Science.gov

Sample records for action direct sale

  1. 76 FR 11264 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land in Shoshone County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land in Shoshone County... Register announcing the proposed direct sale and segregation of 5.07 acres of public land in Shoshone... by direct sale to Sunshine in accordance with Sections 203 and 209 of the Federal Land Policy...

  2. 76 FR 50492 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in San Benito County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in San Benito County, CA... is proposed for direct sale to Windfield Ranch, LLC, the adjoining landowner, in accordance with... lacks legal access. The BLM is proposing a direct sale to Windfield Ranch, LLC, the owner of...

  3. 77 FR 61023 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Shasta County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Shasta County, CA AGENCY...), Redding Field Office, proposes to sell a parcel of public land totaling approximately 40 acres in Shasta... Act of 1976 (FLPMA), as amended (43 U.S.C. 1713 and 1719). Mount Diablo Meridian T. 34 N., R. 1...

  4. 78 FR 24231 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land in Josephine County, Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land in Josephine..., Oregon, by direct sale procedures to Joan Conklin for the approved appraised fair market value of $300...) and regulations at 43 CFR subparts 2710 and 2720, this conveyance will be made by direct...

  5. 72 FR 46509 - Notice of Realty Action; Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-08-20

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action; Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Owyhee....55 acre parcel of public land in Owyhee County, Idaho is being considered for non-competitive (direct) sale to Owyhee County under the provisions of the Federal Land Policy Management Act of 1976, at...

  6. 63 FR 55403 - Notice of Realty ActionIDI-32281; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Owyhee County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-10-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action--IDI-32281; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Owyhee... Owyhee County, Idaho has been examined and through the pubic-supported land use planning process has been... land by direct sale to Owyhee County for solid waste disposal purposes. Their refusal or failure to...

  7. 75 FR 80841 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Kern County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... direct sale because Kern County wishes to secure the land for a buffer zone for their existing landfill... appropriation under the public land laws, including the mining laws, except for the sale provisions of the...

  8. 78 FR 11899 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in San Mateo County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in San Mateo County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty action. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Hollister Field Office, proposes to sell two separate parcels of public land...

  9. 78 FR 15044 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Pinal County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Indian Community (Community) at not less than the appraised fair market value (FMV). The sale will be... sent to Penny Foreman, Acting Field Manager, LSFO, Phoenix ] District Office, 21605 North 7th Avenue...: The following parcel of public land is proposed for direct sale to the Community and is...

  10. 78 FR 7809 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed (Non-Competitive) Direct Sale of Public Land in Campbell County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... in Campbell County, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Realty Action... acres of public land in Campbell County, Wyoming, at not less than the appraised fair market value to... following-described public land in Campbell County, Wyoming, is proposed for direct sale, subject to...

  11. 75 FR 21037 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Non-Competitive (Direct) Sales of Public Lands, Boulder County, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Bureau of Land Management [LLCOFO2000-L14300000.EU0000; COC-51328, COC-51330, COC-65294, COC- 65295, COC...: Proposed Non-Competitive (Direct) Sales of Public Lands, Boulder County, CO AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Realty Action. SUMMARY: The public lands described in this...

  12. 78 FR 8188 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed (Non-Competitive) Direct Sale of Public Land in Carbon County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... in Carbon County, UT AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty action... acres of public land in Carbon County, Utah, at not less than the appraised fair market value to Hunt... Carbon County, Utah, are proposed for direct sale, subject to the applicable provisions of Sections...

  13. 77 FR 13145 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Esmeralda County, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... Register of a termination of the segregation, or on March 5, 2014, unless extended by the BLM Nevada State... levels of arsenic and other substances. A direct sale would therefore also serve the purpose of...

  14. 75 FR 60478 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Fe County, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Fe County, NM... Management (BLM) has determined that 2.96 acres located in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, is suitable for...., Fractional sec. 29, lot 10. The area described contains 2.96 acres, more or less, in Santa Fe...

  15. 76 FR 16810 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Hot Springs County, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Hot...: A 10-acre parcel of public land in Hot Springs County, Wyoming is being considered for non... following described public land in Hot Springs County, Wyoming has been examined and found suitable for...

  16. 76 FR 68784 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ....EU0000; CACA 50168 12] Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA... approximately 15.97 acres, more or less, in Santa Clara County, California. The public land would be sold to... less, in Santa Clara County. [[Page 68785

  17. 75 FR 67393 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Barbara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Barbara County... land consisting of approximately 391 acres in Santa Barbara County, California. Each parcel would be... 23; Sec. 30, lot 2; Sec. 32, lot 3; Sec. 33, lot 10. The area described contains 31.68 acres in...

  18. 63 FR 59842 - Notice of Realty Action-IDI-32281; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Owyhee County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action-IDI-32281; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Owyhee County, ID Correction In notice document 98-27697, beginning on page 55403, in the issue of Thursday,...

  19. 75 FR 39273 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land, Chaves County, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... parcels are being proposed for direct sale to the Roswell Gun Club at no less than the appraised fair... property is currently owned by the New Mexico Military Institute and the Roswell Gun Club. The unauthorized... Roswell Gun Club, firing ranges, sightings-in range, small arms firing range, and various earthen...

  20. 75 FR 6701 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land, Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ...- competitive direct sale to Audrey Roth, pursuant to Section 203 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act... used by the Roth family for residential purposes for many years. Improvements include a residential cabin and associated utilities and access. The parcel is being offered to Audrey Roth of Piute...

  1. 76 FR 62831 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Shasta County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... development near its existing landfill on adjacent non- Federal land. The sale of this land to the County of... under the public land laws, including the mining laws, except for the sale provisions of the...

  2. 75 FR 35083 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Lincoln County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... owner of the surrounding private land for the appraised fair market value of $14,000. The private land surrounding the public land is owned by Alan Woodland. DATES: Comments regarding the proposed sale must...

  3. 75 FR 444 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Tehama County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... owners of the surrounding private land for the appraised fair market value of $28,000. The private land surrounding the public land is owned by W. James Edwards, trustee of the James Edwards Revocable Trust, Nancy... surrounded by private lands owned by the Trustees. A competitive sale is therefore not appropriate and...

  4. 78 FR 40503 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Pima County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... the Three Points Fire District under the provisions of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of... sale to the Three Points Fire District in accordance with Sections 203(a)(1) and 209(b)(1)(1) of FLPMA... it will provide a permanent solution for fire protection services. Speculative bidding...

  5. 76 FR 47237 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Monterey County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... appraised fair market value of $25,000. DATES: Written comments regarding the proposed sale must be received... BLM has completed a mineral potential report which concluded there are no known mineral values in the... including your address, phone number, e-mail address, or other personal identifying information in...

  6. 75 FR 22625 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Land in Jerome County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ...: In order to ensure consideration in the environmental analysis of the proposed sale, comments must be... for roads and public utilities. Conveyance of any mineral interests pursuant to Section 209 of FLPMA... above address. In order to ensure consideration in the environmental analysis of the proposed...

  7. 78 FR 76854 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Sheridan County, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...The Bureau of Land Management proposes to sell eight parcels of public land totaling 208.12 acres in Sheridan County, Wyoming, to Farmland Reserve, Inc. (FRI) under the direct sale provisions of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), for not less than the appraised fair market value of...

  8. 40 CFR 73.72 - Direct sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct sales. 73.72 Section 73.72... ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales, and Independent Power Producers Written Guarantee § 73.72 Direct sales. Allowances that were formerly part of the direct sale program, which has been terminated...

  9. 14 CFR 212.7 - Direct sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct sales. 212.7 Section 212.7... REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.7 Direct sales. (a) Certificated and foreign air carriers may sell or offer for sale, and operate, as principal, Public Charter flights...

  10. 70 FR 9098 - Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-02-24

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Land in Owyhee... located in Owyhee County, Idaho is suitable for direct sale to Owyhee County under Sections 203 and 209...

  11. 75 FR 28650 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Lands in Riverside County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... market value of $77,000. DATES: Comments regarding the proposed sale must be received by the BLM on or... Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), as amended (43 U.S.C. 1713), at not less than the appraised fair market value... acres in Riverside County. The appraised fair market value is $77,000. The public land is identified...

  12. 75 FR 21033 - Notice of Correction to Realty Action: Proposed Sale of Public Land, Idaho

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Management (BLM) published a notice in the Federal Register on March 3, 2009, pertaining to a direct sale of... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Correction to Realty Action: Proposed Sale of Public Land, Idaho..., except the sale provisions of the FLPMA and the lands will be open to disposal under those...

  13. 24 CFR 291.210 - Direct sales procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct sales procedures. 291.210... URBAN DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF HUD-ACQUIRED SINGLE FAMILY PROPERTY Sales Procedures § 291.210 Direct sales procedures. When HUD conducts the sales listed in § 291.90(c), it will...

  14. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  15. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  16. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  17. 60 FR 12968 - Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Lands in Owyhee County, Idaho

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Lands in Owyhee County, Idaho AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Sale of public lands in Owyhee County. SUMMARY: The following-described public land...

  18. 63 FR 43413 - Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County, Idaho

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County, Idaho AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County. SUMMARY: The...

  19. 75 FR 51841 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed sale of Public Lands, Churchill County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...: Proposed sale of Public Lands, Churchill County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... the appraised fair market value, approximately 800 acres of public lands in Churchill County, Nevada... lands in Churchill County, Nevada, proposed for sale are located 65 miles northeast of Fallon,...

  20. 71 FR 66552 - Notice of Realty Action; Non-Competitive Sale of Public Land, Idaho

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-11-15

    ... public land in Owyhee County, Idaho is being considered for direct (non-competitive) sale to Robert G... January 2, 2007. ADDRESSES: Address all comments concerning this notice to Kelley Moore, BLM, Owyhee Field... public land in Owyhee County, Idaho, has been examined and found suitable for sale utilizing direct...

  1. 75 FR 28818 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Sale of Public Land, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Sale of Public Land, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Realty Action. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has examined and found the following public lands located in Teton County, Wyoming, suitable...

  2. 75 FR 65649 - Notice of Realty Action: Segregation To Consider Proposed Sale of Public Lands in Blaine County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... for direct sale to the Point of Rocks Ranch, LLC in accordance with Sections 203 and 209 of FLPMA, as... proposing a direct sale to resolve an inadvertent unauthorized use and occupancy of the lands. Conveyance of... writing any comments concerning the land being considered for direct sale, including notification of...

  3. 75 FR 79018 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Sale of Public Lands in Bear Lake County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Sale of Public Lands in Bear Lake County, ID... Management (BLM) proposes the sale of 26 parcels of public lands totaling 1,543.14 acres in Bear Lake County... Bear Lake County, Idaho, are proposed for sale under the authority of Sections 203 and 209 of FLPMA...

  4. 59 FR- Termination of Desert Land Entry Classification/Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Land in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-09-22

    ... Action, Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County; Idaho AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Termination of Desert Land Entry Classification/Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County. SUMMARY: This order... Meridian T. 16 S., R. 11 E., Sec. 21, NE\\1/4\\NE\\1/4\\. The area described contains 40.00 acres in...

  5. 68 FR 27583 - Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County, Idaho; Termination of Desert Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-05-20

    ...-03-003] Notice of Realty Action, Sale of Public Land in Owyhee County, Idaho; Termination of Desert.... ACTION: Notice and sale of public land in Owyhee County. SUMMARY: This notice terminates a suitable..., Owyhee County, Idaho T. 7 S., R. 6 E., section 7: Lot 6 Containing +/- 0.96 acres. The patent,...

  6. 77 FR 13142 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified-Competitive Sale of Public Land in Pahrump, Nye County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...; TAS: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Modified-Competitive Sale of Public Land in Pahrump, Nye County... in Pahrump, Nye County, Nevada, by modified-competitive, sealed-bid sale at not less than the... INFORMATION: The Nye County Board of Commissioners supports the Spring Mountain Raceway, LLC's request for...

  7. 78 FR 45270 - Notice of Realty Action; Proposed Modified Competitive Sale of Public Land in Jackson County, Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action; Proposed Modified Competitive Sale of Public Land in Jackson County, Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty action. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) proposes to sell a 9.26 acre parcel of public land in...

  8. Mitigation action plan sale of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills) Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1, also called {open_quotes}Elk Hills{close_quotes}), a Federally-owned oil and gas production field in Kern County, California, was created by an Executive Order issued by President Taft on September 2, 1912. He signed another Executive Order on December 13, 1912, to establish Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2), located immediately south of NPR-1 and containing portions of the town of Taft, California. NPR-1 was not developed until the 1973-74 oil embargo demonstrated the nation`s vulnerability to oil supply interruptions. Following the embargo, Congress passed the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 which directed that the reserve be explored and developed to its fall economic potential at the {open_quotes}maximum efficient rate{close_quotes} (MER) of production. Since Elk Hills began full production in 1976, it has functioned as a commercial operation, with total revenues to the Federal government through FY 1996 of $16.4 billion, compared to total exploration, development and production costs of $3.1 billion. In February 1996, Title 34 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996 (P.L. 104-106), referred to as the Elk Hills Sales Statute, directed the Secretary of Energy to sell NPR-1 by February 10, 1998.The Secretary was also directed to study options for enhancing the value of the other Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserve properties such as NPR-2, located adjacent to NPR-1 in Kern County- Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) located in Natrona County, Wyoming; Naval Oil Shale Reserves No. 1 and No. 3 (NOSR-1 and NOSR-3) located in Garfield County, Colorado; and Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 2 (NOSR-2) located in Uintah and Carbon Counties, Utah. The purpose of these actions was to remove the Federal government from the inherently non-Federal function of operating commercial oil fields while making sure that the public would obtain the maximum value from the reserves.

  9. Goal-Directed Action Representation in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalla, Tiziana; Labruyere, Nelly; Georgieff, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of individuals with autism to represent goal-directed behavioural actions. We compared the performance of subjects with autism (n=16), mentally retarded subjects (n=14) and normal healthy subjects (n=15) in a sequencing task consisted in arranging pictures of single events in their…

  10. 76 FR 72972 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County... approximately 23.42 acres, more or less, in Santa Clara County, California. The public land would be sold for... described contains 23.42 acres, more or less, in Santa Clara County, California. Appraised fair market...

  11. Effect of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on Asthma Medication Sales and Healthcare Use

    PubMed Central

    Daubresse, Matthew; Hutfless, Susan; Kim, Yoonsang; Kornfield, Rachel; Qato, Dima M.; Huang, Jidong; Miller, Kay; Emery, Sherry L.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: The United States is one of only two countries that permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs, and many questions remain regarding its effects. Objectives: To quantify the association between asthma-related DTCA, pharmacy sales, and healthcare use. Methods: This was an ecological study from 2005 through 2009 using linked data from Nielsen (DTCA television ratings), the IMS Health National Prescription Audit (pharmacy sales), and the MarketScan Commercial Claims data (healthcare use) for 75 designated market areas in the United States. We used multilevel Poisson regression to model the relationship between DTCA and rates of prescriptions and use within and across designated market areas. Main outcome measures include (1) volume of total, new, and refilled prescriptions for advertised products based on pharmacy sales; (2) prescription claims for asthma medications; and asthma-related (3) emergency department use, (4) hospitalizations, and (5) outpatient encounters among the commercially insured. Measurements and Main Results: Four Food and Drug Administration–approved asthma medicines were advertised during the period examined: (1) fluticasone/salmeterol (Advair), (2) mometasone furoate (Asmanex), (3) montelukast (Singulair), and (4) budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort). After adjustment, each additional televised advertisement was associated with 2% (incident rate ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.03) higher pharmacy sales rate from 2005 through 2009, although this effect varied across the three consistently advertised therapies examined. Among the commercially insured, DTCA was positively and significantly associated with emergency room visits related to asthma (incident rate ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.04), but there was no relationship with hospitalizations or outpatient encounters. Conclusions: Among this population, DTCA was associated with higher prescription sales and asthma-related emergency

  12. Enforcing law on tobacco sales to minors: getting the question and action right.

    PubMed

    Tutt, Douglas C

    2008-01-01

    There is a substantial history of health-related law in Australia, but only recently has this included a significant amount of state regulation pertaining to tobacco promotion, sale and public use. The important question is: under what circumstances do regulation and law enforcement work? Rigorous, energetic, long-term local law enforcement on the supply of tobacco to minors demonstrates success in preventing uptake. A model for success combines education, enforcement and publicity; a model used to some effect in alcohol law. Future directions in regulation might include on-the-spot penalties; ensuring the law is simple and has community support; striving for sufficient resources, enthusiasm and skills; and making the tobacco retail industry pay some of the costs of regulating that industry.

  13. Motor contagion: goal-directed actions are more contagious than non-goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, Cédric A; Shipley, Thomas F; Capa, Rémi L; Marshall, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Recent theories posit a mirror-matching system mapping observed actions onto one's own motor system. Determining whether this system makes a distinction between goal-directed and non-goal-directed actions is crucial for the understanding of its function. The present study tested whether motor interference between observed and executed actions, which is thought to be an index of perceptual-motor matching, depends on the presence of goals in the observed action. Participants executed sinusoidal arm movements while observing a video of another person making similar or different movements. In certain conditions, elements representing goals for the observed movement were superimposed on the video displays. Overall, observing an incongruent movement interfered with movement execution. This interference was markedly increased when the observed incongruent movement was directed toward a visible goal, suggesting a greater perceptual-motor matching during observation of goal-directed versus non-goal-directed actions. This finding supports an action-reconstruction model of mirror system function rather than the traditional direct-matching model.

  14. DSHEA's third-party literature exemption; mail order sales, direct marketing, and Internet use.

    PubMed

    Raubicheck, C J

    1999-01-01

    This article examines ways in which marketers of dietary supplements can make use of the "third-party literature" section of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). This provision permits persons or entities, other than manufacturers or distributors, to distribute to consumers certain publications in connection with the sale of particular supplements. These publications may include statements about the therapeutic benefits of such products without subjecting the products to regulation by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as unapproved new drugs. Specifically, this article addresses the following: Can a dietary supplement manufacturer or distributor send third-party literature about a dietary supplement to a customer in a mail order sales transaction? Can third-party literature be disseminated by mail with dietary supplement catalogues only? Can third-party literature be disseminated by sales representatives engaged in direct marketing of dietary supplements? Can third-party literature appear on the Internet? The answer appears to be affirmative in each of these situations.

  15. 75 FR 35832 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Tehama County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    .... The lands identified for sale are considered to have no known mineral value except for oil and gas, which will be reserved to the United States. With the exception of oil and gas, the proposed sale would... 945) and a reservation of all oil and gas to the United States together with the right to prospect...

  16. Consumers' willingness to pay for beef direct sales. A regional comparison across the Pyrenees.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Ana I; Resano, Helena; Zeballos, Gabriela; Sans, Pierre; Panella-Riera, Nuria; Campo, M Mar; Khliji, Saoussan; Guerrero, Ana; Oliver, M Angels; Sañudo, Carlos; Santolaria, Pilar

    2012-06-01

    Willingness to pay (WTP) for direct market of beef is investigated in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees. Given the novelty of this distribution system, especially in Spain, a contingent valuation approach is undertaken, and a double-bounded model is estimated. Different patterns of awareness, use and WTP are found across regions. Likewise, the profile of current and potential users of direct sale chains is investigated. Experience in the different stages involved from choice to final consumption of beef, intensity of varied beef consumption, familiarity with direct market of food in general, and beef in particular, are some of the relevant factors to explain WTP and the probability of getting engaged into a direct distribution system of beef.

  17. 76 FR 44355 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Land in Carson City, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... proposed sales, including maps and current appraisals, may be reviewed during normal business hours at the... reservations: 1. A reservation of a right-of-way to the United States for ditches and canals constructed...

  18. 76 FR 31627 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Lake County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... information regarding the proposed sale and the land involved, including maps and current appraisal may be... terms, conditions, and reservations: 1. A reservation of a right-of-way to the United States for...

  19. 76 FR 6155 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Sandoval County, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Office. More detailed information regarding the proposed sale and the lands involved, including maps and... States for ditches and canals constructed by the authority of the United States pursuant to the Act...

  20. [Legislative management of the direct sale of genetic testing and the health care system of Quebec].

    PubMed

    Tassé, Anne Marie; Godard, Béatrice

    2007-01-01

    The increasing availability of direct to consumer genetic tests, particularly over the Internet, raises a number of difficult to answer legal questions for health care professionals. While lawmakers have enacted an exhaustive legislative scheme aimed at ensuring the efficiency and universality of publicly funded health care, genetic services sold outside the public system create have created a new challenge for the public system. An analysis of both Quebec and Federal legislation highlights the gaps in the current legal framework with regards to freely available genetic services. The varied impact of failing to address direct to consumer sales of genetic testing services is identified, including implications for consumer protection, control and regulation of testing, and their integration into the public health care system. According to this analysis, resolving these problems, in light of the need for consumer protection, and controlling the use of genetic tests is an essential first step towards the integration of genetic services into the public health care system.

  1. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  2. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  3. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  4. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  5. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  6. 75 FR 18881 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Sale of Public Land in Caribou Co., ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Dairy Syncline Mine and Reclamation Plan (MRP) application to the BLM on October 6, 2008, for the Dairy Syncline Phosphate Lease Area. The MRP is currently under review by the BLM, and an environmental impact... determine and analyze the impacts of the MRP as well as the proposed land sale. According to the...

  7. Direct-to-consumer sales of genetic services on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Gollust, Sarah E; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Hull, Sara Chandros

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE The increasing use of the Internet to obtain genetics information and to order medical services without a prescription, combined with a rise in direct-to-consumer marketing for genetic testing, suggests the potential for the Internet to be used to sell genetic services. METHODS A systematic World Wide Web search was conducted in May 2002 to assess the availability of genetic services sold directly to consumers on the Internet. RESULTS Out of 105 sites that offered genetic services directly, most offered non-health-related services, including parentage confirmation testing (83%), identity testing (56%), and DNA banking (24%); however, health-related genetic tests were offered through 14 sites (13%). The health-related genetic tests available ranged from standard tests, such as hemochromatosis and cystic fibrosis, to more unconventional tests related to nutrition, behavior, and aging. Of these 14 sites, 5 described risks associated with the genetic services and 6 described the availability of counseling. CONCLUSIONS The availability of direct sales of health-related genetic tests creates the potential for inadequate pretest decision making, misunderstanding test results, and access to tests of questionable clinical value.

  8. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale. 201.308 Section 201.308 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... poisonings, ipecac syrup is considered the emetic of choice. The immediate availability of this drug for...

  9. Infants Prefer Motionese to Adult-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Rebecca J.; Shallcross, Wendy L.

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated infants' preference for infant-directed (ID) action or "motionese" (Brand, Baldwin & Ashburn, 2002) relative to adult-directed (AD) action. In Study 1, full-featured videos were shown to 32 6- to 8-month-olds, who demonstrated a strong preference for ID action. In Study 2, infants at 6-8 months (n= 28) and 11-13…

  10. Global Reach of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Using Social Media for Illicit Online Drug Sales

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. Objective To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. Methods We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determining applicable platforms (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and MySpace), we created a fictitious advertisement advertising no prescription drugs online and posted it to the identified social media platforms. Each advertisement linked to a unique website URL that consisted of a site error page. Employing Web search analytics, we tracked the number of users visiting these sites and their location. We used commercially available Internet tools and services, including website hosting, domain registration, and website analytic services. Results Illicit online pharmacy social media content for Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace remained accessible despite highly questionable and potentially illegal content. Fictitious advertisements promoting illicit sale of drugs generated aggregate unique user traffic of 2795 visits over a 10-month period. Further, traffic to our websites originated from a number of countries, including high-income and middle-income countries, and emerging markets. Conclusions Our results indicate there are few barriers to entry for social media–based illicit online drug marketing. Further, illicit eDTCA2.0 has globalized outside US borders to other countries through unregulated Internet marketing. PMID:23718965

  11. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Purity Oil Sales, CA. (First remedial action), September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-26

    The seven-acre Purity Oil Sales site is in Fresno County, California, one-half mile south of the Fresno city limits. The Purity site operated as a used-oil recycling facility from 1934 to the early 1970s. In 1976, a fire destroyed the main-warehouse building. Equipment remaining, with the exception of seven steel above-ground storage tanks, was removed from the site, and the area was partially regraded. One of the remaining storage tanks is lined with asbestos. Waste pits filled with soil, debris, and rubble cover most of the site. The State conducted a remedial investigation in 1982 during which time the EPA Emergency Response Team removed 1,800 cubic yards of hazardous oily and tarry materials from the site. The first of two planned operable units addresses the cleanup of the ground water and the removal and offsite disposal of storage tanks and tank contents. A future Record of Decision will address contaminated soil. The primary contaminants of concern affecting ground water are VOCs including benzene and TCE; and metals. Contaminants of concern in the tank sludge are VOCs including benzene, toluene, and xylenes; other organics including PCBs, PAHs, pesticides, and phenols; and metals including lead.

  12. The Construction of Career through Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard A.; Valach, Ladislav

    2004-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that occupational career is constructed through a system of intentional, goal-directed processes in the form of actions and projects as well as other careers, such as the family career and relationship careers. A contextual action theory of career is proposed as an approach that reflects a constructionist stance and…

  13. Training and Work Organisation: An Action-Research Study in a Sales and Distribution Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardes, Alda Cristina; Lopes, Albino Pedro

    2005-01-01

    This study seeks to define a method of designing work-linked training, based on day-to-day work practices and the collaboration between all those involved. From diagnosis to evaluation, no training is designed or given without considering the opinions and interests of the parties involved. The method used is based on action research (AR) and on…

  14. Infants’ Understanding of Object-Directed Action: An Interdisciplinary Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Scott J.; Kuhlmeier, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing that the object-directed actions of others are governed by goals and intentions is a crucial component of human interaction. These actions often occur rapidly and without explanation, yet we learn from and predict the actions of others with remarkable speed and accuracy, even during the first year of life. This review paper will serve as a bridge between several disparate literatures that, we suggest, can each contribute to our understanding of how infants interpret action. Specifically, we provide a review not just of research on infant goal attribution per se, but also incorporate findings from studies on the mirror neuron system and infant object cognition. The integration of these various research approaches allows for a novel construal of the extents and limits of early goal attribution – one in which the importance of the entire action context is considered – and points to specific future research directions. PMID:26903918

  15. A tobacco-free world: a call to action to phase out the sale of tobacco products by 2040.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, Robert; Bonita, Ruth; Yach, Derek; Mackay, Judith; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-03-14

    The time has come for the world to acknowledge the unacceptability of the damage being done by the tobacco industry and work towards a world essentially free from the sale (legal and illegal) of tobacco products. A tobacco-free world by 2040, where less than 5% of the world's adult population use tobacco, is socially desirable, technically feasible, and could become politically practical. Three possible ways forward exist: so-called business-as-usual, with most countries steadily implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) provisions; accelerated implementation of the FCTC by all countries; and a so-called turbo-charged approach that complements FCTC actions with strengthened UN leadership, full engagement of all sectors, and increased investment in tobacco control. Only the turbo-charged approach will achieve a tobacco-free world by 2040 where tobacco is out of sight, out of mind, and out of fashion--yet not prohibited. The first and most urgent priority is the inclusion of an ambitious tobacco target in the post-2015 sustainable development health goal. The second priority is accelerated implementation of the FCTC policies in all countries, with full engagement from all sectors including the private sector--from workplaces to pharmacies--and with increased national and global investment. The third priority is an amendment of the FCTC to include an ambitious global tobacco reduction goal. The fourth priority is a UN high-level meeting on tobacco use to galvanise global action towards the 2040 tobacco-free world goal on the basis of new strategies, new resources, and new players. Decisive and strategic action on this bold vision will prevent hundreds of millions of unnecessary deaths during the remainder of this century and safeguard future generations from the ravages of tobacco use.

  16. 81 FR 3465 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Competitive Sealed-Bid, Oral Auction Sale and Segregation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2016-01-21

    ... Competitive Sealed-Bid, Oral Auction Sale and Segregation of Public Land in Owyhee County, ID AGENCY: Bureau... to offer a parcel of public land totaling 120.84 acres in Owyhee County, Idaho, by competitive sealed... sale is consistent with the 1999 Owyhee Resource Management Plan (RMP), Record of Decision,...

  17. 76 FR 37373 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Colusa, Glenn, and Lake Counties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... proposed sale and the land involved, including maps and appraisals may be reviewed during normal business... ditches and canals constructed by authority of the United States under the Act of August 30, 1890 (43...

  18. 78 FR 25097 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive, Sealed-Bid, Spring SNPLMA Sale of Public Lands in Clark...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Environmental Policy Act Adequacy (DNA). DATES: Interested parties may submit written comments regarding the... specific DNA document numbered DOI-BLM-NV-S010-2012-0106-DNA. Sale procedures: Sealed bids must...

  19. Direct and indirect dorsolateral striatum pathways reinforce different action strategies.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Ana M; Galvão-Ferreira, Pedro; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Costa, Rui M

    2016-04-04

    The basal ganglia, and the striatum in particular, are critical for action reinforcement [1,2]. The dorsal striatum, which can be further subdivided into dorsomedial (DMS) and dorsolateral (DLS) striatum, is mainly composed of two subpopulations of striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs): dopamine D1 receptor-expressing MSNs that constitute the striatonigral or direct pathway (dMSNs); and dopamine D2 receptor-expressing MSNs that constitute the striatopallidal or indirect pathway (iMSNs) [3]. It has been suggested that each pathway has opposing roles in reinforcement, with dMSNs being important to learn positive reinforcement and iMSNs to learn to avoid undesired actions (Go/No-Go) [1]. Furthermore, optogenetic self-stimulation of dMSNs in DMS leads to reinforcement of actions, while self-stimulation of iMSNs leads to avoidance of actions [2]. However, in DLS, which has been implicated in the consolidation of well-trained actions and habits in mice [4,5], both pathways are active during lever-pressing for reward [6]. Furthermore, extensive skill training leads to long-lasting potentiation of glutamatergic inputs into both dMSNs and iMSNs [4]. We report here that, in DLS, both dMSNs and iMSNs are involved in positive reinforcement, but support different action strategies.

  20. Rangers and the Strategic Requirements for Direct Action Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    surface-to-air missile SAR search and rescue Vll SEAD suppression of enemy air defenses SEAL Sea-Air-Land SOCEX special operations capability exercise...raids" (in other words, direct action): 1. Terminal guidance operations 2. Pre-strike suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD) 3. Recovery 4...that are part of the day-to-day operation of that installation. This, too, serves as a distractor for the troops of the 82nd and prevents the narrow

  1. Impaired acquisition of goal-directed action in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    de Wit, S; van de Vijver, I; Ridderinkhof, K R

    2014-06-01

    According to dual-system theories, instrumental learning is supported by dissociable goal-directed and habitual systems. Previous investigations of the dual-system balance in healthy aging have yielded mixed results. To further investigate this issue, we compared performance of young (17-24 years) and older (69-84 years) adults on an instrumental learning task. Following the initial learning phase, the behavioral autonomy of the motivational significance of the instrumental outcome was assessed with an outcome-devaluation test and slips-of-action test. The present study provides evidence for a disrupted dual-system balance in healthy aging, as reflected in reduced outcome-induced conflict during acquisition, as well as in impaired performance during the test stage, during which participants had to flexibly adjust their actions to changes in the current desirability of the behavioral outcome. These findings will be discussed in relation to previous aging studies into habitual and goal-directed control, as well as other cognitive impairments, challenges that older adults may face in everyday life, and to the neurobiological basis of the developmental pattern of goal-directed action across the lifespan.

  2. 76 FR 2413 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Lawrence County, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... acres in Lawrence County, South Dakota, to Keith Sauls for the appraised fair market value of $183...); Black Hills Meridian T. 5 N., R. 3 E., Sec. 26, Lot 16. The area described contains 0.03 acres, more or... market value of $183. The public land is identified as suitable for disposal in the BLM's 1986...

  3. 78 FR 71641 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Graham County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... parcel: 1. A right-of-way thereon for ditches or canals constructed by the authority of the United States...); and 4. Additional terms and conditions that the authorized officer deems appropriate. A...

  4. 78 FR 39767 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Blaine County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... unauthorized development in 2005, the parcel was mapped as private land. In recognition of PORR's adjoining... the following terms, conditions, and reservations: 1. A reservation to the United States for...

  5. 75 FR 71143 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Blaine County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Animal Shelter of Wood River Valley (Animal Shelter) for the appraised fair market value of $18,700... Shelter in accordance with Sections 203 and 209 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as.... The Animal Shelter is a non-profit corporation that provides public benefits to Blaine County...

  6. 75 FR 39580 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Minidoka County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ..., to the owners of the surrounding private land for the appraised fair market value of $85,200. The... 1976, as amended (43 U.S.C. 1713 and 1719), at not less than the appraised fair market value: Boise... appraised fair market value is $85,200. The public land is identified as suitable for disposal in the...

  7. 76 FR 29784 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Jerome County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... owners of the adjacent private land, Todd and Bridget Buschhorn, for the appraised fair market value of... than the appraised fair market value: Boise Meridian T. 10 S., R. 19 E., sec. 25, lot 10. The area described contains 7.45 acres in Jerome County. The appraised fair market value is $5,600. The public...

  8. 75 FR 80839 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Lane County, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... petroleum product, as defined by Federal and State environmental laws, off, on, into, or under land..., or waste(s), as defined by Federal and State environmental laws, ] are generated, released, stored... with Environmental Assessment (EA) for Proposed Hancock Land Exchange (EA OR-090-97-42), dated May...

  9. 75 FR 13303 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Riverside County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Management (BLM), Palm Springs--South Coast Field Office, proposes to sell a parcel of public land consisting of approximately 119.37 acres in Riverside County, California to the City of Palm Springs for the... sent to the Field Manager, Bureau of Land Management, Palm Springs--South Coast Field Office, 1201...

  10. 78 FR 13079 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sale of Public Land in Marquette County, Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... implementing regulations at 43 CFR 2711.3-2, at no less than the appraised fair market value of the land... property. Bidding under modified competitive sale procedures is only open to the identified adjacent... be equal to or greater than the federally appraised fair market value of the land. The appraised...

  11. 76 FR 56793 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Lands in Clark County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 to contact the above individual during normal... Valley Disposal Boundary Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), and approved by Record of Decision on December 23, 2004. The proposed sale parcel, N- 85660, is additionally analyzed in Environmental...

  12. Attitudes and beliefs regarding direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceutical drugs: an exploratory comparison of physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Steven A; Broekemier, Gregory M; Burkink, Tim J

    2014-01-01

    Even with many changes in regulation in recent years, direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of pharmaceutical drugs remains a complicated and contentious issue. Many in our society argue for increased legislation of DTCA while others believe that DTCA serves a useful purpose and should not be overregulated. This study was designed to compare attitudes and beliefs regarding DTCA held by two key stakeholder groups, physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives. A questionnaire was created, pretested, and administered to 30 physicians and 30 pharmaceutical sales representatives to investigate these issues. Significant differences between these two groups were found and implications for DTCA are discussed.

  13. Enhancing the Professional Mindset of Future Sales Professionals: Key Insights from a Master in Sales Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos-Cuevas, Javier; Critten, Peter; Squire, Phil; Speakman, James I. F.

    2014-01-01

    Sales education has grown in importance, particularly throughout the last decade, with an increasing number of university sales centers offering programs to prepare new generations of sales professionals. In this article, we describe how work-based learning, action research, and reflective practice used in a sales master program can be used in…

  14. 76 FR 16812 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty action. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land... approximately 9.27 acres in Santa Clara County, California, for not less than the appraised fair market value...

  15. 78 FR 16777 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... 7 CFR Part 20 Export Sales Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION... distillers dried grain (DDG) to the Export Sales Reporting Requirements (ESR). Under that proposed rule, all... export sales of pork and DDG to the Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS). This final rule implements...

  16. 76 FR 58716 - Telemarketing Sales Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission published a final amended Telemarketing Sales Rule in the Federal.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This document makes technical corrections in the Telemarketing Sales Rule. List...

  17. 76 FR 6154 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Lands in Santa Cruz County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Lands in Santa Cruz County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty... public land consisting of approximately 12.55 acres in Santa Cruz County, California, for not less than..., 2, and 9. The area described contains 12.55 acres, more or less, in Santa Cruz County. The...

  18. 14 CFR 39.11 - What actions do airworthiness directives require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What actions do airworthiness directives require? 39.11 Section 39.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES § 39.11 What actions do airworthiness directives...

  19. Two distinct modes of control for object-directed action.

    PubMed

    Goodale, Melvyn A; Westwood, David A; Milner, A David

    2004-01-01

    There are multiple routes from vision to action that play a role in the production of visually guided reaching and grasping. What remain to be resolved, however, are the conditions under which these various routes are recruited in the generation of actions and the nature of the information they convey. We argue in this chapter that the production of real-time actions to visible targets depends on pathways that are separate from those mediating memory-driven actions. Furthermore, the transition from real-time to memory-driven control occurs as soon as the intended target is no longer visible. Real-time movements depend on pathways from the early visual areas through to relatively encapsulated visuomotor mechanisms in the dorsal stream. These dedicated visuomotor mechanisms, together with motor centers in the premotor cortex and brainstem, compute the absolute metrics of the target object and its position in the egocentric coordinates of the effector used to perform the action. Such real-time programming is essential for the production of accurate and efficient movements in a world where the location and disposition of a goal object with respect to the observer can change quickly and often unpredictably. In contrast, we argue that memory-driven actions make use of a perceptual representation of the target object generated by the ventral stream. Unlike the real-time visuomotor mechanisms, perception-based movement planning makes use of relational metrics and scene-based coordinates. Such computations make it possible, however, to plan and execute actions upon objects long after they have vanished from view.

  20. Better sales networks.

    PubMed

    Ustüner, Tuba; Godes, David

    2006-01-01

    Anyone in sales will tell you that social networks are critical. The more contacts you have, the more leads you'll generate, and, ultimately, the more sales you'll make. But that's a vast oversimplification. Different configurations of networks produce different results, and the salesperson who develops a nuanced understanding of social networks will outshine competitors. The salesperson's job changes over the course of the selling process. Different abilities are required in each stage of the sale: identifying prospects, gaining buy-in from potential customers, creating solutions, and closing the deal. Success in the first stage, for instance, depends on the salesperson acquiring precise and timely information about opportunities from contacts in the marketplace. Closing the deal requires the salesperson to mobilize contacts from prior sales to act as references. Managers often view sales networks only in terms of direct contacts. But someone who knows lots of people doesn't necessarily have an effective network because networks often pay off most handsomely through indirect contacts. Moreover, the density of the connections in a network is important. Do a salesperson's contacts know all the same people, or are their associates widely dispersed? Sparse networks are better, for example, at generating unique information. Managers can use three levers--sales force structure, compensation, and skills development--to encourage salespeople to adopt a network-based view and make the best possible use of social webs. For example, the sales force can be restructured to decouple lead generation from other tasks because some people are very good at building diverse ties but not so good at maintaining other kinds of networks. Companies that take steps of this kind to help their sales teams build better networks will reap tremendous advantages.

  1. Visual Experience Influences 12-Month-Old Infants' Perception of Goal-Directed Actions of Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Kawakita, Yuka; Okanda, Mako; Takeshita, Hideko

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether infants' own visual experiences affected their perception of the visual status of others engaging in goal-directed actions. In Experiment 1, infants viewed video clips of successful and failed goal-directed actions performed by a blindfolded adult, with half the infants having previously experienced…

  2. Target- and Effect-Directed Actions towards Temporal Goals: Similar Mechanisms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Andrea M.; Rieger, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The goal of an action can consist of generating a change in the environment (to produce an effect) or changing one's own situation in the environment (to move to a physical target). To investigate whether the mechanisms of effect-directed and target-directed action control are similar, participants performed continuous reversal movements. They…

  3. Directed forgetting of negative performed actions is difficult: A behavioural study.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangzheng; Wang, Lijuan; Han, Ying

    2016-07-19

    Strong evidence suggests that both performing actions and emotional stimuli can enhance memory by capturing attention. However, the synergetic effect of the two factors on directed forgetting has not been assessed. In this study, we used an item-method directed forgetting paradigm to examine the forgetting of emotional materials depending on whether actions were performed. The results showed that action performance influenced the directed forgetting of emotional words. Specifically, when actions were performed there was a directed forgetting effect for neutral and positive words but not for negative words. In comparison, for verbal tasks, directed forgetting was observed for all words. The elaborative encoding prior to the remember/forget instructions and the influence of negative emotion on attentional inhibition after the presentation of the instructions together suggest that it is more difficult to intentionally forget negative performed actions.

  4. Huntsville Arsenal for Sale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    In the years following World War II, the Army directed that the Huntsville, Alabama Arsenal be advertised for sale. The decision was reversed because the Army found it needed this land for the new missile work that would occur at Redstone Arsenal.

  5. Further evidence for direct pro-resorptive actions of FSH.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Peng, Yuanzhen; Liu, Xuan; Li, Jianhua; Agrawal, Manasi; Robinson, Lisa J; Iqbal, Jameel; Blair, Harry C; Zaidi, Mone

    2010-03-26

    We confirm that FSH stimulates osteoclast formation, function and survival to enhance bone resorption. It does so via the activation of a pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i)-coupled FSH receptor that we and others have identified on murine and human osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts. FSH additionally enhances the production of several osteoclastogenic cytokines, importantly TNFalpha, likely within the bone marrow microenvironment, to augment its pro-resorptive action. FSH levels in humans rise before estrogen falls, and this hormonal change coincides with the most rapid rates of bone loss. On the basis of accumulating evidence, we reaffirm that FSH contributes to the rapid peri-menopausal and early post-menopausal bone loss, which might thus be amenable to FSH blockade.

  6. Mobility and Aging: New Directions for Public Health Action

    PubMed Central

    Guralnik, Jack M.; Jackson, Richard J.; Marottoli, Richard A.; Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Prohaska, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Optimal mobility, defined as relative ease and freedom of movement in all of its forms, is central to healthy aging. Mobility is a significant consideration for research, practice, and policy in aging and public health. We examined the public health burdens of mobility disability, with a particular focus on leading public health interventions to enhance walking and driving, and the challenges and opportunities for public health action. We propose an integrated mobility agenda, which draws on the lived experience of older adults. New strategies for research, practice, and policy are needed to move beyond categorical promotion programs in walking and driving to establish a comprehensive program to enhance safe mobility in all its forms. PMID:22698013

  7. Responses to the advanced notice of proposed rulemaking EPA published on June 6, 1996 regarding changes to the EPA allowance auctions and elimination of the direct sale

    SciTech Connect

    Critchfield, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    On June 6, 1996, EPA`s Acid Rain Program published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) in the Federal Register seeking comment on: (1) whether to change the design of the annual sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance auctions; (2) whether to change the timing of the allowance auctions; (3) whether to change the requirement that the minimum price of offered allowances must be in whole dollars, and (4) whether EPA should propose the ability to submit allowance transfers electronically. EPA also published on that day a proposed and direct final rule on whether to eliminate the direct sale. This paper documents the issues addressed in the ANPRM, the comments EPA received, and EPA`s responses to those comments. EPA received comments from 14 separate commenters.

  8. Zero-point fluctuations in direct-action electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, D. T.

    1980-03-01

    In quantized direct interparticle Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics, no free-field bosonic commutation relations exist. It is shown that a test atom will nevertheless detect a zero-point fluctuating “field” whose source is the atoms of the absorber.

  9. Analysis of direct action fuzzy PID controller structures.

    PubMed

    Mann, G I; Hu, B G; Gosine, R G

    1999-01-01

    The majority of the research work on fuzzy PID controllers focuses on the conventional two-input PI or PD type controller proposed by Mamdani (1974). However, fuzzy PID controller design is still a complex task due to the involvement of a large number of parameters in defining the fuzzy rule base. This paper investigates different fuzzy PID controller structures, including the Mamdani-type controller. By expressing the fuzzy rules in different forms, each PLD structure is distinctly identified. For purpose of analysis, a linear-like fuzzy controller is defined. A simple analytical procedure is developed to deduce the closed form solution for a three-input fuzzy inference. This solution is used to identify the fuzzy PID action of each structure type in the dissociated form. The solution for single-input-single-output nonlinear fuzzy inferences illustrates the effect of nonlinearity tuning. The design of a fuzzy PID controller is then treated as a two-level tuning problem. The first level tunes the nonlinear PID gains and the second level tunes the linear gains, including scale factors of fuzzy variables. By assigning a minimum number of rules to each type, the linear and nonlinear gains are deduced and explicitly presented. The tuning characteristics of different fuzzy PID structures are evaluated with respect to their functional behaviors. The rule decoupled and one-input rule structures proposed in this paper provide greater flexibility and better functional properties than the conventional fuzzy PHD structures.

  10. Revised interim soil lead guidance for CERCLA sites and RCRA Corrective Action Facilities. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-14

    As part of the Superfund Administrative Improvements Initiative, this interim directive establishes a streamlined approach for determining protective levels for lead in soil at CERCLA sites and RCRA facilities that are subject to corrective action under RCRA section 3004(u) or 3008(h). This interim directive replaces all previous directives on soil lead cleanup for CERCLA and RCRA programs.

  11. Intentional Forgetting of Actions: Comparison of List-Method and Item-Method Directed Forgetting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahakyan, Lili; Foster, Nathaniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Performing action phrases (subject-performed tasks, SPTs) leads to better memory than verbal learning instructions (verbal tasks, VTs). In Experiments 1-3, the list-method directed forgetting design produced equivalent directed forgetting impairment for VTs and SPTs; however, directed forgetting enhancement emerged only for VTs, but not SPTs.…

  12. Testing of Action of Direct Flame on Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Valek, Jaroslav; Novosad, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The paper states results of experimental exposition of concrete test specimens to direct flame. Concrete test specimens made from various mixtures differing in the type of aggregate, binder, dispersed reinforcement, and technological procedure were subjected to thermal load. Physicomechanical and other properties of all test specimens were tested before exposition to open flame: density, compressive strength, flexural strength, moisture content, and surface appearance. The specimens were visually observed during exposition to open flame and changes were recorded. Exposed surface was photographically documented before thermal load and at 10-minute intervals. Development of temperature of the specimens was documented with a thermocamera. After exposition to thermal load and cooling down, concrete specimens were visually observed, network of cracks was photographically documented, and maximal depth of spalled area was measured. PMID:25830162

  13. Fathers Show Modifications of Infant-Directed Action Similar to that of Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Przednowek, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Mothers' actions are more enthusiastic, simple, and repetitive when demonstrating novel object properties to their infants than to adults, a behavioral modification called "infant-directed action" by Brand and colleagues (2002). The current study tested whether fathers also tailor their behavior when interacting with infants and whether this…

  14. Impact of semantic similarity in novel associations: Direct and indirect routes to action.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Scott N; Richards, Eric D; Desmarais, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    Actions produced in response to familiar objects are predominantly mediated by the visual structure of objects, and less so by their semantic associations. Choosing an action in response to an object tends to be faster than choosing the object's name, leading to the suggestion that there are direct links between the visual representations of objects and their actions. The relative contribution of semantics, however, is unclear when actions are produced in response to novel objects. To investigate the role of semantics when object-action associations are novel, we had participants learn to use and name novel objects and rehearse the object, action, and name associations over one week. Each object-action pair was associated with a label that was either semantically similar or semantically distinct. We found that semantic similarity only affected action and name production when the object associations were novel, suggesting that semantic information is recruited when actions are produced in response to novel objects. We also observed that the advantage to producing an action was absent when associations were novel, suggesting that practice is necessary for these direct links to develop.

  15. Action Video Games Improve Direction Discrimination of Parafoveal Translational Global Motion but Not Reaction Times.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Andrea; Boyce, Matthew; Ghin, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    Playing action video games enhances visual motion perception. However, there is psychophysical evidence that action video games do not improve motion sensitivity for translational global moving patterns presented in fovea. This study investigates global motion perception in action video game players and compares their performance to that of non-action video game players and non-video game players. Stimuli were random dot kinematograms presented in the parafovea. Observers discriminated the motion direction of a target random dot kinematogram presented in one of the four visual quadrants. Action video game players showed lower motion coherence thresholds than the other groups. However, when the task was performed at threshold, we did not find differences between groups in terms of distributions of reaction times. These results suggest that action video games improve visual motion sensitivity in the near periphery of the visual field, rather than speed response.

  16. 78 FR 75578 - Notice of Realty Action; Notice of Segregation and Proposed (Non-Competitive) Direct Sale of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... land totaling 60 acres adjacent to the Jim Bridger Power Plant landfill and located approximately 30..., Rock Springs, WY 82901-3447. Comments may also be emailed to BLM_WY_PacifiCorp_Landfill_Expansion@blm...Corp to expand the adjacent landfill. PacifiCorp's private lands surround three sides of the...

  17. 78 FR 76855 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Campbell County, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...The Bureau of Land Management proposes to sell on a non- competitive basis a parcel of public land totaling 4.15 acres in Campbell County, Wyoming, to the Craig G. and Peggy S. Means Revocable Trust under the provisions of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), for not less than the appraised fair market value of...

  18. 78 FR 46600 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land (N-91073) for Affordable Housing Purposes in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 to contact the above... Disposal Boundary Final Environmental Impact Statement and approved by Record of Decision on December 23, 2004. The BLM has completed a site specific Determination of National Environmental Act...

  19. 78 FR 32688 - Notice of Realty Action, Segregation Terminated, Direct Sale of Public Land in San Bernardino...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... States under the Act of August 30, 1890 (43 U.S.C 945). 2. Subject to a ROW for a buried fiber optic... buried fiber optic cable issued to AT&T under serial number CACA 21604. 4. A condition that...

  20. 77 FR 40897 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land in Harney County, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), as amended (43 U.S.C. 1713), and regulations at 43... including, oil and gas and geothermal minerals. Detailed information concerning the proposed land...

  1. 76 FR 68783 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct (Non-Competitive) Sale of Reversionary Interest in Benton County, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    .... SUMMARY: The reversionary interest held by the United States in the land described in SUPPLEMENTARY... CFR part 2710. The parcel is not needed for Federal purposes and the United States has no present interest in the property other than the reservation of the mineral interests to the United States, and...

  2. 77 FR 24978 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Washakie County, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), at no less than the appraised fair market value. DATES..., 2012, at the appraised market value of $55,000. The patent, if issued, will be subject to the following... business hours. Before including your address, phone number, email address, or other personal...

  3. 77 FR 31034 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive Direct Sale of Reversionary Interest Recreation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ..., as defined by Federal or State environmental laws; (e) other activities by which solid or hazardous substances or wastes, as defined by Federal and State environmental laws were generated, released, stored... States citizens 18 years of age or older; (2) A corporation subject to the laws of any State or of...

  4. 75 FR 38547 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Lands and Termination of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ...(s) or derivative(s) of a petroleum product, as defined by Federal or State environmental laws; of... petroleum product as defined by Federal or State environmental laws are generated, stored, used, or..., State, and local environmental laws and regulatory provisions, throughout the life of the...

  5. 78 FR 7810 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed (Non-Competitive) Direct Sale of Public Lands in Sheridan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...), Buffalo Field Office, 1425 Fort Street, Buffalo, WY 82834. Comments may also be emailed to buffalo_wymail@blm.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Claire Oliverius, Realty Specialist, BLM, Buffalo Field... County, Wyoming. The 1985 BLM Buffalo Resource Management Plan identifies these parcels of public land...

  6. 78 FR 53780 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Doña Ana County, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Marquess Street, Las Cruces, NM 88005. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Anthony Hom, Realty Specialist, at the address above, by telephone 575-525-4331, or by email at Anthony_Hom@blm.gov . Persons who use...

  7. 76 FR 16811 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Clara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... amended (43 U.S.C. 1713 and 1719). The parcels are described as follows: Mount Diablo Meridian Parcel No. 1, T. 10S., R. 1E., Sec. 3, lot 1. The area described contains 123.60 acres in Santa Clara County..., Hollister, California 95023, or phone (831) 630-5022. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following 3 parcels...

  8. 77 FR 51697 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... CFR Part 310 RIN 3084-AA98 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call Registry (the ``Registry'') as required by the Do-Not-Call Registry Fee Extension Act of 2007....

  9. 78 FR 53642 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... 3084-AA98 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call Registry (the ``Registry'') as required by the Do-Not-Call Registry Fee Extension Act of 2007....

  10. 76 FR 53636 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... CFR Part 310 RIN 3084-AA98 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees ] charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call Registry (the Registry as required by the Do-Not-Call Registry Fee Extension Act of 2007. DATES:...

  11. 75 FR 51934 - Telemarketing Sales Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction... amendments to the Telemarketing Sales Rule that address the telemarketing of debt relief services....

  12. The Representation of Object-Directed Action and Function Knowledge in the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanjing; Garcea, Frank E; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2016-04-01

    The appropriate use of everyday objects requires the integration of action and function knowledge. Previous research suggests that action knowledge is represented in frontoparietal areas while function knowledge is represented in temporal lobe regions. Here we used multivoxel pattern analysis to investigate the representation of object-directed action and function knowledge while participants executed pantomimes of familiar tool actions. A novel approach for decoding object knowledge was used in which classifiers were trained on one pair of objects and then tested on a distinct pair; this permitted a measurement of classification accuracy over and above object-specific information. Region of interest (ROI) analyses showed that object-directed actions could be decoded in tool-preferring regions of both parietal and temporal cortex, while no independently defined tool-preferring ROI showed successful decoding of object function. However, a whole-brain searchlight analysis revealed that while frontoparietal motor and peri-motor regions are engaged in the representation of object-directed actions, medial temporal lobe areas in the left hemisphere are involved in the representation of function knowledge. These results indicate that both action and function knowledge are represented in a topographically coherent manner that is amenable to study with multivariate approaches, and that the left medial temporal cortex represents knowledge of object function.

  13. Translational studies of goal-directed action as a framework for classifying deficits across psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kristi R.; Morris, Richard W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to learn contingencies between actions and outcomes in a dynamic environment is critical for flexible, adaptive behavior. Goal-directed actions adapt to changes in action-outcome contingencies as well as to changes in the reward-value of the outcome. When networks involved in reward processing and contingency learning are maladaptive, this fundamental ability can be lost, with detrimental consequences for decision-making. Impaired decision-making is a core feature in a number of psychiatric disorders, ranging from depression to schizophrenia. The argument can be developed, therefore, that seemingly disparate symptoms across psychiatric disorders can be explained by dysfunction within common decision-making circuitry. From this perspective, gaining a better understanding of the neural processes involved in goal-directed action, will allow a comparison of deficits observed across traditional diagnostic boundaries within a unified theoretical framework. This review describes the key processes and neural circuits involved in goal-directed decision-making using evidence from animal studies and human neuroimaging. Select studies are discussed to outline what we currently know about causal judgments regarding actions and their consequences, action-related reward evaluation, and, most importantly, how these processes are integrated in goal-directed learning and performance. Finally, we look at how adaptive decision-making is impaired across a range of psychiatric disorders and how deepening our understanding of this circuitry may offer insights into phenotypes and more targeted interventions. PMID:24904322

  14. EPA Takes Action to Protect the Public from an Unregistered Pesticide / EPA issues order to stop the sale of BioStorm and NanoStrike

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued an order to Nano Defense Solutions, Inc. in Saint Augustine, Fla. to stop the sale of BioStorm and NanoStrike. BioStorm and NanoStrike are products that are being marketed by th

  15. EPA Takes Action to Protect the Public from an Unregistered Pesticide/EPA issues order to stop the sale of OxiTitan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued an order to EcoActive Surfaces, Inc. in Pompano Beach, Fla.; WellShield, LLC in Boca Raton, Fla.; and, BioRelief, Inc. in Fort Lauderdale, Fla. to stop the sale, use or removal of

  16. Fine-Grained Analysis of Motionese: Eye Gaze, Object Exchanges, and Action Units in Infant-versus Adult-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Rebecca J.; Shallcross, Wendy L.; Sabatos, Maura G.; Massie, Kara Phaedra

    2007-01-01

    Mothers modify their actions when demonstrating objects to infants versus adults. Such modifications have been called infant-directed action (IDA) or "motionese" (Brand, Baldwin, & Ashburn, 2002). We investigated the IDA features of interactiveness and simplification by quantifying eye gaze, object exchanges, and action units enacted…

  17. Opposing history effect of preceding decision and action in the free choice of saccade direction.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Kei; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2014-08-15

    When we act voluntarily, we make a decision to do so prior to the actual execution. However, because of the strong tie between decision and action, it has been difficult to dissociate these two processes in an animal's free behavior. In the present study, we tried to characterize the differences in these processes on the basis of their unique history effect. Using simple eye movement tasks in which the direction of a saccade was either instructed by a computer or freely chosen by the subject, we found that the preceding decision and action had different effects on the animal's subsequent behavior. While choosing a direction (previous decision) produced a positive history effect that prompted the choice of the same saccade direction, making a saccadic response to a direction (previous action) produced a negative history effect that discouraged the monkey from choosing the same direction. This result suggests that the history effect in sequential behavior reported in previous studies was a mixture of these two different components. Future studies on decision-making need to consider the importance of the distinction between decision and action in animal behavior.

  18. The impact of direct-to-consumer advertised drugs on drug sales in the US and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Norey, Edward; Simone, Tessa M; Mousa, Shaker A

    2008-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of drugs has been suggested to be a factor in the increased burden of healthcare spending within the US. This review article analyses the pharmaceutical spending differences between the US and New Zealand, two nations that allow DTCA. The pharmaceutical spending burden of New Zealand and the US was compared by assessing the impact of heavily advertised drugs and their position and rank in the pharmaceutical spending of their respective nation. The US spends far more money on pharmaceuticals than New Zealand. It may appear that heavily advertised drugs in the US have a potentially larger impact on what is being prescribed and paid for. It is also probable that the differences in healthcare systems in each nation (free market vs socialized medicine) can have an influence on pharmaceutical spending. The great amount of money being spent on pharmaceuticals per capita in the US is a more complex issue than can be solved solely by targeting DTCA.

  19. Movement-related activity during goal-directed hand actions in the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Simone, Luciano; Rozzi, Stefano; Bimbi, Marco; Fogassi, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    Grasping actions require the integration of two neural processes, one enabling the transformation of object properties into corresponding motor acts, and the other involved in planning and controlling action execution on the basis of contextual information. The first process relies on parieto-premotor circuits, whereas the second is considered to be a prefrontal function. Up to now, the prefrontal cortex has been mainly investigated with conditional visuomotor tasks requiring a learned association between cues and behavioural output. To clarify the functional role of the prefrontal cortex in grasping actions, we recorded the activity of ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPF) neurons while monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performed tasks requiring reaching-grasping actions in different contextual conditions (in light and darkness, memory-guided, and in the absence of abstract learned rules). The results showed that the VLPF cortex contains neurons that are active during action execution (movement-related neurons). Some of them showed grip selectivity, and some also responded to object presentation. Most movement-related neurons discharged during action execution both with and without visual feedback, and this discharge typically did not change when the action was performed with object mnemonic information and in the absence of abstract rules. The findings of this study indicate that a population of VLPF neurons play a role in controlling goal-directed grasping actions in several contexts. This control is probably exerted within a wider network, involving parietal and premotor regions, where the role of VLPF movement-related neurons would be that of activating, on the basis of contextual information, the representation of the motor goal of the intended action (taking possession of an object) during action planning and execution.

  20. John porter lecture: waves of protest--direct action, deliberation, and diffusion.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lesley

    2015-02-01

    The book Direct Action, Deliberation and Diffusion: Collective Action After the WTO Protests in Seattle argues that the process of diffusion is dependent on social processes in the receiving context. The most important in social movements is an egalitarian and reflexive deliberation among diverse actors. The book traces the direct action tactics associated with the Seattle protests against the World Trade Organization in 1999 and how these spread to activists in Toronto and New York City. It shows how the structure of the political field, racial and class inequalities, identity boundaries, and organizational and conversational dynamics limited deliberation among activists, and thus limited the diffusion of the Seattle tactics. By constraining the spread of the Seattle tactics, this slowed the global justice movement's wave of protest. In this paper, I explore the application of and implications of this model of protest tactic diffusion to the recent Idle No More mobilizations.

  1. Direct depolarization and antidromic action potentials transiently suppress dendritic IPSPs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Morishita, W; Alger, B E

    2001-01-01

    Whole-cell current-clamp recordings were made from distal dendrites of rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. Following depolarization of the dendritic membrane by direct injection of current pulses or by back-propagating action potentials elicited by antidromic stimulation, evoked gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA(A)) receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were transiently suppressed. This suppression had properties similar to depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI): it was enhanced by carbachol, blocked by dendritic hyperpolarization sufficient to prevent action potential invasion, and reduced by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) application. Thus DSI or a DSI-like process can be recorded in CA1 distal dendrites. Moreover, localized application of TTX to stratum pyramidale blocked somatic action potentials and somatic IPSPs, but not dendritic IPSPs or DSI induced by direct dendritic depolarization, suggesting DSI is expressed in part in the dendrites. These data extend the potential physiological roles of DSI.

  2. 30 CFR 253.61 - When is a guarantor subject to direct action for claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Claims for Oil-Spill Removal Costs and Damages § 253.61 When is a guarantor subject to direct action for...., oil-spill discharge or substantial threat of the discharge of oil) that is subject to claims...

  3. Blazing the Trail: A New Direction in Youth Development & Leadership--Youth Call-to-Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzel, A.; LaVant, A.; Richards, C.

    2010-01-01

    In August 2007, more than 200 youth and adults came together in Washington D.C. to discuss what action steps should be done to ensure that young people are best prepared to move successfully from youth to adulthood. A major purpose of the event, called "Blazing the Trail: A New Direction in Youth Development & Leadership," was to talk about…

  4. Goal-Directed Action Control in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M; de Wit, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive behavior is a key characteristic of autism spectrum disorders. Our aim was to investigate the hypothesis that this abnormal behavioral repetition results from a tendency to over-rely on habits at the expense of flexible, goal-directed action. Twenty-four children with autism spectrum disorders and 24 age- and gender-matched controls…

  5. Counseling for the Transition to Adulthood as Joint, Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard A.; Marshall, Sheila K.; Foulkes, Kristen; Haber, Carla; Lee, Celine S. M.; Penner, Carey; Rostram, Hajara

    2011-01-01

    Transition is important in the career literature as it identifies times at which people are often likely to consult counselors about issues for which they need help. However, the counseling literature has not provided a conceptualization of, or research on, the joint, goal-directed actions and projects of the counselor and the client, which…

  6. Should I stay or should I go? Conceptual underpinnings of goal-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    All actions, even the simplest like moving an arm to grasp a pen, are associated with energy costs. Thus all mobile organisms possess the ability to evaluate resources and select those behaviors that are most likely to lead to the greatest accrual of valuable items (reward) in the near or, especially in the case of humans, distant future. The evaluation process is performed at all possible stages of the series of decisions that lead to the building of a goal-directed action or to its suppression. This is because all animals have a limited amount of energy and resources; to survive and be able to reproduce they have to minimize the costs and maximize the outcomes of their actions. These computations are at the root of behavioral flexibility. Two executive functions play a major role in generating flexible behaviors: (i) the ability to predict future outcomes of goal-directed actions; and (ii) the ability to cancel them when they are unlikely to accomplish valuable results. These two processes operate continuously during the entire course of a movement: during its genesis, its planning and even its execution, so that the motor output can be modulated or suppressed at any time before its execution. In this review, functional interactions of the extended neural network subserving generation and inhibition of goal-directed movements will be outlined, leading to the intriguing hypothesis that the performance of actions and their suppression are not specified by independent sets of brain regions. Rather, it will be proposed that acting and stopping are functions emerging from specific interactions between largely overlapping brain regions, whose activity is intimately linked (directly or indirectly) to the evaluations of pros and cons of an action. Such mechanism would allow the brain to perform as a highly efficient and flexible system, as different functions could be computed exploiting the same components operating in different configurations. PMID:25404898

  7. Should I stay or should I go? Conceptual underpinnings of goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    All actions, even the simplest like moving an arm to grasp a pen, are associated with energy costs. Thus all mobile organisms possess the ability to evaluate resources and select those behaviors that are most likely to lead to the greatest accrual of valuable items (reward) in the near or, especially in the case of humans, distant future. The evaluation process is performed at all possible stages of the series of decisions that lead to the building of a goal-directed action or to its suppression. This is because all animals have a limited amount of energy and resources; to survive and be able to reproduce they have to minimize the costs and maximize the outcomes of their actions. These computations are at the root of behavioral flexibility. Two executive functions play a major role in generating flexible behaviors: (i) the ability to predict future outcomes of goal-directed actions; and (ii) the ability to cancel them when they are unlikely to accomplish valuable results. These two processes operate continuously during the entire course of a movement: during its genesis, its planning and even its execution, so that the motor output can be modulated or suppressed at any time before its execution. In this review, functional interactions of the extended neural network subserving generation and inhibition of goal-directed movements will be outlined, leading to the intriguing hypothesis that the performance of actions and their suppression are not specified by independent sets of brain regions. Rather, it will be proposed that acting and stopping are functions emerging from specific interactions between largely overlapping brain regions, whose activity is intimately linked (directly or indirectly) to the evaluations of pros and cons of an action. Such mechanism would allow the brain to perform as a highly efficient and flexible system, as different functions could be computed exploiting the same components operating in different configurations.

  8. The Feeling of Action Tendencies: On the Emotional Regulation of Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review the nature of the functional and causal relationship between neurophysiologically/psychologically generated states of emotional feeling and action tendencies and extrapolate a novel perspective. Emotion theory, over the past century and beyond, has tended to regard feeling and action tendency as independent phenomena: attempts to outline the functional and causal relationship that exists between them have been framed therein. Classically, such relationships have been viewed as unidirectional, but an argument for bidirectionality rooted in a dynamic systems perspective has gained strength in recent years whereby the feeling–action tendency relationship is viewed as a composite whole. On the basis of our review of somatic–visceral theories of feelings, we argue that feelings are grounded upon neural-dynamic representations (elevated and stable activation patterns) of action tendency. Such representations amount to predictions updated by cognitive and bodily feedback. Specifically, we view emotional feelings as minimalist predictions of the action tendency (what the agent is physiologically and cognitively primed to do) in a given situation. The essence of this point is captured by our exposition of action tendency prediction–feedback loops which we consider, above all, in the context of emotion regulation, and in particular, of emotional regulation of goal-directed behavior. The perspective outlined may be of use to emotion theorists, computational modelers, and roboticists. PMID:22207854

  9. How to Build an Intentional Android: Infants' Imitation of a Robot's Goal-Directed Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itakura, Shoji; Ishida, Hiraku; Kanda, Takayuki; Shimada, Yohko; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether young children are able to imitate a robot's goal-directed actions. Children (24-35 months old) viewed videos showing a robot attempting to manipulate an object (e.g., putting beads inside a cup) but failing to achieve its goal (e.g., beads fell outside the cup). In 1 video, the robot made eye contact with a human…

  10. Observing Grasping Actions Directed to Emotion-Laden Objects: Effects upon Corticospinal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Campos, Anaelli A.; Saunier, Ghislain; Della-Maggiore, Valeria; De Oliveira, Laura A. S.; Rodrigues, Erika C.; Vargas, Claudia D.

    2016-01-01

    The motor system is recruited whenever one executes an action as well as when one observes the same action being executed by others. Although it is well established that emotion modulates the motor system, the effect of observing other individuals acting in an emotional context is particularly elusive. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect induced by the observation of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects upon corticospinal excitability (CSE). Participants classified video-clips depicting the right-hand of an actor grasping emotion-laden objects. Twenty video-clips differing in terms of valence but balanced in arousal level were selected. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were then recorded from the first dorsal interosseous using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while the participants observed the selected emotional video-clips. During the video-clip presentation, TMS pulses were randomly applied at one of two different time points of grasping: (1) maximum grip aperture, and (2) object contact time. CSE was higher during the observation of grasping directed to unpleasant objects compared to pleasant ones. These results indicate that when someone observes an action of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects, the effect of the object valence promotes a specific modulation over the motor system. PMID:27625602

  11. Goal-directed action control in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Hilde M; de Wit, Sanne

    2014-05-01

    Repetitive behavior is a key characteristic of autism spectrum disorders. Our aim was to investigate the hypothesis that this abnormal behavioral repetition results from a tendency to over-rely on habits at the expense of flexible, goal-directed action. Twenty-four children with autism spectrum disorders and 24 age- and gender-matched controls (8-12 years) initially learned to give specific responses to different pictorial stimuli in order to gain valuable outcomes. Subsequently, in the "slips-of-action" test, some of these outcomes were no longer valuable. Children needed to refrain from responding when stimuli were shown that signaled the availability of those outcomes while continuing to respond for the still-valuable outcomes. Reliance on habits should lead to "slips of action" toward no longer valuable outcomes. Therefore, the children's ability to respond selectively for still-valuable outcomes provides a measure of relative habitual versus goal-directed control. Two additional tasks were included to control for general task characteristics (i.e. working memory and inhibition). Children with autism spectrum disorders learned equally well as controls and were not impaired at flexibly adjusting their behavior to devaluation of the outcomes or stimuli. We found no evidence for a disruption in the balance between goal-directed and habitual behavioral control in children with autism spectrum disorders.

  12. Enactment versus observation: item-specific and relational processing in goal-directed action sequences (and lists of single actions).

    PubMed

    Schult, Janette; von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C

    2014-01-01

    What are the memory-related consequences of learning actions (such as "apply the patch") by enactment during study, as compared to action observation? Theories converge in postulating that enactment encoding increases item-specific processing, but not the processing of relational information. Typically, in the laboratory enactment encoding is studied for lists of unrelated single actions in which one action execution has no overarching purpose or relation with other actions. In contrast, real-life actions are usually carried out with the intention to achieve such a purpose. When actions are embedded in action sequences, relational information provides efficient retrieval cues. We contrasted memory for single actions with memory for action sequences in three experiments. We found more reliance on relational processing for action-sequences than single actions. To what degree can this relational information be used after enactment versus after the observation of an actor? We found indicators of superior relational processing after observation than enactment in ordered pair recall (Experiment 1A) and in emerging subjective organization of repeated recall protocols (recall runs 2-3, Experiment 2). An indicator of superior item-specific processing after enactment compared to observation was recognition (Experiment 1B, Experiment 2). Similar net recall suggests that observation can be as good a learning strategy as enactment. We discuss possible reasons why these findings only partly converge with previous research and theorizing.

  13. Enactment versus Observation: Item-Specific and Relational Processing in Goal-Directed Action Sequences (and Lists of Single Actions)

    PubMed Central

    Schult, Janette; von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C.

    2014-01-01

    What are the memory-related consequences of learning actions (such as “apply the patch”) by enactment during study, as compared to action observation? Theories converge in postulating that enactment encoding increases item-specific processing, but not the processing of relational information. Typically, in the laboratory enactment encoding is studied for lists of unrelated single actions in which one action execution has no overarching purpose or relation with other actions. In contrast, real-life actions are usually carried out with the intention to achieve such a purpose. When actions are embedded in action sequences, relational information provides efficient retrieval cues. We contrasted memory for single actions with memory for action sequences in three experiments. We found more reliance on relational processing for action-sequences than single actions. To what degree can this relational information be used after enactment versus after the observation of an actor? We found indicators of superior relational processing after observation than enactment in ordered pair recall (Experiment 1A) and in emerging subjective organization of repeated recall protocols (recall runs 2–3, Experiment 2). An indicator of superior item-specific processing after enactment compared to observation was recognition (Experiment 1B, Experiment 2). Similar net recall suggests that observation can be as good a learning strategy as enactment. We discuss possible reasons why these findings only partly converge with previous research and theorizing. PMID:24927279

  14. An Analysis of Sales Training Effectiveness within the Housing Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronbinson, John Cheney, IV

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performance outcomes of a sales training program. This study is unique in a number of ways. First, it focuses on an under-studied area (sales training effectiveness). Second, it is directed at the evaluation of sales training programs completed by Realtors within the housing industry. Finally, it…

  15. Encoding the Goal of an Object-Directed but Uncompleted Reaching Action in 6- and 9-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daum, Moritz M.; Prinz, Wolfgang; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2008-01-01

    Infants start to interpret completed human actions as goal-directed in the second half of the first year of life. In a series of three studies, the understanding of a goal-directed but uncompleted action was investigated in 6- and 9-month-old infants using a preferential looking paradigm. Infants saw the video of an actor's reaching movement…

  16. Direct and indirect cardiovascular actions of cathinone and MDMA in the anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Alsufyani, Hadeel A; Docherty, James R

    2015-07-05

    The stimulants cathinone (from Khat leaves) and methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine (MDMA) produce adrenoceptor mediated tachycardia and vasopressor actions that may be the result of direct receptor stimulation, actions on the noradrenaline transporter, and/or displacement of noradrenaline from nerve terminals. Effects of cathinone or MDMA were compared with those of the indirect sympathomimetic tyramine. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized with pentobarbitone for blood pressure and heart rate recording. Some rats were sympathectomised by treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine. In the anaesthetised rat, cathinone, MDMA and tyramine (all 0.001-1 mg/kg) produced marked tachycardia, tyramine produced marked pressor responses and MDMA produced small pressor responses. The tachycardia to cathinone and MDMA was almost abolished by propranolol (1mg/kg). Pretreatment with cocaine (1mg/kg) did not significantly affect the tachycardia to cathinone or MDMA, but reduced the response to tyramine. However, in sympathectomised rats, the tachycardia to cathinone or MDMA was markedly attenuated, but the tachycardia to tyramine was only partially reduced. Blood pressure effects of tyramine and MDMA were also markedly attenuated by sympathectomy. The results demonstrate firstly that cocaine may not be the most suitable agent for assessing direct versus indirect agonism in cardiovascular studies. Secondly, the use of chemical sympathectomy achieved the desired goal of demonstrating that cardiac β-adrenoceptor mediated actions of cathinone and MDMA are probably largely indirect.

  17. Modeling Geometric-Temporal Context With Directional Pyramid Co-Occurrence for Action Recognition.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chunfeng; Li, Xi; Hu, Weiming; Ling, Haibin; Maybank, Stephen J

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new geometric-temporal representation for visual action recognition based on local spatio-temporal features. First, we propose a modified covariance descriptor under the log-Euclidean Riemannian metric to represent the spatio-temporal cuboids detected in the video sequences. Compared with previously proposed covariance descriptors, our descriptor can be measured and clustered in Euclidian space. Second, to capture the geometric-temporal contextual information, we construct a directional pyramid co-occurrence matrix (DPCM) to describe the spatio-temporal distribution of the vector-quantized local feature descriptors extracted from a video. DPCM characterizes the co-occurrence statistics of local features as well as the spatio-temporal positional relationships among the concurrent features. These statistics provide strong descriptive power for action recognition. To use DPCM for action recognition, we propose a directional pyramid co-occurrence matching kernel to measure the similarity of videos. The proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance and improves on the recognition performance of the bag-of-visual-words (BOVWs) models by a large margin on six public data sets. For example, on the KTH data set, it achieves 98.78% accuracy while the BOVW approach only achieves 88.06%. On both Weizmann and UCF CIL data sets, the highest possible accuracy of 100% is achieved.

  18. The direct perception hypothesis: perceiving the intention of another’s action hinders its precise imitation

    PubMed Central

    Froese, Tom; Leavens, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We argue that imitation is a learning response to unintelligible actions, especially to social conventions. Various strands of evidence are converging on this conclusion, but further progress has been hampered by an outdated theory of perceptual experience. Comparative psychology continues to be premised on the doctrine that humans and non-human primates only perceive others’ physical “surface behavior,” while mental states are perceptually inaccessible. However, a growing consensus in social cognition research accepts the direct perception hypothesis: primarily we see what others aim to do; we do not infer it from their motions. Indeed, physical details are overlooked – unless the action is unintelligible. On this basis we hypothesize that apes’ propensity to copy the goal of an action, rather than its precise means, is largely dependent on its perceived intelligibility. Conversely, children copy means more often than adults and apes because, uniquely, much adult human behavior is completely unintelligible to unenculturated observers due to the pervasiveness of arbitrary social conventions, as exemplified by customs, rituals, and languages. We expect the propensity to imitate to be inversely correlated with the familiarity of cultural practices, as indexed by age and/or socio-cultural competence. The direct perception hypothesis thereby helps to parsimoniously explain the most important findings of imitation research, including children’s over-imitation and other species-typical and age-related variations. PMID:24600413

  19. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  20. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  1. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  2. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  3. Effects of action observation on corticospinal excitability: Muscle specificity, direction, and timing of the mirror response.

    PubMed

    Naish, Katherine R; Houston-Price, Carmel; Bremner, Andrew J; Holmes, Nicholas P

    2014-11-01

    Many human behaviours and pathologies have been attributed to the putative mirror neuron system, a neural system that is active during both the observation and execution of actions. While there are now a very large number of papers on the mirror neuron system, variations in the methods and analyses employed by researchers mean that the basic characteristics of the mirror response are not clear. This review focuses on three important aspects of the mirror response, as measured by modulations in corticospinal excitability: (1) muscle specificity; (2) direction; and (3) timing of modulation. We focus mainly on electromyographic (EMG) data gathered following single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), because this method provides precise information regarding these three aspects of the response. Data from paired-pulse TMS paradigms and peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) are also considered when we discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the mirror response. In this systematic review of the literature, we examine the findings of 85 TMS and PNS studies of the human mirror response, and consider the limitations and advantages of the different methodological approaches these have adopted in relation to discrepancies between their findings. We conclude by proposing a testable model of how action observation modulates corticospinal excitability in humans. Specifically, we propose that action observation elicits an early, non-specific facilitation of corticospinal excitability (at around 90ms from action onset), followed by a later modulation of activity specific to the muscles involved in the observed action (from around 200ms). Testing this model will greatly advance our understanding of the mirror mechanism and provide a more stable grounding on which to base inferences about its role in human behaviour.

  4. Planning Ahead: Object-Directed Sequential Actions Decoded from Human Frontoparietal and Occipitotemporal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gallivan, Jason P.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.; Randall Flanagan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Object-manipulation tasks (e.g., drinking from a cup) typically involve sequencing together a series of distinct motor acts (e.g., reaching toward, grasping, lifting, and transporting the cup) in order to accomplish some overarching goal (e.g., quenching thirst). Although several studies in humans have investigated the neural mechanisms supporting the planning of visually guided movements directed toward objects (such as reaching or pointing), only a handful have examined how manipulatory sequences of actions—those that occur after an object has been grasped—are planned and represented in the brain. Here, using event-related functional MRI and pattern decoding methods, we investigated the neural basis of real-object manipulation using a delayed-movement task in which participants first prepared and then executed different object-directed action sequences that varied either in their complexity or final spatial goals. Consistent with previous reports of preparatory brain activity in non-human primates, we found that activity patterns in several frontoparietal areas reliably predicted entire action sequences in advance of movement. Notably, we found that similar sequence-related information could also be decoded from pre-movement signals in object- and body-selective occipitotemporal cortex (OTC). These findings suggest that both frontoparietal and occipitotemporal circuits are engaged in transforming object-related information into complex, goal-directed movements. PMID:25576538

  5. Anticipatory synergy adjustments: Preparing a quick action in an unknown direction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tao; Wu, Yen-Hsun; Bartsch, Angelo; Cuadra, Cristian; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    We studied a mechanism of feed-forward control of a multi-finger action, namely anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) prior to a quick force correction in response to a change in the gain of the visual feedback. Synergies were defined as co-varied across trials adjustments of commands to fingers that stabilized (decreased variance of) the total force. We hypothesized that ASAs would be highly sensitive to prior information about the timing of the action but not to information on its direction, i.e., on whether the gain would go up or down. The subjects produced accurate constant total force by pressing with four fingers on individual force sensors. The feedback signal could change from veridical (the sum of finger forces) to modified, with the middle finger force multiplied by 0.2 or by 1.8. The timing of the gain change and its direction could be known or unknown to the subject in advance. When the timing of the gain change was known, ASA was seen as a drop in the synergy index starting about 250–300 ms prior to the first visible correction of the total force. When the gain change timing was unknown, ASAs started much later, less than 100 ms prior to the total force correction. The magnitude of synergy index changes was significantly larger under the “time known” conditions. Information on the direction of the visual gain change had no effect on the ASA timing, while the ASA magnitude was somewhat larger when this information was not available to the subject. After the total force correction, the synergy index was significantly larger for the force signal computed using the modified gain values as compared to the synergy index value for the actual total force. We conclude that ASAs represent an important feed-forward motor control mechanism that allows preparing for a quick action even when the direction of the action is not known in advance. The results emphasize the subtle control of multi-finger synergies that are specific to the exact contributions of

  6. 40 CFR 73.73 - Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales, and Independent Power Producers Written Guarantee § 73.73 Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of... consecutive calendar years, fewer than 20 percent of the allowances available in the subaccount for...

  7. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-27

    This publication contains the 1994 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the sixth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA)for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1994 edition marks the 11th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Distillate and residual fuel oil sales continued to move in opposite directions during 1994. Distillate sales rose for the third year in a row, due to a growing economy. Residual fuel oil sales, on the other hand, declined for the sixth year in a row, due to competitive natural gas prices, and a warmer heating season than in 1993. Distillate fuel oil sales increased 4.4 percent while residual fuel oil sales declined 1.6 percent. Kerosene sales decreased 1.4 percent in 1994.

  8. The sales learning curve.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Mark; Holloway, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    When a company launches a new product into a new market, the temptation is to immediately ramp up sales force capacity to gain customers as quickly as possible. But hiring a full sales force too early just causes the firm to burn through cash and fail to meet revenue expectations. Before it can sell an innovative product efficiently, the entire organization needs to learn how customers will acquire and use it, a process the authors call the sales learning curve. The concept of a learning curve is well understood in manufacturing. Employees transfer knowledge and experience back and forth between the production line and purchasing, manufacturing, engineering, planning, and operations. The sales learning curve unfolds similarly through the give-and-take between the company--marketing, sales, product support, and product development--and its customers. As customers adopt the product, the firm modifies both the offering and the processes associated with making and selling it. Progress along the manufacturing curve is measured by tracking cost per unit: The more a firm learns about the manufacturing process, the more efficient it becomes, and the lower the unit cost goes. Progress along the sales learning curve is measured in an analogous way: The more a company learns about the sales process, the more efficient it becomes at selling, and the higher the sales yield. As the sales yield increases, the sales learning process unfolds in three distinct phases--initiation, transition, and execution. Each phase requires a different size--and kind--of sales force and represents a different stage in a company's production, marketing, and sales strategies. Adjusting those strategies as the firm progresses along the sales learning curve allows managers to plan resource allocation more accurately, set appropriate expectations, avoid disastrous cash shortfalls, and reduce both the time and money required to turn a profit.

  9. Direction-Selective Circuitry in Rat Retina Develops Independently of GABAergic, Cholinergic and Action Potential Activity

    PubMed Central

    He, Shigang

    2011-01-01

    The ON-OFF direction selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) in the mammalian retina code image motion by responding much more strongly to movement in one direction. They do so by receiving inhibitory inputs selectively from a particular sector of processes of the overlapping starburst amacrine cells, a type of retinal interneuron. The mechanisms of establishment and regulation of this selective connection are unknown. Here, we report that in the rat retina, the morphology, physiology of the ON-OFF DSGCs and the circuitry for coding motion directions develop normally with pharmacological blockade of GABAergic, cholinergic activity and/or action potentials for over two weeks from birth. With recent results demonstrating light independent formation of the retinal DS circuitry, our results strongly suggest the formation of the circuitry, i.e., the connections between the second and third order neurons in the visual system, can be genetically programmed, although emergence of direction selectivity in the visual cortex appears to require visual experience. PMID:21573161

  10. Understanding what your sales manager is up against.

    PubMed

    Trailer, Barry; Dickie, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Every year, the research firm CSO Insights publishes the results of its Sales Performance Optimization survey, an online questionnaire given to more than 1,000 sales executives worldwide that seeks to examine the effectiveness of key sales practices and metrics. In this article, two partners from CSO provide the 2005 and 2006 survey highlights, which describe the challenges today's sales organizations face and how they're responding. An overall theme is the degree to which the buy cycle has gotten out of sync with the sell cycle. Buyers have always had a buy cycle, starting at the point they perceive a need. Sellers have always had a sales cycle, starting at the point they spot a prospect. Traditionally, the two have dovetailed--either because the seller created the buyer's perception of need or because the buyer pursued a need by contacting a salesperson (often for product information). Now the buy cycle is often well under way before the seller is even aware there is a cycle--in part because of the information asymmetry created by the Internet. The implications for managing a sales organization are profound in that sales training must now address how reps handle an environment in which buyers have more knowledge than they do. The authors offer evidence that sales executives are taking--and should take--aggressive action to train and retain sales talent, manage the sales process, and use sales support technologies to meet the challenges of this new environment.

  11. The Neural Representation of Goal-Directed Actions and Outcomes in the Ventral Striatum's Olfactory Tubercle

    PubMed Central

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    2016-01-01

    The ventral striatum is critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. The many cellular, afferent, and efferent similarities between the ventral striatum's nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle (OT) suggests the distributed involvement of neurons within the ventral striatopallidal complex in motivated behaviors. Although the nucleus accumbens has an established role in representing goal-directed actions and their outcomes, it is not known whether this function is localized within the nucleus accumbens or distributed also within the OT. Answering such a fundamental question will expand our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying motivated behaviors. Here we address whether the OT encodes natural reinforcers and serves as a substrate for motivational information processing. In recordings from mice engaged in a novel water-motivated instrumental task, we report that OT neurons modulate their firing rate during initiation and progression of the instrumental licking behavior, with some activity being internally generated and preceding the first lick. We further found that as motivational drive decreases throughout a session, the activity of OT neurons is enhanced earlier relative to the behavioral action. Additionally, OT neurons discriminate the types and magnitudes of fluid reinforcers. Together, these data suggest that the processing of reward information and the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors is a global principle of the ventral striatum and have important implications for understanding the neural systems subserving addiction and mood disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed behaviors are widespread among animals and underlie complex behaviors ranging from food intake, social behavior, and even pathological conditions, such as gambling and drug addiction. The ventral striatum is a neural system critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. Here we

  12. 78 FR 42758 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of... $250 million. This proposed sale will contribute to the foreign policy and national security of...

  13. 77 FR 14767 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of.... This proposed sale will contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States...

  14. 77 FR 64096 - Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... Service is seeking comments from all interested individuals and organizations on the revision with changes of the currently approved information collection 0596-0066 Advertised Timber for Sale....

  15. 77 FR 40630 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal reserves in the Wadge Seam described below in Routt County, Colorado, will be offered...

  16. 77 FR 21803 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal reserves in the Elk... receive a reply during normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This coal lease sale is...

  17. 76 FR 63951 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Utah AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that that certain coal resources in the Dry Canyon Coal Tract described below in Carbon County, Utah, will be offered...

  18. 76 FR 64099 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the South Hilight Field Coal Tract described below in Campbell County,...

  19. 78 FR 2424 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Utah AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the United... certain coal resources described below as the Dry Canyon B Tract (UTU-89060) in Carbon County, Utah,...

  20. 76 FR 35465 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the Caballo West Coal Tract described below in Campbell County, Wyoming, will...

  1. Advancing lignocellulose bioconversion through direct assessment of enzyme action on insoluble substrates.

    PubMed

    Goacher, Robyn E; Selig, Michael J; Master, Emma R

    2014-06-01

    Microbial utilization of lignocellulose from plant cell walls is integral to carbon cycling on Earth. Correspondingly, secreted enzymes that initiate lignocellulose depolymerization serve a crucial step in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Genome and metagenome sequencing efforts that span the past decade reveal the diversity of enzymes that have evolved to transform lignocellulose from wood, herbaceous plants and grasses. Nevertheless, there are relatively few examples where 'omic' technologies have identified novel enzyme activities or combinations thereof that dramatically improve the economics of lignocellulose bioprocessing and utilization. A likely factor contributing to the discrepancy between sequence-based enzyme discovery and enzyme application is the common practice to screen enzyme candidates based on activity measurements using soluble model compounds. In this context, the development and application of imaging, physicochemical, and spectromicroscopic techniques that allow direct assessment of enzyme action on relevant lignocellulosic substrates is reviewed.

  2. 78 FR 36571 - Extension of Post-Sale Evaluation Period for Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area Lease Sale 227

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Extension of Post-Sale Evaluation Period for Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area Lease Sale 227 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice to...-2710. Dated: June 11, 2013. Walter D. Cruickshank, Deputy Director, Bureau of Ocean and...

  3. Some Advertising Sales Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, C. Dennis

    1980-01-01

    Enumerates information that advertising sales people for school newspapers should have before they call on potential customers. Includes ideas on what to know about a number of items, including the publication, readers and nonreaders, advertising, sales opportunities, prospects, prospects' problems, shopping factors, and stores' images. (TJ)

  4. Innovation in Sales Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The British Gas Corporation has formulated and refined the incident process of training into their own method, which they call developing case study. Sales trainees learn indoor and outdoor sales techniques for selling central heating through self-taught case studies. (DS)

  5. SALE-SPRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, H.

    1981-03-01

    The SALE code is modified to permit the injection and flow of droplets through a channel containing obstacles. The droplets are assumed not to alter the fluid flow nor to interact with each other. An UPDATE package to alter the basic SALE code for a particular obstacle configuration is included. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  6. DIRECT-ACTING, DNA-DAMAGING AS (III)-METHYLATED SPECIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A CARCINOGENIC MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct-acting, DNA-damaging As (III)-methylated species: implications for a carcinogenic . mechanism of action of arsenicals

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs, arsenite and arsenate) has been thought to act as a carcinogen without reacting directly with DNA; neither iAs nor the As(...

  7. 75 FR 55269 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... CFR Part 310 RIN 3084-AA98 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... that there will be no increase in the fees charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Do-Not-Call Registry Fee Extension Act of 2007 (Pub. L. 110-188, 122 Stat....

  8. 78 FR 22848 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... Quantities of Articles or Services under Consideration for Purchase: 100 AIM-120C7 Advanced Medium Range Air... support of a Direct Commercial Sale of new F-15SG aircraft. Also included: containers, spare and repair... (CMBRE-Plus) in support of a Direct Commercial Sale of new F-15SG aircraft. Also included:...

  9. 38 CFR 36.4524 - Sale of loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of loans. 36.4524 Section 36.4524 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Direct Loans § 36.4524 Sale of loans. In the event a direct loan is purchased from the...

  10. Preventing the stress-induced shift from goal-directed to habit action with a β-adrenergic antagonist.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Höffken, Oliver; Tegenthoff, Martin; Wolf, Oliver T

    2011-11-23

    Stress modulates instrumental action in favor of habit processes that encode the association between a response and preceding stimuli and at the expense of goal-directed processes that learn the association between an action and the motivational value of the outcome. Here, we asked whether this stress-induced shift from goal-directed to habit action is dependent on noradrenergic activation and may therefore be blocked by a β-adrenoceptor antagonist. To this end, healthy men and women were administered a placebo or the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol before they underwent a stress or a control procedure. Shortly after the stress or control procedure, participants were trained in two instrumental actions that led to two distinct food outcomes. After training, one of the food outcomes was selectively devalued by feeding participants to satiety with that food. A subsequent extinction test indicated whether instrumental behavior was goal-directed or habitual. As expected, stress after placebo rendered participants' behavior insensitive to the change in the value of the outcome and thus habitual. After propranolol intake, however, stressed participants behaved, same as controls, goal-directed, suggesting that propranolol blocked the stress-induced bias toward habit behavior. Our findings show that the shift from goal-directed to habitual control of instrumental action under stress necessitates noradrenergic activation and could have important clinical implications, particularly for addictive disorders.

  11. Decreasing Striatopallidal Pathway Function Enhances Motivation by Energizing the Initiation of Goal-Directed Action

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho Poyraz, Fernanda; Holzner, Eva; Bailey, Matthew R.; Meszaros, Jozsef; Kenney, Lindsay; Kheirbek, Mazen A.

    2016-01-01

    Altered dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum has been associated with abnormal motivation in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Here, we tested whether motivational deficits observed in mice with upregulated D2Rs (D2R-OEdev mice) are reversed by decreasing function of the striatopallidal “no-go” pathway. To this end, we expressed the Gαi-coupled designer receptor hM4D in adult striatopallidal neurons and activated the receptor with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Using a head-mounted miniature microscope we confirmed with calcium imaging in awake mice that hM4D activation by CNO inhibits striatopallidal function measured as disinhibited downstream activity in the globus pallidus. Mice were then tested in three operant tasks that address motivated behavior, the progressive ratio task, the progressive hold-down task, and outcome devaluation. Decreasing striatopallidal function in the dorsomedial striatum or nucleus accumbens core enhanced motivation in D2R-OEdev mice and control littermates. This effect was due to increased response initiation but came at the cost of goal-directed efficiency. Moreover, response vigor and the sensitivity to changes in reward value were not altered. Chronic activation of hM4D by administering CNO for 2 weeks in drinking water did not affect motivation due to a tolerance effect. However, the acute effect of CNO on motivation was reinstated after discontinuing chronic treatment for 48 h. Used as a therapeutic approach, striatopallidal inhibition should consider the risk of impairing goal-directed efficiency and behavioral desensitization. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Motivation involves a directional component that allows subjects to efficiently select the behavior that will lead to an optimal outcome and an activational component that initiates and maintains the vigor and persistence of actions. Striatal output pathways modulate motivated behavior, but it remains unknown how these pathways regulate specific

  12. Marketing/Sales Students' Understanding of What Counts as Sales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshower, Leon; Gupta, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    Improper sales revenue recognition is the single largest issue contributing to financial restatements. Understanding and applying the rules of sales revenue recognition is not just an accounting problem; it is a marketing problem, too. Thus, it is important that the sales force has a basic understanding of the rules of sales recognition and be…

  13. They Sell Skulls Online?! A Review of Internet Sales of Human Skulls on eBay and the Laws in Place to Restrict Sales.

    PubMed

    Halling, Christine L; Seidemann, Ryan M

    2016-09-01

    Internet sales of human remains occur despite the existence of laws prohibiting such action in most jurisdictions. The most popular public platform for online sales, eBay, allows users to postskeletal material for sale, largely anonymously and without much fear of legal repercussions. This survey of skeletal sales was conducted 10 years after the first article published about online human remains sales. A review of current laws reveals that, while many states have laws that restrict any sale of human remains, those laws have questionable deterrent effect. Assessing the skeletal material posted for sale provides law enforcement agencies with a necessary starting point to curtail the sale of human remains through enforcement of existing laws. Ultimately, the goal is to stem the commodification of such items and to recover skeletal material, especially that which may be of archaeological or forensic significance, and provide the proper final disposition for such material.

  14. 77 FR 29682 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Central Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 216/222

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of a Record of Decision (ROD) on a Final... and Gas Lease Sale: 2012 Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sale 216/222 Authority: This NOA...

  15. Nutrient Sensor in the Brain Directs the Action of the Brain-Gut Axis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dus, Monica; Sih-Yu Lai, Jason; Gunapala, Keith M.; Min, Soohong; Tayler, Timothy D.; Hergarden, Anne C.; Geraud, Eliot; Joseph, Christina M.; Suh, Greg S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Animals can detect and consume nutritive sugars without the influence of taste. However, the identity of the taste-independent nutrient sensor and the mechanism by which animals respond to the nutritional value of sugar are unclear. Here, we report that six neurosecretory cells in the Drosophila brain that produce Diuretic hormone 44 (Dh44), a homologue of the mammalian corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), were specifically activated by nutritive sugars. Flies in which the activity of these neurons or the expression of Dh44 was disrupted failed to select nutritive sugars. Manipulation of the function of Dh44 receptors had a similar effect. Notably, artificial activation of Dh44 receptor-1 neurons resulted in proboscis extensions, and frequent episodes of excretion. Conversely, reduced Dh44 activity led to decreased excretion. Together, these actions facilitate ingestion and digestion of nutritive foods. We propose that the Dh44 system directs the detection and consumption of nutritive sugars through a positive feedback loop. PMID:26074004

  16. Adaptive fuzzy logic controller with direct action type structures for InnoSAT attitude control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakri, F. A.; Mashor, M. Y.; Sharun, S. M.; Bibi Sarpinah, S. N.; Abu Bakar, Z.

    2016-10-01

    This study proposes an adaptive fuzzy controller for attitude control system (ACS) of Innovative Satellite (InnoSAT) based on direct action type structure. In order to study new methods used in satellite attitude control, this paper presents three structures of controllers: Fuzzy PI, Fuzzy PD and conventional Fuzzy PID. The objective of this work is to compare the time response and tracking performance among the three different structures of controllers. The parameters of controller were tuned on-line by adjustment mechanism, which was an approach similar to a PID error that could minimize errors between actual and model reference output. This paper also presents a Model References Adaptive Control (MRAC) as a control scheme to control time varying systems where the performance specifications were given in terms of the reference model. All the controllers were tested using InnoSAT system under some operating conditions such as disturbance, varying gain, measurement noise and time delay. In conclusion, among all considered DA-type structures, AFPID controller was observed as the best structure since it outperformed other controllers in most conditions.

  17. Direct mapping rather than motor prediction subserves modulation of corticospinal excitability during observation of actions in real time

    PubMed Central

    Gueugneau, Nicolas; Mc Cabe, Sofia I.; Villalta, Jorge I.; Grafton, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    Motor facilitation refers to the specific increment in corticospinal excitability (CSE) elicited by the observation of actions performed by others. To date, the precise nature of the mechanism at the basis of this phenomenon is unknown. One possibility is that motor facilitation is driven by a predictive process reminiscent of the role of forward models in motor control. Alternatively, motor facilitation may result from a model-free mechanism by which the basic elements of the observed action are directly mapped onto their cortical representations. Our study was designed to discern these alternatives. To this aim, we recorded the time course of CSE for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) during observation of three grasping actions in real time, two of which strongly diverged in kinematics from their natural (invariant) form. Although artificially slow movements used in most action observation studies might enhance the observer's discrimination performance, the use of videos in real time is crucial to maintain the time course of CSE within the physiological range of daily actions. CSE was measured at 4 time points within a 240-ms window that best captured the kinematic divergence from the invariant form. Our results show that CSE of the FDI, not the ADM, closely follows the functional role of the muscle despite the mismatch between the natural and the divergent kinematics. We propose that motor facilitation during observation of actions performed in real time reflects the model-free coding of perceived movement following a direct mapping mechanism. PMID:25810483

  18. Direct mapping rather than motor prediction subserves modulation of corticospinal excitability during observation of actions in real time.

    PubMed

    Gueugneau, Nicolas; Mc Cabe, Sofia I; Villalta, Jorge I; Grafton, Scott T; Della-Maggiore, Valeria

    2015-06-01

    Motor facilitation refers to the specific increment in corticospinal excitability (CSE) elicited by the observation of actions performed by others. To date, the precise nature of the mechanism at the basis of this phenomenon is unknown. One possibility is that motor facilitation is driven by a predictive process reminiscent of the role of forward models in motor control. Alternatively, motor facilitation may result from a model-free mechanism by which the basic elements of the observed action are directly mapped onto their cortical representations. Our study was designed to discern these alternatives. To this aim, we recorded the time course of CSE for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) during observation of three grasping actions in real time, two of which strongly diverged in kinematics from their natural (invariant) form. Although artificially slow movements used in most action observation studies might enhance the observer's discrimination performance, the use of videos in real time is crucial to maintain the time course of CSE within the physiological range of daily actions. CSE was measured at 4 time points within a 240-ms window that best captured the kinematic divergence from the invariant form. Our results show that CSE of the FDI, not the ADM, closely follows the functional role of the muscle despite the mismatch between the natural and the divergent kinematics. We propose that motor facilitation during observation of actions performed in real time reflects the model-free coding of perceived movement following a direct mapping mechanism.

  19. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Motor Cortex Biases Action Choice in a Perceptual Decision Task.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Beyko, Angeliki; Walsh, Vincent; Kanai, Ryota

    2015-11-01

    One of the multiple interacting systems involved in the selection and execution of voluntary actions is the primary motor cortex (PMC). We aimed to investigate whether the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of this area can modulate hand choice. A perceptual decision-making task was administered. Participants were asked to classify rectangles with different height-to-width ratios into horizontal and vertical rectangles using their right and left index fingers while their PMC was stimulated either bilaterally or unilaterally. Two experiments were conducted with different stimulation conditions: the first experiment (n = 12) had only one stimulation condition (bilateral stimulation), and the second experiment (n = 45) had three stimulation conditions (bilateral, anodal unilateral, and cathodal unilateral stimulations). The second experiment was designed to confirm the results of the first experiment and to further investigate the effects of anodal and cathodal stimulations alone in the observed effects. Each participant took part in two sessions. The laterality of stimulation was reversed over the two sessions. Our results showed that anodal stimulation of the PMC biases participants' responses toward using the contralateral hand whereas cathodal stimulation biases responses toward the ipsilateral hand. Brain stimulation also modulated the RT of the left hand in all stimulation conditions: Responses were faster when the response bias was in favor of the left hand and slower when the response bias was against it. We propose two possible explanations for these findings: the perceptual bias account (bottom-up effects of stimulation on perception) and the motor-choice bias account (top-down modulation of the decision-making system by facilitation of response in one hand over the other). We conclude that motor responses and the choice of hand can be modulated using tDCS.

  20. Bi-directional actions of dehydroepiandrosterone and aggression in female Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Nikki M; Demas, Gregory E

    2016-02-01

    There is a well-established positive relationship between gonadal steroids and aggression. In some seasonally breeding species, however, aggression often persists or is increased during short "winter-like" days when the gonads are regressed and circulating levels of gonadal steroids are relatively low. Although the mechanisms underlying short-day increases in aggression are not fully known, the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been suggested as an alternative neuroendocrine mechanism regulating seasonal aggression. We used two complementary experimental approaches to examine the bi-directional actions of DHEA and aggression in female Siberian hamsters, a seasonal rodent that displays increased aggression concomitant with elevated circulating DHEA in short days. In Experiment 1, we examined the effects of aggressive interactions on DHEA concentrations before and after an aggressive encounter in long- and short-day hamsters. Serum DHEA was altered in a photoperiod-dependent manner, with decreased DHEA levels in response to aggression in short- but not long-day hamsters. Next, we experimentally induced adrenal DHEA release via injections of exogenous ACTH and assessed changes in aggressive behavior across photoperiods. We show a robust increase in aggression in short compared with long days during baseline aggression trials; however, aggression was not significantly increased further in response to ACTH in either photoperiod during post-ACTH aggression trials. These findings suggest that DHEA plays a role in the regulation of short-day aggression, while also highlighting the need for additional studies addressing the causal relationship between DHEA and aggression in this and others species.

  1. Direct Visualization of the Action of Triton X-100 on Giant Vesicles of Erythrocyte Membrane Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Casadei, Bruna R.; Domingues, Cleyton C.; de Paula, Eneida; Riske, Karin A.

    2014-01-01

    The raft hypothesis proposes that microdomains enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol, and specific proteins are transiently formed to accomplish important cellular tasks. Equivocally, detergent-resistant membranes were initially assumed to be identical to membrane rafts, because of similarities between their compositions. In fact, the impact of detergents in membrane organization is still controversial. Here, we use phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy to observe giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) made of erythrocyte membrane lipids (erythro-GUVs) when exposed to the detergent Triton X-100 (TX-100). We clearly show that TX-100 has a restructuring action on biomembranes. Contact with TX-100 readily induces domain formation on the previously homogeneous membrane of erythro-GUVs at physiological and room temperatures. The shape and dynamics of the formed domains point to liquid-ordered/liquid-disordered (Lo/Ld) phase separation, typically found in raft-like ternary lipid mixtures. The Ld domains are then separated from the original vesicle and completely solubilized by TX-100. The insoluble vesicle left, in the Lo phase, represents around 2/3 of the original vesicle surface at room temperature and decreases to almost 1/2 at physiological temperature. This chain of events could be entirely reproduced with biomimetic GUVs of a simple ternary lipid mixture, 2:1:2 POPC/SM/chol (phosphatidylcholine/sphyngomyelin/cholesterol), showing that this behavior will arise because of fundamental physicochemical properties of simple lipid mixtures. This work provides direct visualization of TX-100-induced domain formation followed by selective (Ld phase) solubilization in a model system with a complex biological lipid composition. PMID:24896120

  2. CAN-DOO: The Climate Action Network through Direct Observations and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubman, B.; Sherman, J. P.; Perry, L. B.; Markham, J.; Kelly, G.

    2011-12-01

    The urgency of climate change demands a greater understanding of our climate system, not only by the leaders of today, but by the scientists, policy makers, and citizens of tomorrow. Unfortunately, a large segment of the population currently possesses inadequate knowledge of climate science. In direct response to a need for greater scientific literacy with respect to climate science, researchers from Appalachian State University's Appalachian Atmospheric Interdisciplinary Research (AppalAIR) group, with support from NASA, have developed CAN-DOO: the Climate Action Network through Direct Observations and Outreach. CAN-DOO addresses climate science literacy by 1) Developing the infrastructure for sustaining and expanding public outreach through long-term climate measurements capable of complementing existing NASA measurements, 2) Enhancing public awareness of climate science and NASA's role in advancing our understanding of the Earth System, and 3) Introducing Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics principles to homeschooled, public school, and Appalachian State University students through applied climate science activities. Project partners include the Grandfather Mountain Stewardship Foundation, Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute, and local elementary schools. In partnership with Grandfather Mountain, climate science awareness is promoted through citizen science activities, interactive public displays, and staff training. CAN-DOO engages students by involving them in the entire scientific investigative process as applied to climate science. We introduce local elementary and middle school students, homeschooled students throughout North Carolina, and undergraduate students in a new Global Climate Change course and select other courses at Appalachian State University to instrument assembly, measurement techniques, data collection, hypothesis testing, and drawing conclusions. Results are placed in the proper context via comparisons with other student

  3. Dorsal and ventral streams: The distinct role of striatal subregions in the acquisition and performance of goal-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Genevra; Leung, Beatrice K.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that distinct neural processes mediate the acquisition and performance of goal-directed instrumental actions. Whereas a cortical-dorsomedial striatal circuit appears critical for the acquisition of goal-directed actions, a cortical-ventral striatal circuit appears to mediate instrumental performance, particularly the motivational control of performance. Here we review evidence that these distinct mechanisms of learning and performance constitute two distinct ‘streams’ controlling instrumental conditioning. From this perspective, the regulation of the interaction between these ‘streams’ becomes a matter of considerable importance. We describe evidence that the basolateral amygdala, which is heavily interconnected with both the dorsal and ventral subregions of the striatum, coordinates this interaction providing input to the final common path to action as a critical component of the limbic-motor interface. PMID:24231424

  4. A spiking neuron model of the cortico-basal ganglia circuits for goal-directed and habitual action learning.

    PubMed

    Chersi, Fabian; Mirolli, Marco; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-05-01

    Dual-system theories postulate that actions are supported either by a goal-directed or by a habit-driven response system. Neuroimaging and anatomo-functional studies have provided evidence that the prefrontal cortex plays a fundamental role in the first type of action control, while internal brain areas such as the basal ganglia are more active during habitual and overtrained responses. Additionally, it has been shown that areas of the cortex and the basal ganglia are connected through multiple parallel "channels", which are thought to function as an action selection mechanism resolving competitions between alternative options available in a given context. In this paper we propose a multi-layer network of spiking neurons that implements in detail the thalamo-cortical circuits that are believed to be involved in action learning and execution. A key feature of this model is that neurons are organized in small pools in the motor cortex and form independent loops with specific pools of the basal ganglia where inhibitory circuits implement a multistep selection mechanism. The described model has been validated utilizing it to control the actions of a virtual monkey that has to learn to turn on briefly flashing lights by pressing corresponding buttons on a board. When the animal is able to fluently execute the task the button-light associations are remapped so that it has to suppress its habitual behavior in order to execute goal-directed actions. The model nicely shows how sensory-motor associations for action sequences are formed at the cortico-basal ganglia level and how goal-directed decisions may override automatic motor responses.

  5. 75 FR 1015 - Directing Certain Actions with Respect to Acquisition and Use of Thomson Correctional Center to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Bay Naval Base Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense [and] the Attorney General By the authority... at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, I hereby direct that the following actions be taken as... TCC for secure housing of detainees currently held at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base who have been...

  6. Action Type and Goal Type Modulate Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts in 14-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gredeback, Gustaf; Stasiewicz, Dorota; Falck-Ytter, Terje; von Hofsten, Claes; Rosander, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Ten- and 14-month-old infants' gaze was recorded as the infants observed videos of different hand actions directed toward multiple goals. Infants observed an actor who (a) reached for objects and displaced them, (b) reached for objects and placed them inside containers, or (c) moved his fisted hand. Fourteen-month-olds, but not 10-month-olds,…

  7. Evidence of action sequence chunking in goal-directed instrumental conditioning and its dependence on the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Sean B; Winterbauer, Neil E; Balleine, Bernard W

    2009-06-24

    The current study investigated the contribution of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) to instrumental action selection. We found that cell body lesions of the dmPFC, centered on the medial agranular area, spared rats' ability to choose between actions based on either the value or the discriminative stimulus properties of an outcome. We next examined the effects of these lesions on action sequence learning using a concurrent bidirectional heterogeneous chain task in which the identity of the reward delivered was determined by the order in which the two lever press actions were performed. Although both lesioned rats and sham controls learned to perform the task, we found that they relied on different behavioral strategies to do so. In subsequent tests, rats in the sham group were able to withhold their performance of a sequence when either its associated outcome was devalued or the contingency between that sequence and its outcome was degraded by delivering the outcome noncontingently. Interestingly, lesioned rats failed to reorganize their performance at the action sequence level and, rather, were found to withhold their performance of the terminal response in the sequence that had earned the devalued outcome relative to the more distal response, suggesting that they represented the elements of the sequence as distinct behavioral units. These findings demonstrate that rats can use sequence-level representations, or action chunks, to organize their behavior in a goal-directed manner and indicate that the dmPFC plays a critical role in this process.

  8. Development of goal-directed action selection guided by intrinsic motivations: an experiment with children.

    PubMed

    Taffoni, Fabrizio; Tamilia, Eleonora; Focaroli, Valentina; Formica, Domenico; Ricci, Luca; Di Pino, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Keller, Flavio

    2014-07-01

    Action selection is extremely important, particularly when the accomplishment of competitive tasks may require access to limited motor resources. The spontaneous exploration of the world plays a fundamental role in the development of this capacity, providing subjects with an increasingly diverse set of opportunities to acquire, practice and refine the understanding of action-outcome connection. The computational modeling literature proposed a number of specific mechanisms for autonomous agents to discover and target interesting outcomes: intrinsic motivations hold a central importance among those mechanisms. Unfortunately, the study of the acquisition of action-outcome relation was mostly carried out with experiments involving extrinsic tasks, either based on rewards or on predefined task goals. This work presents a new experimental paradigm to study the effect of intrinsic motivation on action-outcome relation learning and action selection during free exploration of the world. Three- and four-year-old children were observed during the free exploration of a new toy: half of them were allowed to develop the knowledge concerning its functioning; the other half were not allowed to learn anything. The knowledge acquired during the free exploration of the toy was subsequently assessed and compared.

  9. Effects of Targeted Sales Messages on Subscription Sales and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamst, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the effects of targeted sales messages on newspaper subscription sales and retention by combining two large research projects--a demographic market segmentation scheme, and a readership-lifestyle survey. Proposes that the content of sales messages influences new subscriptions but does not affect retention. (MM)

  10. Interaction of insular cortex and ventral striatum mediates the effect of incentive memory on choice between goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Shauna L; Bradfield, Laura A; Balleine, Bernard W

    2015-04-22

    The anterior insular cortex (IC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core have been separately implicated in the selection and performance of actions based on the incentive value of the instrumental outcome. Here, we examined the role of connections between the IC and the NAc core in the performance of goal-directed actions. Rats were trained on two actions for distinct outcomes, after which one of the two outcomes was devalued by specific satiety immediately before a choice extinction test. We first confirmed the projection from the IC to the NAc core and then disconnected these structures via asymmetrical excitotoxic lesions before training. Contralateral, but not ipsilateral, disconnection of the IC and NAc core disrupted outcome devaluation. We hypothesized that communication between the IC and NAc core is necessary for the retrieval of incentive value at test. To test this, we infused the GABAA agonist muscimol into the IC and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist CTAP into the contralateral NAc before the choice extinction test. As expected, inactivation of the IC in one hemisphere and blocking μ-opioid receptors in the contralateral NAc core abolished outcome-selective devaluation. These results suggest that the IC and NAc core form part of a circuit mediating the retrieval of outcome values and the subsequent choice between goal-directed actions based on those values.

  11. Infant Eye-Tracking in the Context of Goal-Directed Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbetta, Daniela; Guan, Yu; Williams, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two methods that we applied to our research to record infant gaze in the context of goal-oriented actions using different eye-tracking devices: head-mounted and remote eye-tracking. For each type of eye-tracking system, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, describe the particular experimental setups we used to study…

  12. The Charlotte Action Research Project: A Model for Direct and Mutually Beneficial Community-University Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Elizabeth; Sorensen, Janni; Howarth, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the Charlotte Action Research Project (CHARP), a community-university partnership founded in 2008 at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, and focuses particularly on the program's unique organizational structure. Research findings of a project evaluation suggest that the CHARP model's unique…

  13. Direct Perception of Action-Scaled Affordances: The Shrinking Gap Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajen, Brett R.; Matthis, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of possibilities for action (i.e., affordances) that depend on one's movement capabilities, and more specifically, the passability of a shrinking gap between converging obstacles. We introduce a new optical invariant that specifies in intrinsic units the minimum locomotor speed needed to…

  14. Action-Specific Influences on Perception and Post-Perceptual Processes: Present Controversies and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Philbeck, John W.; Witt, Jessica K.

    2015-01-01

    The action-specific perception account holds that people perceive the environment in terms of their ability to act in it. In this view, for example, decreased ability to climb a hill due to fatigue makes the hill visually appear to be steeper. Though influential, this account has not been universally accepted, and in fact a heated controversy has emerged. The opposing view holds that action capability has little or no influence on perception. Heretofore, the debate has been quite polarized, with efforts largely being focused on supporting one view and dismantling the other. We argue here that polarized debate can impede scientific progress and that the search for similarities between two sides of a debate can sharpen the theoretical focus of both sides and illuminate important avenues for future research. In this paper, we present a synthetic review of this debate, drawing from the literatures of both approaches, to clarify both the surprising similarities and the core differences between them. We critically evaluate existing evidence, discuss possible mechanisms of action-specific effects, and make recommendations for future research. A primary focus of future work will involve not only the development of methods that guard against action-specific post-perceptual effects, but also development of concrete, well-constrained underlying mechanisms. The criteria for what constitutes acceptable control of post-perceptual effects and what constitutes an appropriately specific mechanism vary between approaches, and bridging this gap is a central challenge for future research. PMID:26501227

  15. Caps for Sale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Since first graders at Geneva School in Winter Park, Florida have a unit based on the book "Caps for Sale" by Esphyr Slobodkina, the author, an art teacher at the school, began a tradition of painting hats. In this article, the author describes how the students decorated their hats. (Contains 1 resource and 1 online resource.)

  16. BA Sales Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts-Clay, Jennifer

    1979-01-01

    Describes the programs and courses of the sales training department at British Airways from induction to management level. The staff uses one of the largest commercial computer facilities in the world to provide seat reservations, fare quotations and tickets, hotel reservations, and tours. (MF)

  17. Wildlife for sale.

    PubMed

    Martin, E; Redford, T

    2000-02-01

    Myanmar, famous for the smuggling of opium and gemstones, is losing much of its wildlife to illegal traders. In 1998, a survey of goods for sale in two border towns showed a thriving trade in body parts from some of the world's most endangered species.

  18. Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

  19. 78 FR 45557 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... would offer for lease all unleased blocks within the WPA for oil and gas operations. A subset of... (WPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 233 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION... WPA Lease Sale 233 on the Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sales: 2013-2014; Western Planning...

  20. The Attribution of Attention: 9-Month-Olds' Interpretation of Gaze as Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan C.; Ok, Su-Jeong; Luo, Yuyan

    2007-01-01

    The current study distinguishes between attributions of goal-directed perception (i.e. attention) and non-goal-directed perception to examine 9-month-olds' interpretation of others' head and eye turns. In a looking time task, 9-month-olds encoded the relationship between an actor's head and eye turns and a target object if the head and eye turns…

  1. From recording discrete actions to studying continuous goal-directed behaviours in team sports.

    PubMed

    Correia, Vanda; Araújo, Duarte; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of examining interpersonal interactions in performance analysis of team sports, predicated on the relationship between perception and action, compared to the traditional cataloguing of actions by individual performers. We discuss how ecological dynamics may provide a potential unifying theoretical and empirical framework to achieve this re-emphasis in research. With reference to data from illustrative studies on performance analysis and sport expertise, we critically evaluate some of the main assumptions and methodological approaches with regard to understanding how information influences action and decision-making during team sports performance. Current data demonstrate how the understanding of performance behaviours in team sports by sport scientists and practitioners may be enhanced with a re-emphasis in research on the dynamics of emergent ongoing interactions. Ecological dynamics provides formal and theoretically grounded descriptions of player-environment interactions with respect to key performance goals and the unfolding information of competitive performance. Developing these formal descriptions and explanations of sport performance may provide a significant contribution to the field of performance analysis, supporting design and intervention in both research and practice.

  2. Slips of Action and Sequential Decisions: A Cross-Validation Study of Tasks Assessing Habitual and Goal-Directed Action Control.

    PubMed

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Dietrich, Anja; Deserno, Lorenz; de Wit, Sanne; Villringer, Arno; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Horstmann, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Instrumental learning and decision-making rely on two parallel systems: a goal-directed and a habitual system. In the past decade, several paradigms have been developed to study these systems in animals and humans by means of e.g., overtraining, devaluation procedures and sequential decision-making. These different paradigms are thought to measure the same constructs, but cross-validation has rarely been investigated. In this study we compared two widely used paradigms that assess aspects of goal-directed and habitual behavior. We correlated parameters from a two-step sequential decision-making task that assesses model-based (MB) and model-free (MF) learning with a slips-of-action paradigm that assesses the ability to suppress cue-triggered, learnt responses when the outcome has been devalued and is therefore no longer desirable. MB control during the two-step task showed a very moderately positive correlation with goal-directed devaluation sensitivity, whereas MF control did not show any associations. Interestingly, parameter estimates of MB and goal-directed behavior in the two tasks were positively correlated with higher-order cognitive measures (e.g., visual short-term memory). These cognitive measures seemed to (at least partly) mediate the association between MB control during sequential decision-making and goal-directed behavior after instructed devaluation. This study provides moderate support for a common framework to describe the propensity towards goal-directed behavior as measured with two frequently used tasks. However, we have to caution that the amount of shared variance between the goal-directed and MB system in both tasks was rather low, suggesting that each task does also pick up distinct aspects of goal-directed behavior. Further investigation of the commonalities and differences between the MF and habit systems as measured with these, and other, tasks is needed. Also, a follow-up cross-validation on the neural systems driving these constructs

  3. Slips of Action and Sequential Decisions: A Cross-Validation Study of Tasks Assessing Habitual and Goal-Directed Action Control

    PubMed Central

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Dietrich, Anja; Deserno, Lorenz; de Wit, Sanne; Villringer, Arno; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Horstmann, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Instrumental learning and decision-making rely on two parallel systems: a goal-directed and a habitual system. In the past decade, several paradigms have been developed to study these systems in animals and humans by means of e.g., overtraining, devaluation procedures and sequential decision-making. These different paradigms are thought to measure the same constructs, but cross-validation has rarely been investigated. In this study we compared two widely used paradigms that assess aspects of goal-directed and habitual behavior. We correlated parameters from a two-step sequential decision-making task that assesses model-based (MB) and model-free (MF) learning with a slips-of-action paradigm that assesses the ability to suppress cue-triggered, learnt responses when the outcome has been devalued and is therefore no longer desirable. MB control during the two-step task showed a very moderately positive correlation with goal-directed devaluation sensitivity, whereas MF control did not show any associations. Interestingly, parameter estimates of MB and goal-directed behavior in the two tasks were positively correlated with higher-order cognitive measures (e.g., visual short-term memory). These cognitive measures seemed to (at least partly) mediate the association between MB control during sequential decision-making and goal-directed behavior after instructed devaluation. This study provides moderate support for a common framework to describe the propensity towards goal-directed behavior as measured with two frequently used tasks. However, we have to caution that the amount of shared variance between the goal-directed and MB system in both tasks was rather low, suggesting that each task does also pick up distinct aspects of goal-directed behavior. Further investigation of the commonalities and differences between the MF and habit systems as measured with these, and other, tasks is needed. Also, a follow-up cross-validation on the neural systems driving these constructs

  4. Computerized Point of Sale = Faster Service + Better Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannell, Dorothy V.

    1991-01-01

    Describes selecting and installing a computerized point of sale for a district food service program; the equipment needed and preferred; and the training of trainers, managers, and cashiers. Also discusses the direct benefits and side benefits of the system. (MLF)

  5. [Development and consolidation of General Student Welfare Direction at National University of Cordoba: institutional actions directed to integrated student health. Decades of 1960-1970].

    PubMed

    Altamirano Bentolila, Patricia; Clark, Carmen; Stabile, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Starting from historical records attempts to identify the events which made possible the creation and regulation of Welfare Student Department. A Decade of 60 and 70 was fruitful for starting and development of first institutional politics designed to attend the health and welfare of students. In that way, the actions of Welfare Student Direction and Vocational Guidance focus their objective to bring on welfare, permanence, development of university student. It stand out the accent put it on the integral health exam of students, the concern about the empty in his cultural training, the possibility of make it easier vocational support and the execution of health insurance.

  6. Sales Education Efficacy: Examining the Relationship between Sales Education and Sales Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolander, William; Bonney, Leff; Satornino, Cinthia

    2014-01-01

    Sales education is on the rise and for good reason. Statistics say that sales jobs will continue to grow at a rapid rate over the next few years. Many universities are preparing their students to start their careers in the professional selling function through the inclusion of sales education in their business curriculum. Yet little research…

  7. Resolution of conflict between goal-directed actions: outcome encoding and neural control processes.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Sanne; Ostlund, Sean B; Balleine, Bernard W; Dickinson, Anthony

    2009-07-01

    According to O-R theory of instrumental learning, incongruent biconditional discriminations should be impossible to solve in a goal-directed manner because the event acting as the outcome of one response also acts as a discriminative stimulus for an opposite response. Each event should therefore be associated with two competing responses. However, Dickinson and de Wit (2003) have presented evidence that rats can learn incongruent discriminations. The present study investigated whether rats were able to engage additional processes to solve incongruent discriminations in a goal-directed manner. Experiment 1 provides evidence that rats resolve the response conflict that arises in the incongruent discrimination by differentially encoding events in their roles as discriminative stimulus and as outcome. Furthermore, Experiment 2 shows that once goal-directed control has been established the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex is not directly involved in its maintenance but rather plays a central role in conflict resolution processes.

  8. The direct actions of cannabidiol and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol at GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Bakas, T; van Nieuwenhuijzen, P S; Devenish, S O; McGregor, I S; Arnold, J C; Chebib, M

    2017-02-27

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-intoxicating component of cannabis and possesses anti-epileptic, anxiolytic and anti-hyperalgesic properties. The mechanism of action of CBD in producing such effects remains unclear. Despite evidence that some endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids interact with GABAA receptors, no-one has yet investigated the effects of CBD. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology to compare the actions of CBD with those of the major central endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) on human recombinant GABAA receptors (synaptic α1-6βγ2 and extrasynaptic α4β2δ) expressed on Xenopus oocytes. CBD and 2-AG were positive allosteric modulators at α1-6βγ2 receptors, with low micromolar potencies. The maximal level of enhancement seen with either CBD or 2-AG were on α2-containing GABAA receptor subtypes, with approximately a 4-fold enhancement of the GABA EC5 evoked current, more than twice the potentiation seen with other α-subunit receptor combinations. Further we observed β-subunit selectivity, whereby modulatory activity was higher at β2/β3 over β1 subunits. The β1-subunit homologous mutant β2(V436T) substantially diminished the efficacy of both drugs to a third of that obtained with wild-type β2 subunit combinations, but without changing potency. The potency of CBD increased and efficacy preserved in binary α1/α2β2 receptors indicating that their effects do not involve the classic benzodiazepine site. Exploration of extrasynaptic α4β2δ receptors revealed that both compounds enhanced GABA EC5 evoked currents at concentrations ranging from 0.01-1μM. Taken together these results reveal a mode of action of CBD on specifically configured GABAA receptors that may be relevant to the anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects of the compound.

  9. Unexpected acoustic stimulation during action preparation reveals gradual re-specification of movement direction.

    PubMed

    Marinovic, Welber; Tresilian, James; Chapple, Jack L; Riek, Stephan; Carroll, Timothy J

    2017-02-17

    A loud acoustic stimulus (LAS) is often used as a tool to investigate motor preparation in simple reaction time (RT) tasks, where all movement parameters are known in advance. In this report, we used a LAS to examine direction specification in simple and choice RT tasks. This allowed us to investigate how the specification of movement direction unfolds during the preparation period. In two experiments, participants responded to the appearance of an imperative stimulus (IS) with a ballistic wrist force directed toward one of two targets. In probe trials, a LAS (120dBa) was delivered around the time of IS presentation. In Experiment 1, RTs in the simple RT task were faster when the LAS was presented, but the effect on the movement kinematics was negligible. In the Choice RT task, however, movement direction variability increased when the LAS was presented. In Experiment 2, when we primed movements toward one direction, our analyses revealed that the longer participants took to start a movement, the more accurate their responses became. Our results show not only that movement direction reprogramming occurs quickly and continuously, but also that LAS can be a valuable tool to obtain meaningful readouts of the motor system's preparatory state.

  10. Reducing the illegal sale of cigarettes to minors.

    PubMed

    Altman, D G; Foster, V; Rasenick-Douss, L; Tye, J B

    1989-01-06

    This study reports on an effort to stop the illegal sale of cigarettes to minors. In Santa Clara County, Calif, 412 stores and 30 vending machines were visited by 18 minors aged 14 through 16 years with the intent to purchase cigarettes; they were successful at 74% of the stores and 100% of the vending machines. After an aggressive six-month campaign using communitywide media, direct merchant education, contact with the chief executive officers of chain stores and franchise operations owned by major companies, and grassroots work with community organizations, the percentage of stores with illegal over-the-counter sale of cigarettes to minors was reduced to 39%. Sales from vending machines were not reduced. While much remains to be accomplished in stopping the illegal sale of tobacco to minors, data from this study illustrate that a well-designed community and merchant education campaign can significantly reduce such sales.

  11. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of transcranial direct current stimulation: evidence from in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Simon J; Cicchetti, Francesca

    2014-10-31

    Transcranial direct current stimulation is a noninvasive technique that has been experimentally tested for a number of psychiatric and neurological conditions. Preliminary observations suggest that this approach can indeed influence a number of cellular and molecular pathways that may be disease relevant. However, the mechanisms of action underlying its beneficial effects are largely unknown and need to be better understood to allow this therapy to be used optimally. In this review, we summarize the physiological responses observed in vitro and in vivo, with a particular emphasis on cellular and molecular cascades associated with inflammation, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and neuroplasticity recruited by direct current stimulation, a topic that has been largely neglected in the literature. A better understanding of the neural responses to transcranial direct current stimulation is critical if this therapy is to be used in large-scale clinical trials with a view of being routinely offered to patients suffering from various conditions affecting the central nervous system.

  12. Understanding human original actions directed at real-world goals: the role of the lateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sitnikova, Tatiana; Rosen, Bruce R; Lord, Louis-David; West, W Caroline

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive, original actions, which can succeed in multiple contextual situations, require understanding of what is relevant to a goal. Recognizing what is relevant may also help in predicting kinematics of observed, original actions. During action observation, comparisons between sensory input and expected action kinematics have been argued critical to accurate goal inference. Experimental studies with laboratory tasks, both in humans and nonhuman primates, demonstrated that the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) can learn, hierarchically organize, and use goal-relevant information. To determine whether this LPFC capacity is generalizable to real-world cognition, we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in the human brain during comprehension of original and usual object-directed actions embedded in video-depictions of real-life behaviors. We hypothesized that LPFC will contribute to forming goal-relevant representations necessary for kinematic predictions of original actions. Additionally, resting-state fMRI was employed to examine functional connectivity between the brain regions delineated in the video fMRI experiment. According to behavioral data, original videos could be understood by identifying elements relevant to real-life goals at different levels of abstraction. Patterns of enhanced activity in four regions in the left LPFC, evoked by original, relative to usual, video scenes, were consistent with previous neuroimaging findings on representing abstract and concrete stimuli dimensions relevant to laboratory goals. In the anterior left LPFC, the activity increased selectively when representations of broad classes of objects and actions, which could achieve the perceived overall behavioral goal, were likely to bias kinematic predictions of original actions. In contrast, in the more posterior regions, the activity increased even when concrete properties of the target object were more likely to bias the kinematic prediction. Functional

  13. Direct Evaluation of L-DOPA Actions on Neuronal Activity of Parkinsonian Tissue In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Plata, Víctor; Pérez-Ortega, Jesús E.; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2013-01-01

    Physiological and biochemical experiments in vivo and in vitro have explored striatal receptor signaling and neuronal excitability to posit pathophysiological models of Parkinson's disease. However, when therapeutic approaches, such as dopamine agonists, need to be evaluated, behavioral tests using animal models of Parkinson's disease are employed. To our knowledge, recordings of population neuronal activity in vitro to assess anti-Parkinsonian drugs and the correlation of circuit dynamics with disease state have only recently been attempted. We have shown that Parkinsonian pathological activity of neuronal striatal circuits can be characterized in in vitro cerebral tissue. Here, we show that calcium imaging techniques, capable of recording dozens of neurons simultaneously with single-cell resolution, can be extended to assess the action of therapeutic drugs. We used L-DOPA as a prototypical anti-Parkinsonian drug to show the efficiency of this proposed bioassay. In a rodent model of early Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonian neuronal activity can be returned to control levels by the bath addition of L-DOPA in a reversible way. This result raises the possibility to use calcium imaging techniques to measure, quantitatively, the actions of anti-Parkinsonian drugs over time and to obtain correlations with disease evolution and behavior. PMID:24151606

  14. Direct evaluation of L-DOPA actions on neuronal activity of Parkinsonian tissue in vitro.

    PubMed

    Plata, Víctor; Duhne, Mariana; Pérez-Ortega, Jesús E; Barroso-Flores, Janet; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2013-01-01

    Physiological and biochemical experiments in vivo and in vitro have explored striatal receptor signaling and neuronal excitability to posit pathophysiological models of Parkinson's disease. However, when therapeutic approaches, such as dopamine agonists, need to be evaluated, behavioral tests using animal models of Parkinson's disease are employed. To our knowledge, recordings of population neuronal activity in vitro to assess anti-Parkinsonian drugs and the correlation of circuit dynamics with disease state have only recently been attempted. We have shown that Parkinsonian pathological activity of neuronal striatal circuits can be characterized in in vitro cerebral tissue. Here, we show that calcium imaging techniques, capable of recording dozens of neurons simultaneously with single-cell resolution, can be extended to assess the action of therapeutic drugs. We used L-DOPA as a prototypical anti-Parkinsonian drug to show the efficiency of this proposed bioassay. In a rodent model of early Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonian neuronal activity can be returned to control levels by the bath addition of L-DOPA in a reversible way. This result raises the possibility to use calcium imaging techniques to measure, quantitatively, the actions of anti-Parkinsonian drugs over time and to obtain correlations with disease evolution and behavior.

  15. Memory for goal-directed sequences of actions: is doing better than seeing?

    PubMed

    Steffens, Meianie C

    2007-12-01

    Verb-object phrases are usually remembered better if they have been enacted during study than if theyhave been learned verbally or if one has observed another person enact the phrases. Researchers have explained this well-established enactment effect by assuming that enactment leaves an additional motor code enhancing memory. We assume instead that enactment provokes excellentitem-specific processing at t he expense of processing relations between items. Thus, if recall were to depend on this relational processing that is hindered by enactment, enactment should not be a more effective encoding strategy than observation. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the recall of sequences of related actions. In two experiments, we found no recall advantage of enactment over observing another person perform, though both encoding tasks were superior to verbal learning. Organization was best after observation. These findings imply that learning by viewing is not inferior to learning by doing.

  16. 12 CFR 263.202 - Directives to take prompt regulatory action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... that are within the Board's discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including... directive. If the Board finds it necessary in order to carry out the purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including section 38(e)(5), (f)(2), (f)(3), or...

  17. 12 CFR 165.7 - Directives to take prompt corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... within the OCC's discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including sections 38(e... directive. If the OCC finds it necessary in order to carry out the purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including section 38(e)(5), (f)(2),...

  18. 12 CFR 165.7 - Directives to take prompt corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... within the OCC's discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including sections 38(e... directive. If the OCC finds it necessary in order to carry out the purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including section 38(e)(5), (f)(2),...

  19. 12 CFR 565.7 - Directives to take prompt corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OTS's discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including sections 38(e)(5), (f... directive. If the OTS finds it necessary in order to carry out the purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including section 38(e)(5), (f)(2), (f)(3), or...

  20. 12 CFR 565.7 - Directives to take prompt corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OTS's discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including sections 38(e)(5), (f... directive. If the OTS finds it necessary in order to carry out the purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including section 38(e)(5), (f)(2), (f)(3), or...

  1. 12 CFR 565.7 - Directives to take prompt corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OTS's discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including sections 38(e)(5), (f... directive. If the OTS finds it necessary in order to carry out the purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including section 38(e)(5), (f)(2), (f)(3), or...

  2. Developing and Piloting an App for Managing Self-Directed Language Learning: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammons, Elizabeth; Momata, Yuko; Mynard, Jo; Noguchi, Junko; Watkins, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    Paper-based tools such as self-evaluation activities, learning plans, reflective journals and learning logs are commonplace for managing Self-Directed Language Learning (SDLL). Such tools not only promote ownership over learning and provide a sense of achievement to learners, but they also promote reflection and raise awareness of learning…

  3. Synergistic action of thermoresponsive and hygroresponsive elements elicits rapid and directional response of a bilayer actuator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lidong; Desta, Israel; Naumov, Panče

    2016-05-01

    A bilayer actuator composed of thermoresponsive and thermo/hygroresponsive elements is developed, which undergoes fast, directional and autonomous curling with a speed of up to 0.7 m s(-1) and recovers its shape by hydration. In situ tensile testing of the thermal response of individual layers provided insights into the mechanism of actuation of thermo/hygromorphic bilayers.

  4. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.

  5. LXA{sub 4} actions direct fibroblast function and wound closure

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Bruno S.; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Zarrough, Ahmed; Hasturk, Hatice; Leung, Kai P.; Van Dyke, Thomas E.

    2015-09-04

    Timely resolution of inflammation is crucial for normal wound healing. Resolution of inflammation is an active biological process regulated by specialized lipid mediators including the lipoxins and resolvins. Failure of resolution activity has a major negative impact on wound healing in chronic inflammatory diseases that is manifest as excess fibrosis and scarring. Lipoxins, including Lipoxin A{sub 4} (LXA{sub 4}), have known anti-fibrotic and anti-scarring properties. The goal of this study was to elucidate the impact of LXA{sub 4} on fibroblast function. Mouse fibroblasts (3T3 Mus musculus Swiss) were cultured for 72 h in the presence of TGF-β1, to induce fibroblast activation. The impact of exogenous TGF-β1 (1 ng/mL) on LXA{sub 4} receptor expression (ALX/FPR2) was determined by flow cytometry. Fibroblast proliferation was measured by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and migration in a “scratch” assay wound model. Expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen types I and III were measured by Western blot. We observed that TGF-β1 up-regulates LXA{sub 4} receptor expression, enhances fibroblast proliferation, migration and scratch wound closure. α-SMA levels and Collagen type I and III deposition were also enhanced. LXA{sub 4} slowed fibroblast migration and scratch wound closure at early time points (24 h), but wound closure was equal to TGF-β1 alone at 48 and 72 h. LXA{sub 4} tended to slow fibroblast proliferation at both concentrations, but had no impact on α-SMA or collagen production by TGF-β1 stimulated fibroblasts. The generalizability of the actions of resolution molecules was examined in experiments repeated with resolvin D2 (RvD2) as the agonist. The activity of RvD2 mimicked the actions of LXA{sub 4} in all assays, through an as yet unidentified receptor. The results suggest that mediators of resolution of inflammation enhance wound healing and limit fibrosis in part by modulating fibroblast function. - Highlights: • TGF

  6. Direct perception of action-scaled affordances: the shrinking gap problem.

    PubMed

    Fajen, Brett R; Matthis, Jonathan S

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of possibilities for action (i.e., affordances) that depend on one's movement capabilities, and more specifically, the passability of a shrinking gap between converging obstacles. We introduce a new optical invariant that specifies in intrinsic units the minimum locomotor speed needed to safely pass through a shrinking gap. Detecting this information during self-motion requires recovering the component of the obstacles' local optical expansion attributable to obstacle motion, independent of self-motion. In principle, recovering the obstacle motion component could involve either visual or non-visual self-motion information. We investigated the visual and non-visual contributions in two experiments in which subjects walked through a virtual environment and made judgments about whether it was possible to pass through a shrinking gap. On a small percentage of trials, visual and non-visual self-motion information were independently manipulated by varying the speed with which subjects moved through the virtual environment. Comparisons of judgments on such catch trials with judgments on normal trials revealed both visual and non-visual contributions to the detection of information about minimum walking speed.

  7. Direct Evidence for the Economy of Action: Glucose and the Perception of Geographical Slant

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Simone; Zadra, Jonathan R.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    2012-01-01

    When locomoting in a physically challenging environment, the body draws upon available energy reserves to accommodate increased metabolic demand. Ingested glucose supplements the body’s energy resources, whereas non-caloric sweetener does not. Two experiments demonstrate that participants who had consumed a glucose-containing drink perceived a hills slant to be less steep than did participants who had consumed a drink containing non-caloric sweetener. The glucose manipulation influenced participants’ explicit awareness of hill slant but, as predicted, it did not affect a visually-guided action of orienting a tilting palmboard to be parallel to the hill. Measured individual differences in factors related to bioenergetic state such as fatigue, sleep quality, fitness, mood, and stress also affected perception such that lower energetic states were associated with steeper perceptions of hill slant. This research shows that the perception of the environment’s spatial layout is influenced by the energetic resources available for locomotion within it. Our findings are consistent with the view that spatial perceptions are influenced by bioenergetic factors. PMID:20514996

  8. The relevance of moral norms in distinct relational contexts: Purity versus harm norms regulate self-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Dungan, James A; Chakroff, Alek; Young, Liane

    2017-01-01

    Recent efforts to partition the space of morality have focused on the descriptive content of distinct moral domains (e.g., harm versus purity), or alternatively, the relationship between the perpetrator and victim of moral violations. Across three studies, we demonstrate that harm and purity norms are relevant in distinct relational contexts. Moral judgments of purity violations, compared to harm violations, are relatively more sensitive to the negative impact perpetrators have on themselves versus other victims (Study 1). This pattern replicates across a wide array of harm and purity violations varying in severity (Studies 2 and 3). Moreover, while perceptions of harm predict moral judgment consistently across relational contexts, perceptions of purity predict moral judgment more for self-directed actions, where perpetrators violate themselves, compared to dyadic actions, where perpetrators violate other victims (Study 3). Together, these studies reveal how an action's content and its relational context interact to influence moral judgment, providing novel insights into the adaptive functions of harm and purity norms.

  9. INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support): summary and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, S

    2013-10-01

    This supplement presents the foundational elements for INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support). As explained in the overview article by Swinburn and colleagues, INFORMAS has a compelling rationale and has set forth clear objectives, outcomes, principles and frameworks for monitoring and benchmarking key aspects of food environments and the policies and actions that influence the healthiness of food environments. This summary highlights the proposed monitoring approaches for the 10 interrelated INFORMAS modules: public and private sector policies and actions; key aspects of food environments (food composition, labelling, promotion, provision, retail, prices, and trade and investment) and population outcomes (diet quality). This ambitious effort should be feasible when approached in a step-wise manner, taking into account existing monitoring efforts, data sources, country contexts and capacity, and when adequately resourced. After protocol development and pilot testing of the modules, INFORMAS aims to be a sustainable, low-cost monitoring framework. Future directions relate to institutionalization, implementation and, ultimately, to leveraging INFORMAS data in ways that will bring key drivers of food environments into alignment with public health goals.

  10. Further evidence against a direct genotoxic mode of action for arsenic-induced cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Catherine B.; Leszczynska, Joanna; Hickey, Christina; Rossman, Toby G.

    2007-08-01

    Arsenic in drinking water, a mixture of arsenite and arsenate, is associated with increased skin and other cancers in Asia and Latin America, but not the United States. Arsenite alone in drinking water does not cause skin cancers in experimental animals; therefore, it is not a complete carcinogen in skin. We recently showed that low concentrations of arsenite enhanced the tumorigenicity of solar UV irradiation in hairless mice, suggesting arsenic cocarcinogenesis with sunlight in skin cancer and perhaps with different carcinogenic partners for lung and bladder tumors. Cocarcinogenic mechanisms could include blocking DNA repair, stimulating angiogenesis, altering DNA methylation patterns, dysregulating cell cycle control, induction of aneuploidy and blocking apoptosis. Arsenicals are documented clastogens but not strong mutagens, with weak mutagenic activity reported at highly toxic concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Previously, we showed that arsenite, but not monomethylarsonous acid (MMA[III]), induced delayed mutagenesis in HOS cells. Here, we report new data on the mutagenicity of the trivalent methylated arsenic metabolites MMA(III) and dimethylarsinous acid [DMA(III)] at the gpt locus in Chinese hamster G12 cells. Both methylated arsenicals seemed mutagenic with apparent sublinear dose responses. However, significant mutagenesis occurred only at highly toxic concentrations of MMA(III). Most mutants induced by MMA(III) and DMA(III) exhibited transgene deletions. Some non-deletion mutants exhibited altered DNA methylation. A critical discussion of cell survival leads us to conclude that clastogenesis occurs primarily at highly cytotoxic arsenic concentrations, casting further doubt as to whether a genotoxic mode of action (MOA) for arsenicals is supportable.

  11. Transcranial magnetic stimulation during voluntary action: directional facilitation of outputs and relationships to force generation.

    PubMed

    Cros, Didier; Soto, Oscar; Chiappa, Keith H

    2007-12-14

    Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the human motor cortex evokes simple muscle jerks whose physiological significance is unclear. Indeed, in subjects performing a motor task, there is uncertainty as to whether TMS-evoked outputs reflect the ongoing behavior or, alternatively, a disrupted motor plan. Considering force direction and magnitude to reflect qualitative and quantitative features of the motor plan respectively, we studied the relationships between voluntary forces and those evoked by TMS. In five healthy adults, we recorded the isometric forces acting a hand joint and the electromyographic activity in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. Responses obtained at rest were highly invariant. Evoked responses obtained while subjects generated static and dynamic contractions were highly codirectional with the voluntary forces. Such directional relationships were independent of stimulation intensity, stimulated cortical volume, or magnitude of voluntary force exerted. Dynamic force generation was associated with a marked increase in the magnitude of the evoked force that was linearly related to the rate of force generation. The timing of central conduction was different depending on functional role of the target muscle, as either agonist or joint fixator. These results indicate that the architecture of motor plans remain grossly undisrupted by cortical stimulation applied during voluntary motor behavior. The significant magnitude modulation of responses during dynamic force generation suggests an essential role of the corticospinal system in the specification of force changes. Finally, the corticospinal activation depends on the functional role assumed by the target muscle, either postural or agonist.

  12. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis.

  13. Motor planning of goal-directed action is tuned by the emotional valence of the stimulus: a kinematic study

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, P. O.; Oliveira, L. A. S.; Nogueira-Campos, A. A.; Saunier, G.; Pozzo, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Rodrigues, E. C.; Volchan, E.; Vargas, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    The basic underpinnings of homeostatic behavior include interacting with positive items and avoiding negative ones. As the planning aspects of goal-directed actions can be inferred from their movement features, we investigated the kinematics of interacting with emotion-laden stimuli. Participants were instructed to grasp emotion-laden stimuli and bring them toward their bodies while the kinematics of their wrist movement was measured. The results showed that the time to peak velocity increased for bringing pleasant stimuli towards the body compared to unpleasant and neutral ones, suggesting higher easiness in undertaking the task with pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, bringing unpleasant stimuli towards the body increased movement time in comparison with both pleasant and neutral ones while the time to peak velocity for unpleasant stimuli was the same as for that of neutral stimuli. There was no change in the trajectory length among emotional categories. We conclude that during the “reach-to-grasp” and “bring-to-the-body” movements, the valence of the stimuli affects the temporal but not the spatial kinematic features of motion. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that the kinematic features of a goal-directed action are tuned by the emotional valence of the stimuli. PMID:27364868

  14. 76 FR 174 - International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations...; International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and Distribution Business..., applicable to workers of International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization,...

  15. 76 FR 32231 - International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business... Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales Solution Department, off-site... and location is International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit,...

  16. Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No.1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off-highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses.

  17. Satellites For Sale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'For Sale' sign refering to the two satellites, Palapa B-2 and Westar 6 that they retrieved from orbit after their Payload Assist Modules (PAM) failed to fire. Astronaut Joseph P. Allen IV, who also participated in the two EVAs, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar 6 nearer Discovery's aft.

  18. 7 CFR 46.19 - Sales tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales tickets. 46.19 Section 46.19 Agriculture... Receivers § 46.19 Sales tickets. Sales tickets shall bear printed serial numbers running consecutively and...-day period. The sales tickets shall be prepared and all the details of the sale shall be entered...

  19. 29 CFR 779.327 - Wholesale sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wholesale sales. 779.327 Section 779.327 Labor Regulations... Particular Industryâ § 779.327 Wholesale sales. A wholesale sale, of course, is not recognized as a retail sale. If an establishment derives more than 25 percent of its annual dollar volume from sales made...

  20. 27 CFR 11.22 - Consignment sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consignment sales. 11.22... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Unlawful Sales Arrangements § 11.22 Consignment sales. Consignment sales are arrangements wherein the trade buyer is under no obligation to pay for distilled...

  1. Thrombostatin FM compounds: direct thrombin inhibitors - mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Nieman, M T; Burke, F; Warnock, M; Zhou, Y; Sweigart, J; Chen, A; Ricketts, D; Lucchesi, B R; Chen, Z; Cera, E Di; Hilfinger, J; Kim, J S; Mosberg, H I; Schmaier, A H

    2008-04-29

    Novel pentapeptides called Thrombostatin FM compounds consisting mostly of D-isomers and unusual amino acids were prepared based upon the stable angiotensin converting enzyme breakdown product of bradykinin - RPPGF. These peptides are direct thrombin inhibitors prolonging the thrombin clotting time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time at ≥0.78, 1.6, and 1.6 μm, respectively. They competitively inhibit α-thrombin-induced cleavage of a chromogenic substrate at 4.4--8.2 μm. They do not significantly inhibit plasma kallikrein, factor (F) XIIa, FXIa, FIXa, FVIIa-TF, FXa, plasmin or cathepsin G. One form, FM19 [rOicPaF(p-Me)], blocks α-thrombin-induced calcium flux in fibroblasts with an IC50 of 6.9 ± 1.2 μm. FM19 achieved 100% inhibition of threshold α- or γ-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation at 8.4 ± 4.7 μm and 16 ± 4 μm, respectively. The crystal structure of thrombin in complex with FM19 shows that the N-terminal D-Arg retrobinds into the S1 pocket, its second residue Oic interacts with His-57, Tyr-60a and Trp-60d, and its C-terminal p-methyl Phe engages thrombin's aryl binding site composed of Ile-174, Trp-215, and Leu-99. When administered intraperitoneal, intraduodenal, or orally to mice, FM19 prolongs thrombin clotting times and delays carotid artery thrombosis. FM19, a low affinity reversible direct thrombin inhibitor, might be useful as an add-on agent to address an unmet need in platelet inhibition in acute coronary syndromes in diabetics and others who with all current antiplatelet therapy still have reactive platelets.

  2. Estimating sales and sales market share from sales rank data for consumer appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touzani, Samir; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Our motivation in this work is to find an adequate probability distribution to fit sales volumes of different appliances. This distribution allows for the translation of sales rank into sales volume. This paper shows that the log-normal distribution and specifically the truncated version are well suited for this purpose. We demonstrate that using sales proxies derived from a calibrated truncated log-normal distribution function can be used to produce realistic estimates of market average product prices, and product attributes. We show that the market averages calculated with the sales proxies derived from the calibrated, truncated log-normal distribution provide better market average estimates than sales proxies estimated with simpler distribution functions.

  3. 78 FR 19520 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale COC-74813, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale COC-74813, CO AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain Federal coal reserves (Red Wash Tracts 1 and 2) in Moffat and Rio Blanco Counties, Colorado,...

  4. 20 CFR 10.709 - What happens if a beneficiary directed by OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does not believe that a claim can be successfully... beneficiary directed by OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does not believe that a claim can be... should request that OWCP or SOL release him or her from the obligation to proceed. This request should...

  5. 20 CFR 10.709 - What happens if a beneficiary directed by OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does not believe that a claim can be successfully... beneficiary directed by OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does not believe that a claim can be... should request that OWCP or SOL release him or her from the obligation to proceed. This request should...

  6. 20 CFR 10.709 - What happens if a beneficiary directed by OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does not believe that a claim can be successfully... beneficiary directed by OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does not believe that a claim can be... should request that OWCP or SOL release him or her from the obligation to proceed. This request should...

  7. 20 CFR 10.709 - What happens if a beneficiary directed by OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or SOL to take action against a third party does not believe that a claim can be successfully... beneficiary directed by OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does not believe that a claim can be... should request that OWCP or SOL release him or her from the obligation to proceed. This request should...

  8. 20 CFR 10.709 - What happens if a beneficiary directed by OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or SOL to take action against a third party does not believe that a claim can be successfully... beneficiary directed by OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does not believe that a claim can be... should request that OWCP or SOL release him or her from the obligation to proceed. This request should...

  9. Direct action of electromagnetic fields on fluids. Final report. Report on phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Philp, S.F.

    1985-11-27

    Fluids with imbedded charges or currents can interact with electric and magnetic fields. The aspect of magnetofluid dynamics has been explored with particular reference to its possible application in pumping fluids and in the measurement of fluid flow. A charge-injection/electric-field pump has the advantage that electric power is converted directly into fluid power, in a simple device, with no moving parts; the main disadvantage is that the technique is limited to very low pressures (10,000 Pascal, or less). The study of magnetic-fluid interactions led to the development of a device for flow measurement applicable to all fluids, whether insulating or conducting. It is based on the fact that a potential gradient is generated in a fluid that moves in a magnetic field. Such a magnetic transducer can be built very simply and inexpensively, using a permanent magnet as the source of the exciting field. The device covers a wide range of fluid velocities, and is independent of fluid properties and of flow regime.

  10. 21 CFR 1314.100 - Sales limits for mail-order sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sales limits for mail-order sales. 1314.100 Section 1314.100 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Mail-Order Sales § 1314.100 Sales limits for mail-order sales. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 1314.100 - Sales limits for mail-order sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sales limits for mail-order sales. 1314.100 Section 1314.100 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Mail-Order Sales § 1314.100 Sales limits for mail-order sales. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 1314.100 - Sales limits for mail-order sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sales limits for mail-order sales. 1314.100 Section 1314.100 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Mail-Order Sales § 1314.100 Sales limits for mail-order sales. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 1314.100 - Sales limits for mail-order sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sales limits for mail-order sales. 1314.100 Section 1314.100 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Mail-Order Sales § 1314.100 Sales limits for mail-order sales. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 1314.100 - Sales limits for mail-order sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales limits for mail-order sales. 1314.100 Section 1314.100 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Mail-Order Sales § 1314.100 Sales limits for mail-order sales. (a)...

  15. 48 CFR 245.7302 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competitive sales. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7302 Competitive sales....

  16. Global Sales Training's Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehle, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A one-size-fits-all global sales strategy that fails to take into account the cultural, regulatory, geographic, and economic differences that exist across borders is a blueprint for failure. For training organizations tasked with educating globally dispersed sales forces, the challenge is adapting to these differences while simultaneously…

  17. Electric sales and revenue: 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1993. Operating revenue includes energy charges, demand charges, consumer service charges, environmental surcharges, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. Because electric rates vary based on energy usage, average revenue per kilowatthour are affected by changes in the volume of sales. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  18. Electric sales and revenue 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1996. 16 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. 26 CFR 1.927(d)-2T - Temporary regulations; definitions and special rules relating to Foreign Sales Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... involving direct sales to F, each of X and Y is a related supplier of F. (b) Definition of related party... rules relating to Foreign Sales Corporation. 1.927(d)-2T Section 1.927(d)-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL... relating to Foreign Sales Corporation. (a) Definition of related supplier. For purposes of sections...

  20. The relevance of moral norms in distinct relational contexts: Purity versus harm norms regulate self-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Dungan, James A.; Chakroff, Alek; Young, Liane

    2017-01-01

    Recent efforts to partition the space of morality have focused on the descriptive content of distinct moral domains (e.g., harm versus purity), or alternatively, the relationship between the perpetrator and victim of moral violations. Across three studies, we demonstrate that harm and purity norms are relevant in distinct relational contexts. Moral judgments of purity violations, compared to harm violations, are relatively more sensitive to the negative impact perpetrators have on themselves versus other victims (Study 1). This pattern replicates across a wide array of harm and purity violations varying in severity (Studies 2 and 3). Moreover, while perceptions of harm predict moral judgment consistently across relational contexts, perceptions of purity predict moral judgment more for self-directed actions, where perpetrators violate themselves, compared to dyadic actions, where perpetrators violate other victims (Study 3). Together, these studies reveal how an action’s content and its relational context interact to influence moral judgment, providing novel insights into the adaptive functions of harm and purity norms. PMID:28278214

  1. The Allocation of Attention to Learning of Goal-Directed Actions: A Cognitive Neuroscience Framework Focusing on the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Franz, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper builds on the idea that attention is largely in service of our actions. A framework and model which captures the allocation of attention for learning of goal-directed actions is proposed and developed. This framework highlights an evolutionary model based on the notion that rudimentary functions of the basal ganglia have become embedded into increasingly higher levels of networks which all contribute to adaptive learning. Supporting the proposed model, background literature is presented alongside key evidence based on experimental studies in the so-called “split-brain” (surgically divided cerebral hemispheres), and selected evidence from related areas of research. Although overlap with other existing findings and models is acknowledged, the proposed framework is an original synthesis of cognitive experimental findings with supporting evidence of a neural system and a carefully formulated model of attention. It is the hope that this new synthesis will be informative in fields of cognition and other fields of brain sciences and will lead to new avenues for experimentation across domains. PMID:23267335

  2. Prostaglandin protection of human isolated gastric glands against indomethacin and ethanol injury. Evidence for direct cellular action of prostaglandin.

    PubMed Central

    Tarnawski, A; Brzozowski, T; Sarfeh, I J; Krause, W J; Ulich, T R; Gergely, H; Hollander, D

    1988-01-01

    Isolated human gastric glands from surgical specimens were preincubated in an oxygenated medium with placebo or 16,16 dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2) and incubated at 37 degrees C in either medium alone, medium containing 4.43 mM indomethacin or medium containing 8% ethanol. We assessed the viability of gland cells with fast green exclusion, release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the medium, and ultrastructural damage by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Both indomethacin and ethanol significantly reduced the viability of placebo-pretreated glands, increased LDH release into the medium, and produced prominent ultrastructural damage. DmPGE2 significantly reduced both indomethacin and ethanol-induced injury, increased the number of viable cells, reduced LDH release, and diminished the extent of ultrastructural damage. These studies indicate that PG protection of gastric mucosal cells has a direct cellular action that is not limited to replacement of depleted endogenous PGs. PG protection in our experiments did not depend on PG's previously described systemic actions, such as protection of the microvessels, preservation of the mucosal blood flow, or stimulation of bicarbonate and mucus secretion. Images PMID:3350966

  3. A direct amygdala-motor pathway for emotional displays to influence action: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Grèzes, Julie; Valabrègue, Romain; Gholipour, Bahar; Chevallier, Coralie

    2014-12-01

    An important evolutionary function of emotions is to prime individuals for action. Although functional neuroimaging has provided evidence for such a relationship, little is known about the anatomical substrates allowing the limbic system to influence cortical motor-related areas. Using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and probabilistic tractography on a cohort of 40 participants, we provide evidence of a structural connection between the amygdala and motor-related areas (lateral and medial precentral, motor cingulate and primary motor cortices, and postcentral gyrus) in humans. We then compare this connection with the connections of the amygdala with emotion-related brain areas (superior temporal sulcus, fusiform gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, and lateral inferior frontal gyrus) and determine which amygdala nuclei are at the origin of these projections. Beyond the well-known subcortical influences over automatic and stereotypical emotional behaviors, a direct amygdala-motor pathway might provide a mechanism by which the amygdala can influence more complex motor behaviors.

  4. 78 FR 15004 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  5. 77 FR 42704 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  6. 78 FR 62594 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  7. 77 FR 51780 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  8. 78 FR 62597 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  9. 78 FR 15001 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency. Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  10. 78 FR 62592 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  11. 78 FR 62590 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  12. 78 FR 62588 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  13. 77 FR 75617 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  14. 77 FR 44177 - Antimicrobial Animal Drug Sales and Distribution Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 514 Antimicrobial Animal Drug Sales and Distribution Reporting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is soliciting comments regarding...

  15. 75 FR 48947 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section...

  16. 75 FR 11865 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section...

  17. 75 FR 30787 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section...

  18. 76 FR 27022 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  19. 76 FR 43659 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  20. 76 FR 37078 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  1. 75 FR 23247 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section...

  2. 75 FR 69957 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  3. 75 FR 69938 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  4. 76 FR 40703 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  5. 75 FR 69931 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  6. 77 FR 60391 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section...

  7. 75 FR 60424 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of two section...

  8. 75 FR 61440 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of three...

  9. 75 FR 48646 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of three...

  10. 75 FR 69926 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  11. 75 FR 74011 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  12. 75 FR 4785 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section...

  13. 75 FR 47275 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of two section...

  14. 75 FR 76408 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  15. 75 FR 76412 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  16. 75 FR 76415 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  17. 76 FR 107 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  18. 75 FR 41820 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of five section...

  19. 75 FR 69960 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  20. 75 FR 69922 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  1. 76 FR 103 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  2. 76 FR 30676 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  3. 75 FR 74014 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  4. 75 FR 27314 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section...

  5. 75 FR 76418 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  6. 77 FR 60384 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section...

  7. 75 FR 69953 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  8. 76 FR 29212 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  9. 75 FR 29998 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section...

  10. 76 FR 17111 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  11. 76 FR 27026 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  12. 75 FR 69971 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  13. 76 FR 37075 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  14. 76 FR 37071 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  15. 77 FR 60387 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section...

  16. 75 FR 5971 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of six section...

  17. 77 FR 40028 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of... contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States by helping to improve...

  18. 75 FR 69947 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  19. 76 FR 30670 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  20. 75 FR 81993 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b... Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM,...

  1. 76 FR 8716 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section...

  2. 76 FR 18726 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b... Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM,...

  3. 76 FR 18731 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b... Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM,...

  4. 75 FR 9182 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b... July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740....

  5. 75 FR 51445 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b... July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740....

  6. Final Environmental Assessment. Sale of Cove Gardens Military Family Housing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Assessment Purpose of and Need for Action Sale of Cove Gardens Military Family Housing Area ( NJ NN N u • ~ .6- ~41 4 C4 Figure 1-1 Site Location Map June...outfall lines run under Watson Bayou to the Millville Wastewater Treatment Plant. Wastewater flows within Panama City are treated by the Millville

  7. 76 FR 28063 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the Belle Ayr North Coal Tract described below in Campbell County, Wyoming, will be offered for...

  8. 76 FR 63323 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...-L13200000-EL0000-P; MTM 97988] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the coal reserves in the lands... by application (LBA) filed by Signal Peak Energy LLC. The Federal coal resource to be...

  9. 77 FR 2316 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the coal reserves in the lands... lease by application (LBA) filed by Signal Peak Energy LLC. The Federal coal resource to be...

  10. Weather, land satellite sale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan announced on March 8 plans to sell to private industry the nation's land and meteorological remote-sensing satellites, including the responsibility for any future ocean-observing systems. According to the plan, the private firm successful in its bid to buy the five satellites would sell back to the government the data received by the satellites. The Reagan administration says the sale will save money and will put activities appropriate for commercial ventures into the commercial sector. Response to the announcement from scientists and congressmen has been anything but dulcet; one senator, in fact, charges that the Commerce Department and the corporation most likely to purchase the satellites are engaged in a ‘sweetheart deal.’

  11. Electric sales and revenue, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-21

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenues, and average revenue. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1990. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the revenue billed for the amount of kilowatthours sold, revenue from income, unemployment and other State and local taxes, energy or demand charges, consumer services charges, environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  12. Electric sales and revenue 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1997. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. Electric sales and revenue 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the United States. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1994.

  14. Pouring or chilling a bottle of wine: an fMRI study on the prospective planning of object-directed actions.

    PubMed

    van Elk, M; Viswanathan, S; van Schie, H T; Bekkering, H; Grafton, S T

    2012-04-01

    This fMRI study investigates the neural mechanisms supporting the retrieval of action semantics. A novel motor imagery task was used in which participants were required to imagine planning actions with a familiar object (e.g. a toothbrush) or with an unfamiliar object (e.g. a pair of pliers) based on either goal-related information (i.e. where to move the object) or grip-related information (i.e. how to grasp the object). Planning actions with unfamiliar compared to familiar objects was slower and was associated with increased activation in the bilateral superior parietal lobe, the right inferior parietal lobe and the right insula. The stronger activation in parietal areas for unfamiliar objects fits well with the idea that parietal areas are involved in motor imagery and suggests that this process takes more effort in the case of novel or unfamiliar actions. In contrast, the planning of familiar actions resulted in increased activation in the anterior prefrontal cortex, suggesting that subjects maintained a stronger goal-representation when planning actions with familiar compared to unfamiliar objects. These findings provide further insight into the neural structures that support action semantic knowledge for the functional use of real-world objects and suggest that action semantic knowledge is activated most readily when actions are planned in a goal-directed manner.

  15. Setting the Direction. Partnerships in Action: First Nations, Metis and Inuit Learning Access and Success. A Learning Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Aboriginal Learning Subcommittee looked specifically at developing recommendations that address First Nations, Metis and Inuit learning needs and supports. The Subcommittee proposes policy actions and recommends that all stakeholders work together to implement these actions. The first recommendation for action is to build on partnerships to…

  16. Facilitation effect of observed motor deviants in a cooperative motor task: Evidence for direct perception of social intention in action.

    PubMed

    Quesque, François; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne; Coello, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal parameters of voluntary motor action may help optimize human social interactions. Yet it is unknown whether individuals performing a cooperative task spontaneously perceive subtly informative social cues emerging through voluntary actions. In the present study, an auditory cue was provided through headphones to an actor and a partner who faced each other. Depending on the pitch of the auditory cue, either the actor or the partner were required to grasp and move a wooden dowel under time constraints from a central to a lateral position. Before this main action, the actor performed a preparatory action under no time constraint, consisting in placing the wooden dowel on the central location when receiving either a neutral ("prêt"-ready) or an informative auditory cue relative to who will be asked to perform the main action (the actor: "moi"-me, or the partner: "lui"-him). Although the task focused on the main action, analysis of motor performances revealed that actors performed the preparatory action with longer reaction times and higher trajectories when informed that the partner would be performing the main action. In this same condition, partners executed the main actions with shorter reaction times and lower velocities, despite having received no previous informative cues. These results demonstrate that the mere observation of socially driven motor actions spontaneously influences the low-level kinematics of voluntary motor actions performed by the observer during a cooperative motor task. These findings indicate that social intention can be anticipated from the mere observation of action patterns.

  17. Paid to Persuade: Careers in Sales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Workers who make a living in sales are paid to persuade others to buy goods and services. Just about anything, from apricots to zip-line tours, needs an intermediary to move from producer to buyer. That go-between person is the sales worker. Sales jobs are numerous. In May 2010, there were over 13 million wage and salary sales workers in the…

  18. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be at prices offered through the...

  19. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be...

  20. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be...

  1. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be...

  2. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be...

  3. 48 CFR 245.7306 - Sales services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sales services. 245.7306... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7306 Sales services. When sale services are needed, the plant clearance officer will document the reasons...

  4. 24 CFR 291.90 - Sales methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales methods. 291.90 Section 291... DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF HUD-ACQUIRED SINGLE FAMILY PROPERTY Disposition by Sale § 291.90 Sales methods. HUD will prescribe the terms and conditions for all methods of sale. HUD may,...

  5. 7 CFR 46.25 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auction sales. 46.25 Section 46.25 Agriculture... THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Auction Sales § 46.25 Auction sales. Commission merchants, dealers and brokers who offer produce for sale through...

  6. Ear dominance and telephone sales.

    PubMed

    Furnham, A; Richardson, S; Miller, T

    1997-10-01

    In a field study, three equally sized sales teams used on of three head-sets--left, right, both ears--for a day's selling of insurance by telephone. This had no effect on sales. In a retrospective study of records, daily sales performance including the percentage conversion rate for sales divided by the number of calls and the number and duration of calls was related to preference for type of head-set. Sales were markedly influenced by the choice of head-set. People who chose to wear the left earpiece significantly out sold the others wearing right and stereohead-sets. Neither the number of incoming calls nor the time spent on the telephone were influenced by the choice of head-set. When sales are analysed in terms of individual differences in personal preference for type of head-set, those who chose the left ear had an advantage. Forced use of the left, versus right ear or both ears for one day had no effect.

  7. Differential effects of systemic cholinergic receptor blockade on Pavlovian incentive motivation and goal-directed action selection.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Sean B; Kosheleff, Alisa R; Maidment, Nigel T

    2014-05-01

    Reward-seeking actions can be guided by external cues that signal reward availability. For instance, when confronted with a stimulus that signals sugar, rats will prefer an action that produces sugar over a second action that produces grain pellets. Action selection is also sensitive to changes in the incentive value of potential rewards. Thus, rats that have been prefed a large meal of sucrose will prefer a grain-seeking action to a sucrose-seeking action. The current study investigated the dependence of these different aspects of action selection on cholinergic transmission. Hungry rats were given differential training with two unique stimulus-outcome (S1-O1 and S2-O2) and action-outcome (A1-O1 and A2-O2) contingencies during separate training phases. Rats were then given a series of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer tests, an assay of cue-triggered responding. Before each test, rats were injected with scopolamine (0, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, or mecamylamine (0, 0.75, or 2.25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Although the reward-paired cues were capable of biasing action selection when rats were tested off-drug, both anticholinergic treatments were effective in disrupting this effect. During a subsequent round of outcome devaluation testing-used to assess the sensitivity of action selection to a change in reward value--we found no effect of either scopolamine or mecamylamine. These results reveal that cholinergic signaling at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors mediates action selection based on Pavlovian reward expectations, but is not critical for flexibly selecting actions using current reward values.

  8. HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Postexposure Prophylaxis in Japan: Context of Use and Directions for Future Research and Action.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Anthony S; Takeda, Makiko

    2017-02-01

    Biomedical HIV prevention strategies are playing an increasingly prominent role in addressing HIV epidemics globally, but little is known about their use in Japan, where persistent HIV disparities and a recently stable, but not declining, national epidemic indicate the need for evolving approaches. We conducted an ethnographic study to determine the context of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) use and to identify directions for future research and action in Japan. We used data from observational fieldwork in the Kansai region and Tokyo Metropolitan Area (n = 178 persons observed), qualitative interviews (n = 32), documents and web-based data sources (n = 321), and email correspondences (n = 9) in the period 2013-2016. Drug approvals by Japan's regulatory agencies, insurance coverage for medications, and policies by healthcare institutions and government agencies were the main factors affecting PrEP and PEP legality, use, and awareness. Awareness and the observable presence of PrEP and PEP were very limited, particularly at the community level. PrEP and PEP held appeal for Japanese scientists and activists, and for study participants who represented various other stakeholder groups; however, significant concerns prevented open endorsements. Japanese health officials should prioritize a national discussion, weigh empirical evidence, and strongly consider formal approval of antiretroviral (ARV) medications for use in PrEP and both occupational and nonoccupational PEP. Once approved, social marketing campaigns can be used to advertise widely and increase awareness. Future research would benefit from theoretical grounding in a diffusion of innovations framework. These findings can inform current and future ARV-based prevention strategies at a critical time in the international conversation.

  9. A Comparison of Beliefs and Disbeliefs and Reference Category Characteristics as Directive Factors of Social Action in Five Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, William W.; And Others

    In order to illustrate the cross-culture applicability of Reeder's Theory of Beliefs, Disbeliefs, and Social Action and its usefulness in predicting and explaining social actions, studies conducted in communities in India, Sudan, Lebanon, northeastern United States, and western United States are examined. Using this theory, beliefs and disbeliefs…

  10. Internet cigarette sales and Native American sovereignty: political and public health contexts.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Kari A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Williams, Rebecca S

    2012-05-01

    Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) advertise low prices for tobacco products, subverting public health policy efforts to curtail smoking by raising prices. Many online retailers in the United States claim affiliation with Native American tribes and share in tribal tax-free status. Sales of discounted cigarettes from both online vendors and brick-and-mortar stores have angered non-Native retailers and triggered enforcement actions by state and federal governments in the United States concerned over lost cigarette excise tax revenue. Examination of the history and politics of cigarette sales on reservations and attempts to regulate Internet cigarette sales highlights the potential role for greater use of negotiated intergovernmental agreements to address reservation-based tobacco sales. Our review notes global parallels and explicates history and politics of such regulation in the United States, and offers background for collaborative efforts to regulate tobacco sales and decrease tobacco use.

  11. 78 FR 44150 - Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 1 (ATLW1) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Atlantic Wind Lease Sale 1 (ATLW1) Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on... Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Final Sale Notice for Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer... commercial wind energy lease on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) offshore Virginia, pursuant to...

  12. 77 FR 61022 - Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 and Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2012 and... Petroleum Reserve-- Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau... notifies the public that it will hold a National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska oil and gas lease sale...

  13. 78 FR 701 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... components, iDirect e8350 modem, network operation and dynamic bandwidth equipment, and iMonitor software... dynamic bandwidth equipment, and iMonitor software), spares and repair parts, tools, personnel training.... This proposed sale will continue U.S. support to the development of Iraqi Defense Network (IDN)...

  14. 29 CFR 779.15 - Sale and resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale and resale. 779.15 Section 779.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES General Some...

  15. Curriculum for Sale?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melehy, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Given the widespread tendency to direct budget cuts in higher education toward areas perceived as less essential to economic productivity, there is not a single college or university humanities program in the United States that would not benefit from philanthropy. However, because some moneyed interests use the current crisis as a pretext to…

  16. Sales Training for Army Recruiter Success: Modeling the Sales Strategies and Skills of Excellent Recruiters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    strategies used by excellent Army recruiters. Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) was used as the protocol for modeling performance and acquiring...Behavioral and Social Sciences 3001 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22333-5600 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK ARE* 4 WORK UNIT...Modeling ’Expert knowledge,, Neurolinguistics Knowledge engineering; Recruiting Sales, &’ Sales cycle Sales skills Sales strategies 20

  17. Advertising and Sales Promotion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 4-unit, 1-year marketing education course in advertising and sales promotion offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. The preface contains a rationale for the development of the course, a course description, course objectives, a list of the instructional units of the course, and a list of the…

  18. The Student Body, for Sale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troop, Don

    2013-01-01

    The sale of bodily goods or services--"body commodification"--is nothing new among college students. But strides in medical technology, the encroachment of market values on all facets of life, and the reach and culture of the Internet have combined to create a fertile environment for people who want or need to exploit the value of their skin or…

  19. 75 FR 17156 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Western Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 215 (2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Minerals Management Service Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Western Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 215 (2010) Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Minerals Management Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of an environmental assessment. SUMMARY: The Minerals Management Service (MMS)...

  20. Characterizing the associative content of brain structures involved in habitual and goal-directed actions in humans: a multivariate FMRI study.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Daniel; Liljeholm, Mimi; Zika, Ondrej; O'Doherty, John P

    2015-03-04

    While there is accumulating evidence for the existence of distinct neural systems supporting goal-directed and habitual action selection in the mammalian brain, much less is known about the nature of the information being processed in these different brain regions. Associative learning theory predicts that brain systems involved in habitual control, such as the dorsolateral striatum, should contain stimulus and response information only, but not outcome information, while regions involved in goal-directed action, such as ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsomedial striatum, should be involved in processing information about outcomes as well as stimuli and responses. To test this prediction, human participants underwent fMRI while engaging in a binary choice task designed to enable the separate identification of these different representations with a multivariate classification analysis approach. Consistent with our predictions, the dorsolateral striatum contained information about responses but not outcomes at the time of an initial stimulus, while the regions implicated in goal-directed action selection contained information about both responses and outcomes. These findings suggest that differential contributions of these regions to habitual and goal-directed behavioral control may depend in part on basic differences in the type of information that these regions have access to at the time of decision making.

  1. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1 Cruise sales. As the general practice, the Bureau will sell timber on a tree cruise basis....

  2. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.227 Sale advertisement. (a) The Forest Service shall advertise any special forest products sales with an appraised...

  3. 77 FR 16768 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Office of... frozen box/primal cuts) and distillers dried grain (DDG) to the Export Sales Reporting Requirements, is..., Branch Chief, Export Sales Reporting Branch, Import Policies and Export Reporting Division, Office...

  4. 78 FR 16819 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 Export Sales Reporting Requirements AGENCY... (DDG) be added to the Export Sales Reporting program (ESR). A final rule was issued to add pork to the... regarding mandatory export sales reporting for DDG. DATES: Submit comments on the proposed rule on or...

  5. 77 FR 13990 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Office of... (fresh, chilled, and frozen box/primal cuts) and distillers dried grain (DDG) to the Export Sales... report on a weekly basis, information on the export sales of pork and DDGs to the Foreign...

  6. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  7. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  8. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  9. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  10. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  11. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  12. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  13. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  14. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  15. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  16. 24 CFR 290.13 - Negotiated sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiated sales. 290.13 Section... DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF MULTIFAMILY PROJECTS AND SALE OF HUD-HELD MULTIFAMILY MORTGAGES Disposition of Multifamily Projects § 290.13 Negotiated sales. When HUD conducts a negotiated...

  17. 36 CFR 228.58 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive sales. 228.58... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.58 Competitive sales. (a) Invitation for bid. Sales must be conducted as described below after inviting competitive bids through...

  18. 21 CFR 203.20 - Sales restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales restrictions. 203.20 Section 203.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Sales Restrictions § 203.20 Sales restrictions. Except as provided in § 203.22...

  19. 7 CFR 1955.148 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Auction sales. 1955.148 Section 1955.148 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.148 Auction sales. This section provides guidance on the sale of all inventory property by auction, except FSA...

  20. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by...

  1. 15 CFR 904.505 - Summary sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Summary sale. 904.505 Section 904.505... and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.505 Summary sale. (a) In view of the perishable nature of fish, any... the sale to a person authorized to enforce a statute administered by NOAA immediately upon request...

  2. 14 CFR 381.9 - Sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales. 381.9 Section 381.9 Aeronautics and... SPECIAL EVENT TOURS § 381.9 Sales. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section: (1) No... booking must be returned within 3 business days. (2) Upon acceptance of the money for a sale, the...

  3. Enforcing regulations on alcohol sales and use as universal environmental prevention.

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartroli, Montserrat; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Guitart, Anna M; Serra-Batiste, Enric; Casas, Conrad; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-12-15

    The informal social control over alcohol consumption that was traditional in Southern European countries has weakened. At the same time there is an increase in binge drinking and drunkenness among young people in Spain. To mitigate this problem, regulations on alcohol and driving and restrictions on the sale and consumption of alcohol have been adopted. This paper documents the current regulations in the city of Barcelona and describes efforts to enforce them and their outcomes. Data from the municipal information systems on infringements reported for the period 2008-13 are provided. There is an increasing pressure of municipal services to enforce the rules in two areas: a) alcohol sales at night (retailers); and b) consumption in the public space (citizens). An increase in the controls of drink-driving has also taken place, and the proportion above legal limits has decreased. The largest relative increase occurred in the control of retailers. In Barcelona interventions are made to limit the supply and consumption of alcohol at low cost and during the night, and of driving under the influence of alcohol. There have been no documented episodes of massive drinking in public spaces (known as 'botellón') in the city. These actions, which complement other preventive efforts based on health education, can change the social perceptions of alcohol by minors in a direction less favorable to consumption, promoting environmental prevention.

  4. Is Earth F**ked? Dynamical Futility of Global Environmental Management and Possibilities for Sustainability via Direct Action Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    wErnEr, B.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental challenges are dynamically generated within the dominant global culture principally by the mismatch between short-time-scale market and political forces driving resource extraction/use and longer-time-scale accommodations of the Earth system to these changes. Increasing resource demand is leading to the development of two-way, nonlinear interactions between human societies and environmental systems that are becoming global in extent, either through globalized markets and other institutions or through coupling to global environmental systems such as climate. These trends are further intensified by dissipation-reducing technological advances in transactions, communication and transport, which suppress emergence of longer-time-scale economic and political levels of description and facilitate long-distance connections, and by predictive environmental modeling, which strengthens human connections to a short-time-scale virtual Earth, and weakens connections to the longer time scales of the actual Earth. Environmental management seeks to steer fast scale economic and political interests of a coupled human-environmental system towards longer-time-scale consideration of benefits and costs by operating within the confines of the dominant culture using a linear, engineering-type connection to the system. Perhaps as evidenced by widespread inability to meaningfully address such global environmental challenges as climate change and soil degradation, nonlinear connections reduce the ability of managers to operate outside coupled human-environmental systems, decreasing their effectiveness in steering towards sustainable interactions and resulting in managers slaved to short-to-intermediate-term interests. In sum, the dynamics of the global coupled human-environmental system within the dominant culture precludes management for stable, sustainable pathways and promotes instability. Environmental direct action, resistance taken from outside the dominant culture, as in

  5. 48 CFR 52.203-6 - Restrictions on Subcontractor Sales to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prospective subcontractor, nor otherwise act in any manner, which has or may have the effect of restricting sales by such subcontractors directly to the Government of any item or process (including...

  6. Technology and the sales force: Amach, Inc.

    PubMed

    Carteer, Tony

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the application of sales force technology by Amach, Inc. a Detroit based medical device firm. Sales force technology represents a variety of dynamic tools that can help the sales force. While these tools cannot replace the salesperson and generate deals from customers, they can enhance efficiency and effectiveness levels. Sales force technology can range from computer laptops, pagers, cellular phones, desktop personal computers and software for contact management, database management and multimedia presentations. The key for sales managers to remember is that these tools do not drive themselves and still need the skill of management to get the best results. Managerial suggestions and research ideas are presented.

  7. Tracking Cholera through Surveillance of Oral Rehydration Solution Sales at Pharmacies: Insights from Urban Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Andrew S.; Lessler, Justin; Satter, Syed Moinuddin; Mckay, Michael V.; Khan, Azharul; Ahmed, Dilruba; Gurley, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, pharmacy-purchased oral rehydration solution (ORS) is often used to treat diarrhea, including cholera. Over-the-counter sales have been used for epidemiologic surveillance in the past, but rarely, if ever, in low-income countries. With few early indicators for cholera outbreaks in endemic areas, diarrhea-related product sales may serve as a useful surveillance tool. Methodology/Principal Findings We tracked daily ORS sales at 50 pharmacies and drug-sellers in an urban Bangladesh community of 129,000 for 6-months while simultaneously conducting surveillance for diarrhea hospitalizations among residents. We developed a mobile phone based system to track the sales of ORS and deployed it in parallel with a paper-based system. Our objectives were to determine if the mobile phone system was practical and acceptable to pharmacists and drug sellers, whether data were reported accurately compared to a paper-based system, and whether ORS sales were associated with future incidence of cholera hospitalizations within the community. We recorded 47,215 customers purchasing ORS, and 315 hospitalized diarrhea cases, 22% of which had culture-confirmed cholera. ORS sales and diarrhea incidence were independently associated with the mean daily temperature; therefore both unadjusted and adjusted models were explored. Through unadjusted cross-correlation statistics and generalized linear models, we found increases in ORS sales were significantly associated with increases in hospitalized diarrhea cases up to 9-days later and hospitalized cholera cases up to one day later. After adjusting for mean daily temperature, ORS was significantly associated with hospitalized diarrhea two days later and hospitalized cholera one day later. Conclusions/Significance Pharmacy sales data may serve as a feasible and useful surveillance tool. Given the relatively short lagged correlation between ORS sales and diarrhea, rapid and accurate sales data are key. More work is needed

  8. Goal-Directed Actions Activate the Face-Sensitive Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus and Fusiform Gyrus in the Absence of Human-Like Perceptual Cues

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The conditions under which we identify entities as animate agents and the neural mechanisms supporting this ability are central questions in social neuroscience. Prior studies have focused upon 2 perceptual cues for signaling animacy: 1) surface features representing body forms such as faces, torsos, and limbs and 2) motion cues associated with biological forms. Here, we consider a third cue—the goal-directedness of an action. Regions in the social brain network, such as the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and fusiform face area (FFA), are activated by human-like motion and body form perceptual cues signaling animacy. Here, we investigate whether these same brain regions are activated by goal-directed motion even when performed by entities that lack human-like perceptual cues. We observed an interaction effect whereby the presence of either human-like perceptual cues or goal-directed actions was sufficient to activate the right pSTS and FFA. Only stimuli that lacked human-like perceptual cues and goal-directed actions failed to activate the pSTS and FFA at the same level. PMID:21768227

  9. The mechanical actions of muscles predict the direction of muscle activation during postural perturbations in the cat hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, T. Richard

    2013-01-01

    Humans and cats respond to balance challenges, delivered via horizontal support surface perturbations, with directionally selective muscle recruitment and constrained ground reaction forces. It has been suggested that this postural strategy arises from an interaction of limb biomechanics and proprioceptive networks in the spinal cord. A critical experimental validation of this hypothesis is to test the prediction that the principal directions of muscular activation oppose the directions responding muscles exert their forces on the environment. Therefore, our objective was to quantify the endpoint forces of a diverse set of cat hindlimb muscles and compare them with the directionally sensitive muscle activation patterns generated in the intact and decerebrate cat. We hypothesized that muscles are activated based on their mechanical advantage. Our primary expectation was that the principal direction of muscle activation during postural perturbations will be directed oppositely (180°) from the muscle endpoint ground reaction force. We found that muscle activation during postural perturbations was indeed directed oppositely to the endpoint reaction forces of that muscle. These observations indicate that muscle recruitment during balance challenges is driven, at least in part, by limb architecture. This suggests that sensory sources that provide feedback about the mechanical environment of the limb are likely important to appropriate and effective responses during balance challenges. Finally, we extended the analysis to three dimensions and different stance widths, laying the groundwork for a more comprehensive study of postural regulation than was possible with measurements confined to the horizontal plane and a single stance configuration. PMID:24304861

  10. The mechanical actions of muscles predict the direction of muscle activation during postural perturbations in the cat hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Honeycutt, Claire F; Nichols, T Richard

    2014-03-01

    Humans and cats respond to balance challenges, delivered via horizontal support surface perturbations, with directionally selective muscle recruitment and constrained ground reaction forces. It has been suggested that this postural strategy arises from an interaction of limb biomechanics and proprioceptive networks in the spinal cord. A critical experimental validation of this hypothesis is to test the prediction that the principal directions of muscular activation oppose the directions responding muscles exert their forces on the environment. Therefore, our objective was to quantify the endpoint forces of a diverse set of cat hindlimb muscles and compare them with the directionally sensitive muscle activation patterns generated in the intact and decerebrate cat. We hypothesized that muscles are activated based on their mechanical advantage. Our primary expectation was that the principal direction of muscle activation during postural perturbations will be directed oppositely (180°) from the muscle endpoint ground reaction force. We found that muscle activation during postural perturbations was indeed directed oppositely to the endpoint reaction forces of that muscle. These observations indicate that muscle recruitment during balance challenges is driven, at least in part, by limb architecture. This suggests that sensory sources that provide feedback about the mechanical environment of the limb are likely important to appropriate and effective responses during balance challenges. Finally, we extended the analysis to three dimensions and different stance widths, laying the groundwork for a more comprehensive study of postural regulation than was possible with measurements confined to the horizontal plane and a single stance configuration.

  11. Direct Actions of Kisspeptins on GnRH Neurons Permit Attainment of Fertility but are Insufficient to Fully Preserve Gonadotropic Axis Activity

    PubMed Central

    León, Silvia; Barroso, Alexia; Vázquez, María J.; García-Galiano, David; Manfredi-Lozano, María; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Heras, Violeta; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Roa, Juan; Schutz, Günther; Kirilov, Milen; Gaytan, Francisco; Pinilla, Leonor; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptins, ligands of the receptor, Gpr54, are potent stimulators of puberty and fertility. Yet, whether direct kisspeptin actions on GnRH neurons are sufficient for the whole repertoire of their reproductive effects remains debatable. To dissect out direct vs. indirect effects of kisspeptins on GnRH neurons in vivo, we report herein the detailed reproductive/gonadotropic characterization of a Gpr54 null mouse line with selective re-introduction of Gpr54 expression only in GnRH cells (Gpr54−/−Tg; rescued). Despite preserved fertility, adult rescued mice displayed abnormalities in gonadal microstructure, with signs of precocious ageing in females and elevated LH levels with normal-to-low testosterone secretion in males. Gpr54−/−Tg rescued mice showed also altered gonadotropin responses to negative feedback withdrawal, while luteinizing hormone responses to various gonadotropic regulators were variably affected, with partially blunted relative (but not absolute) responses to kisspeptin-10, NMDA and the agonist of tachykinin receptors, NK2R. Our data confirm that direct effects of kisspeptins on GnRH cells are sufficient to attain fertility. Yet, such direct actions appear to be insufficient to completely preserve proper functionality of gonadotropic axis, suggesting a role of kisspeptin signaling outside GnRH cells. PMID:26755241

  12. Direct Actions of Kisspeptins on GnRH Neurons Permit Attainment of Fertility but are Insufficient to Fully Preserve Gonadotropic Axis Activity.

    PubMed

    León, Silvia; Barroso, Alexia; Vázquez, María J; García-Galiano, David; Manfredi-Lozano, María; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Heras, Violeta; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Roa, Juan; Schutz, Günther; Kirilov, Milen; Gaytan, Francisco; Pinilla, Leonor; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2016-01-12

    Kisspeptins, ligands of the receptor, Gpr54, are potent stimulators of puberty and fertility. Yet, whether direct kisspeptin actions on GnRH neurons are sufficient for the whole repertoire of their reproductive effects remains debatable. To dissect out direct vs. indirect effects of kisspeptins on GnRH neurons in vivo, we report herein the detailed reproductive/gonadotropic characterization of a Gpr54 null mouse line with selective re-introduction of Gpr54 expression only in GnRH cells (Gpr54(-/-)Tg; rescued). Despite preserved fertility, adult rescued mice displayed abnormalities in gonadal microstructure, with signs of precocious ageing in females and elevated LH levels with normal-to-low testosterone secretion in males. Gpr54(-/-)Tg rescued mice showed also altered gonadotropin responses to negative feedback withdrawal, while luteinizing hormone responses to various gonadotropic regulators were variably affected, with partially blunted relative (but not absolute) responses to kisspeptin-10, NMDA and the agonist of tachykinin receptors, NK2R. Our data confirm that direct effects of kisspeptins on GnRH cells are sufficient to attain fertility. Yet, such direct actions appear to be insufficient to completely preserve proper functionality of gonadotropic axis, suggesting a role of kisspeptin signaling outside GnRH cells.

  13. Implementation of the EU environmental noise directive: lessons from the first phase of strategic noise mapping and action planning in Ireland.

    PubMed

    King, E A; Murphy, E; Rice, H J

    2011-03-01

    The first phase of noise mapping and action planning in Ireland, in accordance with EU Directive 2002/49/EC, is now complete. In total this included one agglomeration, one airport and approximately 600 km of major roads outside the agglomeration. These noise maps describe the level of noise exposure of approximately 1.25 million people. The first phase of noise mapping was dealt with by five noise mapping bodies while 26 action planning authorities were involved in the development of the associated action plans. The second phase of noise mapping, due to be completed in 2012, sees a reduction in the defined thresholds describing the required agglomerations, roads and railways that have to be mapped. This will have a significant impact on the extent of mapping required. In Ireland this will result in an increased number of local authorities being required to develop strategic noise maps for their area along with the further development of associated action plans. It is appropriate at this point to review the work process and results from the first phase of noise mapping in Ireland in order to establish areas that could be improved, throughout the noise mapping project. In this paper a review of the implementation procedures focussing on (dominant) road traffic noise is presented. It is identified that more standardisation is needed and this could be achieved by the establishment of a national expert steering group.

  14. Human parietal and primary motor cortical interactions are selectively modulated during the transport and grip formation of goal-directed hand actions.

    PubMed

    Vesia, Michael; Bolton, David A; Mochizuki, George; Staines, W R

    2013-02-01

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) constitutes a critical cortical node in the sensorimotor system in which goal-directed actions are computed. This information then must be transferred into commands suitable for hand movements to the primary motor cortex (M1). Complexity arises because reach-to-grasp actions not only require directing the hand towards the object (transport component), but also preshaping the hand according to the features of the object (grip component). Yet, the functional influence that specific PPC regions exert over ipsilateral M1 during the planning of different hand movements remains unclear in humans. Here we manipulated transport and grip components of goal-directed hand movements and exploited paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation ((pp)TMS) to probe the functional interactions between M1 and two different PPC regions, namely superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC) and the anterior region of the intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), in the left hemisphere. We show that when the extension of the arm is required to contact a target object, SPOC selectively facilitates motor evoked potentials, suggesting that SPOC-M1 interactions are functionally specific to arm transport. In contrast, a different pathway, linking the aIPS and ipsilateral M1, shows enhanced functional connections during the sensorimotor planning of grip. These results support recent human neuroimaging findings arguing for specialized human parietal regions for the planning of arm transport and hand grip during goal-directed actions. Importantly, they provide new insight into the causal influences these different parietal regions exert over ipsilateral motor cortex for specific types of planned hand movements.

  15. iES - An Intelligent Electronic Sales Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, V L; Korbe III, W; Gao, J G

    2003-10-02

    Current e-commerce systems support online shopping based on electronic product catalogs. The major issues associated with catalog-based commerce systems are: difficulty in distinguishing one retailer from another, complex navigation with confusing links, and a lack of personalized service. This paper reports an intelligent solution to address these issues. Our solution will provide a more personalized sales experience through the use of a transaction-based knowledge model that includes both the rules used for reasoning as well as the corresponding actions. Based on this solution, we have developed an intelligent electronic sales platform that is supported by a framework which provides the desired personalization as well as extensibility and customization capabilities. This paper reports our design and development of this system and application examples.

  16. Directivity patterns and pulse profiles of ultrasound emitted by laser action on interface between transparent and opaque solids: Analytical theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, Sergey M. E-mail: vitali.goussev@univ-lemans.fr; Tournat, Vincent; Chigarev, Nikolay; Castagnede, Bernard; Gusev, Vitalyi E-mail: vitali.goussev@univ-lemans.fr; Bulou, Alain; Zerr, Andreas

    2014-01-28

    The analytical theory for the directivity patterns of ultrasounds emitted from laser-irradiated interface between two isotropic solids is developed. It is valid for arbitrary combinations of transparent and opaque materials. The directivity patterns are derived both in two-dimensional and in three-dimensional geometries, by accounting for the specific features of the sound generation by the photo-induced mechanical stresses distributed in the volume, essential in the laser ultrasonics. In particular, the theory accounts for the contribution to the emitted propagating acoustic fields from the converted by the interface evanescent photo-generated compression-dilatation waves. The precise analytical solutions for the profiles of longitudinal and shear acoustic pulses emitted in different directions are proposed. The developed theory can be applied for dimensional scaling, optimization, and interpretation of the high-pressure laser ultrasonics experiments in diamond anvil cell.

  17. Antibody-Directed Cytotoxic Agents: Use of Monoclonal Antibody to Direct the Action of Toxin A Chains to Colorectal Carcinoma Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliland, D. Gary; Steplewski, Zenon; Collier, R. John; Mitchell, Kenneth F.; Chang, Tong H.; Koprowski, Hilary

    1980-08-01

    We have constructed cell-specific cytotoxic agents by covalently coupling the A chain from diphtheria toxin or ricin toxin to monoclonal antibody directed against a colorectal carcinoma tumor-associated antigen. Antibody 1083-17-1A was modified by attachment of 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionyl or cystaminyl groups and then treated with reduced A chain to give disulfide-linked conjugates that retained the original binding specificity of the antibody moiety. The conjugates showed cytotoxic activity for colorectal carcinoma cells in culture, but were not toxic in the same concentration range for a variety of cell lines that lacked the antigen. Under defined conditions virtually 100% of antigen-bearing cultured cells were killed, whereas cells that lacked the antigen were not affected. Conjugates containing toxin A chains coupled to monoclonal antibodies may be useful in studying functions of various cell surface components and, possibly, as tumor-specific therapeutic agents.

  18. 76 FR 21033 - International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business... workers of International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global...

  19. Sales skills for health-care professionals: the emotional side of sales.

    PubMed

    Nigon, D L

    2001-01-01

    Health-care sales continues to be an area of opportunity for many laboratory professionals. For those who possess the necessary skills and the desire to enthusiastically embrace the unique challenges of a sales career, a new CLMA publication by CLMR contributor Donna L. Nigon, MT(ASCP), titled Sales Skills for Health-Care Professionals, will provide the knowledge of sales structure and techniques needed to succeed. This Sales Skills excerpt, "The Emotional Side of Sales," describes many of the emotional aspects of sales and selling, including how to handle the transition from a technical or medical role to that of sales representative, relationship building, maintaining personal and professional support systems, dealing with rejection, avoiding burnout, time management, and customer concerns. For more information about this book, please see the order form that accompanies this excerpt, or visit www.clma.org.

  20. 7 CFR 1955.118 - Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on NP terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property § 1955.118 Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on... be amortized using a 30-year factor with payment in full (balloon payment) due not later than...

  1. 7 CFR 1955.118 - Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on NP terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property § 1955.118 Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on... be amortized using a 30-year factor with payment in full (balloon payment) due not later than...

  2. 7 CFR 1955.118 - Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on NP terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property § 1955.118 Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on... be amortized using a 30-year factor with payment in full (balloon payment) due not later than...

  3. 7 CFR 1955.118 - Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on NP terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property § 1955.118 Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on... be amortized using a 30-year factor with payment in full (balloon payment) due not later than...

  4. 7 CFR 1955.118 - Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on NP terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property § 1955.118 Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on... be amortized using a 30-year factor with payment in full (balloon payment) due not later than...

  5. Pulling habits out of rats: adenosine 2A receptor antagonism in dorsomedial striatum rescues meth-amphetamine-induced deficits in goal-directed action.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Teri M; Supit, Alva S A; Corbit, Laura H; Killcross, Simon; Balleine, Bernard W

    2017-01-01

    Addiction is characterized by a persistent loss of behavioral control resulting in insensitivity to negative feedback and abnormal decision-making. Here, we investigated the influence of methamphetamine (METH)-paired contextual cues on decision-making in rats. Choice between goal-directed actions was sensitive to outcome devaluation in a saline-paired context but was impaired in the METH-paired context, a deficit that was also found when negative feedback was provided. Reductions in c-Fos-related immunoreactivity were found in dorsomedial striatum (DMS) but not dorsolateral striatum after exposure to the METH context suggesting this effect reflected a loss specifically in goal-directed control in the METH context. This reduction in c-Fos was localized to non-enkephalin-expressing neurons in the DMS, likely dopamine D1-expressing direct pathway neurons, suggesting a relative change in control by the D1-direct versus D2-indirect pathways originating in the DMS may have been induced by METH-context exposure. To test this suggestion, we infused the adenosine 2A receptor antagonist ZM241385 into the DMS prior to test to reduce activity in D2 neurons relative to D1 neurons in the hope of reducing the inhibitory output from this region of the striatum. We found that this treatment fully restored sensitivity to negative feedback in a test conducted in the METH-paired context. These results suggest that drug exposure alters decision-making by downregulation of the circuitry mediating goal-directed action, an effect that can be ameliorated by acute A2A receptor inhibition in this circuit.

  6. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Joyce; Barron, Jessica; Gunn, Janelle P.; Yuan, Keming; Perrine, Cria G.; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt. PMID:25763528

  7. Iodized salt sales in the United States.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Joyce; Barron, Jessica; Gunn, Janelle P; Yuan, Keming; Perrine, Cria G; Cogswell, Mary E

    2015-03-10

    Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt.

  8. 29 CFR 779.334 - Sales of services for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resale § 779.334 Sales of services for resale. The same principles apply in the case of sales of services... retail jewelers who resell the services to their own customers, the services constitute a sale for resale... sell these services to their own customers, constitute sales for resale. As in the case of the sale...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 625 - Standard Sales Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard Sales Provisions A Appendix A to Part 625 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM Pt. 625, App. A Appendix A to Part 625—Standard Sales Provisions Index Section A—General Pre-Sale Information A.1List of abbreviations...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 625 - Standard Sales Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Sales Provisions A Appendix A to Part 625 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM Pt. 625, App. A Appendix A to Part 625—Standard Sales Provisions Index Section A—General Pre-Sale Information A.1List of abbreviations...

  11. 10 CFR 625.3 - Standard sales provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM § 625.3 Standard sales provisions. (a) Contents. The Standards Sales Provisions shall contain contract clauses which may be applicable to price competitive sales of SPR petroleum, including terms...

  12. 10 CFR 625.3 - Standard sales provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM § 625.3 Standard sales provisions. (a) Contents. The Standards Sales Provisions shall contain contract clauses which may be applicable to price competitive sales of SPR petroleum, including terms...

  13. 10 CFR 625.3 - Standard sales provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM § 625.3 Standard sales provisions. (a) Contents. The Standards Sales Provisions shall contain contract clauses which may be applicable to price competitive sales of SPR petroleum, including terms...

  14. 10 CFR 625.3 - Standard sales provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM § 625.3 Standard sales provisions. (a) Contents. The Standards Sales Provisions shall contain contract clauses which may be applicable to price competitive sales of SPR petroleum, including terms...

  15. 10 CFR 625.3 - Standard sales provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM § 625.3 Standard sales provisions. (a) Contents. The Standards Sales Provisions shall contain contract clauses which may be applicable to price competitive sales of SPR petroleum, including terms...

  16. 19 CFR 127.24 - Notice of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of sale. 127.24 Section 127.24 Customs... GENERAL ORDER, UNCLAIMED, AND ABANDONED MERCHANDISE Sale of Unclaimed and Abandoned Merchandise § 127.24 Notice of sale. Notice of sale shall be sent on Customs Form 5251, 30 days prior to the date of sale,...

  17. 36 CFR 228.61 - Preference right negotiated sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sales. 228.61 Section 228.61 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... negotiated sales. (a) Qualification for sale. When applying for a preference right negotiated sale, the... for sale. The application must be submitted to the District Ranger's office on or before...

  18. 24 CFR 203.37a - Sale of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of property. 203.37a Section....37a Sale of property. (a) Sale by owner of record—(1) Owner of record requirement. To be eligible for... transaction may not involve any sale or assignment of the sales contract. (2) Supporting documentation....

  19. 43 CFR 402.7 - Notice of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of sale. 402.7 Section 402.7 Public... SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.7 Notice of sale. The sale of lands at public auction under this part shall be administered by the Commissioner. Notice of such sales shall...

  20. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.32 Timber sale operating plan. Sale contracts with a term of 2 years or more shall...

  1. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  2. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  3. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  4. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  5. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  6. Selling Sales: Factors Influencing Undergraduate Business Students' Decision to Pursue Sales Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Concha; Kumar, Poonam; Tarasi, Crina; Wilson, Holt

    2014-01-01

    With a better understanding of the typical sales student, sales educators can design and deliver curriculum with a more customer-oriented approach. In order to better understand the decision to pursue sales education, more than 500 undergraduate business students at a large Midwestern university participated in a survey that examined the factors…

  7. Do Perceptions of Hiring Criteria Differ for Sales Managers and Sales Representatives? Implications for Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Mary Anne; Carlson, Les; Hopkins, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this study explores whether perceptions of critical hiring criteria for entry-level sales positions differ across sales managers and sales representatives. This research also examines which classroom activities and skills these individuals perceive to be most important for strengthening the desired…

  8. Evidence for direct and indirect mechanisms in the potent modulatory action of interleukin-2 on the release of acetylcholine in rat hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Seto, David; Kar, Satyabrata; Quirion, Rémi

    1997-01-01

    The biphasic nature of the potent modulatory action of interleukin-2 (IL-2) on hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) release was investigated by use of brain slice superfusion.Both the potentiating (10−13 M) and inhibitory (10−9 M) effects of IL-2 on hippocampal ACh release were stimulation-dependent and were blocked by a neutralizing IL-2 receptor antibody, suggesting the activation of typical IL-2 receptors in both cases.Tetrodotoxin (TTX; 10 μM) failed to block the potentiation of ACh release induced by a very low concentration of IL-2 (10−13M) suggesting a direct effect on cholinergic nerve terminals.In contrast, the inhibitory effect seen at a higher concentration (10−9 M) was TTX-sensitive, and hence indicative of an indirect action.To establish the nature of this intermediate mediator, blockers of nitric oxide synthesis, and of opioid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors were used. Only GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists altered the inhibitory action of IL-2, suggesting the participation of GABA as mediator.Taken together, these results provide further evidence for the potent role of IL-2 in the modulation of cholinergic function in the rat hippocampus. PMID:9134229

  9. Nitrous oxide directly inhibits action potential-dependent neurotransmission from single presynaptic boutons adhering to rat hippocampal CA3 neurons.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Masahito; Kotani, Naoki; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Akaike, Norio

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of N2O on synaptic transmission using a preparation of mechanically dissociated rat hippocampal CA3 neurons that allowed assays of single bouton responses evoked from native functional nerve endings. We studied the effects of N2O on GABAA, glutamate, AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated currents (IGABA, IGlu, IAMPA and INMDA) elicited by exogenous application of GABA, glutamate, (S)-AMPA, and NMDA and spontaneous, miniature, and evoked GABAergic inhibitory and glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic current (sIPSC, mIPSC, eIPSC, sEPSC, mEPSC and eEPSC) in mechanically dissociated CA3 neurons. eIPSC and eEPSC were evoked by focal electrical stimulation of a single bouton. Administration of 70% N2O altered neither IGABA nor the frequency and amplitude of both sIPSCs and mIPSCs. In contrast, N2O decreased the amplitude of eIPSCs, while increasing failure rates (Rf) and paired-pulse ratios (PPR) in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, N2O decreased IGlu, IAMPA and INMDA. Again N2O did not change the frequency and amplitude of either sEPSCs of mEPSCs. N2O also decreased amplitudes of eEPSCs with increased Rf and PPR. The decay phases of all synaptic responses were unchanged. The present results indicated that N2O inhibits the activation of AMPA/KA and NMDA receptors and also that N2O preferentially depress the action potential-dependent GABA and glutamate releases but had little effects on spontaneous and miniature releases.

  10. L-NAME raises systolic blood pressure in the pithed rat by a direct adrenal epinephrine releasing action.

    PubMed

    Elayan, Hamzeh H; Kennedy, Brian P; Ziegler, Michael G

    2002-04-21

    It is generally thought that inhibition of nitric oxide synthase leads to blood pressure elevation largely through reduction in vascular levels of the vasodilator nitric oxide. However, there are several reports suggesting that NO synthase inhibitors cause adrenal epinephrine (E) release by both central and peripheral mechanisms. We investigated the role of adrenal E in the pressor effects of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME in the pithed rat to help distinguish central from peripherally mediated actions. L-NAME (10 mg/kg) raised both systolic and diastolic BP by about 30 mm Hg (P < .01) in the absence of exogenous electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerves. During stimulation at 10 V and frequencies of 1 or 2 Hz, systolic BP was about 70 mm Hg higher in L-NAME treated rats than in drug free stimulated rats. This enhancement of systolic BP by L-NAME was less pronounced at 5 or 10 Hz stimulation frequencies. Following these types of electrical stimulations of pithed rats, both plasma norepinephrine (NE) and E levels were dramatically elevated above resting plasma levels. L-NAME pretreatment of these electrically stimulated rats increased plasma E levels by an additional 60% and decreased NE by 18%. Acute adrenalectomy dramatically reduced plasma E levels and abolished the ability of L-NAME to enhance the pressor effect of sympathetic stimulation. In contrast, acute adrenalectomy of unstimulated pithed rats did not significantly reduce the pressor response to L-NAME. We conclude that adrenal E release may mediate much of the systolic pressor response of L-NAME in the stimulated pithed rat, but the magnitude of this effect varies with stimulation frequency. Since pithing disrupts central pathways, this induction of adrenal E release by L-NAME is a peripheral effect.

  11. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Terminalia cuneata and its catalytic action in reduction of direct yellow-12 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Lee, Yong Rok; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous bark extract of Terminalia cuneata has been reported in this article. The effects of concentration of the extract, reaction time and pH were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of yellow color with λmax around ~ 420 nm suggested the formation of AgNPs. The stable AgNPs were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) with zeta potential and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in the size range of 25-50 nm with a distorted spherical shape identified from HR-TEM analysis. The catalytic activity of AgNPs on the reduction of direct yellow-12 using NaBH4 was analyzed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. This study showed the efficacy of biogenic AgNPs in catalyzing the reduction of direct yellow-12.

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Terminalia cuneata and its catalytic action in reduction of direct yellow-12 dye.

    PubMed

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Lee, Yong Rok; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan

    2016-05-15

    Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous bark extract of Terminalia cuneata has been reported in this article. The effects of concentration of the extract, reaction time and pH were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of yellow color with λmax around ~420 nm suggested the formation of AgNPs. The stable AgNPs were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) with zeta potential and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in the size range of 25-50 nm with a distorted spherical shape identified from HR-TEM analysis. The catalytic activity of AgNPs on the reduction of direct yellow-12 using NaBH4 was analyzed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. This study showed the efficacy of biogenic AgNPs in catalyzing the reduction of direct yellow-12.

  13. A novel strategy for dissecting goal-directed action and arousal components of motivated behavior with a progressive hold-down task.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Matthew R; Jensen, Greg; Taylor, Kathleen; Mezias, Chris; Williamson, Cait; Silver, Rae; Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D

    2015-06-01

    Motivation serves 2 important functions: It guides actions to be goal-directed, and it provides the energy and vigor required to perform the work necessary to meet those goals. Dissociating these 2 processes with existing behavioral assays has been a challenge. In this article, we report a novel experimental strategy to distinguish the 2 processes in mice. First, we characterize a novel motivation assay in which animals must hold down a lever for progressively longer intervals to earn each subsequent reward; we call this the progressive hold-down (PHD) task. We find that performance on the PHD task is sensitive to both food deprivation level and reward value. Next, we use a dose of methamphetamine (METH) 1.0 mg/kg, to evaluate behavior in both the progressive ratio (PR) and PHD tasks. Treatment with METH leads to more persistent lever pressing for food rewards in the PR. In the PHD task, we found that METH increased arousal, which leads to numerous bouts of hyperactive responding but neither increases nor impairs goal-directed action. The results demonstrate that these tools enable a more precise understanding of the underlying processes being altered in manipulations that alter motivated behavior.

  14. 13 CFR 125.4 - Government property sales assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Government property: (1) Sales of timber and related forest products; (2) Sales of strategic material from national stockpiles; (3) Sales of royalty oil by the Department of Interior's Minerals Management...

  15. 13 CFR 125.4 - Government property sales assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Government property: (1) Sales of timber and related forest products; (2) Sales of strategic material from national stockpiles; (3) Sales of royalty oil by the Department of Interior's Minerals Management...

  16. 48 CFR 245.7307 - Non-competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-competitive sales. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7307 Non-competitive sales....

  17. In vivo immunomodulatory effect of Tilia x viridis extracts on normal lymphocyte proliferation: a direct and an indirect action.

    PubMed

    Davicino, Roberto; Zettler, Gabriela; Brizi, Margarita Rodriguez; Marrassini, Carla; Ferraro, Graciela; Filip, Rosana; Anesini, Claudia

    2011-09-01

    The flowers of Tilia species have been used in Europe for many years to treat colds, bronchitis, fever, inflammations and influenza. It is well known that lymphocytes play a role in acquired immunity related to pathogens and tumor cells attachment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an aqueous (AE) and a dichloromethane extract (DM) from Tilia x viridis which is widely used and distributed in Argentina, on normal murine lymphocyte proliferation after being administered to mice. Both extracts presented a stimulatory effect on normal murine lymphocyte proliferation. The effect exerted by DM was principally related to macrophage activation, meanwhile AE exerted an important direct effect on lymphocytes related to the rutin presence. The stimulating effect, exerted on normal lymphocytes was due to a protective effect of apoptosis and also to cell IL2 production.

  18. 43 CFR 5422.2 - Scale sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scale sales. 5422.2 Section 5422.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.2...

  19. 43 CFR 5422.2 - Scale sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scale sales. 5422.2 Section 5422.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.2...

  20. 43 CFR 5422.2 - Scale sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scale sales. 5422.2 Section 5422.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.2...

  1. 43 CFR 5422.2 - Scale sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scale sales. 5422.2 Section 5422.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.2...

  2. 78 FR 41199 - Telemarketing Sales Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... telemarketer bears the burden of demonstrating that the seller has an existing business relationship with, or... Registry; (3) clarify that the business-to-business exemption extends only to calls to induce a sale to or contribution from a business entity, and not to calls to induce sales to or contributions from...

  3. 7 CFR 1767.30 - Sales expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Special customer canvasses when their primary purpose is the retention of business or the promotion of new..., billboards, and radio for sales promotion purposes, but not including institutional or goodwill advertising... utility, shall be considered sales promotion advertising and charged to this account....

  4. 77 FR 37823 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... products, barley, corn, grain sorghum, oats, rye, soybeans, soybean cake and meal, soybean oil, flaxseed..., grain sorghum, barley, oats, soybeans, soybean cake and meal, and soybean oil. Daily sales reporting is required when sales of 100,000 metric tons (20,000 metric tons for soybean oil), or more, are made by...

  5. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227 Section 223.227 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  6. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227 Section 223.227 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  7. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227 Section 223.227 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  8. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227 Section 223.227 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  9. Advanced Selling: A Comprehensive Course Sales Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrington-Young, Susan; Castleberry, Stephen B.; Coleman, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive project for the Advanced Selling course that has been tested at three universities is introduced. After selecting an industry and a company, students engage in a complete industry analysis, a company sales analysis, a sales-specific SWOT analysis, complete a ride day with a salesperson in that firm, then present their findings in a…

  10. How to Measure Results of Sales Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahne, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the development of a training program for salespeople (trainees and managers) called Dimensional Sales Training (DST). It is noted that DST is designed to increase sales, build skills, and improve performance, while providing a systematic process of collecting data for measuring program effectiveness. (EM)

  11. 7 CFR 1962.45 - Reporting sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Reporting sales. 1962.45 Section 1962.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... sales. Form FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 1955-3, “Advice of Property...

  12. 32 CFR 644.507 - Sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Sales. 644.507 Section 644.507 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.507 Sales. DEs...

  13. 24 CFR 3286.605 - After sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false After sale. 3286.605 Section 3286.605 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued....605 After sale. (a) Tracking installation information. The retailer is responsible for providing...

  14. 15 CFR 904.505 - Summary sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... person authorized to enforce a statute administered by NOAA may, as authorized by law, sell or cause to... the sale to a person authorized to enforce a statute administered by NOAA immediately upon request of... the applicable statute or statutes. (c) NOAA will give Notice of the Sale as provided under §...

  15. 15 CFR 904.505 - Summary sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... person authorized to enforce a statute administered by NOAA may, as authorized by law, sell or cause to... the sale to a person authorized to enforce a statute administered by NOAA immediately upon request of... the applicable statute or statutes. (c) NOAA will give Notice of the Sale as provided under §...

  16. Gulf of Mexico Sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses two proposed Federal actions, lease Sales 142 and 143, that will offer for lease Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas that may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. The lease sales are proposed for 1993 and include lease blocks in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA). Up to 10,099 blocks will be available for lease under the two proposed actions; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. On average, 401 blocks in the Central Gulf and 264 blocks in the Western Gulf have been leased in individual Gulf of Mexico OCS lease sales since 1984. Of the blocks that will be leased as a result of the two proposed actions, only a portion will be drilled and result in subsequent production. The scoping process was used to obtain information and comments on the proposed actions and the potential environmental effects from diverse interests, including the affected States, Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals. This volume, Volume 2, reports on impacts from Sales 142 and 143.

  17. 76 FR 13974 - Information Collection; Small Business Timber Sale Set-Aside Program; Appeal Procedures on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Small Business Timber Sale Set-Aside Program; Appeal Procedures on Recomputation of Shares AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Forest Service is seeking comments from...

  18. 77 FR 59156 - Antimicrobial Animal Drug Sales and Distribution Reporting; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 514 Antimicrobial Animal Drug Sales and Distribution Reporting; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  19. 78 FR 37713 - General Regulations; National Park System, Demonstrations, Sale or Distribution of Printed Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... National Park Service 36 CFR Part 2 RIN 1024-AD91 General Regulations; National Park System, Demonstrations, Sale or Distribution of Printed Matter AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The National Park Service is amending its interim regulations governing demonstrations and...

  20. 30 CFR 903.774 - Revision; renewal; and transfer, assignment, or sale of permit rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sale of permit rights. 903.774 Section 903.774 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS..., applies to any such actions involving surface coal mining and reclamation operations permits, except...

  1. 30 CFR 903.774 - Revision; renewal; and transfer, assignment, or sale of permit rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sale of permit rights. 903.774 Section 903.774 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS..., applies to any such actions involving surface coal mining and reclamation operations permits, except...

  2. 30 CFR 903.774 - Revision; renewal; and transfer, assignment, or sale of permit rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sale of permit rights. 903.774 Section 903.774 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS..., applies to any such actions involving surface coal mining and reclamation operations permits, except...

  3. 30 CFR 903.774 - Revision; renewal; and transfer, assignment, or sale of permit rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sale of permit rights. 903.774 Section 903.774 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS..., applies to any such actions involving surface coal mining and reclamation operations permits, except...

  4. 30 CFR 903.774 - Revision; renewal; and transfer, assignment, or sale of permit rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sale of permit rights. 903.774 Section 903.774 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS..., applies to any such actions involving surface coal mining and reclamation operations permits, except...

  5. 78 FR 60998 - Proposed Collection: Information Collection Surrounding the Sale and Issue of Marketable Book...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... of Marketable Book-Entry Securities ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department... Treasury is soliciting comments concerning the Sale and Issue of Marketable Book-Entry Securities. DATES... Marketable Book-Entry Securities. OMB Number: 1535-0112. Abstract: The information is requested to...

  6. 78 FR 41946 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale Maysdorf II North, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale Maysdorf II North, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the Maysdorf II North Coal Tract described below in Campbell County, Wyoming, will be offered...

  7. 78 FR 48461 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, WYW172684, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, WYW172684, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the Hay Creek II Coal Tract described below in Campbell County, Wyoming, will be offered...

  8. 38 CFR 36.4600 - Sale of loans, guarantee of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... offering of such loans for sale, the acceptance of purchase offers, the assignment or transfer of notes or... lien position of the security instrument would be jeopardized by acceptance of the partial payment... by strict foreclosure, acceptance of a voluntary deed, or by other liquidation action; or (3)...

  9. Regulation of signaling directionality revealed by 3D snapshots of a kinase:regulator complex in action

    PubMed Central

    Trajtenberg, Felipe; Imelio, Juan A; Machado, Matías R; Larrieux, Nicole; Marti, Marcelo A; Obal, Gonzalo; Mechaly, Ariel E; Buschiazzo, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Two-component systems (TCS) are protein machineries that enable cells to respond to input signals. Histidine kinases (HK) are the sensory component, transferring information toward downstream response regulators (RR). HKs transfer phosphoryl groups to their specific RRs, but also dephosphorylate them, overall ensuring proper signaling. The mechanisms by which HKs discriminate between such disparate directions, are yet unknown. We now disclose crystal structures of the HK:RR complex DesK:DesR from Bacillus subtilis, comprising snapshots of the phosphotransfer and the dephosphorylation reactions. The HK dictates the reactional outcome through conformational rearrangements that include the reactive histidine. The phosphotransfer center is asymmetric, poised for dissociative nucleophilic substitution. The structural bases of HK phosphatase/phosphotransferase control are uncovered, and the unexpected discovery of a dissociative reactional center, sheds light on the evolution of TCS phosphotransfer reversibility. Our findings should be applicable to a broad range of signaling systems and instrumental in synthetic TCS rewiring. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21422.001 PMID:27938660

  10. “People over Profits”: Retailers Who Voluntarily Ended Tobacco Sales

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco retailers are key players in the ongoing tobacco epidemic. Tobacco outlet density is linked to a greater likelihood of youth and adult smoking and greater difficulty quitting. While public policy efforts to address the tobacco problem at the retail level have been limited, some retailers have voluntarily ended tobacco sales. A previous pilot study examined this phenomenon in California, a state with a strong tobacco program focused on denormalizing smoking and the tobacco industry. We sought to learn what motivated retailers in other states to end tobacco sales and how the public and media responded. Methods We conducted interviews with owners, managers, or representatives of six grocery stores in New York and Ohio that had voluntarily ended tobacco sales since 2007. We also conducted unobtrusive observations at stores and analyzed media coverage of each retailer’s decision. Results Grocery store owners ended tobacco sales for two reasons, alone or in combination: health or ethics-related, including a desire to send a consistent health message to employees and customers, and business-related, including declining tobacco sales or poor fit with the store’s image. The decision to end sales often appeared to resolve troubling contradictions between retailers’ values and selling deadly products. New York retailers attributed declining sales to high state tobacco taxes. All reported largely positive customer reactions and most received media coverage. Forty-one percent of news items were letters to the editor or editorials; most (69%) supported the decision. Conclusion Voluntary decisions by retailers to abandon tobacco sales may lay the groundwork for mandatory policies and further denormalize tobacco. Our study also suggests that high tobacco taxes may have both direct and indirect effects on tobacco use. Highlighting the contradictions between being a responsible business and selling deadly products may support voluntary decisions by retailers

  11. MYB Promotes Desmoplasia in Pancreatic Cancer through Direct Transcriptional Up-regulation and Cooperative Action of Sonic Hedgehog and Adrenomedullin.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Arun; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Singh, Seema; Tyagi, Nikhil; Arora, Sumit; Carter, James E; Khushman, Moh'd; Singh, Ajay P

    2016-07-29

    Extensive desmoplasia is a prominent pathological characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PC) that not only impacts tumor development, but therapeutic outcome as well. Recently, we demonstrated a novel role of MYB, an oncogenic transcription factor, in PC growth and metastasis. Here we studied its effect on pancreatic tumor histopathology and associated molecular and biological mechanisms. Tumor-xenografts derived from orthotopic-inoculation of MYB-overexpressing PC cells exhibited far-greater desmoplasia in histological analyses compared with those derived from MYB-silenced PC cells. These findings were further confirmed by immunostaining of tumor-xenograft sections with collagen-I, fibronectin (major extracellular-matrix proteins), and α-SMA (well-characterized marker of myofibroblasts or activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs)). Likewise, MYB-overexpressing PC cells provided significantly greater growth benefit to PSCs in a co-culture system as compared with the MYB-silenced cells. Interrogation of deep-sequencing data from MYB-overexpressing versus -silenced PC cells identified Sonic-hedgehog (SHH) and Adrenomedullin (ADM) as two differentially-expressed genes among others, which encode for secretory ligands involved in tumor-stromal cross-talk. In-silico analyses predicted putative MYB-binding sites in SHH and ADM promoters, which was later confirmed by chromatin-immunoprecipitation. A cooperative role of SHH and ADM in growth promotion of PSCs was confirmed in co-culture by using their specific-inhibitors and exogenous recombinant-proteins. Importantly, while SHH acted exclusively in a paracrine fashion on PSCs and influenced the growth of PC cells only indirectly, ADM could directly impact the growth of both PC cells and PSCs. In summary, we identified MYB as novel regulator of pancreatic tumor desmoplasia, which is suggestive of its diverse roles in PC pathobiology.

  12. Volatile organic compounds: a potential direct long-distance mechanism for antagonistic action of Fusarium oxysporum strain MSA 35.

    PubMed

    Minerdi, Daniela; Bossi, Simone; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2009-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum MSA35 [wild-type (WT) strain] is an antagonistic Fusarium that lives in association with a consortium of bacteria belonging to the genera Serratia, Achromobacter, Bacillus and Stenotrophomonas in an Italian soil suppressive to Fusarium wilt. Typing experiments and virulence tests provided evidence that the F. oxysporum isolate when cured of the bacterial symbionts [the cured (CU) form], is pathogenic, causing wilt symptoms identical to those caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae. Here, we demonstrate that small volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the WT strain negatively influence the mycelial growth of different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. Furthermore, these VOCs repress gene expression of two putative virulence genes in F. oxysporum lactucae strain Fuslat10, a fungus against which the WT strain MSA 35 has antagonistic activity. The VOC profile of the WT and CU fungus shows different compositions. Sesquiterpenes, mainly caryophyllene, were present in the headspace only of WT MSA 35. No sesquiterpenes were found in the volatiles of ectosymbiotic Serratia sp. strain DM1 and Achromobacter sp. strain MM1. Bacterial volatiles had no effects on the growth of the different ff. spp. of F. oxysporum examined. Hyphae grownwithVOCfrom WT F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae strain MSA 35 were hydrophobic whereas those grown without VOCs were not, suggesting a correlation between the presence of volatiles in the atmosphere and the phenotype of the mycelium. This is the first report of VOC production by antagonistic F. oxysporum MSA35 and their effects on pathogenic F. oxysporum. The results obtained in this work led us to propose a new potential direct long-distance mechanism for antagonism by F. oxysporum MSA 35 mediated by VOCs. Antagonism could be the consequence of both reduction of pathogen mycelial growth and inhibition of pathogen virulence gene expression.

  13. Endogenous Versus Exogenous Shocks in Complex Networks: An Empirical Test Using Book Sale Rankings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, D.; Deschâtres, F.; Gilbert, T.; Ageon, Y.

    2004-11-01

    We study the precursory and recovery signatures accompanying shocks in complex networks, that we test on a unique database of the Amazon.com ranking of book sales. We find clear distinguishing signatures classifying two types of sales peaks. Exogenous peaks occur abruptly and are followed by a power law relaxation, while endogenous peaks occur after a progressively accelerating power law growth followed by an approximately symmetrical power law relaxation which is slower than for exogenous peaks. These results are rationalized quantitatively by a simple model of epidemic propagation of interactions with long memory within a network of acquaintances. The observed relaxation of sales implies that the sales dynamics is dominated by cascades rather than by the direct effects of news or advertisements, indicating that the social network is close to critical.

  14. GLP-1R Signaling Directly Activates Arcuate Nucleus Kisspeptin Action in Brain Slices but Does not Rescue Luteinizing Hormone Inhibition in Ovariectomized Mice During Negative Energy Balance.

    PubMed

    Heppner, Kristy M; Baquero, Arian F; Bennett, Camdin M; Lindsley, Sarah R; Kirigiti, Melissa A; Bennett, Baylin; Bosch, Martha A; Mercer, Aaron J; Rønnekleiv, Oline K; True, Cadence; Grove, Kevin L; Smith, M Susan

    2017-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are key components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, as they regulate the basal pulsatile release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). ARC Kiss1 action is dependent on energy status, and unmasking metabolic factors responsible for modulating ARC Kiss1 neurons is of great importance. One possible factor is glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an anorexigenic neuropeptide produced by brainstem preproglucagon neurons. Because GLP fiber projections and the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) are abundant in the ARC, we hypothesized that GLP-1R signaling could modulate ARC Kiss1 action. Using ovariectomized mice, we found that GLP-producing fibers come in close apposition with ARC Kiss1 neurons; these neurons also contain Glp1r mRNA. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that liraglutide (a long-acting GLP-1R agonist) increased action potential firing and caused a direct membrane depolarization of ARC Kiss1 cells in brain slices. We determined that brainstem preproglucagon mRNA is decreased after a 48-h fast in mice, a negative energy state in which ARC Kiss1 expression and downstream GnRH/luteinizing hormone (LH) release are potently suppressed. However, activation of GLP-1R signaling in fasted mice with liraglutide was not sufficient to prevent LH inhibition. Furthermore, chronic central infusions of the GLP-1R antagonist, exendin(9-39), in ad libitum-fed mice did not alter ARC Kiss1 mRNA or plasma LH. As a whole, these data identify a novel interaction of the GLP-1 system with ARC Kiss1 neurons but indicate that CNS GLP-1R signaling alone is not critical for the maintenance of LH during fasting or normal feeding.

  15. GLP-1R Signaling Directly Activates Arcuate Nucleus Kisspeptin Action in Brain Slices but Does not Rescue Luteinizing Hormone Inhibition in Ovariectomized Mice During Negative Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Heppner, Kristy M.; Baquero, Arian F.; True, Cadence; Grove, Kevin L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are key components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, as they regulate the basal pulsatile release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). ARC Kiss1 action is dependent on energy status, and unmasking metabolic factors responsible for modulating ARC Kiss1 neurons is of great importance. One possible factor is glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an anorexigenic neuropeptide produced by brainstem preproglucagon neurons. Because GLP fiber projections and the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) are abundant in the ARC, we hypothesized that GLP-1R signaling could modulate ARC Kiss1 action. Using ovariectomized mice, we found that GLP-producing fibers come in close apposition with ARC Kiss1 neurons; these neurons also contain Glp1r mRNA. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that liraglutide (a long-acting GLP-1R agonist) increased action potential firing and caused a direct membrane depolarization of ARC Kiss1 cells in brain slices. We determined that brainstem preproglucagon mRNA is decreased after a 48-h fast in mice, a negative energy state in which ARC Kiss1 expression and downstream GnRH/luteinizing hormone (LH) release are potently suppressed. However, activation of GLP-1R signaling in fasted mice with liraglutide was not sufficient to prevent LH inhibition. Furthermore, chronic central infusions of the GLP-1R antagonist, exendin(9–39), in ad libitum–fed mice did not alter ARC Kiss1 mRNA or plasma LH. As a whole, these data identify a novel interaction of the GLP-1 system with ARC Kiss1 neurons but indicate that CNS GLP-1R signaling alone is not critical for the maintenance of LH during fasting or normal feeding. PMID:28144621

  16. Incentive memory: evidence the basolateral amygdala encodes and the insular cortex retrieves outcome values to guide choice between goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Shauna L; Balleine, Bernard W

    2013-05-15

    Choice between goal-directed actions is determined by the relative value of their consequences. Such values are encoded during incentive learning and later retrieved to guide performance. Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the gustatory region of insular cortex (IC) have been implicated in these processes, their relative contribution is still a matter of debate. Here we assessed whether these structures interact during incentive learning and retrieval to guide choice. In these experiments, rats were trained on two actions for distinct outcomes after which one of the two outcomes was devalued by specific satiety immediately before a choice extinction test. We first confirmed that, relative to appropriate controls, outcome devaluation recruited both the BLA and IC based on activation of the immediate early gene Arc; however, we found that infusion of the NMDAr antagonist ifenprodil into the BLA only abolished outcome devaluation when given before devaluation. In contrast, ifenprodil infusion into the IC was effective whether made before devaluation or test. We hypothesized that the BLA encodes and the IC retrieves incentive value for choice and, to test this, developed a novel sequential disconnection procedure. Blocking NMDAr activation unilaterally in the BLA before devaluation and then contralaterally in the IC before test abolished selective devaluation. In contrast, reversing the order of these infusions left devaluation intact. These results confirm that the BLA and IC form a circuit mediating the encoding and retrieval of outcome values, with the BLA encoding and the IC retrieving such values to guide choice.

  17. Electric sales and revenue, 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-21

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenues, and average revenue. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1990. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the revenue billed for the amount of kilowatthours sold, revenue from income, unemployment and other State and local taxes, energy or demand charges, consumer services charges, environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  18. Electric sales and revenue 1992, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-20

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1992. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the applicable revenue from kilowatthours sold; revenue from income; unemployment and other State and local taxes; energy, demand, and consumer service charges; environmental surcharges; franchise fees; fuel adjustments; and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  19. Ending the war between Sales & Marketing.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Philip; Rackham, Neil; Krishnaswamy, Suj

    2006-01-01

    Sales departments tend to believe that marketers are out of touch with what's really going on in the marketplace. Marketing people, in turn, believe the sales force is myopic--too focused on individual customer experiences, insufficiently aware of the larger market, and blind to the future. In short, each group undervalues the other's contributions. Both stumble (and organizational performance suffers) when they are out of sync. Yet few firms seem to make serious overtures toward analyzing and enhancing the relationship between these two critical functions. Curious about the misalignment between Sales and Marketing, the authors interviewed pairs of chief marketing officers and sales vice presidents to capture their perspectives. They looked in depth at the relationship between Sales and Marketing in a variety of companies in different industries. Their goal was to identify best practices that could enhance the joint performance and increase the contributions of these two functions. Among their findings: The marketing function takes different forms in different companies at different product life cycle stages. Marketing's increasing influence in each phase of an organization's growth profoundly affects its relationship with Sales. The strains between Sales and Marketing fall into two main categories: economic (a single budget is typically divided, between Sales and Marketing, and not always evenly) and cultural (the two functions attract very different types of people who achieve success by spending their time in very different ways). In this article, the authors describe the four types of relationships Sales and Marketing typically exhibit. They provide a diagnostic to help readers assess their companies' level of integration, and they offer recommendations for more closely aligning the two functions.

  20. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…