use has been integrated with a population-based NCD surveillance system. Featuring tobacco prominently as part of an NCD behavioural change strategy and providing wide-ranging information relevant to all aspects of tobacco prevention and control and smoking cessation have been identified as priority area in NAP-NCD. Other priority areas include the gradual phasing out of all types of advertising and eventually a complete ban on advertising; allocation of resources for policy and operational research around tobacco and building capacity in the health system in support of tobacco control. NAP-NCD also stresses on the need to develop and enforce legislation on smuggling contrabands and counterfeiting and legislation to subject tobacco to stringent regulations governing pharmaceutical products. The adoption of measures to discourage tobacco cultivation and assist with crop diversification; integration of guidance on tobacco use cessation into health services and insuring the availability and access to nicotine replacement therapy are also part of NAP-NCD.

  5. Religion and action control: Faith-specific modulation of the Simon effect but not Stop-Signal performance.

    PubMed

    Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S; Scorolli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M

    2011-08-01

    Previous findings suggest that religion has a specific impact on attentional processes. Here we show that religion also affects action control. Experiment 1 compared Dutch Calvinists and Dutch atheists, matched for age, sex, intelligence, education, and cultural and socio-economic background, and Experiment 2 compared Italian Catholics with matched Italian seculars. As expected, Calvinists showed a smaller and Catholics a larger Simon effect than nonbelievers, while performance of the groups was comparable in the Stop-Signal task. This pattern suggests that religions emphasizing individualism or collectivism affects action control in specific ways, presumably by inducing chronic biases towards a more "exclusive" or "inclusive" style of decision-making. Interestingly, there was no evidence that religious practice affects inhibitory skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence implementation: Development of an online methodology from the knowledge-to-action model of knowledge translation.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Craig; Stephenson, Matthew; Lizarondo, Lucylynn; van Den Hoek, Joan; Harrison, Margaret

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes an online facilitation for operationalizing the knowledge-to-action (KTA) model. The KTA model incorporates implementation planning that is optimally suited to the information needs of clinicians. The can-implement(©) is an evidence implementation process informed by the KTA model. An online counterpart, the can-implement.pro(©) , was developed to enable greater dissemination and utilization of the can-implement(©) process. The driver for this work was health professionals' need for facilitation that is iterative, informed by context and localized to the specific needs of users. The literature supporting this paper includes evaluation studies and theoretical concepts relevant to KTA model, evidence implementation and facilitation. Nursing and other health disciplines require a skill set and resources to successfully navigate the complexity of organizational requirements, inter-professional leadership and day-to-day practical management to implement evidence into clinical practice. The can-implement.pro(©) provides an accessible, inclusive system for evidence implementation projects. There is empirical support for evidence implementation informed by the KTA model, which in this phase of work has been developed for online uptake. Nurses and other clinicians seeking to implement evidence could benefit from the directed actions, planning advice and information embedded in the phases and steps of can-implement.pro(©) . © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Cancer control in Africa: a call for action.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J

    2004-03-01

    Cancer is an emerging public health problem in Africa especially with increasing frequency of HIV-associated malignancies and exposure to environmental carcinogens. This review attempts to highlight steps that can be taken to achieve effective control programmes in low-resource areas of Africa. The author reviews the areas of importance in cancer control programmes based on local experience. To implement cancer control programmes, steps must be taken to improve the data collection on incidence and trends of common cancers with the establishment of local cancer registries. There is the necessity to increase the level of awareness of the population about common cancers, to dispel the cultural taboos and myths, and teach basic preventive health measures. These can be achieved by well-organized sustained educational programmes extended to the grass-roots with community participation. The training of personnel at community level to recognize the early signs and symptoms coupled with provision of primary health care facilities and basic sustained well-planned referral system will be necessary to accommodate the fall-out of educational programmes and anti-cancer campaign. The integration of cancer control activities into the existing health care structure would make it easier to sustain these programmes. The cost-effectiveness of prevention and early diagnosis of cancer cannot be over-emphasized in Africa. With government investment in national health and provision of facilities for early diagnosis and treatment, effective cancer control can be achieved.

  8. Exploring multimodal semantic control impairments in semantic aphasia: evidence from naturalistic object use.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Faye; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2009-11-01

    recurrent connectionist approach to normal and impaired routine sequential action. Psychological Review, 111, 395-429], after the mechanism responsible for controlling action in a temporally sensitive manner was damaged. This study provides converging evidence for a failure of control processes underlying semantic memory impairment in SA, which is reflected not only in patients' performance on language-based tasks, but also in the non-verbal domain of naturalistic object use.

  9. A quantitative weight of evidence assessment of confidence in modes-of-action and their human relevance.

    PubMed

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Bridges, James; Scialli, Anthony R

    2017-08-22

    A quantitative weight of evidence (QWoE) methodology was developed to assess confidence in postulated mode(s) of action for adverse effects in animal toxicity studies. The QWoE is appropriate for assessing adverse effects as relevant endpoints for classification and labeling purposes. The methodology involves definition of mode of actions and scoring supporting data for all key steps using predefined criteria for quality and relevance/strength of effects. Scores for all key steps are summarized, and the summary score is compared to the maximal achievable score for the mode of action. The ratio of the summary score to the maximal achievable scores gives an indication of confidence in a specific mode of action in animals. The mode of action in animals with highest confidence is then taken forward to assess appropriateness to humans. If one of the key steps cannot occur in humans, the mode of action is not relevant to humans. The methodology developed is applied to four case studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Implementing a Fetal Health Surveillance Guideline in Clinical Practice: A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial of Action Learning.

    PubMed

    Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Davies, Barbara; Flowerdew, Gordon; Young, David

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of an Action Learning intervention on nurses' use of a fetal health surveillance (FHS) guideline during labor of women who were low risk on admission for delivery. Using a pragmatic randomized controlled trial, nurses were randomized to Action Learning (n = 44) or Usual Care (n = 45). Low-risk women were assigned to either an Action Learning nurse (n = 122) or a Usual Care nurse (n = 148). Data on practices during an episode of care (nurses' FHS practices from admission through to delivery in low-risk women) were collected at three trial time points: 1 month prior, during 6 months, and 1 month following. Guideline adherence, women's perception of birth experience, and enablers and inhibitors to intermittent auscultation (IA) were collected. Multivariate logistic regression determined the variables (chosen by the nurses) that predicted Action Learning nurses' adherence to FHS practices. Statistically significant change was not evident between nurses' rate of FHS practices in the Action Learning group compared with Usual Care (Δ6.8%, odds ratio [OR] 0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-2.83). Postpartum, women reported high satisfaction with no significant difference by study group. Two labor events, epidural and narcotic analgesia, most influenced guideline appropriate care (p = .000, OR -4.04; p = .000, OR = 2.89) within the experimental group. Despite lack of between-group significant changes in FHS practices, Action Learning nurses, who chose areas of practice that presented obstacles to their guideline adherence ability (epidurals and narcotics), significantly changed their FHS practices. Researchers need to consider whether practice is long-standing acceptance of the evidence by healthcare providers, and the provider's intentions for implementation effectiveness when choosing an implementation strategy. Supportive nurses, Doppler availability, and clear policies support adherence to an IA guideline

  11. Diabetes prevention and control: National Action Plan for NCD Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania; Shera, Samad; Raffique, Ghazala; Mohamud, Khalif Bile; Ahmed, Ashfaq

    2004-12-01

    More than 10% of the adult population in Pakistan suffers from diabetes. The National Action Plan for Non-communicable Disease Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD) incorporates prevention and control of diabetes as part of a comprehensive and integrated national non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention effort. Building on existing data, the diabetes surveillance process has been integrated with a comprehensive population-based NCD surveillance system using waist circumference as a proxy indicator for the risk of diabetes in the short term; however, the surveillance strategy makes a case for future efforts to upgrade surveillance to allow a more comprehensive assessment incorporating biochemical assessments. The programme focuses on diabetes prevention by maximizing risk factor control as a common theme across the range of NCDs and lays emphasis on integrating prevention of'diabetes and intensified case finding in high-risk groups into health services as part of a comprehensive and sustainable, scientifically valid, culturally appropriate and resource-sensitive Continued Medical Education (CME) programme for all categories of healthcare providers. The programme also focuses on ensuring availability of anti-diabetics (insulin, sulphonylureas, metformin) at all levels of healthcare. Building capacity in the health system and coalitions in support of diabetes prevention has also been regarded as being critical.

  12. Simulating the Epidemiological and Economic Impact of Paratuberculosis Control Actions in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Christiansen, Lasse E.; Toft, Nils; Rattenborg, Erik; Halasa, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new mechanistic bioeconomic model for simulating the spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) within a dairy cattle herd. The model includes age-dependent susceptibility for infection; age-dependent sensitivity for detection; environmental MAP build up in five separate areas of the farm; in utero infection; infection via colostrum and waste milk, and it allows for realistic culling (i.e., due to other diseases) by including a ranking system. We calibrated the model using a unique dataset from Denmark, including 102 random farms with no control actions against spread of MAP. Likewise, four control actions recommended in the Danish MAP control program were implemented in the model based on reported management strategies in Danish dairy herds in a MAP control scheme. We tested the model parameterization in a sensitivity analysis. We show that a test-and-cull strategy is on average the most cost-effective solution to decrease the prevalence and increase the total net revenue on a farm with low hygiene, but not more profitable than no control strategy on a farm with average hygiene. Although it is possible to eradicate MAP from the farm by implementing all four control actions from the Danish MAP control program, it was not economically attractive since the expenses for the control actions outweigh the benefits. Furthermore, the three most popular control actions against the spread of MAP on the farm were found to be costly and inefficient in lowering the prevalence when used independently. PMID:27777933

  13. Internal Controls for Accounting Areas. Alliance Action Information Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Internal controls are important to ensure your Parent Center's resources are well protected. Steps should be taken to ensure that finance transactions are authorized by management, executed properly and on time, and recorded appropriately. Some centers may not have staff with all of the titles used in the procedures presented in this paper.…

  14. Internal Controls for Accounting Areas. Alliance Action Information Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Internal controls are important to ensure your Parent Center's resources are well protected. Steps should be taken to ensure that finance transactions are authorized by management, executed properly and on time, and recorded appropriately. Some centers may not have staff with all of the titles used in the procedures presented in this paper.…

  15. Humans are sensitive to attention control when predicting others’ actions

    PubMed Central

    Pesquita, Ana; Chapman, Craig S.; Enns, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of social perception report acute human sensitivity to where another’s attention is aimed. Here we ask whether humans are also sensitive to how the other’s attention is deployed. Observers viewed videos of actors reaching to targets without knowing that those actors were sometimes choosing to reach to one of the targets (endogenous control) and sometimes being directed to reach to one of the targets (exogenous control). Experiments 1 and 2 showed that observers could respond more rapidly when actors chose where to reach, yet were at chance when guessing whether the reach was chosen or directed. This implicit sensitivity to attention control held when either actor’s faces or limbs were masked (experiment 3) and when only the earliest actor’s movements were visible (experiment 4). Individual differences in sensitivity to choice correlated with an independent measure of social aptitude. We conclude that humans are sensitive to attention control through an implicit kinematic process linked to empathy. The findings support the hypothesis that social cognition involves the predictive modeling of others’ attentional states. PMID:27436897

  16. Reinforcement Learning for the Adaptive Control of Perception and Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    This dissertation applies reinforcement learning to the adaptive control of active sensory-motor systems. Active sensory-motor systems, in addition...distinct states in the external world. This phenomenon, called perceptual aliasing, is shown to destabilize existing reinforcement learning algorithms

  17. Melanocortin control of energy balance: evidence from rodent models.

    PubMed

    De Jonghe, Bart C; Hayes, Matthew R; Bence, Kendra K

    2011-08-01

    Regulation of energy balance is extremely complex, and involves multiple systems of hormones, neurotransmitters, receptors, and intracellular signals. As data have accumulated over the last two decades, the CNS melanocortin system is now identified as a prominent integrative network of energy balance controls in the mammalian brain. Here, we will review findings from rat and mouse models, which have provided an important framework in which to study melanocortin function. Perhaps most importantly, this review attempts for the first time to summarize recent advances in our understanding of the intracellular signaling pathways thought to mediate the action of melanocortin neurons and peptides in control of longterm energy balance. Special attention will be paid to the roles of MC4R/MC3R, as well as downstream neurotransmitters within forebrain and hindbrain structures that illustrate the distributed control of melanocortin signaling in energy balance. In addition, distinctions and controversy between rodent species will be discussed.

  18. Melanocortin Control of Energy Balance: Evidence from Rodent Models

    PubMed Central

    De Jonghe, Bart C.; Hayes, Matthew R.; Bence, Kendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of energy balance is extremely complex, and involves multiple systems of hormones, neurotransmitters, receptors, and intracellular signals. As data have accumulated over the last two decades, the CNS melanocortin system is now identified as a prominent integrative network of energy balance controls in the mammalian brain. Here, we will review findings from rat and mouse models, which have provided an important framework in which to study melanocortin function. Perhaps most importantly, this review attempts for the first time to summarize recent advances in our understanding of the intracellular signaling pathways thought to mediate the action of melanocortin neurons and peptides in control of long term energy balance. Special attention will be paid to the roles of MC4R/MC3R, as well as downstream neurotransmitters within forebrain and hindbrain structures that illustrate the distributed control of melanocortin signaling in energy balance. In addition, distinctions and controversy between rodent species will be discussed. PMID:21553232

  19. From action representation to action execution: exploring the links between cognitive and biomechanical levels of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Land, William M.; Volchenkov, Dima; Bläsing, Bettina E.; Schack, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Along with superior performance, research indicates that expertise is associated with a number of mediating cognitive adaptations. To this extent, extensive practice is associated with the development of general and task-specific mental representations, which play an important role in the organization and control of action. Recently, new experimental methods have been developed, which allow for investigating the organization and structure of these representations, along with the functional structure of the movement kinematics. In the current article, we present a new approach for examining the overlap between skill representations and motor output. In doing so, we first present an architecture model, which addresses links between biomechanical and cognitive levels of motor control. Next, we review the state of the art in assessing memory structures underlying complex action. Following we present a new spatio-temporal decomposition method for illuminating the functional structure of movement kinematics, and finally, we apply these methods to investigate the overlap between the structure of motor representations in memory and their corresponding kinematic structures. Our aim is to understand the extent to which the output at a kinematic level is governed by representations at a cognitive level of motor control. PMID:24065915

  20. A unique concept for automatically controlling the braking action of wheeled vehicles during minimum distance stops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthlome, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Test results of a unique automatic brake control system are outlined and a comparison is made of its mode of operation to that of an existing skid control system. The purpose of the test system is to provide automatic control of braking action such that hydraulic brake pressure is maintained at a near constant, optimum value during minimum distance stops.

  1. Further evidence against a direct genotoxic mode of action for arsenic-induced cancer

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Catherine B.; Leszczynska, Joanna; Hickey, Christina; Rossman, Toby G.

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water, a mixture of arsenite and arsenate, is associated with increased skin and other cancers in Asia and Latin America, but not the United States. Arsenite alone in drinking water does not cause skin cancers in experimental animals, therefore it is not a complete carcinogen in skin. We recently showed that low concentrations of arsenite enhanced the tumorigenicity of solar UV irradiation in hairless mice, suggesting arsenic co-carcinogenesis with sunlight in skin cancer and perhaps with different carcinogenic partners for lung and bladder tumors. Cocarcinogenic mechanisms could include: blocking DNA repair, stimulating angiogenesis, altering DNA methylation patterns, dysregulating cell cycle control, induction of aneuploidy, and blocking apoptosis. Arsenicals are documented clastogens but not strong mutagens, with weak mutagenic activity reported at highly toxic concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Previously, we showed that arsenite, but not monomethylarsonous acid (MMA[III]), induced delayed mutagenesis in HOS cells. Here, we report new data on the mutagenicity of the trivalent methylated arsenic metabolites MMA(III) and dimethylarsinous acid [DMA(III)] at the gpt locus in Chinese hamster G12 cells. Both methylated arsenicals seemed mutagenic with apparent sublinear dose responses. However, significant mutagenesis occurred only at highly toxic concentrations of MMA(III). Most mutants induced by MMA(III) and DMA(III) mutants exhibited transgene deletions. Some non-deletion mutants exhibited altered DNA methylation. A critical discussion of cell survival leads us to conclude that clastogenesis occurs primarily at highly cytotoxic arsenic concentrations, casting further doubt as to whether a genotoxic mode of action (MOA) for arsenicals is supportable. PMID:17316729

  2. Further evidence against a direct genotoxic mode of action for arsenic-induced cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Catherine B.; Leszczynska, Joanna; Hickey, Christina; Rossman, Toby G.

    2007-08-01

    Arsenic in drinking water, a mixture of arsenite and arsenate, is associated with increased skin and other cancers in Asia and Latin America, but not the United States. Arsenite alone in drinking water does not cause skin cancers in experimental animals; therefore, it is not a complete carcinogen in skin. We recently showed that low concentrations of arsenite enhanced the tumorigenicity of solar UV irradiation in hairless mice, suggesting arsenic cocarcinogenesis with sunlight in skin cancer and perhaps with different carcinogenic partners for lung and bladder tumors. Cocarcinogenic mechanisms could include blocking DNA repair, stimulating angiogenesis, altering DNA methylation patterns, dysregulating cell cycle control, induction of aneuploidy and blocking apoptosis. Arsenicals are documented clastogens but not strong mutagens, with weak mutagenic activity reported at highly toxic concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Previously, we showed that arsenite, but not monomethylarsonous acid (MMA[III]), induced delayed mutagenesis in HOS cells. Here, we report new data on the mutagenicity of the trivalent methylated arsenic metabolites MMA(III) and dimethylarsinous acid [DMA(III)] at the gpt locus in Chinese hamster G12 cells. Both methylated arsenicals seemed mutagenic with apparent sublinear dose responses. However, significant mutagenesis occurred only at highly toxic concentrations of MMA(III). Most mutants induced by MMA(III) and DMA(III) exhibited transgene deletions. Some non-deletion mutants exhibited altered DNA methylation. A critical discussion of cell survival leads us to conclude that clastogenesis occurs primarily at highly cytotoxic arsenic concentrations, casting further doubt as to whether a genotoxic mode of action (MOA) for arsenicals is supportable.

  3. Infants prospectively control reaching based on the difficulty of future actions: To what extent can infants' multiple-step actions be explained by Fitts' law?

    PubMed

    Gottwald, Janna M; De Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora; Lindskog, Marcus; Nyström, Pär; L Ekberg, Therese; von Hofsten, Claes; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2017-01-01

    Prospective motor control, a key element of action planning, is the ability to adjust one's actions with respect to task demands and action goals in an anticipatory manner. The current study investigates whether 14-month-olds can prospectively control their reaching actions based on the difficulty of the subsequent action. We used a reach-to-place task, with difficulty of the placing action varied by goal size and goal distance. To target prospective motor control, we determined the kinematics of the prior reaching movements using a motion-tracking system. Peak velocity of the first movement unit of the reach served as indicator for prospective motor control. Both difficulty aspects (goal size and goal distance) affected prior reaching, suggesting that both these aspects of the subsequent action have an impact on the prior action. The smaller the goal size and the longer the distance to the goal, the slower infants were in the beginning of their reach toward the object. Additionally, we modeled movement times of both reaching and placing actions using a formulation of Fitts' law (as in heading). The model was significant for placement and reaching movement times. These findings suggest that 14-month-olds can plan their future actions and prospectively control their related movements with respect to future task difficulties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Sense of control depends on fluency of action selection, not motor performance.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Valerian; Haggard, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Sense of agency refers to the feeling of controlling one's own actions, and, through these actions, events in the outside world. Sense of agency is widely held to involve a retrospective inference based on matching actual effects of an action with its expected effects. We hypothesise a second, prospective aspect of sense of agency, reflecting the fluency of action selection, based on results from subliminal priming of actions. When people responded to a target that was compatible with a preceding subliminal prime, they felt stronger sense of control over a subsequent colour effect than when the preceding prime was incompatible. Importantly, compatible and incompatible primes had the same predictive statistical relation to the colour effect. We next investigated whether differences in sense of control could be based on monitoring motor performance. By varying the timings of mask and target, we compared sense of control between a Positive Compatibility condition, where compatible primes facilitated performance, and a Negative Compatibility condition, where compatible primes impaired performance. We found that compatible priming again enhanced sense of control, irrespective of its effects on performance. We present a simple model of the prospective aspect of sense of agency, in which early signals reflecting action selection processing make a direct, experiential contribution to sense of control. Sense of agency may be partly based on an experience-based 'feeling of doing', analogous to the metacognitive 'feeling of knowing'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Left occipitotemporal cortex contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions: fMRI and TMS evidence

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Francesca; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V.

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the left lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC) in both tool and hand perception but the functional role of this region is not fully known. Here, by using a task manipulation, we tested whether tool-/hand-selective LOTC contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions. Participants viewed briefly presented pictures of kitchen and garage tools while they performed one of two tasks: in the action task, they judged whether the tool is associated with a hand rotation action (e.g., screwdriver) or a hand squeeze action (e.g., garlic press), while in the location task they judged whether the tool is typically found in the kitchen (e.g., garlic press) or in the garage (e.g., screwdriver). Both tasks were performed on the same stimulus set and were matched for difficulty. Contrasting fMRI responses between these tasks showed stronger activity during the action task than the location task in both tool- and hand-selective LOTC regions, which closely overlapped. No differences were found in nearby object- and motion-selective control regions. Importantly, these findings were confirmed by a TMS study, which showed that effective TMS over the tool-/hand-selective LOTC region significantly slowed responses for tool action discriminations relative to tool location discriminations, with no such difference during sham TMS. We conclude that left LOTC contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions. PMID:25140142

  6. Do non-human primates cooperate? Evidences of motor coordination during a joint action task in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Visco-Comandini, Federica; Ferrari-Toniolo, Simone; Satta, Eleonora; Papazachariadis, Odysseas; Gupta, Rajnish; Nalbant, Laura Elena; Battaglia-Mayer, Alexandra

    2015-09-01

    Humans are intensively social primates, therefore many of their actions are dedicated to communication and interaction with other individuals. Despite the progress in understanding the cognitive and neural processes that allow humans to perform cooperative actions, in non-human primates only few studies have investigated the ability to interact with a partner in order to reach a common goal. These studies have shown that in naturalistic conditions animals engage in various types of social behavior that involve forms of mutual coordination and cooperation. However, little is known on the capacity of non-human primates to actively cooperate in a controlled experimental setting, which allows full characterization of the motor parameters underlying individual action and their change during motor cooperation. To this aim, we analyzed the behavior of three pairs of macaque monkeys trained to perform solo and joint-actions by exerting a force on an isometric joystick, as to move an individual or a common cursor toward visual targets on a screen. We found that during cooperation monkeys reciprocally adapt their behavior by changing the parameters that define the spatial and temporal aspects of their action, as to fine tune their joint effort, and maximize their common performance. Furthermore the results suggest that when acting together the movement parameters that specify each actor's behavior are not only modulated during execution, but also during planning. These findings provide the first quantitative description of action coordination in non-human primates during the performance of a joint action task.

  7. From evidence to action? Challenges to policy change and programme delivery for malaria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Jane; Hill, Jenny; Yartey, Juliana; Robalo, Magda; Serufilira, Antoine; Ba-Nguz, Antoinette; Roman, Elaine; Palmer, Ayo; Asamoa, Kwame; Steketee, Richard

    2007-02-01

    This paper discusses the factors that influence whether strategies for preventing and treating malaria in pregnancy are successfully translated into national policy and programme implementation, and identifies key operational research issues. Countries require guidance on how to assess the effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in the context of increasing sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. At the same time, data on the safety and efficacy of alternatives to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for prevention and treatment are urgently needed. Systematic examination of the cultural and operational constraints to delivery and uptake of IPTp with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and use of insecticide-treated nets would provide a rational basis for strategies aimed at improving coverage. Standardised methodology must be used to monitor IPTp coverage and to compare different approaches for scaling-up the delivery of insecticide-treated nets to pregnant women. Adequate budgetary provision for the implementation of policy and for operational research to improve programme delivery should be included in national applications to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The provision of clear policy guidance on malaria in pregnancy and its translation into evidence-based guidelines that are made widely available at a country level are central to improving malaria control in this particularly vulnerable group.

  8. Differentiating between precursor and control variables when analyzing reasoned action theories.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Brown, Larry; Diclemente, Ralph; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Salazar, Laura

    2010-02-01

    This paper highlights the distinction between precursor and control variables in the context of reasoned action theory. Here the theory is combined with structural equation modeling to demonstrate how age and past sexual behavior should be situated in a reasoned action analysis. A two wave longitudinal survey sample of African-American adolescents is analyzed where the target behavior is having vaginal sex. Results differ when age and past behavior are used as control variables and when they are correctly used as precursors. Because control variables do not appear in any form of reasoned action theory, this approach to including background variables is not correct when analyzing data sets based on the theoretical axioms of the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Theory of Planned Behavior, or the Integrative Model.

  9. Differentiating Between Precursor and Control Variables When Analyzing Reasoned Action Theories

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Brown, Larry; DiClemente, Ralph; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Salazar, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the distinction between precursor and control variables in the context of reasoned action theory. Here the theory is combined with structural equation modeling to demonstrate how age and past sexual behavior should be situated in a reasoned action analysis. A two wave longitudinal survey sample of African-American adolescents is analyzed where the target behavior is having vaginal sex. Results differ when age and past behavior are used as control variables and when they are correctly used as precursors. Because control variables do not appear in any form of reasoned action theory, this approach to including background variables is not correct when analyzing data sets based on the theoretical axioms of the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Theory of Planned Behavior, or the Integrative Model PMID:19370408

  10. Action Control of Autonomous Agents in Continuous Valued Space Using RFCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirakawa, Shinichi; Nagao, Tomoharu

    Researches on action control of autonomous agents and multiple agents have attracted increasing attentions in recent years. The general method using action control of agents are neural network, genetic programming and reinforcement learning. In this study, we use neural network for action control of autonomous agents. Our method determines the structure and parameter of neural network in evolution. We proposed Flexibly Connected Neural Network (FCN) previously as a method of constructing arbitrary neural networks with optimized structures and parameters to solve unknown problems. FCN was applied to action control of an autonomous agent and showed experimentally that it is effective for perceptual aliasing problems. All of the experiments of FCN, however, are in only grid space. In this paper, we propose a new method based on FCN which can decide correct action in real and continuous valued space. The proposed method which called Real valued FCN (RFCN) optimizes input-output functions of each units, parameters of the input-output functions and speed of each units. In order to examine the effectiveness, we applied the proposed method to action control of an autonomous agent to solve continuous valued maze problems.

  11. Cervical cancer control in Latin America: A call to action.

    PubMed

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Herold, Christina I; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Dizon, Don S; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Del Carmen, Marcela; Randall, Tom C; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline M; Goss, Paul E

    2016-02-15

    Cervical cancer (CC) is second most common cause of cancer in Latin America and is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women. In 2015, an estimated 74,488 women will be diagnosed with CC in Latin America and 31,303 will die of the disease. CC mortality is projected to increase by 45% by 2030 despite human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening efforts. In this setting, the goal was of the current study was to examine CC control efforts in Latin America and identify deficiencies in these efforts that could be addressed to reduce CC incidence and mortality. The authors found that HPV vaccination has been introduced in the majority of Latin American countries, and there is now a need to monitor the success (or shortcomings) of these programs and to ensure that these programs are sustainable. This topic was also reviewed in light of emerging data demonstrating that visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV DNA testing without Papanicolaou tests have efficacy from a screening perspective and are good alternatives to cytology-based screening programs. Overall, there is a need to build capacity for CC control in Latin America and the best strategy will depend on the country/region and must be tailored to meet the needs of the population as well as available resources.

  12. Environmental constraints modify the way an interceptive action is controlled.

    PubMed

    Morice, Antoine H P; François, Matthieu; Jacobs, David M; Montagne, Gilles

    2010-04-01

    This study concerns the process by which agents select control laws. Participants adjusted their walking speed in a virtual environment in order to intercept approaching targets. Successful interception can be achieved with a constant bearing angle (CBA) strategy that relies on prospective information, or with a modified required velocity (MRV) strategy, which also includes predictive information. We manipulated the curvature of the target paths and the display condition of these paths. The curvature manipulation had large effects on the walking kinematics when the target paths were not displayed (informationally poor display). In contrast, the walking kinematics were less affected by the curvature manipulation when the target paths were displayed (informationally rich display). This indicates that participants used an MRV strategy in the informationally rich display and a CBA strategy in the informationally poor display. Quantitative fits of the respective models confirm this information-driven switch between the use of a strategy that relies on prospective information and a strategy that includes predictive information. We conclude that agents are able of taking advantage of available information by selecting a suitable control law.

  13. Functionalized nanosponges for controlled antibacterial and antihypocalcemic actions.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Kiran; Tanwar, Yuveraj Singh; Sharma, Shailendra; Shende, Pravin; Cavalli, Roberta

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop lysozyme impregnated surface-active nanosponges to maintain its conformational stability and break bacterial cell walls by catalyzing the hydrolysis of 1,4-β-linkages between N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid residues present in peptidoglycan layer surrounding the bacterial cell membrane, and for controlling the release of calcium in hypocalcemia condition. Different carbonyl diimidazole cross-linked β-cyclodextrin nanosponges with and without CaCO3 and CMC were prepared by polymer condensation method. The surface-active nanosponges were impregnated by lysozyme due to their ability to adsorb protein. Lysozyme impregnated nanosponges had a monomodal particle size distribution of 347.46±3.07 to 550.34±5.23nm, with a narrow distribution. The zeta potentials were sufficiently increased upon lysozyme impregnation, suggesting stable formulations by preventing aggregation. The in vitro release studies showed controlled release of lysozyme and calcium over a period of 24h. FTIR studies confirmed the impregnation of lysozyme on nanosponges and encapsulation of calcium in nanosponges. Lysozyme formulation showed promising conformational stability by DSC. It can be concluded that the stable nanosponges formulation is a promising carrier for antibacterial protein and preventing depletion of calcium in antibiotic associated hypocalcemic condition.

  14. Light, heat, action: neural control of fruit fly behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Owald, David; Lin, Suewei; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a popular model to investigate fundamental principles of neural circuit operation. The sophisticated genetics and small brain permit a cellular resolution understanding of innate and learned behavioural processes. Relatively recent genetic and technical advances provide the means to specifically and reproducibly manipulate the function of many fly neurons with temporal resolution. The same cellular precision can also be exploited to express genetically encoded reporters of neural activity and cell-signalling pathways. Combining these approaches in living behaving animals has great potential to generate a holistic view of behavioural control that transcends the usual molecular, cellular and systems boundaries. In this review, we discuss these approaches with particular emphasis on the pioneering studies and those involving learning and memory. PMID:26240426

  15. Translating evidence into policy for cardiovascular disease control in India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are leading causes of premature mortality in India. Evidence from developed countries shows that mortality from these can be substantially prevented using population-wide and individual-based strategies. Policy initiatives for control of CVD in India have been suggested but evidence of efficacy has emerged only recently. These initiatives can have immediate impact in reducing morbidity and mortality. Of the prevention strategies, primordial involve improvement in socioeconomic status and literacy, adequate healthcare financing and public health insurance, effective national CVD control programme, smoking control policies, legislative control of saturated fats, trans fats, salt and alcohol, and development of facilities for increasing physical activity through better urban planning and school-based and worksite interventions. Primary prevention entails change in medical educational curriculum and improved healthcare delivery for control of CVD risk factors-smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes. Secondary prevention involves creation of facilities and human resources for optimum acute CVD care and secondary prevention. There is need to integrate various policy makers, develop effective policies and modify healthcare systems for effective delivery of CVD preventive care. PMID:21306620

  16. Object manipulation and motion perception: evidence of an influence of action planning on visual processing.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Oliver; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-08-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated the bidirectional coupling of perception and action in the context of object manipulations and motion perception. Participants prepared to grasp an X-shaped object along one of its 2 diagonals and to rotate it in a clockwise- or a counterclockwise direction. Action execution had to be delayed until the appearance of a visual go signal, which induced an apparent rotational motion in either a clockwise- or a counterclockwise direction. Stimulus detection was faster when the direction of the induced apparent motion was consistent with the direction of the concurrently intended manual object rotation. Responses to action-consistent motions were also faster when the participants prepared the manipulation actions but signaled their stimulus detections with another motor effector (i.e., with a foot response). Taken together, the present study demonstrates a motor-visual priming effect of prepared object manipulations on visual motion perception, indicating a bidirectional functional link between action and perception beyond object-related visuomotor associations.

  17. Empathy for pain motivates actions without altruistic effects: evidence of motor dynamics and brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaochun; He, Kang; Wu, Bing; Shi, Zhenhao; Liu, Yi; Luo, Siyang; Wei, Kunlin; Wu, Xinhuai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Empathy has been supposed to be a proximate mechanism of altruistic behavior. We investigated whether empathy for pain drives actions without altruistic effects and how such actions modulate neural responses to others’ pain. In two experiments, we asked healthy adults to press a button for no reason when viewing video clips showing faces with pain expressions receiving needle penetration or faces with neutral expressions receiving a cotton swab touch. Experiment 1 found that participants pressed a button with greater response force when watching painful than non-painful stimuli. Participants who reported greater unpleasant feelings pressed the button harder when viewing painful stimuli. Experiment 2 revealed that passively viewing painful vs non-painful stimuli increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals in the middle cingulate cortex, supplementary motor cortex, and bilateral second somatosensory and inferior frontal cortex, which, however, were reduced by the action of button press without altruistic effects. In addition, individuals who reported higher personal distress illustrated greater decrease of the second somatosensory activity induced by button press. Our results indicate that empathy for pain motivates simple actions without altruistic effects that in turn reduce neural responses to others’ pain, suggesting a functional role of action execution in self distress relief when viewing others’ suffering. PMID:28338790

  18. Further evidence for a role of arachidonic acid in glucocorticoid teratogenic action in the palate.

    PubMed

    Piddington, R; Herold, R; Goldman, A S

    1983-12-01

    Arachidonic acid produces a significant reversal of the production of cleft palate by cortisone in the offspring of sensitive strains of mice in vivo. Arachidonic acid in nanogram per milliliter concentrations also produces a significant reversal of the cortisol inhibition of the programmed cell death of the medial edge epithelium of palatal shelves in vitro. This corrective action of arachidonic acid in vitro is significantly blocked by indomethacin at a nanogram per milliliter concentration which selectively inhibits the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and/or thromboxanes at the level of cyclooxygenase. These results support the hypothesis that the inhibition of arachidonic acid release and subsequent prostaglandin and/or thromboxane production by glucocorticoids is involved in the teratogenic action of glucocorticoids and demonstrate that one site of this action is the inhibition of epithelial loss.

  19. Evidence supporting a role for SMAD2/3 in bovine early embryonic development: potential implications for embryotropic actions of follistatin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Rajput, Sandeep K; Lee, Kyung-Bon; Wang, Dongliang; Huang, Juncheng; Folger, Joseph K; Knott, Jason G; Zhang, Jiuzhen; Smith, George W

    2015-10-01

    The TGF-beta-SMAD signaling pathway is involved in regulation of various aspects of female reproduction. However, the intrinsic functional role of SMADs in early embryogenesis remains poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that treatment with follistatin, an activin (TGF-beta superfamily ligand)-binding protein, is beneficial for bovine early embryogenesis and specific embryotropic actions of follistatin are dependent on SMAD4. Because SMAD4 is a common SMAD that can bind both SMAD2/3 and SMAD1/5, the objective of this study was to further determine the intrinsic role of SMAD2/3 in the control of early embryogenesis and delineate if embryotropic actions of follistatin in early embryos are SMAD2/3 dependent. By using a combination of pharmacological and small interfering RNA-mediated inhibition of SMAD2/3 signaling in the presence or absence of follistatin treatment, our results indicate that SMAD2 and SMAD3 are both required for bovine early embryonic development and stimulatory actions of follistatin on 8- to 16-cell and that blastocyst rates, but not early cleavage, are muted when SMAD2/3 signaling is inhibited. SMAD2 deficiency also results in reduced expression of the bovine trophectoderm cell-specific gene CTGF. In conclusion, the present work provides evidence supporting a functional role of SMAD2/3 in bovine early embryogenesis and that specific stimulatory actions of follistatin are not observed in the absence of SMAD2/3 signaling.

  20. Evidence Supporting a Role for SMAD2/3 in Bovine Early Embryonic Development: Potential Implications for Embryotropic Actions of Follistatin1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Rajput, Sandeep K.; Lee, Kyung-Bon; Wang, Dongliang; Huang, Juncheng; Folger, Joseph K.; Knott, Jason G.; Zhang, Jiuzhen; Smith, George W.

    2015-01-01

    The TGF-beta-SMAD signaling pathway is involved in regulation of various aspects of female reproduction. However, the intrinsic functional role of SMADs in early embryogenesis remains poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that treatment with follistatin, an activin (TGF-beta superfamily ligand)-binding protein, is beneficial for bovine early embryogenesis and specific embryotropic actions of follistatin are dependent on SMAD4. Because SMAD4 is a common SMAD that can bind both SMAD2/3 and SMAD1/5, the objective of this study was to further determine the intrinsic role of SMAD2/3 in the control of early embryogenesis and delineate if embryotropic actions of follistatin in early embryos are SMAD2/3 dependent. By using a combination of pharmacological and small interfering RNA-mediated inhibition of SMAD2/3 signaling in the presence or absence of follistatin treatment, our results indicate that SMAD2 and SMAD3 are both required for bovine early embryonic development and stimulatory actions of follistatin on 8- to 16-cell and that blastocyst rates, but not early cleavage, are muted when SMAD2/3 signaling is inhibited. SMAD2 deficiency also results in reduced expression of the bovine trophectoderm cell-specific gene CTGF. In conclusion, the present work provides evidence supporting a functional role of SMAD2/3 in bovine early embryogenesis and that specific stimulatory actions of follistatin are not observed in the absence of SMAD2/3 signaling. PMID:26289443

  1. Evidence for fast, low-level motor resonance to action observation: an MEG study.

    PubMed

    van Schie, Hein T; Koelewijn, Thomas; Jensen, Ole; Oostenveld, Robert; Maris, Eric; Bekkering, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Lateralized magnetic fields were recorded from 12 subjects using a 151 channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) system to investigate temporal and functional properties of motor activation to the observation of goal-directed hand movements by a virtual actor. Observation of left and right hand movements generated a neuromagnetic lateralized readiness field (LRF) over contralateral motor cortex. The early onset of the LRF and the fact that the evoked component was insensitive to the correctness of the observed action suggest the operation of a fast and automatic form of motor resonance that may precede higher levels of action understanding.

  2. Separate visual pathways for perception of actions and objects: evidence from a case of apperceptive agnosia

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, C. T.; Ceccaldi, M.; Giusiano, B.; Poncet, M.

    1998-01-01

    Recognition of different kinds of visual stimuli was studied in a patient who acquired apperceptive visual agnosia after a bilateral occipitotemporal lesion which partially spared the primary visual cortex. Impairment in recognising static objects perceived visually sharply contrasts with the relatively well preserved ability to recognise objects from gestures illustrating their use, and to recognise actions shown in line drawings. It is suggested that the occipitoparieto-frontal pathway is involved in the recognition of actions, and in the recognition of objects when sensorimotor experience is evoked. 

 PMID:9728957

  3. Separate visual pathways for perception of actions and objects: evidence from a case of apperceptive agnosia.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, C T; Ceccaldi, M; Giusiano, B; Poncet, M

    1998-09-01

    Recognition of different kinds of visual stimuli was studied in a patient who acquired apperceptive visual agnosia after a bilateral occipitotemporal lesion which partially spared the primary visual cortex. Impairment in recognising static objects perceived visually sharply contrasts with the relatively well preserved ability to recognise objects from gestures illustrating their use, and to recognise actions shown in line drawings. It is suggested that the occipitoparieto-frontal pathway is involved in the recognition of actions, and in the recognition of objects when sensorimotor experience is evoked.

  4. Evidence of action sequence chunking in goal-directed instrumental conditioning and its dependence on the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Sean B; Winterbauer, Neil E; Balleine, Bernard W

    2009-06-24

    The current study investigated the contribution of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) to instrumental action selection. We found that cell body lesions of the dmPFC, centered on the medial agranular area, spared rats' ability to choose between actions based on either the value or the discriminative stimulus properties of an outcome. We next examined the effects of these lesions on action sequence learning using a concurrent bidirectional heterogeneous chain task in which the identity of the reward delivered was determined by the order in which the two lever press actions were performed. Although both lesioned rats and sham controls learned to perform the task, we found that they relied on different behavioral strategies to do so. In subsequent tests, rats in the sham group were able to withhold their performance of a sequence when either its associated outcome was devalued or the contingency between that sequence and its outcome was degraded by delivering the outcome noncontingently. Interestingly, lesioned rats failed to reorganize their performance at the action sequence level and, rather, were found to withhold their performance of the terminal response in the sequence that had earned the devalued outcome relative to the more distal response, suggesting that they represented the elements of the sequence as distinct behavioral units. These findings demonstrate that rats can use sequence-level representations, or action chunks, to organize their behavior in a goal-directed manner and indicate that the dmPFC plays a critical role in this process.

  5. "Comments on Slavin": Synthesizing Evidence from Impact Evaluations in Education to Inform Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Madhabi

    2008-01-01

    Traditional methods for preparing systematic reviews and syntheses of effectiveness studies rely on a limited set of methodological criteria to include studies that measure and report effects too narrowly to forward the mission of evidence-based practice. This article discusses why and how the criteria for study selection, evidence screening, and…

  6. Feeling of control of an action after supra and subliminal haptic distortions.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Sébastien; Poncelet, Patrick Eric; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne; Capobianco, Antonio; Dufour, André; Brochard, Renaud; Ott, Laurent; Giersch, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Here we question the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the feeling of control that can be modulated even when the feeling of being the author of one's own action is intact. With a haptic robot, participants made series of vertical pointing actions on a virtual surface, which was sometimes postponed by a small temporal delay (15 or 65 ms). Subjects then evaluated their subjective feeling of control. Results showed that after temporal distortions, the hand-trajectories were adapted effectively but that the feeling of control decreased significantly. This was observed even in the case of subliminal distortions for which subjects did not consciously detect the presence of a distortion. Our findings suggest that both supraliminal and subliminal temporal distortions that occur within a healthy perceptual-motor system impact the conscious experience of the feeling of control of self-initiated motor actions.

  7. Comparing Multilingual Children with SLI to Their Bilectal Peers: Evidence from Object and Action Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Michaelides, Michalis; Theodorou, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of the increasing number of multilingual children with atypical language development around the world, this study reports research results on grammatical word class processing involving children with specific language impairment (SLI). The study investigates lexical retrieval of verbs (through picture-naming actions) and…

  8. Interactive Context Integration in Children? Evidence from an Action Memory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecklenbrauker, Silvia; Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Goergens, N. Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Action-object phrases (e.g., "lift the bottle") are remembered better if they have been enacted rather than learned verbally. This enactment effect is largest in free recall for phrases with objects (e.g., "bottle") present because these phrases can be interactively encoded with those context objects ("interactive context integration") that serve…

  9. Impact of Action Learning on Entrepreneurial Traits and Inclination: Evidence from a Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Hilleas Chi Hang; Man, Thomas Wing Yan

    2012-01-01

    Based on a comparative survey supplemented with focus group interviews, it was found that an action learning activity in an entrepreneurship programme produced both positive and negative results with regard to the entrepreneurial traits of students and their inclination towards entrepreneurship, depending on the influence of external and…

  10. Praxic Skills in Down and Mentally Retarded Adults: Evidence for Multiple Action Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoia, Stefania; Pelamatti, Giovanna; Rumiati, Raffaella I.

    2004-01-01

    Functional relationships between praxic performance and visual recognition ability of mentally retarded adults are discussed, in an attempt to integrate findings from developmental disorders of action with those described in the adult literature. Three groups of participants took part in the study: adults with Down's syndrome (D), Mentally…

  11. UN Global Action Programme and Education for Sustainable Development: A Critical Appraisal of the Evidence Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Daniel; Aubrecht, Elisabeth Lena; Brück, Maria; Ditges, Laura; Gathen, Lea; Jahns, Maximilian; Petersmann, Moritz; Rau, Jörn; Wellmann, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) proclaimed the years 2005 to 2014 the World Decade on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). As a follow up on the World Decade, the UN launched a Global Action Programme (GAP) that is designed to set the framework for international activities on ESD. The GAP focuses on five priority areas that are of high relevance…

  12. The Theory of Reasoned Action and Self-Construal: Evidence from Three Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Levine, Timothy R.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of self-construals on the attitudinal and normative components of the Theory of Reasoned Action in the cultures of Korea, Hawaii, and the mainland United States. Finds that undergraduate students in all three locations scored higher on independence than interdependence, and culture appears to affect the extent to which…

  13. Health Inequity in People with Intellectual Disabilities: From Evidence to Action Applying an Appreciative Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naaldenberg, Jenneken; Banks, Roger; Lennox, Nick; Ouellette-Kunz, Hélène; Meijer, Marijke; Lantman-de Valk, Henny van Schrojenstein

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current understanding of health inequities in people with intellectual disabilities does not readily translate into improvements in health status or health care. To identify opportunities for action, the 2013 IASSIDD health SIRG conference organized ten intensive workshops. Materials and methods: The workshops each addressed…

  14. Health Inequity in People with Intellectual Disabilities: From Evidence to Action Applying an Appreciative Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naaldenberg, Jenneken; Banks, Roger; Lennox, Nick; Ouellette-Kunz, Hélène; Meijer, Marijke; Lantman-de Valk, Henny van Schrojenstein

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current understanding of health inequities in people with intellectual disabilities does not readily translate into improvements in health status or health care. To identify opportunities for action, the 2013 IASSIDD health SIRG conference organized ten intensive workshops. Materials and methods: The workshops each addressed…

  15. Impact of Action Learning on Entrepreneurial Traits and Inclination: Evidence from a Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Hilleas Chi Hang; Man, Thomas Wing Yan

    2012-01-01

    Based on a comparative survey supplemented with focus group interviews, it was found that an action learning activity in an entrepreneurship programme produced both positive and negative results with regard to the entrepreneurial traits of students and their inclination towards entrepreneurship, depending on the influence of external and…

  16. Reflecting on Evidence: Leaders Use Action Research to Improve Their Teacher Performance Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on an action research (AR) project with six public high school leaders (reviewers) who volunteered to engage in an 18 month project to overcome their own defensiveness in addressing concerns with teachers (reviewees) whose performance they were evaluating. In the paper I outline how I acted as a coach in a long-term development…

  17. Amyloid-type fiber formation in control of enzyme action: interfacial activation of phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Code, Christian; Domanov, Yegor; Jutila, Arimatti; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2008-07-01

    The lag-burst behavior in the action of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) on 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was investigated at temperatures slightly offset from the main phase transition temperature T(m) of this lipid, thus slowing down the kinetics of the activation process. Distinct stages leading to maximal activity were resolved using a combination of fluorescence parameters, including Förster resonance energy transfer between donor- and acceptor-labeled enzyme, fluorescence anisotropy, and lifetime, as well as thioflavin T fluorescence enhancement. We showed that the interfacial activation of PLA(2), evident after the preceding lag phase, coincides with the formation of oligomers staining with thioflavin T and subsequently with Congo red. Based on previous studies and our findings here, we propose a novel mechanism for the control of PLA(2), involving amyloid protofibrils with highly augmented enzymatic activity. Subsequently, these protofibrils form "mature" fibrils, devoid of activity. Accordingly, the process of amyloid formation is used as an on-off switch to obtain a transient burst in enzymatic catalysis.

  18. Amyloid-Type Fiber Formation in Control of Enzyme Action: Interfacial Activation of Phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    Code, Christian; Domanov, Yegor; Jutila, Arimatti; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.

    2008-01-01

    The lag-burst behavior in the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) on 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was investigated at temperatures slightly offset from the main phase transition temperature Tm of this lipid, thus slowing down the kinetics of the activation process. Distinct stages leading to maximal activity were resolved using a combination of fluorescence parameters, including Förster resonance energy transfer between donor- and acceptor-labeled enzyme, fluorescence anisotropy, and lifetime, as well as thioflavin T fluorescence enhancement. We showed that the interfacial activation of PLA2, evident after the preceding lag phase, coincides with the formation of oligomers staining with thioflavin T and subsequently with Congo red. Based on previous studies and our findings here, we propose a novel mechanism for the control of PLA2, involving amyloid protofibrils with highly augmented enzymatic activity. Subsequently, these protofibrils form “mature” fibrils, devoid of activity. Accordingly, the process of amyloid formation is used as an on-off switch to obtain a transient burst in enzymatic catalysis. PMID:18339749

  19. A role for control in an action-specific effect on perception.

    PubMed

    Witt, Jessica K

    2017-10-01

    According to the action-specific account of perception, people perceive the spatial layout of the environment in relation to their ability to act. Pioneering research by Bhalla and Proffitt (1999) demonstrated that hills were judged as steeper to perceivers with less physiological potential. Since this seminal work, much research has shown these action-specific effects generalize beyond hill slant perception and beyond physiological potential, but the underlying mechanisms are underspecified. The present experiments explore the potential mechanism that information about action is integrated with visual information about the target. According to an integration account, information from various sources are weighted, and the strength of these weights dictates the strength of that source of information on the resulting percept. One prediction is that it should be possible to vary the strength of the weights and thereby vary the size of a particular effect. To reduce the effect of action on perception, control over the action was taken away from participants. As predicted, losing control reduced the impact of action on spatial perception. This is the first reported instance of a partial action-specific effect, and is consistent with an integration-based mechanism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Toward a Psychophysics of Agency: Detecting Gain and Loss of Control over Auditory Action Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repp, Bruno H.; Knoblich, Gunther

    2007-01-01

    Theories of agency--the feeling of being in control of one's actions and their effects--emphasize either perceptual or cognitive aspects. This study addresses both aspects simultaneously in a finger-tapping paradigm. The tasks required participants to detect when synchronization of their taps with computer-controlled tones changed to…

  1. Toward a Psychophysics of Agency: Detecting Gain and Loss of Control over Auditory Action Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repp, Bruno H.; Knoblich, Gunther

    2007-01-01

    Theories of agency--the feeling of being in control of one's actions and their effects--emphasize either perceptual or cognitive aspects. This study addresses both aspects simultaneously in a finger-tapping paradigm. The tasks required participants to detect when synchronization of their taps with computer-controlled tones changed to…

  2. Reducing the illusion of control when an action is followed by an undesired outcome.

    PubMed

    Matute, Helena; Blanco, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    The illusion of control is the belief that our behavior produces an effect that is actually independent from it. This illusion is often at the core of superstitious and pseudoscientific thinking. Although recent research has proposed several evidence-based strategies that can be used to reduce the illusion, the majority of these experiments have involved positive illusions-that is, those in which the potential outcomes are desired (e.g., recovery from illness or earning points). By contrast, many real-life superstitions and pseudosciences are tied to negative illusions-that is, those in which the potential consequences are undesired. Examples are walking under a ladder, breaking a mirror, or sitting in row 13, all of which are supposed to generate bad luck. Thus, the question is whether the available evidence on how to reduce positive illusions would also apply to situations in which the outcomes are undesired. We conducted an experiment in which participants were exposed to undesired outcomes that occurred independently of their behavior. One strategy that has been shown to reduce positive illusions consists of warning people that the outcomes might have alternative causes, other than the participants' actions, and telling them that the best they can do to find out whether an alternative cause is at work is to act on only about 50% of the trials. When we gave our participants this information in an experiment in which the outcomes were undesired, their illusion was enhanced rather than reduced, contrary to what happens when the outcome is desired. This suggests that the strategies that reduce positive illusions may work in just the opposite way when the outcome is undesired.

  3. Neurocognitive mechanisms of action control: resisting the call of the Sirens.

    PubMed

    Richard Ridderinkhof, K; Forstmann, Birte U; Wylie, Scott A; Burle, Borís; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M

    2011-03-01

    An essential facet of adaptive and versatile behavior is the ability to prioritize actions in response to dynamically changing circumstances. The field of potential actions afforded by a situation is shaped by many factors, such as environmental demands, past experiences, and prepotent tendencies. Selection among action affordances can be driven by deliberate, intentional processes as a product of goal-directed behavior and by extraneous stimulus-action associations as established inherently or through learning. We first review the neurocognitive mechanisms putatively linked to these intention-driven and association-driven routes of action selection. Next, we review the neurocognitive mechanisms engaged to inhibit action affordances that are no longer relevant or that interfere with goal-directed action selection. Optimal action control is viewed as a dynamic interplay between selection and suppression mechanisms, which is achieved by an elaborate circuitry of interconnected cortical regions (most prominently the pre-supplementary motor area and the right inferior frontal cortex) and basal ganglia structures (most prominently the dorsal striatum and the subthalamic nucleus). WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 174-192 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.99 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  4. An evidence-based, point-of-care tool to guide completion of asthma action plans in practice.

    PubMed

    Kouri, Andrew; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Kaplan, Alan; Gupta, Samir

    2017-05-01

    Asthma action plans (AAPs) reduce healthcare utilisation, improve quality of life and are recommended across guidelines. However, fewer than 25% of patients receive an AAP, partly due to prescribers' inability to complete "yellow zone" instructions (how to intensify therapy for acute loss of control). We sought to review best evidence to develop a practical, evidence-based tool to facilitate yellow zone guidance in adults.We reviewed recent asthma guidelines and adult studies addressing acute loss of asthma control (January 2010 to March 2016). We developed evidence-based rules for yellow zone therapy and operational guidelines to maximise adherence and minimise errors.We reviewed three guidelines and 11 manuscripts (2486 abstracts screened). Recommendations were comparable but some areas lacked guidance. For 15/43 asthma regimens, the commonly recommended four- to five-fold yellow zone inhaled corticosteroid dose increase was problematic due to regulatory dose limits. We identified evidence-based alternatives for 8/15 regimens. Operational guidance included increasing to a maximum of four inhalations while maintaining baseline inhaler frequency and device in the yellow zone.We developed a practical implementation tool to facilitate AAP delivery at the point of care, addressing existing gaps and uncertainties. Our tool should be implemented as part of a multifaceted approach to augment AAP usage. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  5. Action control bridges the planning-behaviour gap: a longitudinal study on physical exercise in young adults.

    PubMed

    Reyes Fernández, Benjamín; Fleig, Lena; Godinho, Cristina A; Montenegro Montenegro, Esteban; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining physical exercise levels may not only require motivation and planning but also action control which is supposed to mediate between planning and exercise. Behavioural intention, action planning, coping planning and past behaviour were assessed at baseline, and action control and concurrent exercise were measured one month later in 497 young adults. Three nested structural models were specified to examine different mediation mechanisms. One model reflected the intention-planning-behaviour chain, the other one focused on the intention-action control-behaviour chain and the third model comprised the full sequence. Indirect effects from intentions on exercise involved either planning or action control as mediating variables. In Model 3, all three constructs (action planning, coping planning and action control) were sequential mediators between intentions and later physical exercise levels. Action and coping planning were not directly but indirectly related to exercise via action control. Findings support the sequential mediation for planning and action control as antecedents of physical exercise. Action control is needed for exercise, because planning in itself is not always sufficient. Maintaining exercise levels may be attributed to effective self-regulatory strategies such as action control in combination with planning.

  6. The medial frontal-prefrontal network for altered awareness and control of action in corticobasal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moore, James W.; Rae, Charlotte L.; Rittman, Timothy; Altena, Ellemarije; Haggard, Patrick; Rowe, James B.

    2014-01-01

    The volitional impairments of alien limb and apraxia are a defining feature of the corticobasal syndrome, but a limited understanding of their neurocognitive aetiology has hampered progress towards effective treatments. Here we combined several key methods to investigate the mechanism of impairments in voluntary action in corticobasal syndrome. We used a quantitative measure of awareness of action that is based on well-defined processes of motor control; structural and functional anatomical information; and evaluation against the clinical volitional disorders of corticobasal syndrome. In patients and healthy adults we measured ‘intentional binding’, the perceived temporal attraction between voluntary actions and their sensory effects. Patients showed increased binding of the perceived time of actions towards their effects. This increase correlated with the severity of alien limb and apraxia, which we suggest share a core deficit in motor control processes, through reduced precision in voluntary action signals. Structural neuroimaging analyses showed the behavioural variability in patients was related to changes in grey matter volume in pre-supplementary motor area, and changes in its underlying white matter tracts to prefrontal cortex. Moreover, changes in functional connectivity at rest between the pre-supplementary motor area and prefrontal cortex were proportional to changes in binding. These behavioural, structural and functional results converge to reveal the frontal network for altered awareness and control of voluntary action in corticobasal syndrome, and provide candidate markers to evaluate new therapies. PMID:24293266

  7. Discovering the dementia evidence base: Tools to support knowledge to action in dementia care (innovative practice).

    PubMed

    Hayman, Sarah L; Tieman, Jennifer J

    2016-09-01

    Dementia requires expert care and decision making, based on sound evidence. Reliable evidence is difficult for busy dementia care professionals to find quickly. This study developed an experimentally tested search filter as an innovative tool to retrieve literature on dementia. It has a known retrieval performance and can be provided as an open access web link directly to current literature. The Dementia Search Filter was developed using validated methodology. An Expert Advisory Group of dementia care practitioners and researchers ratified a representative set of relevant studies and undertook post hoc relevance assessment, to ensure the usefulness of the search filter. The Dementia Search Filter is published on two websites and combined with expert searches to link to evidence on dementia, at end of life in aged care settings and more generally. Evidence accessed by the Dementia Search Filter will help overcome barriers to finding current relevant research in the field, for practitioners, researchers and decision makers.

  8. Action representations in perception, motor control and learning: implications for medical education.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Hayes, Spencer J; Lyons, James

    2011-02-01

    the motor behaviours or 'actions' that provide the basis for precision limb control, including the performance of complex medical procedures, are represented at different levels in the central nervous system. This review focuses on how these representations influence the way people perceive, execute and learn goal-directed movements. the neural processes associated with paying attention to an object are part and particle of the same processes engaged to physically interact with that object. The automatic way in which specific actions are engaged makes it important that we structure perceptual motor environments in a manner that facilitates goal actions and minimises the likelihood of unwanted actions. most actions are organised to optimise speed, accuracy and energy expenditure while avoiding worst-case outcomes. To achieve a good outcome on movements, the performer must have the opportunity to experiment with the way specific actions are executed. Early in the discovery process, errors are necessary if the performer is to determine his or her performance boundaries. motor learning: as learning progresses, representations of action become predictive. For example, if rapid corrective processes are to operate, the performer needs to anticipate sensorimotor consequences of movement. Thus, practice should be specific to the conditions under which actions are performed, and the performer. Although nothing can replace physical practice, complex representations of action can develop by observing both expert performers and learners. In many cases, practice scenarios that include both physical practice and observations of other learners can be the most efficient use of time and resources. although most of the experiments reviewed here involved laboratory tasks such as rapid aiming and movement sequencing, the majority of the principles apply to motor control and learning in more complex situations. Thus, they should be considered when developing methods to train medical

  9. Nuts and legume seeds for cardiovascular risk reduction: scientific evidence and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rávila G M; Gomes, Aline C; Naves, Maria M V; Mota, João F

    2015-06-01

    Consumption of tree nuts and legume seeds is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. The reduction in blood lipids and in inflammatory and oxidative processes exhibited by bioactive compounds such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibers, phenolic compounds, tocopherols, phospholipids, carotenoids, some minerals, and arginine, has stimulated research on the mechanisms of action of these substances through distinct experimental approaches. It is, therefore, important to know the metabolic effect of each nut and legume seed or the mixture of them to choose the most suitable nutritional interventions in clinical practice. The aim of this narrative bibliographic review was to investigate the effects of tree nuts and legume seeds on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk, as well as their mechanisms of action with regard to lipid profiles, insulin resistance, arterial pressure, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The findings indicate that a mixture of nuts and legume seeds optimizes the protective effect against cardiovascular risk.

  10. Neural representations of kinematic laws of motion: evidence for action-perception coupling.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Eran; Casile, Antonino; Levit-Binnun, Nava; Giese, Martin A; Hendler, Talma; Flash, Tamar

    2007-12-18

    Behavioral and modeling studies have established that curved and drawing human hand movements obey the 2/3 power law, which dictates a strong coupling between movement curvature and velocity. Human motion perception seems to reflect this constraint. The functional MRI study reported here demonstrates that the brain's response to this law of motion is much stronger and more widespread than to other types of motion. Compliance with this law is reflected in the activation of a large network of brain areas subserving motor production, visual motion processing, and action observation functions. Hence, these results strongly support the notion of similar neural coding for motion perception and production. These findings suggest that cortical motion representations are optimally tuned to the kinematic and geometrical invariants characterizing biological actions.

  11. Neural representations of kinematic laws of motion: Evidence for action-perception coupling

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Eran; Casile, Antonino; Levit-Binnun, Nava; Giese, Martin A.; Hendler, Talma; Flash, Tamar

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral and modeling studies have established that curved and drawing human hand movements obey the 2/3 power law, which dictates a strong coupling between movement curvature and velocity. Human motion perception seems to reflect this constraint. The functional MRI study reported here demonstrates that the brain's response to this law of motion is much stronger and more widespread than to other types of motion. Compliance with this law is reflected in the activation of a large network of brain areas subserving motor production, visual motion processing, and action observation functions. Hence, these results strongly support the notion of similar neural coding for motion perception and production. These findings suggest that cortical motion representations are optimally tuned to the kinematic and geometrical invariants characterizing biological actions. PMID:18079289

  12. Diabetes control among Hispanics in the action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes trial.

    PubMed

    Getaneh, Asqual; Light, Laney S; Brillon, David J; Calles Escandón, Jorge; Felicetta, James; Evans, Gregory W; Lopez-Jimenez, Carlos R; Cuddihy, Robert; Bigger, J Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Hispanics in the United States represent diverse racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups, and manifest heterogeneous cardiovascular risks including diabetes. It is not known if there are residual differences in the control of diabetes among Hispanic groups given uniform access to diabetes care. To evaluate glucose control differences among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominicans receiving substantial diabetes care and support in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial comparing two treatment strategies: intensive, targeting glycated hemoglobin below 6.0 %, and standard, targeting glycated hemoglobin between 7.0 % and 7.9 %. Seven hundred and sixteen Hispanic and 6066 non-Hispanic white participants were recruited from 77 clinical sites across the United States and Canada. There were 243 Mexicans, 199 Puerto Ricans, and 150 Dominicans; and 135 of these Hispanic groups were born in the United States. Glycated hemoglobin Compared to Puerto Ricans, Mexicans were more likely (HR=1.38, CI:0.90-2.10) and Dominicans as likely (HR=1.01, CI:0.66-1.54) to achieve glycated hemoglobin goal in the intensive arm. Participants born in the United States achieved glycated hemoglobin goal at a higher rate than those born elsewhere (HR=1.57, CI:0.99-2.51 in the intensive arm, HR=1.51, CI:0.95-2.43 in the standard arm). These differences were not statistically significant. In the intensive arm, Puerto Ricans (OR=0.47, CI:0.31-0.71), and Dominicans (OR=0.41, CI:0.26-0.66) were less likely than non-Hispanic whites to achieve glycated hemoglobin goal, whereas the difference between non-Hispanic whites and Mexicans was not statistically significant, (OR=0.66, CI:0.43-1.02). Hispanic groups, given access to comprehensive diabetes care, differed from each other non-significantly and had a variable divergence from non-Hispanic whites in achieving intensive glycated hemoglobin goal. These differences, if

  13. The real-time link between person perception and action: brain potential evidence for dynamic continuity.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jonathan B; Ambady, Nalini; Midgley, Katherine J; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2011-01-01

    Using event-related potentials, we investigated how the brain extracts information from another's face and translates it into relevant action in real time. In Study 1, participants made between-hand sex categorizations of sex-typical and sex-atypical faces. Sex-atypical faces evoked negativity between 250 and 550 ms (N300/N400 effects), reflecting the integration of accumulating sex-category knowledge into a coherent sex-category interpretation. Additionally, the lateralized readiness potential revealed that the motor cortex began preparing for a correct hand response while social category knowledge was still gradually evolving in parallel. In Study 2, participants made between-hand eye-color categorizations as part of go/no-go trials that were contingent on a target's sex. On no-go trials, although the hand did not actually move, information about eye color partially prepared the motor cortex to move the hand before perception of sex had finalized. Together, these findings demonstrate the dynamic continuity between person perception and action, such that ongoing results from face processing are immediately and continuously cascaded into the motor system over time. The preparation of action begins based on tentative perceptions of another's face before perceivers have finished interpreting what they just saw.

  14. The real-time link between person perception and action: Brain potential evidence for dynamic continuity

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jonathan B.; Ambady, Nalini; Midgley, Katherine J.; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2010-01-01

    Using event-related potentials, we investigated how the brain extracts information from another’s face and translates it into relevant action in real-time. In Study 1, participants made between-hand sex categorizations of sex-typical and sex-atypical faces. Sex-atypical faces evoked negativity between 250-550 ms (N300/N400 effects), reflecting the integration of accumulating sex-category knowledge into a coherent sex-category interpretation. Additionally, the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) revealed that the motor cortex began preparing for a correct hand response while social category knowledge was still gradually evolving in parallel. In Study 2, participants made between-hand eye-color categorizations as part of go/no-go trials that were contingent on a target’s sex. On no-go trials, although the hand did not actually move, information about eye color partially prepared the motor cortex to move the hand before perception of sex had finalized. Together, these findings demonstrate the dynamic continuity between person perception and action, such that ongoing results from face processing are immediately and continuously cascaded into the motor system over time. The preparation of action begins based on tentative perceptions of another’s face before perceivers have finished interpreting what they just saw. PMID:20602284

  15. Analysis of Distributed Micro-Control Actions on Free Paraboloidal Membrane Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, H. H.; Deng, Z. Q.; Tzou, H. S.

    Flexible paraboloidal shells, as key components, are increasingly utilized in antennas, reflectors, optical systems, aerospace structures, etc. To explore precise shape and vibration control of the paraboloidal membrane shells, this study focuses on analysis of microscopic control actions of segmented actuator patches laminated on the surface of a free paraboloidal membrane shell. Governing equations of the membrane shell system and modal control forces of distributed actuator patches are presented first, and followed by the analysis of dominating micro-control actions based on various natural modes, actuator locations and geometrical parameters. Finally, according to the parametric analysis, simulation data reveal main factors significantly influencing active control behavior on smart free-floating paraboloidal membrane shell systems, thus providing design guidelines to achieve optimal control of paraboloidal shell systems.

  16. Optimal actuator locations and precision micro-control actions on free paraboloidal membrane shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, H. H.; Deng, Z. Q.; Tzou, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    Flexible paraboloidal shells, as key components, are increasingly utilized in antennas, reflectors, optical systems, aerospace structures, etc. To explore precise shape and vibration control of the paraboloidal membrane shells, this study focuses on analysis of microscopic control actions of segmented actuator patches laminated on the surface of a free paraboloidal membrane shell. Governing equations of the membrane shell system and modal control forces of distributed actuator patches are presented first, and followed by the analysis of dominating micro-control actions based on various natural modes, actuator locations and geometrical parameters. Finally, according to the parametric analysis, simulation data reveal main factors significantly influencing active control behavior on smart free-floating paraboloidal membrane shell systems, thus providing design guidelines to achieve optimal control of paraboloidal shell systems.

  17. Self-efficacy, planning and action control in an oral self-care intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangyu; Sun, Caiyun; Knoll, Nina; Hamilton, Kyra; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate a theory-guided intervention on oral self-care and examine the possible mechanisms among self-regulatory factors, two brief intervention arms were compared, an information-based education treatment and a self-regulation treatment focusing on planning and action control. Young adults (N = 284; aged 18-29 years) were assessed at baseline and 1 month later. The self-regulation intervention improved levels of oral self-care, dental planning and action control. Moreover, a moderated mediation model with planning as the mediator between experimental conditions and dental outcome, and self-efficacy as well as action control as moderators elucidated the mechanism of change. More self-efficacious participants in the self-regulation condition benefitted in terms of more planning, and those who monitored their actions yielded higher levels of oral hygiene. Dental self-efficacy, dental planning and action control are involved in the improvement of oral self-care. Their joint consideration may contribute to a better understanding of health behavior change. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Distinct memory engrams in the infralimbic cortex of rats control opposing environmental actions on a learned behavior

    PubMed Central

    Suto, Nobuyoshi; Laque, Amanda; De Ness, Genna L; Wagner, Grant E; Watry, Debbie; Kerr, Tony; Koya, Eisuke; Mayford, Mark R; Hope, Bruce T; Weiss, Friedbert

    2016-01-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding the role of infralimbic cortex (IL) in the environmental control of appetitive behavior. Inhibition of IL, irrespective of its intrinsic neural activity, attenuates not only the ability of environmental cues predictive of reward availability to promote reward seeking, but also the ability of environmental cues predictive of reward omission to suppress this behavior. Here we report that such bidirectional behavioral modulation in rats is mediated by functionally distinct units of neurons (neural ensembles) that are concurrently localized within the same IL brain area but selectively reactive to different environmental cues. Ensemble-specific neural activity is thought to function as a memory engram representing a learned association between environment and behavior. Our findings establish the causal evidence for the concurrent existence of two distinct engrams within a single brain site, each mediating opposing environmental actions on a learned behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21920.001 PMID:27938664

  19. Food security and nutrition interventions in response to the AIDS epidemic: assessing global action and evidence.

    PubMed

    Aberman, Noora-Lisa; Rawat, Rahul; Drimie, Scott; Claros, Joan M; Kadiyala, Suneetha

    2014-10-01

    The number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy in developing countries has increased dramatically. The last decade has brought an increased understanding of the interconnectedness between HIV/AIDS, food insecurity, and undernutrition and a surge of evidence on how to address the food security and nutrition dimensions of the epidemic. We review this evidence as well as the corresponding evolution of policy support for incorporating food security and nutrition concerns into HIV programming. The available evidence, although varied in scope and methodologies, shows that nutrition supplementation and safety nets in the form of food assistance and livelihood interventions have potential in certain contexts to improve food security and nutrition outcomes in an HIV/AIDS context. In the face of funding uncertainties and competing priorities, we must maintain momentum towards effective and sustainable solutions to the epidemic through continued systematic research to inform policy and through the strengthening of monitoring systems to dynamically inform intervention development.

  20. Scholar-in-Residence: An Organizational Capacity-Building Model to Move Evidence to Action.

    PubMed

    Parke, Belinda; Stevenson, Lynn; Rowe, Marguerite

    2015-06-01

    Quality improvement healthcare leaders recognize that striving for excellence is dependent on a multitude of complex and interactive factors. Translating evidence into clinical practice guidelines, evidence-informed decision-making processes, and policy documents does not, however, guarantee that evidence will reach the point-of-care. This article describes an innovative engagement strategy called the Scholar-in-Residence program. The program represents a model of collaboration between a health region and a university, which is intended to build organizational research capacity while simultaneously facilitating quality in hospital care for seniors. We explain the program and provide implementation details with examples to illustrate how the program builds organizational research capacity at the point-of-care, where healthcare is delivered by professionals, and received by patients admitted to a hospital. By explaining the challenges we encountered, others interested in developing research engagement activities in their health region are assisted and pitfalls are avoided.

  1. HIV Prevention Among Transgender Populations: Knowledge Gaps and Evidence for Action.

    PubMed

    Poteat, Tonia; Malik, Mannat; Scheim, Ayden; Elliott, Ayana

    2017-07-27

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the available evidence-based HIV prevention interventions tailored for transgender people. A limited number of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions have been tested with transgender populations. Most existing interventions target behavior change among transgender women, with only one HIV prevention program evaluated for transgender men. Studies addressing biomedical interventions for transgender women are ongoing. Few interventions address social and structural barriers to HIV prevention, such as stigma, discrimination, and poverty. Evidence-based multi-level interventions that address the structural, biomedical, and behavioral risks for HIV among transgender populations, including transgender men, are needed to address disparities in HIV prevalence. Future research should address not only pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and condom use but also structural barriers that limit access to these prevention strategies.

  2. Towards a common framework of grounded action cognition: Relating motor control, perception and cognition.

    PubMed

    Gentsch, Antje; Weber, Arne; Synofzik, Matthis; Vosgerau, Gottfried; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The relation between motor control and action cognition - including action-related thoughts and action-related perception - has been subject to controversial discussions in the last three decades. During these decades, cognitive neuroscience has been increasingly confronted with a huge variety of different accounts trying to understand and explain the relation between these systems, their interdependencies and the mediating mechanisms by establishing notions such as "internal models", "simulation" or "shared representation". These accounts, however, include a large array of partly overlapping, partly contradictory theories using similar terms for different mechanisms and different terms for similar mechanisms. In the absence of a systematic work-up and comparison, this array of accounts and theories leads to confusion in the field, duplication of experimental work, and unconnected parallelism of theory formation within and between different disciplines. Here we provide a systematic comparison of current models and prospective theories that deal with the relation between cognition, perception and motor control mechanisms. In a second step, we propose "grounded action cognition" as a comprehensive metatheoretical framework which defines different hypothetical possibilities of the relations between these domains, offers systematic insights into current models and theories and last but not least may help to increase comparability of empirical research in the domain of action and action cognition.

  3. Motor control hierarchy in joint action that involves bimanual force production

    PubMed Central

    Masumoto, Junya

    2015-01-01

    The concept of hierarchical motor control has been viewed as a means of progressively decreasing the number of variables manipulated by each higher control level. We tested the hypothesis that turning an individual bimanual force-production task into a joint (two-participant) force-production task would lead to positive correlation between forces produced by the two hands of the individual participant (symmetric strategy) to enable negative correlation between forces produced by two participants (complementary strategy). The present study consisted of individual and joint tasks that involved both unimanual and bimanual conditions. In the joint task, 10 pairs of participants produced periodic isometric forces, such that the sum of forces that they produced matched a target force cycling between 5% and 10% of maximum voluntary contraction at 1 Hz. In the individual task, individuals attempted to match the same target force. In the joint bimanual condition, the two hands of each participant adopted a symmetric strategy of force, whereas the two participants adopted a complementary strategy of force, highlighting that the bimanual action behaved as a low level of a hierarchy, whereas the joint action behaved as an upper level. The complementary force production was greater interpersonally than intrapersonally. However, whereas the coherence was highest at 1 Hz in all conditions, the frequency synchrony was stronger intrapersonally than interpersonally. Moreover, whereas the bimanual action exhibited a smaller error and variability of force than the unimanual action, the joint action exhibited a less-variable interval and force than the individual action. PMID:25904710

  4. Motor control hierarchy in joint action that involves bimanual force production.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Junya; Inui, Nobuyuki

    2015-06-01

    The concept of hierarchical motor control has been viewed as a means of progressively decreasing the number of variables manipulated by each higher control level. We tested the hypothesis that turning an individual bimanual force-production task into a joint (two-participant) force-production task would lead to positive correlation between forces produced by the two hands of the individual participant (symmetric strategy) to enable negative correlation between forces produced by two participants (complementary strategy). The present study consisted of individual and joint tasks that involved both unimanual and bimanual conditions. In the joint task, 10 pairs of participants produced periodic isometric forces, such that the sum of forces that they produced matched a target force cycling between 5% and 10% of maximum voluntary contraction at 1 Hz. In the individual task, individuals attempted to match the same target force. In the joint bimanual condition, the two hands of each participant adopted a symmetric strategy of force, whereas the two participants adopted a complementary strategy of force, highlighting that the bimanual action behaved as a low level of a hierarchy, whereas the joint action behaved as an upper level. The complementary force production was greater interpersonally than intrapersonally. However, whereas the coherence was highest at 1 Hz in all conditions, the frequency synchrony was stronger intrapersonally than interpersonally. Moreover, whereas the bimanual action exhibited a smaller error and variability of force than the unimanual action, the joint action exhibited a less-variable interval and force than the individual action.

  5. Are our actions aligned with our evidence? The skinny on changing the landscape of obesity.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita Bonnie; Steiner, Elizabeth; Escarce, José J; Collins, Rebecca L

    2013-03-01

    Recent debate about the role of food deserts in the United States (i.e., places that lack access to healthy foods) has prompted discussion on policies being enacted, including efforts that encourage the placement of full-service supermarkets into food deserts. Other initiatives to address obesogenic neighborhood features include land use zoning and parks renovations. Yet, there is little evidence to demonstrate that such policies effect change. While we suspect most researchers and policymakers would agree that effective neighborhood change could be a powerful tool in combating obesity, we desperately need strong and sound evidence to guide decisions about where and how to invest.

  6. Improving the health of populations - evidence for policy and practice action.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Gilbert

    2009-11-01

    The evidence-based movement has greatly improved how health scientists review literature. It has also resulted in improvements in the conduct and reporting of primary studies. Its impact in the practice of clinical medicine has been greater than in public health, both in terms of practice and policy decisions. In order to substantially improve population health, there needs to be a paradigm shift in academia - evidence should be guided by the needs of practitioners and policymakers in terms of relevance and timeliness. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  7. Action versus state orientation and self-control performance after depletion.

    PubMed

    Gröpel, Peter; Baumeister, Roy F; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2014-04-01

    Three studies investigated the role of action versus state orientation in how people deal with depletion of self-control resources. Action-oriented persons were expected to continue allocating resources and hence to perform better than state-oriented persons who were expected to conserve strength. Consistent with this, action-oriented persons performed better on the d2 test of attention than state-oriented persons after a strenuous physical exercise (Study 1), showed higher acuity on the critical fusion frequency test after a test of vigilance (Study 2), and performed better on the Stroop test after a depleting sensorimotor task (Study 3). No differences emerged between action- and state-oriented persons in their initial performance and in a non-depleting context. The impact of depletion on subsequent performance is thus not fixed, but moderated by personality.

  8. Axon initial segment Kv1 channels control axonal action potential waveform and synaptic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Kole, Maarten H P; Letzkus, Johannes J; Stuart, Greg J

    2007-08-16

    Action potentials are binary signals that transmit information via their rate and temporal pattern. In this context, the axon is thought of as a transmission line, devoid of a role in neuronal computation. Here, we show a highly localized role of axonal Kv1 potassium channels in shaping the action potential waveform in the axon initial segment (AIS) of layer 5 pyramidal neurons independent of the soma. Cell-attached recordings revealed a 10-fold increase in Kv1 channel density over the first 50 microm of the AIS. Inactivation of AIS and proximal axonal Kv1 channels, as occurs during slow subthreshold somatodendritic depolarizations, led to a distance-dependent broadening of axonal action potentials, as well as an increase in synaptic strength at proximal axonal terminals. Thus, Kv1 channels are strategically positioned to integrate slow subthreshold signals, providing control of the presynaptic action potential waveform and synaptic coupling in local cortical circuits.

  9. Linking evidence to action on social determinants of health using Urban HEART in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Amit; Groot, Ana Maria Mahecha; Monteiro, Teofilo; Murphy, Kelly; O'Campo, Patricia; Broide, Emilia Estivalet; Kano, Megumi

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the experience of select cities in the Americas using the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) launched by the World Health Organization in 2010 and to determine its utility in supporting government efforts to improve health equity using the social determinants of health (SDH) approach. The Urban HEART experience was evaluated in four cities from 2010-2013: Guarulhos (Brazil), Toronto (Canada), and Bogotá and Medellín (Colombia). Reports were submitted by Urban HEART teams in each city and supplemented by first-hand accounts of key informants. The analysis considered each city's networks and the resources it used to implement Urban HEART; the process by which each city identified equity gaps and prioritized interventions; and finally, the facilitators and barriers encountered, along with next steps. In three cities, local governments spearheaded the process, while in the fourth (Toronto), academia initiated and led the process. All cities used Urban HEART as a platform to engage multiple stakeholders. Urban HEART's Matrix and Monitor were used to identify equity gaps within cities. While Bogotá and Medellín prioritized among existing interventions, Guarulhos adopted new interventions focused on deprived districts. Actions were taken on intermediate determinants, e.g., health systems access, and structural SDH, e.g., unemployment and human rights. Urban HEART provides local governments with a simple and systematic method for assessing and responding to health inequity. Through the SDH approach, the tool has provided a platform for intersectoral action and community involvement. While some areas of guidance could be strengthened, Urban HEART is a useful tool for directing local action on health inequities, and should be scaled up within the Region of the Americas, building upon current experience.

  10. Preliminary evidence for a postsynaptic action of beta-bungarotoxin in mammalian skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storella, R. J.; Schouchoff, A. L.; Fujii, M.; Hill, J.; Fletcher, J. E.; Jiang, M. S.; Smith, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Two hours after treatment with beta-bungarotoxin (0.34-0.4 microM), when there was complete neuromuscular block, the peak contracture response to 50 microM succinylcholine was significantly reduced by about 35% in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. Additionally, significant phospholipase A2 activity was detected on primary cell cultures from skeletal muscle which were incubated for 2 hr with concentrations of beta-bungarotoxin greater than or equal to 0.1 microM. Thus, beta-bungarotoxin appears to have pharmacologically and biochemically detectable postsynaptic actions in mammalian muscle systems.

  11. Preliminary evidence for a postsynaptic action of beta-bungarotoxin in mammalian skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storella, R. J.; Schouchoff, A. L.; Fujii, M.; Hill, J.; Fletcher, J. E.; Jiang, M. S.; Smith, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Two hours after treatment with beta-bungarotoxin (0.34-0.4 microM), when there was complete neuromuscular block, the peak contracture response to 50 microM succinylcholine was significantly reduced by about 35% in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. Additionally, significant phospholipase A2 activity was detected on primary cell cultures from skeletal muscle which were incubated for 2 hr with concentrations of beta-bungarotoxin greater than or equal to 0.1 microM. Thus, beta-bungarotoxin appears to have pharmacologically and biochemically detectable postsynaptic actions in mammalian muscle systems.

  12. An Action-Based Fine-Grained Access Control Mechanism for Structured Documents and Its Application

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mang; Li, Fenghua; Tang, Zhi; Yu, Yinyan; Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents. Firstly, we define a describing model for structured documents and analyze the application scenarios. The describing model could support the permission management on chapters, pages, sections, words, and pictures of structured documents. Secondly, based on the action-based access control (ABAC) model, we propose a fine-grained control protocol for structured documents by introducing temporal state and environmental state. The protocol covering different stages from document creation, to permission specification and usage control are given by using the Z-notation. Finally, we give the implementation of our mechanism and make the comparisons between the existing methods and our mechanism. The result shows that our mechanism could provide the better solution of fine-grained access control for structured documents in complicated networks. Moreover, it is more flexible and practical. PMID:25136651

  13. Affirmative Action and University Fit: Evidence from Proposition 209. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1224

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcidiacono, Peter; Aucejo, Esteban; Coate, Patrick; Hotz, V. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Proposition 209 banned the use of racial preferences in admissions at public colleges in California. We analyze unique data for all applicants and enrollees within the University of California (UC) system before and after Prop 209. After Prop 209, graduation rates increased by 4.4%. We present evidence that certain institutions are better at…

  14. Power-based control with integral action for wind turbines connected to the grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, R. R.; Fernández, R. D.; Mantz, R. J.; Battaiotto, P. E.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a power shaping control with integral action is employed to control active and reactive powers of wind turbines connected to the grid. As it is well known, power shaping allows finding a Lyapunov function which ensures stability. In contrast to other passivity-based control theories, the power shaping controller design allows to use easily measurable variables, such as voltages and currents which simplify the physical interpretation and, therefore, the controller synthesis. The strategy proposed is evaluated in the context of severe operating conditions, such as abrupt changes in the wind speed and voltage drops.

  15. Evidence for direct control of eye movements during reading

    PubMed Central

    Dambacher, Michael; Slattery, Timothy J.; Yang, Jinmian; Kliegl, Reinhold; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that fixation durations during reading vary with processing difficulty, but there are different views on how oculomotor control, visual perception, shifts of attention, and lexical (and higher cognitive) processing are coordinated. Evidence for a one-to-one translation of input delay into saccadic latency would provide a much needed constraint for current theoretical proposals. Here, we tested predictions of such a direct-control perspective using the stimulus-onset delay (SOD) paradigm. Words in sentences were initially masked and, upon fixation, were individually unmasked with a delay (0-ms, 33-ms, 66-ms, 99-ms SODs). In Experiment 1, SODs were constant for all words in a sentence; in Experiment 2, SODs were manipulated on target words, while non-targets were unmasked without delay. In accordance with predictions of direct control, non-zero SODs entailed equivalent increases in fixation durations in both experiments. Yet, a population of short fixations pointed to rapid saccades as a consequence of low-level information at non-optimal viewing positions rather than of lexical processing. Implications of these results for theoretical accounts of oculomotor control are discussed. PMID:23421473

  16. Spatial Representations in Older Adults are Not Modified by Action: Evidence from Tool Use

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Matthew C.; Bloesch, Emily K.; Davoli, Christopher C.; Panting, Nicholas D.; Abrams, Richard A.; Brockmole, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of embodied perception hold that the visual system is calibrated by both the body schema and the action system, allowing for adaptive action-perception responses. One example of embodied perception involves the effects of tool-use on distance perception, in which wielding a tool with the intention to act upon a target appears to bring that object closer. This tool-based spatial compression (i.e., tool-use effect) has been studied exclusively with younger adults, but it is unknown whether the phenomenon exists with older adults. In this study, we examined the effects of tool use on distance perception in younger and older adults in two experiments. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults estimated the distances of targets just beyond peripersonal space while either wielding a tool or pointing with the hand. Younger adults, but not older adults, estimated targets to be closer after reaching with a tool. In Experiment 2, younger and older adults estimated the distance to remote targets while using either a baton or laser pointer. Younger adults displayed spatial compression with the laser pointer compared to the baton, although older adults did not. Taken together, these findings indicate a generalized absence of the tool-use effect in older adults during distance estimation suggesting that the visuomotor system of older adults does not remap from peripersonal to extrapersonal spatial representations during tool use. PMID:26052886

  17. The linear synchronization measures of uterine EMG signals: Evidence of synchronized action potentials during propagation.

    PubMed

    Domino, Malgorzata; Pawlinski, Bartosz; Gajewski, Zdzislaw

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of synchronization between myoelectric signals can give new insights into the functioning of the complex system of porcine myometrium. We propose a model of uterine contractions according to the hypothesis of action potentials similarity which is possible to detect during propagation in the uterine wall. We introduce similarity measures based on the concept of synchronization as used in matching linear signals such as electromyographic (EMG) time series data. The aim was to present linear measures to assess synchronization between contractions in different topographic regions of the uterus. We use the cross-correlation function (ƒx,y[l], ƒy,z[l]) and the cross-coherence function (Cxy[ƒ], Cyz[ƒ]) to assess synchronization between three data series of a diestral uterine EMG bundles in porcine reproductive tract. Spontaneous uterine activity was recorded using telemetry method directly by three-channel transmitter and three silver bipolar needle electrodes sutured on different topographic regions of the reproductive tract in the sow. The results show the usefulness of the cross-coherence function in that synchronization between uterine horn and corpus uteri for multiple action potentials (bundles) could be observed. The EMG bundles synchronization may be used to investigate the direction and velocity of EMG signals propagation in porcine reproductive tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. What is the role of motor simulation in action and object recognition? Evidence from apraxia.

    PubMed

    Negri, Gioia A L; Rumiati, Raffaella I; Zadini, Antonietta; Ukmar, Maja; Mahon, Bradford Z; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2007-12-01

    An important issue in contemporary cognitive neuroscience concerns the role of motor production processes in perceptual and conceptual analysis. To address this issue, we studied the performance of a large group of unilateral stroke patients across a range of tasks using the same set of common manipulable objects. All patients (n = 37) were tested for their ability to demonstrate the use of the objects, recognize the objects, recognize the corresponding object-associated pantomimes, and imitate those same pantomimes. At the group level we observed reliable correlations between object use and pantomime recognition, object use and object recognition, and pantomime imitation and pantomime recognition. At the single-case level, we document that the ability to recognize actions and objects dissociates from the ability to use those same objects. These data are problematic for the hypothesis that motor processes are constitutively involved in the recognition of actions and objects and frame new questions about the inferences that are merited by recent findings in cognitive neuroscience.

  19. Spatial representations in older adults are not modified by action: Evidence from tool use.

    PubMed

    Costello, Matthew C; Bloesch, Emily K; Davoli, Christopher C; Panting, Nicholas D; Abrams, Richard A; Brockmole, James R

    2015-09-01

    Theories of embodied perception hold that the visual system is calibrated by both the body schema and the action system, allowing for adaptive action-perception responses. One example of embodied perception involves the effects of tool use on distance perception, in which wielding a tool with the intention to act upon a target appears to bring that object closer. This tool-based spatial compression (i.e., tool-use effect) has been studied exclusively with younger adults, but it is unknown whether the phenomenon exists with older adults. In this study, we examined the effects of tool use on distance perception in younger and older adults in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults estimated the distances of targets just beyond peripersonal space while either wielding a tool or pointing with the hand. Younger adults, but not older adults, estimated targets to be closer after reaching with a tool. In Experiment 2, younger and older adults estimated the distance to remote targets while using either a baton or a laser pointer. Younger adults displayed spatial compression with the laser pointer compared to the baton, although older adults did not. Taken together, these findings indicate a generalized absence of the tool-use effect in older adults during distance estimation, suggesting that the visuomotor system of older adults does not remap from peripersonal to extrapersonal spatial representations during tool use.

  20. Action priming with biomechanically possible and impossible grasps: ERP evidence from 6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Natale, E; Addabbo, M; Marchis, I C; Bolognini, N; Macchi Cassia, V; Turati, C

    2017-10-01

    Coding the direction of others' gestures is a fundamental human ability, since it allows the observer to attend and react to sources of potential interest in the environment. Shifts of attention triggered by action observation have been reported to occur early in infancy. Yet, the neurophysiological underpinnings of such action priming and the properties of gestures that might be crucial for it remain unknown. Here, we addressed these issues by recording electroencephalographic activity (EEG) from 6-month-old infants cued with spatially non-predictive hand grasping toward or away from the position of a target object, i.e., valid and invalid trials, respectively. Half of the infants were cued with a gesture executable by a human hand (possible gesture) and the other half with a gesture impossible to be executed by a human hand. Results show that the amplitude enhancement of the posterior N290 component in response to targets in valid trials, as compared to invalid trials, was present only for infants seeing possible gestures, while it was absent for infants seeing impossible gestures. These findings suggest that infants detect the biomechanical properties of human movements when processing hand gestures, relying on this information to orient their visual attention toward the target object.

  1. Evidence for a novel mechanism of antimicrobial action of a cyclic R-,W-rich hexapeptide.

    PubMed

    Scheinpflug, Kathi; Krylova, Oxana; Nikolenko, Heike; Thurm, Charley; Dathe, Margitta

    2015-01-01

    The development of antimicrobial peptides as new class of antibiotic agents requires structural characterisation and understanding of their diverse mechanisms of action. As the cyclic hexapeptide cWFW (cyclo(RRRWFW)) does not exert its rapid cell killing activity by membrane permeabilisation, in this study we investigated alternative mechanisms of action, such as peptide translocation into the cytoplasm and peptide interaction with components of the phospholipid matrix of the bacterial membrane. Using fluorescence microscopy and an HPLC-based strategy to analyse peptide uptake into the cells we could confirm the cytoplasmic membrane as the major peptide target. However, unexpectedly we observed accumulation of cWFW at distinct sites of the membrane. Further characterisation of peptide-membrane interaction involved live cell imaging to visualise the distribution of the lipid cardiolipin (CL) and isothermal titration calorimetry to determine the binding affinity to model membranes with different bacterial lipid compositions. Our results demonstrate a distribution of the cyclic peptide similar to that of cardiolipin within the membrane and highly preferred affinity of cWFW for CL-rich phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) matrices. These observations point to a novel mechanism of antimicrobial killing for the cyclic hexapeptide cWFW which is neither based on membrane permeabilisation nor translocation into the cytoplasm but rather on preferred partitioning into particular lipid domains. As the phospholipids POPE/CL play a key role in the dynamic organisation of bacterial membranes we discuss the consequences of this peptide-lipid-interaction and outline the impact on antimicrobial peptide research.

  2. Evidence for mitochondrial genetic control of autosomal gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kassam, Irfahan; Qi, Tuan; Lloyd-Jones, Luke; Holloway, Alexander; Jan Bonder, Marc; Henders, Anjali K; Martin, Nicholas G; Powell, Joseph E; Franke, Lude; Montgomery, Grant W; Visscher, Peter M; McRae, Allan F

    2016-12-15

    The mitochondrial and nuclear genomes coordinate and co-evolve in eukaryotes in order to adapt to environmental changes. Variation in the mitochondrial genome is capable of affecting expression of genes on the nuclear genome. Sex-specific mitochondrial genetic control of gene expression has been demonstrated in Drosophila melanogaster, where males were found to drive most of the total variation in gene expression. This has potential implications for male-related health and disease resulting from variation in mtDNA solely inherited from the mother. We used a family-based study comprised of 47,323 gene expression probes and 78 mitochondrial SNPs (mtSNPs) from n = 846 individuals to examine the extent of mitochondrial genetic control of gene expression in humans. This identified 15 significant probe-mtSNP associations (P<10-8) corresponding to 5 unique genes on the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, with three of these genes corresponding to mitochondrial genetic control of gene expression in the nuclear genome. The associated mtSNPs for three genes (one cis and two trans associations) were replicated (P < 0.05) in an independent dataset of n = 452 unrelated individuals. There was no evidence for sexual dimorphic gene expression in any of these five probes. Sex-specific effects were examined by applying our analysis to males and females separately and testing for differences in effect size. The MEST gene was identified as having the most significantly different effect sizes across the sexes (P≈10-7). MEST was similarly expressed in males and females with the G allele; however, males with the C allele are highly expressed for MEST, while females show no expression of the gene. This study provides evidence for the mitochondrial genetic control of expression of several genes in humans, with little evidence found for sex-specific effects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Testosterone Modulates Altered Prefrontal Control of Emotional Actions in Psychopathic Offenders123

    PubMed Central

    von Borries, Anna Katinka Louise; Bulten, Berend Hendrik; Verkes, Robbert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Psychopathic individuals are notorious for their controlled goal-directed aggressive behavior. Yet, during social challenges, they often show uncontrolled emotional behavior. Healthy individuals can control their social emotional behavior through anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) downregulation of neural activity in the amygdala, with testosterone modulating aPFC–amygdala coupling. This study tests whether individual differences in this neuroendocrine system relate to the paradoxical lack of emotional control observed in human psychopathic offenders. Emotional control was operationalized with an fMRI-adapted approach–avoidance task requiring rule-driven control over rapid emotional responses. Fifteen psychopathic offenders and 19 matched healthy control subjects made approaching and avoiding movements in response to emotional faces. Control of social emotional behavior was required during affect-incongruent trials, when participants had to override affect-congruent, automatic action tendencies and select the opposite response. Psychopathic offenders showed less control-related aPFC activity and aPFC–amygdala coupling during trials requiring control of emotional actions, when compared with healthy control subjects. This pattern was particularly pronounced in psychopathic individuals with high endogenous testosterone levels. These findings suggest that reduced prefrontal coordination underlies reduced behavioral control in psychopathic offenders during emotionally provoking situations. Even though the modest sample size warrants replication, the modulatory role of endogenous testosterone on the aPFC–amygdala circuit suggests a neurobiological substrate of individual differences that is relevant for the advancement of treatment and the reduction of recidivism. PMID:26878057

  4. When action conditions perception: Evidence of cross-modal cue recruitment.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Guy M; Backus, Benjamin T

    2016-11-01

    Goal-directed movement, such as reaching to touch an object, relies heavily on vision. Vision guides our motor system not only during initial targeting but also during online movement correction and error-driven learning. But it is not all one-way traffic. This paper reports a situation in which this perceptual-motor interaction runs in reverse, when action affects concurrent perceptual experience. More to the point, the paper reveals that visual perception is subject to change through learned (even arbitrary) visuomotor associations. By considering a situation in which the perceptual decision is dichotomous, this paper reveals that the brain readily harnesses motor behavior to constrain the formation of a visual percept.

  5. Modulation of ethanol-intake by morphine: Evidence for a central site of action

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, K.D.; Reid, L.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that subcutaneous administration of low doses of morphine increase, while subcutaneous naloxone decreases, ethanol-intake in rats. However, the site of action of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake remains unclear. In an attempt to elucidate this issue, seven graded doses of morphine were given intracerebroventricularly to rats 15 min prior to an opportunity to consume water and sweetened alcoholic beverage for 2 hr. Two lower doses of intracerebroventricular morphine reliably increased ethanol-intake, while higher doses decreased intake of water. Preference ratios were reliably increased by morphine doses of 1 {mu}g and higher. The present data provide support for a central site of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake.

  6. Evidence for action on improving the maternal and newborn health workforce: The basis for quality care.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jim; Sochas, Laura; Cometto, Giorgio; Matthews, Zoë

    2016-01-01

    Ambitious new goals to end preventable maternal and newborn deaths will not only require increased coverage but also improved quality of care. Unfortunately, current levels of quality in the delivery of maternal and newborn care are low in high-burden countries, for reasons that are intimately linked with inadequate planning and management of the maternal and newborn health workforce. The Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health is a key opportunity to strengthen global and country-level accountability frameworks for the health workforce and its capacity to deliver quality care. In order to succeed, maternal and newborn health specialists must embrace this strategy and its linkages with the new Global Strategy for Women's, Children's, and Adolescents' Health; action is needed across high- and low-income countries; and any accountability framework must be underpinned by ambitious, measurable indicators and strengthened data collection on human resources for health. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, G. C.; Hanifin, J. P.; Greeson, J. M.; Byrne, B.; Glickman, G.; Gerner, E.; Rollag, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    The photopigment in the human eye that transduces light for circadian and neuroendocrine regulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an action spectrum for light-induced melatonin suppression that could help elucidate the ocular photoreceptor system for regulating the human pineal gland. Subjects (37 females, 35 males, mean age of 24.5 +/- 0.3 years) were healthy and had normal color vision. Full-field, monochromatic light exposures took place between 2:00 and 3:30 A.M. while subjects' pupils were dilated. Blood samples collected before and after light exposures were quantified for melatonin. Each subject was tested with at least seven different irradiances of one wavelength with a minimum of 1 week between each nighttime exposure. Nighttime melatonin suppression tests (n = 627) were completed with wavelengths from 420 to 600 nm. The data were fit to eight univariant, sigmoidal fluence-response curves (R(2) = 0.81-0.95). The action spectrum constructed from these data fit an opsin template (R(2) = 0.91), which identifies 446-477 nm as the most potent wavelength region providing circadian input for regulating melatonin secretion. The results suggest that, in humans, a single photopigment may be primarily responsible for melatonin suppression, and its peak absorbance appears to be distinct from that of rod and cone cell photopigments for vision. The data also suggest that this new photopigment is retinaldehyde based. These findings suggest that there is a novel opsin photopigment in the human eye that mediates circadian photoreception.

  8. Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, G. C.; Hanifin, J. P.; Greeson, J. M.; Byrne, B.; Glickman, G.; Gerner, E.; Rollag, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    The photopigment in the human eye that transduces light for circadian and neuroendocrine regulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an action spectrum for light-induced melatonin suppression that could help elucidate the ocular photoreceptor system for regulating the human pineal gland. Subjects (37 females, 35 males, mean age of 24.5 +/- 0.3 years) were healthy and had normal color vision. Full-field, monochromatic light exposures took place between 2:00 and 3:30 A.M. while subjects' pupils were dilated. Blood samples collected before and after light exposures were quantified for melatonin. Each subject was tested with at least seven different irradiances of one wavelength with a minimum of 1 week between each nighttime exposure. Nighttime melatonin suppression tests (n = 627) were completed with wavelengths from 420 to 600 nm. The data were fit to eight univariant, sigmoidal fluence-response curves (R(2) = 0.81-0.95). The action spectrum constructed from these data fit an opsin template (R(2) = 0.91), which identifies 446-477 nm as the most potent wavelength region providing circadian input for regulating melatonin secretion. The results suggest that, in humans, a single photopigment may be primarily responsible for melatonin suppression, and its peak absorbance appears to be distinct from that of rod and cone cell photopigments for vision. The data also suggest that this new photopigment is retinaldehyde based. These findings suggest that there is a novel opsin photopigment in the human eye that mediates circadian photoreception.

  9. Self-Efficacy, Planning and Action Control in an Oral Self-Care Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Guangyu; Sun, Caiyun; Knoll, Nina; Hamilton, Kyra; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate a theory-guided intervention on oral self-care and examine the possible mechanisms among self-regulatory factors, two brief intervention arms were compared, an information-based education treatment and a self-regulation treatment focusing on planning and action control. Young adults (N = 284; aged 18-29 years) were assessed at baseline…

  10. Evaluating Cognitive Action Control Using Eye-Movement Analysis: An Oculomotor Adaptation of the Simon Task

    PubMed Central

    Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Naudet, Florian; Dondaine, Thibaut; Auffret, Manon; Robert, Gabriel; Drapier, Dominique; Argaud, Soizic; Vérin, Marc; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive action control has been extensively studied using conflict tasks such as the Simon task. In most recent studies, this process has been investigated in the light of the dual route hypothesis and more specifically of the activation-suppression model using distributional analyses. Some authors have suggested that cognitive action control assessment is not specific to response modes. In this study we adapted the Simon task, using oculomotor responses instead of manual responses, in order to evaluate whether the resolution of conflict induced by a two-dimensional stimulus yielded similar results to what is usually reported in tasks with manual responses. Results obtained from 43 young healthy participants revealed the typical congruence effect, with longer reaction times (RT) and lesser accuracy in the incongruent condition. Conditional accuracy functions (CAF) also revealed a higher proportion of fast errors in the incongruent condition and delta plots confirmed that conflict resolution was easier, as the time taken to respond increased. These results are very similar to what has been reported in the literature. Furthermore, our observations are in line with the assumptions of the activation-suppression model, in which automatic activation in conflict situations is captured in the fastest responses and selective inhibition of cognitive action control needs time to build up. Altogether, our results suggest that conflict resolution has core mechanisms whatever the response mode, manual or oculomotor. Using oculomotor responses in such tasks could be of interest when investigating cognitive action control in patients with severe motor disorders. PMID:26973499

  11. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions controlling the material after discharge. 230.72 Section 230.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... containing discharged material properly to prevent point and nonpoint sources of pollution; (d) Timing...

  12. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions controlling the material after discharge. 230.72 Section 230.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... containing discharged material properly to prevent point and nonpoint sources of pollution; (d) Timing...

  13. Self-Efficacy, Planning and Action Control in an Oral Self-Care Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Guangyu; Sun, Caiyun; Knoll, Nina; Hamilton, Kyra; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate a theory-guided intervention on oral self-care and examine the possible mechanisms among self-regulatory factors, two brief intervention arms were compared, an information-based education treatment and a self-regulation treatment focusing on planning and action control. Young adults (N = 284; aged 18-29 years) were assessed at baseline…

  14. 40 CFR 230.72 - Actions controlling the material after discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions controlling the material after discharge. 230.72 Section 230.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... expected to be a problem; (b) Capping in-place contaminated material with clean material or selectively...

  15. Evidence for Action on HIV Treatment and Care Systems in low and middle-income countries: background and introduction.

    PubMed

    Ross, David A; South, Annabelle; Weller, Ian; Hakim, James

    2012-12-01

    Despite the unprecedented scale-up of treatment for HIV in low and middle-income countries over the past decade, 49% of adults and 77% of children in need of HIV treatment still do not have access to it. ART programmes that were initially set up as an emergency response now need to be adapted to ensure that they include all the essential components and are well integrated with other health services; meet the needs of special groups, including children, adolescents, pregnant women and older people; address the mental health needs of HIV-positive people; and monitor as well as report their impact in valid and comparable ways.This supplement is an output from the Evidence for Action on HIV Treatment and Care Systems research programme consortium. Evidence for Action was a 5-year, multidisciplinary research programme, which ran from 2006 to 2011, with partners in India, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia and the United Kingdom.The primary aim of this supplement is to stimulate reflection and provide guidance on what should be in the package of HIV treatment and care systems, as national programmes look to maintain the major advances of the past decade and scale-up treatment to the other 50% of people in need of it.

  16. Are owners' reports of their dogs' 'guilty look' influenced by the dogs' action and evidence of the misdeed?

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Tkalčić, Mladenka; Clayton, Nicola S

    2015-02-01

    While dog owners claim that their dogs' greeting behaviour after having performed a misdeed indicates the dogs' 'guilt', current experimental evidence suggests that dogs show these 'guilty look' behaviours as a response to being scolded by their owners. Given reports that 'guilty look' behaviours are shown also in the absence of being scolded, we investigated whether the dogs' own actions or the evidence of a misdeed might serve as triggering cues. We manipulated whether or not dogs ate a 'forbidden' food item and whether or not the food was visible upon the owners' return. Based on their dogs' greeting behaviour, owners stated that their dog had eaten the food no more than expected by chance. In addition, dogs' greeting behaviours were not affected by their own action or the presence or absence of the food. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis that dogs show the 'guilty look' in the absence of a concurrent negative reaction by their owners. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Are owners' reports of their dogs’ ‘guilty look’ influenced by the dogs’ action and evidence of the misdeed?

    PubMed Central

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Tkalčić, Mladenka; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2015-01-01

    While dog owners claim that their dogs’ greeting behaviour after having performed a misdeed indicates the dogs' ‘guilt’, current experimental evidence suggests that dogs show these ‘guilty look’ behaviours as a response to being scolded by their owners. Given reports that ‘guilty look’ behaviours are shown also in the absence of being scolded, we investigated whether the dogs' own actions or the evidence of a misdeed might serve as triggering cues. We manipulated whether or not dogs ate a ‘forbidden’ food item and whether or not the food was visible upon the owners’ return. Based on their dogs’ greeting behaviour, owners stated that their dog had eaten the food no more than expected by chance. In addition, dogs’ greeting behaviours were not affected by their own action or the presence or absence of the food. Thus, our findings do not support the hypothesis that dogs show the ‘guilty look’ in the absence of a concurrent negative reaction by their owners. PMID:25562192

  18. The role of synergies within generative models of action execution and recognition: A computational perspective. Comment on "Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by A. D'Ausilio et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Donnarumma, Francesco; Iodice, Pierpaolo; Prevete, Roberto; Dindo, Haris

    2015-03-01

    Controlling the body - given its huge number of degrees of freedom - poses severe computational challenges. Mounting evidence suggests that the brain alleviates this problem by exploiting "synergies", or patterns of muscle activities (and/or movement dynamics and kinematics) that can be combined to control action, rather than controlling individual muscles of joints [1-10].

  19. The effect of callosotomy on novel versus familiar bimanual actions: a neural dissociation between controlled and automatic processes?

    PubMed

    Franz, E A; Waldie, K E; Smith, M J

    2000-01-01

    The corpus collosum is the large band of fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain. Individuals who have had the fibers of these tracts surgically severed by callosotomy are able to draw two different spatial figures simultaneously using the left and right hands, without evidence of interactions in the spatial planning processes. Paradoxically, tasks (e.g., tying shoes) that appear to depend on spatial interactions between the left and right hands, each of which is controlled by a separate cerebral hemisphere, pose little difficulty. How can this be? In the study reported here, we observed that well-learned cooperative actions of the hands remain intact in 2 callosotomy patients, whereas actions novel to these patients are virtually impossible for them to produce without visual guidance. We infer that duplicate memory engrams of well-learned actions can be accessed by both cerebral hemispheres without callosal mediation, whereas callosal interactions are necessary for precise cross-matching of sensory information during spatial planning or perceptual-motor learning.

  20. Top-level players' visual control of interceptive actions: Bootsma and van Wieringen (1990) 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Bootsma, Reinoud J; Fernandez, Laure; Morice, Antoine H P; Montagne, Gilles

    2010-08-01

    Using a two-step approach, Van Soest et al. (2010) recently questioned the pertinence of the conclusions drawn by Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) with respect to the visual regulation of an exemplary rapid interceptive action: the attacking forehand drive in table tennis. In the first step, they experimentally compared the movement behaviors of their participants under conditions with and without vision available during the execution of the drive. In the second step, through simulation they evaluated the extent to which a preprogrammed pattern of muscle stimulation acting on the dynamical characteristics of the musculoskeletal system could explain the patterns of movement observed, including the phenomena of kinematic convergence and compensatory variability. In this contribution, we show how methodological and conceptual shortcomings, pertaining to both parts of Van Soest et al.'s study, severely limit the impact of their findings. We argue that their conclusion-denying the possibility of visual regulation of rapid interceptive actions-cannot be upheld in the light of the existing evidence, while Bootsma and Van Wieringen's conclusion-in favor of the visual regulation of rapid interceptive actions in top-level players- still holds strong, even after 20 years. Irrespective of the trends of the moment, we suggest that both appropriate experimentation and principled theorization need to be deployed before a model-based predictive architecture can be considered as a serious alternative to a (more parsimonious) information-based control architecture.

  1. Plastisphere in action: evidence for an interaction between expanded polystyrene and dunal plants.

    PubMed

    Poeta, Gianluca; Fanelli, Giuliano; Pietrelli, Loris; Acosta, Alicia T R; Battisti, Corrado

    2017-04-01

    Among the many threats that can be recorded on sandy beaches, plastic litter represents a serious problem for these complex and endangered ecosystems. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is increasingly abundant as a form of plastic litter in natural environments, particularly along shores and waterways. Nevertheless, despite the great number of scientific articles concerning the impact of litter on animal species, there are still no research focusing on the interaction between this type of beach litter and other biodiversity components. In this work, we reported the first evidence of interactions between EPS and living plants along a sandy beach of Tyrrhenian central Italy. We sampled 540 EPS items, mainly deriving from fishery activities (>75%). We obtained evidence for an interaction between EPS and plants: about 5% of items resulted perforated or have roots of three species (Phragmites australis, Spartina versicolor, Anthemis maritima). Apparently, we did not observed a relationship between plants and EPS items size. More research is needed to assess if the plant assemblage growing on EPS is random or if peculiar substrate exerts some sort of selection on the plant community.

  2. Hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular disease in uremia: the newest evidence in epidemiology and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Perna, Alessandra F; Acanfora, Filomena; Satta, Ersilia; Lombardi, Cinzia; Ingrosso, Diego; De Santo, Natale G

    2004-09-01

    In the general population, hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (ischemic disease, such as stroke and myocardial infarction, and arterial and venous thrombosis). We can presume that the association is causal, based on the example of homocystinuria, and on the evidence put forward by several basic science and epidemiologic studies. However, the results of large intervention trials, which may grant further support to this hypothesis, are not yet available. In chronic renal failure and in uremia, the evidence that is offered by carefully performed prospective studies also indicate the presence of an association, although some studies suggest reverse epidemiology. The mechanisms underlying the association, and able to explain the several toxic effects of homocysteine, related or not to cardiovascular disease, are unclear. Oxidation, nitrosylation, and hypomethylation are among the postulated mechanisms. In uremia, protein hypomethylation interferes with protein repair; DNA hypomethylation impairs regulation of gene expression, whereas folate treatment reverts such alterations. Acylation, another structural modification able to impair protein function, is a possible mediator of homocysteine toxicity.

  3. Cognitive control level of action for analyzing verbal reports in educative clinical simulation situations.

    PubMed

    Morineau, Thierry; Meineri, Sebastien; Chapelain, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    Several methods and theoretical frameworks have been proposed for efficient debriefing after clinical simulation sessions. In these studies, however, the cognitive processes underlying the debriefing stage are not directly addressed. Cognitive control constitutes a conceptual link between behavior and reflection on behavior to apprehend debriefing cognitively. Our goal was to analyze cognitive control from verbal reports using the Skill-Rule-Knowledge model. This model considers different cognitive control levels from skill-based to rule-based and knowledge-based control. An experiment was conducted with teams of nursing students who were confronted with emergency scenarios during high-fidelity simulation sessions. Participants' descriptions of their actions were asked in the course of the simulation scenarios or during the debriefing stage. 52 nursing students working in 26 pairs participated in this study. Participants were divided into two groups: an "in situ" group in which they had to describe their actions at different moments of a deteriorating patient scenario, and a "debriefing" group, in which, at the same moments, they had to describe their actions displayed on a video recording. In addition to a cognitive analysis, the teams' clinical performance was measured. The cognitive control level in the debriefing group was generally higher than in the in situ group. Good team performance was associated with a high level of cognitive control after a patient's significant state deterioration. These findings are in conformity with the "Skill-Rule-Knowledge" model. The debriefing stage allows a deeper reflection on action compared with the in situ condition. If an abnormal event occurs as an adverse event, then participants' mental processes tend to migrate towards knowledge-based control. This migration particularly concerns students with the best clinical performance. Thus, this cognitive framework can help to strengthen the analysis of verbal reports. Copyright

  4. [Sustainable Implementation of Evidence-Based Programmes in Health Promotion: A Theoretical Framework and Concept of Interactive Knowledge to Action].

    PubMed

    Rütten, A; Wolff, A; Streber, A

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses 2 current issues in the field of public health research: (i) transfer of scientific knowledge into practice and (ii) sustainable implementation of good practice projects. It also supports integration of scientific and practice-based evidence production. Furthermore, it supports utilisation of interactive models that transcend deductive approaches to the process of knowledge transfer. Existing theoretical approaches, pilot studies and thoughtful conceptual considerations are incorporated into a framework showing the interplay of science, politics and prevention practice, which fosters a more sustainable implementation of health promotion programmes. The framework depicts 4 key processes of interaction between science and prevention practice: interactive knowledge to action, capacity building, programme adaptation and adaptation of the implementation context. Ensuring sustainability of health promotion programmes requires a concentrated process of integrating scientific and practice-based evidence production in the context of implementation. Central to the integration process is the approach of interactive knowledge to action, which especially benefits from capacity building processes that facilitate participation and systematic interaction between relevant stakeholders. Intense cooperation also induces a dynamic interaction between multiple actors and components such as health promotion programmes, target groups, relevant organisations and social, cultural and political contexts. The reciprocal adaptation of programmes and key components of the implementation context can foster effectiveness and sustainability of programmes. Sustainable implementation of evidence-based health promotion programmes requires alternatives to recent deductive models of knowledge transfer. Interactive approaches prove to be promising alternatives. Simultaneously, they change the responsibilities of science, policy and public health practice. Existing boundaries

  5. Direct Evidence for the Economy of Action: Glucose and the Perception of Geographical Slant

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Simone; Zadra, Jonathan R.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    2012-01-01

    When locomoting in a physically challenging environment, the body draws upon available energy reserves to accommodate increased metabolic demand. Ingested glucose supplements the body’s energy resources, whereas non-caloric sweetener does not. Two experiments demonstrate that participants who had consumed a glucose-containing drink perceived a hills slant to be less steep than did participants who had consumed a drink containing non-caloric sweetener. The glucose manipulation influenced participants’ explicit awareness of hill slant but, as predicted, it did not affect a visually-guided action of orienting a tilting palmboard to be parallel to the hill. Measured individual differences in factors related to bioenergetic state such as fatigue, sleep quality, fitness, mood, and stress also affected perception such that lower energetic states were associated with steeper perceptions of hill slant. This research shows that the perception of the environment’s spatial layout is influenced by the energetic resources available for locomotion within it. Our findings are consistent with the view that spatial perceptions are influenced by bioenergetic factors. PMID:20514996

  6. Connectivity patterns during music listening: Evidence for action-based processing in musicians.

    PubMed

    Alluri, Vinoo; Toiviainen, Petri; Burunat, Iballa; Kliuchko, Marina; Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira

    2017-03-28

    Musical expertise is visible both in the morphology and functionality of the brain. Recent research indicates that functional integration between multi-sensory, somato-motor, default-mode (DMN), and salience (SN) networks of the brain differentiates musicians from non-musicians during resting state. Here, we aimed at determining whether brain networks differentially exchange information in musicians as opposed to non-musicians during naturalistic music listening. Whole-brain graph-theory analyses were performed on participants' fMRI responses. Group-level differences revealed that musicians' primary hubs comprised cerebral and cerebellar sensorimotor regions whereas non-musicians' dominant hubs encompassed DMN-related regions. Community structure analyses of the key hubs revealed greater integration of motor and somatosensory homunculi representing the upper limbs and torso in musicians. Furthermore, musicians who started training at an earlier age exhibited greater centrality in the auditory cortex, and areas related to top-down processes, attention, emotion, somatosensory processing, and non-verbal processing of speech. We here reveal how brain networks organize themselves in a naturalistic music listening situation wherein musicians automatically engage neural networks that are action-based while non-musicians use those that are perception-based to process an incoming auditory stream. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: Issues, Evidence and Implications for Clinical Actions

    PubMed Central

    Kohnert, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    A clear understanding of how to best provide clinical serves to bilingual children with suspected or confirmed primary language impairment (PLI) is predicated on understanding typical development in dual-language learners as well as the PLI profile. This article reviews general characteristics of children learning two languages, including three that challenge the diagnosis and treatment of PLI; uneven distribution of abilities in the child's two languages, cross-linguistic associations within bilingual learners, and individual variation in response to similar social circumstances. The diagnostic category of PLI (also referred to in the literature as specific language impairment or SLI) is described with attention to how language impairment, in the face of otherwise typical development, manifests in children learning two languages. Empirical evidence related to differential diagnosis of PLI in bilingual children is then reviewed and issues related to the generalization of treatment gains in dual-language learners with PLI are introduced. PMID:20371080

  8. Conscientiousness, extroversion, and action control: comparing moderate and vigorous physical activity.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; de Groot, Ruben; van den Putte, Bas; Rhodes, Ryan

    2009-12-01

    The present study explored the influence of the Big Five dimensions extroversion and conscientiousness on action control regarding both moderate and vigorous physical activity within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Prospective data were available from 186 respondents, who completed measures of intention, cognitive and affective attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, extroversion, conscientiousness, and physical activity at T1. Four weeks later, physical activity was assessed again. Respondents were grouped into four profiles: nonintenders, successful nonintenders, unsuccessful intenders, and successful intenders. Logistic regression analyses revealed that successful enactment in moderate physical activity was associated with extroversion, subjective norm, and affective attitude, whereas successful enactment in vigorous physical activity was associated with conscientiousness. Findings illustrate the differential role played by personality dimensions and TPB concepts in the explanation of moderate and vigorous physical activity action control.

  9. Action control of exercise behavior: evaluation of social cognition, cross-behavioral regulation, and automaticity.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Fiala, Bonnie; Nasuti, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Intention is considered the proximal determinant of behavior in many popular theories applied to understanding physical activity, yet intention-behavior discordance is high. Thus, an understanding of constructs that facilitate or inhibit the successful translation of intentions into behavior is both timely and important. The action control approach of dividing the intention-behavior relationship into quadrants of successful/unsuccessful intenders has shown utility in the past by demonstrating the magnitude of intention-behavior discordance and allowing for an outcome variable to test predictors. The purpose of this article was to evaluate automaticity and cross-behavioral regulation as predictors of exercise action control, in conjunction with other more standard social cognitive predictors of perceived behavioral control and affective and instrumental attitudes. Participants were a random sample of 263 college students who completed predictor measures at time one, followed by exercise behavior two weeks later. Participants were classified into three intention-behavior profiles: (1) nonintenders (14.1%; n = 31), (2) unsuccessful intenders (35.5%; n = 78), and (3) successful intenders (48.6%; n = 107). Affective attitude, perceived behavioral control, automaticity, and cross-behavioral regulation were predictors of action control. The results demonstrate that automaticity and cross-behavioral regulation, constructs not typically used in intention-based theories, predict intention-behavior discordance.

  10. Evidence for opponent-process actions of intravenous cocaine and cocaethylene.

    PubMed

    Knackstedt, Lori A; Samimi, Max M; Ettenberg, Aaron

    2002-07-01

    The affective response to cocaine (COC) has been suggested to follow a time-course and pattern that adheres to the prediction of opponent-process models of drug actions. While the initial impact of the drug is positive, within a few minutes that effect wanes and is replaced by an aversive state characterized by anxiety and drug craving. We have demonstrated this phenomenon in animals by showing that rats prefer distinctive environments associated with the immediate effects of intravenous COC (1.0 mg/kg) but avoid environments associated with the state present 15-min postinjection. Human addicts have reported taking ethanol with their COC as a means of attenuating the negative aftereffects of COC administration. The combination of ethanol and COC results in the production of cocaethylene (CE), a metabolite of COC having psychostimulant properties. The current study was devised to assess whether the immediate and delayed affective responses to CE might account for the self-medication strategy of COC addicts pretreating themselves with ethanol. Rats developed conditioned place preferences for environments paired with the immediate effects of a 1.44-mg/kg intravenous dose of CE (equimolar to a 1.0-mg/kg dose of COC). While no aversive effects were observed at 0, 5, or 15 min postinjection, reliable place avoidance was detected for an environment paired with the internal state present 30-min post-CE. These data are consistent with the view that the development of CE may account for efficacy of ethanol to delay and weaken the aversive aftereffects of COC.

  11. Dietary garlic and hip osteoarthritis: evidence of a protective effect and putative mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patterns of food intake and prevalent osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee were studied using the twin design to limit the effect of confounding factors. Compounds found in associated food groups were further studied in vitro. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted in a large population-based volunteer cohort of twins. Food intake was evaluated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire; OA was determined using plain radiographs. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI and physical activity. Subsequent in vitro studies examined the effects of allium-derived compounds on the expression of matrix-degrading proteases in SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells. Results Data were available, depending on phenotype, for 654-1082 of 1086 female twins (median age 58.9 years; range 46-77). Trends in dietary analysis revealed a specific pattern of dietary intake, that high in fruit and vegetables, showed an inverse association with hip OA (p = 0.022). Consumption of 'non-citrus fruit' (p = 0.015) and 'alliums' (p = 0.029) had the strongest protective effect. Alliums contain diallyl disulphide which was shown to abrogate cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase expression. Conclusions Studies of diet are notorious for their confounding by lifestyle effects. While taking account of BMI, the data show an independent effect of a diet high in fruit and vegetables, suggesting it to be protective against radiographic hip OA. Furthermore, diallyl disulphide, a compound found in garlic and other alliums, represses the expression of matrix-degrading proteases in chondrocyte-like cells, providing a potential mechanism of action. PMID:21143861

  12. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions.

  13. Action to Support Practices Implement Research Evidence (ASPIRE): protocol for a cluster-randomised evaluation of adaptable implementation packages targeting 'high impact' clinical practice recommendations in general practice.

    PubMed

    Willis, Thomas A; Hartley, Suzanne; Glidewell, Liz; Farrin, Amanda J; Lawton, Rebecca; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Ingleson, Emma; Heudtlass, Peter; Collinson, Michelle; Clamp, Susan; Hunter, Cheryl; Ward, Vicky; Hulme, Claire; Meads, David; Bregantini, Daniele; Carder, Paul; Foy, Robbie

    2016-02-29

    There are recognised gaps between evidence and practice in general practice, a setting which provides particular challenges for implementation. We earlier screened clinical guideline recommendations to derive a set of 'high impact' indicators based upon criteria including potential for significant patient benefit, scope for improved practice and amenability to measurement using routinely collected data. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted, adaptable intervention package to implement four targeted, high impact recommendations in general practice. The research programme Action to Support Practice Implement Research Evidence (ASPIRE) includes a pair of pragmatic cluster-randomised trials which use a balanced incomplete block design. Clusters are general practices in West Yorkshire, United Kingdom (UK), recruited using an 'opt-out' recruitment process. The intervention package adapted to each recommendation includes combinations of audit and feedback, educational outreach visits and computerised prompts with embedded behaviour change techniques selected on the basis of identified needs and barriers to change. In trial 1, practices are randomised to adapted interventions targeting either diabetes control or risky prescribing and those in trial 2 to adapted interventions targeting either blood pressure control in patients at risk of cardiovascular events or anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation. The respective primary endpoints comprise achievement of all recommended target levels of haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure and cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes, a composite indicator of risky prescribing, achievement of recommended blood pressure targets for specific patient groups and anticoagulation prescribing in patients with atrial fibrillation. We are also randomising practices to a fifth, non-intervention control group to further assess Hawthorne effects. Outcomes will be assessed using routinely collected data

  14. The point of no return: A fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Bartlett (1958. Thinking. New York: Basic Books) described the point of no return as a point of irrevocable commitment to action, which was preceded by a period of gradually increasing commitment. As such, the point of no return reflects a fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action. I review the literature on the point of no return, taking three perspectives. First, I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the controlled act, as a locus in the architecture and anatomy of the underlying processes. I review experiments from the stop-signal paradigm that suggest that the point of no return is located late in the response system. Then I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the act of control that tries to change the controlled act before it becomes irrevocable. From this perspective, the point of no return is a point in time that provides enough "lead time" for the act of control to take effect. I review experiments that measure the response time to the stop signal as the lead time required for response inhibition in the stop-signal paradigm. Finally, I consider the point of no return in hierarchically controlled tasks, in which there may be many points of no return at different levels of the hierarchy. I review experiments on skilled typing that suggest different points of no return for the commands that determine what is typed and the countermands that inhibit typing, with increasing commitment to action the lower the level in the hierarchy. I end by considering the point of no return in perception and thought as well as action.

  15. WHO Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) Intervention Guide: a systematic review of evidence from low and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Keynejad, Roxanne C; Dua, Tarun; Barbui, Corrado; Thornicroft, Graham

    2017-09-13

    Despite mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders being highly prevalent, there is a worldwide gap between service need and provision. WHO launched its Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) in 2008, and the Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) in 2010. mhGAP-IG provides evidence-based guidance and tools for assessment and integrated management of priority MNS disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), using clinical decision-making protocols. It targets a non-specialised primary healthcare audience, but has also been used by ministries, non-governmental organisations and academics, for mental health service scale-up in 90 countries. This review aimed to identify evidence to date for mhGAP-IG implementation in LMICs. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge/Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, SciELO/Web of Science, Cochrane, Pubmed databases and Google Scholar for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of mhGAP-IG in LMICs, in any language. Data were extracted from included papers, but heterogeneity prevented meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic review of evidence to date, of mhGAP-IG implementation and evaluation in LMICs. Thirty-three included studies reported 15 training courses, 9 clinical implementations, 3 country contextualisations, 3 economic models, 2 uses as control interventions and 1 use to develop a rating scale. Our review identified the importance of detailed reports of contextual challenges in the field, alongside detailed protocols, qualitative studies and randomised controlled trials. The mhGAP-IG literature is substantial, relative to other published evaluations of clinical practice guidelines: an important contribution to a neglected field. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Optimal control of complex networks: Balancing accuracy and energy of the control action.

    PubMed

    Shirin, Afroza; Klickstein, Isaac S; Sorrentino, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the control energy required to control a large dynamical complex network is prohibitively large when there are only a few control inputs. Most methods to reduce the control energy have focused on where, in the network, to place additional control inputs. We also have seen that by controlling the states of a subset of the nodes of a network, rather than the state of every node, the required energy to control a portion of the network can be reduced substantially. The energy requirements exponentially decay with the number of target nodes, suggesting that large networks can be controlled by a relatively small number of inputs as long as the target set is appropriately sized. Here, we see that the control energy can be reduced even more if the prescribed final states are not satisfied strictly. We introduce a new control strategy called balanced control for which we set our objective function as a convex combination of two competitive terms: (i) the distance between the output final states at a given final time and given prescribed states and (ii) the total control energy expenditure over the given time period. We also see that the required energy for the optimal balanced control problem approximates the required energy for the optimal target control problem when the coefficient of the second term is very small. We validate our conclusions in model and real networks regardless of system size, energy restrictions, state restrictions, input node choices, and target node choices.

  17. Oxytocin in mares: lack of evidence for oxytocin production by or action on preovulatory follicles.

    PubMed

    Stock, A E; Emeny, R T; Sirois, J; Fortune, J E

    1995-04-01

    the third day. No dose of oxytocin had a significant effect on progesterone secretion (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the results indicate that equine preovulatory follicles, isolated during early or late estrus, are neither a source of oxytocin nor a target for oxytocin action on steroidogenesis. Although ovarian oxytocin appears to play a role in regulating follicular function in some other mammalian species, our data provide no support for such a role for oxytocin in mares.

  18. The Effectiveness of Community Action in Reducing Risky Alcohol Consumption and Harm: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher; Petrie, Dennis; Breen, Courtney; Havard, Alys; Abudeen, Ansari; Harwood, Elissa; Clifford, Anton; D'Este, Catherine; Gilmour, Stuart; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization, governments, and communities agree that community action is likely to reduce risky alcohol consumption and harm. Despite this agreement, there is little rigorous evidence that community action is effective: of the six randomised trials of community action published to date, all were US-based and focused on young people (rather than the whole community), and their outcomes were limited to self-report or alcohol purchase attempts. The objective of this study was to conduct the first non-US randomised controlled trial (RCT) of community action to quantify the effectiveness of this approach in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harms measured using both self-report and routinely collected data. Methods and Findings We conducted a cluster RCT comprising 20 communities in Australia that had populations of 5,000–20,000, were at least 100 km from an urban centre (population ≥ 100,000), and were not involved in another community alcohol project. Communities were pair-matched, and one member of each pair was randomly allocated to the experimental group. Thirteen interventions were implemented in the experimental communities from 2005 to 2009: community engagement; general practitioner training in alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI); feedback to key stakeholders; media campaign; workplace policies/practices training; school-based intervention; general practitioner feedback on their prescribing of alcohol medications; community pharmacy-based SBI; web-based SBI; Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services support for SBI; Good Sports program for sports clubs; identifying and targeting high-risk weekends; and hospital emergency department–based SBI. Primary outcomes based on routinely collected data were alcohol-related crime, traffic crashes, and hospital inpatient admissions. Routinely collected data for the entire study period (2001–2009) were obtained in 2010. Secondary outcomes based on pre- and post

  19. Evidence-based Practice in Action: Ensuring Quality of Pediatric Assessment Frequency.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Katelyn; Eckhardt, Ann L

    Optimal frequency of head-to-toe assessment in hospitalized pediatric patients is unknown. An alteration in head-to-toe assessment frequency was proposed at a Midwestern regional hospital. The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate patient safety and staff satisfaction following a change in head-to-toe assessment frequency. Chart audits were performed on all patients upon discharge and after any change in level of care to assess the risk to patient safety following the change in head-to-toe assessment frequency. Nurses were surveyed to determine satisfaction with the change. A total of 421 patients were included in the study. After the change, there was no increase in the number of unplanned transfers to the intensive care unit from the previous year. Registered nurses (N=15) perceived no decrease in patient safety following the change. Registered nurses were satisfied with the change in assessment frequency noting they perceived more time to provide direct patient care. The change in head-to-toe assessment frequency did not impact patient safety, but had a positive impact on nurse satisfaction. Following the study period, the unit policy was changed to reflect the new evidence based head-to-toe assessment interval. Further research is needed with a larger, more diverse sample of pediatric patients and pediatric nurses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

  1. Yoga for the Treatment of Insomnia among Cancer Patients: Evidence, Mechanisms of Action, and Clinical Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Mustian, Karen M; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke J; Kamen, Charles

    Up to 90% of cancer patients report symptoms of insomnia during and after treatment. Symptoms of insomnia include excessive daytime sleepiness, difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, and waking up too early. Insomnia symptoms are among the most prevalent, distressing and persistent cancer- and cancer treatment-related toxicities reported by patients, and can be severe enough to increase cancer morbidity and mortality. Despite the ubiquity of insomnia symptoms, they are under-screened, under-diagnosed, and under-treated in cancer patients. When insomnia symptoms are identified, providers are hesitant to prescribe, and patients are hesitant to take pharmaceuticals due to polypharmacy concerns. In addition, sleep medications do not cure insomnia. Yoga is a well-tolerated mode of exercise with promising evidence for its efficacy in improving insomnia symptoms among cancer patients. This article reviews existing clinical research on the effectiveness of yoga for treating insomnia among cancer patients. The article also provides clinical recommendations for prescribing yoga for the treatment of insomnia in this population.

  2. Bilingual children with primary language impairment: issues, evidence and implications for clinical actions.

    PubMed

    Kohnert, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    A clear understanding of how to best provide clinical serves to bilingual children with suspected or confirmed primary language impairment (PLI) is predicated on understanding typical development in dual-language learners as well as the PLI profile. This article reviews general characteristics of children learning two languages, including three that challenge the diagnosis and treatment of PLI; uneven distribution of abilities in the child's two languages, cross-linguistic associations within bilingual learners, and individual variation in response to similar social circumstances. The diagnostic category of PLI (also referred to in the literature as specific language impairment or SLI) is described with attention to how language impairment, in the face of otherwise typical development, manifests in children learning two languages. Empirical evidence related to differential diagnosis of PLI in bilingual children is then reviewed and issues related to the generalization of treatment gains in dual-language learners with PLI are introduced. As a result of this activity, the careful reader will be able to (1) describe general characteristics of typically developing dual-language learners, (2) explain how primary language impairment (PLI) manifests in bilingual children, and (3) identify key clinical issues and approaches to assessment and treatment on bilingual PLI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Yoga for the Treatment of Insomnia among Cancer Patients: Evidence, Mechanisms of Action, and Clinical Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Mustian, Karen M.; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke J.; Kamen, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Up to 90% of cancer patients report symptoms of insomnia during and after treatment. Symptoms of insomnia include excessive daytime sleepiness, difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, and waking up too early. Insomnia symptoms are among the most prevalent, distressing and persistent cancer- and cancer treatment-related toxicities reported by patients, and can be severe enough to increase cancer morbidity and mortality. Despite the ubiquity of insomnia symptoms, they are under-screened, under-diagnosed, and under-treated in cancer patients. When insomnia symptoms are identified, providers are hesitant to prescribe, and patients are hesitant to take pharmaceuticals due to polypharmacy concerns. In addition, sleep medications do not cure insomnia. Yoga is a well-tolerated mode of exercise with promising evidence for its efficacy in improving insomnia symptoms among cancer patients. This article reviews existing clinical research on the effectiveness of yoga for treating insomnia among cancer patients. The article also provides clinical recommendations for prescribing yoga for the treatment of insomnia in this population. PMID:25861453

  4. Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory-Based Updating Rule for Continuous Opinions and Discrete Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Fan; Xie, Di

    The opinion of an individual about a given problem is determined by the quantity and the degree of certainty of knowledge mastered by the individual. The knowledge and information from other individuals might bring some conflicts with the individual's internal knowledge, which would make the individual become uncertain about its opinion. Based on Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory, a new opinion updating rule is proposed for individuals to form their opinion as the process of reasoning from the internal or the external knowledge in real life. Many computer simulations are conducted under different situations. It is found that the common phenomena such as consensus, fragment opinions can be observed among the individuals on square lattices during the evolution of opinion, and that information is spread from the higher certainty to the lower certainty, and the influence of opinion leaders become weaken during the spread of information, and the range of influence is determined by the threshold of individual acceptance of uncertainty of information.

  5. Emergence of self and other in perception and action: an event-control approach.

    PubMed

    Jordan, J Scott

    2003-12-01

    The present paper analyzes the regularities referred to via the concept 'self.' This is important, for cognitive science traditionally models the self as a cognitive mediator between perceptual inputs and behavioral outputs. This leads to the assertion that the self causes action. Recent findings in social psychology indicate this is not the case and, as a consequence, certain cognitive scientists model the self as being epiphenomenal. In contrast, the present paper proposes an alternative approach (i.e., the event-control approach) that is based on recently discovered regularities between perception and action. Specifically, these regularities indicate that perception and action planning utilize common neural resources. This leads to a coupling of perception, planning, and action in which the first two constitute aspects of a single system (i.e., the distal-event system) that is able to pre-specify and detect distal events. This distal-event system is then coupled with action (i.e., effector-control systems) in a constraining, as opposed to 'causal' manner. This model has implications for how we conceptualize the manner in which one infers the intentions of another, anticipates the intentions of another, and possibly even experiences another. In conclusion, it is argued that it may be possible to map the concept 'self' onto the regularities referred to in the event-control model, not in order to reify 'the self' as a causal mechanism, but to demonstrate its status as a useful concept that refers to regularities that are part of the natural order.

  6. Experimental simulation of cat electromyogram: evidence for algebraic summation of motor-unit action-potential trains.

    PubMed

    Day, S J; Hulliger, M

    2001-11-01

    Prompted by the observation that the slope of the relationship between average rectified electromyography (EMG) and the ensemble activation rate of a pool of motor units progressively decreased (showing a downward nonlinearity), an experimental study was carried out to test the widely held notion that the EMG is the simple algebraic sum of motor-unit action-potential trains. The experiments were performed on the cat soleus muscle under isometric conditions, using electrical stimulation of alpha-motor axons isolated in ventral root filaments. The EMG signals were simulated experimentally under conditions where the activation of nearly the entire pool of motor units or of subsets of motor units was completely controlled by the experimenter. Sets of individual motor units or of small groups of motor units were stimulated independently, using stimulation profiles that were strictly repeatable between trials. This permitted a rigorous quantitative comparison of EMGs that were recorded during combined activation of multiple motor filaments with EMGs that were synthesized from the algebraic summation of motor unit action potential trains generated by individual nerve filaments. These were recorded separately by individually stimulating the same filaments with the same activation profiles that were employed during combined stimulation. During combined activation of up to 10 motor filaments, experimentally recorded and computationally synthesized EMGs were virtually identical. This indicates that EMG signals indeed are the outcome of the simple algebraic summation of motor-unit action-potential trains generated by concurrently active motor units. For both recorded and synthesized EMGs, it was confirmed that EMG magnitude increased nonlinearly with the ensemble activation rate of a pool of motor units. The nonlinearity was largely abolished when EMG magnitude was estimated as the sum of rectified, instead of raw, motor-unit action-potential trains. This suggests that the

  7. Applications of Control Theory to the Dynamics and Propagation of Cardiac Action Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Laura M.; Stockton, Jonathan F.; Otani, Niels F.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest is a widespread cause of death in the industrialized world. Most cases of sudden cardiac arrest are due to ventricular fibrillation (VF), a lethal cardiac arrhythmia. Electrophysiological abnormalities such as alternans (a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration) and conduction block have been suspected to contribute to the onset of VF. This study focuses on the use of control-systems techniques to analyze and design methods for suppressing these precursor factors. Control-systems tools, specifically controllability analysis and Lyapunov stability methods, were applied to a two-variable Karma model of the action-potential (AP) dynamics of a single cell, to analyze the effectiveness of strategies for suppressing AP abnormalities. State-feedback-integral (SFI) control was then applied to a Purkinje fiber simulated with the Karma model, where only one stimulating electrode was used to affect the system. SFI control converted both discordant alternans and 2:1 conduction block back toward more normal patterns, over a wider range of fiber lengths and pacing intervals compared with a Pyragas-type chaos controller. The advantages conferred by using feedback from multiple locations in the fiber, and using integral (i.e., memory) terms in the controller, are discussed. PMID:20407833

  8. Applications of control theory to the dynamics and propagation of cardiac action potentials.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Laura M; Stockton, Jonathan F; Otani, Niels F

    2010-09-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest is a widespread cause of death in the industrialized world. Most cases of sudden cardiac arrest are due to ventricular fibrillation (VF), a lethal cardiac arrhythmia. Electrophysiological abnormalities such as alternans (a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration) and conduction block have been suspected to contribute to the onset of VF. This study focuses on the use of control-systems techniques to analyze and design methods for suppressing these precursor factors. Control-systems tools, specifically controllability analysis and Lyapunov stability methods, were applied to a two-variable Karma model of the action-potential (AP) dynamics of a single cell, to analyze the effectiveness of strategies for suppressing AP abnormalities. State-feedback-integral (SFI) control was then applied to a Purkinje fiber simulated with the Karma model, where only one stimulating electrode was used to affect the system. SFI control converted both discordant alternans and 2:1 conduction block back toward more normal patterns, over a wider range of fiber lengths and pacing intervals compared with a Pyragas-type chaos controller. The advantages conferred by using feedback from multiple locations in the fiber, and using integral (i.e., memory) terms in the controller, are discussed.

  9. Do Motion Controllers Make Action Video Games Less Sedentary? A Randomized Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Bowling, J. Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal · kg−1 · hr−1) produced 0.10 kcal · kg−1 · hr−1 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17) greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal · kg−1 · hr−1, P = .048). All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior. PMID:22028959

  10. Do motion controllers make action video games less sedentary? A randomized experiment.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1)) produced 0.10 kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1) (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17) greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1), P = .048). All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior.

  11. Frontal midline theta reflects anxiety and cognitive control: meta-analytic evidence.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Shackman, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from imaging and anatomical studies suggests that the midcingulate cortex (MCC) is a dynamic hub lying at the interface of affect and cognition. In particular, this neural system appears to integrate information about conflict and punishment in order to optimize behavior in the face of action-outcome uncertainty. In a series of meta-analyses, we show how recent human electrophysiological research provides compelling evidence that frontal-midline theta signals reflecting MCC activity are moderated by anxiety and predict adaptive behavioral adjustments. These findings underscore the importance of frontal theta activity to a broad spectrum of control operations. We argue that frontal-midline theta provides a neurophysiologically plausible mechanism for optimally adjusting behavior to uncertainty, a hallmark of situations that elicit anxiety and demand cognitive control. These observations compel a new perspective on the mechanisms guiding motivated learning and behavior and provide a framework for understanding the role of the MCC in temperament and psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Discourses of healthcare professionals about health surveillance actions for Tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Mitano, Fernando; Sicsú, Amélia Nunes; Sousa, Luciana de Oliveira; Silva, Laís Mara Caetano da; Palha, Pedro Fredemir

    2017-04-06

    To analyze the meanings produced in the Health Surveillance actions for tuberculosis control, carried out by healthcare professionals in Mozambique. Qualitative study using the theoretical and methodological framework of the French Discourse Analysis. A total of 15 healthcare professionals with more than one year of experience in disease control actions participated in the study. Four discursive blocks have emerged from the analysis: tuberculosis diagnosis process; meeting, communication and discussion of treatment; local strategies for tuberculosis control; involvement of family and community leaders in the tuberculosis control. The statements of the healthcare professionals suggest, as Health Surveillance actions, practices that include collecting sputum in the patient's home and sending it to the laboratory; deployment of the medical team with a microscope for tuberculosis testing; and testing for diseases that may be associated with tuberculosis. In this context, the actions of Health Surveillance for tuberculosis control involve valuing all actors: family, community leaders, patients and health professionals. Analisar os sentidos produzidos sobre as ações de Vigilância em Saúde no controle da tuberculose desenvolvidas por profissionais de saúde em Moçambique. Estudo qualitativo que tem como referencial teórico-metodológico a Análise de Discurso de matriz francesa. Participaram do estudo 15 profissionais de saúde, com mais de 1 ano de experiência em ações de controle da doença. Da análise, emergiram quatro blocos discursivos: processo do diagnóstico da tuberculose; reunião, comunicação e discussão do tratamento; estratégias locais para o controle da tuberculose; envolvimento da família e dos líderes comunitários no controle da tuberculose. Os dizeres dos profissionais de saúde sugerem, como ações de Vigilância em Saúde, práticas que incluem a coleta de escarro na residência do paciente e seu encaminhamento ao laboratório; o

  13. Molecular and biochemical evidence for the involvement of calcium/calmodulin in auxin action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    -dependent manner suggests that calcium/CaM regulate ZmSAUR1 at the post-translational level. Our data provide the first direct evidence for the involvement of calcium/CaM-mediated signaling in auxin-mediated signal transduction.

  14. Molecular and biochemical evidence for the involvement of calcium/calmodulin in auxin action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    -dependent manner suggests that calcium/CaM regulate ZmSAUR1 at the post-translational level. Our data provide the first direct evidence for the involvement of calcium/CaM-mediated signaling in auxin-mediated signal transduction.

  15. Stage-specific effects of an action control intervention on dental flossing.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Benjamin; Sniehotta, Falko F; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2007-06-01

    Health behavior interventions may have different effects when targeting individuals at different stages of change. A 'motivation' stage, during which intentions are formed, has been distinguished from a 'volition' stage, implying that the latter requires self-regulatory effort in implementing and maintaining behavior. To test this stage assumption, an action control intervention (self-monitoring tool for dental flossing) matched to the volition stage and mismatched to the motivation stage was provided to 151 university students, with follow-up measures of action control and flossing after 2 and 6 weeks. Separate regression analyses for motivational and volitional participants indicated that only volitional participants benefited from the volitional intervention. This supports the usefulness of stage assumptions and the advantage of tailoring interventions to participants who reside either in the motivational or in the volitional stage.

  16. Neural Evidence for the Flexible Control of Mental Representations.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A; Drysdale, Andrew T; Postle, Bradley R

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed to explore neural evidence for the simultaneous engagement of multiple mental codes while retaining a visual object in short-term memory (STM) and, if successful, to explore the neural bases of strategic prioritization among these codes. We used multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data to track patterns of brain activity associated with three common mental codes: visual, verbal, and semantic. When participants did not know which dimension of a sample stimulus would be tested, patterns of brain activity during the memory delay indicated that a visual representation was quickly augmented with both verbal and semantic re-representations of the stimulus. The verbal code emerged as most highly activated, consistent with a canonical visual-to-phonological recoding operation in STM. If participants knew which dimension of a sample stimulus would be tested, brain activity patterns were biased toward the probe-relevant stimulus dimension. Interestingly, probe-irrelevant neural states persisted at an intermediate level of activation when they were potentially relevant later in the trial, but dropped to baseline when cued to be irrelevant. These results reveal the neural dynamics underlying the creation and retention of mental codes, and they illustrate the flexible control that humans can exert over these representations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Need for Affect, Need for Cognition, and the Intention-Fruit Consumption Relationship: An Action-Control Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Keer, Mario; van den Putte, Bas; Neijens, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Predictors of action-control profiles are useful targets for health behaviour change interventions, but action-control research has not focused on fruit consumption and has not yet included need for affect and need for cognition, despite the demonstrated usefulness of these variables in a broad range of research. The role of these…

  18. Need for Affect, Need for Cognition, and the Intention-Fruit Consumption Relationship: An Action-Control Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Keer, Mario; van den Putte, Bas; Neijens, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Predictors of action-control profiles are useful targets for health behaviour change interventions, but action-control research has not focused on fruit consumption and has not yet included need for affect and need for cognition, despite the demonstrated usefulness of these variables in a broad range of research. The role of these…

  19. Influences of Children's and Adolescents' Action-Control Processes on School Achievement, Peer Relationships, and Coping with Challenging Life Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhof, G. John; Little, Todd D.

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation represents a core aspect of human functioning that influences positive development across the life span. This chapter focuses on the action-control model, a key facet of self-regulation during childhood and early adolescence. The authors discuss the development of action-control beliefs, paying particular attention to their…

  20. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the Administrator...

  1. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the Administrator...

  2. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the Administrator...

  3. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the Administrator...

  4. 40 CFR 23.8 - Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. 23.8 Section 23.8 Protection of Environment... Administrator's action under Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Unless the Administrator...

  5. Problem behavior and urban, low-income youth: a randomized controlled trial of positive action in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kendra M; Schure, Marc B; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Silverthorn, Naida; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R

    2013-06-01

    Youth problem behaviors remain a public health issue. Youth in low-income, urban areas are particularly at risk for engaging in aggressive, violent, and disruptive behaviors. To evaluate the effects of a school-based social-emotional learning and health promotion program on problem behaviors and related attitudes among low-income, urban youth. A matched-pair, cluster RCT. Participants were drawn from 14 Chicago Public Schools over a 6-year period of program delivery with outcomes assessed for a cohort of youth followed from Grades 3 to 8. Data were collected from Fall 2004 to Spring 2010, and analyzed in Spring 2012. The Positive Action program includes a scoped and sequenced K-12 classroom curriculum with six components: self-concept, social and emotional positive actions for managing oneself responsibly, and positive actions directed toward physical and mental health, honesty, getting along with others, and continually improving oneself. The program also includes teacher, counselor, family, and community training as well as activities directed toward schoolwide climate development. Youth reported on their normative beliefs in support of aggression and on their bullying, disruptive, and violent behaviors; parents rated youths' bullying behaviors and conduct problems; schoolwide data on disciplinary referrals and suspensions were obtained from school records. Multilevel growth-curve modeling analyses conducted on completion of the trial indicated that Positive Action mitigated increases over time in (1) youth reports of normative beliefs supporting aggressive behaviors and of engaging in disruptive behavior and bullying (girls only) and (2) parent reports of youth bullying behaviors (boys only). At study end-point, students in Positive Action schools also reported a lower rate of violence-related behavior than students in control schools. Schoolwide findings indicated positive program effects on both disciplinary referrals and suspensions. Program effect sizes

  6. 2003 Sitewide Institutional Controls Annual Assessment Report for Hanford CERCLA Response Action

    SciTech Connect

    TEIMOURI, A.E.

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this assessment as specified in the Institutional Controls (IC) Plan was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of ICs associated with ''Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980'' (CERCLA) Records of Decision (RODs); and (2) to identify corrective actions as necessary. Additionally, this assessment covered an assessment of sitewide ICs at the Hanford Site. The IC Plan was approved by the Tri-Party agencies July 2002, ''Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan for Hanford CERCLA Response Actions,'' DOE/RL-2001-41, Revision 0. The goal of the Plan was to identify ICs for current CERCLA response actions, describe how they are implemented and maintained, and serve as a reference for the selection of ICs in the future. Section 4.2 of the IC Plan summarizes the objectives for the assessment as follows: ''A focused and periodic self-assessment and reporting of ICs provides for an evaluation of the effectiveness of the controls and the opportunity for cost-effective improvements.

  7. Scaling up of physical activity interventions in Brazil: how partnerships and research evidence contributed to policy action.

    PubMed

    Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Hallal, Pedro C; Reis, Rodrigo S; Simoes, Eduardo J; Malta, Deborah C; Pratt, Michael; Brownson, Ross C

    2013-12-01

    The global health burden due to physical inactivity is enormous and growing. There is a need to consider new ways of generating evidence and to identify the role of government in promoting physical activity at the population level. In this paper, we summarize key findings from a large-scale cross-national collaboration to understand physical activity promotion in Brazil. We describe the main aspects of the partnership of Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) that sustained the collaborative effort for eight years and describe how the evidence gathered from the collaboration triggered political action in Brazil to scale up a physical activity intervention at the national level. Project GUIA is a cross-national multidisciplinary research partnership designed to understand and evaluate current efforts for physical activity promotion at the community level in Latin America. This example of scaling up is unprecedented for promoting health in the region and is an example that must be followed and evaluated.

  8. Scaling up of physical activity interventions in Brazil: how partnerships and research evidence contributed to policy action

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Simoes, Eduardo J.; Malta, Deborah C.; Pratt, Michael; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    The global health burden due to physical inactivity is enormous and growing. There is a need to consider new ways of generating evidence and to identify the role of government in promoting physical activity at the population level. In this paper, we summarize key findings from a large-scale cross-national collaboration to understand physical activity promotion in Brazil. We describe the main aspects of the partnership of Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) that sustained the collaborative effort for eight years and describe how the evidence gathered from the collaboration triggered political action in Brazil to scale up a physical activity intervention at the national level. Project GUIA is a cross-national multidisciplinary research partnership designed to understand and evaluate current efforts for physical activity promotion at the community level in Latin America. This example of scaling up is unprecedented for promoting health in the region and is an example that must be followed and evaluated. PMID:24323944

  9. Mechanisms of action of anesthetics for the modulation of perioperative thrombosis: evidence for immune mechanisms from basic and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Azma, Toshiharu; Tuluc, Florin; Ito, Taishin; Aoyama-Mani, Chikako; Kawahito, Shinji; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Thrombotic events occurring in either arteries or veins are the primary causes of fatal perioperative cardiovascular events. Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis, several of which are evidently associated with specific surgical procedures, are quite different from those for arterial thrombosis (e.g., aging or atherosclerotic diseases). Thrombus formed in arteries consists mainly of platelets coated with fibrin (i.e., white thrombus), while venous thrombus formed at relatively lower shear stress consists of all blood components including erythrocytes as well as leukocytes infiltrated with fibrin (red thrombus). Clinical evidence indicates beneficial roles of neuraxial anesthesia/analgesia in the prevention of VTE for patients undergoing high risk surgical procedures. To date, mechanisms of action of drugs used for neuraxial anesthesia/analgesia to prevent venous thrombosis are uncertain. However, accumulation of clinical as well as experimental findings points to the involvement of immune cells (especially monocytes) in red thrombus generation and to the interaction of anesthetics with these cells. We also suggest that adhesion molecules associated with the formation of monocyte platelet aggregates as well as substance P: neurokinin-1 receptor (SP/NK1R) pathway that involves neurogenic inflammation are crucial. Local anesthetics and NK1R antagonists are candidate drugs that may possess the capability to prevent venous thrombotic disorders in perioperative settings.

  10. New insights into adipose tissue VEGF-A actions in the control of obesity and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Ivet; Franckhauser, Sylvie; Bosch, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is classically viewed as a key factor in angiogenesis and tissue remodeling. However, recent evidence suggests a potential role of this growth factor in the control of energy metabolism and adipose tissue function. In this regard, we and others have described the effects of the up and downregulation of VEGF-A in adipose tissue on the control of energy homeostasis. VEGF-A overexpression protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. The observation that VEGF-A overexpression leads to an increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and also promotes a “BAT-like” phenotype in white adipose tissue depots is of particular relevance for the understanding of the mechanisms underlying obesity development. In addition, VEGF-A may not only have pro-inflammatory but also anti-inflammatory properties, with a chemotactic activity specific for M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages. This new scientific evidence highlights the importance that VEGF-A actions on metabolism could have on the design of new treatments for obesity, insulin resistance and obesity-related disorders. PMID:23805408

  11. Is there a domain-general cognitive structuring system? Evidence from structural priming across music, math, action descriptions, and language.

    PubMed

    Van de Cavey, Joris; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processing in many domains (e.g., sentence comprehension, music listening, and math solving) requires sequential information to be organized into an integrational structure. There appears to be some overlap in integrational processing across domains, as shown by cross-domain interference effects when for example linguistic and musical stimuli are jointly presented (Koelsch, Gunter, Wittfoth, & Sammler, 2005; Slevc, Rosenberg, & Patel, 2009). These findings support theories of overlapping resources for integrational processing across domains (cfr. SSIRH Patel, 2003; SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). However, there are some limitations to the studies mentioned above, such as the frequent use of unnaturalistic integrational difficulties. In recent years, the idea has risen that evidence for domain-generality in structural processing might also be yielded though priming paradigms (cfr. Scheepers, 2003). The rationale behind this is that integrational processing across domains regularly requires the processing of dependencies across short or long distances in the sequence, involving respectively less or more syntactic working memory resources (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010), and such processing decisions might persist over time. However, whereas recent studies have shown suggestive priming of integrational structure between language and arithmetics (though often dependent on arithmetic performance, cfr. Scheepers et al., 2011; Scheepers & Sturt, 2014), it remains to be investigated to what extent we can also find evidence for priming in other domains, such as music and action (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). Experiment 1a showed structural priming from the processing of musical sequences onto the position in the sentence structure (early or late) to which a relative clause was attached in subsequent sentence completion. Importantly, Experiment 1b showed that a similar structural manipulation based on non-hierarchically ordered color sequences did not yield any priming effect

  12. Implementation research design: integrating participatory action research into randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Leykum, Luci K; Pugh, Jacqueline A; Lanham, Holly J; Harmon, Joel; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2009-01-01

    Background A gap continues to exist between what is known to be effective and what is actually delivered in the usual course of medical care. The goal of implementation research is to reduce this gap. However, a tension exists between the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge through implementation trials, and the inherent differences between healthcare organizations that make standard interventional approaches less likely to succeed. The purpose of this paper is to explore the integration of participatory action research and randomized controlled trial (RCT) study designs to suggest a new approach for studying interventions in healthcare settings. Discussion We summarize key elements of participatory action research, with particular attention to its collaborative, reflective approach. Elements of participatory action research and RCT study designs are discussed and contrasted, with a complex adaptive systems approach used to frame their integration. Summary The integration of participatory action research and RCT design results in a new approach that reflects not only the complex nature of healthcare organizations, but also the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge regarding the implementation process. PMID:19852784

  13. Synchrony in Joint Action Is Directed by Each Participant’s Motor Control System

    PubMed Central

    Noy, Lior; Weiser, Netta; Friedman, Jason

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we ask how the probability of achieving synchrony in joint action is affected by the choice of motion parameters of each individual. We use the mirror game paradigm to study how changes in leader’s motion parameters, specifically frequency and peak velocity, affect the probability of entering the state of co-confidence (CC) motion: a dyadic state of synchronized, smooth and co-predictive motions. In order to systematically study this question, we used a one-person version of the mirror game, where the participant mirrored piece-wise rhythmic movements produced by a computer on a graphics tablet. We systematically varied the frequency and peak velocity of the movements to determine how these parameters affect the likelihood of synchronized joint action. To assess synchrony in the mirror game we used the previously developed marker of co-confident (CC) motions: smooth, jitter-less and synchronized motions indicative of co-predicative control. We found that when mirroring movements with low frequencies (i.e., long duration movements), the participants never showed CC, and as the frequency of the stimuli increased, the probability of observing CC also increased. This finding is discussed in the framework of motor control studies showing an upper limit on the duration of smooth motion. We confirmed the relationship between motion parameters and the probability to perform CC with three sets of data of open-ended two-player mirror games. These findings demonstrate that when performing movements together, there are optimal movement frequencies to use in order to maximize the possibility of entering a state of synchronized joint action. It also shows that the ability to perform synchronized joint action is constrained by the properties of our motor control systems. PMID:28443047

  14. Circuits in the rodent brainstem that control whisking in concert with other orofacial motor actions.

    PubMed

    McElvain, Lauren E; Friedman, Beth; Karten, Harvey J; Svoboda, Karel; Wang, Fan; Deschênes, Martin; Kleinfeld, David

    2017-08-23

    The world view of rodents is largely determined by sensation on two length scales. One is within the animal's peri-personal space; sensorimotor control on this scale involves active movements of the nose, tongue, head, and vibrissa, along with sniffing to determine olfactory clues. The second scale involves the detection of more distant space through vision and audition; these detection processes also impact repositioning of the head, eyes, and ears. Here we focus on orofacial motor actions, primarily vibrissa-based touch but including nose twitching, head bobbing, and licking, that control sensation at short, peri-personal distances. The orofacial nuclei for control of the motor plants, as well as primary and secondary sensory nuclei associated with these motor actions, lie within the hindbrain. The current data support three themes: First, the position of the sensors is determined by the summation of two drive signals, i.e., a fast rhythmic component and an evolving orienting component. Second, the rhythmic component is coordinated across all orofacial motor actions and is phase-locked to sniffing as the animal explores. Reverse engineering reveals that the preBötzinger inspiratory complex provides the reset to the relevant premotor oscillators. Third, direct feedback from somatosensory trigeminal nuclei can rapidly alter motion of the sensors. This feedback is disynaptic and can be tuned by high-level inputs. A holistic model for the coordination of orofacial motor actions into behaviors will encompass feedback pathways through the midbrain and forebrain, as well as hindbrain areas. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. International Collusive Action in World Markets for Nonfuel Minerals: Market Structure and Methods of Marketing Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-07-25

    effect in taxation is evident in the international nonfuel mining industry as well as in petroleum. Also, governments have acquired sufficient control...urgently in need of foreign exchange income. Third, the high overhead costs in the mining industry and the large debt service constrain producing countries

  16. Insulin Receptor Signaling in POMC, but Not AgRP, Neurons Controls Adipose Tissue Insulin Action.

    PubMed

    Shin, Andrew C; Filatova, Nika; Lindtner, Claudia; Chi, Tiffany; Degann, Seta; Oberlin, Douglas; Buettner, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Insulin is a key regulator of adipose tissue lipolysis, and impaired adipose tissue insulin action results in unrestrained lipolysis and lipotoxicity, which are hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Insulin regulates adipose tissue metabolism through direct effects on adipocytes and through signaling in the central nervous system by dampening sympathetic outflow to the adipose tissue. Here we examined the role of insulin signaling in agouti-related protein (AgRP) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in regulating hepatic and adipose tissue insulin action. Mice lacking the insulin receptor in AgRP neurons (AgRP IR KO) exhibited impaired hepatic insulin action because the ability of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose production (hGP) was reduced, but the ability of insulin to suppress lipolysis was unaltered. To the contrary, in POMC IR KO mice, insulin lowered hGP but failed to suppress adipose tissue lipolysis. High-fat diet equally worsened glucose tolerance in AgRP and POMC IR KO mice and their respective controls but increased hepatic triglyceride levels only in POMC IR KO mice, consistent with impaired lipolytic regulation resulting in fatty liver. These data suggest that although insulin signaling in AgRP neurons is important in regulating glucose metabolism, insulin signaling in POMC neurons controls adipose tissue lipolysis and prevents high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. Computational perspectives on forebrain microcircuits implicated in reinforcement learning, action selection, and cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Daniel; Tan, Can Ozan; John, Yohan J

    2009-01-01

    Abundant new information about signaling pathways in forebrain microcircuits presents many challenges, and opportunities for discovery, to computational neuroscientists who strive to bridge from microcircuits to flexible cognition and action. Accurate treatment of microcircuit pathways is especially critical for creating models that correctly predict the outcomes of candidate neurological therapies. Recent models are trying to specify how cortical circuits that enable planning and voluntary actions interact with adaptive subcortical microcircuits in the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are strongly implicated in reinforcement learning, and in all behavior and cognition over which the frontal lobes exert flexible control. The persisting role of the basal ganglia shows that ancient vertebrate designs for motivated action selection proved adaptable enough to support many "modern" behavioral innovations, including fluent generation of language and speech. This paper summarizes how recent models have incorporated realistic representations of microcircuit features, and have begun to trace their computational implications. Also summarized are recent empirical discoveries that provide guidance regarding how to formulate the rules for synaptic modification that govern learning in cortico-striatal pathways. Such efforts are contributing to an emerging synthesis based on an interlocking set of computational hypotheses regarding cortical interactions with basal ganglia and thalamic nuclei. These hypotheses specify how specialized microcircuits solve learning and control problems inherent to the brain's parallel design.

  18. Standardization of quality control plans for highway bridges in Europe: COST Action TU 1406

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Joan R.; Matos, Jose Campos e.

    2017-09-01

    In Europe, as all over the world, the need to manage roadway bridges in an efficient way led to the development of different management systems. Hence, nowadays, many European countries have their own system. Although they present a similar architectural framework, several differences can be appointed. These differences constitute a divergent mechanism that may conduct to different decisions on maintenance actions. Within the roadway bridge management process, the identification of maintenance needs is more effective when developed in a uniform and repeatable manner. This process can be accomplished by the identification of performance indicators and definition of performance goals and key performance indicators (KPI), improving the planning of maintenance strategies. Therefore, a discussion at a European level, seeking to achieve a standardized approach in this subject, will bring significant benefits. Accordingly, a COST Action is under way in Europe with the aim of standardizing the establishment of quality control plans for roadway bridges.

  19. Radioligand binding evidence implicates the brain 5-HT2 receptor as a site of action for LSD and phenylisopropylamine hallucinogens.

    PubMed

    Titeler, M; Lyon, R A; Glennon, R A

    1988-01-01

    Alterations in brain serotonergic function have been implicated in the mechanism of action of LSD, mescaline, and other similarly acting hallucinogenic drugs of abuse such as STP (2,5-dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine; DOM). In order to test the hypothesis that the mechanism of action of LSD and phenylisopropylamine hallucinogens is through stimulation of a specific brain serotonin receptor sub-type, the affinities of these compounds for radiolabelled 5-HT2, 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1C receptors have been determined using recently developed in vitro radioligand binding methodologies. The 5-HT2 receptor was labelled with the agonist/hallucinogen radioligand 3H-DOB (4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine). The 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1C receptors were labelled with 3H-OH-DPAT, 3H-5-HT, and 3H-mesulergine, respectively. In general, the phenylisopropylamines displayed 10-100 fold higher affinities for the 5-HT2 receptor than for the 5-HT1C receptor and 100-1000 fold higher affinities for the 5-HT2 receptor than for the 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptor. There was a strong correlation between hallucinogenic potencies and 5-HT2 receptor affinities of the phenylisopropylamines (r = 0.90); the correlation coefficients for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1C were 0.73, 0.85, and 0.78, respectively. Because there is no evidence that 5-HT1A-selective or 5-HT1B-selective agonists are hallucinogenic and because the phenylisopropylamines are potent hallucinogens, a 5-HT2 receptor interaction is implicated and supports our previous suggestions to this effect. A secondary role for 5-HT1C receptors cannot be discounted at this time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    PubMed

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  1. Technology consumption and cognitive control: Contrasting action video game experience with media multitasking

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: 1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and 2) playing action video games (a particular sub-type of video game). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, while playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. As these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impact of technology use on attention. Across four experiments (AX-CPT, N-back, Task-switching and Filter task), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we show that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking occasionally performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together this study shows that media consumption can have complex and counter-intuitive effects on attentional control. PMID:26474982

  2. Autonomic control of cardiac action potentials: role of potassium channel kinetics in response to sympathetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Terrenoire, Cecile; Clancy, Colleen E; Cormier, Joseph W; Sampson, Kevin J; Kass, Robert S

    2005-03-18

    I(Ks), the slowly activating component of the delayed rectifier current, plays a major role in repolarization of the cardiac action potential (AP). Genetic mutations in the alpha- (KCNQ1) and beta- (KCNE1) subunits of I(Ks) underlie Long QT Syndrome type 1 and 5 (LQT-1 and LQT-5), respectively, and predispose carriers to the development of polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. beta-adrenergic stimulation increases I(Ks) and results in rate dependent AP shortening, a control system that can be disrupted by some mutations linked to LQT-1 and LQT-5. The mechanisms by which I(Ks) regulates action potential duration (APD) during beta-adrenergic stimulation at different heart rates are not known, nor are the consequences of mutation induced disruption of this regulation. Here we develop a complementary experimental and theoretical approach to address these questions. We reconstituted I(Ks) in CHO cells (ie, KCNQ1 coexpressed with KCNE1 and the adaptator protein Yotiao) and quantitatively examined the effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation on channel kinetics. We then developed theoretical models of I(Ks) in the absence and presence of beta-adrenergic stimulation. We simulated the effects of sympathetic stimulation on channel activation (speeding) and deactivation (slowing) kinetics on the whole cell action potential under different pacing conditions. The model suggests these kinetic effects are critically important in rate-dependent control of action potential duration. We also investigate the effects of two LQT-5 mutations that alter kinetics and impair sympathetic stimulation of I(Ks) and show the likely mechanism by which they lead to tachyarrhythmias and indicate a distinct role of I(KS) kinetics in this electrical dysfunction. The full text of this article is available online at http://circres.ahajournals.org.

  3. Technology consumption and cognitive control: Contrasting action video game experience with media multitasking.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: (1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and (2) playing action video games (a particular subtype of video games). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, whereas playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. Because these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impacts of technology use on attention. Across four tasks (AX-continuous performance, N-back, task-switching, and filter tasks), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we showed that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports, though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking sometimes performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers, suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video-game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly, this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together, these findings show that media consumption can have complex and counterintuitive effects on attentional control.

  4. Toxicity induced by Prasiola crispa to fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea: evidence for bioinsecticide action.

    PubMed

    Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Cruz, Litiele Cezar; Paula, Mariane Trindade; Pereira, Betina Kappel; Albuquerque, Margelli Pereira; Victoria, Filipe Carvalho; Pereira, Antônio Batista; Posser, Thaís; Franco, Jeferson Luis

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effects of the alga Prasiola crispa extract (PcE) were investigated in a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and cockroach (Nauphoeta cinerea) model. In flies, toxicity was assessed as mortality and biochemical alterations including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress markers. The cardiotoxic action of PcE was also examined in a model of semi-isolated cockroach heart. The administration of PcE (2 mg/ml) to flies for 24 h resulted in a marked increase in mortality rate (7.6-fold rise compared to control). AChE activity, glutathione (GSH) levels, and hydroperoxide formation remained unchanged. Fly glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly altered after PcE treatment. Fraction III (ethyl acetate) of PcE was significantly more toxic to flies compared to fractions I (methanol) and II (ethanol). A significant decrease was noted in cockroach semi-isolated heart function. The addition of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), an oxidizing agent, concomitant with the extract significantly blocked this effect, suggesting that reduced compounds may be involved in the cardiotoxic action produced by PcE. Our results show for the first time the adverse effects of PcE in two insect models, Drosophila melanogaster and Nauphoetacinerea. The insecticidal properties of PcE may be related to changes in important antioxidant/detoxifying systems, as well as to changes in insect cardiac function.

  5. An Action Dependent Heuristic Dynamic Programming-controlled Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage for Transient Stability Augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinpu; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yu, Xiaopeng

    To enhance the stability of power system, the active power and reactive power can be absorbed from or released to Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit according to system power requirements. This paper proposes a control strategy based on action dependent heuristic dynamic programing (ADHDP) which can control SMES to improve the stability of electric power system with on-line learning ability. Based on back propagation (BP) neural network, ADHDP approximates the optimal control solution of nonlinear system through iteration step by step. This on-line learning ability improves its performance by learning from its own mistakes through reinforcement signal from external environment, so that it can adjust the neural network weights according to the back propagation error to achieve optimal control performance. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, simulation tests are carried out in Matlab/Simulink. And a conventional Proportional-Integral (PI) controlled method is used to compare the performance of ADHDP. Simulation results show that the proposed controller demonstrates superior damping performance on power system oscillation caused by three-phase fault and wind power fluctuation over the PI controller.

  6. Load speed regulation in compliant mechanical transmission systems using feedback and feedforward control actions.

    PubMed

    Raul, P R; Dwivedula, R V; Pagilla, P R

    2016-07-01

    The problem of controlling the load speed of a mechanical transmission system consisting of a belt-pulley and gear-pair is considered. The system is modeled as two inertia (motor and load) connected by a compliant transmission. If the transmission is assumed to be rigid, then using either the motor or load speed feedback provides the same result. However, with transmission compliance, due to belts or long shafts, the stability characteristics and performance of the closed-loop system are quite different when either motor or load speed feedback is employed. We investigate motor and load speed feedback schemes by utilizing the singular perturbation method. We propose and discuss a control scheme that utilizes both motor and load speed feedback, and design an adaptive feedforward action to reject load torque disturbances. The control algorithms are implemented on an experimental platform that is typically used in roll-to-roll manufacturing and results are shown and discussed.

  7. Mathematical model of an indirect action fuel flow controller for aircraft jet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with a fuel mass flow rate controller with indirect action for aircraft jet engines. The author has identified fuel controller's main parts and its operation mode, then, based on these observations, one has determined motion equations of each main part, which have built system's non-linear mathematical model. In order to realize a better study this model was linearised (using the finite differences method) and then adimensionalized. Based on this new form of the mathematical model, after applying Laplace transformation, the embedded system (controller+engine) was described by the block diagram with transfer functions. Some Simulink-Matlab simulations were performed, concerning system's time behavior for step input, which lead to some useful conclusions and extension possibilities.

  8. Post-error action control is neurobehaviorally modulated under conditions of constant speeded response

    PubMed Central

    Soshi, Takahiro; Ando, Kumiko; Noda, Takamasa; Nakazawa, Kanako; Tsumura, Hideki; Okada, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Post-error slowing (PES) is an error recovery strategy that contributes to action control, and occurs after errors in order to prevent future behavioral flaws. Error recovery often malfunctions in clinical populations, but the relationship between behavioral traits and recovery from error is unclear in healthy populations. The present study investigated the relationship between impulsivity and error recovery by simulating a speeded response situation using a Go/No-go paradigm that forced the participants to constantly make accelerated responses prior to stimuli disappearance (stimulus duration: 250 ms). Neural correlates of post-error processing were examined using event-related potentials (ERPs). Impulsivity traits were measured with self-report questionnaires (BIS-11, BIS/BAS). Behavioral results demonstrated that the commission error for No-go trials was 15%, but PES did not take place immediately. Delayed PES was negatively correlated with error rates and impulsivity traits, showing that response slowing was associated with reduced error rates and changed with impulsivity. Response-locked error ERPs were clearly observed for the error trials. Contrary to previous studies, error ERPs were not significantly related to PES. Stimulus-locked N2 was negatively correlated with PES and positively correlated with impulsivity traits at the second post-error Go trial: larger N2 activity was associated with greater PES and less impulsivity. In summary, under constant speeded conditions, error monitoring was dissociated from post-error action control, and PES did not occur quickly. Furthermore, PES and its neural correlate (N2) were modulated by impulsivity traits. These findings suggest that there may be clinical and practical efficacy of maintaining cognitive control of actions during error recovery under common daily environments that frequently evoke impulsive behaviors. PMID:25674058

  9. Nested task constraints shape continuous perception-action coupling control during human locomotor pointing.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Ian; Davids, Keith

    2004-10-14

    Behavioural studies of human locomotor pointing have been dominated by specific task constraints of generating maximal approach velocity towards spatial targets. To examine locomotor pointing under different nested task constraints, at sub-maximal approach velocities and with concomitant differences in speed-accuracy trade offs, run-ups of professional cricket bowlers (n = 6) were analysed. Inter- and intra-trial analyses of step length adjustments revealed how differences between current and required locomotor pointing behaviour constrained visual adaptations of gait. Results supported a continuous perception-action coupling control mechanism, although no relationship was observed between step number in sequence and total amount of adjustment made, implying that visual adaptations did not continue to the end of a run-up once initiated. Rather, bowlers made step adjustments throughout the run-up, with strong associations for amount of adjustment made and amount needed. Significant variations were observed in inter-individual strategies for making most adjustments at different points of the run-up. A key premise of prospective control models of locomotor pointing was found to be robust, since regulation of cricketer's gait was continuous and based on perception of current and required behaviour. Findings extend understanding of the nature and range of nested task constraints under which perception-action coupling controls locomotor pointing performance.

  10. A perception-action coupling type of control in long jumping.

    PubMed

    Montagne, G; Cornus, S; Glize, D; Quaine, F

    2000-03-01

    The authors' goal was to identify the control mechanisms used by long jumpers (N = 6) to precisely position their foot at the board. In addition to the intertrial method usually used in previous research, an original method based on a trial-by-trial analysis was also implemented. If the approach to the board in long jumping encompasses two distinct sequences separated by a key step that marks the initiation of visual control, then a trial-by-trial analysis should reveal those sequences, regardless of the amount of adjustment: The step number at which regulation is initiated should be the same irrespective of the amount of adjustment. If, in contrast, a perception-action coupling mechanism operates, then the step number at which regulation is initiated should be a function of the amount of adjustment: A linear relation between those 2 variables should emerge. The results of the present study are compatible with continuous control mechanisms based on a perception-action coupling.

  11. Auxin in action: signalling, transport and the control of plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Teale, William D; Paponov, Ivan A; Palme, Klaus

    2006-11-01

    Hormones have been at the centre of plant physiology research for more than a century. Research into plant hormones (phytohormones) has at times been considered as a rather vague subject, but the systematic application of genetic and molecular techniques has led to key insights that have revitalized the field. In this review, we will focus on the plant hormone auxin and its action. We will highlight recent mutagenesis and molecular studies, which have delineated the pathways of auxin transport, perception and signal transduction, and which together define the roles of auxin in controlling growth and patterning.

  12. Quality Assurance/Quality Control in Waste Site Characterization and Remedial Action.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Als 539 QUALITY ASSIJRANCE/-OWAITY CONTROL IN MASTE SITE vi1 71 CIARACTERIZATION AND REMEDIAL ACTIGN(U) OAK RIDGE ED NATIONAL LAB IN N P MASKAAINEC...and Remedial Action D T Final Report .L Co:i., M. P . Maskarinec NOV 2 3 1987 i’ ~S. K. Holladay P Supported by U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials...National Laboratory USATHAMA &6 ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) P . 0. Box X AMXTH-TE-A Oak Ridge, TN 37831

  13. Facilitation effect of observed motor deviants in a cooperative motor task: Evidence for direct perception of social intention in action.

    PubMed

    Quesque, François; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne; Coello, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal parameters of voluntary motor action may help optimize human social interactions. Yet it is unknown whether individuals performing a cooperative task spontaneously perceive subtly informative social cues emerging through voluntary actions. In the present study, an auditory cue was provided through headphones to an actor and a partner who faced each other. Depending on the pitch of the auditory cue, either the actor or the partner were required to grasp and move a wooden dowel under time constraints from a central to a lateral position. Before this main action, the actor performed a preparatory action under no time constraint, consisting in placing the wooden dowel on the central location when receiving either a neutral ("prêt"-ready) or an informative auditory cue relative to who will be asked to perform the main action (the actor: "moi"-me, or the partner: "lui"-him). Although the task focused on the main action, analysis of motor performances revealed that actors performed the preparatory action with longer reaction times and higher trajectories when informed that the partner would be performing the main action. In this same condition, partners executed the main actions with shorter reaction times and lower velocities, despite having received no previous informative cues. These results demonstrate that the mere observation of socially driven motor actions spontaneously influences the low-level kinematics of voluntary motor actions performed by the observer during a cooperative motor task. These findings indicate that social intention can be anticipated from the mere observation of action patterns.

  14. Further evidences for the mode of action of the larvicidal m-pentadecadienyl-phenol isolated from Myracrodruon urundeuva seeds against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Souza, Terezinha M; Menezes, Erika S Bezerra; Oliveira, Rodrigo V; Almeida Filho, Luiz Carlos P; Martins, Jorge M; Moreno, Frederico B; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O; Moura, Arlindo A Araripe; Carvalho, Ana F Urano

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, dengue fever is considered the most important arbovirosis worldwide and its control is still based upon combating the vector Aedes aegypti. Besides monitoring of mosquito populations resistant to conventional insecticides, the search for new environmentally safe insecticides and conduction of molecular studies focusing on the elucidation of mode of action and possible resistance mechanisms are considered the key for a sustainable management of the mosquito vector. Thus, the present work aimed to assess changes in protein expression of 3rd-instar larvae of Ae. aegypti after exposure to the natural insecticide m-pentadecadienyl-phenol. Bidimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry resulted in identification of 12 proteins differentially expressed between control and treated groups. Larvae exposed to the toxic compound for 24h showed elevated detoxification response (glutathione-S-transferase), increased levels of stress-related proteins (HSP70) as well as evidence of lysosome stabilization to enable survival. Furthermore, expression of proteins involved in protection of peritrophic membrane and metabolism of lipids indicated systemic effect of toxic effects in treated larvae.

  15. Effect of different partogram action lines on birth outcomes: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Tina; Alfirevic, Zarko; Walkinshaw, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    The World Health Organization recommends partograms with a 4-hour action line, denoting the timing of intervention for prolonged labor; others recommend earlier intervention. We assessed the effect of different action line positioning on birth outcomes. A randomized trial of primigravid women with uncomplicated pregnancies, in spontaneous labor at term, was conducted in the northwest of England. Women were assigned to have their labors recorded on a partogram with an action line 2 or 4 hours to the right of the alert line. If progress crossed the action line, diagnosis of prolonged labor was made and managed according to standard protocol. Primary outcomes were rate of cesarean delivery and maternal satisfaction. A total of 3,000 women were randomly assigned to groups; 2,975 (99.2%) were available for analysis. Questionnaires were completed by 1,929 (65%) women. There were no differences in cesarean delivery rate (136/1,490 compared with 135/1,485; relative risk [RR] 1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-1.26) or women dissatisfied with labor experience (72/962 compared with 81/967; RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.66-1.21). More women assigned to the 2-hour arm had labors that crossed the action line (854/1,490 compared with 673/1,485; RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.18-1.37); received more intervention (772/1,490 compared with 624/1,485; RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.14-1.33); and, if admitted to the midwife-led unit, were transferred for consultant-led care (366/674 compared with 285/666; RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.13-1.42). In this birth setting, for primigravid women selecting low intervention care, the 2-hour partogram increases the need for intervention without improving maternal or neonatal outcomes, compared with the 4-hour partogram, advocated by the World Health Organization. Current Controlled Trials, http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/trial/|/0/78346801.html, ISRCTN78346801.

  16. Suppressing a motivationally-triggered action tendency engages a response control mechanism that prevents future provocation.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott M; Alvernaz, Dominic; Tonnesen, Alexandra; Linderman, David; Aron, Adam R

    2015-02-01

    Reward-predicting stimuli can induce maladaptive behavior by provoking action tendencies that conflict with long-term goals. Earlier, we showed that when human participants were permitted to respond for a reward in the presence of a task-irrelevant, reward-predicting stimulus (i.e. goCS+ trials), the CS+ provoked an action tendency to respond compared to when a non-rewarding CS- stimulus was present (i.e. goCS- trials). However, when participants were not permitted to respond, response suppression was recruited to mitigate the action tendency that was triggered by the motivating CS+ stimulus (i.e. on nogoCS+ trials) (Freeman et al., 2014). Here we tested the hypothesis that repeated response suppression over a motivationally-triggered action tendency would reduce subsequent CS+ provocation. We compared groups of participants who had different proportions of nogoCS+ trials, and we measured CS+ provocation on go trials via reaction time. Our results showed that CS+ provocation on go trials was reduced monotonically as the proportion of nogoCS+ trials increased. Further analysis showed that these group differences were best explained by reduced provocation on goCS+ trials that followed nogoCS+ (compared to nogoCS-) trials. Follow-up experiments using a neurophysiological index of motor activity replicated these effects and also suggested that, following nogoCS+ trials, a response suppression mechanism was in place to help prevent subsequent CS+ provocation. Thus, our results show that performing response suppression in the face of a motivating stimulus not only controls responding at that time, but also prevents provocation in the near future.

  17. Suppressing a motivationally-triggered action tendency engages a response control mechanism that prevents future provocation

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Scott M.; Alvernaz, Dominic; Tonnesen, Alexandra; Linderman, David; Aron, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Reward-predicting stimuli can induce maladaptive behavior by provoking action tendencies that conflict with long-term goals. Earlier, we showed that when human participants were permitted to respond for a reward in the presence of a task-irrelevant, reward-predicting stimulus (i.e. goCS+ trials), the CS+ provoked an action tendency to respond compared to when a non-rewarding CS− stimulus was present (i.e. goCS− trials). However, when participants were not permitted to respond, response suppression was recruited to mitigate the action tendency that was triggered by the motivating CS+ stimulus (i.e. on nogoCS+ trials) (Freeman, Razhas, & Aron, 2014). Here we tested the hypothesis that repeated response suppression over a motivationally-triggered action tendency would reduce subsequent CS+ provocation. We compared groups of participants who had different proportions of nogoCS+ trials, and we measured CS+ provocation on go trials via reaction time. Our results showed that CS+ provocation on go trials was reduced monotonically as the proportion of nogoCS+ trials increased. Further analysis showed that these group differences were best explained by reduced provocation on goCS+ trials that followed nogoCS+ (compared to nogoCS−) trials. Follow-up experiments using a neurophysiological index of motor activity replicated these effects and also suggested that, following nogoCS+ trials, a response suppression mechanism was in place to help prevent subsequent CS+ provocation. Thus, our results show that performing response suppression in the face of a motivating stimulus not only controls responding at that time, but also prevents provocation in the near future. PMID:25592370

  18. The Economics of Tobacco Control: Evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Tauras, John A.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviors, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the ITC Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximize the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes. PMID:24500268

  19. Different proactive and reactive action control in fencers' and boxers' brain.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Valentina; Di Russo, Francesco; Perri, Rinaldo Livio; Berchicci, Marika

    2017-02-20

    Practicing sport at top level requires excellent physical and cognitive skills. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether specific sport practice may affect the preparation-perception-action stages of processing during a visuo-motor task requiring perceptual discrimination and fast response. We recruited 39 participants (two groups of professional fencers and boxers, and a control group; N=13 for each group) and measured behavioral performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) while performing a go/no-go task. Results revealed that athletes were faster than controls, while fencers were more accurate than boxers. ERP analysis revealed that motor preparation, indexed by the Bereitschaftspotential (BP), was increased in athletes than controls, whereas the top-down attentional control, reflected by the prefrontal negativity (pN) component, was enhanced only in fencers when compared to controls. Most of the post-stimulus ERPs i.e. the N1, the N2, the P3, and the pP2, were enhanced in fencers. Combat sports require fast action execution, but the preparatory brain activity might differ according to the specific practice required by each discipline. Boxers might afford to commit more errors (as reflected by high commission error (CE) rate and by a small pN amplitude), while fencers have to be as much fast and accurate as possible (thanks to an enhanced pN amplitude). Although the possible influence of repetitive head blows on cerebral activity cannot be excluded in boxers, our results suggest that cognitive benefits of high-level sport practice might also be transferred to the daily (i.e., no sport-related) activities.

  20. Contribution of Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services to improving Aboriginal health: an evidence review.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Megan Ann; Hunt, Jennifer; Scrimgeour, David J; Davey, Maureen; Jones, Victoria

    2017-03-07

    Objective Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) deliver comprehensive, culturally appropriate primary health care to Aboriginal people and communities. The published literature acknowledging and supporting the roles of ACCHSs in improving Aboriginal health is limited. This paper seeks to collate and analyse the published evidence supporting the contribution of ACCHSs to improving the health of Aboriginal people.Methods A conceptual framework for exploring the contribution of ACCHSs was developed, drawing on the literature on the core functions of ACCHSs and the components of quality primary health care. This framework was used to structure the search strategy, inclusion criteria and analysis of the review.Results ACCHSs contribute to improving the health and well being of Aboriginal peoples through several pathways, including community controlled governance, providing employment and training, strengthening the broader health system and providing accessible, comprehensive primary health care.Conclusions ACCHSs make a range of important contributions to improving the health of Aboriginal peoples that are under-acknowledged. Consideration of the different ways ACCHSs contribute to improving Aboriginal health is of value in the design and evaluation of programs and policies that aim to improve the health of Aboriginal peoples.What is known about the topic? Aboriginal communities have long argued the vital role of ACCHSs in improving Aboriginal health.What does this paper add? This paper provides a comprehensive collation and analysis of the evidence supporting the contributions ACCHSs are making to improving Aboriginal health.What are the implications for practitioners? The conceptual framework and findings outlined in this paper illustrate that ACCHSs are making important contributions to improving Aboriginal health through several pathways. This information can be used to ensure actions to improve Aboriginal health are appropriate and effective

  1. Contextual Effects on Reading Aloud: Evidence for Pathway Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Michael; Besner, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the processes responsible for generating a phonological code from print are flexible in skilled readers. An important goal, therefore, is to identify the conditions that lead to changes in how a phonological code is computed. Five experiments are reported that examine whether phonological processes change as predicted…

  2. Evidence and control of bifurcations in a respiratory system

    SciTech Connect

    Goldin, Matías A. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2013-12-15

    We studied the pressure patterns used by domestic canaries in the production of birdsong. Acoustically different sound elements (“syllables”) were generated by qualitatively different pressure gestures. We found that some ubiquitous transitions between syllables can be interpreted as bifurcations of a low dimensional dynamical system. We interpreted these results as evidence supporting a model in which different timescales interact nonlinearly.

  3. A Domain-Specific System for Representing Knowledge of Both Man-Made Objects and Human Actions. Evidence from a Case with an Association of Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannuscorps, Gilles; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We report the single-case study of a brain-damaged individual, JJG, presenting with a conceptual deficit and whose knowledge of living things, man-made objects, and actions was assessed. The aim was to seek for empirical evidence pertaining to the issue of how conceptual knowledge of objects, both living things and man-made objects, is related to…

  4. A Domain-Specific System for Representing Knowledge of Both Man-Made Objects and Human Actions. Evidence from a Case with an Association of Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannuscorps, Gilles; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We report the single-case study of a brain-damaged individual, JJG, presenting with a conceptual deficit and whose knowledge of living things, man-made objects, and actions was assessed. The aim was to seek for empirical evidence pertaining to the issue of how conceptual knowledge of objects, both living things and man-made objects, is related to…

  5. The Anatomy of Action Systems: Task Differentiation When Learning an EMG Controlled Game.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Ludger; Heerschop, Anniek; van der Sluis, Corry K; Bongers, Raoul M

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine to what extent the task for an action system in its initial development relies on functional and anatomical components. Fifty-two able-bodied participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups or to a control group. As a pre- and post-test all groups performed a computer game with the same goal and using the same musculature. One experimental group also trained to perform this test, while the other two experimental groups learned to perform a game that differed either in its goal or in the musculature used. The observed change in accuracy indicated that retaining the goal of the task or the musculature used equally increased transfer performance relative to controls. Conversely, changing either the goal or the musculature equally decreased transfer relative to training the test. These results suggest that in the initial development of an action system, the task to which the system pertains is not specified solely by either the goal of the task or the anatomical structures involved. It is suggested that functional specificity and anatomical dependence might equally be outcomes of continuously differentiating activity.

  6. The Anatomy of Action Systems: Task Differentiation When Learning an EMG Controlled Game

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Ludger; Heerschop, Anniek; van der Sluis, Corry K.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine to what extent the task for an action system in its initial development relies on functional and anatomical components. Fifty-two able-bodied participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups or to a control group. As a pre- and post-test all groups performed a computer game with the same goal and using the same musculature. One experimental group also trained to perform this test, while the other two experimental groups learned to perform a game that differed either in its goal or in the musculature used. The observed change in accuracy indicated that retaining the goal of the task or the musculature used equally increased transfer performance relative to controls. Conversely, changing either the goal or the musculature equally decreased transfer relative to training the test. These results suggest that in the initial development of an action system, the task to which the system pertains is not specified solely by either the goal of the task or the anatomical structures involved. It is suggested that functional specificity and anatomical dependence might equally be outcomes of continuously differentiating activity. PMID:28018278

  7. Autoregulatory feedback controls sequential action of cis-regulatory modules at the brinker locus.

    PubMed

    Dunipace, Leslie; Saunders, Abbie; Ashe, Hilary L; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2013-09-16

    cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) act sequentially to regulate temporal expression of genes, but how the switch from one to the next is accomplished is not well understood. To provide insight, here we investigate the cis-regulatory system controlling brinker (brk) expression in the Drosophila embryo. Two distally located CRMs support expression at different times, while a promoter-proximal element (PPE) is required to support their action. In the absence of Brk protein itself or upon mutagenesis of Brk binding sites within the PPE, the late-acting CRM, specifically, is delayed. This block to late-acting CRM function appears to be removed when the early-acting CRM is also deleted. These results demonstrate that autoregulatory feedback is necessary for the early-acting CRM to disengage from the promoter so that the late-acting CRM may act. Autoregulation may be a commonly used mechanism to control sequential CRM action necessary for dynamic gene expression throughout the course of development. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Autoregulatory Feedback Controls Sequential Action of cis-Regulatory Modules at the brinker Locus

    PubMed Central

    Dunipace, Leslie; Saunders, Abbie; Ashe, Hilary L.; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2013-01-01

    Summary cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) act sequentially to regulate temporal expression of genes, but how the switch from one to the next is accomplished is not well understood. To provide insight, here we investigate the cis-regulatory system controlling brinker (brk) expression in the Drosophila embryo. Two distally located CRMs support expression at different times, while a promoter-proximal element (PPE) is required to support their action. In the absence of Brk protein itself or upon mutagenesis of Brk binding sites within the PPE, the late-acting CRM, specifically, is delayed. This block to late-acting CRM function appears to be removed when the early-acting CRM is also deleted. These results demonstrate that autoregulatory feedback is necessary for the early-acting CRM to disengage from the promoter so that the late-acting CRM may act. Autoregulation may be a commonly used mechanism to control sequential CRM action necessary for dynamic gene expression throughout the course of development. PMID:24044892

  9. Herbal Remedies for Coccidiosis Control: A Review of Plants, Compounds, and Anticoccidial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Wu, Yueh-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the bane of the poultry industry causing considerable economic loss. Eimeria species are known as protozoan parasites to cause morbidity and death in poultry. In addition to anticoccidial chemicals and vaccines, natural products are emerging as an alternative and complementary way to control avian coccidiosis. In this review, we update recent advances in the use of anticoccidial phytoextracts and phytocompounds, which cover 32 plants and 40 phytocompounds, following a database search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Four plant products commercially available for coccidiosis are included and discussed. We also highlight the chemical and biological properties of the plants and compounds as related to coccidiosis control. Emphasis is placed on the modes of action of the anticoccidial plants and compounds such as interference with the life cycle of Eimeria, regulation of host immunity to Eimeria, growth regulation of gut bacteria, and/or multiple mechanisms. Biological actions, mechanisms, and prophylactic/therapeutic potential of the compounds and extracts of plant origin in coccidiosis are summarized and discussed. PMID:27429634

  10. Control of generation regimes of ring chip laser under the action of the stationary magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Aulova, T V; Kravtsov, Nikolai V; Lariontsev, E G; Chekina, S N; Firsov, V V

    2013-05-31

    We consider realisation of different generation regimes in an autonomous ring chip laser, which is a rather complicated problem. We offer and demonstrate a simple and effective method for controlling the radiation dynamics of a ring Nd:YAG chip laser when it is subjected to a stationary magnetic field producing both frequency and substantial amplitude nonreciprocities. The amplitude and frequency nonreciprocities of a ring cavity, arising under the action of this magnetic field, change when the magnet is moved with respect to the active element of the chip laser. Some self-modulation and stationary generation regimes as well as the regime of beatings and dynamic chaos regime are experimentally realised. Temporal and spectral characteristics of radiation are studied and conditions for the appearance of the generation regime are found. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  11. The Efficacy of Air Pollution Control Efforts: Evidence from AURA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, Russell R.; Canty, Tim; Duncan, Bryan N.; Hao, He; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Vinnikov, Konstatin

    2014-01-01

    Observations of NO2, SO2, and H2CO from OMI on AURA provide an excellent record of pollutant concentrations for the past decade. Abatement strategies to control criteria pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have met with varying degrees of success. Sulfur controls had a profound impact on local SO2 concentrations and a measurable impact on PM2.5. Although substantial effort has gone into VOC control, ozone in the eastern US has responded dramatically to NOx emissions controls.

  12. Using TENS for pain control: the state of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Carol GT; Dailey, Dana L; Rakel, Barbara A; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a nonpharmacological intervention that activates a complex neuronal network to reduce pain by activating descending inhibitory systems in the central nervous system to reduce hyperalgesia. The evidence for TENS efficacy is conflicting and requires not only description but also critique. Population-specific systemic reviews and meta-analyses are emerging, indicating both HF and LF TENS being shown to provide analgesia, specifically when applied at a strong, nonpainful intensity. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the latest basic science and clinical evidence for TENS. Additional research is necessary to determine if TENS has effects specific to mechanical stimuli and/or beyond reduction of pain and will improve activity levels, function and quality of life. PMID:24953072

  13. Priorities for action on the social determinants of health: Empirical evidence on the strongest associations with life expectancy in 54 low-income countries, 1990-2012.

    PubMed

    Hauck, K; Martin, S; Smith, P C

    2016-10-01

    The WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health set out an impressive collection of policy proposals on the social determinants of health. However, a serious weakness for securing implementation is the difficulty for policymakers in identifying priorities for action. The objective of this study is to determine a small set of the most influential determinants using existing data and an empirical approach. 45 Indicators from the World Bank's World Development Indicators are selected to measure attainment for the determinants proposed by the Commission. Panel data models of life expectancy at birth for 54 low-income countries over the years 1990-2012 (1188 country-years) are estimated. Each determinant is subjected to a robustness test using Extreme Bound Analysis, to determine the stability of its estimated impact on life expectancy. For 20 robust and significant determinants the magnitude of association with life expectancy is determined. The largest average increases in life expectancy at 14.5 months per capita is associated with a one standard deviation reduction in HIV prevalence among children, followed by advances in gender equality at 9.4 months. Improvements in life expectancy between 6 and 9 months are associated with agricultural production, political stability, access to clean water and sanitation, good governance, and primary school enrolment. Improvements below 6 months are associated with increases in private health expenditure and overseas development assistance, and control of armed conflict and HIV prevalence among men. There is no evidence that national income, public spending on healthcare and education, secondary schooling, terms of international trade, employment, debt service and relief, out-of-pocket expenditures, agricultural ex- or imports, lifestock production, foreign investment, urbanization or environmental degradation are robustly associated with population health. Results provide support for the relevance of some proposed

  14. Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Mental Illness Self-management Using Wellness Recovery Action Planning

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Judith A.; Copeland, Mary Ellen; Jonikas, Jessica A.; Hamilton, Marie M.; Razzano, Lisa A.; Grey, Dennis D.; Floyd, Carol B.; Hudson, Walter B.; Macfarlane, Rachel T.; Carter, Tina M.; Boyd, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a peer-led illness self-management intervention called Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) by comparing it with usual care. The primary outcome was reduction of psychiatric symptoms, with secondary outcomes of increased hopefulness, and enhanced quality of life (QOL). A total of 519 adults with severe and persistent mental illness were recruited from outpatient community mental health settings in 6 Ohio communities and randomly assigned to the 8-week intervention or a wait-list control condition. Outcomes were assessed at end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up using an intent-to-treat mixed-effects random regression analysis. Compared to controls, at immediate postintervention and at 6-month follow-up, WRAP participants reported: (1) significantly greater reduction over time in Brief Symptom Inventory Global Symptom Severity and Positive Symptom Total, (2) significantly greater improvement over time in hopefulness as assessed by the Hope Scale total score and subscale for goal directed hopefulness, and (3) enhanced improvement over time in QOL as assessed by the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF environment subscale. These results indicate that peer-delivered mental illness self-management training reduces psychiatric symptoms, enhances participants’ hopefulness, and improves their QOL over time. This confirms the importance of peer-led wellness management interventions, such as WRAP, as part of a group of evidence-based recovery-oriented services. PMID:21402724

  15. Examining the Evidence: Have States Reduced Local Control of Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyree, Alexander K., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Curriculum policies of New York, California, Texas, and Florida are analyzed in light of their potential to control local educational practice. Examination of consistency, prescriptives, authority, and power of these policies indicates that state policies may have reduced, but have not eliminated, local curricular control. (SLD)

  16. Sustained vs. Transient Cognitive Control: Evidence of a Behavioral Dissociation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funes, Maria Jesus; Lupianez, Juan; Humphreys, Glyn

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two well known effects associated with cognitive control, conflict adaptation (the Gratton effect) and conflict context (proportion congruent effects), reflect a single common or separate control systems. To test this we examined if these two effects generalized from one kind of conflict to another by using a…

  17. Sustained vs. Transient Cognitive Control: Evidence of a Behavioral Dissociation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funes, Maria Jesus; Lupianez, Juan; Humphreys, Glyn

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two well known effects associated with cognitive control, conflict adaptation (the Gratton effect) and conflict context (proportion congruent effects), reflect a single common or separate control systems. To test this we examined if these two effects generalized from one kind of conflict to another by using a…

  18. Stronger Discounting of External Cause by Action in Human Adults: Evidence for an Action-Based Hypothesis of Visual Collision Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsumatsu, Hidemichi

    2013-01-01

    When an actor performs an action on an external object, the actor feels that he or she is exerting a force on that object. By extension, when an observer views a collision between 2 objects, he or she is able to perceive the force that is exerted on the objects during the collision. The latter case is puzzling, as force is not a visual feature per…

  19. The impact of social action funds on child health in a conflict affected country: evidence from Angola.

    PubMed

    Djimeu, Eric W

    2014-04-01

    Although recent evidence shows significant and long-lasting detrimental effects of armed conflict on child health, there is lack of studies rigorously assessing the effectiveness of different social and economic development interventions aiming to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this study assesses the impact of health projects and water, sanitation, and waste management interventions financed by the Angola Social Action Fund (ASAF) from 1994 to 2001 on child health. I use data from Inquérito aos Agregados Familiares sobre Despesas e Receitas 2000/2001(IDR 2001), a household survey on expenditures and incomes conducted between February 2000 and February 2001 in Angola. IDR 2001 uses a stratified sampling design in which 12 households were surveyed in a random fashion in each aldeia (village) in rural areas and bairro (neighborhood) in urban areas. Using propensity score matching, a fixed effects model, and propensity-based weighted regression, I find that ASAF leads to a statistically significant increase of the height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) by 0.335 standard deviations of children less than 5 years. This finding is robust to different implementations of the propensity score model specification and when conducting the sensitivity analysis of hidden bias. The main result that emerges from an analysis of heterogeneous effects shows that ASAF has no impact on children living in war displaced households. Despite many challenges faced by conflict affected countries, social funds which are one the key instruments of the World Bank used to promote development at the local level can be used to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. For children living in war displaced households, specific interventions should be designed to mitigate the impact of armed conflict.

  20. The National Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases and Health Promotion in Pakistan--Prelude and finale.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania

    2004-12-01

    In Pakistan a public-private partnership--led by the NGO Heartfile and constituted additionally by the Ministry of Health, Government of Pakistan and the WHO Pakistan office--was launched in April 2003. Mandated with the task of developing and implementing a national strategy for achieving national goals for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This was the first opportunity to mount a truly 'National Plan of Action' in Pakistan enlisting a broader range of inputs and with the Governments commitment to NCD as a priority. The partnership recently released a strategic framework for action--the National Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD)--an integrated and concerted approach addressing the multidisciplinary range of issues within a prevention and control framework across a broad range of NCDs. Incorporating both policies and actions and set within a long-term and life course perspective, NAP-NCD calls for an institutional, community and public policy level change factoring integration at four levels: grouping NCDs so that they can be targeted through a set of actions, harmonizing actions, integrating actions with existing public health systems and incorporating contemporary evidence-based concepts with this approach. The NAP-NCD delivers an Integrated Framework for Action, which has been modelled to impact a set of indicators through the combination of range of actions in tandem with rigorous formative research. Drawing on the strengths of various public and private sector partners, this programme outlines a scope of interventions that are built on shared responsibility, allowing agencies to participate according to their own missions and mandates. The partnership is in harmony with national health priorities, complements state initiatives and is optimally integrated with the national health system. The partnership has brought value to all the three partners. The

  1. Network Influences on Dissemination of Evidence-Based Guidelines in State Tobacco Control Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Douglas A.; Wald, Lana M.; Carothers, Bobbi J.; Bach, Laura E.; Harris, Jenine K.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known regarding the social network relationships that influence dissemination of evidence-based public health practices and policies. In public health, it is critical that evidence-based guidelines, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's "Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs," are…

  2. 29 CFR 102.39 - Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable. 102.39 Section 102.39 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS... Hearings § 102.39 Rules of evidence controlling so far as practicable. Any such proceeding shall, so far as...

  3. Network Influences on Dissemination of Evidence-Based Guidelines in State Tobacco Control Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Douglas A.; Wald, Lana M.; Carothers, Bobbi J.; Bach, Laura E.; Harris, Jenine K.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known regarding the social network relationships that influence dissemination of evidence-based public health practices and policies. In public health, it is critical that evidence-based guidelines, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's "Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs," are…

  4. Speeding the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based interventions for cancer control and prevention.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott-Pitts, Stephanie; Myers, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing menu of evidence-based interventions to prevent and control cancer, such interventions continue to be underused in practice. This commentary describes interactive approaches to speeding the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based interventions and illustrates these approaches using examples from obesity prevention and tobacco control.

  5. Evidence that convergence rather than accommodation controls intermittent distance exotropia.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2012-03-01

    This study considered whether vergence drives accommodation or accommodation drives vergence during the control of distance exotropia for near fixation. High accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios are often used to explain this control, but the role of convergence to drive accommodation (the CA/C relationship) is rarely considered. Atypical CA/C characteristics could equally, or better, explain common clinical findings. Nineteen distance exotropes, aged 4-11 years, were compared while controlling their deviation with 27 non-exotropic controls aged 5-9 years. Simultaneous vergence and accommodation responses were measured to a range of targets incorporating different combinations of blur, disparity and looming cues at four fixation distances between 2 m and 33 cm. Stimulus and response AC/A and CA/C ratios were calculated. Accommodation responses for near targets (p = 0.017) and response gains (p = 0.026) were greater in the exotropes than in the controls. Despite higher clinical stimulus AC/A ratios, the distance exotropes showed lower laboratory response AC/A ratios (p = 0.02), but significantly higher CA/C ratios (p = 0.02). All the exotropes, whether the angle changed most with lenses ('controlled by accommodation') or on occlusion ('controlled by fusion'), used binocular disparity not blur as their main cue to target distance. Increased vergence demand to control intermittent distance exotropia for near also drives significantly more accommodation. Minus lens therapy is more likely to act by correcting overaccommodation driven by controlling convergence, rather than by inducing blur-driven vergence. The use of convergence as a major drive to accommodation explains many clinical characteristics of distance exotropia, including apparently high near stimulus AC/A ratios. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  6. Intended actions and unexpected outcomes: automatic and controlled processing in a rapid motor task

    PubMed Central

    Cheyne, Douglas O.; Ferrari, Paul; Cheyne, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Human action involves a combination of controlled and automatic behavior. These processes may interact in tasks requiring rapid response selection or inhibition, where temporal constraints preclude timely intervention by conscious, controlled processes over automatized prepotent responses. Such contexts tend to produce frequent errors, but also rapidly executed correct responses, both of which may sometimes be perceived as surprising, unintended, or “automatic”. In order to identify neural processes underlying these two aspects of cognitive control, we measured neuromagnetic brain activity in 12 right-handed subjects during manual responses to rapidly presented digits, with an infrequent target digit that required switching response hand (bimanual task) or response finger (unimanual task). Automaticity of responding was evidenced by response speeding (shorter response times) prior to both failed and fast correct switches. Consistent with this automaticity interpretation of fast correct switches, we observed bilateral motor preparation, as indexed by suppression of beta band (15–30 Hz) oscillations in motor cortex, prior to processing of the switch cue in the bimanual task. In contrast, right frontal theta activity (4–8 Hz) accompanying correct switch responses began after cue onset, suggesting that it reflected controlled inhibition of the default response. Further, this activity was reduced on fast correct switch trials suggesting a more automatic mode of inhibitory control. We also observed post-movement (event-related negativity) ERN-like responses and theta band increases in medial and anterior frontal regions that were significantly larger on error trials, and may reflect a combination of error and delayed inhibitory signals. We conclude that both automatic and controlled processes are engaged in parallel during rapid motor tasks, and that the relative strength and timing of these processes may underlie both optimal task performance and subjective

  7. Changes in ambient temperature elicit divergent control of metabolic and cardiovascular actions by leptin.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Romero, Damian G; Hall, John E

    2017-06-01

    Interactions of hypothalamic signaling pathways that control body temperature (BT), blood pressure (BP), and energy balance are poorly understood. We investigated whether the chronic BP and metabolic actions of leptin are differentially modulated by changes in ambient temperature (TA ). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), BT, motor activity (MA), and oxygen consumption (Vo2) were measured 24 h/d at normal laboratory TA (23°C), at thermoneutral zone (TNZ, 30°C) for mice or during cold exposure (15°C) in male wild-type mice. After control measurements, leptin (4 μg/kg/min) or saline vehicle was infused for 7 d. At TNZ, leptin reduced food intake (-11.0 ± 0.5 g cumulative deficit) and body weight by 6% but caused no changes in MAP or HR. At 15°C, leptin infusion did not alter food intake but increased MAP and HR (8 ± 1 mmHg and 33 ± 7 bpm), while Vo2 increased by ∼10%. Leptin reduced plasma glucose and insulin levels at 15°C but not at 30°C. These results demonstrate that the chronic anorexic effects of leptin are enhanced at TNZ, while its effects on insulin and glucose levels are attenuated and its effects on BP and HR are abolished. Conversely, cold TA caused resistance to leptin's anorexic effects but amplified its effects to raise BP and reduce insulin and glucose levels. Thus, the brain circuits by which leptin regulates food intake and cardiovascular function are differentially influenced by changes in TA -Do Carmo, J. M., da Silva, A. A., Romero, D. G., Hall, J. E. Changes in ambient temperature elicit divergent control of metabolic and cardiovascular actions by leptin. © FASEB.

  8. Developmental vision determines the reference frame for the multisensory control of action.

    PubMed

    Röder, Brigitte; Kusmierek, Anna; Spence, Charles; Schicke, Tobias

    2007-03-13

    Both animal and human studies suggest that action goals are defined in external coordinates regardless of their sensory modality. The present study used an auditory-manual task to test whether the default use of such an external reference frame is innately determined or instead acquired during development because of the increasing dominance of vision over manual control. In Experiment I, congenitally blind, late blind, and age-matched sighted adults had to press a left or right response key depending on the bandwidth of pink noise bursts presented from either the left or right loudspeaker. Although the spatial location of the sounds was entirely task-irrelevant, all groups responded more efficiently with uncrossed hands when the sound was presented from the same side as the responding hand ("Simon effect"). This effect reversed with crossed hands only in the congenitally blind: They responded faster with the hand that was located contralateral to the sound source. In Experiment II, the instruction to the participants was changed: They now had to respond with the hand located next to the sound source. In contrast to Experiment I ("Simon-task"), this task required an explicit matching of the sound's location with the position of the responding hand. In Experiment II, the congenitally blind participants showed a significantly larger crossing deficit than both the sighted and late blind adults. This pattern of results implies that developmental vision induces the default use of an external coordinate frame for multisensory action control; this facilitates not only visual but also auditory-manual control.

  9. A dissociation in attentional control: evidence from methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Salo, Ruth; Nordahl, Thomas E; Moore, Charles; Waters, Christy; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Galloway, Gantt P; Kile, Shawn; Sullivan, Edith V

    2005-02-01

    Selective attention comprises multiple, dissociable component processes, including task shifting and selective inhibition. The goal of this study was to test whether task-shifting, selective inhibition, or both processes were impaired in long-term but currently abstinent methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Participants were 34 methamphetamine-dependent subjects and 20 nonsubstance abusing controls who were tested on an alternating-runs switch task with conflict sequences that required subjects to switch tasks on every second trial (AABBAABB). Methamphetamine-dependent individuals committed more errors on trials that required inhibition of distracting information compared with controls (methamphetamine = 17%; controls = 13%; p = .02). By contrast, error rates did not differ between the groups on switch trials (methamphetamine = 7%; controls = 6%; p = .68). These results indicate that selective inhibition, but not task switching, is selectively compromised by methamphetamine.

  10. Voluntary euthanasia under control? Further empirical evidence from The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Jochemsen, H; Keown, J

    1999-01-01

    Nineteen ninety-six saw the publication of a major Dutch survey into euthanasia in the Netherlands. This paper outlines the main statistical findings of this survey and considers whether it shows that voluntary euthanasia is under effective control in the Netherlands. The paper concludes that although there has been some improvement in compliance with procedural requirements, the practice of voluntary euthanasia remains beyond effective control. PMID:10070633

  11. Experimental studies on model reference adaptive control with integral action employing a rotary encoder and tachometer sensors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Shu-Nan; Bai, Yu-Guang; Liu, Lei

    2013-04-10

    In this paper, an adaptive law with an integral action is designed and implemented on a DC motor by employing a rotary encoder and tachometer sensors. The stability is proved by using the Lyapunov function. The tracking errors asymptotically converge to zero according to the Barbalat lemma. The tracking performance is specified by a reference model, the convergence rate of Lyapunov function is specified by the matrix Q and the control action and the state weighting are restricted by the matrix Γ. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control. The maximum errors of the position and velocity with the integral action are reduced from 0.4 V and 1.5 V to 0.2 V and 0.4 V, respectively. The adaptive control with the integral action gives satisfactory performance, even when it suffers from input disturbance.

  12. Experimental Studies on Model Reference Adaptive Control with Integral Action Employing a Rotary Encoder and Tachometer Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Shu-Nan; Bai, Yu-Guang; Liu, Lei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive law with an integral action is designed and implemented on a DC motor by employing a rotary encoder and tachometer sensors. The stability is proved by using the Lyapunov function. The tracking errors asymptotically converge to zero according to the Barbalat lemma. The tracking performance is specified by a reference model, the convergence rate of Lyapunov function is specified by the matrix Q and the control action and the state weighting are restricted by the matrix Γ. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control. The maximum errors of the position and velocity with the integral action are reduced from 0.4 V and 1.5 V to 0.2 V and 0.4 V, respectively. The adaptive control with the integral action gives satisfactory performance, even when it suffers from input disturbance. PMID:23575034

  13. Bilingualism modulates dual mechanisms of cognitive control: Evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julia; Yudes, Carolina; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J; Bajo, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioral findings with the AX-Continous Performance Task (AX-CPT; Morales et al., 2013) show that bilinguals only outperform monolinguals under conditions that require the highest adjustment between monitoring (proactive) and inhibitory (reactive) control, which supports the idea that bilingualism modulates the coordination of different control mechanisms. In an ERP experiment we aimed to further investigate the role that bilingualism plays in the dynamic combination of proactive and reactive control in the AX-CPT. Our results strongly indicate that bilingualism facilitates an effective adjustment between both components of cognitive control. First, we replicated previous behavioral results. Second, ERP components indicated that bilingualism influences the conflict monitoring, response inhibition and error monitoring components of control (as indexed by the N2 and P3a elicited by the probe and the error-related negativity following incorrect responses, respectively). Thus, bilinguals exerted higher reactive control than monolinguals but only when they needed to overcome the competing cue-information. These findings join others in suggesting that a better understanding of the cognitive benefits of bilingualism may require consideration of a multi-component perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inverted-U shaped dopamine actions on human working memory and cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Cools, R; D’Esposito, M

    2011-01-01

    Brain dopamine has long been implicated in cognitive control processes, including working memory. However, the precise role of dopamine in cognition is not well understood, partly because there is large variability in the response to dopaminergic drugs both across different behaviors and across different individuals. We review evidence from a series of studies with experimental animals, healthy humans and patients with Parkinson’s disease, which highlight two important factors that contribute to this large variability. First, the existence of an optimum dopamine level for cognitive function implicates the need to take into account baseline levels of dopamine when isolating dopamine’s effects. Second, cognitive control is a multi-factorial phenomenon, requiring a dynamic balance between cognitive stability and cognitive flexibility. These distinct components might implicate the prefrontal cortex and the striatum respectively. Manipulating dopamine will thus have paradoxical consequences for distinct cognitive control processes depending on distinct basal or optimal levels of dopamine in different brain regions. PMID:21531388

  15. Integration of visual and auditory information for hand actions: preliminary evidence for the contribution of natural sounds to grasping.

    PubMed

    Sedda, Anna; Monaco, Simona; Bottini, Gabriella; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2011-03-01

    When we reach out to grasp objects, vision plays a major role in the control of our movements. Nevertheless, other sensory modalities contribute to the fine-tuning of our actions. Even olfaction has been shown to play a role in the scaling of movements directed at objects. Much less is known about how auditory information might be used to program grasping movements. The aim of our study was to investigate how the sound of a target object affects the planning of grasping movements in normal right-handed subjects. We performed an experiment in which auditory information could be used to infer size of targets when the availability of visual information was varied from trial to trial. Classical kinematic parameters (such as grip aperture) were measured to evaluate the influence of auditory information. In addition, an optimal inference modeling was applied to the data. The scaling of grip aperture indicated that the introduction of sound allowed subjects to infer the size of the object when vision was not available. Moreover, auditory information affected grip aperture even when vision was available. Our findings suggest that the differences in the natural impact sounds of objects of different sizes being placed on a surface can be used to plan grasping movements.

  16. Biochemical evidence of efficacy of potash alum for the control of dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Preet, Shabad; Sneha, A

    2011-06-01

    Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya in India and other South East Asian countries, and novel insecticides for vector control are urgently needed. In the present investigation, efficacy of potash alum, a traditionally known double salt in Indian and Chinese medicine system, was tested against the larvae of dengue vector, A. aegypti. LC(50,) LC(90) and LC(99) values were recorded for various instar larvae where I instar larvae were found to be the most susceptible and IV instar larvae as the least susceptible one. The LC(50) values of crude and standard potash alum of various instar larvae ranged between 15.29 and 48.53 ppm and 20.50-65.10 ppm, respectively. Biochemical changes were also evidenced in IV instar A. aegypti larvae following a sublethal exposure for 24 h in the levels of various nutrient reserves and primary metabolites such as sugar, glycogen, lipids and proteins suggesting possible mode of action responsible for larval mortality. Sugar and glycogen concentrations were measured as 24.6 and 10.67 μg per five larvae in controls which were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by 32.11-93.98% and 39.26-94.47%, respectively, in larvae treated with crude alum. In controls, protein and lipid content were recorded as 210.74 and 94.71 μg per five larvae which dropped up to 26.53% and 25.5%, respectively, in larvae following treatment with crude alum. Moreover, drastic changes were also recorded for DNA content with 25.39-44.17% decrease in crude alum-treated larvae. It is evident from these results that potash alum, a fairly cheaper and readily available ecofriendly compound could be recommended as a potential chemical larvicide against dengue vector at mosquito breeding sites in the vicinity of human dwellings.

  17. Evidence for a central mode of action for etoricoxib (COX-2 inhibitor) in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt; Petersen, Kristian Kjær

    2016-08-01

    The COX-2 inhibitor etoricoxib modulates the peripheral and central nociceptive mechanisms in animals. This interaction has not been studied in patients with pain. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover, 4-week treatment study investigated the pain mechanisms modulated by etoricoxib in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis. Patients were randomized to group A (60 mg/d etoricoxib followed by placebo) or B (placebo followed by 60 mg/d etoricoxib). The quantitative, mechanistic pain biomarkers were pressure pain thresholds, temporal summation (TS), and conditioning pain modulation. Clinical readouts were Brief Pain Inventory, WOMAC, painDETECT questionnaire (PD-Q), and time and pain intensity during walking and stair climbing. Etoricoxib as compared with placebo significantly modulated the pressure pain thresholds (P = 0.012, localized sensitization) at the knee and leg (control site) (P = 0.025, spreading sensitization) and TS assessed from the knee (P = 0.038) and leg (P = 0.045). Conditioning pain modulation was not modulated. The Brief Pain Inventory (pain scores), PD-Q, WOMAC, and walking and stair climbing tests were all significantly improved by etoricoxib. Based on a minimum of 30% or 50% pain alleviation (day 0-day 28), responders and nonresponders were defined. The nonresponders showed a significant association between increased facilitation of TS and increased pain alleviation. None of the other parameters predicted the degree of pain alleviation. Generally, a responder to etoricoxib has the most facilitated TS. In conclusion, etoricoxib (1) modulated central pain modulatory mechanisms and (2) improved pain and function in painful osteoarthritis. Stronger facilitation of TS may indicate a better response to etoricoxib, supporting the central mode-of-action of the drug.

  18. Resolution of conflict between goal-directed actions: outcome encoding and neural control processes.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Sanne; Ostlund, Sean B; Balleine, Bernard W; Dickinson, Anthony

    2009-07-01

    According to O-R theory of instrumental learning, incongruent biconditional discriminations should be impossible to solve in a goal-directed manner because the event acting as the outcome of one response also acts as a discriminative stimulus for an opposite response. Each event should therefore be associated with two competing responses. However, Dickinson and de Wit (2003) have presented evidence that rats can learn incongruent discriminations. The present study investigated whether rats were able to engage additional processes to solve incongruent discriminations in a goal-directed manner. Experiment 1 provides evidence that rats resolve the response conflict that arises in the incongruent discrimination by differentially encoding events in their roles as discriminative stimulus and as outcome. Furthermore, Experiment 2 shows that once goal-directed control has been established the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex is not directly involved in its maintenance but rather plays a central role in conflict resolution processes.

  19. The human subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus internus differentially encode reward during action control.

    PubMed

    Justin Rossi, Peter; Peden, Corinna; Castellanos, Oscar; Foote, Kelly D; Gunduz, Aysegul; Okun, Michael S

    2017-04-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) have recently been shown to encode reward, but few studies have been performed in humans. We investigated STN and GPi encoding of reward and loss (i.e., valence) in humans with Parkinson's disease. To test the hypothesis that STN and GPi neurons would change their firing rate in response to reward- and loss-related stimuli, we recorded the activity of individual neurons while participants performed a behavioral task. In the task, action choices were associated with potential rewarding, punitive, or neutral outcomes. We found that STN and GPi neurons encode valence-related information during action control, but the proportion of valence-responsive neurons was greater in the STN compared to the GPi. In the STN, reward-related stimuli mobilized a greater proportion of neurons than loss-related stimuli. We also found surprising limbic overlap with the sensorimotor regions in both the STN and GPi, and this overlap was greater than has been previously reported. These findings may help to explain alterations in limbic function that have been observed following deep brain stimulation therapy of the STN and GPi. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1952-1964, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effectiveness of personalized written asthma action plans in the management of children with partly controlled asthma in Trinidad: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raveed; Maharaj, Rohan; Seerattan, Natasha; Babwah, Feaz

    2014-02-01

    The provision of written asthma action plans (WAAPs) is regarded by regional and international guidelines as an essential component of patient education and self-management. However, the evidence for this practice in children is deficient. To evaluate the effectiveness of adding a personalized WAAP in the treatment of children with partly controlled asthma. Children with partly controlled asthma were randomized to receive a personalized WAAP or no plan, in addition to standard care including education. They were followed up with serial measurement of outcome variables. The primary outcome measured was the number of emergency room (ER) revisits. Ninety-one children participated, 45 in the intervention group and 46 in the control group. Comparison with pretrial data revealed significantly improved outcomes with respect to the numbers of ER visits ( p = 0.005 and 0.0002) and acute asthmatic attacks ( p = 0.0064 and 0.0006) in both arms of the study. Children in receipt of a personalized WAAP had fewer ER visits ( p = 0.78), asthma attacks ( p = 0.84), missed school days ( p = 0.28), night-time awakenings ( p = 0.48) and unscheduled doctor visits ( p = 0.69) than those who did not receive a plan. The results of this study suggest that the provision of personalized WAAPs may play a useful role in the management of children with partly controlled asthma but is no better than standard care. Asthma education is a critical component in the prevention of exacerbations in children with partly controlled asthma.