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Sample records for action direct sale

  1. 75 FR 6701 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land, Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land, Utah AGENCY...- competitive direct sale to Audrey Roth, pursuant to Section 203 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The land has been determined suitable for disposal by sale in the BLM Richfield Field...

  2. 75 FR 39273 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land, Chaves County, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land, Chaves County, NM... market value (FMV) to resolve inadvertent, unauthorized use ] and occupancy of public lands. The sale is...) 627-0250 or e-mail angel_mayes@nm.blm.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following parcels of...

  3. 75 FR 35083 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Lincoln County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Lincoln County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty action. SUMMARY: The Bureau of...

  4. 78 FR 39767 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Blaine County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Blaine County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Realty Action. SUMMARY: The Bureau of...

  5. 75 FR 22625 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Land in Jerome County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Land in Jerome County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Realty Action. SUMMARY: To resolve...

  6. 75 FR 71143 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Blaine County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Blaine County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty action. SUMMARY: The Bureau of...

  7. 77 FR 31034 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive Direct Sale of Reversionary Interest Recreation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...] Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive Direct Sale of Reversionary Interest Recreation and Public... 5 acres in the Las Vegas Valley by non-competitive direct sale to the entity. The purpose of the direct sale is to dispose of certain reservations, conditions, and limitations contained in Patent No....

  8. 75 FR 60478 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Fe County, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Fe County, NM... direct sale to Edward Black pursuant to the Act of December 22, 1928, as amended, and an Interior Board of Land Appeals Settlement Agreement for the amount of $10,000. The sale is to resolve a class...

  9. 78 FR 24231 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land in Josephine County, Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    .... ADDRESSES: Written comments concerning this proposed sale may be submitted to Grants Pass Field Manager... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land in Josephine..., Oregon, by direct sale procedures to Joan Conklin for the approved appraised fair market value of...

  10. 76 FR 68784 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    .... DATES: Written comments regarding the proposed sale must be received by the BLM on or before December 22, 2011. ADDRESSES: Written comments concerning the proposed sale should be sent to the Field Manager, BLM... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County,...

  11. 75 FR 21037 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Non-Competitive (Direct) Sales of Public Lands, Boulder County, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ...: Proposed Non-Competitive (Direct) Sales of Public Lands, Boulder County, CO AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Realty Action. SUMMARY: The public lands described in this Notice... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following described parcels of public land are proposed for sale: Sixth...

  12. 76 FR 68783 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct (Non-Competitive) Sale of Reversionary Interest in Benton County, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct (Non-Competitive) Sale of Reversionary Interest... INFORMATION below has been determined suitable for direct sale and release to the City of West Richland... parcel can be used is restricted by the reversionary clause. DATES: Comments regarding the proposed...

  13. 78 FR 8188 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed (Non-Competitive) Direct Sale of Public Land in Carbon County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... in Carbon County, UT AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty action... acres of public land in Carbon County, Utah, at not less than the appraised fair market value to Hunt... Carbon County, Utah, are proposed for direct sale, subject to the applicable provisions of Sections...

  14. 78 FR 15044 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Pinal County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... issuance of a patent, publication in the Federal Register of a termination of the segregation, or two years... the authorized officer deems appropriate. A map delineating the proposed direct sale parcel and... sale. When completed, the EA will also be available for review at the BLM LSFO. The map and EA...

  15. 76 FR 16810 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Hot Springs County, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Hot...: A 10-acre parcel of public land in Hot Springs County, Wyoming is being considered for non... following described public land in Hot Springs County, Wyoming has been examined and found suitable for...

  16. 14 CFR 212.7 - Direct sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.7 Direct sales. (a) Certificated and... direct sales Public Charters by a foreign air carrier upon a finding that such action is necessary in the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Direct sales. 212.7 Section...

  17. 14 CFR 212.7 - Direct sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.7 Direct sales. (a) Certificated and... direct sales Public Charters by a foreign air carrier upon a finding that such action is necessary in the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Direct sales. 212.7 Section...

  18. 14 CFR 212.7 - Direct sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.7 Direct sales. (a) Certificated and... direct sales Public Charters by a foreign air carrier upon a finding that such action is necessary in the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Direct sales. 212.7 Section...

  19. 77 FR 61023 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Shasta County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... value of $43,000. DATES: Comments regarding the proposed sale must be received by the BLM on or before... issuance of a patent, publication in the Federal Register of a termination of the segregation, or...

  20. 77 FR 24978 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Washakie County, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ..., Wyoming, by non- competitive (direct) sale to the town of Ten Sleep under the provisions of the Federal... United States. 3. A reservation of a right-of-way for a Federal-aid Highway (Ten Sleep-Big Trails Road.... This land is being offered by direct sale to the Town of Ten Sleep pursuant to 43 CFR 2711.3-3....

  1. 78 FR 40503 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Pima County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... segregation, or on July 6, 2015, unless extended by the BLM Arizona State Director in accordance with 43 CFR... Water Company for a 15-feet-wide water line; and d. Right-of-way AZA-17733 to Century Link for a 10-feet... located within 10 miles of the sale property. Conveyance of the identified public land will be subject...

  2. 76 FR 62831 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Shasta County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... the appraised fair market value of $176,000. DATES: Written comments regarding the proposed sale must... known mineral value for gold and aggregate materials. The BLM proposes to reserve all minerals to the U... if processing the application would not adversely affect the marketability or appraised value of...

  3. 76 FR 47237 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Monterey County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... appraised fair market value of $25,000. DATES: Written comments regarding the proposed sale must be received... including your address, phone number, e-mail address, or other personal identifying information in your comment, be advised that your entire comment--including your personal identifying information-- may...

  4. 75 FR 13303 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Riverside County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... appraised fair market value of $2,102,000. DATES: Comments regarding the proposed sale must be received by... the appraised fair market value: San Bernardino Meridian T. 3 S., R. 4 E., Sec. 34, those remaining... approximately 119.37 acres in Riverside County. The appraised fair market value is $2,102,000. The public...

  5. 77 FR 40897 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land in Harney County, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) proposes to sell a 5-acre parcel of public land in Harney County, Oregon, by direct sale procedures to Allan and Ethel Bossuot for the approved appraised fair market value of...

  6. 78 FR 76854 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Sheridan County, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...The Bureau of Land Management proposes to sell eight parcels of public land totaling 208.12 acres in Sheridan County, Wyoming, to Farmland Reserve, Inc. (FRI) under the direct sale provisions of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), for not less than the appraised fair market value of...

  7. 40 CFR 73.72 - Direct sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct sales. 73.72 Section 73.72... ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales, and Independent Power Producers Written Guarantee § 73.72 Direct sales. Allowances that were formerly part of the direct sale program, which has been terminated...

  8. 14 CFR 212.7 - Direct sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct sales. 212.7 Section 212.7... REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.7 Direct sales. (a) Certificated and foreign air carriers may sell or offer for sale, and operate, as principal, Public Charter flights...

  9. 75 FR 67393 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Barbara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... exception of oil and gas, the lands identified for sale are considered to have no known mineral value and... reservation of all oil and gas to the United States together with the right to prospect for, mine, and remove such oil and gas resources under applicable law and any regulations as the Secretary of the...

  10. 75 FR 38547 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Lands and Termination of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Termination of a Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification, Madison County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Recreational and Public Purpose Act (R&PPA) classification that encumbers the land identified for sale. DATES... no longer needed, as the property is proposed to be sold. On July 2, 2010, the R&PPA...

  11. 75 FR 28650 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Lands in Riverside County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... market value of $77,000. DATES: Comments regarding the proposed sale must be received by the BLM on or... Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), as amended (43 U.S.C. 1713), at not less than the appraised fair market value... acres in Riverside County. The appraised fair market value is $77,000. The public land is identified...

  12. 76 FR 11264 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land in Shoshone County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ...: Written comments concerning this proposed sale may be submitted to Field Manager, BLM Coeur d'Alene Field Office, 3815 Schreiber Way, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 83815. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Janna Paronto, Realty Specialist, at 3815 Schreiber Way, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 83815 or phone (208)...

  13. 78 FR 46600 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land (N-91073) for Affordable Housing Purposes in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) proposes to sell a 5-acre public land parcel located in the southern portion of the Las Vegas Valley in Clark County, Nevada, under the authorities of Sections 203 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), as amended, and the BLM land sale conveyance regulations. In compliance with Section 7b of the Southern Nevada Public Land Management......

  14. 14 CFR 212.7 - Direct sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Direct sales. 212.7 Section 212.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.7 Direct sales. (a) Certificated and foreign air carriers may sell or...

  15. 78 FR 76855 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Campbell County, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... Realty Action (NORA) in the Federal Register (78 FR 7809) to segregate the parcel from appropriation..., pages 13 and 14 and Map 5. Additionally, Maintenance Plan Change 20120720 was added to comply with... disposal map and included a text version of all legal descriptions of parcels identified for...

  16. 24 CFR 291.210 - Direct sales procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct sales procedures. 291.210... URBAN DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF HUD-ACQUIRED SINGLE FAMILY PROPERTY Sales Procedures § 291.210 Direct sales procedures. When HUD conducts the sales listed in § 291.90(c), it will...

  17. 77 FR 13142 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified-Competitive Sale of Public Land in Pahrump, Nye County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...; TAS: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Modified-Competitive Sale of Public Land in Pahrump, Nye County... of Land Management (BLM) proposes to offer one parcel of public land totaling approximately 120 acres... disposal of public land by direct sale or modified-competitive sale within the Town of Pahrump. The...

  18. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  19. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  20. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  1. 76 FR 5201 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Monterey County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Monterey County... of Land Management (BLM), Hollister Field Office, proposes to sell two separate parcels of public... parcels of public land are proposed for competitive sale, in accordance with Sections 203 and 209 of...

  2. 75 FR 26991 - Notice of Realty Action; Competitive Sale of Public Land in Deschutes County, Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action; Competitive Sale of Public Land in Deschutes County... announces a comment period and proposed sale of five parcels of public land totaling 640 acres located in... GSA's Web site http://www.auctionrp.com . DATES: This notice initiates the public comment period...

  3. 78 FR 59055 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land at Schoolhouse Butte...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ...: 14X5260] Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land at Schoolhouse Butte... sale approximately 440 acres in the Desert Valley area of Humboldt County, Nevada, at no less than the fair market value (FMV) of $44,000. The sale will be conducted pursuant to the applicable provisions...

  4. 78 FR 45270 - Notice of Realty Action; Proposed Modified Competitive Sale of Public Land in Jackson County, Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... proposed sale must be submitted in writing to the BLM Ashland Resource Area Field Manager (see the... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action; Proposed Modified Competitive Sale of Public Land in... County, Oregon, by modified competitive bidding sale procedures for the approved appraised fair...

  5. 75 FR 17955 - Notice of Realty Action; Segregation of Public Land for Proposed Sale in Sandoval County, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action; Segregation of Public Land for Proposed Sale in...: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is considering a competitive sale of a parcel of public land... provided for the segregation of lands being considered for sale for a period of up to 2 years. DATES:...

  6. 75 FR 79018 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Sale of Public Lands in Bear Lake County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Sale of Public Lands in Bear Lake County, ID... Management (BLM) proposes the sale of 26 parcels of public lands totaling 1,543.14 acres in Bear Lake County... Bear Lake County, Idaho, are proposed for sale under the authority of Sections 203 and 209 of FLPMA...

  7. 76 FR 31627 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Lake County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Lake County, CA... Management (BLM) Ukiah Field Office proposes to sell an 80-acre parcel of public land in Lake County... receive a reply during normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following public land...

  8. 76 FR 6155 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Sandoval County, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Sandoval County... public land, situated in Sandoval County, New Mexico, has been authorized and designated for disposal in... serve important public objectives, including but not limited to, expansion of communities and...

  9. 75 FR 35832 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Tehama County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... 49824] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Tehama County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of...) proposes to sell three parcels of public land totaling approximately 243.82 acres in Tehama County... (530) 224-2122 or via e-mail at Ilene_Emry@ca.blm.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following...

  10. 76 FR 44355 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Land in Carson City, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ...; TAS: 14X1109] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Land in Carson City, NV AGENCY... Management (BLM) proposes to sell two parcels of public lands totaling approximately 10 acres located in the... conducted pursuant to Section 2601(d) of the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009 (Pub. L....

  11. 43 CFR 2711.3-3 - Direct sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sale that is an integral part of a project or public importance and speculative bidding would jeopardize a timely completion and economic viability of the project; or (3) There is a need to recognize an authorized use such as an existing business which could suffer a substantial economic loss if the tract...

  12. 75 FR 51841 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed sale of Public Lands, Churchill County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Management (BLM) proposes to sell, at no less than the appraised fair market value, approximately 800 acres... those regulations governing direct sale procedures and the patent, when issued, will contain the... CFR 2807.15 and 43 CFR 2886.15. The segregative effect will terminate upon issuance of a...

  13. 76 FR 6154 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Lands in Santa Cruz County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Lands in Santa...: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Hollister Field Office proposes to sell a parcel of public land... public land. DATES: Written comments regarding this proposed sale must be received by the BLM on...

  14. 78 FR 13079 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sale of Public Land in Marquette County, Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sale of Public Land in Marquette....82-acre parcel of public land in Marquette County, Michigan. The sale will be subject to the Federal... INFORMATION: The following parcel of public land has been examined and found suitable for modified...

  15. 77 FR 67021 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land in Clark County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ...: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land in Clark County, NV AGENCY...) proposes to offer by competitive sealed-bid sale, one parcel of public land totaling approximately 12.5... parcel will be offered pursuant to the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act of 1998...

  16. 77 FR 33235 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Becker County, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Becker... parcels of public land totaling 1 acre in Becker County, Minnesota. The sale will be subject to the.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following two parcels of public land have been examined and found suitable...

  17. 78 FR 56242 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of 28 Parcels of Public Land in Clark County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of 28 Parcels of Public Land in Clark County, NV AGENCY... Management (BLM) proposes to offer 28 parcels of public land totaling approximately 440.42 acres in the Las... parcels would be offered for sale pursuant to the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act of...

  18. Mitigation action plan sale of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills) Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1, also called {open_quotes}Elk Hills{close_quotes}), a Federally-owned oil and gas production field in Kern County, California, was created by an Executive Order issued by President Taft on September 2, 1912. He signed another Executive Order on December 13, 1912, to establish Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2), located immediately south of NPR-1 and containing portions of the town of Taft, California. NPR-1 was not developed until the 1973-74 oil embargo demonstrated the nation`s vulnerability to oil supply interruptions. Following the embargo, Congress passed the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 which directed that the reserve be explored and developed to its fall economic potential at the {open_quotes}maximum efficient rate{close_quotes} (MER) of production. Since Elk Hills began full production in 1976, it has functioned as a commercial operation, with total revenues to the Federal government through FY 1996 of $16.4 billion, compared to total exploration, development and production costs of $3.1 billion. In February 1996, Title 34 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996 (P.L. 104-106), referred to as the Elk Hills Sales Statute, directed the Secretary of Energy to sell NPR-1 by February 10, 1998.The Secretary was also directed to study options for enhancing the value of the other Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserve properties such as NPR-2, located adjacent to NPR-1 in Kern County- Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) located in Natrona County, Wyoming; Naval Oil Shale Reserves No. 1 and No. 3 (NOSR-1 and NOSR-3) located in Garfield County, Colorado; and Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 2 (NOSR-2) located in Uintah and Carbon Counties, Utah. The purpose of these actions was to remove the Federal government from the inherently non-Federal function of operating commercial oil fields while making sure that the public would obtain the maximum value from the reserves.

  19. 75 FR 65649 - Notice of Realty Action: Segregation To Consider Proposed Sale of Public Lands in Blaine County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Segregation To Consider Proposed Sale of Public Lands in Blaine County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty...

  20. 26 CFR 1.6041A-1 - Returns regarding payments of remuneration for services and certain direct sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... made after December 31, 2000. (e) (f) Statements to be furnished to persons with respect to whom... services and certain direct sales. 1.6041A-1 Section 1.6041A-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Returns regarding payments of remuneration for services and certain direct sales. (a) through (c)...

  1. 26 CFR 1.6041A-1 - Returns regarding payments of remuneration for services and certain direct sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... services and certain direct sales. 1.6041A-1 Section 1.6041A-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.6041A-1 Returns regarding payments of remuneration for services and certain direct sales. (a) through (c) (d) Exceptions to return requirement. (1) and (2) (3) Foreign transactions—(i) In general....

  2. 26 CFR 1.6041A-1 - Returns regarding payments of remuneration for services and certain direct sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... services and certain direct sales. 1.6041A-1 Section 1.6041A-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.6041A-1 Returns regarding payments of remuneration for services and certain direct sales. (a) through (c) (d) Exceptions to return requirement. (1) and (2) (3) Foreign transactions—(i) In general....

  3. 26 CFR 1.6041A-1 - Returns regarding payments of remuneration for services and certain direct sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... services and certain direct sales. 1.6041A-1 Section 1.6041A-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.6041A-1 Returns regarding payments of remuneration for services and certain direct sales. (a) through (c) (d) Exceptions to return requirement. (1) and (2) (3) Foreign transactions—(i) In general....

  4. 26 CFR 1.6041A-1 - Returns regarding payments of remuneration for services and certain direct sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... services and certain direct sales. 1.6041A-1 Section 1.6041A-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.6041A-1 Returns regarding payments of remuneration for services and certain direct sales. (a) through (c) (d) Exceptions to return requirement. (1) and (2) (3) Foreign transactions—(i) In general....

  5. 76 FR 16812 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA AGENCY... Management (BLM), Hollister Field Office, proposes to sell a parcel of public land consisting of... landowners would have the opportunity to submit written sealed bids to purchase the public land....

  6. 76 FR 56793 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Lands in Clark County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...; TAS: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Lands in Clark County... the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act of 1998 (SNPLMA), Public Law 105-263, as amended, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) proposes to offer one parcel of public land totaling approximately...

  7. 76 FR 18578 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sealed Bid Sale of Public Lands in Clark County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sealed Bid Sale of Public Lands in Clark County, NV AGENCY... Nevada Public Land Management Act of 1998 (SNPLMA), as amended, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) proposes to offer one parcel of public land totaling approximately 5 acres in the Las Vegas Valley...

  8. 76 FR 37373 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Colusa, Glenn, and Lake Counties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Colusa, Glenn, and.... SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Ukiah Field Office proposes to sell four parcels of public... normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following public lands are proposed for...

  9. 77 FR 24219 - Notice of Realty Action; Notice of Segregation and Proposed Sale of Public Lands, Sweetwater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action; Notice of Segregation and Proposed Sale of Public... of the segregation, or April 23, 2014, unless extended by the BLM State Director in accordance...

  10. 77 FR 47090 - Notice of Realty Action; Proposed Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Washington County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Washington County, UT AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of... approximately 271.57 acres in Washington County, Utah, at not less than appraised fair market value. The sale... all written comments concerning this notice to the St. George Field Office, Attn: Shered Mullins,...

  11. Effect of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on Asthma Medication Sales and Healthcare Use

    PubMed Central

    Daubresse, Matthew; Hutfless, Susan; Kim, Yoonsang; Kornfield, Rachel; Qato, Dima M.; Huang, Jidong; Miller, Kay; Emery, Sherry L.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: The United States is one of only two countries that permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs, and many questions remain regarding its effects. Objectives: To quantify the association between asthma-related DTCA, pharmacy sales, and healthcare use. Methods: This was an ecological study from 2005 through 2009 using linked data from Nielsen (DTCA television ratings), the IMS Health National Prescription Audit (pharmacy sales), and the MarketScan Commercial Claims data (healthcare use) for 75 designated market areas in the United States. We used multilevel Poisson regression to model the relationship between DTCA and rates of prescriptions and use within and across designated market areas. Main outcome measures include (1) volume of total, new, and refilled prescriptions for advertised products based on pharmacy sales; (2) prescription claims for asthma medications; and asthma-related (3) emergency department use, (4) hospitalizations, and (5) outpatient encounters among the commercially insured. Measurements and Main Results: Four Food and Drug Administration–approved asthma medicines were advertised during the period examined: (1) fluticasone/salmeterol (Advair), (2) mometasone furoate (Asmanex), (3) montelukast (Singulair), and (4) budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort). After adjustment, each additional televised advertisement was associated with 2% (incident rate ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.03) higher pharmacy sales rate from 2005 through 2009, although this effect varied across the three consistently advertised therapies examined. Among the commercially insured, DTCA was positively and significantly associated with emergency room visits related to asthma (incident rate ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.04), but there was no relationship with hospitalizations or outpatient encounters. Conclusions: Among this population, DTCA was associated with higher prescription sales and asthma-related emergency

  12. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  13. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  14. Administrative Actions for Noncompliance; Lesser Administrative Actions. Direct final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulation describing lesser administrative actions that may be imposed on an Institutional Review Board (IRB) that has failed to comply with FDA's IRB regulations. We are clarifying that FDA may require the IRB to withhold approval of new FDA-regulated studies, stop the enrollment of new subjects in ongoing studies, and terminate ongoing studies, or any combination of these actions until the noncompliance with FDA's IRB regulations is corrected. We are taking this action to ensure clarity and improve the accuracy of the regulations. PMID:27044118

  15. DSHEA's third-party literature exemption; mail order sales, direct marketing, and Internet use.

    PubMed

    Raubicheck, C J

    1999-01-01

    This article examines ways in which marketers of dietary supplements can make use of the "third-party literature" section of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). This provision permits persons or entities, other than manufacturers or distributors, to distribute to consumers certain publications in connection with the sale of particular supplements. These publications may include statements about the therapeutic benefits of such products without subjecting the products to regulation by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as unapproved new drugs. Specifically, this article addresses the following: Can a dietary supplement manufacturer or distributor send third-party literature about a dietary supplement to a customer in a mail order sales transaction? Can third-party literature be disseminated by mail with dietary supplement catalogues only? Can third-party literature be disseminated by sales representatives engaged in direct marketing of dietary supplements? Can third-party literature appear on the Internet? The answer appears to be affirmative in each of these situations. PMID:11824455

  16. Consumers' willingness to pay for beef direct sales. A regional comparison across the Pyrenees.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Ana I; Resano, Helena; Zeballos, Gabriela; Sans, Pierre; Panella-Riera, Nuria; Campo, M Mar; Khliji, Saoussan; Guerrero, Ana; Oliver, M Angels; Sañudo, Carlos; Santolaria, Pilar

    2012-06-01

    Willingness to pay (WTP) for direct market of beef is investigated in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees. Given the novelty of this distribution system, especially in Spain, a contingent valuation approach is undertaken, and a double-bounded model is estimated. Different patterns of awareness, use and WTP are found across regions. Likewise, the profile of current and potential users of direct sale chains is investigated. Experience in the different stages involved from choice to final consumption of beef, intensity of varied beef consumption, familiarity with direct market of food in general, and beef in particular, are some of the relevant factors to explain WTP and the probability of getting engaged into a direct distribution system of beef. PMID:22406841

  17. [Legislative management of the direct sale of genetic testing and the health care system of Quebec].

    PubMed

    Tassé, Anne Marie; Godard, Béatrice

    2007-01-01

    The increasing availability of direct to consumer genetic tests, particularly over the Internet, raises a number of difficult to answer legal questions for health care professionals. While lawmakers have enacted an exhaustive legislative scheme aimed at ensuring the efficiency and universality of publicly funded health care, genetic services sold outside the public system create have created a new challenge for the public system. An analysis of both Quebec and Federal legislation highlights the gaps in the current legal framework with regards to freely available genetic services. The varied impact of failing to address direct to consumer sales of genetic testing services is identified, including implications for consumer protection, control and regulation of testing, and their integration into the public health care system. According to this analysis, resolving these problems, in light of the need for consumer protection, and controlling the use of genetic tests is an essential first step towards the integration of genetic services into the public health care system. PMID:19702189

  18. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for... Specific Drug Products § 201.308 Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale... poisonings, ipecac syrup is considered the emetic of choice. The immediate availability of this drug for...

  19. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for... Specific Drug Products § 201.308 Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale... poisonings, ipecac syrup is considered the emetic of choice. The immediate availability of this drug for...

  20. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for... Specific Drug Products § 201.308 Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale... poisonings, ipecac syrup is considered the emetic of choice. The immediate availability of this drug for...

  1. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for... Specific Drug Products § 201.308 Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale... poisonings, ipecac syrup is considered the emetic of choice. The immediate availability of this drug for...

  2. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for... Specific Drug Products § 201.308 Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale... poisonings, ipecac syrup is considered the emetic of choice. The immediate availability of this drug for...

  3. Infants Prefer Motionese to Adult-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Rebecca J.; Shallcross, Wendy L.

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated infants' preference for infant-directed (ID) action or "motionese" (Brand, Baldwin & Ashburn, 2002) relative to adult-directed (AD) action. In Study 1, full-featured videos were shown to 32 6- to 8-month-olds, who demonstrated a strong preference for ID action. In Study 2, infants at 6-8 months (n= 28) and 11-13…

  4. Direct-to-consumer sales of genetic services on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Gollust, Sarah E; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Hull, Sara Chandros

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE The increasing use of the Internet to obtain genetics information and to order medical services without a prescription, combined with a rise in direct-to-consumer marketing for genetic testing, suggests the potential for the Internet to be used to sell genetic services. METHODS A systematic World Wide Web search was conducted in May 2002 to assess the availability of genetic services sold directly to consumers on the Internet. RESULTS Out of 105 sites that offered genetic services directly, most offered non-health-related services, including parentage confirmation testing (83%), identity testing (56%), and DNA banking (24%); however, health-related genetic tests were offered through 14 sites (13%). The health-related genetic tests available ranged from standard tests, such as hemochromatosis and cystic fibrosis, to more unconventional tests related to nutrition, behavior, and aging. Of these 14 sites, 5 described risks associated with the genetic services and 6 described the availability of counseling. CONCLUSIONS The availability of direct sales of health-related genetic tests creates the potential for inadequate pretest decision making, misunderstanding test results, and access to tests of questionable clinical value. PMID:12865763

  5. 75 FR 18881 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Sale of Public Land in Caribou Co., ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    .... Disposal of mill tailings is a critical aspect of the Dairy Syncline MRP, rendering the land identified for sale an integral part of the MRP. Disposal of mill tailings would require a tailings pond, an ore tailings line from the mill to the tailings pond, as well as a water main return pipeline from the...

  6. Actions, Action Sequences and Habits: Evidence That Goal-Directed and Habitual Action Control Are Hierarchically Organized

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral evidence suggests that instrumental conditioning is governed by two forms of action control: a goal-directed and a habit learning process. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) has been argued to underlie the goal-directed process; however, the way in which it interacts with habits and the structure of the habitual process has remained unclear. According to a flat architecture, the habitual process corresponds to model-free RL, and its interaction with the goal-directed process is coordinated by an external arbitration mechanism. Alternatively, the interaction between these systems has recently been argued to be hierarchical, such that the formation of action sequences underlies habit learning and a goal-directed process selects between goal-directed actions and habitual sequences of actions to reach the goal. Here we used a two-stage decision-making task to test predictions from these accounts. The hierarchical account predicts that, because they are tied to each other as an action sequence, selecting a habitual action in the first stage will be followed by a habitual action in the second stage, whereas the flat account predicts that the statuses of the first and second stage actions are independent of each other. We found, based on subjects' choices and reaction times, that human subjects combined single actions to build action sequences and that the formation of such action sequences was sufficient to explain habitual actions. Furthermore, based on Bayesian model comparison, a family of hierarchical RL models, assuming a hierarchical interaction between habit and goal-directed processes, provided a better fit of the subjects' behavior than a family of flat models. Although these findings do not rule out all possible model-free accounts of instrumental conditioning, they do show such accounts are not necessary to explain habitual actions and provide a new basis for understanding how goal-directed and habitual action control interact. PMID:24339762

  7. The Construction of Career through Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard A.; Valach, Ladislav

    2004-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that occupational career is constructed through a system of intentional, goal-directed processes in the form of actions and projects as well as other careers, such as the family career and relationship careers. A contextual action theory of career is proposed as an approach that reflects a constructionist stance and…

  8. Direct action of genistein on CFTR.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, F; Wood, P G; Riordan, J R; Nagel, G

    1997-08-01

    Human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channels were expressed in oocytes from Xenopus laevis after injection of CFTR cRNA and studied with the two-electrode voltage-clamp and the giant patch techniques. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein alone activated a small chloride current in whole oocytes expressing CFTR and substantially increased the chloride current obtained upon stimulation with forskolin and isobutyl methylxanthine (IBMX). In giant excised patches, genistein was unable to open protein-kinase-A-phosphorylated CFTR channels in the absence of ATP, but increased the ATP-induced CFTR channel currents by a factor of 3.8 +/- 1.7. This genistein-mediated potentiation in excised patches is independent of protein phosphatase activity, as it is readily reversible, even after complete inhibition of protein kinase A activity. Involvement of protein tyrosine kinases also seems unlikely, because this effect of genistein is not antagonized by high concentrations of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor ortho-vanadate. We, therefore, propose a direct interaction of genistein with CFTR, probably at a nucleotide binding site, which leads to a higher open probability. PMID:9211816

  9. Infants’ Understanding of Object-Directed Action: An Interdisciplinary Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Scott J.; Kuhlmeier, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing that the object-directed actions of others are governed by goals and intentions is a crucial component of human interaction. These actions often occur rapidly and without explanation, yet we learn from and predict the actions of others with remarkable speed and accuracy, even during the first year of life. This review paper will serve as a bridge between several disparate literatures that, we suggest, can each contribute to our understanding of how infants interpret action. Specifically, we provide a review not just of research on infant goal attribution per se, but also incorporate findings from studies on the mirror neuron system and infant object cognition. The integration of these various research approaches allows for a novel construal of the extents and limits of early goal attribution – one in which the importance of the entire action context is considered – and points to specific future research directions. PMID:26903918

  10. Global Reach of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Using Social Media for Illicit Online Drug Sales

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. Objective To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. Methods We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determining applicable platforms (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and MySpace), we created a fictitious advertisement advertising no prescription drugs online and posted it to the identified social media platforms. Each advertisement linked to a unique website URL that consisted of a site error page. Employing Web search analytics, we tracked the number of users visiting these sites and their location. We used commercially available Internet tools and services, including website hosting, domain registration, and website analytic services. Results Illicit online pharmacy social media content for Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace remained accessible despite highly questionable and potentially illegal content. Fictitious advertisements promoting illicit sale of drugs generated aggregate unique user traffic of 2795 visits over a 10-month period. Further, traffic to our websites originated from a number of countries, including high-income and middle-income countries, and emerging markets. Conclusions Our results indicate there are few barriers to entry for social media–based illicit online drug marketing. Further, illicit eDTCA2.0 has globalized outside US borders to other countries through unregulated Internet marketing. PMID:23718965

  11. 75 FR 55347 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Land Near Aztec in San Juan County, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) proposes to offer, by competitive sale, one parcel of land totaling 73.75 acres within the Aztec city limits in San Juan County, New Mexico. The sale will be subject to the applicable provisions of Section 203 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), respectively, and BLM land sale regulations. The purpose of the sale is to dispose of......

  12. The implicit "go": masked action cues directly mobilize mental effort.

    PubMed

    Gendolla, Guido H E; Silvestrini, Nicolas

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that masked general action and inaction cues that are processed during a cognitive task directly mobilize effort exerted during the task. Participants were randomly assigned to an action-prime condition, an inaction-prime condition, or a control condition and performed a Sternberg short-term memory task. The intensity of effort the participants exerted during the task was estimated by measuring their heart responses (cardiac preejection period, PEP) during task performance. As expected, exposure to masked action cues resulted in stronger PEP reactivity than exposure to masked inaction cues. PEP reactivity in the control group fell in between reactivity when action cues were used and reactivity when inaction cues were used. Participants' task performance revealed a corresponding pattern: Reaction times were the shortest in the action-prime condition, increased in the control condition, and increased further in the inaction-prime condition. These results show that masked action cues and inaction cues directly influence the intensity of effort exerted in the performance of a task. PMID:20861511

  13. Training and Work Organisation: An Action-Research Study in a Sales and Distribution Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardes, Alda Cristina; Lopes, Albino Pedro

    2005-01-01

    This study seeks to define a method of designing work-linked training, based on day-to-day work practices and the collaboration between all those involved. From diagnosis to evaluation, no training is designed or given without considering the opinions and interests of the parties involved. The method used is based on action research (AR) and on…

  14. Do Domestic Dogs Understand Human Actions as Goal-Directed?

    PubMed Central

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Ceretta, Maria; Prato-Previde, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of other’s actions as goal-directed is considered a fundamental ability underlying cognitive and social development in human infants. A number of studies using the habituation-dishabituation paradigm have shown that the ability to discern intentional relations, in terms of goal-directedness of an action towards an object, appears around 5 months of age. The question of whether non-human species can perceive other’s actions as goal-directed has been more controversial, however there is mounting evidence that at least some primates species do. Recently domestic dogs have been shown to be particularly sensitive to human communicative cues and more so in cooperative and intentional contexts. Furthermore, they have been shown to imitate selectively. Taken together these results suggest that dogs may perceive others' actions as goal-directed, however no study has investigated this issue directly. In the current study, adopting an infant habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we investigated whether dogs attribute intentions to an animate (a human) but not an inanimate (a black box) agent interacting with an object. Following an habituation phase in which the agent interacted always with one of two objects, two sets of 3 trials were presented: new side trials (in which the agent interacted with the same object as in the habituation trial but placed in a novel location) and new goal trials (in which the agent interacted with the other object placed in the old location). Dogs showed a similar pattern of response to that shown in infants, looking longer in the new goal than new side trials when they saw the human agent interact with the object. No such difference emerging with the inanimate agent (the black box). Results provide the first evidence that a non-primate species can perceive another individual’s actions as goal-directed. We discuss results in terms of the prevailing mentalisitic and non-mentalistic hypotheses regarding goal-attribution. PMID

  15. A tobacco-free world: a call to action to phase out the sale of tobacco products by 2040.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, Robert; Bonita, Ruth; Yach, Derek; Mackay, Judith; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-03-14

    The time has come for the world to acknowledge the unacceptability of the damage being done by the tobacco industry and work towards a world essentially free from the sale (legal and illegal) of tobacco products. A tobacco-free world by 2040, where less than 5% of the world's adult population use tobacco, is socially desirable, technically feasible, and could become politically practical. Three possible ways forward exist: so-called business-as-usual, with most countries steadily implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) provisions; accelerated implementation of the FCTC by all countries; and a so-called turbo-charged approach that complements FCTC actions with strengthened UN leadership, full engagement of all sectors, and increased investment in tobacco control. Only the turbo-charged approach will achieve a tobacco-free world by 2040 where tobacco is out of sight, out of mind, and out of fashion--yet not prohibited. The first and most urgent priority is the inclusion of an ambitious tobacco target in the post-2015 sustainable development health goal. The second priority is accelerated implementation of the FCTC policies in all countries, with full engagement from all sectors including the private sector--from workplaces to pharmacies--and with increased national and global investment. The third priority is an amendment of the FCTC to include an ambitious global tobacco reduction goal. The fourth priority is a UN high-level meeting on tobacco use to galvanise global action towards the 2040 tobacco-free world goal on the basis of new strategies, new resources, and new players. Decisive and strategic action on this bold vision will prevent hundreds of millions of unnecessary deaths during the remainder of this century and safeguard future generations from the ravages of tobacco use. PMID:25784348

  16. Direct and indirect dorsolateral striatum pathways reinforce different action strategies

    PubMed Central

    Vicente, Ana M.; Galvão-Ferreira, Pedro; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Costa, Rui M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The basal ganglia, and the striatum in particular, are critical for action reinforcement 1, 2. The dorsal striatum, which can be further subdivided into dorsomedial (DMS) and dorsolateral (DLS) striatum, is mainly composed of two subpopulations of striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs): dopamine D1 receptor-expressing MSNs that constitute the striatonigral or direct pathway (dMSNs); and dopamine D2 receptor-expressing MSNs that constitute the striatopallidal or indirect pathway (iMSNs) [3]. It has been suggested that each pathway has opposing roles in reinforcement, with dMSNs being important to learn positive reinforcement and iMSNs to learn to avoid undesired actions (Go/No-Go) [1]. Furthermore, optogenetic self-stimulation of dMSNs in DMS leads to reinforcement of actions, while self-stimulation of iMSNs leads to avoidance of actions [2]. However, in DLS, which has been implicated in the consolidation of well-trained actions and habits in mice 4, 5, both pathways are active during lever-pressing for reward [6]. Furthermore, extensive skill training leads to long-lasting potentiation of glutamatergic inputs into both dMSNs and iMSNs [4]. We report here that, in DLS, both dMSNs and iMSNs are involved in positive reinforcement, but support different action strategies. PMID:27046807

  17. Direct and indirect dorsolateral striatum pathways reinforce different action strategies.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Ana M; Galvão-Ferreira, Pedro; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Costa, Rui M

    2016-04-01

    The basal ganglia, and the striatum in particular, are critical for action reinforcement [1,2]. The dorsal striatum, which can be further subdivided into dorsomedial (DMS) and dorsolateral (DLS) striatum, is mainly composed of two subpopulations of striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs): dopamine D1 receptor-expressing MSNs that constitute the striatonigral or direct pathway (dMSNs); and dopamine D2 receptor-expressing MSNs that constitute the striatopallidal or indirect pathway (iMSNs) [3]. It has been suggested that each pathway has opposing roles in reinforcement, with dMSNs being important to learn positive reinforcement and iMSNs to learn to avoid undesired actions (Go/No-Go) [1]. Furthermore, optogenetic self-stimulation of dMSNs in DMS leads to reinforcement of actions, while self-stimulation of iMSNs leads to avoidance of actions [2]. However, in DLS, which has been implicated in the consolidation of well-trained actions and habits in mice [4,5], both pathways are active during lever-pressing for reward [6]. Furthermore, extensive skill training leads to long-lasting potentiation of glutamatergic inputs into both dMSNs and iMSNs [4]. We report here that, in DLS, both dMSNs and iMSNs are involved in positive reinforcement, but support different action strategies. PMID:27046807

  18. Action-value comparisons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex control choice between goal-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Richard W.; Dezfouli, Amir; Griffiths, Kristi R.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that choice between different actions reflects the difference between their action values yet little direct evidence confirming this assumption has been reported. Here we assess whether the brain calculates the absolute difference between action values or their relative advantage, that is, the probability that one action is better than the other alternatives. We use a two-armed bandit task during functional magnetic resonance imaging and modelled responses to determine both the size of the difference between action values (D) and the probability that one action value is better (P). The results show haemodynamic signals corresponding to P in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) together with evidence that these signals modulate motor cortex activity in an action-specific manner. We find no significant activity related to D. These findings demonstrate that a distinct neuronal population mediates action-value comparisons, and reveals how these comparisons are implemented to mediate value-based decision-making. PMID:25055179

  19. 77 FR 20413 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land in Clark County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... sale in the Las Vegas Valley Disposal Boundary Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), approved by Record..., which provides that ``Approximately 175,314 acres of public lands within the disposal areas identified on Map 2-3 are potentially available for disposal through sale, exchange, or Recreation and...

  20. Response actions influence the categorization of directions in auditory space.

    PubMed

    Velten, Marcella C C; Bläsing, Bettina E; Hermann, Thomas; Vorwerg, Constanze; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Spatial region concepts such as "front," "back," "left," and "right" reflect our typical interaction with space, and the corresponding surrounding regions have different statuses in memory. We examined the representation of spatial directions in the auditory space, specifically in how far natural response actions, such as orientation movements toward a sound source, would affect the categorization of egocentric auditory space. While standing in the middle of a circle with 16 loudspeakers, participants were presented acoustic stimuli coming from the loudspeakers in randomized order, and verbally described their directions by using the concept labels "front," "back," "left," "right," "front-right," "front-left," "back-right," and "back-left." Response actions varied in three blocked conditions: (1) facing front, (2) turning the head and upper body to face the stimulus, and (3) turning the head and upper body plus pointing with the hand and outstretched arm toward the stimulus. In addition to a protocol of the verbal utterances, motion capture and video recording generated a detailed corpus for subsequent analysis of the participants' behavior. Chi-square tests revealed an effect of response condition for directions within the left and right sides. We conclude that movement-based response actions influence the representation of auditory space, especially within the sides' regions. Moreover, the representation of auditory space favors the front and the back regions in terms of resolution, which is possibly related to the physiological characteristics of the human auditory system, as well as to the ecological requirements of action control in the different regions. PMID:26300837

  1. Response actions influence the categorization of directions in auditory space

    PubMed Central

    Velten, Marcella C. C.; Bläsing, Bettina E.; Hermann, Thomas; Vorwerg, Constanze; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Spatial region concepts such as “front,” “back,” “left,” and “right” reflect our typical interaction with space, and the corresponding surrounding regions have different statuses in memory. We examined the representation of spatial directions in the auditory space, specifically in how far natural response actions, such as orientation movements toward a sound source, would affect the categorization of egocentric auditory space. While standing in the middle of a circle with 16 loudspeakers, participants were presented acoustic stimuli coming from the loudspeakers in randomized order, and verbally described their directions by using the concept labels “front,” “back,” “left,” “right,” “front-right,” “front-left,” “back-right,” and “back-left.” Response actions varied in three blocked conditions: (1) facing front, (2) turning the head and upper body to face the stimulus, and (3) turning the head and upper body plus pointing with the hand and outstretched arm toward the stimulus. In addition to a protocol of the verbal utterances, motion capture and video recording generated a detailed corpus for subsequent analysis of the participants’ behavior. Chi-square tests revealed an effect of response condition for directions within the left and right sides. We conclude that movement-based response actions influence the representation of auditory space, especially within the sides’ regions. Moreover, the representation of auditory space favors the front and the back regions in terms of resolution, which is possibly related to the physiological characteristics of the human auditory system, as well as to the ecological requirements of action control in the different regions. PMID:26300837

  2. Infants distinguish antisocial actions directed towards fair and unfair agents.

    PubMed

    Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments provide evidence of an incipient sense of fairness in preverbal infants. Ten-month-old infants were shown cartoon videos with two agents, the 'donors', who distributed resources to two identical recipients. One donor always distributed the goods equally, while the other performed unequal distributions by giving everything to one recipient. In the test phase, a third agent hit or took resources away from either the fair or the unfair donor. We found that infants looked longer when the antisocial actions were directed towards the unfair rather than the fair donor. These findings support the view that infants are able to evaluate agents based on their distributive actions and suggest that the foundations of human socio-moral competence are acquired independently of parental feedback and linguistic experience. PMID:25329149

  3. Infants Distinguish Antisocial Actions Directed towards Fair and Unfair Agents

    PubMed Central

    Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments provide evidence of an incipient sense of fairness in preverbal infants. Ten-month-old infants were shown cartoon videos with two agents, the ‘donors’, who distributed resources to two identical recipients. One donor always distributed the goods equally, while the other performed unequal distributions by giving everything to one recipient. In the test phase, a third agent hit or took resources away from either the fair or the unfair donor. We found that infants looked longer when the antisocial actions were directed towards the unfair rather than the fair donor. These findings support the view that infants are able to evaluate agents based on their distributive actions and suggest that the foundations of human socio-moral competence are acquired independently of parental feedback and linguistic experience. PMID:25329149

  4. 78 FR 64974 - Notice of Realty Action; Modified Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land at Schoolhouse Butte...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... sealed bids for this public land sale. The original notice, which published on September 25, 2013 (78 FR 59055), incorrectly stated the date. On page 59055, column 2, line 4 below the chart, which...

  5. 78 FR 25097 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive, Sealed-Bid, Spring SNPLMA Sale of Public Lands in Clark...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Environmental Policy Act Adequacy (DNA). DATES: Interested parties may submit written comments regarding the... specific DNA document numbered DOI-BLM-NV-S010-2012-0106-DNA. Sale procedures: Sealed bids must...

  6. Action Recognition and Movement Direction Discrimination Tasks Are Associated with Different Adaptation Patterns

    PubMed Central

    de la Rosa, Stephan; Ekramnia, Mina; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to discriminate between different actions is essential for action recognition and social interactions. Surprisingly previous research has often probed action recognition mechanisms with tasks that did not require participants to discriminate between actions, e.g., left-right direction discrimination tasks. It is not known to what degree visual processes in direction discrimination tasks are also involved in the discrimination of actions, e.g., when telling apart a handshake from a high-five. Here, we examined whether action discrimination is influenced by movement direction and whether direction discrimination depends on the type of action. We used an action adaptation paradigm to target action and direction discrimination specific visual processes. In separate conditions participants visually adapted to forward and backward moving handshake and high-five actions. Participants subsequently categorized either the action or the movement direction of an ambiguous action. The results showed that direction discrimination adaptation effects were modulated by the type of action but action discrimination adaptation effects were unaffected by movement direction. These results suggest that action discrimination and direction categorization rely on partly different visual information. We propose that action discrimination tasks should be considered for the exploration of visual action recognition mechanisms. PMID:26941633

  7. 75 FR 80839 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Lane County, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Determination of National Environmental Policy Act Adequacy (DOI-BLM-OR-E050-2010-0006- DNA) that was approved... Determination of NEPA Adequacy (DOI-BLM-OR-E050-2010-0006- DNA), EA (EA OR-090-97-42), Decision Record, map,...

  8. 76 FR 29784 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Jerome County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... owners of the adjacent private land, Todd and Bridget Buschhorn, for the appraised fair market value of... than the appraised fair market value: Boise Meridian T. 10 S., R. 19 E., sec. 25, lot 10. The area described contains 7.45 acres in Jerome County. The appraised fair market value is $5,600. The public...

  9. 75 FR 39580 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Minidoka County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ..., to the owners of the surrounding private land for the appraised fair market value of $85,200. The... 1976, as amended (43 U.S.C. 1713 and 1719), at not less than the appraised fair market value: Boise... appraised fair market value is $85,200. The public land is identified as suitable for disposal in the...

  10. 76 FR 2413 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Lawrence County, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... acres in Lawrence County, South Dakota, to Keith Sauls for the appraised fair market value of $183... market value of $183. The public land is identified as suitable for disposal in the BLM's 1986 South..., phone number, e-mail address, or other personal identifying information in your comment, be advised...

  11. 77 FR 13145 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Esmeralda County, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... 2886.15. The segregative effect will terminate upon issuance of a patent, publication in the Federal... Report, and map are available for review at the BLM Tonopah Field Office at the address above and online... above. The patent, if issued, will be subject to the following terms, conditions, and reservations: 1....

  12. 78 FR 71641 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Graham County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... segregation will terminate upon issuance of a patent, publication in the ] Federal Register of a termination...); and 4. Additional terms and conditions that the authorized officer deems appropriate. A...

  13. 75 FR 444 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Tehama County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... owners of the surrounding private land for the appraised fair market value of $28,000. The private land....S.C. 1713), at not less than the appraised fair market value: Mount Diablo Meridian, T. 27 N., R. 2... appraised fair market value is $28,000. The public land is identified as suitable for disposal in the...

  14. 75 FR 80841 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Kern County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... in Kern County, California to the County of Kern for the appraised fair market value of $380,000... 2886.15. The segregation terminates upon issuance of a patent, publication in the Federal Register of a... the mineral interests. Any patent issued would contain the following terms, conditions,...

  15. Direct action of low doses of radiation of neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Peimer, S.I.; Dudkin, A.O.; Sverdlov, A.G.

    1986-03-01

    The authors experiment with new technology of surviving mammalian brain sections for the detection of the direct action of ionizing radiation on the functioning neurons of mammals. The authors selected the rat hippocampus as the object of investigation. Sections of the hippocampus were prepared according to standard procedure, 0.3 mm thick, and incubated for several hours under the following conditions: temperature 35.5/sup 0/C, rate of perfusion 2-3 ml/min, rate of delivery of a mixture of oxygen (95%), and carbon monoxide (5%), in the perfusion solution 35 ml/min. Composition of solution (mM): NaCl 124, KCl 5, CACl/sub 2/ 2.4, MgSO/sub 4/ 1.3, NaHCO/sub 3/ 26, glucose 10; pH 7.4. In an individual series of experiments, calcium was not added to the solution, but an excess of magnesium ions was introduced up to 2.6 mM. Extracellular takeoffs were performed with glass microelectrodes. For irradiation, the authors used sources of x-rays and gamma radiation. In the 5-DI x-ray apparatus, the working voltage and current on the tube were 50 quanta and 8 mA, respectively; there were no filters. Gamma irradiation was performed using ampuls with the radionuclide cesium-137 (IGI-C-3 type), which can be delivered on a holder directly to the section for 1 min.

  16. 14 CFR 39.11 - What actions do airworthiness directives require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What actions do airworthiness directives require? 39.11 Section 39.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES § 39.11 What actions do airworthiness directives...

  17. Enhancing the Professional Mindset of Future Sales Professionals: Key Insights from a Master in Sales Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos-Cuevas, Javier; Critten, Peter; Squire, Phil; Speakman, James I. F.

    2014-01-01

    Sales education has grown in importance, particularly throughout the last decade, with an increasing number of university sales centers offering programs to prepare new generations of sales professionals. In this article, we describe how work-based learning, action research, and reflective practice used in a sales master program can be used in…

  18. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Purity Oil Sales, Fresno County, CA. (Second remedial action), September 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-30

    The 6.8-acre Purity Oil Sales site is a former waste oil re-refining facility in the township of Malaga, Fresno County, California. Land use in the area is mixed agricultural, industrial, and residential, with the North Central Canal flowing along the southern border of the site. The town of Malaga surrounds the site at distances of about 1/2 mile or more. From 1934 to 1975, waste oil was re-refined onsite using a number of treatment processes, including clarification, chemical addition, dehydration, distillation, and filtration. Recent investigations have revealed that the most highly contaminated soil is in the former waste pit areas and extends from the surface to the ground water, and that the eastern 2.5 acres of the property demonstrates surface soil contamination to a 2-foot depth.

  19. 25 CFR 115.805 - If a tribe is paid directly under a contract for the sale or use of trust assets, will we accept...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false If a tribe is paid directly under a contract for the sale or use of trust assets, will we accept those trust funds for deposit into a tribal trust account? 115.805 Section 115.805 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL...

  20. Infants' Perception of Goal-Directed Actions on Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Tanja; Hauf, Petra; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2007-01-01

    Imitation studies and object search studies show that infants have difficulties using action information presented on video to guide their own behaviour. The present study investigated whether infants also have problems interpreting information shown on video relative to real live information. It was examined whether 6-month-olds interpret an…

  1. 29 CFR 779.327 - Wholesale sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., that what is a retail sale for purposes of a sales tax law is not necessarily a retail sale for... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS... that sales of goods or services are not wholesale or are made to the ultimate consumer and are not...

  2. Target- and Effect-Directed Actions towards Temporal Goals: Similar Mechanisms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Andrea M.; Rieger, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The goal of an action can consist of generating a change in the environment (to produce an effect) or changing one's own situation in the environment (to move to a physical target). To investigate whether the mechanisms of effect-directed and target-directed action control are similar, participants performed continuous reversal movements. They…

  3. Self-Directed Action Affects Planning In Tool-Use Tasks with Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Claxton, Laura J.; McCarty, Michael E.; Keen, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Toddlers grasp a tool more effectively when it is self-directed (e.g., spoon) than other-directed (e.g., hammer), possibly because the consequences of self-directed actions are more obvious. When the negative consequences of an inefficient grip were made equally salient, the self- versus other-directed differences remained. PMID:19185350

  4. Direct action of endocrine disrupting chemicals on human sperm.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Christian; Müller, Astrid; Egeberg, Dorte L; Alvarez, Luis; Brenker, Christoph; Rehfeld, Anders; Frederiksen, Hanne; Wäschle, Benjamin; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Balbach, Melanie; Wachten, Dagmar; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Almstrup, Kristian; Strünker, Timo

    2014-07-01

    Synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), omnipresent in food, household, and personal care products, have been implicated in adverse trends in human reproduction, including infertility and increasing demand for assisted reproduction. Here, we study the action of 96 ubiquitous EDCs on human sperm. We show that structurally diverse EDCs activate the sperm-specific CatSper channel and, thereby, evoke an intracellular Ca(2+) increase, a motility response, and acrosomal exocytosis. Moreover, EDCs desensitize sperm for physiological CatSper ligands and cooperate in low-dose mixtures to elevate Ca(2+) levels in sperm. We conclude that EDCs interfere with various sperm functions and, thereby, might impair human fertilization. PMID:24820036

  5. Direct action of endocrine disrupting chemicals on human sperm

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Christian; Müller, Astrid; Egeberg, Dorte L; Alvarez, Luis; Brenker, Christoph; Rehfeld, Anders; Frederiksen, Hanne; Wäschle, Benjamin; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Balbach, Melanie; Wachten, Dagmar; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Almstrup, Kristian; Strünker, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), omnipresent in food, household, and personal care products, have been implicated in adverse trends in human reproduction, including infertility and increasing demand for assisted reproduction. Here, we study the action of 96 ubiquitous EDCs on human sperm. We show that structurally diverse EDCs activate the sperm-specific CatSper channel and, thereby, evoke an intracellular Ca2+ increase, a motility response, and acrosomal exocytosis. Moreover, EDCs desensitize sperm for physiological CatSper ligands and cooperate in low-dose mixtures to elevate Ca2+ levels in sperm. We conclude that EDCs interfere with various sperm functions and, thereby, might impair human fertilization. PMID:24820036

  6. Mobility and Aging: New Directions for Public Health Action

    PubMed Central

    Guralnik, Jack M.; Jackson, Richard J.; Marottoli, Richard A.; Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Prohaska, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Optimal mobility, defined as relative ease and freedom of movement in all of its forms, is central to healthy aging. Mobility is a significant consideration for research, practice, and policy in aging and public health. We examined the public health burdens of mobility disability, with a particular focus on leading public health interventions to enhance walking and driving, and the challenges and opportunities for public health action. We propose an integrated mobility agenda, which draws on the lived experience of older adults. New strategies for research, practice, and policy are needed to move beyond categorical promotion programs in walking and driving to establish a comprehensive program to enhance safe mobility in all its forms. PMID:22698013

  7. LXA4 actions direct fibroblast function and wound closure.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Bruno S; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Zarrough, Ahmed; Hasturk, Hatice; Leung, Kai P; Van Dyke, Thomas E

    2015-09-01

    Timely resolution of inflammation is crucial for normal wound healing. Resolution of inflammation is an active biological process regulated by specialized lipid mediators including the lipoxins and resolvins. Failure of resolution activity has a major negative impact on wound healing in chronic inflammatory diseases that is manifest as excess fibrosis and scarring. Lipoxins, including Lipoxin A4 (LXA4), have known anti-fibrotic and anti-scarring properties. The goal of this study was to elucidate the impact of LXA4 on fibroblast function. Mouse fibroblasts (3T3 Mus musculus Swiss) were cultured for 72 h in the presence of TGF-β1, to induce fibroblast activation. The impact of exogenous TGF-β1 (1 ng/mL) on LXA4 receptor expression (ALX/FPR2) was determined by flow cytometry. Fibroblast proliferation was measured by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and migration in a "scratch" assay wound model. Expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen types I and III were measured by Western blot. We observed that TGF-β1 up-regulates LXA4 receptor expression, enhances fibroblast proliferation, migration and scratch wound closure. α-SMA levels and Collagen type I and III deposition were also enhanced. LXA4 slowed fibroblast migration and scratch wound closure at early time points (24 h), but wound closure was equal to TGF-β1 alone at 48 and 72 h. LXA4 tended to slow fibroblast proliferation at both concentrations, but had no impact on α-SMA or collagen production by TGF-β1 stimulated fibroblasts. The generalizability of the actions of resolution molecules was examined in experiments repeated with resolvin D2 (RvD2) as the agonist. The activity of RvD2 mimicked the actions of LXA4 in all assays, through an as yet unidentified receptor. The results suggest that mediators of resolution of inflammation enhance wound healing and limit fibrosis in part by modulating fibroblast function. PMID:26188508

  8. Direct phosphorescent detection of primary event of photodynamic action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losev, Anatoly P.; Knukshto, Valentin N.; Zhuravkin, Ivan N.

    1994-07-01

    Highly phosphorescent photosensitizer Pd-tetra (o-methoxy-p-sulfo) phenyl porphyrin (Pd-MSPP) was used to follow the primary events of photodynamic action - quenching of triplet states by free oxygen in different systems: water solutions of proteins, cells and tissues in vivo and in vitro. The photosensitizer forms complexes with proteins in solutions and biosystems showing remarkable hypsochromic shifts of band and an increase of the quantum yield and lifetime of phosphorescence at the binding to proteins. In absence of oxygen the lifetime of phosphorescence is almost single exponential, and depends on the energy of lowest triplet state of the sensitizer. The photochemical quenching of the triplets by cell components is negligible. In presence of free oxygen the quenching of the sensitizer triplets takes place. The emission spectrum of singlet oxygen with maximum 1271 nm was recorded in water protein solutions and quantum yield of sensitized luminescence was measured. In the systems studied, oxygen consumption was detected and oxygen concentration was estimated in the course of photodynamics by an increase in photosensitizer phosphorescence lifetime, using laser flash photolysis technique. At least two exponential kinetics of the phosphorescence decay shows that the distribution of the free oxygen is not uniform in tissues.

  9. Rapid Direct Action of Estradiol in GnRH Neurons: Findings and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kenealy, Brian P.; Terasawa, E.

    2011-01-01

    Estradiol plays a pivotal role in the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal function and female reproduction. While positive and negative feedback actions of estradiol that enhance and suppress release of GnRH and LH are primarily mediated through estrogen receptor alpha located in interneurons, a series of recent studies in our laboratory indicate that rapid excitatory actions of estradiol also directly modify GnRH neuronal activity. We observed this phenomenon in cultured primate GnRH neurons, but similar rapid direct actions of estradiol are also described in cultured GnRH neurons and green fluorescent protein-labeled GnRH neurons of mice. Importantly, rapid direct action of estradiol in GnRH neurons is mediated through membrane or membrane associated receptors, such as GPR30, STX-sensitive receptors, and ERβ. In this review, possible implications of this rapid estradiol action in GnRH neurons are discussed. PMID:22654841

  10. Testing of action of direct flame on concrete.

    PubMed

    Bodnarova, Lenka; Valek, Jaroslav; Novosad, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The paper states results of experimental exposition of concrete test specimens to direct flame. Concrete test specimens made from various mixtures differing in the type of aggregate, binder, dispersed reinforcement, and technological procedure were subjected to thermal load. Physicomechanical and other properties of all test specimens were tested before exposition to open flame: density, compressive strength, flexural strength, moisture content, and surface appearance. The specimens were visually observed during exposition to open flame and changes were recorded. Exposed surface was photographically documented before thermal load and at 10-minute intervals. Development of temperature of the specimens was documented with a thermocamera. After exposition to thermal load and cooling down, concrete specimens were visually observed, network of cracks was photographically documented, and maximal depth of spalled area was measured. PMID:25830162

  11. Testing of Action of Direct Flame on Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Valek, Jaroslav; Novosad, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The paper states results of experimental exposition of concrete test specimens to direct flame. Concrete test specimens made from various mixtures differing in the type of aggregate, binder, dispersed reinforcement, and technological procedure were subjected to thermal load. Physicomechanical and other properties of all test specimens were tested before exposition to open flame: density, compressive strength, flexural strength, moisture content, and surface appearance. The specimens were visually observed during exposition to open flame and changes were recorded. Exposed surface was photographically documented before thermal load and at 10-minute intervals. Development of temperature of the specimens was documented with a thermocamera. After exposition to thermal load and cooling down, concrete specimens were visually observed, network of cracks was photographically documented, and maximal depth of spalled area was measured. PMID:25830162

  12. Fathers Show Modifications of Infant-Directed Action Similar to that of Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Przednowek, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Mothers' actions are more enthusiastic, simple, and repetitive when demonstrating novel object properties to their infants than to adults, a behavioral modification called "infant-directed action" by Brand and colleagues (2002). The current study tested whether fathers also tailor their behavior when interacting with infants and whether this…

  13. Infants' Perception of Goal-Directed Actions: Development through Cue-Based Bootstrapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Szilvia; Leslie, Alan M.

    2007-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that sensitivity to goal-directed actions emerges during the first year of life. However, controversy still surrounds the question of how this sensitivity emerges and develops. One set of views emphasizes the role of observing behavioral cues, while another emphasizes the role of experience with producing own action. In a…

  14. A distributed network critical for selecting among tool-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christine E; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2015-04-01

    Tools pose a challenge to the need to select actions appropriate for task goals and environmental constraints. For many tools (e.g., calculator), actions for "using" and "grasping-to-move" conflict with each other and may compete during selection. To date, little is known about the mechanisms that enable selection between possible tool actions or their neural substrates. The study of patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke, many of whom are deficient in tool-use action (apraxic), provides an opportunity to elucidate these issues. Here, 31 such patients pantomimed or recognized tool use actions for "conflict" and "non-conflict" tools. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM), lesion subtraction, and tractographic overlap analyses were used to determine brain regions necessary for selecting among tool-directed actions. Lesions to posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) and anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) tended to impair production of use actions similarly for both conflict and non-conflict tools. By contrast, lesions to the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)/anterior insula, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) specifically impaired production of use actions for conflict tools. Patients' errors on conflict tools suggested inappropriate selection of grasping actions and difficulty selecting single actions. Use/grasp conflict had no effect on action recognition. We suggest that the SMG/SLF/IFG pathway implements biased competition between possible tool actions, while aIPS and pMTG compute the structure-based and skilled use actions, respectively, that constitute input to this competitive process. This is the first study to demonstrate a reliable link between a characteristic of single tools (i.e., their association with different use and grasp actions) and action selection difficulties. Additionally, the data allow us to posit an SMG-involved subtype of apraxia characterized by an inability to resolve action competition. PMID

  15. A Distributed Network Critical for Selecting Among Tool-Directed Actions

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christine E.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2015-01-01

    Tools pose a challenge to the need to select actions appropriate for task goals and environmental constraints. For many tools (e.g., calculator), actions for “using” and “grasping-to-move” conflict with each other and may compete during selection. To date, little is known about the mechanisms that enable selection between possible tool actions or their neural substrates. The study of patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke, many of whom are deficient in tool-use action (apraxic), provides an opportunity to elucidate these issues. Here, 31 such patients pantomimed or recognized tool use actions for “conflict” and “non-conflict” tools. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping, lesion subtraction, and tractographic overlap analyses were used to determine brain regions necessary for selecting among tool-directed actions. Lesions to posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) and anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) tended to impair production of use actions similarly for both conflict and non-conflict tools. By contrast, lesions to the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)/anterior insula, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) specifically impaired production of use actions for conflict tools. Patients' errors on conflict tools suggested inappropriate selection of grasping actions and difficulty selecting single actions. Use/grasp conflict had no effect on action recognition. We suggest that the SMG/SLF/IFG pathway implements biased competition between possible tool actions, while aIPS and pMTG compute the structure-based and skilled use actions, respectively, that constitute input to this competitive process. This is the first study to demonstrate a reliable link between a characteristic of single tools (i.e., their association with different use and grasp actions) and action selection difficulties. Additionally, the data allow us to posit a SMG-involved subtype of apraxia characterized by an inability to resolve action competition

  16. Perceiving the Direction of Articulatory Motion in Point-Light Actions

    PubMed Central

    Davila, Alex; Schouten, Ben; Verfaillie, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Human observers are able to perceive the motion direction of actions (either forward or backward) on the basis of the articulatory, relative motion of the limbs, even when the actions are shown under point-light conditions. However, most studies have focused on the action of walking. The primary purpose of the present study is to further investigate the perception of articulatory motion in different point-light actions (walking, crawling, hand walking, and rowing). On each trial, participants were presented with a forward or backward moving person and they had to decide on the direction of articulatory motion of the person. We analyzed sensitivity (d') as well as response bias (c). In addition to the type of action, the diagnosticity of the available information was manipulated by varying the visibility of the body parts (full body, only upper limbs, or only lower limbs) and the viewpoint from which the action was seen (from frontal view to sagittal view). We observe that, depending on the specific action, perception of direction of motion is driven by different body parts. Implications for the possible existence of a life detector, i.e., an evolutionarily old and innate visual filter that is tuned to quickly and automatically detect the presence of a moving living organism and direct attention to it, are discussed. PMID:25526397

  17. Similar Mechanisms of Movement Control in Target- and Effect-Directed Actions toward Spatial Goals?

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Andrea M.; Rieger, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that actions conducted toward temporal targets and temporal effects are controlled in a similar way. To investigate whether these findings also apply to spatially restricted movements we analyzed movement kinematics of continuous reversal movements toward given spatial targets and toward self-produced spatial effects in two experiments. In Experiment 1 target- and effect-directed movements were investigated in three different goal constellations. A spatial target/effect was always presented/produced on one movement side, on the other side either (a) no target/effect, (b) the same target/effect, or (c) a more difficult target/effect was presented/produced. Results showed that both target-directed and effect-directed movements have a typical spatial kinematic pattern and that both can be equally well described by linear functions as suggested by Fitts’ Law. However, effect-directed movements have longer movement times. In Experiment 2 participants performed target-directed movements to the one side and effect-directed movements to the other side of a reversal movement. More pronounced spatial kinematics were observed in effect-directed than in target-directed movements. Together, the results suggest that actions conducted toward spatial targets and spatial effects are controlled in a similar manner. Gradual differences in the kinematic patterns may arise because effects are cognitively more demanding. They may therefore be represented less accurately than targets. However, there was no indication of qualitative differences in the cognitive representations of effects and targets. This strengthens our assumption that both targets and effects play a comparable role in action control: they can both be viewed as goals of an action. Thus, ideomotor theories of action control should incorporate action targets as goals similar to action effects. PMID:23230426

  18. Better sales networks.

    PubMed

    Ustüner, Tuba; Godes, David

    2006-01-01

    Anyone in sales will tell you that social networks are critical. The more contacts you have, the more leads you'll generate, and, ultimately, the more sales you'll make. But that's a vast oversimplification. Different configurations of networks produce different results, and the salesperson who develops a nuanced understanding of social networks will outshine competitors. The salesperson's job changes over the course of the selling process. Different abilities are required in each stage of the sale: identifying prospects, gaining buy-in from potential customers, creating solutions, and closing the deal. Success in the first stage, for instance, depends on the salesperson acquiring precise and timely information about opportunities from contacts in the marketplace. Closing the deal requires the salesperson to mobilize contacts from prior sales to act as references. Managers often view sales networks only in terms of direct contacts. But someone who knows lots of people doesn't necessarily have an effective network because networks often pay off most handsomely through indirect contacts. Moreover, the density of the connections in a network is important. Do a salesperson's contacts know all the same people, or are their associates widely dispersed? Sparse networks are better, for example, at generating unique information. Managers can use three levers--sales force structure, compensation, and skills development--to encourage salespeople to adopt a network-based view and make the best possible use of social webs. For example, the sales force can be restructured to decouple lead generation from other tasks because some people are very good at building diverse ties but not so good at maintaining other kinds of networks. Companies that take steps of this kind to help their sales teams build better networks will reap tremendous advantages. PMID:16846193

  19. Interaction in planning movement direction for articulatory gestures and manual actions.

    PubMed

    Vainio, Lari; Tiainen, Mikko; Tiippana, Kaisa; Komeilipoor, Naeem; Vainio, Martti

    2015-10-01

    Some theories concerning speech mechanisms assume that overlapping representations are involved in programming certain articulatory gestures and hand actions. The present study investigated whether planning of movement direction for articulatory gestures and manual actions could interact. The participants were presented with written vowels (Experiment 1) or syllables (Experiment 2) that were associated with forward or backward movement of tongue (e.g., [i] vs. [ɑ] or [te] vs. [ke], respectively). They were required to pronounce the speech unit and simultaneously move the joystick forward or backward according to the color of the stimulus. Manual and vocal responses were performed relatively rapidly when the articulation and the hand action required movement into the same direction. The study suggests that planning horizontal tongue movements for articulation shares overlapping neural mechanisms with planning horizontal movement direction of hand actions. PMID:26126804

  20. Translational studies of goal-directed action as a framework for classifying deficits across psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kristi R.; Morris, Richard W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to learn contingencies between actions and outcomes in a dynamic environment is critical for flexible, adaptive behavior. Goal-directed actions adapt to changes in action-outcome contingencies as well as to changes in the reward-value of the outcome. When networks involved in reward processing and contingency learning are maladaptive, this fundamental ability can be lost, with detrimental consequences for decision-making. Impaired decision-making is a core feature in a number of psychiatric disorders, ranging from depression to schizophrenia. The argument can be developed, therefore, that seemingly disparate symptoms across psychiatric disorders can be explained by dysfunction within common decision-making circuitry. From this perspective, gaining a better understanding of the neural processes involved in goal-directed action, will allow a comparison of deficits observed across traditional diagnostic boundaries within a unified theoretical framework. This review describes the key processes and neural circuits involved in goal-directed decision-making using evidence from animal studies and human neuroimaging. Select studies are discussed to outline what we currently know about causal judgments regarding actions and their consequences, action-related reward evaluation, and, most importantly, how these processes are integrated in goal-directed learning and performance. Finally, we look at how adaptive decision-making is impaired across a range of psychiatric disorders and how deepening our understanding of this circuitry may offer insights into phenotypes and more targeted interventions. PMID:24904322

  1. Responses to the advanced notice of proposed rulemaking EPA published on June 6, 1996 regarding changes to the EPA allowance auctions and elimination of the direct sale

    SciTech Connect

    Critchfield, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    On June 6, 1996, EPA`s Acid Rain Program published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) in the Federal Register seeking comment on: (1) whether to change the design of the annual sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance auctions; (2) whether to change the timing of the allowance auctions; (3) whether to change the requirement that the minimum price of offered allowances must be in whole dollars, and (4) whether EPA should propose the ability to submit allowance transfers electronically. EPA also published on that day a proposed and direct final rule on whether to eliminate the direct sale. This paper documents the issues addressed in the ANPRM, the comments EPA received, and EPA`s responses to those comments. EPA received comments from 14 separate commenters.

  2. Huntsville Arsenal for Sale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    In the years following World War II, the Army directed that the Huntsville, Alabama Arsenal be advertised for sale. The decision was reversed because the Army found it needed this land for the new missile work that would occur at Redstone Arsenal.

  3. Dissociable effects of salience on attention and goal-directed action.

    PubMed

    Moher, Jeff; Anderson, Brian A; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    Everyday behavior frequently involves encounters with multiple objects that compete for selection. For example, driving a car requires constant shifts of attention between oncoming traffic, rearview mirrors, and traffic signs and signals, among other objects. Behavioral goals often drive this selection process [1, 2]; however, they are not the sole determinant of selection. Physically salient objects, such as flashing, brightly colored hazard signs, or objects that are salient by virtue of learned associations with reward, such as pictures of food on a billboard, often capture attention regardless of the individual's goals [3-6]. It is typically thought that strongly salient distractor objects capture more attention and are more disruptive than weakly salient distractors [7, 8]. Counterintuitively, though, we found that this is true for perception, but not for goal-directed action. In a visually guided reaching task [9-11], we required participants to reach to a shape-defined target while trying to ignore salient distractors. We observed that strongly salient distractors produced less disruption in goal-directed action than weakly salient distractors. Thus, a strongly salient distractor triggers suppression during goal-directed action, resulting in enhanced efficiency and accuracy of target selection relative to when weakly salient distractors are present. In contrast, in a task requiring no goal-directed action, we found greater attentional interference from strongly salient distractors. Thus, while highly salient stimuli interfere strongly with perceptual processing, increased physical salience or associated value attenuates action-related interference. PMID:26190076

  4. Direct detection of a single evoked action potential with MRS in Lumbricus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Poplawsky, Alexander J; Dingledine, Raymond; Hu, Xiaoping P

    2012-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) measures neural activity indirectly by detecting the signal change associated with the hemodynamic response following brain activation. In order to alleviate the temporal and spatial specificity problems associated with fMRI, a number of attempts have been made to detect neural magnetic fields (NMFs) with MRI directly, but have thus far provided conflicting results. In this study, we used MR to detect axonal NMFs in the median giant fiber of the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, by examining the free induction decay (FID) with a sampling interval of 0.32 ms. The earthworm nerve cords were isolated from the vasculature and stimulated at the threshold of action potential generation. FIDs were acquired shortly after the stimulation, and simultaneous field potential recordings identified the presence or absence of single evoked action potentials. FIDs acquired when the stimulus did not evoke an action potential were summed as background. The phase of the background-subtracted FID exhibited a systematic change, with a peak phase difference of (-1.2 ± 0.3) × 10(-5) radians occurring at a time corresponding to the timing of the action potential. In addition, we calculated the possible changes in the FID magnitude and phase caused by a simulated action potential using a volume conductor model. The measured phase difference matched the theoretical prediction well in both amplitude and temporal characteristics. This study provides the first evidence for the direct detection of a magnetic field from an evoked action potential using MR. PMID:21728204

  5. 78 FR 32688 - Notice of Realty Action, Segregation Terminated, Direct Sale of Public Land in San Bernardino...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... February 10, 2010 (75 FR 6702). This previous segregation will terminate on May 31, 2013 and be replaced... States under the Act of August 30, 1890 (43 U.S.C 945). 2. Subject to a ROW for a buried fiber optic... buried fiber optic cable issued to AT&T under serial number CACA 21604. 4. A condition that...

  6. 78 FR 11899 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in San Mateo County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ..., a California Nonprofit Corporation, for the appraised fair market value. The total appraised value... Sempervirens Fund for the appraised fair market value of $420,000. Parcel No. 2 T. 8 S., R. 4 W., Sec. 9, NE\\1... appraised fair market value of $450,000. The areas described aggregate 80 acres, more or less, in...

  7. 78 FR 7809 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed (Non-Competitive) Direct Sale of Public Land in Campbell County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... the Craig G. and Peggy S. Means Revocable Trust. DATES: In order to ensure consideration in the.... and Peggy S. Means Revocable Trust as the final resolution to the unauthorized use, pursuant to 43 CFR 2710.0-6(c)(3)(iii) and 43 CFR 2711.3-3(a)(5). In addition, the Craig G. and Peggy S. Means...

  8. 78 FR 75578 - Notice of Realty Action; Notice of Segregation and Proposed (Non-Competitive) Direct Sale of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... in the RMP Record of Decision, pages 171 and 172 and Map 6. The BLM is offering the parcel to Pacifi... will terminate upon the issuance of a patent, publication in the Federal Register of a termination...

  9. 76 FR 16811 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Clara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... County Open Space Authority for the appraised fair market value. The total appraised value of all three.... The parcel has an appraised fair market value of $80,000. Parcel No. 2, T. 10S., R. 2E., Sec. 5, lot 2... value of $135,000. Parcel No. 3, T. 10S., R. 2E., Sec. 6, lots 3, 4, and 6. The area described...

  10. 76 FR 50492 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in San Benito County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ..., LLC, a California Limited Liability Company, ] for the appraised fair market value of $16,000. DATES... and 2886.15. The temporary segregation will terminate upon issuance of a patent, publication in...

  11. 78 FR 7810 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed (Non-Competitive) Direct Sale of Public Lands in Sheridan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), at no less than the appraised fair market value. DATES: In order to ensure... with 43 CFR 2807.15 and 2886.15. The segregative effect will terminate upon issuance of a...

  12. 78 FR 53780 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Doña Ana County, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Las Cruces District Office, proposes to sell two parcels of public land totaling 2.47 acres in Do[ntilde]a Ana County, New Mexico. The public land would be sold to the Union Pacific Railroad for $11,000 which is more than the appraised fair market...

  13. Dopaminergic modulation of positive expectations for goal-directed action: evidence from Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wolpe, Noham; Nombela, Cristina; Rowe, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) impairs the control of movement and cognition, including the planning of action and its consequences. This provides the opportunity to study the dopaminergic influences on the perception and awareness of action. Here we examined the perception of the outcome of a goal-directed action made by medicated patients with PD. A visuomotor task probed the integration of sensorimotor signals with the positive expectations of outcomes (Self priors), which in healthy adults bias perception toward success in proportion to trait optimism. We tested the hypotheses that (i) the priors on the perception of the consequences of one’s own actions differ between patients and age- and sex-matched controls, and (ii) that these priors are modulated by the levodopa dose equivalent (LDEs) in patients. There was no overall difference between patients and controls in the perceptual priors used. However, the precision of patient priors was inversely related to their LDE. Patients with high LDE showed more accurate priors, representing predictions that were closer to the true distribution of performance. Such accuracy has previously been demonstrated when observing the actions of others, suggesting abnormal awareness of action in these patients. These results confirm a link between dopamine and the positive expectation of the outcome of one’s own actions, and may have implications for the management of PD. PMID:26500582

  14. John porter lecture: waves of protest--direct action, deliberation, and diffusion.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lesley

    2015-02-01

    The book Direct Action, Deliberation and Diffusion: Collective Action After the WTO Protests in Seattle argues that the process of diffusion is dependent on social processes in the receiving context. The most important in social movements is an egalitarian and reflexive deliberation among diverse actors. The book traces the direct action tactics associated with the Seattle protests against the World Trade Organization in 1999 and how these spread to activists in Toronto and New York City. It shows how the structure of the political field, racial and class inequalities, identity boundaries, and organizational and conversational dynamics limited deliberation among activists, and thus limited the diffusion of the Seattle tactics. By constraining the spread of the Seattle tactics, this slowed the global justice movement's wave of protest. In this paper, I explore the application of and implications of this model of protest tactic diffusion to the recent Idle No More mobilizations. PMID:25737463

  15. 12 CFR 390.456 - Directives to take prompt corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... critically undercapitalized State savings association or, where appropriate, any company that controls the State savings association, prior written notice of the FDIC's intention to issue a directive requiring such State savings association or company to take actions or to follow proscriptions described...

  16. 12 CFR 390.456 - Directives to take prompt corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... critically undercapitalized State savings association or, where appropriate, any company that controls the State savings association, prior written notice of the FDIC's intention to issue a directive requiring such State savings association or company to take actions or to follow proscriptions described...

  17. 10 CFR 205.14 - Ratification of prior directives, orders, and actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ratification of prior directives, orders, and actions. 205.14 Section 205.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General... hereby confirmed and ratified, and shall remain in full force and effect as if issued under this...

  18. 10 CFR 205.14 - Ratification of prior directives, orders, and actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ratification of prior directives, orders, and actions. 205.14 Section 205.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General... hereby confirmed and ratified, and shall remain in full force and effect as if issued under this...

  19. 30 CFR 553.61 - When is a guarantor subject to direct action for claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When is a guarantor subject to direct action for claims? 553.61 Section 553.61 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Claims for Oil-Spill Removal Costs and Damages § 553.61 When is...

  20. 30 CFR 253.61 - When is a guarantor subject to direct action for claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Claims for Oil-Spill Removal Costs and Damages § 253.61 When is a guarantor subject to direct action for...., oil-spill discharge or substantial threat of the discharge of oil) that is subject to claims...

  1. Investigating the Relationship between Belief and Action in Self-Directed Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Diego; Thornton, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Employing the principles of a contextual approach to learner belief research and applying it to a self-directed learning context at a Japanese university, this longitudinal study investigates the complex interplay between beliefs and actions and its contribution to the development of language learning skills. Through the triangulation of various…

  2. Should I stay or should I go? Conceptual underpinnings of goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    All actions, even the simplest like moving an arm to grasp a pen, are associated with energy costs. Thus all mobile organisms possess the ability to evaluate resources and select those behaviors that are most likely to lead to the greatest accrual of valuable items (reward) in the near or, especially in the case of humans, distant future. The evaluation process is performed at all possible stages of the series of decisions that lead to the building of a goal-directed action or to its suppression. This is because all animals have a limited amount of energy and resources; to survive and be able to reproduce they have to minimize the costs and maximize the outcomes of their actions. These computations are at the root of behavioral flexibility. Two executive functions play a major role in generating flexible behaviors: (i) the ability to predict future outcomes of goal-directed actions; and (ii) the ability to cancel them when they are unlikely to accomplish valuable results. These two processes operate continuously during the entire course of a movement: during its genesis, its planning and even its execution, so that the motor output can be modulated or suppressed at any time before its execution. In this review, functional interactions of the extended neural network subserving generation and inhibition of goal-directed movements will be outlined, leading to the intriguing hypothesis that the performance of actions and their suppression are not specified by independent sets of brain regions. Rather, it will be proposed that acting and stopping are functions emerging from specific interactions between largely overlapping brain regions, whose activity is intimately linked (directly or indirectly) to the evaluations of pros and cons of an action. Such mechanism would allow the brain to perform as a highly efficient and flexible system, as different functions could be computed exploiting the same components operating in different configurations. PMID:25404898

  3. Should I stay or should I go? Conceptual underpinnings of goal-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    All actions, even the simplest like moving an arm to grasp a pen, are associated with energy costs. Thus all mobile organisms possess the ability to evaluate resources and select those behaviors that are most likely to lead to the greatest accrual of valuable items (reward) in the near or, especially in the case of humans, distant future. The evaluation process is performed at all possible stages of the series of decisions that lead to the building of a goal-directed action or to its suppression. This is because all animals have a limited amount of energy and resources; to survive and be able to reproduce they have to minimize the costs and maximize the outcomes of their actions. These computations are at the root of behavioral flexibility. Two executive functions play a major role in generating flexible behaviors: (i) the ability to predict future outcomes of goal-directed actions; and (ii) the ability to cancel them when they are unlikely to accomplish valuable results. These two processes operate continuously during the entire course of a movement: during its genesis, its planning and even its execution, so that the motor output can be modulated or suppressed at any time before its execution. In this review, functional interactions of the extended neural network subserving generation and inhibition of goal-directed movements will be outlined, leading to the intriguing hypothesis that the performance of actions and their suppression are not specified by independent sets of brain regions. Rather, it will be proposed that acting and stopping are functions emerging from specific interactions between largely overlapping brain regions, whose activity is intimately linked (directly or indirectly) to the evaluations of pros and cons of an action. Such mechanism would allow the brain to perform as a highly efficient and flexible system, as different functions could be computed exploiting the same components operating in different configurations. PMID:25404898

  4. 17 CFR 48.6 - Foreign boards of trade providing direct access pursuant to existing no-action relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... providing direct access pursuant to existing no-action relief. 48.6 Section 48.6 Commodity and Securities... of trade providing direct access pursuant to existing no-action relief. (a) A foreign board of trade... the Commission pursuant to this part in order to continue to provide direct access to its...

  5. The Feeling of Action Tendencies: On the Emotional Regulation of Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review the nature of the functional and causal relationship between neurophysiologically/psychologically generated states of emotional feeling and action tendencies and extrapolate a novel perspective. Emotion theory, over the past century and beyond, has tended to regard feeling and action tendency as independent phenomena: attempts to outline the functional and causal relationship that exists between them have been framed therein. Classically, such relationships have been viewed as unidirectional, but an argument for bidirectionality rooted in a dynamic systems perspective has gained strength in recent years whereby the feeling–action tendency relationship is viewed as a composite whole. On the basis of our review of somatic–visceral theories of feelings, we argue that feelings are grounded upon neural-dynamic representations (elevated and stable activation patterns) of action tendency. Such representations amount to predictions updated by cognitive and bodily feedback. Specifically, we view emotional feelings as minimalist predictions of the action tendency (what the agent is physiologically and cognitively primed to do) in a given situation. The essence of this point is captured by our exposition of action tendency prediction–feedback loops which we consider, above all, in the context of emotion regulation, and in particular, of emotional regulation of goal-directed behavior. The perspective outlined may be of use to emotion theorists, computational modelers, and roboticists. PMID:22207854

  6. 75 FR 51934 - Telemarketing Sales Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Protection, Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC 20580 (202-326-3224). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR... CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction... amendments to the Telemarketing Sales Rule that address the telemarketing of debt relief services....

  7. 78 FR 53642 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... 3084-AA98 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call Registry (the ``Registry'') as required by the Do-Not-Call Registry Fee Extension Act of 2007....

  8. 77 FR 51697 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... CFR Part 310 RIN 3084-AA98 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call Registry (the ``Registry'') as required by the Do-Not-Call Registry Fee Extension Act of 2007....

  9. 76 FR 53636 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... CFR Part 310 RIN 3084-AA98 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees ] charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call Registry (the Registry as required by the Do-Not-Call Registry Fee Extension Act of 2007. DATES:...

  10. Experimental determination of compound action potential direction and propagation velocity from multi-electrode nerve cuffs.

    PubMed

    Rieger, R; Taylor, J; Comi, E; Donaldson, N; Russold, M; Mahony, C M O; McLaughlin, J A; McAdams, E; Demosthenous, A; Jarvis, J C

    2004-07-01

    Information extracted from whole-nerve electroneurograms, recorded using electrode cuffs, can provide signals to neuroprostheses. However, the amount of information that can be extracted from a single tripole is limited. This communication demonstrates how previously unavailable information about the direction of action potential propagation and velocity can be obtained using a multi-electrode cuff and that the arrangement acts as a velocity-selective filter. Results from in vitro experiments on frog nerves are presented. PMID:15234689

  11. How to Build an Intentional Android: Infants' Imitation of a Robot's Goal-Directed Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itakura, Shoji; Ishida, Hiraku; Kanda, Takayuki; Shimada, Yohko; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether young children are able to imitate a robot's goal-directed actions. Children (24-35 months old) viewed videos showing a robot attempting to manipulate an object (e.g., putting beads inside a cup) but failing to achieve its goal (e.g., beads fell outside the cup). In 1 video, the robot made eye contact with a human…

  12. Evidence for a direct action of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on the cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A L; Fontoura, B F; Freire-Maia, L; Machado, C R; Camargos, E R; Teixeira, M M

    2001-05-01

    The ability of toxins to activate the cardiovascular system plays an important role in the morbidity and lethality of the Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenoming. Most of the actions of the scorpion toxins are indirect and due to the release of adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmitters. Accordingly, treatment following envenoming is targeted towards inhibition of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors. Here, we have sought evidence for a direct action of T. serrulatus venom on the isolated rat heart (Langendorff's method). We show that the bradycardia induced by T. serrulatus venom was completely blocked by atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Similarly, the increase in heart rate that follows the venom-induced bradycardia was totally inhibited by a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist or by chemical sympathetic denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine. In contrast to these findings, the venom-induced increase in contractile force was not modified by beta(1)-adrenoceptor blockade or by chemical sympathetic denervation. The results clearly demonstrate that the chronotropic effects of T. serrulatus are dependent on neurotransmitter release, but the inotropic effects are not. The neurotransmitter-independent increase in contractility seems to be a direct action of the venom on cardiomyocytes. We suggest that this direct effect on cardiac fibers may play a role in the development of cardiac arrhythmias and contractility defects following envenoming with T. serrulatus scorpion. PMID:11072050

  13. Observing Grasping Actions Directed to Emotion-Laden Objects: Effects upon Corticospinal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Campos, Anaelli A.; Saunier, Ghislain; Della-Maggiore, Valeria; De Oliveira, Laura A. S.; Rodrigues, Erika C.; Vargas, Claudia D.

    2016-01-01

    The motor system is recruited whenever one executes an action as well as when one observes the same action being executed by others. Although it is well established that emotion modulates the motor system, the effect of observing other individuals acting in an emotional context is particularly elusive. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect induced by the observation of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects upon corticospinal excitability (CSE). Participants classified video-clips depicting the right-hand of an actor grasping emotion-laden objects. Twenty video-clips differing in terms of valence but balanced in arousal level were selected. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were then recorded from the first dorsal interosseous using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while the participants observed the selected emotional video-clips. During the video-clip presentation, TMS pulses were randomly applied at one of two different time points of grasping: (1) maximum grip aperture, and (2) object contact time. CSE was higher during the observation of grasping directed to unpleasant objects compared to pleasant ones. These results indicate that when someone observes an action of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects, the effect of the object valence promotes a specific modulation over the motor system. PMID:27625602

  14. Visual control of braking in goal-directed action and sport.

    PubMed

    Bardy, B G; Warren, W H

    1997-12-01

    Reaching a moving object, avoiding an obstacle, or controlling a rotation are common requirements of experts in sport and goal-directed action. Since the original analysis of optic flow, a large number of studies have addressed the problem of perception and control of braking. In this paper, the perception-action strategies described for deceleration control are reviewed; driving, docking, landing, somersaulting, running and reaching are analysed. The role played by 'tau dot', the first temporal derivative of tau, is shown to be critical. However, the so-called constant tau-dot strategy proposed to explain how we regulate our deceleration in such circumstances is critically examined and rejected. New directions in the problem of braking control are proposed that emphasize: (1) the advantage of tau-dot over other kinematic variables; (2) the task specificity of tau-dot; (3) the need to consider tau-dot as a control variable; and (4) the role played by the controller dynamics in the perception-action loop. Several directions for future research are suggested. PMID:9486438

  15. Planning Ahead: Object-Directed Sequential Actions Decoded from Human Frontoparietal and Occipitotemporal Networks.

    PubMed

    Gallivan, Jason P; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Flanagan, J Randall

    2016-02-01

    Object-manipulation tasks (e.g., drinking from a cup) typically involve sequencing together a series of distinct motor acts (e.g., reaching toward, grasping, lifting, and transporting the cup) in order to accomplish some overarching goal (e.g., quenching thirst). Although several studies in humans have investigated the neural mechanisms supporting the planning of visually guided movements directed toward objects (such as reaching or pointing), only a handful have examined how manipulatory sequences of actions-those that occur after an object has been grasped-are planned and represented in the brain. Here, using event-related functional MRI and pattern decoding methods, we investigated the neural basis of real-object manipulation using a delayed-movement task in which participants first prepared and then executed different object-directed action sequences that varied either in their complexity or final spatial goals. Consistent with previous reports of preparatory brain activity in non-human primates, we found that activity patterns in several frontoparietal areas reliably predicted entire action sequences in advance of movement. Notably, we found that similar sequence-related information could also be decoded from pre-movement signals in object- and body-selective occipitotemporal cortex (OTC). These findings suggest that both frontoparietal and occipitotemporal circuits are engaged in transforming object-related information into complex, goal-directed movements. PMID:25576538

  16. Observing Grasping Actions Directed to Emotion-Laden Objects: Effects upon Corticospinal Excitability.

    PubMed

    Nogueira-Campos, Anaelli A; Saunier, Ghislain; Della-Maggiore, Valeria; De Oliveira, Laura A S; Rodrigues, Erika C; Vargas, Claudia D

    2016-01-01

    The motor system is recruited whenever one executes an action as well as when one observes the same action being executed by others. Although it is well established that emotion modulates the motor system, the effect of observing other individuals acting in an emotional context is particularly elusive. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect induced by the observation of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects upon corticospinal excitability (CSE). Participants classified video-clips depicting the right-hand of an actor grasping emotion-laden objects. Twenty video-clips differing in terms of valence but balanced in arousal level were selected. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were then recorded from the first dorsal interosseous using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while the participants observed the selected emotional video-clips. During the video-clip presentation, TMS pulses were randomly applied at one of two different time points of grasping: (1) maximum grip aperture, and (2) object contact time. CSE was higher during the observation of grasping directed to unpleasant objects compared to pleasant ones. These results indicate that when someone observes an action of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects, the effect of the object valence promotes a specific modulation over the motor system. PMID:27625602

  17. Enactment versus Observation: Item-Specific and Relational Processing in Goal-Directed Action Sequences (and Lists of Single Actions)

    PubMed Central

    Schult, Janette; von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C.

    2014-01-01

    What are the memory-related consequences of learning actions (such as “apply the patch”) by enactment during study, as compared to action observation? Theories converge in postulating that enactment encoding increases item-specific processing, but not the processing of relational information. Typically, in the laboratory enactment encoding is studied for lists of unrelated single actions in which one action execution has no overarching purpose or relation with other actions. In contrast, real-life actions are usually carried out with the intention to achieve such a purpose. When actions are embedded in action sequences, relational information provides efficient retrieval cues. We contrasted memory for single actions with memory for action sequences in three experiments. We found more reliance on relational processing for action-sequences than single actions. To what degree can this relational information be used after enactment versus after the observation of an actor? We found indicators of superior relational processing after observation than enactment in ordered pair recall (Experiment 1A) and in emerging subjective organization of repeated recall protocols (recall runs 2–3, Experiment 2). An indicator of superior item-specific processing after enactment compared to observation was recognition (Experiment 1B, Experiment 2). Similar net recall suggests that observation can be as good a learning strategy as enactment. We discuss possible reasons why these findings only partly converge with previous research and theorizing. PMID:24927279

  18. Encoding the Goal of an Object-Directed but Uncompleted Reaching Action in 6- and 9-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daum, Moritz M.; Prinz, Wolfgang; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2008-01-01

    Infants start to interpret completed human actions as goal-directed in the second half of the first year of life. In a series of three studies, the understanding of a goal-directed but uncompleted action was investigated in 6- and 9-month-old infants using a preferential looking paradigm. Infants saw the video of an actor's reaching movement…

  19. 17 CFR 48.6 - Foreign boards of trade providing direct access pursuant to existing no-action relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of trade providing direct access pursuant to existing no-action relief. (a) A foreign board of trade... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foreign boards of trade providing direct access pursuant to existing no-action relief. 48.6 Section 48.6 Commodity and...

  20. 17 CFR 48.6 - Foreign boards of trade providing direct access pursuant to existing no-action relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Foreign boards of trade providing direct access pursuant to existing no-action relief. (a) A foreign board... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foreign boards of trade providing direct access pursuant to existing no-action relief. 48.6 Section 48.6 Commodity and...

  1. The direct perception hypothesis: perceiving the intention of another’s action hinders its precise imitation

    PubMed Central

    Froese, Tom; Leavens, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We argue that imitation is a learning response to unintelligible actions, especially to social conventions. Various strands of evidence are converging on this conclusion, but further progress has been hampered by an outdated theory of perceptual experience. Comparative psychology continues to be premised on the doctrine that humans and non-human primates only perceive others’ physical “surface behavior,” while mental states are perceptually inaccessible. However, a growing consensus in social cognition research accepts the direct perception hypothesis: primarily we see what others aim to do; we do not infer it from their motions. Indeed, physical details are overlooked – unless the action is unintelligible. On this basis we hypothesize that apes’ propensity to copy the goal of an action, rather than its precise means, is largely dependent on its perceived intelligibility. Conversely, children copy means more often than adults and apes because, uniquely, much adult human behavior is completely unintelligible to unenculturated observers due to the pervasiveness of arbitrary social conventions, as exemplified by customs, rituals, and languages. We expect the propensity to imitate to be inversely correlated with the familiarity of cultural practices, as indexed by age and/or socio-cultural competence. The direct perception hypothesis thereby helps to parsimoniously explain the most important findings of imitation research, including children’s over-imitation and other species-typical and age-related variations. PMID:24600413

  2. Direct and indirect cardiovascular actions of cathinone and MDMA in the anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Alsufyani, Hadeel A; Docherty, James R

    2015-07-01

    The stimulants cathinone (from Khat leaves) and methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine (MDMA) produce adrenoceptor mediated tachycardia and vasopressor actions that may be the result of direct receptor stimulation, actions on the noradrenaline transporter, and/or displacement of noradrenaline from nerve terminals. Effects of cathinone or MDMA were compared with those of the indirect sympathomimetic tyramine. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized with pentobarbitone for blood pressure and heart rate recording. Some rats were sympathectomised by treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine. In the anaesthetised rat, cathinone, MDMA and tyramine (all 0.001-1 mg/kg) produced marked tachycardia, tyramine produced marked pressor responses and MDMA produced small pressor responses. The tachycardia to cathinone and MDMA was almost abolished by propranolol (1mg/kg). Pretreatment with cocaine (1mg/kg) did not significantly affect the tachycardia to cathinone or MDMA, but reduced the response to tyramine. However, in sympathectomised rats, the tachycardia to cathinone or MDMA was markedly attenuated, but the tachycardia to tyramine was only partially reduced. Blood pressure effects of tyramine and MDMA were also markedly attenuated by sympathectomy. The results demonstrate firstly that cocaine may not be the most suitable agent for assessing direct versus indirect agonism in cardiovascular studies. Secondly, the use of chemical sympathectomy achieved the desired goal of demonstrating that cardiac β-adrenoceptor mediated actions of cathinone and MDMA are probably largely indirect. PMID:25863258

  3. Modeling Geometric-Temporal Context With Directional Pyramid Co-Occurrence for Action Recognition.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chunfeng; Li, Xi; Hu, Weiming; Ling, Haibin; Maybank, Stephen J

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new geometric-temporal representation for visual action recognition based on local spatio-temporal features. First, we propose a modified covariance descriptor under the log-Euclidean Riemannian metric to represent the spatio-temporal cuboids detected in the video sequences. Compared with previously proposed covariance descriptors, our descriptor can be measured and clustered in Euclidian space. Second, to capture the geometric-temporal contextual information, we construct a directional pyramid co-occurrence matrix (DPCM) to describe the spatio-temporal distribution of the vector-quantized local feature descriptors extracted from a video. DPCM characterizes the co-occurrence statistics of local features as well as the spatio-temporal positional relationships among the concurrent features. These statistics provide strong descriptive power for action recognition. To use DPCM for action recognition, we propose a directional pyramid co-occurrence matching kernel to measure the similarity of videos. The proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance and improves on the recognition performance of the bag-of-visual-words (BOVWs) models by a large margin on six public data sets. For example, on the KTH data set, it achieves 98.78% accuracy while the BOVW approach only achieves 88.06%. On both Weizmann and UCF CIL data sets, the highest possible accuracy of 100% is achieved. PMID:26270910

  4. The direct perception hypothesis: perceiving the intention of another's action hinders its precise imitation.

    PubMed

    Froese, Tom; Leavens, David A

    2014-01-01

    We argue that imitation is a learning response to unintelligible actions, especially to social conventions. Various strands of evidence are converging on this conclusion, but further progress has been hampered by an outdated theory of perceptual experience. Comparative psychology continues to be premised on the doctrine that humans and non-human primates only perceive others' physical "surface behavior," while mental states are perceptually inaccessible. However, a growing consensus in social cognition research accepts the direct perception hypothesis: primarily we see what others aim to do; we do not infer it from their motions. Indeed, physical details are overlooked - unless the action is unintelligible. On this basis we hypothesize that apes' propensity to copy the goal of an action, rather than its precise means, is largely dependent on its perceived intelligibility. Conversely, children copy means more often than adults and apes because, uniquely, much adult human behavior is completely unintelligible to unenculturated observers due to the pervasiveness of arbitrary social conventions, as exemplified by customs, rituals, and languages. We expect the propensity to imitate to be inversely correlated with the familiarity of cultural practices, as indexed by age and/or socio-cultural competence. The direct perception hypothesis thereby helps to parsimoniously explain the most important findings of imitation research, including children's over-imitation and other species-typical and age-related variations. PMID:24600413

  5. Concurrent Activation of Striatal Direct and Indirect Pathways During Action Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guohong; Jun, Sang Beom; Jin, Xin; Pham, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The basal ganglia are subcortical nuclei that control voluntary actions, and are affected by a number of debilitating neurological disorders1–4. The prevailing model of basal ganglia function proposes that two orthogonal projection circuits originating from distinct populations of spiny projection neurons (SPNs) in the striatum5,6 - the so-called direct and indirect pathways - have opposing effects on movement: while activity of direct-pathway SPNs purportedly facilitates movement, activity of indirect-pathway SPNs inhibits movement1,2. This model has been difficult to test due to the lack of methods to selectively measure the activity of direct- and indirect-pathway SPNs in freely moving animals. We developed a novel in-vivo method that allowed us to specifically measure direct- and indirect-pathway SPN activity using Cre-dependent viral expression of the genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI) GCAMP3 in the dorsal striatum of D1-Cre (direct-pathway specific6,7) and A2A-Cre (indirect-pathway specific8,9) mice10. Using fiber optics and time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) in mice performing an operant task, we observed transient increases in neural activity in both direct- and indirect-pathway SPNs when animals initiated actions, but not when they were inactive. Concurrent activation of SPNs from both pathways in one hemisphere preceded the initiation of contraversive movements, and predicted the occurrence of specific movements within 500 ms. These observations challenge the classical view of basal ganglia function, and may have implications for understanding the origin of motor symptoms in basal ganglia disorders. PMID:23354054

  6. Effects of action observation on corticospinal excitability: Muscle specificity, direction, and timing of the mirror response.

    PubMed

    Naish, Katherine R; Houston-Price, Carmel; Bremner, Andrew J; Holmes, Nicholas P

    2014-11-01

    Many human behaviours and pathologies have been attributed to the putative mirror neuron system, a neural system that is active during both the observation and execution of actions. While there are now a very large number of papers on the mirror neuron system, variations in the methods and analyses employed by researchers mean that the basic characteristics of the mirror response are not clear. This review focuses on three important aspects of the mirror response, as measured by modulations in corticospinal excitability: (1) muscle specificity; (2) direction; and (3) timing of modulation. We focus mainly on electromyographic (EMG) data gathered following single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), because this method provides precise information regarding these three aspects of the response. Data from paired-pulse TMS paradigms and peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) are also considered when we discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the mirror response. In this systematic review of the literature, we examine the findings of 85 TMS and PNS studies of the human mirror response, and consider the limitations and advantages of the different methodological approaches these have adopted in relation to discrepancies between their findings. We conclude by proposing a testable model of how action observation modulates corticospinal excitability in humans. Specifically, we propose that action observation elicits an early, non-specific facilitation of corticospinal excitability (at around 90ms from action onset), followed by a later modulation of activity specific to the muscles involved in the observed action (from around 200ms). Testing this model will greatly advance our understanding of the mirror mechanism and provide a more stable grounding on which to base inferences about its role in human behaviour. PMID:25281883

  7. Presynaptic actions of transcranial and local direct current stimulation in the red nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Bączyk, M; Jankowska, E

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine to what extent long-lasting subcortical actions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be related to its presynaptic actions. This was investigated in the red nucleus, where tDCS was recently demonstrated to facilitate transmission between interpositorubral and rubrospinal neurons. Changes in the excitability of preterminal axonal branches of interpositorubral neurons close to rubrospinal neurons were investigated during and after tDCS (0.2 mA) applied over the sensorimotor cortical area in deeply anaesthetized rats and cats. As a measure of the excitability, we used the probability of antidromic activation of individual interpositorubral neurons by electrical stimuli applied in the red nucleus. Our second aim was to compare effects of weak (≤1 μA) direct current applied within the red nucleus with effects of tDCS to allow the use of local depolarization in a further analysis of mechanisms of tDCS instead of widespread and more difficult to control depolarization evoked by distant electrodes. Local cathodal polarization was found to replicate all effects of cathodal tDCS hitherto demonstrated in the rat, including long-lasting facilitation of trans-synaptically evoked descending volleys and trisynaptically evoked EMG responses in neck muscles. It also replicated all effects of anodal tDCS in the cat. In both species, it increased the excitability of preterminal axonal branches of interpositorubral neurons up to 1 h post-tDCS. Local anodal polarization evoked opposite effects. We thus show that presynaptic actions of polarizing direct current may contribute to both immediate and prolonged effects of tDCS. PMID:25085891

  8. Turning over renal osteodystrophy dogma: direct actions of FGF23 on osteoblast β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Schiavi, Susan C; Moysés, Rosa M A

    2016-07-01

    Although recognized as a major complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the pathophysiology of the CKD-related mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is not completely understood. Recently, the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in osteocytes by sclerostin has been shown to play a role in CKD-MBD. The study by Carrilo-Lopez et al. confirms this inhibition in an experimental model of CKD. Moreover, they describe direct actions of FGF23-Klotho on osteoblasts, increasing the expression of DKK1, another Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor. PMID:27312441

  9. Anticipatory synergy adjustments: Preparing a quick action in an unknown direction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tao; Wu, Yen-Hsun; Bartsch, Angelo; Cuadra, Cristian; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    We studied a mechanism of feed-forward control of a multi-finger action, namely anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) prior to a quick force correction in response to a change in the gain of the visual feedback. Synergies were defined as co-varied across trials adjustments of commands to fingers that stabilized (decreased variance of) the total force. We hypothesized that ASAs would be highly sensitive to prior information about the timing of the action but not to information on its direction, i.e., on whether the gain would go up or down. The subjects produced accurate constant total force by pressing with four fingers on individual force sensors. The feedback signal could change from veridical (the sum of finger forces) to modified, with the middle finger force multiplied by 0.2 or by 1.8. The timing of the gain change and its direction could be known or unknown to the subject in advance. When the timing of the gain change was known, ASA was seen as a drop in the synergy index starting about 250–300 ms prior to the first visible correction of the total force. When the gain change timing was unknown, ASAs started much later, less than 100 ms prior to the total force correction. The magnitude of synergy index changes was significantly larger under the “time known” conditions. Information on the direction of the visual gain change had no effect on the ASA timing, while the ASA magnitude was somewhat larger when this information was not available to the subject. After the total force correction, the synergy index was significantly larger for the force signal computed using the modified gain values as compared to the synergy index value for the actual total force. We conclude that ASAs represent an important feed-forward motor control mechanism that allows preparing for a quick action even when the direction of the action is not known in advance. The results emphasize the subtle control of multi-finger synergies that are specific to the exact contributions of

  10. Action of methotrexate and tofacitinib on directly stimulated and bystander-activated lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Piscianz, Elisa; Candilera, Vanessa; Valencic, Erica; Loganes, Claudia; Paron, Greta; De Iudicibus, Sara; Decorti, Giuliana; Tommasini, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation associated with autoimmune activation is characteristic of rheumatic diseases from childhood to adulthood. In recent decades, significant improvements in the treatment of these types of disease have been achieved using disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as methotrexate (MTX) and, more recently, using biologic inhibitors. The recent introduction of kinase inhibitors (for example, tofacitinib; Tofa) further increases the available ARDs. However, there are patients that do not respond to any treatment strategies, for whom combination therapies are proposed. The data regarding the combined action of different drugs is lacking and the knowledge of the mechanisms of ARDs and their actions upon pathogenic lymphocytes, which are hypothesized to sustain disease, is poor. An in vitro model of inflammation was developed in the current study, in which stimulated and unstimulated lymphocytes were cultured together, but tracked separately, to investigate the action of MTX and Tofa on the two populations. By analysing lymphocyte proliferation and activation, and cytokine secretion in the culture supernatants, it was established that, due to the presence of activated cells, unstimulated cells underwent a bystander activation that was modulated by the ARDs. Additionally, varying administration schedules were demonstrated to affect lymphocytes differently in vitro, either directly or via bystander activation. Furthermore, MTX and Tofa exerted different effects; while MTX showed an antiproliferative effect, Tofa marginally effected activation, although only a slight antiproliferative action, which could be potentiated by sequential treatment with MTX. Thus, it was hypothesized that these differences may be exploited in sequential therapeutic strategies, to maximize the anti‑rheumatic effect. These findings are notable and must be accounted for, as bystander‑activated cells in vivo could contribute to the spread of autoimmune activation

  11. Exploring the neural correlates of goal-directed action and intention understanding.

    PubMed

    Carter, Elizabeth J; Hodgins, Jessica K; Rakison, David H

    2011-01-15

    Because we are a cooperative species, understanding the goals and intentions of others is critical for human survival. In this fMRI study, participants viewed reaching behaviors in which one of four animated characters moved a hand towards one of two objects and either (a) picked up the object, (b) missed the object, or (c) changed his path halfway to lift the other object. The characters included a human, a humanoid robot, stacked boxes with an arm, and a mechanical claw. The first three moved in an identical, human-like biological pattern. Right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) activity increased when the human or humanoid robot shifted goals or missed the target relative to obtaining the original goal. This suggests that the pSTS was engaged differentially for figures that appeared more human-like rather than for all human-like motion. Medial frontal areas that are part of a protagonist-monitoring network with the right pSTS (e.g., Mason and Just, 2006) were most engaged for the human character, followed by the robot character. The current data suggest that goal-directed action and intention understanding require this network and it is used similarly for the two processes. Moreover, it is modulated by character identity rather than only the presence of biological motion. We discuss the implications for behavioral theories of goal-directed action and intention understanding. PMID:20832476

  12. The Neural Representation of Goal-Directed Actions and Outcomes in the Ventral Striatum's Olfactory Tubercle

    PubMed Central

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    2016-01-01

    The ventral striatum is critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. The many cellular, afferent, and efferent similarities between the ventral striatum's nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle (OT) suggests the distributed involvement of neurons within the ventral striatopallidal complex in motivated behaviors. Although the nucleus accumbens has an established role in representing goal-directed actions and their outcomes, it is not known whether this function is localized within the nucleus accumbens or distributed also within the OT. Answering such a fundamental question will expand our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying motivated behaviors. Here we address whether the OT encodes natural reinforcers and serves as a substrate for motivational information processing. In recordings from mice engaged in a novel water-motivated instrumental task, we report that OT neurons modulate their firing rate during initiation and progression of the instrumental licking behavior, with some activity being internally generated and preceding the first lick. We further found that as motivational drive decreases throughout a session, the activity of OT neurons is enhanced earlier relative to the behavioral action. Additionally, OT neurons discriminate the types and magnitudes of fluid reinforcers. Together, these data suggest that the processing of reward information and the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors is a global principle of the ventral striatum and have important implications for understanding the neural systems subserving addiction and mood disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed behaviors are widespread among animals and underlie complex behaviors ranging from food intake, social behavior, and even pathological conditions, such as gambling and drug addiction. The ventral striatum is a neural system critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. Here we

  13. Alcohol action on a neuronal membrane receptor: evidence for a direct interaction with the receptor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C; Peoples, R W; Weight, F F

    1994-01-01

    For almost a century, alcohols have been thought to produce their effects by actions on the membrane lipids of central nervous system neurons--the well known "lipid theory" of alcohol action. The rationale for this theory is the correlation of potency with oil/water or membrane/buffer partition coefficient. Although a number of recent studies have shown that alcohols can affect the function of certain neuronal neurotransmitter receptors, there is no evidence that the alcohols interact directly with these membrane proteins. In the present study, we report that inhibition of a neuronal neurotransmitter receptor, an ATP-gated ion channel, by a series of alcohols exhibits a distinct cutoff effect. For alcohols with a molecular volume of < or = 42.2 ml/mol, potency for inhibiting ATP-activated current was correlated with lipid solubility (order of potency: 1-propanol = trifluoroethanol > monochloroethanol > ethanol > methanol). However, despite increased lipid solubility, alcohols with a molecular volume of > or = 46.1 ml/mol (1-butanol, 1-pentanol, trichloroethanol, and dichloroethanol) were without effect on the ATP-activated current. The results suggest that alcohols inhibit the function of this neurotransmitter receptor by interacting with a small hydrophobic pocket on the receptor protein. PMID:8058780

  14. Directed motion of electrons in gases under the action of photon flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Baltenkov, A. S.; Chernysheva, L. V.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.; Nordgren, J.

    2001-05-01

    The phenomenon of directed motion of electrons and ions in gases under the action of ionizing radiation pressure is investigated. It is shown that for photon energies from the thresholds of atomic photoionization to several keV the photoionization process is the main mechanism for the transfer of electromagnetic radiation momentum to an atom. Expressions for the drag currents that appear under the action of ionizing radiation in atomic gases and their mixtures are obtained. The connection between the drag currents and one of the nondipole asymmetry parameters is established. Experimental investigation of the drag currents for use in precision measurement of the asymmetry parameters is discussed, particularly for small photoelectron energies where it is difficult to apply the traditional experimental schemes to measure the differential cross sections for photoionization. Nondipole parameters for the Ne 2s, Ne 2p, and Ar 1s subshell photoionization are calculated and compared with measurements and other calculations. Partial drag currents for the Ne 2s, Ne 2p, and Ar 1s subshells are also presented.

  15. Nutrient Sensor in the Brain Directs the Action of the Brain-Gut Axis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dus, Monica; Lai, Jason Sih-Yu; Gunapala, Keith M; Min, Soohong; Tayler, Timothy D; Hergarden, Anne C; Geraud, Eliot; Joseph, Christina M; Suh, Greg S B

    2015-07-01

    Animals can detect and consume nutritive sugars without the influence of taste. However, the identity of the taste-independent nutrient sensor and the mechanism by which animals respond to the nutritional value of sugar are unclear. Here, we report that six neurosecretory cells in the Drosophila brain that produce Diuretic hormone 44 (Dh44), a homolog of the mammalian corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), were specifically activated by nutritive sugars. Flies in which the activity of these neurons or the expression of Dh44 was disrupted failed to select nutritive sugars. Manipulation of the function of Dh44 receptors had a similar effect. Notably, artificial activation of Dh44 receptor-1 neurons resulted in proboscis extensions and frequent episodes of excretion. Conversely, reduced Dh44 activity led to decreased excretion. Together, these actions facilitate ingestion and digestion of nutritive foods. We propose that the Dh44 system directs the detection and consumption of nutritive sugars through a positive feedback loop. PMID:26074004

  16. Two cellular hypotheses explaining the initiation of ketamine's antidepressant actions: Direct inhibition and disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Miller, Oliver H; Moran, Jacqueline T; Hall, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    A single, low dose of ketamine evokes antidepressant actions in depressed patients and in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Unlike classic antidepressants, which regulate monoamine neurotransmitter systems, ketamine is an antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) family of glutamate receptors. The effectiveness of NMDAR antagonists in TRD unveils a new set of targets for therapeutic intervention in major depressive disorder (MDD) and TRD. However, a better understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects is required for guiding future therapeutic strategies, in order to minimize side effects and prolong duration of efficacy. Here we review the evidence for and against two hypotheses that have been proposed to explain how NMDAR antagonism initiates protein synthesis and increases excitatory synaptic drive in corticolimbic brain regions, either through selective antagonism of inhibitory interneurons and cortical disinhibition, or by direct inhibition of cortical pyramidal neurons. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Synaptopathy--from Biology to Therapy'. PMID:26211972

  17. Advancing lignocellulose bioconversion through direct assessment of enzyme action on insoluble substrates.

    PubMed

    Goacher, Robyn E; Selig, Michael J; Master, Emma R

    2014-06-01

    Microbial utilization of lignocellulose from plant cell walls is integral to carbon cycling on Earth. Correspondingly, secreted enzymes that initiate lignocellulose depolymerization serve a crucial step in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Genome and metagenome sequencing efforts that span the past decade reveal the diversity of enzymes that have evolved to transform lignocellulose from wood, herbaceous plants and grasses. Nevertheless, there are relatively few examples where 'omic' technologies have identified novel enzyme activities or combinations thereof that dramatically improve the economics of lignocellulose bioprocessing and utilization. A likely factor contributing to the discrepancy between sequence-based enzyme discovery and enzyme application is the common practice to screen enzyme candidates based on activity measurements using soluble model compounds. In this context, the development and application of imaging, physicochemical, and spectromicroscopic techniques that allow direct assessment of enzyme action on relevant lignocellulosic substrates is reviewed. PMID:24525082

  18. DIRECT-ACTING, DNA-DAMAGING AS (III)-METHYLATED SPECIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A CARCINOGENIC MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct-acting, DNA-damaging As (III)-methylated species: implications for a carcinogenic . mechanism of action of arsenicals

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs, arsenite and arsenate) has been thought to act as a carcinogen without reacting directly with DNA; neither iAs nor the As(...

  19. 17 CFR 250.44 - Sales of securities and assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales of securities and assets... Various Financial Transactions 2 § 250.44 Sales of securities and assets. (a) Sales of utility securities or assets. No registered holding company shall, directly or indirectly, sell to any person...

  20. An Analysis of Sales Training Effectiveness within the Housing Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronbinson, John Cheney, IV

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performance outcomes of a sales training program. This study is unique in a number of ways. First, it focuses on an under-studied area (sales training effectiveness). Second, it is directed at the evaluation of sales training programs completed by Realtors within the housing industry. Finally, it…

  1. Direct inhibition of arcuate proopiomelanocortin neurons: a potential mechanism for the orexigenic actions of dynorphin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaobing; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2013-01-01

    Dynorphin, an endogenous ligand of kappa (κ) opioid receptors, has multiple roles in the brain, and plays a positive role in energy balance and food intake. However, the mechanism for this is unclear. With immunocytochemistry, we find that axonal dynorphin immunoreactivity in the arcuate nucleus is strong, and that a large number of dynorphin-immunoreactive boutons terminate on or near anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) cells. Here we provide evidence from whole-cell patch-clamp recording that dynorphin-A (Dyn-A) directly and dose-dependently inhibits arcuate nucleus POMC neurons. Dyn-A inhibition was eliminated by the κ opioid receptor antagonist nor-BNI, but not by the μ receptor antagonist CTAP. The inhibitory effect was mimicked by the κ2 receptor agonist GR89696, but not by the κ1 receptor agonist U69593. No presynaptic effect of κ2 agonists was found. These results suggest that Dyn-A inhibits POMC neurons through activation of the κ2 opioid receptor. In whole-cell voltage clamp, Dyn-A opened G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK)-like channels on POMC neurons. Dynorphin attenuated glutamate and GABA neurotransmission to POMC neurons. In contrast to the strong inhibition of POMC neurons by Dyn-A, we found a weaker direct inhibitory effect of Dyn-A on arcuate nucleus neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons mediated by both κ1 and κ2 receptors. Taken together, these results indicate a direct inhibitory effect of Dyn-A on POMC neurons through activation of the κ2 opioid receptor and GIRK channels. A number of orexigenic hypothalamic neurons release dynorphin along with other neuropeptides. The inhibition of anorexigenic POMC neurons may be one mechanism underlying the orexigenic actions of dynorphin. PMID:23318874

  2. Is the organisation of goal-directed action modality specific? A common temporal structure.

    PubMed

    Weiss, P H; Jeannerod, M; Paulignan, Y; Freund, H J

    2000-01-01

    With the help of kinematic analysis, the temporal organization of the complex daily activity 'drinking from a bottle with a glass' was described in detail. The analysis focused on the sequential action structure, the prehensile acts, and the bimanual coordination as well as on the effect of different instruction modalities on these parameters to explore the underlying representation for this complex action. Movements of the two arms were recorded in three-dimensional space with the help of an optoelectronic device in 12 normal subjects under four conditions: (1) action pantomime after verbal instruction; (2) action imitation after observation of the action performed by the experimenter without the objects; (3) action pantomime while seeing, but not touching the objects; and finally (4) action execution with objects. Despite high execution variability, the temporal structure of the action could be precisely described by the relative duration and peak velocity of action segments, by the MGA-object size-correlation, and by linear regression analysis between the onsets of functionally related action segments. A similar structure of the action as characterized by these kinematic parameters was retained across different instruction modalities. Only when the action was executed with the objects, the interval between the movement onsets of either hand and the peak velocity of the manipulative acts were reduced, while no change was observed across the other three instruction modalities. This stability of the temporal structure suggests the existence of a level in the representation of an action where all the modalities converge. PMID:10838148

  3. Direct comparisons of hand and mouth kinematics during grasping, feeding and fork-feeding actions

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, D. J.; Culham, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    While a plethora of studies have examined the kinematics of human reach-to-grasp actions, few have investigated feeding, another ethologically important real-world action. Two seminal studies concluded that the kinematics of the mouth during feeding are comparable to those of the hand during grasping (Castiello, 1997; Churchill et al., 1999); however, feeding was done with a fork or spoon, not with the hand itself. Here, we directly compared grasping and feeding kinematics under equivalent conditions. Participants were presented with differently sized cubes of cheese (10-, 20- or 30-mm on each side) and asked to use the hand to grasp them or to use a fork to spear them and then bring them to the mouth to bite. We measured the apertures of the hand during grasping and the teeth during feeding, as well as reaching kinematics of the arm in both tasks. As in many past studies, we found that the hand oversized considerably larger (~11–27 mm) than the food item during grasping; moreover, the amount of oversizing scaled with food size. Surprisingly, regardless of whether the hand or fork was used to transport the food, the mouth oversized only slightly larger (~4–11 mm) than the food item during biting and the oversizing did not increase with food size. Total movement times were longer when using the fork compared to the hand, particularly when using the fork to bring food to the mouth. While reach velocity always peaked approximately halfway through the movement, relative to the reach the mouth opened more slowly than the hand, perhaps because less time was required for the smaller oversizing. Taken together, our results show that while many aspects of kinematics share some similarity between grasping and feeding, oversizing may reflect strategies unique to the hand vs. mouth (such as the need to have the digits approach the target surface perpendicularly for grip stability during lifting) and differences in the neural substrates of grasping and feeding. PMID

  4. Searching for New Directions: Developing MA Action Research Project as a Tool for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young Ah; Wang, Ye

    2012-01-01

    Action research has been recognized as a useful professional development tool for teaching, but for inservice teachers, conducting action research can be challenging. Their learning about action research can be influenced by social situations--whether in an MA (Master of Arts) program or other professional development. The purpose of this…

  5. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  6. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  7. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  8. Book Sale Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundy, Elaine, Comp.; Reinhardt, Richard, Comp.

    The Friends of the San Francisco Public Library have compiled detailed information about its benefit book sales and presents it here as a guide for those who wish to organize sales in their own communities. The committees needed to operate the sale are listed, and the duties of the chairmen are described. Suggestions are given for collecting…

  9. Work-related stress and well-being: the roles of direct action coping and palliative coping.

    PubMed

    Fortes-Ferreira, Lina; Peiró, José M; González-Morales, M Gloria; Martín, Isabel

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the roles of direct action coping and palliative coping in the relationship between work stressors and psychological well-being, as well as their possible interactions, in a sample of 464 bank employees. Hierarchical regression analyses showed main effects of direct action coping on well-being. Palliative coping predicts higher levels of psychological distress. Contrary to what was expected, the interactions between work stressors and direct action coping were not significant. Palliative coping interacted with work stressors when predicting psychosomatic complaints. The interaction between the two types of coping was significant on psychosomatic complaints and psychological distress, but not on job satisfaction. The paper discusses theoretical and practical implications of these results, in order to design intervention strategies to prevent and manage job stress. PMID:16869862

  10. Action Direction of Muscle Synergies in Three-Dimensional Force Space

    PubMed Central

    Hagio, Shota; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    Redundancy in the musculoskeletal system was supposed to be simplified by muscle synergies, which modularly organize muscles. To clarify the underlying mechanisms of motor control using muscle synergies, it is important to examine the spatiotemporal contribution of muscle synergies in the task space. In this study, we quantified the mechanical contribution of muscle synergies as considering spatiotemporal correlation between the activation of muscle synergies and endpoint force fluctuations. Subjects performed isometric force generation in the three-dimensional force space. The muscle-weighting vectors of muscle synergies and their activation traces across different trials were extracted from electromyogram data using decomposing technique. We then estimated mechanical contribution of muscle synergies across each trial based on cross-correlation analysis. The contributing vectors were averaged for all trials, and the averaging was defined as action direction (AD) of muscle synergies. As a result, we extracted approximately five muscle synergies. The ADs of muscle synergies mainly depended on the anatomical functions of their weighting muscles. Furthermore, the AD of each muscle indicated the synchronous activation of muscles, which composed of the same muscle synergy. These results provide the spatiotemporal characteristics of muscle synergies as neural basis. PMID:26618156

  11. Nutrient Sensor in the Brain Directs the Action of the Brain-Gut Axis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dus, Monica; Sih-Yu Lai, Jason; Gunapala, Keith M.; Min, Soohong; Tayler, Timothy D.; Hergarden, Anne C.; Geraud, Eliot; Joseph, Christina M.; Suh, Greg S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Animals can detect and consume nutritive sugars without the influence of taste. However, the identity of the taste-independent nutrient sensor and the mechanism by which animals respond to the nutritional value of sugar are unclear. Here, we report that six neurosecretory cells in the Drosophila brain that produce Diuretic hormone 44 (Dh44), a homologue of the mammalian corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), were specifically activated by nutritive sugars. Flies in which the activity of these neurons or the expression of Dh44 was disrupted failed to select nutritive sugars. Manipulation of the function of Dh44 receptors had a similar effect. Notably, artificial activation of Dh44 receptor-1 neurons resulted in proboscis extensions, and frequent episodes of excretion. Conversely, reduced Dh44 activity led to decreased excretion. Together, these actions facilitate ingestion and digestion of nutritive foods. We propose that the Dh44 system directs the detection and consumption of nutritive sugars through a positive feedback loop. PMID:26074004

  12. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-27

    This publication contains the 1994 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the sixth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA)for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1994 edition marks the 11th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Distillate and residual fuel oil sales continued to move in opposite directions during 1994. Distillate sales rose for the third year in a row, due to a growing economy. Residual fuel oil sales, on the other hand, declined for the sixth year in a row, due to competitive natural gas prices, and a warmer heating season than in 1993. Distillate fuel oil sales increased 4.4 percent while residual fuel oil sales declined 1.6 percent. Kerosene sales decreased 1.4 percent in 1994.

  13. 78 FR 9731 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... (CPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 227 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION... OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sales: 2012-2017 Western Planning Area Lease Sales 229, 233, 238, 246, and 248... et seq. (1988)). SUMMARY: BOEM has prepared a ROD for oil and gas CPA Lease Sale 227 scheduled...

  14. Bi-directional actions of dehydroepiandrosterone and aggression in female Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Nikki M; Demas, Gregory E

    2016-02-01

    There is a well-established positive relationship between gonadal steroids and aggression. In some seasonally breeding species, however, aggression often persists or is increased during short "winter-like" days when the gonads are regressed and circulating levels of gonadal steroids are relatively low. Although the mechanisms underlying short-day increases in aggression are not fully known, the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been suggested as an alternative neuroendocrine mechanism regulating seasonal aggression. We used two complementary experimental approaches to examine the bi-directional actions of DHEA and aggression in female Siberian hamsters, a seasonal rodent that displays increased aggression concomitant with elevated circulating DHEA in short days. In Experiment 1, we examined the effects of aggressive interactions on DHEA concentrations before and after an aggressive encounter in long- and short-day hamsters. Serum DHEA was altered in a photoperiod-dependent manner, with decreased DHEA levels in response to aggression in short- but not long-day hamsters. Next, we experimentally induced adrenal DHEA release via injections of exogenous ACTH and assessed changes in aggressive behavior across photoperiods. We show a robust increase in aggression in short compared with long days during baseline aggression trials; however, aggression was not significantly increased further in response to ACTH in either photoperiod during post-ACTH aggression trials. These findings suggest that DHEA plays a role in the regulation of short-day aggression, while also highlighting the need for additional studies addressing the causal relationship between DHEA and aggression in this and others species. PMID:26700024

  15. The neural basis of integrating pre- and post-response information for goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Frimmel, Steffi; Wolfensteller, Uta; Mohr, Holger; Ruge, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental prerequisite for goal-directed action is to encode the contingencies between responses (R) producing specific outcomes (O) in specific stimulus conditions (S). The present study aimed to characterize the functional neuroanatomy of different associational sub-components of such S-R-O contingencies during the first few trials of exposure. We devised a novel paradigm that was suited to distinguish BOLD activation patterns related to S-R, R-O, and the full S-R-O contingency. Different from previous studies our experimental design ensured that stimulus-related processes and outcome-related processes were maximally comparable, as both were learned incidentally and lacked intrinsic incentive value, and different from trial-and-error learning situations, outcomes did not serve a special role as performance feedback. We observed contingency-related dissociations between SMA, lateral OFC, and large parts of the reward system including central OFC, anterior striatum and midbrain areas. While the lateral OFC was involved in processing differential outcomes irrespective of a predictive stimulus context, the SMA was specifically engaged when differential outcomes could be predicted by the stimulus. By contrast, the activation pattern of reward system areas suggested that these regions serve a role in integrating non-incentive differential outcome information and incentive common outcome information. Together, these results support the notion that striatal and orbitofrontal regions are involved in outcome-related processes beyond trial-and-error S-R learning, that is, when outcomes are non-incentive and do not serve as reinforcing feedback that drives learning. Furthermore, our results clarify the role of the SMA in outcome-related processes thereby supporting current versions of ideomotor theory. PMID:26522619

  16. 78 FR 36571 - Extension of Post-Sale Evaluation Period for Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area Lease Sale 227

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...This notice extends through July 18, 2013, the post-sale evaluation period for Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area Lease Sale 227. BOEM will complete the evaluation process for all bids received in this sale by July 18, 2013. This action is necessary due to resource limitations resulting from sequestration. BOEM is unable to pay overtime to expedite the bid review process, including the......

  17. Action Type and Goal Type Modulate Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts in 14-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gredeback, Gustaf; Stasiewicz, Dorota; Falck-Ytter, Terje; von Hofsten, Claes; Rosander, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Ten- and 14-month-old infants' gaze was recorded as the infants observed videos of different hand actions directed toward multiple goals. Infants observed an actor who (a) reached for objects and displaced them, (b) reached for objects and placed them inside containers, or (c) moved his fisted hand. Fourteen-month-olds, but not 10-month-olds,…

  18. Understanding what your sales manager is up against.

    PubMed

    Trailer, Barry; Dickie, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Every year, the research firm CSO Insights publishes the results of its Sales Performance Optimization survey, an online questionnaire given to more than 1,000 sales executives worldwide that seeks to examine the effectiveness of key sales practices and metrics. In this article, two partners from CSO provide the 2005 and 2006 survey highlights, which describe the challenges today's sales organizations face and how they're responding. An overall theme is the degree to which the buy cycle has gotten out of sync with the sell cycle. Buyers have always had a buy cycle, starting at the point they perceive a need. Sellers have always had a sales cycle, starting at the point they spot a prospect. Traditionally, the two have dovetailed--either because the seller created the buyer's perception of need or because the buyer pursued a need by contacting a salesperson (often for product information). Now the buy cycle is often well under way before the seller is even aware there is a cycle--in part because of the information asymmetry created by the Internet. The implications for managing a sales organization are profound in that sales training must now address how reps handle an environment in which buyers have more knowledge than they do. The authors offer evidence that sales executives are taking--and should take--aggressive action to train and retain sales talent, manage the sales process, and use sales support technologies to meet the challenges of this new environment. PMID:16846188

  19. 76 FR 35465 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that... offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing...

  20. 77 FR 40630 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that... competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920,...

  1. 76 FR 18240 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that..., Wyoming, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of...

  2. 76 FR 11258 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that..., Wyoming, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of...

  3. 76 FR 64099 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that..., will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the...

  4. 76 FR 63951 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... November 7, 2005, are subject to cost recovery on a case-by-case basis (See 43 CFR 3000.10(d)(1), 70 FR... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Utah AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that that...

  5. Encoding the goal of an object-directed but uncompleted reaching action in 6- and 9-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Daum, Moritz M; Prinz, Wolfgang; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2008-07-01

    Infants start to interpret completed human actions as goal-directed in the second half of the first year of life. In a series of three studies, the understanding of a goal-directed but uncompleted action was investigated in 6- and 9-month-old infants using a preferential looking paradigm. Infants saw the video of an actor's reaching movement towards one of two objects. This reaching movement was only presented until the hand passed the midpoint between the starting position and the position of the target object. Subsequently, two final states of the reaching movement were presented simultaneously. In the plausible final state, the hand grasped the object to which the reaching movement was geared; in the implausible final state, the hand grasped the other object. In Studies 1 and 3, infants watched the actor from an allocentric perspective, and in Studies 2 and 3 from an egocentric perspective. Results indicate a discrimination of the two final states if the scene was presented from an allocentric perspective: both 6- and 9-month-olds looked longer at the implausible final state. This was not the case if infants saw the action from an egocentric perspective. The presented findings show that using this paradigm, 6-month-olds are already able to infer the goal of an uncompleted action without seeing the achievement of the goal itself. However, they encoded the goal of the reaching action only when it was presented from an allocentric perspective but not from an egocentric perspective. PMID:18576968

  6. Development of goal-directed action selection guided by intrinsic motivations: an experiment with children.

    PubMed

    Taffoni, Fabrizio; Tamilia, Eleonora; Focaroli, Valentina; Formica, Domenico; Ricci, Luca; Di Pino, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Keller, Flavio

    2014-07-01

    Action selection is extremely important, particularly when the accomplishment of competitive tasks may require access to limited motor resources. The spontaneous exploration of the world plays a fundamental role in the development of this capacity, providing subjects with an increasingly diverse set of opportunities to acquire, practice and refine the understanding of action-outcome connection. The computational modeling literature proposed a number of specific mechanisms for autonomous agents to discover and target interesting outcomes: intrinsic motivations hold a central importance among those mechanisms. Unfortunately, the study of the acquisition of action-outcome relation was mostly carried out with experiments involving extrinsic tasks, either based on rewards or on predefined task goals. This work presents a new experimental paradigm to study the effect of intrinsic motivation on action-outcome relation learning and action selection during free exploration of the world. Three- and four-year-old children were observed during the free exploration of a new toy: half of them were allowed to develop the knowledge concerning its functioning; the other half were not allowed to learn anything. The knowledge acquired during the free exploration of the toy was subsequently assessed and compared. PMID:24691755

  7. 75 FR 55269 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... CFR Part 310 RIN 3084-AA98 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... that there will be no increase in the fees charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Do-Not-Call Registry Fee Extension Act of 2007 (Pub. L. 110-188, 122 Stat....

  8. 38 CFR 12.9 - Rights of designate; sales instruction; transportation charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... destruction, use or sale. (e) If sale of the property is authorized the manager will take necessary action to... sister. (f) When in possession of the necessary information the manager will cause proper notice of sale... death of a veteran admitted as such to a field facility, the Manager or his or her...

  9. 38 CFR 36.4524 - Sale of loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of loans. 36.4524 Section 36.4524 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Direct Loans § 36.4524 Sale of loans. In the event a direct loan is purchased from the...

  10. Survival Sales Forecasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradiso, James; Stair, Kenneth

    Intended to provide insight into the dynamics of demand analysis, this paper presents an eight-step method for forecasting sales. Focusing on sales levels that must be achieved to enjoy targeted profits in favor of the usual approach of emphasizing how much will be sold within a given period, a sample situation is provided to illustrate this…

  11. The Charlotte Action Research Project: A Model for Direct and Mutually Beneficial Community-University Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Elizabeth; Sorensen, Janni; Howarth, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the Charlotte Action Research Project (CHARP), a community-university partnership founded in 2008 at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, and focuses particularly on the program's unique organizational structure. Research findings of a project evaluation suggest that the CHARP model's unique…

  12. Action-Specific Influences on Perception and Post-Perceptual Processes: Present Controversies and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Philbeck, John W.; Witt, Jessica K.

    2015-01-01

    The action-specific perception account holds that people perceive the environment in terms of their ability to act in it. In this view, for example, decreased ability to climb a hill due to fatigue makes the hill visually appear to be steeper. Though influential, this account has not been universally accepted, and in fact a heated controversy has emerged. The opposing view holds that action capability has little or no influence on perception. Heretofore, the debate has been quite polarized, with efforts largely being focused on supporting one view and dismantling the other. We argue here that polarized debate can impede scientific progress and that the search for similarities between two sides of a debate can sharpen the theoretical focus of both sides and illuminate important avenues for future research. In this paper, we present a synthetic review of this debate, drawing from the literatures of both approaches, to clarify both the surprising similarities and the core differences between them. We critically evaluate existing evidence, discuss possible mechanisms of action-specific effects, and make recommendations for future research. A primary focus of future work will involve not only the development of methods that guard against action-specific post-perceptual effects, but also development of concrete, well-constrained underlying mechanisms. The criteria for what constitutes acceptable control of post-perceptual effects and what constitutes an appropriately specific mechanism vary between approaches, and bridging this gap is a central challenge for future research. PMID:26501227

  13. Infant Eye-Tracking in the Context of Goal-Directed Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbetta, Daniela; Guan, Yu; Williams, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two methods that we applied to our research to record infant gaze in the context of goal-oriented actions using different eye-tracking devices: head-mounted and remote eye-tracking. For each type of eye-tracking system, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, describe the particular experimental setups we used to study…

  14. The cognition-enhancing effects of psychostimulants involve direct action in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Robert C; Devilbiss, David M; Berridge, Craig W

    2015-06-01

    Psychostimulants are highly effective in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The clinical efficacy of these drugs is strongly linked to their ability to improve cognition dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and extended frontostriatal circuit. The procognitive actions of psychostimulants are only associated with low doses. Surprisingly, despite nearly 80 years of clinical use, the neurobiology of the procognitive actions of psychostimulants has only recently been systematically investigated. Findings from this research unambiguously demonstrate that the cognition-enhancing effects of psychostimulants involve the preferential elevation of catecholamines in the PFC and the subsequent activation of norepinephrine α2 and dopamine D1 receptors. In contrast, while the striatum is a critical participant in PFC-dependent cognition, where examined, psychostimulant action within the striatum is not sufficient to enhance cognition. At doses that moderately exceed the clinical range, psychostimulants appear to improve PFC-dependent attentional processes at the expense of other PFC-dependent processes (e.g., working memory, response inhibition). This differential modulation of PFC-dependent processes across dose appears to be associated with the differential involvement of noradrenergic α2 versus α1 receptors. Collectively, this evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers (improving PFC-dependent function). This information has potentially important clinical implications as well as relevance for public health policy regarding the widespread clinical use of psychostimulants and for the development of novel pharmacologic treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other conditions associated with PFC dysregulation. PMID:25499957

  15. The Cognition-Enhancing Effects of Psychostimulants Involve Direct Action in the Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Robert C.; Devilbiss, David M.; Berridge, Craig W.

    2014-01-01

    Psychostimulants are highly effective in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The clinical efficacy of these drugs is strongly linked to their ability to improve cognition dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and extended frontostriatal circuit. The procognitive actions of psychostimulants are only associated with low doses. Surprisingly, despite nearly 80 years of clinical use, the neurobiology of the procognitive actions of psychostimulants has only recently been systematically investigated. Findings from this research unambiguously demonstrate that the cognition-enhancing effects of psychostimulants involve the preferential elevation of catecholamines in the PFC and the subsequent activation of norepinephrine α2- and dopamine D1 receptors. In contrast, while the striatum is a critical participant in ‘PFC-dependent’ cognition, where examined, psychostimulant action within the striatum is not sufficient to enhance cognition. At doses that moderately exceed the clinical range, psychostimulants appear to improve PFC-dependent attentional processes at the expense of other PFC-dependent processes (e.g. working memory, response inhibition). This differential modulation of PFC-dependent processes across dose appears to be associated with the differential involvement of noradrenergic α2 vs. α1 receptors. Collectively, this evidence indicates that at low, clinically-relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers (improving PFC-dependent function). This information has potentially important clinical implications as well as relevance for public health policy regarding the widespread clinical use of psychostimulants and for the development of novel pharmacological treatments for ADHD and other conditions associated with PFC dysregulation. PMID:25499957

  16. The Attribution of Attention: 9-Month-Olds' Interpretation of Gaze as Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan C.; Ok, Su-Jeong; Luo, Yuyan

    2007-01-01

    The current study distinguishes between attributions of goal-directed perception (i.e. attention) and non-goal-directed perception to examine 9-month-olds' interpretation of others' head and eye turns. In a looking time task, 9-month-olds encoded the relationship between an actor's head and eye turns and a target object if the head and eye turns…

  17. Anticipating Intentional Actions: The Effect of Eye Gaze Direction on the Judgment of Head Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Matthew; Liu, Chang Hong; Jellema, Tjeerd

    2009-01-01

    Using a representational momentum paradigm, this study investigated the hypothesis that judgments of how far another agent's head has rotated are influenced by the perceived gaze direction of the head. Participants observed a video-clip of a face rotating 60[degrees] towards them starting from the left or right profile view. The gaze direction of…

  18. Marketing/Sales Students' Understanding of What Counts as Sales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshower, Leon; Gupta, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    Improper sales revenue recognition is the single largest issue contributing to financial restatements. Understanding and applying the rules of sales revenue recognition is not just an accounting problem; it is a marketing problem, too. Thus, it is important that the sales force has a basic understanding of the rules of sales recognition and be…

  19. Understanding Human Original Actions Directed at Real-World Goals: The Role of the Lateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sitnikova, Tatiana; Rosen, Bruce R.; Lord, Louis-David; West, W. Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive, original actions, which can succeed in multiple contextual situations, require understanding of what is relevant to a goal. Recognizing what is relevant may also help in predicting kinematics of observed, original actions. During action observation, comparisons between sensory input and expected action kinematics have been argued critical to accurate goal inference. Experimental studies with laboratory tasks, both in humans and nonhuman primates, demonstrated that the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) can learn, hierarchically organize, and use goal-relevant information. To determine whether this LPFC capacity is generalizable to real-world cognition, we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in the human brain during comprehension of original and usual object-directed actions embedded in video-depictions of real-life behaviors. We hypothesized that LPFC will contribute to forming goal-relevant representations necessary for kinematic predictions of original actions. Additionally, resting-state fMRI was employed to examine functional connectivity between the brain regions delineated in the video fMRI experiment. According to behavioral data, original videos could be understood by identifying elements relevant to real-life goals at different levels of abstraction. Patterns of enhanced activity in four regions in the left LPFC, evoked by original, relative to usual, video scenes, were consistent with previous neuroimaging findings on representing abstract and concrete stimuli dimensions relevant to laboratory goals. In the anterior left LPFC, the activity increased selectively when representations of broad classes of objects and actions, which could achieve the perceived overall behavioral goal, were likely to bias kinematic predictions of original actions. In contrast, in the more posterior regions, the activity increased even when concrete properties of the target object were more likely to bias the kinematic prediction. Functional

  20. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Action of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Evidence from In Vitro and In Vivo Models

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation is a noninvasive technique that has been experimentally tested for a number of psychiatric and neurological conditions. Preliminary observations suggest that this approach can indeed influence a number of cellular and molecular pathways that may be disease relevant. However, the mechanisms of action underlying its beneficial effects are largely unknown and need to be better understood to allow this therapy to be used optimally. In this review, we summarize the physiological responses observed in vitro and in vivo, with a particular emphasis on cellular and molecular cascades associated with inflammation, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and neuroplasticity recruited by direct current stimulation, a topic that has been largely neglected in the literature. A better understanding of the neural responses to transcranial direct current stimulation is critical if this therapy is to be used in large-scale clinical trials with a view of being routinely offered to patients suffering from various conditions affecting the central nervous system. PMID:25522391

  1. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of transcranial direct current stimulation: evidence from in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Simon J; Cicchetti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation is a noninvasive technique that has been experimentally tested for a number of psychiatric and neurological conditions. Preliminary observations suggest that this approach can indeed influence a number of cellular and molecular pathways that may be disease relevant. However, the mechanisms of action underlying its beneficial effects are largely unknown and need to be better understood to allow this therapy to be used optimally. In this review, we summarize the physiological responses observed in vitro and in vivo, with a particular emphasis on cellular and molecular cascades associated with inflammation, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and neuroplasticity recruited by direct current stimulation, a topic that has been largely neglected in the literature. A better understanding of the neural responses to transcranial direct current stimulation is critical if this therapy is to be used in large-scale clinical trials with a view of being routinely offered to patients suffering from various conditions affecting the central nervous system. PMID:25522391

  2. Synergistic action of thermoresponsive and hygroresponsive elements elicits rapid and directional response of a bilayer actuator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lidong; Desta, Israel; Naumov, Panče

    2016-05-21

    A bilayer actuator composed of thermoresponsive and thermo/hygroresponsive elements is developed, which undergoes fast, directional and autonomous curling with a speed of up to 0.7 m s(-1) and recovers its shape by hydration. In situ tensile testing of the thermal response of individual layers provided insights into the mechanism of actuation of thermo/hygromorphic bilayers. PMID:26997588

  3. Developing and Piloting an App for Managing Self-Directed Language Learning: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammons, Elizabeth; Momata, Yuko; Mynard, Jo; Noguchi, Junko; Watkins, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    Paper-based tools such as self-evaluation activities, learning plans, reflective journals and learning logs are commonplace for managing Self-Directed Language Learning (SDLL). Such tools not only promote ownership over learning and provide a sense of achievement to learners, but they also promote reflection and raise awareness of learning…

  4. 12 CFR 565.7 - Directives to take prompt corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OTS's discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including sections 38(e)(5), (f... directive. If the OTS finds it necessary in order to carry out the purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including section 38(e)(5), (f)(2), (f)(3), or...

  5. 12 CFR 165.7 - Directives to take prompt corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... within the OCC's discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including sections 38(e... directive. If the OCC finds it necessary in order to carry out the purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including section 38(e)(5), (f)(2),...

  6. 12 CFR 263.202 - Directives to take prompt regulatory action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... that are within the Board's discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including... directive. If the Board finds it necessary in order to carry out the purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including section 38(e)(5), (f)(2), (f)(3), or...

  7. 12 CFR 565.7 - Directives to take prompt corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OTS's discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including sections 38(e)(5), (f... directive. If the OTS finds it necessary in order to carry out the purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including section 38(e)(5), (f)(2), (f)(3), or...

  8. 12 CFR 165.7 - Directives to take prompt corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... within the OCC's discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including sections 38(e... directive. If the OCC finds it necessary in order to carry out the purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including section 38(e)(5), (f)(2),...

  9. 12 CFR 565.7 - Directives to take prompt corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OTS's discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including sections 38(e)(5), (f... directive. If the OTS finds it necessary in order to carry out the purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including section 38(e)(5), (f)(2), (f)(3), or...

  10. 12 CFR 565.7 - Directives to take prompt corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OTS's discretion to require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including sections 38(e)(5), (f... directive. If the OTS finds it necessary in order to carry out the purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... require or impose under section 38 of the FDI Act, including section 38(e)(5), (f)(2), (f)(3), or...

  11. Is Agency Skin Deep? Surface Attributes Influence Infants' Sensitivity to Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guajardo, Jose J.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies investigated the role of surface attributes in infants' identification of agents, using a habituation paradigm designed to tap infants' interpretation of grasping as goal directed (Woodward, 1998). When they viewed a bare human hand grasping objects, 7- and 12-month-old infants focused on the relation between the hand and its goal.…

  12. Direct evidence for the atovaquone action on the Plasmodium cytochrome bc1 complex.

    PubMed

    Siregar, Josephine E; Kurisu, Genji; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Mi-ichi, Fumika; Watanabe, Yoh-ichi; Hirai, Makoto; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Syafruddin, Din; Marzuki, Sangkot; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2015-06-01

    Atovaquone, a coenzyme Q analogue has been indicated to specifically target the cytochrome bc1 complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the malarial parasite and other protozoan. Various mutations in the quinone binding site of the cytochrome b gene of Plasmodium spp. such as M133I, L144S, L271V, K272R, Y268C, Y268S, Y268N, and V284F are suggesting to associate with resistance to atovaquone. There is no direct evidence of relation between the mutations and resistance to atovaquone in Plasmodium parasite that has been available. Technical difficulties in isolating active assayable mitochondria in the malarial parasite hinder us to obtain direct biochemical evidence to support the relation between the mutations and drug resistance. The establishment of a mitochondrial isolation method for the malaria parasite has allowed us to test the degree of resistance of Plasmodium berghei isolates to atovaquone directly. We have tested the activity of dihydroorotate (DHO)-cytochrome c reductase in various P. berghei atovaquone resistant clones in the presence of a wide concentration range of atovaquone. Our results show the IC(50) of P. berghei atovaquone resistant clones is much higher (1.5 up to 40 nM) in comparison to the atovaquone sensitive clones (0.132-0.465 nM). The highest IC(50) was revealed in clones carrying Y268C and Y268N mutations (which play an important role in atovaquone resistance in Plasmodium falciparum), with an approximately 100-fold increase. The findings indicate the importance of the mutation in the quinone binding site of the cytochrome b gene and that provide a direct evidence for the atovaquone inhibitory mechanism in the cytochrome bc1 complex of the parasite. PMID:25264100

  13. LXA{sub 4} actions direct fibroblast function and wound closure

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Bruno S.; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Zarrough, Ahmed; Hasturk, Hatice; Leung, Kai P.; Van Dyke, Thomas E.

    2015-09-04

    Timely resolution of inflammation is crucial for normal wound healing. Resolution of inflammation is an active biological process regulated by specialized lipid mediators including the lipoxins and resolvins. Failure of resolution activity has a major negative impact on wound healing in chronic inflammatory diseases that is manifest as excess fibrosis and scarring. Lipoxins, including Lipoxin A{sub 4} (LXA{sub 4}), have known anti-fibrotic and anti-scarring properties. The goal of this study was to elucidate the impact of LXA{sub 4} on fibroblast function. Mouse fibroblasts (3T3 Mus musculus Swiss) were cultured for 72 h in the presence of TGF-β1, to induce fibroblast activation. The impact of exogenous TGF-β1 (1 ng/mL) on LXA{sub 4} receptor expression (ALX/FPR2) was determined by flow cytometry. Fibroblast proliferation was measured by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and migration in a “scratch” assay wound model. Expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen types I and III were measured by Western blot. We observed that TGF-β1 up-regulates LXA{sub 4} receptor expression, enhances fibroblast proliferation, migration and scratch wound closure. α-SMA levels and Collagen type I and III deposition were also enhanced. LXA{sub 4} slowed fibroblast migration and scratch wound closure at early time points (24 h), but wound closure was equal to TGF-β1 alone at 48 and 72 h. LXA{sub 4} tended to slow fibroblast proliferation at both concentrations, but had no impact on α-SMA or collagen production by TGF-β1 stimulated fibroblasts. The generalizability of the actions of resolution molecules was examined in experiments repeated with resolvin D2 (RvD2) as the agonist. The activity of RvD2 mimicked the actions of LXA{sub 4} in all assays, through an as yet unidentified receptor. The results suggest that mediators of resolution of inflammation enhance wound healing and limit fibrosis in part by modulating fibroblast function. - Highlights: • TGF

  14. Direct evidence for the economy of action: glucose and the perception of geographical slant.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Simone; Zadra, Jonathan R; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2010-01-01

    When locomoting in a physically challenging environment, the body draws upon available energy reserves to accommodate increased metabolic demand. Ingested glucose supplements the body's energy resources, whereas non-caloric sweetener does not. Two experiments demonstrate that participants who had consumed a glucose-containing drink perceived the slant of a hill to be less steep than did participants who had consumed a drink containing non-caloric sweetener. The glucose manipulation influenced participants' explicit awareness of hill slant but, as predicted, it did not affect a visually guided action of orienting a tilting palmboard to be parallel to the hill. Measured individual differences in factors related to bioenergetic state, such as fatigue, sleep quality, fitness, mood, and stress, also affected perception: lower energetic states were associated with steeper perceptions of hill slant. This research shows that the perception of the spatial layout of the environment is influenced by the energetic resources available for locomotion within it. Our findings are consistent with the view that spatial perceptions are influenced by bioenergetic factors. PMID:20514996

  15. Thought-action fusion: review of the literature and future directions.

    PubMed

    Berle, David; Starcevic, Vladan

    2005-05-01

    Thought-action fusion (TAF) is the tendency for individuals to assume that certain thoughts either imply the immorality of their character or increase the likelihood of catastrophic events. The burgeoning literature on TAF is reviewed. It is not clear whether TAF refers to a specific appraisal style, a more enduring belief, or a combination of both. Inconsistent definitions of magical thinking have hindered better understanding of the relationship between TAF and magical thinking. Much work remains to be done to improve assessment and measurement of TAF. TAF is associated with tendencies towards obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and may contribute to its symptoms. However, the literature investigating TAF and other variables implicated in OCD remains inconclusive. It is suggested that TAF is not specific to OCD, but also prevalent in other anxiety disorders. TAF appears to be moderately related to depressive symptoms and a similar bias may contribute to preoccupations in eating disorders. TAF is also associated with the presence of psychological disorders in children and adolescents. Educational and cognitive therapy approaches to reduce TAF and consequent symptoms are discussed, and suggestions for further research made. PMID:15792850

  16. Direct Evidence for the Economy of Action: Glucose and the Perception of Geographical Slant

    PubMed Central

    Schnall, Simone; Zadra, Jonathan R.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    2012-01-01

    When locomoting in a physically challenging environment, the body draws upon available energy reserves to accommodate increased metabolic demand. Ingested glucose supplements the body’s energy resources, whereas non-caloric sweetener does not. Two experiments demonstrate that participants who had consumed a glucose-containing drink perceived a hills slant to be less steep than did participants who had consumed a drink containing non-caloric sweetener. The glucose manipulation influenced participants’ explicit awareness of hill slant but, as predicted, it did not affect a visually-guided action of orienting a tilting palmboard to be parallel to the hill. Measured individual differences in factors related to bioenergetic state such as fatigue, sleep quality, fitness, mood, and stress also affected perception such that lower energetic states were associated with steeper perceptions of hill slant. This research shows that the perception of the environment’s spatial layout is influenced by the energetic resources available for locomotion within it. Our findings are consistent with the view that spatial perceptions are influenced by bioenergetic factors. PMID:20514996

  17. Institutional frameworks to direct development and implementation of great lakes remedial action plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartig, John H.; Law, Neely

    1994-11-01

    Locally designed, institutional frameworks are being used to develop and implement remedial action plans (RAPs) to restore beneficial uses in 43 Great Lakes areas of concern. A 1993 Canada-United States roundtable was convened to learn from case studies and to develop recommendations regarding essential characteristics of RAP institutional frameworks, guidance to ensure linkages to other related plans, and ways of embracing new institutional frameworks from RAP development to implementation. Major roundtable recommendations are: (1) RAP institutional frameworks should be empowered to pursue their mission of restoring uses. Empowerment would be demonstrated by: a watershed focus, inclusive and shared decision-making, clear responsibilities and sufficient authority, creative funding capability, flexibility and continuity in the process, an iterative process of continuous improvement, and commitment to education and outreach. (2) RAP institutional frameworks should be used as mechanisms to coordinate programs at the local level. Such local coordination should be complemented with governmental commitments to intra- and interagency coordination in work plans. (3) RAP institutional frameworks can help build the capacity of governments to achieve their goals. Therefore, governments must adopt long-term, visionary goals and commit to a customer-driven RAP process of continuous improvement.

  18. Motor planning of goal-directed action is tuned by the emotional valence of the stimulus: a kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Esteves, P O; Oliveira, L A S; Nogueira-Campos, A A; Saunier, G; Pozzo, T; Oliveira, J M; Rodrigues, E C; Volchan, E; Vargas, C D

    2016-01-01

    The basic underpinnings of homeostatic behavior include interacting with positive items and avoiding negative ones. As the planning aspects of goal-directed actions can be inferred from their movement features, we investigated the kinematics of interacting with emotion-laden stimuli. Participants were instructed to grasp emotion-laden stimuli and bring them toward their bodies while the kinematics of their wrist movement was measured. The results showed that the time to peak velocity increased for bringing pleasant stimuli towards the body compared to unpleasant and neutral ones, suggesting higher easiness in undertaking the task with pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, bringing unpleasant stimuli towards the body increased movement time in comparison with both pleasant and neutral ones while the time to peak velocity for unpleasant stimuli was the same as for that of neutral stimuli. There was no change in the trajectory length among emotional categories. We conclude that during the "reach-to-grasp" and "bring-to-the-body" movements, the valence of the stimuli affects the temporal but not the spatial kinematic features of motion. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that the kinematic features of a goal-directed action are tuned by the emotional valence of the stimuli. PMID:27364868

  19. Motor planning of goal-directed action is tuned by the emotional valence of the stimulus: a kinematic study

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, P. O.; Oliveira, L. A. S.; Nogueira-Campos, A. A.; Saunier, G.; Pozzo, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Rodrigues, E. C.; Volchan, E.; Vargas, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    The basic underpinnings of homeostatic behavior include interacting with positive items and avoiding negative ones. As the planning aspects of goal-directed actions can be inferred from their movement features, we investigated the kinematics of interacting with emotion-laden stimuli. Participants were instructed to grasp emotion-laden stimuli and bring them toward their bodies while the kinematics of their wrist movement was measured. The results showed that the time to peak velocity increased for bringing pleasant stimuli towards the body compared to unpleasant and neutral ones, suggesting higher easiness in undertaking the task with pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, bringing unpleasant stimuli towards the body increased movement time in comparison with both pleasant and neutral ones while the time to peak velocity for unpleasant stimuli was the same as for that of neutral stimuli. There was no change in the trajectory length among emotional categories. We conclude that during the “reach-to-grasp” and “bring-to-the-body” movements, the valence of the stimuli affects the temporal but not the spatial kinematic features of motion. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that the kinematic features of a goal-directed action are tuned by the emotional valence of the stimuli. PMID:27364868

  20. Further evidence against a direct genotoxic mode of action for arsenic-induced cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Catherine B.; Leszczynska, Joanna; Hickey, Christina; Rossman, Toby G.

    2007-08-01

    Arsenic in drinking water, a mixture of arsenite and arsenate, is associated with increased skin and other cancers in Asia and Latin America, but not the United States. Arsenite alone in drinking water does not cause skin cancers in experimental animals; therefore, it is not a complete carcinogen in skin. We recently showed that low concentrations of arsenite enhanced the tumorigenicity of solar UV irradiation in hairless mice, suggesting arsenic cocarcinogenesis with sunlight in skin cancer and perhaps with different carcinogenic partners for lung and bladder tumors. Cocarcinogenic mechanisms could include blocking DNA repair, stimulating angiogenesis, altering DNA methylation patterns, dysregulating cell cycle control, induction of aneuploidy and blocking apoptosis. Arsenicals are documented clastogens but not strong mutagens, with weak mutagenic activity reported at highly toxic concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Previously, we showed that arsenite, but not monomethylarsonous acid (MMA[III]), induced delayed mutagenesis in HOS cells. Here, we report new data on the mutagenicity of the trivalent methylated arsenic metabolites MMA(III) and dimethylarsinous acid [DMA(III)] at the gpt locus in Chinese hamster G12 cells. Both methylated arsenicals seemed mutagenic with apparent sublinear dose responses. However, significant mutagenesis occurred only at highly toxic concentrations of MMA(III). Most mutants induced by MMA(III) and DMA(III) exhibited transgene deletions. Some non-deletion mutants exhibited altered DNA methylation. A critical discussion of cell survival leads us to conclude that clastogenesis occurs primarily at highly cytotoxic arsenic concentrations, casting further doubt as to whether a genotoxic mode of action (MOA) for arsenicals is supportable.

  1. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis. PMID:26781688

  2. Direct cytotoxic action of Shiga toxin on human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Obrig, T G; Del Vecchio, P J; Brown, J E; Moran, T P; Rowland, B M; Judge, T K; Rothman, S W

    1988-01-01

    To help explain a role of the Shiga toxin family in hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans, it has been hypothesized that these toxins cause direct damage to the vascular endothelium. We now report that Shiga toxin purified from Shigella dysenteriae 1 does indeed have a direct cytotoxic effect on vascular endothelial cells in cultures. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in confluent monolayers were reduced 50% by 10(-8) M Shiga toxin after a lag period of 48 to 96 h. In comparison, nonconfluent HUVEC were reduced 50% by 10(-10) M Shiga toxin within a 24-h period. These data suggest that dividing endothelial cells are more sensitive to Shiga toxin than are quiescent cells in confluent monolayers. Both confluent and nonconfluent HUVEC specifically bound 125I-Shiga toxin. However, in response to the toxin, rates of incorporation of [3H]leucine into protein were more severely reduced in nonconfluent cells than in confluent cells. Toxin inhibition of protein synthesis preceded detachment of cells from the substratum. The specific binding of 125I-Shiga toxin to human endothelial cells and the cytotoxic response were both toxin dose dependent and neutralized by anti-Shiga toxin antibody. Heat-denatured Shiga toxin was without the cytotoxic effect. In addition, the complete culture system contained less than 0.1 ng of bacterial endotoxin per ml, as measured by the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test. PMID:3044997

  3. The antinociceptive action of etorphine in the dorsal horn is due to a direct spinal action and not to activation of descending inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, S. L.; Ryall, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    1--Etorphine, microinjected into the brainstem or administered intravenously, inhibited the firing of dorsal horn neurones to noxious heat in spinal or non-spinal anaesthetized cats and in decerebrate, non-anaesthetized cats with intact spinal cords. 2--Small doses of etorphine sometimes caused facilitation, especially when the cord was intact, but this was invariably followed by inhibition at higher doses. 3--The ED50 for inhibition (mean 3.9 micrograms/kg) after microinjection into nucleus raphe magnus, nucleus reticularis magnocellularis or the lateral tegmental field was similar at all sites in anaesthetized, non-spinal cats. 4--The ED50 for microinjection was not increased by spinal transection in anaesthetized cats (mean ED50, 2.6 micrograms/kg) and was similar to the ED50 in decerebrate, non-anaesthetized cats. 5--Intravenous administration was 2 to 3 times more effective than microinjection and the time course of inhibition was faster after intravenous administration than after microinjection. 6--It is concluded that etorphine inhibits dorsal horn neurones after microinjection or intravenous administration by a direct action on the spinal cord and not by activating a descending inhibition. After microinjection it rapidly enters the general circulation and subsequently distributes into the spinal cord. 7--It is also concluded that naloxone readily gains entry to the circulation from the brain because microinjection antagonized the effects of systemic etorphine on dorsal horn neurones in spinal cats. PMID:6338986

  4. [Direct-action mutagens in exhausts of vehicles with diesel engines].

    PubMed

    Makhover, M S; Khitrovo, I A; Khesina, A Ia; Belitskiĭ, G A

    1990-01-01

    The genotoxic activity of exhausts from one-shaft gas-turbine GTE-5 engine (30 kW) and a standard D-54A diesel (40 kW) have been studied. Thus, the extracts of soot from GTE-5 and D-54A induced reversions in Salmonella typhimurium both with and without metabolic activation: furthermore, extracts of soot from GTE-5 demonstrated a higher mutagenic activity. The direct mutagenic effect of the exhausts depended neither on the presence of BP nor on the other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Most probably, it was connected with the presence of nitro-PAHs. The need for studying the PAH content in vehicle engines' exhausts and for taking into account their effect in the control and standardization is established. PMID:1696198

  5. Thrombostatin FM compounds: direct thrombin inhibitors – mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, M. T.; Burke, F.; Warnock, M.; Zhou, Y.; Sweigart, J.; Chen, A.; Ricketts, D.; Lucchesi, B. R.; Chen, Z.; Di Cera, E.; Hilfinger, J.; Kim, J. S.; Mosberg, H. I.; Schmaier, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Novel pentapeptides called Thrombostatin FM compounds consisting mostly of D-isomers and unusual amino acids were prepared based upon the stable angiotensin converting enzyme breakdown product of bradykinin – RPPGF. Methods and Results These peptides are direct thrombin inhibitors prolonging the thrombin clotting time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time at ≥0.78, 1.6, and 1.6 µm, respectively. They competitively inhibit α-thrombin-induced cleavage of a chromogenic substrate at 4.4–8.2 µm. They do not significantly inhibit plasma kallikrein, factor (F) XIIa, FXIa, FIXa, FVIIa-TF, FXa, plasmin or cathepsin G. One form, FM19 [rOicPaF(p-Me)], blocks α-thrombin-induced calcium flux in fibroblasts with an IC50 of 6.9 ± 1.2 µm. FM19 achieved 100% inhibition of threshold α- or γ-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation at 8.4 ± 4.7 µm and 16 ± 4 µm, respectively. The crystal structure of thrombin in complex with FM19 shows that the N-terminal D-Arg retrobinds into the S1 pocket, its second residue Oic interacts with His-57, Tyr-60a and Trp-60d, and its C-terminal p-methyl Phe engages thrombin_s aryl binding site composed of Ile-174, Trp-215, and Leu-99. When administered intraperitoneal, intraduodenal, or orally to mice, FM19 prolongs thrombin clotting times and delays carotid artery thrombosis. Conclusion FM19, a low affinity reversible direct thrombin inhibitor, might be useful as an add-on agent to address an unmet need in platelet inhibition in acute coronary syndromes in diabetics and others who with all current antiplatelet therapy still have reactive platelets. PMID:18315550

  6. Thrombostatin FM compounds: direct thrombin inhibitors - mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Nieman, M T; Burke, F; Warnock, M; Zhou, Y; Sweigart, J; Chen, A; Ricketts, D; Lucchesi, B R; Chen, Z; Cera, E Di; Hilfinger, J; Kim, J S; Mosberg, H I; Schmaier, A H

    2008-04-29

    Novel pentapeptides called Thrombostatin FM compounds consisting mostly of D-isomers and unusual amino acids were prepared based upon the stable angiotensin converting enzyme breakdown product of bradykinin - RPPGF. These peptides are direct thrombin inhibitors prolonging the thrombin clotting time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time at ≥0.78, 1.6, and 1.6 μm, respectively. They competitively inhibit α-thrombin-induced cleavage of a chromogenic substrate at 4.4--8.2 μm. They do not significantly inhibit plasma kallikrein, factor (F) XIIa, FXIa, FIXa, FVIIa-TF, FXa, plasmin or cathepsin G. One form, FM19 [rOicPaF(p-Me)], blocks α-thrombin-induced calcium flux in fibroblasts with an IC50 of 6.9 ± 1.2 μm. FM19 achieved 100% inhibition of threshold α- or γ-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation at 8.4 ± 4.7 μm and 16 ± 4 μm, respectively. The crystal structure of thrombin in complex with FM19 shows that the N-terminal D-Arg retrobinds into the S1 pocket, its second residue Oic interacts with His-57, Tyr-60a and Trp-60d, and its C-terminal p-methyl Phe engages thrombin's aryl binding site composed of Ile-174, Trp-215, and Leu-99. When administered intraperitoneal, intraduodenal, or orally to mice, FM19 prolongs thrombin clotting times and delays carotid artery thrombosis. FM19, a low affinity reversible direct thrombin inhibitor, might be useful as an add-on agent to address an unmet need in platelet inhibition in acute coronary syndromes in diabetics and others who with all current antiplatelet therapy still have reactive platelets.

  7. 20 CFR 10.709 - What happens if a beneficiary directed by OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does not believe that a claim can be successfully... beneficiary directed by OWCP or SOL to take action against a third party does not believe that a claim can be... should request that OWCP or SOL release him or her from the obligation to proceed. This request should...

  8. Direct positive chronotropic action by angiotensin II in the isolated mouse atrium.

    PubMed

    Mori, Toyoki; Hashimoto, Ayako

    2006-07-10

    We observed the direct positive chronotropic effect of angiotensin II in mouse atria and characterized its pharmacological property. C57BL/6J mice were anesthetized with pentobarbital and hearts were quickly excised. Atrial preparations including right and left atrium were isolated and suspended in the organ bath filled with Krebs-Henseleit solution gassed with 95% O2 and 5% CO2. Angiotensin II at concentrations of 10(-10) to 10(-6) M caused concentration-dependent increase in heart rate, and the maximal response was about 13% of that by isoproterenol. The effect was blocked by the selective AT1-receptor antagonist, losartan at concentrations of 10(-6) M, but not by the selective beta-blocker, nadolol at concentration of 10(-5) M. Furthermore, angiotensin I also caused concentration-dependent increase in heart rate, and the effect was blocked by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril at concentrations of 10(-6) M. These results suggested that angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II via ACE system in mice atria, and regulate heart rate through AT1-receptor stimulation, not by beta-adrenergic receptor. PMID:16564555

  9. 76 FR 11506 - Cancellation of Oil and Gas Lease Sale 219 in the Cook Inlet Planning Area on the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Sale 219 in the Cook Inlet Planning Area on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Cancellation of Cook Inlet Lease Sale 219. SUMMARY: The Department of the Interior has decided to cancel Cook Inlet Sale 219 that...

  10. Effects of Targeted Sales Messages on Subscription Sales and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamst, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the effects of targeted sales messages on newspaper subscription sales and retention by combining two large research projects--a demographic market segmentation scheme, and a readership-lifestyle survey. Proposes that the content of sales messages influences new subscriptions but does not affect retention. (MM)

  11. Affirmative Action: A Course for the Future. Affirmative Action Task Force for the Study "New Directions: African Americans in a Diversifying Nation."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, Washington, DC.

    A primary social dilemma today is that current strategies have led to the perception that affirmative action favors some population groups at the expense of others, that in a sense it uses one form of discrimination to combat another. It is essential to reconsider affirmative action strategies to implement those that are most appropriate for today…

  12. The Allocation of Attention to Learning of Goal-Directed Actions: A Cognitive Neuroscience Framework Focusing on the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Franz, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper builds on the idea that attention is largely in service of our actions. A framework and model which captures the allocation of attention for learning of goal-directed actions is proposed and developed. This framework highlights an evolutionary model based on the notion that rudimentary functions of the basal ganglia have become embedded into increasingly higher levels of networks which all contribute to adaptive learning. Supporting the proposed model, background literature is presented alongside key evidence based on experimental studies in the so-called “split-brain” (surgically divided cerebral hemispheres), and selected evidence from related areas of research. Although overlap with other existing findings and models is acknowledged, the proposed framework is an original synthesis of cognitive experimental findings with supporting evidence of a neural system and a carefully formulated model of attention. It is the hope that this new synthesis will be informative in fields of cognition and other fields of brain sciences and will lead to new avenues for experimentation across domains. PMID:23267335

  13. A comparison of the other-directed stigmatization produced by legal and illegal forms of affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Evans, David C

    2003-02-01

    Recent studies have begun to show that the stigma of incompetence sometimes directed toward the beneficiaries of affirmative action may be significantly reduced as the preferences granted to women and minorities become more moderate. The author examined whether the stigmatization of African Americans would differ under hiring policies that represented legal and illegal levels of racial preference according to federal regulations. Participants were 178 students and 161 corporate employees who rated fictitious Black and White target employees working under (a) an illegal policy of selection of unequal candidates, (b) a legal policy of selection of comparable candidates, or (c) equal opportunity. Participants rated Black targets' achievement-related traits lower than White targets only under the illegal policy. Under the legal policy, no such stigmatization was observed. Additional dependent measures and theoretical implications were explored. PMID:12675400

  14. Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

  15. Ariad suspends ponatinib sales.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Because of concerns about serious cardiovascular side effects, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration asked Ariad Pharmaceuticals to temporarily suspend sales and marketing of ponatinib to treat chronic myeloid leukemia in patients resistant to first-line therapy. PMID:24402926

  16. Wildlife for sale.

    PubMed

    Martin, E; Redford, T

    2000-02-01

    Myanmar, famous for the smuggling of opium and gemstones, is losing much of its wildlife to illegal traders. In 1998, a survey of goods for sale in two border towns showed a thriving trade in body parts from some of the world's most endangered species. PMID:11190214

  17. BA Sales Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts-Clay, Jennifer

    1979-01-01

    Describes the programs and courses of the sales training department at British Airways from induction to management level. The staff uses one of the largest commercial computer facilities in the world to provide seat reservations, fare quotations and tickets, hotel reservations, and tours. (MF)

  18. Computerized Point of Sale = Faster Service + Better Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannell, Dorothy V.

    1991-01-01

    Describes selecting and installing a computerized point of sale for a district food service program; the equipment needed and preferred; and the training of trainers, managers, and cashiers. Also discusses the direct benefits and side benefits of the system. (MLF)

  19. Sales Training for Small Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinder, James F.

    1974-01-01

    The author suggests methods a sales manager in a small company can use to train effective salesmen; he defines the sales manager's role, and cites internal and external training resources. The absence of sales training courses in metropolitan Canada is noted. (AJ)

  20. Careers Canada, Volume 10: Careers in Sales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series on Canadian career opportunities, is designed for those who are interested in a career in sales. The sales occupations described include manufacturers, wholesale, technical and scientific sales representatives, sales managers, purchasing agents and buyers, and retail sales persons and managers. Special sales careers…

  1. Sales Education Efficacy: Examining the Relationship between Sales Education and Sales Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolander, William; Bonney, Leff; Satornino, Cinthia

    2014-01-01

    Sales education is on the rise and for good reason. Statistics say that sales jobs will continue to grow at a rapid rate over the next few years. Many universities are preparing their students to start their careers in the professional selling function through the inclusion of sales education in their business curriculum. Yet little research…

  2. Pouring or chilling a bottle of wine: an fMRI study on the prospective planning of object-directed actions.

    PubMed

    van Elk, M; Viswanathan, S; van Schie, H T; Bekkering, H; Grafton, S T

    2012-04-01

    This fMRI study investigates the neural mechanisms supporting the retrieval of action semantics. A novel motor imagery task was used in which participants were required to imagine planning actions with a familiar object (e.g. a toothbrush) or with an unfamiliar object (e.g. a pair of pliers) based on either goal-related information (i.e. where to move the object) or grip-related information (i.e. how to grasp the object). Planning actions with unfamiliar compared to familiar objects was slower and was associated with increased activation in the bilateral superior parietal lobe, the right inferior parietal lobe and the right insula. The stronger activation in parietal areas for unfamiliar objects fits well with the idea that parietal areas are involved in motor imagery and suggests that this process takes more effort in the case of novel or unfamiliar actions. In contrast, the planning of familiar actions resulted in increased activation in the anterior prefrontal cortex, suggesting that subjects maintained a stronger goal-representation when planning actions with familiar compared to unfamiliar objects. These findings provide further insight into the neural structures that support action semantic knowledge for the functional use of real-world objects and suggest that action semantic knowledge is activated most readily when actions are planned in a goal-directed manner. PMID:22349497

  3. Facilitation effect of observed motor deviants in a cooperative motor task: Evidence for direct perception of social intention in action.

    PubMed

    Quesque, François; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne; Coello, Yann

    2016-08-01

    Spatiotemporal parameters of voluntary motor action may help optimize human social interactions. Yet it is unknown whether individuals performing a cooperative task spontaneously perceive subtly informative social cues emerging through voluntary actions. In the present study, an auditory cue was provided through headphones to an actor and a partner who faced each other. Depending on the pitch of the auditory cue, either the actor or the partner were required to grasp and move a wooden dowel under time constraints from a central to a lateral position. Before this main action, the actor performed a preparatory action under no time constraint, consisting in placing the wooden dowel on the central location when receiving either a neutral ("prêt"-ready) or an informative auditory cue relative to who will be asked to perform the main action (the actor: "moi"-me, or the partner: "lui"-him). Although the task focused on the main action, analysis of motor performances revealed that actors performed the preparatory action with longer reaction times and higher trajectories when informed that the partner would be performing the main action. In this same condition, partners executed the main actions with shorter reaction times and lower velocities, despite having received no previous informative cues. These results demonstrate that the mere observation of socially driven motor actions spontaneously influences the low-level kinematics of voluntary motor actions performed by the observer during a cooperative motor task. These findings indicate that social intention can be anticipated from the mere observation of action patterns. PMID:26288247

  4. Setting the Direction. Partnerships in Action: First Nations, Metis and Inuit Learning Access and Success. A Learning Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Aboriginal Learning Subcommittee looked specifically at developing recommendations that address First Nations, Metis and Inuit learning needs and supports. The Subcommittee proposes policy actions and recommends that all stakeholders work together to implement these actions. The first recommendation for action is to build on partnerships to…

  5. Hospitals for sale.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael M; West, Daniel J; Ramirez, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    The pace of hospital merger and acquisition activity reflects the economic theory of supply and demand: Publicly traded hospital companies, private equity funds, and large nonprofit hospital systems are investing capital to purchase and operate freestanding community hospitals at a time when many of those hospitals find themselves short of capital reserves and certain forms of management expertise. But the sale of those community hospitals also raises questions about the impact of absentee ownership on the communities which those hospitals serve. PMID:21864058

  6. Social marketing program sales.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    A table presents the latest available statistics on social marketing program sales and status in the countries of Bangladesh, the Caribbean, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Mexico, and Nepal. The Bangladesh Family Planning Social Marketing Program was implemented in 1975 and is active at this time. Over the June 1983 to May 1984 period, 87,034,000 Raja condoms, 4,242,000 Panther condoms, 1.157,000, Maya pills, 846,000 Ovacon low-dose pills, and 4,332,000 Joy foaming tablets were sold for 1,109,000 couple years of protection (CYP). Over the March 1984 to May 1984 period, the Caribbean Social Marketing Project, implemented in 1983, sold 16,000 Panther condoms, 1000 Perle pills, and 1000 Perle low-dose pills. Sales are expected to begin in Ecaudor's program in August 1984. Egypt's program is active. Data for July 1983 to June 1984 show that 6,722,000 condoms, 1,988,000 Amman foaming tablets, 114,600 Cu-T IUDs, 66,600 Cu-7 IUDs, and 578,000 Norminest low-dose pills were sold for a total of 515,000 years of protection. Over the March 1983 to February 1984 period, El Salvador's program sold 537,000 Condor condoms, 125,000 Perla pills, and 61,000 Suave foaming tablets for 16,000 CYP. There have been no sales as yet in Guatemala's program. Sales for the Honduras program began in March 1984, but no data are available as yet. India's Nirodh Marketing program was implemented in 1968. For the January 1983 to September 1983 period, 83,140,000 Nirodh condoms were sold for 1,109,000 CYP. Over the May 1983 to April 1984 period, Jamaica's program sold 1,031,000 Panther condoms and 330,000 Perle oral contraceptives for 35,000 CYP. Mexico's Profam, implemented in 1978, sold 6,602,000 condoms, 18,000 pills, and 9000 injectables for 35,000 CYP for the May 1983 to June 1984 period. Nepal's Contraceptive Retail Sales Corporation was implemented in 1976. For the May 1983 to April 1984 period, 2,833,000 condoms, 82,000 Gulaf pills, 15,000 Nilocon low

  7. 26 CFR 301.7505-1 - Sale of personal property acquired by the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to make deposits to secure the performance of their agreements. Any such deposit, but not more than... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of personal property acquired by the... Actions by the United States § 301.7505-1 Sale of personal property acquired by the United States....

  8. 78 FR 19520 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale COC-74813, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale COC-74813, CO AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that... be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the...

  9. Differential effects of systemic cholinergic receptor blockade on Pavlovian incentive motivation and goal-directed action selection.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Sean B; Kosheleff, Alisa R; Maidment, Nigel T

    2014-05-01

    Reward-seeking actions can be guided by external cues that signal reward availability. For instance, when confronted with a stimulus that signals sugar, rats will prefer an action that produces sugar over a second action that produces grain pellets. Action selection is also sensitive to changes in the incentive value of potential rewards. Thus, rats that have been prefed a large meal of sucrose will prefer a grain-seeking action to a sucrose-seeking action. The current study investigated the dependence of these different aspects of action selection on cholinergic transmission. Hungry rats were given differential training with two unique stimulus-outcome (S1-O1 and S2-O2) and action-outcome (A1-O1 and A2-O2) contingencies during separate training phases. Rats were then given a series of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer tests, an assay of cue-triggered responding. Before each test, rats were injected with scopolamine (0, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, or mecamylamine (0, 0.75, or 2.25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Although the reward-paired cues were capable of biasing action selection when rats were tested off-drug, both anticholinergic treatments were effective in disrupting this effect. During a subsequent round of outcome devaluation testing-used to assess the sensitivity of action selection to a change in reward value--we found no effect of either scopolamine or mecamylamine. These results reveal that cholinergic signaling at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors mediates action selection based on Pavlovian reward expectations, but is not critical for flexibly selecting actions using current reward values. PMID:24370780

  10. Is automatic imitation based on goal coding or movement coding? A comparison of goal-directed and goal-less actions.

    PubMed

    Chiavarino, Claudia; Bugiani, Stefano; Grandi, Elisa; Colle, Livia

    2013-01-01

    A key issue for research on automatic imitation is whether it occurs primarily at the level of movements, that is, by automatically activating a representation of the movement/effector involved in the execution of the observed action, or at the level of goals, that is, by triggering a representation of the action goal, irrespective of how the motor act is physically instantiated. The present study presents two experiments aimed at investigating the contribution of movement coding and goal coding to automatic imitation, by assessing participants' performance in a spatial compatibility task where the observed stimuli were goal-directed and goal-less actions, which have been demonstrated to elicit, respectively, goal and movement coding. We found a significant automatic imitation effect both when the stimuli were goal-less actions and when they were actions directed toward a goal. However, the effect was stronger for the goal-less actions, even after controlling for saliency effects. These results suggest that goal coding contributes to automatic imitation, but to a lesser degree compared to movement coding. The implications of these results for theory and research on automatic imitation are discussed. PMID:23422654

  11. Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No.1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off-highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses.

  12. 7 CFR 46.19 - Sales tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales tickets. 46.19 Section 46.19 Agriculture... Receivers § 46.19 Sales tickets. Sales tickets shall bear printed serial numbers running consecutively and...-day period. The sales tickets shall be prepared and all the details of the sale shall be entered...

  13. 27 CFR 11.22 - Consignment sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consignment sales. 11.22... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Unlawful Sales Arrangements § 11.22 Consignment sales. Consignment sales are arrangements wherein the trade buyer is under no obligation to pay for distilled...

  14. Satellites For Sale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'For Sale' sign refering to the two satellites, Palapa B-2 and Westar 6 that they retrieved from orbit after their Payload Assist Modules (PAM) failed to fire. Astronaut Joseph P. Allen IV, who also participated in the two EVAs, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar 6 nearer Discovery's aft.

  15. A Comparison of Beliefs and Disbeliefs and Reference Category Characteristics as Directive Factors of Social Action in Five Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, William W.; And Others

    In order to illustrate the cross-culture applicability of Reeder's Theory of Beliefs, Disbeliefs, and Social Action and its usefulness in predicting and explaining social actions, studies conducted in communities in India, Sudan, Lebanon, northeastern United States, and western United States are examined. Using this theory, beliefs and disbeliefs…

  16. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent slows the progression of chronic kidney disease: a possibility of a direct action of erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Hisako; Suehiro, Takaichi; Fujisaki, Kiichiro; Masutani, Kosuke; Kitazono, Takanari

    2016-04-01

    Background Controversy exists regarding the renoprotective effect of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) in progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) with renal anemia. In this study, we examined whether ESA therapy has a renoprotective effect in progressive CKD. Methods The subjects in this retrospective observational study were 68 non-dialysis dependent CKD patients with renal anemia. We compared the progression rate (PR), defined by the slope of the linear regression line of estimated glomerular filtration rate, measured during 6 months just before and after the start of ESA therapy. We also investigated the factors affecting renoprotective efficacy of ESA therapy against the progression of CKD. Results Median (interquartile range) PR decreased significantly from 6.2 (3.7-12.7) to 4.0 (-0.3 to 7.3) mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year after the start of ESA therapy. Blood pressure levels and rate of medication with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors were comparable between the two periods. Next, we investigated the factors affecting renoprotective efficacy of ESA therapy against the progression of CKD. Thirty patients were good renal responders, defined as those with the ratio of post-/pre-PR of <0.5 and the difference of pre- minus post-PR >5.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year, and 38 patients were poor renal responders who did not meet the definition of good renal responders. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that weekly ESA dose, but not increase in hemoglobin level, was a significant and independent determinant of the renoprotective effect of ESA. Conclusion ESA therapy slows the progression of CKD and part of the effect might be attributed to the direct renoprotective action of ESA. PMID:26822074

  17. Estimating sales and sales market share from sales rank data for consumer appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touzani, Samir; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Our motivation in this work is to find an adequate probability distribution to fit sales volumes of different appliances. This distribution allows for the translation of sales rank into sales volume. This paper shows that the log-normal distribution and specifically the truncated version are well suited for this purpose. We demonstrate that using sales proxies derived from a calibrated truncated log-normal distribution function can be used to produce realistic estimates of market average product prices, and product attributes. We show that the market averages calculated with the sales proxies derived from the calibrated, truncated log-normal distribution provide better market average estimates than sales proxies estimated with simpler distribution functions.

  18. Stronger Actions Needed to Recover $730 Million in Defaulted National Direct Student Loans. Report by the Comptroller General of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The efforts of schools to administer and collect student loans and the actions of the U.S. Department of Education for collecting defaulted loans under the National Direct Student Loan program were investigated. The General Accounting Office visited seven schools in the midwest with default rates ranging from 5.9 to 63.1 percent and obtained…

  19. 75 FR 114 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of six section...

  20. 75 FR 5971 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of six section...

  1. 75 FR 51445 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b... July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740....

  2. 75 FR 30787 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b... July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740. The...

  3. 77 FR 64096 - Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Forest... concerning this notice should be addressed to Lathrop Smith, Forest Management Service Center, 2150...

  4. 78 FR 62597 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  5. 78 FR 62600 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  6. 77 FR 75617 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  7. 78 FR 62588 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  8. 77 FR 42704 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  9. 78 FR 15004 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  10. 78 FR 62590 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  11. 78 FR 62592 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  12. 77 FR 51780 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  13. 78 FR 72066 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text...

  14. 78 FR 62594 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified...

  15. 77 FR 60387 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of...

  16. 77 FR 60384 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of...

  17. 77 FR 60391 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of...

  18. 75 FR 29386 - Consumer Protections for Depository Institution Sales of Insurance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Consumer Protections for Depository Institution Sales of Insurance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comment. SUMMARY: The... Supervision within the Department of the Treasury will submit the proposed information collection...

  19. 48 CFR 245.7302 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competitive sales. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7302 Competitive sales....

  20. Using Magazine Ads to Teach Sales Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halper, Cheryl A.

    1980-01-01

    Notes that using magazine advertisements to teach sales letter writing can help students understand sales techniques they see daily, but do not think much about. Presents a four-point strategy to help them put together effective sales letters. (FL)

  1. Electric sales and revenue 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1996. 16 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Global Sales Training's Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehle, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A one-size-fits-all global sales strategy that fails to take into account the cultural, regulatory, geographic, and economic differences that exist across borders is a blueprint for failure. For training organizations tasked with educating globally dispersed sales forces, the challenge is adapting to these differences while simultaneously…

  3. Electric sales and revenue: 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1993. Operating revenue includes energy charges, demand charges, consumer service charges, environmental surcharges, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. Because electric rates vary based on energy usage, average revenue per kilowatthour are affected by changes in the volume of sales. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  4. Weather, land satellite sale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan announced on March 8 plans to sell to private industry the nation's land and meteorological remote-sensing satellites, including the responsibility for any future ocean-observing systems. According to the plan, the private firm successful in its bid to buy the five satellites would sell back to the government the data received by the satellites. The Reagan administration says the sale will save money and will put activities appropriate for commercial ventures into the commercial sector. Response to the announcement from scientists and congressmen has been anything but dulcet; one senator, in fact, charges that the Commerce Department and the corporation most likely to purchase the satellites are engaged in a ‘sweetheart deal.’

  5. Satellite sale update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A senior Department of Commerce official whose connections with the Communications Satellite Corp. (Comsat) regarding the proposed sale of the weather and land satellites (Eos, March 22, 1983, p. 113) have been the subject of congressional inquiry has resigned. Comsat is considered the frontrunner of those looking to purchase the satellites.Guy W. Fiske, Deputy Secretary of Commerce, submitted his letter of resignation on May 10; the resignation became effective May 14. He had been scheduled to testify to two House Science and Technology subcommittees this month on the nature, extent, and propriety of his relationship with Comsat. As Eos went to press, it was unclear whether Fiske would still be asked to testify.

  6. 24 CFR 27.30 - Conduct of the sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... parties who submitted one-price sealed bids, if those oral bids conform to the requirements described in... Multifamily Mortgages § 27.30 Conduct of the sale. (a) The commissioner shall accept written one-price sealed... individual formulates, directs, or controls the other concern; or has the power to formulate, direct,...

  7. 24 CFR 27.30 - Conduct of the sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... parties who submitted one-price sealed bids, if those oral bids conform to the requirements described in... Multifamily Mortgages § 27.30 Conduct of the sale. (a) The commissioner shall accept written one-price sealed... individual formulates, directs, or controls the other concern; or has the power to formulate, direct,...

  8. 24 CFR 27.30 - Conduct of the sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... parties who submitted one-price sealed bids, if those oral bids conform to the requirements described in... Multifamily Mortgages § 27.30 Conduct of the sale. (a) The commissioner shall accept written one-price sealed... individual formulates, directs, or controls the other concern; or has the power to formulate, direct,...

  9. 24 CFR 27.30 - Conduct of the sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... parties who submitted one-price sealed bids, if those oral bids conform to the requirements described in... Multifamily Mortgages § 27.30 Conduct of the sale. (a) The commissioner shall accept written one-price sealed... individual formulates, directs, or controls the other concern; or has the power to formulate, direct,...

  10. Electric sales and revenue, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-21

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenues, and average revenue. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1990. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the revenue billed for the amount of kilowatthours sold, revenue from income, unemployment and other State and local taxes, energy or demand charges, consumer services charges, environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  11. Electric sales and revenue 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1997. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Electric sales and revenue 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the United States. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1994.

  13. Synaptic excitation and inhibition resulting from direct action of acetylcholine on two types of chemoreceptors on individual amphibian parasympathetic neurones

    PubMed Central

    Hartzell, H. Criss; Kuffler, Stephen W.; Stickgold, Robert; Yoshikami, Doju

    1977-01-01

    1. Synaptic transmission was studied in visually identified parasympathetic ganglion cells that modulate the heart beat of the mudpuppy Necturus maculosus). 2. The brief pulse of acetylcholine (ACh) released from terminals of the vagus nerve after each impulse can produce two distinct post-synaptic responses in individual principal cells of the ganglion: (i) within a milli-second of release, ACh generates a rapid and strong excitatory post-synaptic potential (e.p.s.p.) that normally initiates a post-synaptic impulse; (ii) this excitation is usually followed by a slow hyperpolarizing inhibitory post-synaptic potential (i.p.s.p.) that lasts for several seconds. The magnitude and time course of the i.p.s.p. depends on the frequency and number of vagal stimuli. When the hydrolysis of ACh is inhibited by prostigmine, a train of nerve stimuli may be followed by an i.p.s.p. lasting half a minute or longer. 3. The rapid e.p.s.p. and slow i.p.s.p. result from the direct action of ACh on two different types of chemoreceptors in the post-synaptic membrane of the principal cell. The e.p.s.p. can be preferentially blocked by the nicotinic antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (5 × 10-7 M), while the i.p.s.p. is selectively blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine (5 × 10-9 M). 4. Potentials resembling nerve-evoked e.p.s.p.s and i.p.s.p.s can be produced by iontophoretic release of ACh from micropipettes onto the post-synaptic membrane. Application of the muscarinic agonist bethanechol generates exclusively inhibitory responses. 5. The reversal potential for the i.p.s.p. is about -105 mV, which is approximately the equilibrium potential for potassium (EK). When the external K+ concentration is altered, the reversal potential for inhibition is shifted to the new value of EK as expected from the Nernst equation. Changes in the external Na+ and Cl- concentrations have no appreciable effect on the reversal potential. Thus, the i.p.s.p. is the result of a conductance increase for

  14. Is Earth F**ked? Dynamical Futility of Global Environmental Management and Possibilities for Sustainability via Direct Action Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    wErnEr, B.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental challenges are dynamically generated within the dominant global culture principally by the mismatch between short-time-scale market and political forces driving resource extraction/use and longer-time-scale accommodations of the Earth system to these changes. Increasing resource demand is leading to the development of two-way, nonlinear interactions between human societies and environmental systems that are becoming global in extent, either through globalized markets and other institutions or through coupling to global environmental systems such as climate. These trends are further intensified by dissipation-reducing technological advances in transactions, communication and transport, which suppress emergence of longer-time-scale economic and political levels of description and facilitate long-distance connections, and by predictive environmental modeling, which strengthens human connections to a short-time-scale virtual Earth, and weakens connections to the longer time scales of the actual Earth. Environmental management seeks to steer fast scale economic and political interests of a coupled human-environmental system towards longer-time-scale consideration of benefits and costs by operating within the confines of the dominant culture using a linear, engineering-type connection to the system. Perhaps as evidenced by widespread inability to meaningfully address such global environmental challenges as climate change and soil degradation, nonlinear connections reduce the ability of managers to operate outside coupled human-environmental systems, decreasing their effectiveness in steering towards sustainable interactions and resulting in managers slaved to short-to-intermediate-term interests. In sum, the dynamics of the global coupled human-environmental system within the dominant culture precludes management for stable, sustainable pathways and promotes instability. Environmental direct action, resistance taken from outside the dominant culture, as in

  15. Evidence-Based Practice and Teacher Action-Research: A Reflection on the Nature and Direction of "Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colucci-Gray, Laura; Das, Sharmistha; Gray, Donald; Robson, Dean; Spratt, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This study was conceived as an opportunity to reflect on the place of action-research in the contested landscape of educational change in the UK where increasing emphasis has been put on the use of evidence to drive reform. In the context of a government-sponsored project in Scotland, this study looked at the impact of a scholarship initiative…

  16. Tertiary Students and Social Development: An Area for Direct Action--Student Rural Service Activities in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Kee Poo

    The study is a survey of the different kinds of voluntary rural service (service-learning) corps of students from the institutions of higher education in Malaysia. The history, organization, and activities of the service corps are examined, and this type of student social action is viewed with reference to the role of higher education in the…

  17. IL-4 inhibits osteoclast formation through a direct action on osteoclast precursors via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ1

    PubMed Central

    Bendixen, Amy C.; Shevde, Nirupama K.; Dienger, Krista M.; Willson, Timothy M.; Funk, Colin D.; Pike, J. Wesley

    2001-01-01

    IL-4 is a pleiotropic immune cytokine secreted by activated TH2 cells that inhibits bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo. The cellular targets of IL-4 action as well as its intracellular mechanism of action remain to be determined. We show here that IL-4 inhibits receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation through an action on osteoclast precursors that is independent of stromal cells. Interestingly, this inhibitory effect can be mimicked by both natural as well as synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ1 (PPARγ1) ligands and can be blocked by the irreversible PPARγ antagonist GW 9662. These findings suggest that the actions of IL-4 on osteoclast differentiation are mediated by PPARγ1, an interpretation strengthened by the observation that IL-4 can activate a PPARγ1-sensitive luciferase reporter gene in RAW264.7 cells. We also show that inhibitors of enzymes such as 12/15-lipoxygenase and the cyclooxygenases that produce known PPARγ1 ligands do not abrogate the IL-4 effect. These findings, together with the observation that bone marrow cells from 12/15-lipoxygenase-deficient mice retain sensitivity to IL-4, suggest that the cytokine may induce novel PPARγ1 ligands. Our results reveal that PPARγ1 plays an important role in the suppression of osteoclast formation by IL-4 and may explain the beneficial effects of the thiazolidinedione class of PPARγ1 ligands on bone loss in diabetic patients. PMID:11226258

  18. 48 CFR 245.7306 - Sales services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sales services. 245.7306... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7306 Sales services. When sale services are needed, the plant clearance officer will document the reasons...

  19. 7 CFR 46.25 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auction sales. 46.25 Section 46.25 Agriculture... THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Auction Sales § 46.25 Auction sales. Commission merchants, dealers and brokers who offer produce for sale through...

  20. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be...

  1. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be...

  2. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be...

  3. 36 CFR 228.58 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and posting. The authorized officer may not offer a competitive sale unless there is a right-of-way or other access to the sale area which is available to anyone qualified to bid. (b) Advertising—(1) Sales... considered appropriate. Notice of the sale must be posted in a conspicuous place in the office where bids...

  4. 7 CFR 1955.148 - Auction sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... This section provides guidance on the sale of all inventory property by auction, except FSA real... property, will determine and document the minimum sale price acceptable. In determining a minimum sale... on sales of program and property. For NP property, credit may be offered to facilitate the...

  5. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be...

  6. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be at prices offered through the...

  7. Paid to Persuade: Careers in Sales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Workers who make a living in sales are paid to persuade others to buy goods and services. Just about anything, from apricots to zip-line tours, needs an intermediary to move from producer to buyer. That go-between person is the sales worker. Sales jobs are numerous. In May 2010, there were over 13 million wage and salary sales workers in the…

  8. 24 CFR 291.90 - Sales methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales methods. 291.90 Section 291....90 Sales methods. HUD will prescribe the terms and conditions for all methods of sale. HUD may, in... following methods of sale: (a) Future REO acquisition method. The Future Real Estate-Owned (REO)...

  9. 24 CFR 291.90 - Sales methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sales methods. 291.90 Section 291....90 Sales methods. HUD will prescribe the terms and conditions for all methods of sale. HUD may, in... following methods of sale: (a) Future REO acquisition method. The Future Real Estate-Owned (REO)...

  10. 24 CFR 291.90 - Sales methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sales methods. 291.90 Section 291....90 Sales methods. HUD will prescribe the terms and conditions for all methods of sale. HUD may, in... following methods of sale: (a) Future REO acquisition method. The Future Real Estate-Owned (REO)...

  11. 32 CFR 644.544 - Negotiated sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Negotiated sales. 644.544 Section 644.544 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.544 Negotiated sales. (a) To private parties. Negotiated sales to private parties are not viewed...

  12. Direct Actions of Kisspeptins on GnRH Neurons Permit Attainment of Fertility but are Insufficient to Fully Preserve Gonadotropic Axis Activity

    PubMed Central

    León, Silvia; Barroso, Alexia; Vázquez, María J.; García-Galiano, David; Manfredi-Lozano, María; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Heras, Violeta; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Roa, Juan; Schutz, Günther; Kirilov, Milen; Gaytan, Francisco; Pinilla, Leonor; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptins, ligands of the receptor, Gpr54, are potent stimulators of puberty and fertility. Yet, whether direct kisspeptin actions on GnRH neurons are sufficient for the whole repertoire of their reproductive effects remains debatable. To dissect out direct vs. indirect effects of kisspeptins on GnRH neurons in vivo, we report herein the detailed reproductive/gonadotropic characterization of a Gpr54 null mouse line with selective re-introduction of Gpr54 expression only in GnRH cells (Gpr54−/−Tg; rescued). Despite preserved fertility, adult rescued mice displayed abnormalities in gonadal microstructure, with signs of precocious ageing in females and elevated LH levels with normal-to-low testosterone secretion in males. Gpr54−/−Tg rescued mice showed also altered gonadotropin responses to negative feedback withdrawal, while luteinizing hormone responses to various gonadotropic regulators were variably affected, with partially blunted relative (but not absolute) responses to kisspeptin-10, NMDA and the agonist of tachykinin receptors, NK2R. Our data confirm that direct effects of kisspeptins on GnRH cells are sufficient to attain fertility. Yet, such direct actions appear to be insufficient to completely preserve proper functionality of gonadotropic axis, suggesting a role of kisspeptin signaling outside GnRH cells. PMID:26755241

  13. Direct Actions of Kisspeptins on GnRH Neurons Permit Attainment of Fertility but are Insufficient to Fully Preserve Gonadotropic Axis Activity.

    PubMed

    León, Silvia; Barroso, Alexia; Vázquez, María J; García-Galiano, David; Manfredi-Lozano, María; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Heras, Violeta; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Roa, Juan; Schutz, Günther; Kirilov, Milen; Gaytan, Francisco; Pinilla, Leonor; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptins, ligands of the receptor, Gpr54, are potent stimulators of puberty and fertility. Yet, whether direct kisspeptin actions on GnRH neurons are sufficient for the whole repertoire of their reproductive effects remains debatable. To dissect out direct vs. indirect effects of kisspeptins on GnRH neurons in vivo, we report herein the detailed reproductive/gonadotropic characterization of a Gpr54 null mouse line with selective re-introduction of Gpr54 expression only in GnRH cells (Gpr54(-/-)Tg; rescued). Despite preserved fertility, adult rescued mice displayed abnormalities in gonadal microstructure, with signs of precocious ageing in females and elevated LH levels with normal-to-low testosterone secretion in males. Gpr54(-/-)Tg rescued mice showed also altered gonadotropin responses to negative feedback withdrawal, while luteinizing hormone responses to various gonadotropic regulators were variably affected, with partially blunted relative (but not absolute) responses to kisspeptin-10, NMDA and the agonist of tachykinin receptors, NK2R. Our data confirm that direct effects of kisspeptins on GnRH cells are sufficient to attain fertility. Yet, such direct actions appear to be insufficient to completely preserve proper functionality of gonadotropic axis, suggesting a role of kisspeptin signaling outside GnRH cells. PMID:26755241

  14. 46 CFR 287.13 - Deposit of proceeds of sales or indemnities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... been received by the taxpayer at the time the sale is consummated. (c) Purchase-money obligations. Where the proceeds from the sale of a vessel include purchase-money obligations, such obligations... paid. All installments of purchase-money obligations shall be paid directly into the fund by...

  15. 46 CFR 287.13 - Deposit of proceeds of sales or indemnities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... been received by the taxpayer at the time the sale is consummated. (c) Purchase-money obligations. Where the proceeds from the sale of a vessel include purchase-money obligations, such obligations... paid. All installments of purchase-money obligations shall be paid directly into the fund by...

  16. 7 CFR 3560.407 - Sales or other disposition of security property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sales or other disposition of security property. 3560.407 Section 3560.407 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Servicing § 3560.407 Sales or other disposition of...

  17. 7 CFR 3560.407 - Sales or other disposition of security property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sales or other disposition of security property. 3560.407 Section 3560.407 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Servicing § 3560.407 Sales or other disposition of...

  18. Public policy and the sale of human organs.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Cynthia B

    2002-03-01

    Gill and Sade, in the preceding article in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, argue that living individuals should be free from legal constraints against selling their organs. The present commentary responds to several of their claims. It explains why an analogy between kidneys and blood fails; why, as a matter of public policy, we prohibit the sale of human solid organs, yet allow the sale of blood; and why their attack on Kant's putative argument against the sale of human body parts is misplaced. Finally, it rejects the claim that the state is entitled to interfere with the actions of individuals only if such actions would harm others. We draw certain lines grounded in what Rawls has termed "public reason" beyond which we do not give effect to the autonomous self-regarding decisions of individuals. Public resistance to the sale of human body parts, no matter how voluntary or well informed, is grounded in the conviction that such a practice would diminish human dignity and our sense of solidarity. A system of organ donation, in contrast, conveys our respect for persons and honors our common humanity. PMID:12211266

  19. 76 FR 174 - International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 71460). The workers provide Relations Analyst and Band 8 Program Manager services. At the... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations...; International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and Distribution...

  20. 25 CFR 166.811 - How will the sale of impounded livestock or other property be conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How will the sale of impounded livestock or other property... LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 166.811 How will the sale of impounded livestock or other property be conducted? (a) Unless the owner or known lien holder of the impounded livestock...

  1. 25 CFR 166.811 - How will the sale of impounded livestock or other property be conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How will the sale of impounded livestock or other property be conducted? 166.811 Section 166.811 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 166.811 How will the sale of impounded livestock...

  2. 25 CFR 166.811 - How will the sale of impounded livestock or other property be conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will the sale of impounded livestock or other property be conducted? 166.811 Section 166.811 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 166.811 How will the sale of impounded livestock...

  3. 7 CFR 1955.123 - Sale procedures (chattel).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Sale procedures (chattel). 1955.123 Section 1955.123....123 Sale procedures (chattel). (a) Sales. Although cash sales are preferred in the sale of chattels, credit sales may be used advantageously in the sale of chattels to eligible purchasers and to...

  4. Internet cigarette sales and Native American sovereignty: political and public health contexts.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Kari A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Williams, Rebecca S

    2012-05-01

    Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) advertise low prices for tobacco products, subverting public health policy efforts to curtail smoking by raising prices. Many online retailers in the United States claim affiliation with Native American tribes and share in tribal tax-free status. Sales of discounted cigarettes from both online vendors and brick-and-mortar stores have angered non-Native retailers and triggered enforcement actions by state and federal governments in the United States concerned over lost cigarette excise tax revenue. Examination of the history and politics of cigarette sales on reservations and attempts to regulate Internet cigarette sales highlights the potential role for greater use of negotiated intergovernmental agreements to address reservation-based tobacco sales. Our review notes global parallels and explicates history and politics of such regulation in the United States, and offers background for collaborative efforts to regulate tobacco sales and decrease tobacco use. PMID:22358120

  5. Directivity patterns and pulse profiles of ultrasound emitted by laser action on interface between transparent and opaque solids: Analytical theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, Sergey M. E-mail: vitali.goussev@univ-lemans.fr; Tournat, Vincent; Chigarev, Nikolay; Castagnede, Bernard; Gusev, Vitalyi E-mail: vitali.goussev@univ-lemans.fr; Bulou, Alain; Zerr, Andreas

    2014-01-28

    The analytical theory for the directivity patterns of ultrasounds emitted from laser-irradiated interface between two isotropic solids is developed. It is valid for arbitrary combinations of transparent and opaque materials. The directivity patterns are derived both in two-dimensional and in three-dimensional geometries, by accounting for the specific features of the sound generation by the photo-induced mechanical stresses distributed in the volume, essential in the laser ultrasonics. In particular, the theory accounts for the contribution to the emitted propagating acoustic fields from the converted by the interface evanescent photo-generated compression-dilatation waves. The precise analytical solutions for the profiles of longitudinal and shear acoustic pulses emitted in different directions are proposed. The developed theory can be applied for dimensional scaling, optimization, and interpretation of the high-pressure laser ultrasonics experiments in diamond anvil cell.

  6. Antibody-Directed Cytotoxic Agents: Use of Monoclonal Antibody to Direct the Action of Toxin A Chains to Colorectal Carcinoma Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliland, D. Gary; Steplewski, Zenon; Collier, R. John; Mitchell, Kenneth F.; Chang, Tong H.; Koprowski, Hilary

    1980-08-01

    We have constructed cell-specific cytotoxic agents by covalently coupling the A chain from diphtheria toxin or ricin toxin to monoclonal antibody directed against a colorectal carcinoma tumor-associated antigen. Antibody 1083-17-1A was modified by attachment of 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionyl or cystaminyl groups and then treated with reduced A chain to give disulfide-linked conjugates that retained the original binding specificity of the antibody moiety. The conjugates showed cytotoxic activity for colorectal carcinoma cells in culture, but were not toxic in the same concentration range for a variety of cell lines that lacked the antigen. Under defined conditions virtually 100% of antigen-bearing cultured cells were killed, whereas cells that lacked the antigen were not affected. Conjugates containing toxin A chains coupled to monoclonal antibodies may be useful in studying functions of various cell surface components and, possibly, as tumor-specific therapeutic agents.

  7. Ethanol directly depresses AMPA and NMDA glutamate currents in spinal cord motor neurons independent of actions on GABAA or glycine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, M Y; Rampil, I J; Kendig, J J

    1999-07-01

    Ethanol is a general anesthetic agent as defined by abolition of movement in response to noxious stimulation. This anesthetic endpoint is due to spinal anesthetic actions. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ethanol acts directly on motor neurons to inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission at glutamate receptors. Whole cell recordings were made in visually identified motor neurons in spinal cord slices from 14- to 23-day-old rats. Currents were evoked by stimulating a dorsal root fragment or by brief pulses of glutamate. Ethanol at general anesthetic concentrations (50-200 mM) depressed both responses. Ethanol also depressed glutamate-evoked responses in the presence of tetrodotoxin (300 nM), showing that its actions are postsynaptic. Block of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acidA and glycine receptors by bicuculline (50 microM) and strychnine (5 microM), respectively, did not significantly reduce the effects of ethanol on glutamate currents. Ethanol also depressed glutamate-evoked currents when the inhibitory receptors were blocked and either D, L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (40 microM) or 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione disodium (10 microM) were applied to block N-methyl-D-aspartate or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/kainate receptors, respectively. The results show that ethanol exerts direct depressant effects on both alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate currents in motor neurons. Enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acidA and glycine inhibition is not required for this effect. Direct depression of glutamatergic excitatory transmission by a postsynaptic action on motor neurons thus may contribute to general anesthesia as defined by immobility in response to a noxious stimulus. PMID:10381800

  8. 17 CFR 230.156 - Investment company sales literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 10b-5 thereunder (17 CFR part 240), it is unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, by the use... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Investment company sales... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.156 Investment company...

  9. 17 CFR 230.156 - Investment company sales literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 10b-5 thereunder (17 CFR part 240), it is unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, by the use... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Investment company sales... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.156 Investment company...

  10. 17 CFR 230.156 - Investment company sales literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 10b-5 thereunder (17 CFR part 240), it is unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, by the use... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Investment company sales... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.156 Investment company...

  11. 17 CFR 230.156 - Investment company sales literature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 10b-5 thereunder (17 CFR part 240), it is unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, by the use... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Investment company sales... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.156 Investment company...

  12. 29 CFR 779.258 - Sales made or business done.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales made or business done. 779.258 Section 779.258 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR...

  13. 75 FR 28814 - Owner of Record and Re-Sale Data To Preclude Predatory Lending Practices (Property Flipping) on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... Flipping) on FHA Insured Mortgages AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice...: Owner of Record and Re-sale Data To Preclude Predatory Lending Practices (Property Flipping) on...

  14. 75 FR 17156 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Western Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 215 (2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Minerals Management Service Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Western Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 215 (2010) Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Minerals Management Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of an environmental assessment. SUMMARY: The Minerals Management Service (MMS)...

  15. Actions of pinacidil at a reduced potassium concentration: a direct cardiac effect possibly involving the ATP-dependent potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Chi, L; Black, S C; Kuo, P I; Fagbemi, S O; Lucchesi, B R

    1993-02-01

    We investigated the effects of the ATP-dependent K+ channel antagonist glyburide and the ATP-dependent K+ channel agonist pinacidil in a Langendorff-perfused rabbit isolated heart subjected to a period of global hypoxia. A class III antiarrhythmic drug, E-4031, also was studied in this model. These studies aimed to define the mechanism of action of putative profibrillatory actions of pinacidil and the mechanism for the antifibrillatory effect of the class III antiarrhythmic drug, E-4031, in the hypoxic heart. After stabilization and determination of baseline functional parameters under normoxic perfusion conditions (95% O2/5% CO2), hearts were subjected to global hypoxia by switching to a 95% N2/5% CO2 saturated perfusion medium for a period of 12 min. After the hypoxic period, normoxia was re-established by switching to the oxygen-carbon dioxide saturated buffer medium for a period of 40 min. The oxygen tension of the perfusion buffer was reduced from approximately 400 mm Hg to below 50 mm Hg during the hypoxic period. All hearts subjected to hypoxia had reduced function: the left ventricular developed pressure and +/- dP/dt were reduced significantly. Myocardial tissue ATP concentrations were reduced (> 50%) in hearts subjected to hypoxia. Under conditions of hypoxic/reoxygenation and in the presence of a low (2.5 mM) potassium concentration ([K+]0), pinacidil (1.25 microM) facilitated the induction of ventricular fibrillation (80% fibrillation in the presence of pinacidil vs. 20% in the absence of pinacidil). Glyburide (10 microM) and E-4031 (1 and 10 microM) significantly reduced the incidence of ventricular fibrillation associated with pinacidil (20% fibrillation in the presence of hypoxia, pinacidil, and glyburide or 10 microM E-4031). Opening of the ATP-dependent K+ channel by pinacidil under normoxia and low K+ also facilitated the induction of ventricular fibrillation (60% ventricular fibrillation). Pinacidil failed to induce ventricular fibrillation under

  16. Evidence for direct and indirect mechanisms in the potent modulatory action of interleukin-2 on the release of acetylcholine in rat hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Seto, David; Kar, Satyabrata; Quirion, Rémi

    1997-01-01

    The biphasic nature of the potent modulatory action of interleukin-2 (IL-2) on hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) release was investigated by use of brain slice superfusion.Both the potentiating (10−13 M) and inhibitory (10−9 M) effects of IL-2 on hippocampal ACh release were stimulation-dependent and were blocked by a neutralizing IL-2 receptor antibody, suggesting the activation of typical IL-2 receptors in both cases.Tetrodotoxin (TTX; 10 μM) failed to block the potentiation of ACh release induced by a very low concentration of IL-2 (10−13M) suggesting a direct effect on cholinergic nerve terminals.In contrast, the inhibitory effect seen at a higher concentration (10−9 M) was TTX-sensitive, and hence indicative of an indirect action.To establish the nature of this intermediate mediator, blockers of nitric oxide synthesis, and of opioid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors were used. Only GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists altered the inhibitory action of IL-2, suggesting the participation of GABA as mediator.Taken together, these results provide further evidence for the potent role of IL-2 in the modulation of cholinergic function in the rat hippocampus. PMID:9134229

  17. Lead induction of crop dysfunction in pigeons through a direct action on neural or smooth muscle components of crop tissue.

    PubMed

    Boyer, I J; Cory-Slechta, D A; DiStefano, V

    1985-09-01

    Lead acetate solutions administered p.o. to pigeons produce crop stasis. Crop dysfunction may be an indirect effect on crop activity by a direct interaction with the cerebellum or some other site associated with lead-induced ataxia. Alternatively, crop stasis may be due to the direct interaction of lead with sites on the smooth muscle or neural elements in crop tissue. A behavioral test for ataxia was performed on pigeons given lead by crop intubation or i.m. injection. Blood lead concentrations were also monitored. Lead-induced ataxia was separable from lead-induced crop dysfunction depending on the route of lead administration, suggesting that lead-induced crop stasis is not secondary to toxicity at a site associated with ataxia. Intramuscular treatment produced crop stasis more readily than did crop intubation. This probably reflects different mechanisms of absorption and metabolism. A Tris-succinate medium was devised which accommodated the solubility characteristics of lead, permitting studies of crop tissue in vitro. Lead chloride added to crop tissue in tris-succinate medium caused a concentration-related reversible relaxation. Crop circular muscle was more sensitive to Pb++ than was longitudinal muscle, in agreement with the effects of other agonists. The EC30 of crop circular smooth muscle in plasma was 1000 microM PbCl2 compared to 3 microM in Tris-succinate medium. The results suggest that lead induces crop dysfunction by acting either directly on crop smooth muscle or on neural elements in crop tissue. PMID:2993587

  18. Curriculum for Sale?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melehy, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Given the widespread tendency to direct budget cuts in higher education toward areas perceived as less essential to economic productivity, there is not a single college or university humanities program in the United States that would not benefit from philanthropy. However, because some moneyed interests use the current crisis as a pretext to…

  19. Enforcing regulations on alcohol sales and use as universal environmental prevention.

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartroli, Montserrat; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Guitart, Anna M; Serra-Batiste, Enric; Casas, Conrad; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The informal social control over alcohol consumption that was traditional in Southern European countries has weakened. At the same time there is an increase in binge drinking and drunkenness among young people in Spain. To mitigate this problem, regulations on alcohol and driving and restrictions on the sale and consumption of alcohol have been adopted. This paper documents the current regulations in the city of Barcelona and describes efforts to enforce them and their outcomes. Data from the municipal information systems on infringements reported for the period 2008-13 are provided. There is an increasing pressure of municipal services to enforce the rules in two areas: a) alcohol sales at night (retailers); and b) consumption in the public space (citizens). An increase in the controls of drink-driving has also taken place, and the proportion above legal limits has decreased. The largest relative increase occurred in the control of retailers. In Barcelona interventions are made to limit the supply and consumption of alcohol at low cost and during the night, and of driving under the influence of alcohol. There have been no documented episodes of massive drinking in public spaces (known as 'botellón') in the city. These actions, which complement other preventive efforts based on health education, can change the social perceptions of alcohol by minors in a direction less favorable to consumption, promoting environmental prevention. PMID:26706811

  20. A novel strategy for dissecting goal-directed action and arousal components of motivated behavior with a progressive hold-down task.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Matthew R; Jensen, Greg; Taylor, Kathleen; Mezias, Chris; Williamson, Cait; Silver, Rae; Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D

    2015-06-01

    Motivation serves 2 important functions: It guides actions to be goal-directed, and it provides the energy and vigor required to perform the work necessary to meet those goals. Dissociating these 2 processes with existing behavioral assays has been a challenge. In this article, we report a novel experimental strategy to distinguish the 2 processes in mice. First, we characterize a novel motivation assay in which animals must hold down a lever for progressively longer intervals to earn each subsequent reward; we call this the progressive hold-down (PHD) task. We find that performance on the PHD task is sensitive to both food deprivation level and reward value. Next, we use a dose of methamphetamine (METH) 1.0 mg/kg, to evaluate behavior in both the progressive ratio (PR) and PHD tasks. Treatment with METH leads to more persistent lever pressing for food rewards in the PR. In the PHD task, we found that METH increased arousal, which leads to numerous bouts of hyperactive responding but neither increases nor impairs goal-directed action. The results demonstrate that these tools enable a more precise understanding of the underlying processes being altered in manipulations that alter motivated behavior. PMID:26030428

  1. L-NAME raises systolic blood pressure in the pithed rat by a direct adrenal epinephrine releasing action.

    PubMed

    Elayan, Hamzeh H; Kennedy, Brian P; Ziegler, Michael G

    2002-04-21

    It is generally thought that inhibition of nitric oxide synthase leads to blood pressure elevation largely through reduction in vascular levels of the vasodilator nitric oxide. However, there are several reports suggesting that NO synthase inhibitors cause adrenal epinephrine (E) release by both central and peripheral mechanisms. We investigated the role of adrenal E in the pressor effects of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME in the pithed rat to help distinguish central from peripherally mediated actions. L-NAME (10 mg/kg) raised both systolic and diastolic BP by about 30 mm Hg (P < .01) in the absence of exogenous electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerves. During stimulation at 10 V and frequencies of 1 or 2 Hz, systolic BP was about 70 mm Hg higher in L-NAME treated rats than in drug free stimulated rats. This enhancement of systolic BP by L-NAME was less pronounced at 5 or 10 Hz stimulation frequencies. Following these types of electrical stimulations of pithed rats, both plasma norepinephrine (NE) and E levels were dramatically elevated above resting plasma levels. L-NAME pretreatment of these electrically stimulated rats increased plasma E levels by an additional 60% and decreased NE by 18%. Acute adrenalectomy dramatically reduced plasma E levels and abolished the ability of L-NAME to enhance the pressor effect of sympathetic stimulation. In contrast, acute adrenalectomy of unstimulated pithed rats did not significantly reduce the pressor response to L-NAME. We conclude that adrenal E release may mediate much of the systolic pressor response of L-NAME in the stimulated pithed rat, but the magnitude of this effect varies with stimulation frequency. Since pithing disrupts central pathways, this induction of adrenal E release by L-NAME is a peripheral effect. PMID:12173412

  2. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Terminalia cuneata and its catalytic action in reduction of direct yellow-12 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Lee, Yong Rok; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous bark extract of Terminalia cuneata has been reported in this article. The effects of concentration of the extract, reaction time and pH were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of yellow color with λmax around ~ 420 nm suggested the formation of AgNPs. The stable AgNPs were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) with zeta potential and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in the size range of 25-50 nm with a distorted spherical shape identified from HR-TEM analysis. The catalytic activity of AgNPs on the reduction of direct yellow-12 using NaBH4 was analyzed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. This study showed the efficacy of biogenic AgNPs in catalyzing the reduction of direct yellow-12.

  3. Bevacizumab potentiates chemotherapeutic effect on T-leukemia/lymphoma cells by direct action on tumor endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Shi, Wen-Yu; Yang, Fan; Tang, Wei; Gapihan, Guillaume; Varna, Mariana; Shen, Zhi-Xiang; Chen, Sai-Juan; Leboeuf, Christophe; Janin, Anne; Zhao, Wei-Li

    2011-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A, an angiogenesis stimulator expressed on both tumor endothelial and malignant T cells, is involved in tumor progression in T-leukemia/lymphoma. Here, we assessed the impact of therapeutic vascular endothelial growth factor-A blockade on tumor-endothelial cell interaction and on tumor progression. In a murine xenograft T-leukemia/lymphoma model, combined bevacizumab (monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor-A) with doxorubicin, compared with doxorubicin alone, significantly delayed tumor growth and induced prevalence of tumor cell apoptosis over mitosis. More importantly, the combined treatment induced endothelial cell swelling, microvessel occlusions, and tumor necrosis. In vitro, co-culture of endothelial cells with T-leukemia/lymphoma cells showed that doxorubicin induced expression of intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1, provided endothelial and malignant T cells were in direct contact. This was abrogated by bevacizumab treatment with doxorubicin. Taken together, bevacizumab enhances the chemotherapeutic effect on T-leukemia/lymphoma cells. Directly targeting tumor endothelial cells might be a promising therapeutic strategy to counteract tumor progression in T-cell malignancies. PMID:21330328

  4. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Terminalia cuneata and its catalytic action in reduction of direct yellow-12 dye.

    PubMed

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Lee, Yong Rok; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan

    2016-05-15

    Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous bark extract of Terminalia cuneata has been reported in this article. The effects of concentration of the extract, reaction time and pH were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of yellow color with λmax around ~420 nm suggested the formation of AgNPs. The stable AgNPs were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) with zeta potential and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in the size range of 25-50 nm with a distorted spherical shape identified from HR-TEM analysis. The catalytic activity of AgNPs on the reduction of direct yellow-12 using NaBH4 was analyzed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. This study showed the efficacy of biogenic AgNPs in catalyzing the reduction of direct yellow-12. PMID:26967513

  5. The Student Body, for Sale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troop, Don

    2013-01-01

    The sale of bodily goods or services--"body commodification"--is nothing new among college students. But strides in medical technology, the encroachment of market values on all facets of life, and the reach and culture of the Internet have combined to create a fertile environment for people who want or need to exploit the value of their skin or…

  6. Advertising and Sales Promotion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 4-unit, 1-year marketing education course in advertising and sales promotion offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. The preface contains a rationale for the development of the course, a course description, course objectives, a list of the instructional units of the course, and a list of the…

  7. Pricing of GPO Sales Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzkopf, LeRoy C.

    This report analyzes the pricing policy of the Government Printing Office (GPO) for publications sold to the public. It discusses the sharp rise in prices for GPO sales publications from November 1972 through 1975. This is a detailed report which expands on the summary report prepared by the author as chairman of the Pricing Subcommittee, GPO…

  8. Do task-irrelevant direction-associated motion verbs affect action planning? Evidence from a Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; Lachmair, Martin; de la Vega, Irmgard; De Filippis, Monica; Kaup, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Does simply seeing a word such as rise activate upward responses? The present study is concerned with bottom-up activation of motion-related experiential traces. Verbs referring to an upward or downward motion (e.g., rise/fall) were presented in one of four colors. Participants had to perform an upward or downward hand movement (experiments 1 and 2a/2b) or a stationary up or down located keypress response (experiment 3) according to font color. In all experiments, responding was faster if the word's immanent motion direction matched the response (e.g., upward/up response in case of rise); however, this effect was strongest in the experiments requiring an actual upward or downward response movement (experiments 1 and 2a/2b). These findings suggest bottom-up activation of motion-related experiential traces, even if the task does not demand lexical access or focusing on a word's meaning. PMID:22427242

  9. 24 CFR 290.13 - Negotiated sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiated sales. 290.13 Section... DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF MULTIFAMILY PROJECTS AND SALE OF HUD-HELD MULTIFAMILY MORTGAGES Disposition of Multifamily Projects § 290.13 Negotiated sales. When HUD conducts a negotiated...

  10. 15 CFR 904.505 - Summary sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Summary sale. 904.505 Section 904.505... and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.505 Summary sale. (a) In view of the perishable nature of fish, any... the sale to a person authorized to enforce a statute administered by NOAA immediately upon request...

  11. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227 Section 223.227 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.227 Sale advertisement. (a) The Forest Service...

  12. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  13. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  14. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  15. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  16. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  17. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  18. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  19. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  20. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  1. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1)...

  2. 43 CFR 2566.2 - Public sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public sale. 2566.2 Section 2566.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... § 2566.2 Public sale. (a) Generally. The unreserved and unsold lots will be offered at public sale to...

  3. 43 CFR 2566.2 - Public sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public sale. 2566.2 Section 2566.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... § 2566.2 Public sale. (a) Generally. The unreserved and unsold lots will be offered at public sale to...

  4. 43 CFR 2566.2 - Public sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public sale. 2566.2 Section 2566.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... § 2566.2 Public sale. (a) Generally. The unreserved and unsold lots will be offered at public sale to...

  5. 43 CFR 2566.2 - Public sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public sale. 2566.2 Section 2566.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... § 2566.2 Public sale. (a) Generally. The unreserved and unsold lots will be offered at public sale to...

  6. Counterfactual Processing of Economic Action-Outcome Alternatives in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Further Evidence of Impaired Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, Claire M.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Kaser, Muzaffer; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Sule, Akeem; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Cardinal, Rudolf N.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of automatic, uncontrollable behaviors and obsessive rumination. There is evidence that OCD patients have difficulties performing goal-directed actions, instead exhibiting repetitive stimulus-response habit behaviors. This might result from the excessive formation of stimulus-response habit associations or from an impairment in the ability to use outcome value to guide behavior. We investigated the latter by examining counterfactual decision making, which is the ability to use comparisons of prospective action-outcome scenarios to guide economic choice. Methods We tested decision making (forward counterfactual) and affective responses (backward counterfactual) in 20 OCD patients and 20 matched healthy control subjects using an economic choice paradigm that previously revealed attenuation of both the experience and avoidance of counterfactual emotion in schizophrenia patients and patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Results The use of counterfactual comparison to guide decision making was diminished in OCD patients, who relied primarily on expected value. Unlike the apathetic affective responses previously shown to accompany this decision style, OCD patients reported increased emotional responsivity to the outcomes of their choices and to the counterfactual comparisons that typify regret and relief. Conclusions Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients exhibit a pattern of decision making consistent with a disruption in goal-directed forward modeling, basing decisions instead on the temporally present (and more rational) calculation of expected value. In contrast to this style of decision making, emotional responses in OCD were more extreme and reactive than control subjects. These results are in line with an account of disrupted goal-directed cognitive control in OCD. PMID:23452663

  7. Direction of estradiol metabolism as a control of its hormonal action--uterotrophic activity of estradiol metabolites.

    PubMed

    Martucci, C; Fishman, J

    1977-12-01

    The uterotrophic activities of the catechol metabolites of estradiol 2-hydroxyestrone, 2-methoxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestradiol were measured under conditions of continuous administration of sc implanted paraffin pellets. The activity of these estrogens was compared to that of estradiol-17beta and its other principal metabolites estrone, estriol and 15alpha-hydroxyestriol (estetrol). The major catechol estrogens, 2-hydroxyestrone and 2-methoxyestrone, and the pregnancy metabolite, 15alpha-hydroxyestriol, exhibited no uterotrophic activity. The minor catecholestrogen, 2-hydroxyestradiol, showed some activity whose character was different from that exhibited by implants of estradiol, estrone and estriol all of which were equipotent uterotrophic agents. Implants of 2-hydroxyestrone in the presence of estradiol or estriol pellets did not diminish the response to the latter indicating that the 2-hydroxyestrone is not antiestrogenic under these conditions. It is concluded that the direction of estradiol metabolism can have a profound influence on the expression of peripheral hormonal activity with hydroxylation at C-2 terminating and hydroxylation at C-16 extending it. PMID:590186

  8. Organization of goal-directed action at a high level of motor skill: the case of stone knapping in India.

    PubMed

    Biryukova, E V; Bril, B

    2008-07-01

    We analyzed the relationship between goal achievement and execution variability in craftsmen who have acquired the highest "ultimate" skills of stone knapping. The goal of a knapping movement is defined as the vector of the final velocity of a hammer, crucial for detaching a flake and, consequently, for the shape of the final product. The execution of the movement is defined by the kinematic pattern of the arm (i.e., by the coordination between the joint angles corresponding to the seven arm degrees of freedom). The results show that (a) the direction of final velocity is very stable for all craftsmen, whereas the amount of kinetic energy transmitted to the stone was craftsman specific and (b) the kinematic pattern of the arm was strongly individual and was a reliable sign of the level of skill--the highest level was characterized by the highest flexibility of movement kinematics. We stress the importance of conducting the experiment in natural conditions for better understanding of the relationship among the purpose (the final shape of the stone), the goal, and the execution of the movement. PMID:18698105

  9. Tracking Cholera through Surveillance of Oral Rehydration Solution Sales at Pharmacies: Insights from Urban Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Andrew S.; Lessler, Justin; Satter, Syed Moinuddin; Mckay, Michael V.; Khan, Azharul; Ahmed, Dilruba; Gurley, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, pharmacy-purchased oral rehydration solution (ORS) is often used to treat diarrhea, including cholera. Over-the-counter sales have been used for epidemiologic surveillance in the past, but rarely, if ever, in low-income countries. With few early indicators for cholera outbreaks in endemic areas, diarrhea-related product sales may serve as a useful surveillance tool. Methodology/Principal Findings We tracked daily ORS sales at 50 pharmacies and drug-sellers in an urban Bangladesh community of 129,000 for 6-months while simultaneously conducting surveillance for diarrhea hospitalizations among residents. We developed a mobile phone based system to track the sales of ORS and deployed it in parallel with a paper-based system. Our objectives were to determine if the mobile phone system was practical and acceptable to pharmacists and drug sellers, whether data were reported accurately compared to a paper-based system, and whether ORS sales were associated with future incidence of cholera hospitalizations within the community. We recorded 47,215 customers purchasing ORS, and 315 hospitalized diarrhea cases, 22% of which had culture-confirmed cholera. ORS sales and diarrhea incidence were independently associated with the mean daily temperature; therefore both unadjusted and adjusted models were explored. Through unadjusted cross-correlation statistics and generalized linear models, we found increases in ORS sales were significantly associated with increases in hospitalized diarrhea cases up to 9-days later and hospitalized cholera cases up to one day later. After adjusting for mean daily temperature, ORS was significantly associated with hospitalized diarrhea two days later and hospitalized cholera one day later. Conclusions/Significance Pharmacy sales data may serve as a feasible and useful surveillance tool. Given the relatively short lagged correlation between ORS sales and diarrhea, rapid and accurate sales data are key. More work is needed

  10. Site-directed mutagenesis of the heterotrimeric killer toxin zymocin identifies residues required for early steps in toxin action.

    PubMed

    Wemhoff, Sabrina; Klassen, Roland; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2014-10-01

    Zymocin is a Kluyveromyces lactis protein toxin composed of αβγ subunits encoded by the cytoplasmic virus-like element k1 and functions by αβ-assisted delivery of the anticodon nuclease (ACNase) γ into target cells. The toxin binds to cells' chitin and exhibits chitinase activity in vitro that might be important during γ import. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains carrying k1-derived hybrid elements deficient in either αβ (k1ORF2) or γ (k1ORF4) were generated. Loss of either gene abrogates toxicity, and unexpectedly, Orf2 secretion depends on Orf4 cosecretion. Functional zymocin assembly can be restored by nuclear expression of k1ORF2 or k1ORF4, providing an opportunity to conduct site-directed mutagenesis of holozymocin. Complementation required active site residues of α's chitinase domain and the sole cysteine residue of β (Cys250). Since βγ are reportedly disulfide linked, the requirement for the conserved γ C231 was probed. Toxicity of intracellularly expressed γ C231A indicated no major defect in ACNase activity, while complementation of k1ΔORF4 by γ C231A was lost, consistent with a role of β C250 and γ C231 in zymocin assembly. To test the capability of αβ to carry alternative cargos, the heterologous ACNase from Pichia acaciae (P. acaciae Orf2 [PaOrf2]) was expressed, along with its immunity gene, in k1ΔORF4. While efficient secretion of PaOrf2 was detected, suppression of the k1ΔORF4-derived k1Orf2 secretion defect was not observed. Thus, the dependency of k1Orf2 on k1Orf4 cosecretion needs to be overcome prior to studying αβ's capability to deliver other cargo proteins into target cells. PMID:25128337

  11. MYB Promotes Desmoplasia in Pancreatic Cancer through Direct Transcriptional Up-regulation and Cooperative Action of Sonic Hedgehog and Adrenomedullin.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Arun; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Singh, Seema; Tyagi, Nikhil; Arora, Sumit; Carter, James E; Khushman, Moh'd; Singh, Ajay P

    2016-07-29

    Extensive desmoplasia is a prominent pathological characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PC) that not only impacts tumor development, but therapeutic outcome as well. Recently, we demonstrated a novel role of MYB, an oncogenic transcription factor, in PC growth and metastasis. Here we studied its effect on pancreatic tumor histopathology and associated molecular and biological mechanisms. Tumor-xenografts derived from orthotopic-inoculation of MYB-overexpressing PC cells exhibited far-greater desmoplasia in histological analyses compared with those derived from MYB-silenced PC cells. These findings were further confirmed by immunostaining of tumor-xenograft sections with collagen-I, fibronectin (major extracellular-matrix proteins), and α-SMA (well-characterized marker of myofibroblasts or activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs)). Likewise, MYB-overexpressing PC cells provided significantly greater growth benefit to PSCs in a co-culture system as compared with the MYB-silenced cells. Interrogation of deep-sequencing data from MYB-overexpressing versus -silenced PC cells identified Sonic-hedgehog (SHH) and Adrenomedullin (ADM) as two differentially-expressed genes among others, which encode for secretory ligands involved in tumor-stromal cross-talk. In-silico analyses predicted putative MYB-binding sites in SHH and ADM promoters, which was later confirmed by chromatin-immunoprecipitation. A cooperative role of SHH and ADM in growth promotion of PSCs was confirmed in co-culture by using their specific-inhibitors and exogenous recombinant-proteins. Importantly, while SHH acted exclusively in a paracrine fashion on PSCs and influenced the growth of PC cells only indirectly, ADM could directly impact the growth of both PC cells and PSCs. In summary, we identified MYB as novel regulator of pancreatic tumor desmoplasia, which is suggestive of its diverse roles in PC pathobiology. PMID:27246849

  12. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  13. Direct and inverse cascades of energy, momentum and wave action in spectra of wind-driven waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badulin, S. I.; Pushkarev, A. N.; Resio, D.; Zakharov, V. E.

    2003-04-01

    The time-dependent, spatially uniform Hasselmann's kinetic equation for surface gravity waves in presence of wind forcing and white-capping dissipation is studied numerically. We use conventional parameterizations of wind wave input (Snyder et al. 1981; Plant 1982; Hsiao &Shemdin 1983; Donelan, Pierson 1987) that are consistent with weakly nonlinear scaling. We assume that strong dissipation due to white-capping is essential for short waves only (with frequencies above 1Hz) belonging to the spectral tail and can be neglected near the spectral peak. We compare our numerical results with the predictions of the theory of weak turbulence and found a very good coincidence. It is shown that asymptotic behavior of wave spectra is in perfect agreement with stationary solutions of the Hasselmann equation -- Kolmogorov's solutions for direct (Zakharov & Filonenko 1966) and inverse (Zakharov &Zaslavskii 1982) cascades. This asymptotic behavior appears at rather early stages of wind wave evolution (physical time of order of few hours in our experiments); A strong tendency of solutions to self-similar behavior of duration limited solutions is found for rather wide range of initial conditions and external forcing; Good quantitative coincidence with recapitulative experimental data for duration limited wind wave growth (Young 1999, p.111) and for fetch-limited (JONSWAP) spectra parameterized by wave age C_p/Uwind is found. The findings here are quite robust and hopefully will be applied to the practical problems. Present wave prediction models are based on fairly crude parameterizations of the nonlinear energy transfers. In large part due to inaccuracies in these parameterizations, these models have had to rely on empirical fitting of general growth equation as a basis for constraining additional source-sink terms in the detailed balance equations. Results from this study could be used to reformulate a complete energy balance equation for wave generation, propagation and decay

  14. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  15. iES - An Intelligent Electronic Sales Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, V L; Korbe III, W; Gao, J G

    2003-10-02

    Current e-commerce systems support online shopping based on electronic product catalogs. The major issues associated with catalog-based commerce systems are: difficulty in distinguishing one retailer from another, complex navigation with confusing links, and a lack of personalized service. This paper reports an intelligent solution to address these issues. Our solution will provide a more personalized sales experience through the use of a transaction-based knowledge model that includes both the rules used for reasoning as well as the corresponding actions. Based on this solution, we have developed an intelligent electronic sales platform that is supported by a framework which provides the desired personalization as well as extensibility and customization capabilities. This paper reports our design and development of this system and application examples.

  16. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1996 report provides information, illustrations and State-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1996. 24 tabs.

  17. The hypolipidemic action of a diet supplemented with p,p'-methoxyl-diphenyl diselenide is not directly related to its antioxidant property.

    PubMed

    Sartori Oliveira, Carla Elena; Pinton, Simone; da Rocha, Juliana Trevisan; Gai, Bibiana Mozzaquatro; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated whether a p,p'-methoxyl-diphenyl diselenide (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet causes toxicity in rats. A second aim of this study was to determine whether a 10 ppm (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet has hypolipidemic effect on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. To rule out the antioxidant property of (MeOPhSe)2 in its hypolipidemic action, parameters of oxidative stress were carried out. Wistar rats were fed with 3, 10, or 30 ppm of (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet for 30 days. None of (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diets caused alteration in general parameters of toxicity and lipid profile of rats. The hypolipidemic effect of 10 ppm of (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet on rats treated with Triton WR-1339 (400 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) was investigated. The (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet partially protected against the levels of total cholesterol (TC) and non-HDL-C and reduced the atherogenic index (AI) increased by Triton WR-1339 in rats. A positive correlation between TC and triglyceride levels (r = 0.679) and non-HDL-C levels (r = 0.929) and AI (r = 0.889) was demonstrated. Triton WR-1339 altered parameters of oxidative stress in livers of rats but (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet did not protect against these alterations. The results demonstrated that the hypolipidemic action of (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet is not directly related to its antioxidant property and devoid of systemic toxicity in rats at the parameters analyzed. PMID:27035225

  18. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an industry member of requiring a retailer to...

  19. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an industry member of requiring a retailer to...

  20. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an industry member of requiring a retailer to...

  1. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an industry member of requiring a retailer to...

  2. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an industry member of requiring a retailer to...

  3. 76 FR 21033 - International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... on November 17, 2010 (75 FR 70296). The workers supply computer software development and maintenance... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business... workers of International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global...

  4. 7 CFR 1955.118 - Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on NP terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property § 1955.118 Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on... be amortized using a 30-year factor with payment in full (balloon payment) due not later than...

  5. 7 CFR 1955.118 - Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on NP terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property § 1955.118 Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on... be amortized using a 30-year factor with payment in full (balloon payment) due not later than...

  6. 7 CFR 1955.118 - Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on NP terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property § 1955.118 Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on... be amortized using a 30-year factor with payment in full (balloon payment) due not later than...

  7. 7 CFR 1955.118 - Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on NP terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property § 1955.118 Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on... be amortized using a 30-year factor with payment in full (balloon payment) due not later than...

  8. 7 CFR 1955.118 - Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on NP terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property § 1955.118 Processing cash sales or MFH credit sales on... be amortized using a 30-year factor with payment in full (balloon payment) due not later than...

  9. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Joyce; Barron, Jessica; Gunn, Janelle P.; Yuan, Keming; Perrine, Cria G.; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt. PMID:25763528

  10. 18 CFR 292.305 - Rates for sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rates for sales. 292... § 292.305 Rates for sales. (a) General rules. (1) Rates for sales: (i) Shall be just and reasonable and... to rates for sales to other customers served by the electric utility. (2) Rates for sales which...

  11. 19 CFR 127.24 - Notice of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of sale. 127.24 Section 127.24 Customs... GENERAL ORDER, UNCLAIMED, AND ABANDONED MERCHANDISE Sale of Unclaimed and Abandoned Merchandise § 127.24 Notice of sale. Notice of sale shall be sent on Customs Form 5251, 30 days prior to the date of sale,...

  12. 43 CFR 402.7 - Notice of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of sale. 402.7 Section 402.7 Public... SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.7 Notice of sale. The sale of lands at public auction under this part shall be administered by the Commissioner. Notice of such sales shall...

  13. 7 CFR 1488.5 - Acceptance of sale registrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance of sale registrations. 1488.5 Section 1488... Sales Program (GSM-5) Financing Export Sales § 1488.5 Acceptance of sale registrations. (a) Upon... which shall consist of the exporter's request for a sale registration, CCC's acceptance of the...

  14. 7 CFR 1488.5 - Acceptance of sale registrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance of sale registrations. 1488.5 Section 1488... Sales Program (GSM-5) Financing Export Sales § 1488.5 Acceptance of sale registrations. (a) Upon... which shall consist of the exporter's request for a sale registration, CCC's acceptance of the...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 625 - Standard Sales Provisions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard Sales Provisions A Appendix A to Part 625 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM Pt. 625, App. A Appendix A to Part 625—Standard Sales Provisions Index Section A—General Pre-Sale Information A.1List of abbreviations...

  16. 7 CFR 1955.147 - Sealed bid sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Sealed bid sales. This section provides guidance on the sale of all FmHA or its successor agency under... bid. Before a sealed bid sale, the State Director will determine and document the minimum sale price acceptable. In determining a minimum sale price, the State Director will consider the length of time...

  17. 10 CFR 625.3 - Standard sales provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM § 625.3 Standard sales provisions. (a) Contents. The Standards Sales Provisions shall contain contract clauses which may be applicable to price competitive sales of SPR petroleum, including terms...

  18. 10 CFR 625.3 - Standard sales provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM § 625.3 Standard sales provisions. (a) Contents. The Standards Sales Provisions shall contain contract clauses which may be applicable to price competitive sales of SPR petroleum, including terms...

  19. 10 CFR 625.3 - Standard sales provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM § 625.3 Standard sales provisions. (a) Contents. The Standards Sales Provisions shall contain contract clauses which may be applicable to price competitive sales of SPR petroleum, including terms...

  20. 10 CFR 625.3 - Standard sales provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM § 625.3 Standard sales provisions. (a) Contents. The Standards Sales Provisions shall contain contract clauses which may be applicable to price competitive sales of SPR petroleum, including terms...

  1. 10 CFR 625.3 - Standard sales provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM § 625.3 Standard sales provisions. (a) Contents. The Standards Sales Provisions shall contain contract clauses which may be applicable to price competitive sales of SPR petroleum, including terms...

  2. 75 FR 40763 - Federal Management Regulation; Sale of Personal Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... to antitrust laws? (a) When the sale of personal property has an estimated fair market value of $3... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Part 102-38 RIN 3090-AJ04 Federal Management Regulation; Sale of Personal Property AGENCY... the provisions for the sale of personal property through Federal Asset Sales (FAS) Sales...

  3. Selling Sales: Factors Influencing Undergraduate Business Students' Decision to Pursue Sales Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Concha; Kumar, Poonam; Tarasi, Crina; Wilson, Holt

    2014-01-01

    With a better understanding of the typical sales student, sales educators can design and deliver curriculum with a more customer-oriented approach. In order to better understand the decision to pursue sales education, more than 500 undergraduate business students at a large Midwestern university participated in a survey that examined the factors…

  4. Do Perceptions of Hiring Criteria Differ for Sales Managers and Sales Representatives? Implications for Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Mary Anne; Carlson, Les; Hopkins, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this study explores whether perceptions of critical hiring criteria for entry-level sales positions differ across sales managers and sales representatives. This research also examines which classroom activities and skills these individuals perceive to be most important for strengthening the desired…

  5. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  6. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  7. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  8. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  9. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  10. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  11. Electro-optically responsive composites of gold nanospheres in 5CB liquid crystal under direct current and alternating current joint action

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjichristov, Georgi B.; Marinov, Yordan G.; Petrov, Alexander G.; Bruno, Emanuela; Marino, Lucia; Scaramuzza, Nicola

    2014-02-28

    Direct current (DC) electro-optical (EO) control of transmitted laser beam intensity based on EO controlled coherent light scattering and diffraction by stationary longitudinal texture pattern (LTP) is achieved in planar-oriented cells with a composite mixture of polymer-coated gold spherical nanoparticles (Au-NPs) with a mean diameter of about 12 nm and the room-temperature nematic pentylcyanobiphenyl (5CB). At relatively low DC voltage of about 5 V, the effective scattering/diffraction by Au-NPs/5CB composites leads to a spatial spreading of transmitted coherent light from a low-power continuous wave laser beam, resulting in a drastic reduction of its local intensity. The effect is polarization dependent and is strongest when the polarization of the input laser beam is along the LTP. The EO response of Au-NPs/5CB mixtures is studied under DC and alternating current (AC) joint action with the aim of the potential use of these composite materials as EO controlled diffusers. The specific V-shaped sharp dip in the DC voltage-dependent coherent light transmittance of Au-NPs/5CB planar films, as well as the possibility for erasing the scattering/diffractive LTP in the films by joint low AC voltage, can be useful for EO applications in the field of process control and for detection of weak dynamic electric fields.

  12. Electro-optically responsive composites of gold nanospheres in 5CB liquid crystal under direct current and alternating current joint action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjichristov, Georgi B.; Marinov, Yordan G.; Petrov, Alexander G.; Bruno, Emanuela; Marino, Lucia; Scaramuzza, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    Direct current (DC) electro-optical (EO) control of transmitted laser beam intensity based on EO controlled coherent light scattering and diffraction by stationary longitudinal texture pattern (LTP) is achieved in planar-oriented cells with a composite mixture of polymer-coated gold spherical nanoparticles (Au-NPs) with a mean diameter of about 12 nm and the room-temperature nematic pentylcyanobiphenyl (5CB). At relatively low DC voltage of about 5 V, the effective scattering/diffraction by Au-NPs/5CB composites leads to a spatial spreading of transmitted coherent light from a low-power continuous wave laser beam, resulting in a drastic reduction of its local intensity. The effect is polarization dependent and is strongest when the polarization of the input laser beam is along the LTP. The EO response of Au-NPs/5CB mixtures is studied under DC and alternating current (AC) joint action with the aim of the potential use of these composite materials as EO controlled diffusers. The specific V-shaped sharp dip in the DC voltage-dependent coherent light transmittance of Au-NPs/5CB planar films, as well as the possibility for erasing the scattering/diffractive LTP in the films by joint low AC voltage, can be useful for EO applications in the field of process control and for detection of weak dynamic electric fields.

  13. The new science of sales force productivity.

    PubMed

    Ledingham, Dianne; Kovac, Mark; Simon, Heidi Locke

    2006-09-01

    For years, sales managers at many companies have relied on top performers and sheer numbers of sales reps to stay competitive. But while they may have squeaked by on this wing-and-a-prayer technique, their sales teams haven't thrived the way they once did. Today's most successful sales leaders are taking a more scientific approach. Savvy managers are reshaping their tactics in response to changing markets. They are reaching out to new customers in innovative ways. And they are increasing productivity by helping the reps they already have make the most of their skills and resources. Leaders who take a scientific approach to sales force effectiveness have learned to use four levers to boost their reps' productivity in a predictable and manageable way. First, they systematically target their firms' offerings, matching the right products with the right customers. Second, they optimize the automation, tools, and procedures at their disposal, providing reps with the support they need to boost sales.Third, they analyze and manage their reps' performance, measuring both internal processes and results to determine where their teams' strengths and weaknesses are. Fourth, they pay close attention to sales force deployment--how well sales, support, marketing, and delivery resources are matched to customers. These four levers can help sales leaders increase productivity across the board, the authors say, though they have the greatest impact on lower-ranked performers. The overall effect of increasing the average sales per employee can be exponential; it means a company won't have to rely on just a few talented individuals to stay competitive. This is especially important because finding and keeping star salespeople is more difficult than ever. What's more, managers who optimize the sales forces they already have can see returns they never thought possible. PMID:16967626

  14. Understanding Community Norms Surrounding Tobacco Sales

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. Methods We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Results Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Conclusion Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions. PMID:25180772

  15. 75 FR 51168 - Consumer Protections for Depository Institution Sales of Insurance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Consumer Protections for Depository Institution Sales of Insurance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comment. SUMMARY: The... Collection Comments, Chief Counsel's Office, Office of Thrift Supervision, 1700 G Street, NW., Washington,...

  16. 13 CFR 125.4 - What is the Government property sales assistance program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... businesses obtain their fair share of all Federal real and personal property qualifying for sale or other competitive disposal action; and (2) Assist small businesses in obtaining Federal property being processed for... are made to small businesses; and (2) Providing advice and assistance to small businesses on...

  17. 78 FR 60998 - Proposed Collection: Information Collection Surrounding the Sale and Issue of Marketable Book...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... of Marketable Book-Entry Securities ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department... Treasury is soliciting comments concerning the Sale and Issue of Marketable Book-Entry Securities. DATES... Marketable Book-Entry Securities. OMB Number: 1535-0112. Abstract: The information is requested to...

  18. 48 CFR 245.7307 - Non-competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-competitive sales. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7307 Non-competitive sales....

  19. 24 CFR 3286.605 - After sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false After sale. 3286.605 Section 3286.605 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued....605 After sale. (a) Tracking installation information. The retailer is responsible for providing...

  20. 7 CFR 1962.45 - Reporting sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Reporting sales. 1962.45 Section 1962.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... sales. Form FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 1955-3, “Advice of Property...

  1. 32 CFR 644.507 - Sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Sales. 644.507 Section 644.507 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.507 Sales. DEs...

  2. Advanced Selling: A Comprehensive Course Sales Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrington-Young, Susan; Castleberry, Stephen B.; Coleman, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive project for the Advanced Selling course that has been tested at three universities is introduced. After selecting an industry and a company, students engage in a complete industry analysis, a company sales analysis, a sales-specific SWOT analysis, complete a ride day with a salesperson in that firm, then present their findings in a…

  3. 43 CFR 5422.2 - Scale sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scale sales. 5422.2 Section 5422.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.2...

  4. 43 CFR 5422.2 - Scale sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scale sales. 5422.2 Section 5422.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.2...

  5. 43 CFR 5422.2 - Scale sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scale sales. 5422.2 Section 5422.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.2...

  6. 43 CFR 5422.2 - Scale sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scale sales. 5422.2 Section 5422.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.2...

  7. 15 CFR 904.505 - Summary sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Summary sale. 904.505 Section 904.505... and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.505 Summary sale. (a) In view of the perishable nature of fish, any... record indicate has an interest in the seized fish, unless the owner or consignee or other...

  8. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227 Section 223.227 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  9. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227 Section 223.227 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  10. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227 Section 223.227 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  11. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227 Section 223.227 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  12. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1...

  13. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1...

  14. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1...

  15. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1...

  16. Exchanging Skills in Sales and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodz, J.; Atkinson, J.; Perryman, S.

    A study of the changing nature of skill requirements in sales and marketing occupations in Great Britain included a review of literature and 17 interviews with key sales and marketing contacts and managers and human resource professionals in large companies during Autumn 1996 and Spring 1997. Results were reported in the following areas of study:…

  17. How to Measure Results of Sales Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahne, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the development of a training program for salespeople (trainees and managers) called Dimensional Sales Training (DST). It is noted that DST is designed to increase sales, build skills, and improve performance, while providing a systematic process of collecting data for measuring program effectiveness. (EM)

  18. 14 CFR 381.9 - Sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sales. 381.9 Section 381.9 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS SPECIAL EVENT TOURS § 381.9 Sales. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section: (1)...

  19. 14 CFR 381.9 - Sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales. 381.9 Section 381.9 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS SPECIAL EVENT TOURS § 381.9 Sales. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section: (1)...

  20. 14 CFR 381.9 - Sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sales. 381.9 Section 381.9 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS SPECIAL EVENT TOURS § 381.9 Sales. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section: (1)...

  1. 14 CFR 381.9 - Sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sales. 381.9 Section 381.9 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS SPECIAL EVENT TOURS § 381.9 Sales. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section: (1)...

  2. 14 CFR 381.9 - Sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sales. 381.9 Section 381.9 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS SPECIAL EVENT TOURS § 381.9 Sales. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section: (1)...

  3. 32 CFR 644.507 - Sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sales. 644.507 Section 644.507 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.507 Sales. DEs...

  4. 32 CFR 644.507 - Sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sales. 644.507 Section 644.507 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.507 Sales. DEs...

  5. 32 CFR 644.507 - Sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Sales. 644.507 Section 644.507 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.507 Sales. DEs...

  6. 32 CFR 644.507 - Sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Sales. 644.507 Section 644.507 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.507 Sales. DEs...

  7. 21 CFR 203.20 - Sales restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Sales Restrictions § 203.20 Sales restrictions. Except as provided in § 203.22 or... drug that was: (a) Purchased by a public or private hospital or other health care entity; or...

  8. “People over Profits”: Retailers Who Voluntarily Ended Tobacco Sales

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco retailers are key players in the ongoing tobacco epidemic. Tobacco outlet density is linked to a greater likelihood of youth and adult smoking and greater difficulty quitting. While public policy efforts to address the tobacco problem at the retail level have been limited, some retailers have voluntarily ended tobacco sales. A previous pilot study examined this phenomenon in California, a state with a strong tobacco program focused on denormalizing smoking and the tobacco industry. We sought to learn what motivated retailers in other states to end tobacco sales and how the public and media responded. Methods We conducted interviews with owners, managers, or representatives of six grocery stores in New York and Ohio that had voluntarily ended tobacco sales since 2007. We also conducted unobtrusive observations at stores and analyzed media coverage of each retailer’s decision. Results Grocery store owners ended tobacco sales for two reasons, alone or in combination: health or ethics-related, including a desire to send a consistent health message to employees and customers, and business-related, including declining tobacco sales or poor fit with the store’s image. The decision to end sales often appeared to resolve troubling contradictions between retailers’ values and selling deadly products. New York retailers attributed declining sales to high state tobacco taxes. All reported largely positive customer reactions and most received media coverage. Forty-one percent of news items were letters to the editor or editorials; most (69%) supported the decision. Conclusion Voluntary decisions by retailers to abandon tobacco sales may lay the groundwork for mandatory policies and further denormalize tobacco. Our study also suggests that high tobacco taxes may have both direct and indirect effects on tobacco use. Highlighting the contradictions between being a responsible business and selling deadly products may support voluntary decisions by retailers

  9. Plerocercoid growth factor (PGF), a human growth hormone (hGH) analogue produced by the tapeworm Spirometra mansonoides, has direct insulin-like action in adipose tissue of normal rats in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, M.A.M.; Phares, C.K.

    1986-03-01

    The metabolic actions of GH can be divided into acute (insulin-like) and chronic (lipolytic/anti-insulin). The insulin-like actions of GH are most readily elicited in GH-deficient animals as GH induces resistance to its own insulin-like action. Like GH, PGF stimulates growth and cross-reacts with anti-hGH antibodies. Independent experiments were conducted comparing the direct actions of PGF to insulin or hGH in vitro. Insulin-like effects were determined by the ability of PGF, insulin or hGH to stimulate (U-/sup 14/C)glucose metabolism in epidydimal fat pads from normal rats and by inhibition of epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis. Direct stimulation of lipolysis was used as anti-insulin activity. To determine if PGF competes for insulin or GH receptors, adipocytes (3 x 10/sup 5/ cells/ml) were incubated with either (/sup 125/I)insulin or (/sup 125/I)hGH +/- PGF, +/- insulin or +/- hGH. PGF stimulated glucose oxidation and /sup 14/C-incorporation into lipids. Insulin, hGH and PGF inhibited lipolysis (33%, 29% and 34%, respectively). Adipose tissue was very sensitive to the lipolytic effect of hGH but PGF was neither lipolytic nor did it confer refractoriness to its insulin-like action. PGF bound to GH but not to insulin receptors. Therefore, PGF had direct insulin-like effects but did not stimulate lipolysis in tissue from normal rats in vitro.

  10. Endogenous Versus Exogenous Shocks in Complex Networks: An Empirical Test Using Book Sale Rankings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, D.; Deschâtres, F.; Gilbert, T.; Ageon, Y.

    2004-11-01

    We study the precursory and recovery signatures accompanying shocks in complex networks, that we test on a unique database of the Amazon.com ranking of book sales. We find clear distinguishing signatures classifying two types of sales peaks. Exogenous peaks occur abruptly and are followed by a power law relaxation, while endogenous peaks occur after a progressively accelerating power law growth followed by an approximately symmetrical power law relaxation which is slower than for exogenous peaks. These results are rationalized quantitatively by a simple model of epidemic propagation of interactions with long memory within a network of acquaintances. The observed relaxation of sales implies that the sales dynamics is dominated by cascades rather than by the direct effects of news or advertisements, indicating that the social network is close to critical.

  11. Endogenous versus exogenous shocks in complex networks: an empirical test using book sale rankings.

    PubMed

    Sornette, D; Deschâtres, F; Gilbert, T; Ageon, Y

    2004-11-26

    We study the precursory and recovery signatures accompanying shocks in complex networks, that we test on a unique database of the Amazon.com ranking of book sales. We find clear distinguishing signatures classifying two types of sales peaks. Exogenous peaks occur abruptly and are followed by a power law relaxation, while endogenous peaks occur after a progressively accelerating power law growth followed by an approximately symmetrical power law relaxation which is slower than for exogenous peaks. These results are rationalized quantitatively by a simple model of epidemic propagation of interactions with long memory within a network of acquaintances. The observed relaxation of sales implies that the sales dynamics is dominated by cascades rather than by the direct effects of news or advertisements, indicating that the social network is close to critical. PMID:15601125

  12. Organ sales and moral distress.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Lopez, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The possibility that organ sales by living adults might be made legal is morally distressing to many of us. However, powerful arguments have been provided recently supporting legalisation (I consider two of those arguments: the Consequentialist Argument and the Autonomy Argument). Is our instinctive reaction against a market of organs irrational then? The aim of this paper is not to prove that legalization would be immoral, all things considered, but rather to show, first, that there are some kinds of arguments, offered in favour of legalisation, that are, in an important sense, illegitimate, and second, that even if legalisation might not be wrong all things considered, there are good reasons for our negative moral intuitions. Moreover, identifying these reasons will help highlight some features of moral decisions in non-ideal situations, which in turn might be relevant to some other moral or policy choices. PMID:16683325

  13. Gulf of Mexico Sales 147 and 150: Central and Western planning areas. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 1: Sections 1 through 4.C

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covers the proposed 1994 Gulf of Mexico OCS oil and gas lease sales [Central Gulf of Mexico Sale 147 (March 1994) and Western Gulf of Mexico Sale 150 (August 1994)]. This document includes the purpose and background of the proposed actions, the alternatives, the descriptions of the affected environment, and the potential environmental impacts of the proposed actions and alternatives. Proposed mitigating measures and their effects are analyzed, in addition to potential cumulative impacts resulting from proposed activities.

  14. Direct and remote modulation of L-channels in chromaffin cells: distinct actions on alpha1C and alpha1D subunits?

    PubMed

    Baldelli, Pietro; Hernández-Guijo, Jesus Miguel; Carabelli, Valentina; Novara, Monica; Cesetti, Tiziana; Andrés-Mateos, Eva; Montiel, Carmen; Carbone, Emilio

    2004-02-01

    Understanding precisely the functioning of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and their modulation by signaling molecules will help clarifying the Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms controlling exocytosis in chromaffin cells. In recent years, we have learned more about the various pathways through which Ca2+ channels can be up- or down-modulated by hormones and neurotransmitters and how these changes may condition chromaffin cell activity and catecolamine release. Recently, the attention has been focused on the modulation of L-channels (CaV 1), which represent the major Ca2+ current component in rat and human chromaffin cells. L-channels are effectively inhibited by the released content of secretory granules or by applying mixtures of exogenous ATP, opioids, and adrenaline through the activation of receptor-coupled G proteins. This unusual inhibition persists in a wide range of potentials and results from a direct (membrane-delimited) interaction of G protein subunits with the L-channels co-localized in membrane microareas. Inhibition of L-channels can be reversed when the cAMP/PKA pathway is activated by membrane permeable cAMP analog or when cells are exposed to isoprenaline (remote action), suggesting the existence of parallel and opposite effects on L-channel gating by distinctly activated membrane autoreceptors. Here, the authors review the molecular components underlying these two opposing signaling pathways and present new evidence supporting the presence of two L-channel types in rat chromaffin cells (alpha1C and alpha1D), which open new interesting issues concerning Ca(2+)-channel modulation. In light of recent findings on the regulation of exocytosis by Ca(2+)-channel modulation, the authors explore the possible role of L-channels in the autocontrol of catecholamine release. PMID:15034224

  15. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 4, Comments and Responses.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) contains public comments addressing the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Draft EIS, August 1990 and Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) responses. The Introduction provides information about the process BPA follows in addressing these comments. Part I contains a listing of the Alternative Actions evaluated in the Final EIS; Part II is organized by Alternatives and includes summaries of the comments and BPA responses; Part III provides copies of the original comments letters, and, for ease of identification, are coded in the margins according to the alternative(s) addressed.

  16. Fire Sale Loophole Closing Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Meng, Grace [D-NY-6

    2013-01-14

    01/25/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Fire Sale Loophole Closing Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Cicilline, David N. [D-RI-1

    2013-01-03

    01/25/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Electric sales and revenue 1992, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-20

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1992. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the applicable revenue from kilowatthours sold; revenue from income; unemployment and other State and local taxes; energy, demand, and consumer service charges; environmental surcharges; franchise fees; fuel adjustments; and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  19. Electric sales and revenue, 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-21

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenues, and average revenue. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1990. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the revenue billed for the amount of kilowatthours sold, revenue from income, unemployment and other State and local taxes, energy or demand charges, consumer services charges, environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  20. Ending the war between Sales & Marketing.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Philip; Rackham, Neil; Krishnaswamy, Suj

    2006-01-01

    Sales departments tend to believe that marketers are out of touch with what's really going on in the marketplace. Marketing people, in turn, believe the sales force is myopic--too focused on individual customer experiences, insufficiently aware of the larger market, and blind to the future. In short, each group undervalues the other's contributions. Both stumble (and organizational performance suffers) when they are out of sync. Yet few firms seem to make serious overtures toward analyzing and enhancing the relationship between these two critical functions. Curious about the misalignment between Sales and Marketing, the authors interviewed pairs of chief marketing officers and sales vice presidents to capture their perspectives. They looked in depth at the relationship between Sales and Marketing in a variety of companies in different industries. Their goal was to identify best practices that could enhance the joint performance and increase the contributions of these two functions. Among their findings: The marketing function takes different forms in different companies at different product life cycle stages. Marketing's increasing influence in each phase of an organization's growth profoundly affects its relationship with Sales. The strains between Sales and Marketing fall into two main categories: economic (a single budget is typically divided, between Sales and Marketing, and not always evenly) and cultural (the two functions attract very different types of people who achieve success by spending their time in very different ways). In this article, the authors describe the four types of relationships Sales and Marketing typically exhibit. They provide a diagnostic to help readers assess their companies' level of integration, and they offer recommendations for more closely aligning the two functions. PMID:16846190