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Sample records for action document bacillus

  1. 22 CFR 213.11 - Aggressive collection actions; documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aggressive collection actions; documentation... Collection § 213.11 Aggressive collection actions; documentation. (a) USAID takes actions and effective... compromise, termination or suspension of collection actions is set out in detail. This...

  2. 40 CFR 13.10 - Aggressive collection actions; documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; documentation. 13.10 Section 13.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Collection § 13.10 Aggressive collection actions; documentation. (a) EPA takes actions... documentation, including the Claims Collection Litigation Report required § 13.33, is retained in...

  3. Mode of action of mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis toxins.

    PubMed

    Soberón, Mario; Fernández, Luisa E; Pérez, Claudia; Gill, Sarjeet S; Bravo, Alejandra

    2007-04-01

    Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used for insect control. Their primary action is to lyse midgut epithelial cells. In lepidopteran insects, Cry1A monomeric toxins interact with a first receptor and this interaction triggers toxin oligomerization. The oligomeric structure interacts then with a second GPI-anchored receptor that induces insertion into membrane microdomains and larvae death. In the case of mosquitocidal Bt strains, two different toxins participate, Cry and Cyt. These toxins have a synergistic effect and Cyt1Aa overcomes Cry toxin-resistance. We will summarize recent findings on the identification of Cry receptors in mosquitoes and the mechanism of synergism: Cyt1Aa synergizes or suppresses resistance to Cry toxins by functioning as a Cry membrane-bound receptor.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 340: Pesticide Release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-12-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 340, the NTS Pesticide Release Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 340 is located at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites: 23-21-01, Area 23 Quonset Hut 800 Pesticide Release Ditch; 23-18-03, Area 23 Skid Huts Pesticide Storage; and 15-18-02, Area 15 Quonset Hut 15-11 Pesticide Storage. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site. The scope of this Corrective Action Decision Document consists of the following tasks: Develop corrective action objectives; Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; Develop corrective action alternatives; Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site.

  5. Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Quality Assurance Requirements Document

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, R.F.

    1991-09-01

    The Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Quality Assurance Requirements Document defines the quality assurance program requirements for the US Department of Energy-Richland Field Office Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program at the Hanford Site. This paper describes the objectives outlined in DOE/RL 90-28. The Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program implements significant commitments made by the US Department of Energy in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into with the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Environmental Protection Agency. 18 refs.

  6. Defense Partnerships: Documenting Trends and Emerging Topics for Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    that have not yet been established, approved, or tested on an enterprise scale. While P4 is not a new concept, it has never received as much attention ...as it does today as a tool or technique to accomplish DOD missions. More Defense Partnerships: Documenting Trends and Emerging Topics for Action...importance of effective screening techniques and the use of discretion when ana- lyzing potential P4 projects and determining their ideal structure

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-05-26

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Nevada Test Site's Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit (Corrective Action Unit 342) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 342 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 23-56-01. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for Corrective Action Unit 342. The scope of this document consists of the following: Develop corrective action objectives; Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; Develop corrective action alternatives; Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for the Corrective Action Unit.

  8. Documents Pertaining to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Event Codes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Document containing RCRA Corrective Action event codes and definitions, including national requirements, initiating sources, dates, and guidance, from the first facility assessment until the Corrective Action is terminated.

  9. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document: Final. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designed sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project. Since its inception through March 1996, the Surface Project (hereinafter called the Project) has cleaned up 16 of the 24 designated processing sites and approximately 5,000 VPs, reducing the risk to human health and the environment posed by the uranium mill tailings. Two of the 24 sites, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, will not be remediated at the request of the state, reducing the total number of sites to 22. By the start of FY1998, the remaining 6 processing sites and associated VPs will be cleaned up. The remedial action activities to be funded in FY1998 by the FY1998 budget request are remediation of the remaining Grand Junction, Colorado, VPs; closure of the Cheney disposal cell in Grand Junction, Colorado; and preparation of the completion reports for 4 completed sites.

  10. Functional genomic approaches for understanding the mode of action of Bacillus sp biocontrol strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete genome sequencing of several Bacillus sp. strains has shed new light on the mode of action of these antagonists of plant pathogens. The use of genomic data mining tools provided the ability to quickly determine the potential of these strains to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Our B...

  11. 47 CFR 0.422 - Current action documents and public notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current action documents and public notices. 0.422 Section 0.422 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General Information Forms and Documents Available Upon Request § 0.422 Current action documents and...

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-02

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  13. Pupils' Documentation Enlightening Teachers' Practical Theory and Pedagogical Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Reetta; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Lipponen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a pedagogical action research initiative comprising two research cycles. The study explores what constitutes meaningful experiences in the classroom from the pupils' perspectives and how understanding pupils' perspectives can foster the development of teachers' practical theory and classroom actions. Photography and group…

  14. Corrective action decision document, Second Gas Station, Tonopah test range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 403) has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-0360 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. The Second Gas Station CAS was formerly known as the Underground Diesel Tank Site, Sandia Environmental Restoration Site Number 118. The gas station was in use from approximately 1965 to 1980. The USTs were originally thought to be located 11 meters (m) (36 feet [ft]) east of the Old Light Duty Shop, Building 0360, and consisted of one gasoline UST (southern tank) and one diesel UST (northern tank) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The two associated fuel dispensary stations were located northeast (diesel) and southeast (gasoline) of Building 0360 (CAU 423). Presently the site is used as a parking lot, Building 0360 is used for mechanical repairs of vehicles.

  15. Richland Environmental Restoration Project management action process document

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This document is the prescribed means for providing direct input to the US Department of Energy Headquarters regarding the status, accomplishments, strategy, and issues of the Richland Environmental Restoration Project. The project mission, organizational interfaces, and operational history of the Hanford Site are provided. Remediation strategies are analyzed in detail. The document includes a status of Richland Environmental Restoration project activities and accomplishments, and it presents current cost summaries, schedules, and technical baselines.

  16. [50 years ago: documentation concerning Bernburg's "euthanasia"-action program].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1990-07-15

    50 years ago within a so-called "euthanasia" action programme several killing institutions were founded, in which nearly 100,000 patients suffering from mental diseases were brought to death. At the instance of the Bernburg mental hospital the involvements of the political psychiatry and the murdering mechanism are described.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 567: Miscellaneous Soil Sites - Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 567: Miscellaneous Soil Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 567 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. The corrective actions implemented at CAU 567 were developed based on an evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, the assumed presence of COCs at specific locations, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the CAAs. The CAAs were selected on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. The implemented corrective actions meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. The CAAs meet all applicable federal and state regulations for closure of the site. Based on the implementation of these corrective actions, the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office provides the following recommendations: • No further corrective actions are necessary for CAU 567. • The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection issue a Notice of Completion to the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office for closure of CAU 567. • CAU 567 be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the FFACO.

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  19. 77 FR 63355 - Proposed Revision to Emergency Action Level Development Guidance Document

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... revision to the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) 99-01, proposed Revision 6, ``Development of Emergency... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Proposed Revision to Emergency Action Level Development Guidance Document AGENCY:...

  20. An Action-Based Fine-Grained Access Control Mechanism for Structured Documents and Its Application

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mang; Li, Fenghua; Tang, Zhi; Yu, Yinyan; Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an action-based fine-grained access control mechanism for structured documents. Firstly, we define a describing model for structured documents and analyze the application scenarios. The describing model could support the permission management on chapters, pages, sections, words, and pictures of structured documents. Secondly, based on the action-based access control (ABAC) model, we propose a fine-grained control protocol for structured documents by introducing temporal state and environmental state. The protocol covering different stages from document creation, to permission specification and usage control are given by using the Z-notation. Finally, we give the implementation of our mechanism and make the comparisons between the existing methods and our mechanism. The result shows that our mechanism could provide the better solution of fine-grained access control for structured documents in complicated networks. Moreover, it is more flexible and practical. PMID:25136651

  1. Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario

    2007-03-15

    Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal (Cry) and Cytolitic (Cyt) protein families are a diverse group of proteins with activity against insects of different orders--Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and also against other invertebrates such as nematodes. Their primary action is to lyse midgut epithelial cells by inserting into the target membrane and forming pores. Among this group of proteins, members of the 3-Domain Cry family are used worldwide for insect control, and their mode of action has been characterized in some detail. Phylogenetic analyses established that the diversity of the 3-Domain Cry family evolved by the independent evolution of the three domains and by swapping of domain III among toxins. Like other pore-forming toxins (PFT) that affect mammals, Cry toxins interact with specific receptors located on the host cell surface and are activated by host proteases following receptor binding resulting in the formation of a pre-pore oligomeric structure that is insertion competent. In contrast, Cyt toxins directly interact with membrane lipids and insert into the membrane. Recent evidence suggests that Cyt synergize or overcome resistance to mosquitocidal-Cry proteins by functioning as a Cry-membrane bound receptor. In this review we summarize recent findings on the mode of action of Cry and Cyt toxins, and compare them to the mode of action of other bacterial PFT. Also, we discuss their use in the control of agricultural insect pests and insect vectors of human diseases.

  2. A nucleoside triphosphate-dependent deoxyribonuclease from Bacillus laterosporus. The mode of action of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Anai, M; Yamanaka, M; Shibata, T; Mihara, T; Nishimoto, T

    1975-07-01

    The acid-soluble products of exhaustive digestion of native DNA with Bacillus laterosporus DNase consist of 6.5% of mononucleotides and 93.5% of oligonucleotides with an average chain length of 3.2. The results of viscometric studies and inactivation of transforming DNA indicate the existence of acid-insoluble intermediates and the selective degradation of the population of substrate molecules rather than a random nucleolytic action. Furthermore, sucrose density gradient analysis of partially digested DNA showed that the initial DNA added as a substrate disappeared progressively during the reaction, being replaced by much more slowly sedimenting acid-insoluble materials, which were eventually degraded into acid-soluble end products during the reaction; products intermediate in size between these two components were not detectable. Studies with DNA labeled at the 3'-terminus indicate that Bacillus laterosporus DNase does not attack DNA from 3'-hydroxyl ends to yeild acid-soluble or acid-insoluble materials in a random manner. The results presented in this paper indicate that the nature of the attack of B. laterosporus nuclease is similar to that previously proposed for Micrococcus luteus DNase. The possibility of the sequential release of acid-insoluble intermediate fragments as well as acid-soluble products from the terminal portion of DNA by the enzyme is discussed.

  3. Characterization and mechanism of action of cerein 7, a bacteriocin produced by Bacillus cereus Bc7.

    PubMed

    Oscáriz, J C; Pisabarro, A G

    2000-08-01

    Cerein 7 is a peptidic antibiotic produced by Bacillus cereus Bc7 (CECT 5148) at the end of exponential growth but before sporulation onset. Cerein 7 has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, but it is inactive against Gram-negative bacteria. The sequence of its amino-terminal end and its characteristics of hydrophobicity and molecular mass make cerein 7 unique among the bacteriocins produced by the soil bacterium B. cereus. In this paper a further characterization of cerein 7 is presented, it is shown that it can be classified as a Klaenhammer's class II bacteriocin and that its mode of action corresponds to that of a membrane-active compound.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-12-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 232 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 232. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the July 1999 corrective action investigation (CAI) activities disclosed no evidence of contamination at the site. Contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) addressed during the CAI included total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, total herbicides, total petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel/oil range), polychlorinated biphenyls, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and gamma-emitting radionuclides. The data confirmed that none of the COPCs identified exceeded preliminary action levels outlined in the CAIP; therefore, no corrective actions were necessary for CAU 232. After the CAI, best management practice activities were completed and included installation of a fence and signs to limit access to the lagoons, cementing Manhole No. 2 and the diverter box, and closing off influent and effluent ends of the sewage lagoon piping. As a result of the CAI, the DOE/NV recommended that: (1) no further actions were required; (2) no Corrective Action Plan would be required; and (3) no use restrictions were required to be placed on the CAU.

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's corrective action alternative recommendation for each of the corrective action sites (CASs) within Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. An evaluation of analytical data from the corrective action investigation, review of current and future operations at each CAS, and a detailed comparative analysis of potential corrective action alternatives were used to determine the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. There are six CASs in CAU 204, which are all located between Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 on the NTS. The No Further Action alternative was recommended for CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, and 05-99-02; and a Closure in Place with Administrative Controls recommendation was the preferred corrective action for CASs 05-18-02 and 05-33-01. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 204.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Contamination, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 of the NTS, CAU 528 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination. Corrective Action Unit 528 was created to address the presence of PCBs around the Test Cell C concrete pad. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 24, 2003, through January 8, 2004. The PCBs and total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics were identified as contaminants of concern in the surface and shallow subsurface soils in 12 areas (Areas 1 through 12) at CAS 25-27-03. Based on the review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS, the following alternatives have been developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. The three corrective action alternatives were evaluated on their technical merits, focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, and safety. Alternative 3 is the preferred corrective action for CAS 25-27-03. The selected alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated for closure of the sites and additionally to minimize potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 528.

  7. Sonodynamic action of curcumin on foodborne bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinna; Ip, Margaret; Leung, Albert Wingnang; Yang, Zhengrong; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Baoting; Ip, Siupo; Xu, Chuanshan

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial contamination is an important cause of foodborne diseases. The present study aimed to investigate sonodynamic action of curcumin on foodborne bacteria Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The uptake of curcumin was measured for optimizing the concentration incubation time before ultrasound sonication, and colony forming units (CFU) were counted after ultrasound treatment. The chromosomal DNA fragmentation of bacteria was analyzed and the effect of hypoxic condition on the antibacterial efficacy of sonodynamic action of curcumin was also assessed in this study. The results showed that the maximum uptake of curcumin in B. cereus and E. coli occurred in 50min after curcumin incubation. Curcumin had sonodynamic bactericidal activity in a curcumin dose-dependent manner, and 5.6-log reduction in CFU of B. cereus was observed after curcumin treatment (2.0μM), however, only 2-log reduction in CFU of E. coli after 40μM curcumin treatment. No significant change in chromosomal DNA was found after the combined treatment of curcumin and ultrasound. The survival of B. cereus and E. coli after sonodynamic treatment in hypoxic group was significantly higher than that in normal oxygen group. These findings indicated that sonodynamic action of curcumin had significant inactivation effect on foodborne bacteria, and B. cereus was more sensitive to sonodynamic treatment of curcumin than E. coli. Sonodynamic antibacterial activity of curcumin might be dependent on the oxygen environment.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-02-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563, Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended January 2007). The corrective action sites (CASs) for CAU 563 are located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and are comprised of the following four sites: •03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank •03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool •12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks •12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the four CASs within CAU 563. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 17 through November 19, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 563 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2007). Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the contaminants of concern (COCs) for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at one of the four CASs in CAU 563 and required the evaluation of CAAs. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 563 revealed the following: •CASs 03-04-02, 03-59-05, and 12-60-01 do not contain contamination at concentrations exceeding the FALs. •CAS 12-59-01 contains arsenic and chromium contamination above FALs in surface and near-surface soils surrounding a stained location within the site. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations at CAS 12-59-01, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following corrective actions are recommended for CAU 563.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 383: Area E-Tunnel Sites, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 383, Area 12 E-Tunnel Sites, which is the joint responsibility of DTRA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 383 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and two adjacent areas: • CAS 12-06-06, Muckpile • CAS 12-25-02, Oil Spill • CAS 12-28-02, Radioactive Material • Drainage below the Muckpile • Ponds 1, 2, and 3 The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation to support the recommendation for closure with no further corrective action, by placing use restrictions at the three CASs and two adjacent areas of CAU 383.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-16

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Offices's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This corrective action investigation was conducted in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 240 as developed under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 240 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02, Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03, Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). In March 1999, the corrective action investigation was performed to detect and evaluate analyte concentrations against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified at CAS 25-07-01 or CAS 25-07-03; therefore, there was no need for corrective action at these two CASs. At CAS 25-07-02, diesel-range organics and radionuclide concentrations in soil samples from F and J Roads Pad exceeded PALs. Based on this result, potential CAAs were identified and evaluated to ensure worker, public, and environmental protection against potential exposure to COCs in accordance with Nevada Administrative Code 445A. Following a review of potential exposure pathways, existing data, and future and current operations in Area 25, two CAAs were identified for CAU 240 (CAS 25-07-02): Alternative 1 - No Further Action and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. Alternative 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, as well as minimizing potential future exposure

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-28

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 on the NTS, CAU 516 includes six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) consisting of two septic systems, a sump and piping, a clean-out box and piping, dry wells, and a vehicle decontamination area. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from July 22 through August 14, 2003, with supplemental sampling conducted in late 2003 and early 2004. The potential exposure pathways for any contaminants of concern (COCs) identified during the development of the DQOs at CAU 516 gave rise to the following objectives: (1) prevent or mitigate exposure to media containing COCs at concentrations exceeding PALs as defined in the corrective action investigation plan; and (2) prevent the spread of COCs beyond each CAS. The following alternatives have been developed for consideration at CAU 516: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 1, No Further Action, is the preferred corrective action for two CASs (06-51-02 and 22-19-04). Alternative 2, Clean Closure, is the preferred corrective action for four CASs (03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03). The selected alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, as well as meeting all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will further eliminate the contaminated media at CAU 516.

  12. Essential Communication and Documentation Skills. Module: Final Assessment and Action Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Muriel; And Others

    This module is the 10th of 10 in the Essential Communication and Documentation Skills curriculum. It develops final assessment and action planning, workplace literacy skills identified as being directly related to the job of the direct care worker. The curriculum is designed to improve the competence of New York State Division for Youth direct…

  13. Shemya Air Force Base, Alaska No Further Action Decision document for Hg-1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-05

    This document is being prepared to document that a No Further Action Decision (NFAD) document is appropriate for the Hg-1 site at Shemya Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The IRP is a Department of Defense (DOD) program established to identify and remediate hazardous waste problems on DOD property that result from past practices. The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) draft document {open_quotes}No Further Action Criteria for DOD Military/FUD Sites{close_quotes} has been used as a guide in preparing this document. Air Force personnel have stated that the Hg-1 site may have been used to store mercury and PCB-contaminated material. The site was added to the IRP in 1987, and later that year a field investigation was conducted at the site. Soil samples were collected and analyzed for mercury, EP toxicity, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxin. All concentrations of contaminants found in Area Hg-1 are below regulatory action levels for PCBs (40 CFR 761) and mercury (55 FR 30798) or below detection levels for dioxin/furans. Therefore, leaving these soils in place is acceptable.

  14. Shemya Air Force Base, Alaska No Further Action Decision document for Hg-1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-05

    This document is being prepared to document that a No Further Action Decision (NFAD) document is appropriate for the Hg-1 site at Shemya Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The IRP is a Department of Defense (DOD) program established to identify and remediate hazardous waste problems on DOD property that result from past practices. The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) draft document [open quotes]No Further Action Criteria for DOD Military/FUD Sites[close quotes] has been used as a guide in preparing this document. Air Force personnel have stated that the Hg-1 site may have been used to store mercury and PCB-contaminated material. The site was added to the IRP in 1987, and later that year a field investigation was conducted at the site. Soil samples were collected and analyzed for mercury, EP toxicity, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxin. All concentrations of contaminants found in Area Hg-1 are below regulatory action levels for PCBs (40 CFR 761) and mercury (55 FR 30798) or below detection levels for dioxin/furans. Therefore, leaving these soils in place is acceptable.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Evans

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the subsurface at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443, CNTA - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). CAU 443 is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, north of U.S. Highway 6, about 48 kilometers north of Warm Springs, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the corrective action plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for the UC-1 Cavity (Corrective Action Site 58-57-001) at CAU 443, as provided in the FFACO. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. A Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) was performed in several stages from 1999 to 2003, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Sites (Corrective Action Unit No. 443)'' (DOE/NV, 1999). Groundwater modeling was the primary activity of the CAI. Three phases of modeling were conducted for the Faultless underground nuclear test. The first involved the gathering and interpretation of geologic and hydrogeologic data into a three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow, and use of the output of the flow model for a transport model of radionuclide release

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 370: T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2009-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 370, T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, located in Area 4 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 370 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 04-23-01, Atmospheric Test Site T-4. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 370 due to the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from June 25, 2008, through April 2, 2009, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 370: T-4 Atmospheric Test Site and Record of Technical Change No. 1.

  17. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-05-18

    This document is an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, DOE/NV-582-Rev. 0. This addendum provides the requested documentation that supports the assertion that contamination above levels of concern does not exist in the abandoned sewer lines. This addendum summarizes the results of the manhole investigation conducted during March 2000. Results of the manhole investigation indicate that no changes to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report are necessary and all other sections of the document shall remain unchanged.

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 504: 16a-Tunnel Muckpile, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 504, 16a-Tunnel Muckpile. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 504 is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): • 16-06-01, Muckpile • 16-23-01, Contaminated Burial Pit • 16-23-02, Contaminated Area • 16-99-01, Concrete Construction Waste Corrective Action Site 16-23-01 is not a burial pit; it is part of CAS 16-06-01. Therefore, there is not a separate data analysis and assessment for CAS 16-23-01; it is included as part of the assessment for CAS 16-06-01. In addition to these CASs, the channel between CAS 16-23-02 (Contaminated Area) and Mid Valley Road was investigated with walk-over radiological surveys and soil sampling using hand tools. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 504. A CADD was originally submitted for CAU 504 and approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). However, following an agreement between NDEP, DTRA, and the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office to change to a risk-based approach for assessing the corrective action investigation (CAI) data, NDEP agreed that the CAU could be re-evaluated using the risk-based approach and a CADD/CR prepared to close the site.

  19. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 34: Area 3 Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the April 2002, Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 34: Area 3 Contaminated Waste Sites as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications.

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krause

    2010-08-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) presents information supporting the selection of corrective action alternatives (CAAs) leading to the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 562 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 02-26-11, Lead Shot • 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain • 02-59-01, Septic System • 02-60-01, Concrete Drain • 02-60-02, French Drain • 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain • 02-60-04, French Drain • 02-60-05, French Drain • 02-60-06, French Drain • 02-60-07, French Drain • 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall • 23-99-06, Grease Trap • 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of CAAs for the 13 CASs within CAU 562. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 27, 2009, through May 12, 2010, as set forth in the CAU 562 Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: • Determine whether COCs are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. A data quality assessment (DQA) performed on the CAU 562 data demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the data for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the COCs for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at 10 of the 13 CASs in CAU 562, and thus corrective

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document, Area 15 Environmental Protection Agency Farm Laboratory Building, Corrective Action Unit No. 95, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-18

    This report is the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, Laboratory Building (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 95), at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The scope of this CADD is to identify and evaluate potential corrective action alternatives for the decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) of the Laboratory Building, which were selected based on the results of investigative activities. Based on this evaluation, a preferred corrective action alternative is recommended. Studies were conducted at the EPA Farm from 1963 to 1981 to determine the animal intake and retention of radionuclides. The main building, the Laboratory Building, has approximately 370 square meters (4,000 square feet) of operational space. Other CAUS at the EPA Farm facility that will be investigated and/or remediated through other environmental restoration subprojects are not included in this CADD, with the exception of housekeeping sites. Associated structures that do not require classification as CAUS are considered in the evaluation of corrective action alternatives for CAU 95.

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area, Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1999-07-12

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 486, Double Tracks Radiological Safety (RADSAFE) Area (DTRSA) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CADD provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend a preferred corrective action for the single Corrective Action Site (CAS), 71-23-001-71DT, within CAU 486. Corrective Action Unit 486 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range 71 North, west of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The TTR, located in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 140 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The DTRSA is located on the west side of the Cactus Range approximately 5 mi southwest of the Cactus Spring gate at the intersection of the Cactus Spring Road and the Double Tracks Control Point Road (Figure 1-2).

  3. Current models of the mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Vachon, Vincent; Laprade, Raynald; Schwartz, Jean-Louis

    2012-09-15

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins constitute the active ingredient in the most widely used biological insecticides and insect-resistant transgenic crops. A clear understanding of their mode of action is necessary for improving these products and ensuring their continued use. Accordingly, a long history of intensive research has established that their toxic effect is due primarily to their ability to form pores in the plasma membrane of the midgut epithelial cells of susceptible insects. In recent years, a rather elaborate model involving the sequential binding of the toxins to different membrane receptors has been developed to describe the events leading to membrane insertion and pore formation. However, it was also proposed recently that, in contradiction with this mechanism, Bt toxins function by activating certain intracellular signaling pathways which lead to the necrotic death of their target cells without the need for pore formation. Because work in this field has largely focused, for several years, on the elaboration and promotion of these two models, the present revue examines in detail the experimental evidence on which they are based. It is concluded that the presently available information still supports the notion that Bt Cry toxins act by forming pores, but most events leading to their formation, following binding of the activated toxins to their receptors, remain relatively poorly understood.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 105 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 22, 2012, through May 23, 2013, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices.

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  6. Documentation of a model action plan to deter illicit nuclear trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. K.; Kristo, M. J.; Niemeyer, S.; Dudder, Gordon B.

    2008-05-04

    Theft, illegal possession, smuggling, or attempted unathorized sale of nuclear and radiological materials remains a worldwide problem. The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) has adopted a model action plan to guide investigation of these cases through a systematic approach to nuclear forensics. The model action plan was recently documented and provides recommendations concerning incident response, collection of evidence in conformance with required legal standards, laboratory sampling and distribution of samples, radioactive materials analysis, including categorization and characterization of samples, forensics analysis of conventional evidence, and case development including interpretation of forensic signatures.

  7. Documentation of a Model Action Plan to Deter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D; Kristo, M; Niemeyer, S; Dudder, G

    2006-07-28

    Theft, illegal possession, smuggling, or attempted unauthorized sale of nuclear and radiological materials remains a worldwide problem. The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) has adopted a model action plan to guide investigation of these cases through a systematic approach to nuclear forensics. The model action plan was recently documented and provides recommendations concerning incident response, collection of evidence in conformance with required legal standards, laboratory sampling and distribution of samples, radioactive materials analysis, including categorization and characterization of samples, forensics analysis of conventional evidence, and case development including interpretation of forensic signatures.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 3 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Echelard

    2006-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Project Shoal Area (PSA)-Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 447 is located in the Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County, Nevada, approximately 48 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for CAU 447, as provided in the FFACO. Corrective Action Unit 447 consists of two corrective action sites (CASs): CAS 57-49-01, Emplacement Shaft, and CAS 57-57-001, Cavity. The emplacement shaft (CAS-57-49-01) was backfilled and plugged in 1996 and will not be evaluated further. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at PSA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives. (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. (3) Develop corrective action alternatives. (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at PSA. The original Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for the PSA was approved in September 1996 and described a plan to drill and test four characterization wells, followed by flow and transport modeling (DOE/NV, 1996). The resultant drilling is described in a data report (DOE/NV, 1998e) and the data analysis and modeling in an interim modeling report (Pohll et al., 1998). After considering the results of the modeling effort, the U.S. Department

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-12-23

    This corrective action decision document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks, referred to as the Engine, Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault; 25-02-03, Underground Electrical Vault, referred to as the Deluge Valve Pit at the Test Cell A Facility; and 25-02-10, Underground Storage Tank, referred to as the former location of an aboveground storage tank for demineralized water at the Test Cell A Facility. Two of these CASs (25-02-03 and 25-02-10) were originally considered as underground storage tanks, but were found to be misidentified. Further, radio logical surveys conducted by Bechtel Nevada in January 1999 found no radiological contamination detected above background levels for these two sites; therefore, the closure report for CAU 135 will recommend no further action at these two sites. A corrective action investigation for the one remaining CAS (25-02-01) was conducted in June 1999, and analytes detected during this investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels. It was determined that contaminants of potential concern included polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Two corrective action objectives were identified for this CAS (i.e., prevention and mitigation of human exposure to sediments and surrounding areas), and subsequently two CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, and

  10. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT/CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 527: HORN SILVER MINE, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADDKR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 527: Horn Silver Mine, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996). Corrective Action Unit 527 is located within Area 26 of the NTS and consists of CAS 26-20-01, Contaminated Waste Dump No.1. This CADDKR refers to the site as CAU 527 or the Horn Silver Mine (HSM). This CADDKR provides or references the specific information necessary to support the closure of this CAU. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from November 12,2003 through January 21,2004. Additional sampling of liquid obtained from HSM-3 was conducted on May 3,2004. Corrective action investigation activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 527 (NNSAiNV, 2002a). Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities identified the explosive nitrobenzene as a contaminant of concern (COC) on the floor of the 500-foot drift (HSM No.2). No other COCs were identified in the rock samples collected during the investigation activities. The air samples collected from borings HSM-1, HSM-2, and HSM-3 showed volatile organic compounds (primarily gasoline-related contaminants) to be present above the acceptable residential exposure criteria in the boreholes. A conservative modeling effort demonstrated that these concentrations would not migrate to the surface at concentrations that will present an unacceptable risk to future land users. However, other COCs are assumed to exist based on historical documentation on the types of waste placed in the shaft; therefore, the mine including the 300- and 500-foot drifts is considered to be contaminated above action levels. Current results of the field investigation show there are no active transport mechanisms or exposure routes for the contaminants identified in the 500-foot drift. The analytical data did

  11. Action of antimicrobial substances produced by different oil reservoir Bacillus strains against biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Korenblum, E; Sebastián, G V; Paiva, M M; Coutinho, C M L M; Magalhães, F C M; Peyton, B M; Seldin, L

    2008-05-01

    Microbial colonization of petroleum industry systems takes place through the formation of biofilms, and can result in biodeterioration of the metal surfaces. In a previous study, two oil reservoir Bacillus strains (Bacillus licheniformis T6-5 and Bacillus firmus H(2)O-1) were shown to produce antimicrobial substances (AMS) active against different Bacillus strains and a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on solid medium. However, neither their ability to form biofilms nor the effect of the AMS on biofilm formation was adequately addressed. Therefore, here, we report that three Bacillus strains (Bacillus pumilus LF4 -- used as an indicator strain, B. licheniformis T6-5, and B. firmus H(2)O-1), and an oil reservoir SRB consortium (T6lab) were grown as biofilms on glass surfaces. The AMS produced by strains T6-5 and H(2)O-1 prevented the formation of B. pumilus LF4 biofilm and also eliminated pre-established LF4 biofilm. In addition, the presence of AMS produced by H(2)O-1 reduced the viability and attachment of the SRB consortium biofilm by an order of magnitude. Our results suggest that the AMS produced by Bacillus strains T6-5 and H(2)O-1 may have a potential for pipeline-cleaning technologies to inhibit biofilm formation and consequently reduce biocorrosion.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 571: Area 9 Yucca Flat Plutonium Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide documentation and justification that no further corrective action is needed for the closure of CAU 571 based on the implementation of corrective actions. This includes a description of investigation activities, an evaluation of the data, and a description of corrective actions that were performed. The CAIP provides information relating to the scope and planning of the investigation. Therefore, that information will not be repeated in this document.

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis: mechanism of action, resistance, and new applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Melo, André Luiz de Almeida; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Since the first report by Ishiwata in 1902 of a Bombyx mori infection, followed by the description by Berliner, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become the main microorganism used in biological control. The application of Bt to combat invertebrates of human interest gained momentum with the growing demand for food free of chemical pesticides and with the implementation of agriculture methods that were less damaging to the environment. However, the mechanisms of action of these products have not been fully elucidated. There are two proposed models: the first is that Bt causes an osmotic imbalance in response to the formation of pores in a cell membrane, and the second is that it causes an opening of ion channels that activate the process of cell death. There are various ways in which Bt resistance can develop: changes in the receptors that do not recognize the Cry toxin, the synthesis of membrane transporters that eliminate the peptides from the cytosol and the development of regulatory mechanisms that disrupt the production of toxin receptors. Besides the potential for formulation of biopesticides and the use in developing genetically modified cultivars, recent studies with Bt have discussed promising applications in other branches of science. Chitinase, an enzyme that degrades chitin, increases the efficiency of Bt insecticides, and there has been of increasing interest in the industry, given that its substrate is extremely abundant in nature. Another promising field is the potential for Bt proteins to act against cancer cells. Parasporins, toxins of Bt that do not have an entomopathogenic effect, have a cytotoxic effect on the cells changed by some cancers. This demonstrates the potential of the microorganism and new opportunities opening for future applications.

  14. Drug interactions with Bacillus anthracis topoisomerase IV: biochemical basis for quinolone action and resistance.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Katie J; McPherson, Sylvia A; Wang, Pengfei; Kerns, Robert J; Graves, David E; Turnbough, Charles L; Osheroff, Neil

    2012-01-10

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is considered a serious threat as a bioweapon. The drugs most commonly used to treat anthrax are quinolones, which act by increasing the levels of DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase IV and gyrase. Quinolone resistance most often is associated with specific serine mutations in these enzymes. Therefore, to determine the basis for quinolone action and resistance, we characterized wild-type B. anthracis topoisomerase IV, the GrlA(S81F) and GrlA(S81Y) quinolone-resistant mutants, and the effects of quinolones and a related quinazolinedione on these enzymes. Ser81 is believed to anchor a water-Mg(2+) bridge that coordinates quinolones to the enzyme through the C3/C4 keto acid. Consistent with this hypothesized bridge, ciprofloxacin required increased Mg(2+) concentrations to support DNA cleavage by GrlA(S81F) topoisomerase IV. The three enzymes displayed similar catalytic activities in the absence of drugs. However, the resistance mutations decreased the affinity of topoisomerase IV for ciprofloxacin and other quinolones, diminished quinolone-induced inhibition of DNA religation, and reduced the stability of the enzyme-quinolone-DNA ternary complex. Wild-type DNA cleavage levels were generated by mutant enzymes at high quinolone concentrations, suggesting that increased drug potency could overcome resistance. 8-Methyl-quinazoline-2,4-dione, which lacks the quinolone keto acid (and presumably does not require the water-Mg(2+) bridge to mediate protein interactions), was more potent than quinolones against wild-type topoisomerase IV and was equally efficacious. Moreover, it maintained high potency and efficacy against the mutant enzymes, effectively inhibited DNA religation, and formed stable ternary complexes. Our findings provide an underlying biochemical basis for the ability of quinazolinediones to overcome clinically relevant quinolone resistance mutations in bacterial type II topoisomerases.

  15. Insecticidal spectrum and mode of action of the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Ca insecticidal protein.

    PubMed

    Gomis-Cebolla, Joaquín; Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Vera-Velasco, Natalia Mara; Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Ceballos, Tomás; Palma, Leopoldo; Escriche, Baltasar; Caballero, Primitivo; Ferré, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The Vip3Ca protein, discovered in a screening of Spanish collections of Bacillus thuringiensis, was known to be toxic to Chrysodeixis chalcites, Mamestra brassicae and Trichoplusia ni. In the present study, its activity has been tested with additional insect species and we found that Cydia pomonella is moderately susceptible to this protein. Vip3Ca (of approximately 90kDa) was processed to an approximately 70kDa protein when incubated with midgut juice in all tested species. The kinetics of proteolysis correlated with the susceptibility of the insect species to Vip3Ca. The activation was faster to slower in the following order: M. brassicae (susceptible), Spodoptera littoralis (moderately susceptible), Agrotis ipsilon and Ostrinia nubilalis (slightly susceptible). Processing Vip3Ca by O. nubilalis or M. brassicae midgut juice did not significantly changed its toxicity to either insect species, indicating that the low susceptibility of O. nubilalis is not due to a problem in the midgut processing of the toxin. M. brassicae larvae fed with Vip3Ca showed binding of this toxin to the apical membrane of the midgut epithelial cells. Histopathological inspection showed sloughing of the epithelial cells with further disruption, which suggests that the mode of action of Vip3Ca is similar to that described for Vip3Aa. Biotin-labeled Vip3Ca and Vip3Aa bound specifically to M. brassicae brush border membrane vesicles and both toxins competed for binding sites. This result suggests that insects resistant to Vip3A may also be cross-resistant to Vip3C, which has implications for Insect Resistance Management (IRM).

  16. Corrective action decision document second gas station, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403). Revision No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes}. The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-03 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (3 5 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-24

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 407, Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area (RCRSA), under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on Tonopah Test Range (TTR), CAU 407 is located approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and five miles south of Area 3. The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. As a result of these operations, the surface and subsurface soils in the area have been impacted by plutonium and other contaminants of potential concern associated with decontamination activities. In June and July 1998, corrective action investigation activities were performed at CAU 407 (as outlined in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan [CAIP]). The purpose of this investigation was to determine if any analytes were present at the site in concentrations above the preliminary action levels (PALs). The results indicated in the detection of plutonium above the PAL in samples taken from surface and subsurface soil within the exclusion zone, and uranium and americium detected above the PAL in samples taken from surface soil within the exclusion zone. No other COCs were identified above PALs specified in the CAIP. Based on this data, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were defined: (1) to prevent or mitigate human exposure to surface and subsurface soil containing COCs, and (2) to prevent adverse impacts to groundwater quality. To accomplish these objectives, five CAAs were developed and evaluated. Based on the results of the detailed and comparative analysis of these alternatives, Alternative 3 (Partial Excavation, Disposal, and Administrative Controls With a Surface Cap) was chosen as the preferred alternative. This alternative was

  18. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Mark J

    2013-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications To Remove Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order dated September 2013. The Use Restriction (UR) Removal document was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October 16, 2013. The approval of the UR Removal document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the UR Removal document, this addendum consists of: This page that refers the reader to the UR Removal document for additional information The cover, title, and signature pages of the UR Removal document The NDEP approval letter The corresponding section of the UR Removal document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash (Parcel H). This UR was established as part of FFACO corrective actions and was based on the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon diesel-range organics contamination at concentrations greater than the NDEP action level at the time of the initial investigation.

  19. Corrrective action decision document for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit No. 426). Revision No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 426) has been prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. This CADD has been developed to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. RG-08-001-RG-CS is included in CAU No. 426 (also referred to as the {open_quotes}trenches{close_quotes}); it has been identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. The trenches are located on the east flank of the Cactus Range in the eastern portion of the Cactus Spring Ranch at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nye County, Nevada, on the northern portion of Nellis Air Force Range. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The trenches were dug for the purpose of receiving waste generated during Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test. This test, conducted in 1963, involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol). The CAS consists of four trenches that received solid waste and had an overall impacted area of approximately 36 meters (m) (120 feet [ft]) long x 24 m (80 ft) wide x 3 to 4.5 m (10 to 15 ft) deep. The average depressions at the trenches are approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) below land surface.

  20. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document. Final report: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    A critical mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the planning, implementation, and completion of environmental restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from the late 1940s into the 1970s. Among these facilities are the 24 former uranium mill sites designed in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 (42 USC {section} 7901 et seq.) Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designated sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project only; a separate MAP document has been prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project.

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2010-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit 560 comprises seven corrective action sites (CASs): •03-51-01, Leach Pit •06-04-02, Septic Tank •06-05-03, Leach Pit •06-05-04, Leach Bed •06-59-03, Building CP-400 Septic System •06-59-04, Office Trailer Complex Sewage Pond •06-59-05, Control Point Septic System The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 560 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 7, 2008, through February 24, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. •If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 560 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: •No contamination exceeding the FALs was identified at CASs 03-51-01, 06-04-02, and 06-59-04. •The soil at the base of the leach pit chamber at CAS 06-05-03 contains arsenic above the FAL of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) above the FAL of 0.74 mg/kg, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 5 to 20 feet (ft) below ground surface. The contamination is confined laterally to the walls of the

  2. Mode of Action of Penicillins In Vivo and In Vitro in Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Tetsuo

    1976-01-01

    A new system in which the in vivo and in vitro formation of cross-links in the peptidoglycan of Bacillus megaterium can be compared directly has been developed. The method for the determination of the in vivo cross-linking consists of lysozyme digestion of acetylated [14C]diaminopimelic acid-labeled cells and Bio-Gel P-6 gel filtration of the digest. The elution profile indicates the cell wall synthesized in vivo consists of highly cross-linked fractions (44%), bisdisaccharide peptide(s) (38%), and disaccharide peptide(s) (18%). The in vitro system showed a high synthetic activity of cross-linked peptidoglycan. The synthesis was inhibited completely by 83.3 μg of ristocetin or vancomycin per ml or 10−4 M p-chloromercuribenzoate and inhibited only partially by penicillins. The polymerization was stimulated by high concentrations of sucrose, glycerol, amino acids, or dimethyl sulfoxide. The formation of cross-links was inhibited 50% at 0.3 μg of dicloxacillin per ml and 90% at 0.5 μg or more. It was also stimulated by high concentrations of sucrose, glycerol, or dimethyl sulfoxide. Effective concentrations of dicloxacillin on the growth, viability, and morphology of B. megaterium were determined. Sharp inhibition of cross-linking occurred in vivo and in vitro at these effective concentrations, whereas the incorporation of [14C]-diaminopimelate into bacterial cells was not affected at all. Cell-bound dicloxacillin reduced severely the degree of cross-linking in the cell wall synthesized after transfer to a dicloxacillin-free medium. Cell wall synthesized in the presence of dicloxacillin showed a higher rate of turnover than did the normal cell wall. Moreover, disaccharide peptide(s) was degraded faster than was bisdisaccharide peptide(s) in dicloxacillin-treated cells. From these observations, the primary target of penicillin action in B. megaterium is discussed in relation to the inhibition of cross-linking, penicillin-binding components, and cell lysis. PMID

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Unit 339

    SciTech Connect

    Bonn, J.F.

    1996-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) incorporates the methodology used for evaluating the remedial alternatives completed for a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12, east of the Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The discharge area has been impacted by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) F Listed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbons waste. Based upon these findings, resulting from Phase 1 and Phase 2 site investigations, corrective action is required at the site. To determine the appropriate corrective action to be proposed, an evaluation of remedial alternatives was completed. The evaluation was completed using a Corrective Measures Study (CMS). Based on the results of the CMS, the favored closure alternative for the site is plugging the effluent discharge line, removing the sandbagged barrier, completing excavation of VOC impacted soils, and fencing the soil area impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), east of the discharge line and west of the soil berm. Management of the F Listed VOCs are dictated by RCRA. Due to the small volume of impacted soil, excavation and transportation to a Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) is the most practical method of management. It is anticipated that the TPH (as oil) impacted soils will remain in place based upon; the A through K Analysis, concentrations detected (maximum 8,600 milligrams per kilogram), expected natural degradation of the hydrocarbons over time, and the findings of the Phase 2 Investigation that vertical migration has been minimal.

  4. Genomic comparisons of two Bacillus subtilis biocontrol strains with different modes of actions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus subtilis strains AS 43.3 and OH131.1 were isolated from wheat anthers and shown to be efficacious in managing Fusarium head blight in greenhouse and some field trials. Chemical analysis of the cell-free culture supernatant identified B. subtilis strain AS 43.3 to be a potent producer of the...

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision 0) with ROTC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Mark J

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 137 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 28 through August 17, 2006, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. ROTC-1: Downgrade FFACO UR at CAU 137, CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site to an Administrative UR. ROTC-2: Downgrade FFACO UR at CAU 137, CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site to an Administrative UR.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 570: Area 9 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 570: Area 9 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The purpose of the CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-12-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 consists of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-21-003-TANL; 09-21-001-TA09; TA-19-002-TAB2; TA-21-002-TAAL; and 03-19-001. The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU. The corrective action alternative recommended for CAU 410 is Clean Closure; therefore, no corrective action or corrective action plan is required. No use restrictions are required to be placed on this CAU because the investigation showed no evidence of remaining soil contamination or remaining debris/waste upon completion of all investigation activities.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 557: Spills and Tank Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2009-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 557, Spills and Tank Sites, in Areas 1, 3, 6, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 557 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 01-25-02, Fuel Spill • 03-02-02, Area 3 Subdock UST • 06-99-10, Tar Spills • 25-25-18, Train Maintenance Bldg 3901 Spill Site The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to identify and provide the justification and documentation that supports the recommendation for closure of the CAU 557 CASs with no further corrective action. To achieve this, a corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted from May 5 through November 24, 2008. The CAI activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 557: Spills and Tank Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 105 comprises the following five corrective action sites (CASs): -02-23-04 Atmospheric Test Site - Whitney Closure In Place -02-23-05 Atmospheric Test Site T-2A Closure In Place -02-23-06 Atmospheric Test Site T-2B Clean Closure -02-23-08 Atmospheric Test Site T-2 Closure In Place -02-23-09 Atmospheric Test Site - Turk Closure In Place The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 105 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 22, 2012, through May 23, 2013, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices.

  10. 78 FR 56719 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for Action Level for Arsenic in Apple Juice; A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  11. 78 FR 42086 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for Action Level for Arsenic in Apple Juice; A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 546: Injection Well and Surface Releases Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 546, Injection Well and Surface Releases, at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 546 is comprised of two corrective action sites (CASs): • 06-23-02, U-6a/Russet Testing Area • 09-20-01, Injection Well The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 546. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from May 5 through May 28, 2008, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 546: Injection Well and Surface Releases, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2008). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: • Determine whether a contaminant of concern is present at a given CAS. • Determine whether sufficient information is available to evaluate potential corrective action alternatives at each CAS. The CAU 546 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Because DQO data needs were met, and corrective actions have been implemented, it has been determined that no further corrective action (based on risk to human receptors) is necessary for the CAU 546 CASs. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office provides the following recommendations: • No further corrective actions are needed for CAU 546 CASs. • No Corrective Action Plan is required. • A Notice of Completion to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site

  13. Final decision document for other contamination sources, interim response action, shell section 36 trenches, RMA

    SciTech Connect

    1990-04-01

    The shell section 36 trenches were used from 1952 to 1966 for land disposal of liquid and solid wastes generated from pesticide manufacture. They have been shown to be a source of soil and ground water contamination for volatile and semivolatile compounds. A dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) is also believed to have originated from the area. The objective of the interim response action is to reduce the lateral migration of contaminants emanating from the trenches. The preferred IRA alternative consists of (1) A physical barrier encircling the trenches and (2) a soil and vegetative cover to eliminate recharge. This final decision document provides summaries of: (1). Alternatives considered (2). Significant events leading to the initiation of the IRA (3). The IRA project (4). Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements, standards.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 477: Area 12 N-Tunnel Muckpile, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 477, N-Tunnel Muckpile. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 477 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): • 12-06-03, Muckpile The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure with no further action, by placing use restrictions on CAU 477.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 550: Smoky Contamination Area Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-02-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550: Smoky Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 550 includes 19 corrective action sites (CASs), which consist of one weapons-related atmospheric test (Smoky), three safety experiments (Ceres, Oberon, Titania), and 15 debris sites (Table ES-1). The CASs were sorted into the following study groups based on release potential and technical similarities: • Study Group 1, Atmospheric Test • Study Group 2, Safety Experiments • Study Group 3, Washes • Study Group 4, Debris The purpose of this document is to provide justification and documentation supporting the conclusion that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 550 based on implementation of the corrective actions listed in Table ES-1. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed between August 2012 and October 2013 as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 550: Smoky Contamination Area; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan. The approach for the CAI was to investigate and make data quality objective (DQO) decisions based on the types of releases present. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the DQO process. The CAU 550 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs.

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada Appendix D - Corrective Action Investigation Report, Central Nevada Test Area, CAU 417

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations office

    1999-04-02

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  17. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the August 2001, Corrective Action Decision Document / Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because

  18. Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal three-domain Cry toxins: mode of action, insect resistance and consequences for crop protection.

    PubMed

    Pardo-López, Liliana; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria are insect pathogens that produce different Cry and Cyt toxins to kill their hosts. Here we review the group of three-domain Cry (3d-Cry) toxins. Expression of these 3d-Cry toxins in transgenic crops has contributed to efficient control of insect pests and a reduction in the use of chemical insecticides. The mode of action of 3d-Cry toxins involves sequential interactions with several insect midgut proteins that facilitate the formation of an oligomeric structure and induce its insertion into the membrane, forming a pore that kills midgut cells. We review recent progress in our understanding of the mechanism of action of these Cry toxins and focus our attention on the different mechanisms of resistance that insects have evolved to counter their action, such as mutations in cadherin, APN and ABC transporter genes. Activity of Cry1AMod toxins, which are able to form toxin oligomers in the absence of receptors, against different resistant populations, including those affected in the ABC transporter and the role of dominant negative mutants as antitoxins, supports the hypothesis that toxin oligomerization is a limiting step in the Cry insecticidal activity. Knowledge of the action of 3d-Cry toxin and the resistance mechanisms to these toxins will set the basis for a rational design of novel toxins to overcome insect resistance, extending the useful lifespan of Cry toxins in insect control programs.

  19. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews and Christy Sloop

    2012-01-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision 0), April 2011.

  20. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 423: BUILDING 03-60 UNDERGROUND DISCHARGE POINT, TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA, REVISION 0, JUNE 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Area 3 Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (Corrective Action Unit 423) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 423 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is comprised of Corrective Action Site 03-02-002-0308. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for Corrective Action Unit 423. The scope of this Correction Action Decision Document consists of the following: � Develop corrective action objectives. � Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. � Develop corrective action alternatives. � Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. � Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for the Corrective Action Unit. In January 1998, a corrective action investigation was performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1997). A hydrocarbon plume was found to emanate from near the bottom of the Underground Discharge Point to the west. The plume encompasses approximately 65 square meters (700 square feet). The highest total petroleum hydrocarbon level detected was 2,400 milligrams per kilogram. No other contaminants were detected above preliminary action levels. Details of the investigation can be found in Appendix A of this document. Based on the potential exposure pathways identified during the Data Quality Objectives process, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for Corrective Action Unit 423: � Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soil containing contaminants of concern. � Prevent

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 371: Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-07-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 371, Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe, located within Areas 11 and 18 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 371 comprises two corrective action sites (CASs): • 11-23-05, Pin Stripe Contamination Area • 18-45-01, U-18j-2 Crater (Johnnie Boy) The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 371 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls was implemented at both CASs. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 8, 2009, through February 16, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 371: Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 371 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Radiological doses exceeding the FAL of 25 millirem per year were not found to be present in the surface soil. However, it was assumed that radionuclides are present in subsurface media within the Johnnie Boy crater and the fissure at Pin Stripe. Due to the assumption of radiological dose exceeding the FAL, corrective actions were undertaken

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 559: T Tunnel Compressor/Blower Pad, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 559, T-Tunnel Compressor/Blower Pad. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 559 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): • 12-25-13, Oil Stained Soil and Concrete The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 559.

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 476: Area 12 T-Tunnel Muckpile, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 476, Area 12 T-Tunnel Muckpile. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 476 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): • 12-06-02, Muckpile The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 476.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 478: Area 12 T-Tunnel Ponds, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 478, Area 12 T-Tunnel Ponds. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 478 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): • 12-23-01, Ponds (5) RAD Area The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 478.

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, located in Areas 2, 3, 4, 12, and 15 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 234 is comprised of the following 12 corrective action sites: •02-09-48, Area 2 Mud Plant #1 •02-09-49, Area 2 Mud Plant #2 •02-99-05, Mud Spill •03-09-02, Mud Dump Trenches •04-44-02, Mud Spill •04-99-02, Mud Spill •12-09-01, Mud Pit •12-09-04, Mud Pit •12-09-08, Mud Pit •12-30-14, Cellar •12-99-07, Mud Dump •15-09-01, Mud Pit The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 234 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. •If contaminants of concern are present, determine their extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 234 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 190, Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (1996, as amended January 2007). Corrective Action Unit 190 is comprised of the following four corrective action sites (CASs): • 11-02-01, Underground Centrifuge • 11-02-02, Drain Lines and Outfall • 11-59-01, Tweezer Facility Septic System • 14-23-01, LTU-6 Test Area The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 190 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from March 21 through June 26, 2007. All CAI activities were conducted as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 190 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the data quality objective data needs.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 309: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 309, Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The corrective actions proposed in this document are according to the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 309 is comprised of the three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1-1) listed below: (1) CAS 12-06-09, Muckpile; (2) CAS 12-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump (CWD); and (3) CAS 12-28-01, I-, J-, and K-Tunnel Debris. Corrective Action Sites 12-06-09 and 12-08-02 will be collectively referred to as muckpiles in this document. Corrective Action Site 12-28-01 will be referred to as the fallout plume because of the extensive lateral area of debris and fallout contamination resulting from the containment failures of the J- and K-Tunnels. A detailed discussion of the history of this CAU is presented in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 309: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada.'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). This CADD/CR provides justification for the closure of CAU 309 without further corrective action. This justification is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted according to the CAIP (NNSA/NSO, 2004), which provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation. Therefore, this information will not be repeated in this CADD/CR.

  8. Cloning, functional characterization, and mode of action of a novel insecticidal pore-forming toxin, sphaericolysin, produced by Bacillus sphaericus.

    PubMed

    Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Nakashima, Kenta; Ishida, Chiharu; Kawamura, Tadayuki; Matsuda, Kazuhiko

    2007-05-01

    An insecticidal protein produced by Bacillus sphaericus A3-2 was purified to elucidate its structure and mode of action. The active principle purified from the culture broth of A3-2 was a protein with a molecular mass of 53 kDa that rapidly intoxicated German cockroaches (Blattela germanica) at a dose of about 100 ng when injected. The insecticidal protein sphaericolysin possessed the undecapeptide motif of cholesterol-dependent cytolysins and had a unique N-terminal sequence. The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was equally as potent as the native protein. Sphaericolysin-induced hemolysis resulted from the protein's pore-forming action. This activity as well as the insecticidal activity was markedly reduced by a Y159A mutation. Also, coapplication of sphaericolysin with cholesterol abolished the insecticidal action, suggesting that cholesterol binding plays an important role in insecticidal activity. Sphaericolysin-lysed neurons dissociated from the thoracic ganglia of the German cockroaches. In addition, sphaericolysin's activity in ganglia was suppressed by the Y159A mutation. The sphaericolysin-induced damage to the cockroach ganglia was greater than the damage to the ganglia of common cutworms (Spodoptera litura), which accounts, at least in part, for the higher sensitivity to sphaericolysin displayed by the cockroaches than that displayed by cutworms.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Strand

    2005-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224, Decon Pad and Septic Systems, in Areas 2, 3, 5, 6, 11, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 224 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); (2) 03-05-01, Leachfield; (3) 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; (4) 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); (5) 06-05-01, Leachfield; (6) 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; (7) 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; (8) 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (9) 23-05-02, Leachfield. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for the nine CASs within CAU 224. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 10, 2004, through January 18, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 224 Corrective Action Investigation Plan.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand 1 Decontamination Pad, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-10-11

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand-1 Decontamination Pad, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Located at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 252 consists of only one Corrective Action Site (25-07-04, Decontamination Pad). This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary at CAU 252. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because the potential contaminants of concern were either not detected during the corrective action investigation or were only present at naturally occurring concentrations. Based on the field results, neither corrective action or a corrective action plan is required at this site. A Notice of Completion to DOE/NV is being requested from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for closure of CAU 252, as well as a request that this site be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the FFACO. Further, no use restrictions are required to be placed on this CAU.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 274: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2006-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 274, Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 274 is comprised of five corrective action sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-02-01, WX-6 ETS Building Septic System; (2) CAS 06-02-01, Cesspool; (3) CAS 09-01-01, Spill Site; (4) CAS 09-05-01, Leaching Pit; and (5) CAS 20-05-01, Septic System. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the closure of CAU 274 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from November 14 through December 17, 2005 as set forth in the CAU 274 Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 274 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. No analytes were detected at concentrations exceeding the FALs. No COCs have been released to the soil at CAU 274, and corrective action is not required. Therefore, the DQO data needs were met, and it was determined that no corrective action based on risk to human receptors is necessary for the site. All FALs were calculated using the industrial site worker scenario except for benzo(a)pyrene, which was calculated based on

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 145: Wells and Storage Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0, with ROTC No. 1 and Addendum

    SciTech Connect

    David Strand

    2006-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 145, Wells and Storage Holes in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 145 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-20-01, Core Storage Holes; (2) 03-20-02, Decon Pad and Sump; (3) 03-20-04, Injection Wells; (4) 03-20-08, Injection Well; (5) 03-25-01, Oil Spills; and (6) 03-99-13, Drain and Injection Well. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for the six CASs within CAU 145. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 1, 2005, through November 8, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 145 Corrective Action Investigation Plan and Record of Technical Change No. 1. Analytes detected during the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) were evaluated against appropriate final action levels to identify the contaminants of concern for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified contaminants of concern at one of the six CASs in CAU 145 and required the evaluation of corrective action alternatives. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 145 revealed the following: CASs 03-20-01, 03-20-02, 03-20-04, 03-20-08, and 03-99-13 do not contain contamination; and CAS 03-25-01 has pentachlorophenol and arsenic contamination in the subsurface soils. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations at the six CASs, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential corrective action alternatives, the following corrective actions are recommended for CAU 145. No further action is the preferred corrective action for CASs 03-20-01, 03-20-02, 03-20-04, 03-20-08, and 03-99-13. Close in place is the preferred corrective action for CAS 03-25-01. The

  13. Action of Bacillus subtilis alpha-amylase on native wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Colonna, P; Buléon, A; Lemarié, F

    1988-06-05

    Native starch granules from wheat have been subjected to enzymatic depolymerization with an alpha-amylase from Bacillus subtilis. Crystallites made from short-chain amylose and residues from mild acid hydrolysis have been also tested. Electron microscopy, particle size analysis, DSC, and x-ray diffractometry reveal that enzymatic degradation occurs granule by granule. Gel permeation chromatography shows off the macromolecular nature of the remaining material. In contrast, acid erodes simultaneously all the granules, leading to a splitting into small particles. Crystalline fractions are completely degraded by alpha-amylase. These results support evidence for an active disentanglement of chains, carried out by the different subsites of alpha-amylase molecules. A simple mathematical treatment is proposed to explain the results of the kinetics.

  14. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 383: AREA 12 E-TUNNEL SITES, NEVADA TEST SITE, REV. NO. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark McLane

    2005-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) and the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The recommendations and corrective actions described within this document apply to the future closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 383, Area 12 E-Tunnel Sites, which is a joint DTRA and NNSA/NSO site. The CAU consists of three (3) Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-06-06 (Muckpile); CAS 12-25-02 (Oil Spill); and CAS 12-28-02 (Radioactive Material). In addition to these CASs, E-Tunnel Ponds One, Two, and Three, and the Drainage Area above the ponds were included since closure of the Muckpile will impact these areas. This CADD is consistent with the requirements of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The DTRA point of contact is the Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Project Manager; currently Ms. Tiffany A. Lantow. The NNSA/NSO point of contact is the Environmental Restoration, Industrial Sites Project Manager; currently Ms. Janet Appenzeller-Wing. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for CAU 383. This document presents the recommended corrective action for CAU 383 (E-Tunnel Sites); however, implementation may be affected by the corrective action (to be determined) for CAU 551 (Area 12 Muckpiles) due to the close proximity of B, C, D, and F-Tunnels. The scope of this CADD consists of the following tasks: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 263: Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 263, Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 263 is located in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site in Nevada and includes one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 25-05-04 Leachfield. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action for CAU 263 is necessary. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the April 1999 corrective action investigation (CAI) disclosed no evidence of contamination at the site. The purpose of the CAI was to identify the presence and the vertical and lateral extent of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs), specifically volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivola tile organic compounds (SVOCs) such as 1,4-dichlorobenzene and p-isopropyl toluene. The subsequent investigation included direct-push environmental soil samples from within the leachfield using a Geoprobe{reg_sign} unit; field screening of soil samples for radiological constituents and VOCs; submittal of environmental and quality control samples for testing for total VOCs, total SVOCs, and gamma spectrometry; and collection of soil samples from both the liquid phase and the underlying sludge of the septic tank contents. The CAI activities determined that: (1) all total VOC and total SVOC results were below the preliminary action levels outlined in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), and (2) radiological results were not distinguishable from background concentrations identified in the CAIP. Therefore, the DOE/NV recommended that no corrective action was required at CAU 263. No use restrictions were required to be placed on the CAU because the investigation showed no

  16. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  17. Mode of Action and Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in the Control of Caterpillars and Stink Bugs in Soybean Culture

    PubMed Central

    Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment. Little is known about the actual toxicity of Bt to Hemiptera, since these insects present sucking mouthparts, which hamper toxicity assays with artificial diets containing toxins of this bacterium. In recent studies of cytotoxicity with the gut of different hemipterans, susceptibility in the mechanism of action of delta-endotoxins has been demonstrated, which can generate promising subsidies for the control of these insect pests in soybean. This paper aims to review the studies related to the selection, application and mode of action of Bt in the biological control of the major pest of soybean, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and an analysis of advances in research on the use of Bt for control hemipterans. PMID:24575310

  18. Mode of Action and Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in the Control of Caterpillars and Stink Bugs in Soybean Culture.

    PubMed

    Schünemann, Rogério; Knaak, Neiva; Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment. Little is known about the actual toxicity of Bt to Hemiptera, since these insects present sucking mouthparts, which hamper toxicity assays with artificial diets containing toxins of this bacterium. In recent studies of cytotoxicity with the gut of different hemipterans, susceptibility in the mechanism of action of delta-endotoxins has been demonstrated, which can generate promising subsidies for the control of these insect pests in soybean. This paper aims to review the studies related to the selection, application and mode of action of Bt in the biological control of the major pest of soybean, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and an analysis of advances in research on the use of Bt for control hemipterans.

  19. Corrective action decision document for the Roller Coaster Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit Number 404)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-26

    The North Disposal Trench, located north of the eastern most lagoon, was installed in 1963 to receive solid waste and construction debris from the Operation Roller Coaster man camp. Subsequent to Operation Roller Coaster, the trench continued to receive construction debris and range cleanup debris (including ordnance) from Sandia National Laboratories and other operators. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities (VCA Spill Area) at an area associated with the North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Site (CAS). Remediation activities at this site were conducted in 1995. A corrective action investigation was conducted in September of 1996 following the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP); the detailed results of that investigation are presented in Appendix A. The Roller Coaster Lagoons and North Disposal Trench are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), a part of the Nellis Air Force Range, which is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air.

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Irene Farnham and Sam Marutzky

    2011-07-01

    This CADD/CAP follows the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) stage, which results in development of a set of contaminant boundary forecasts produced from groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling of the Frenchman Flat CAU. The Frenchman Flat CAU is located in the southeastern portion of the NNSS and comprises 10 underground nuclear tests. The tests were conducted between 1965 and 1971 and resulted in the release of radionuclides in the subsurface in the vicinity of the test cavities. Two important aspects of the corrective action process are presented within this CADD/CAP. The CADD portion describes the results of the Frenchman Flat CAU data-collection and modeling activities completed during the CAI stage. The corrective action objectives and the actions recommended to meet the objectives are also described. The CAP portion describes the corrective action implementation plan. The CAP begins with the presentation of CAU regulatory boundary objectives and initial use restriction boundaries that are identified and negotiated by NNSA/NSO and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). The CAP also presents the model evaluation process designed to build confidence that the flow and contaminant transport modeling results can be used for the regulatory decisions required for CAU closure. The first two stages of the strategy have been completed for the Frenchman Flat CAU. A value of information analysis and a CAIP were developed during the CAIP stage. During the CAI stage, a CAIP addendum was developed, and the activities proposed in the CAIP and addendum were completed. These activities included hydrogeologic investigation of the underground testing areas, aquifer testing, isotopic and geochemistry-based investigations, and integrated geophysical investigations. After these investigations, a groundwater flow and contaminant transport model was developed to forecast contaminant boundaries that enclose areas potentially exceeding the Safe Drinking

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-02-03

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 500: Test Cell A Septic System, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 500 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site, CAS 25-04-05. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 500. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report based on sample data collected during the field investigation performed between February and May 1999, which showed no evidence of soil contamination at this site. The clean closure justification for CAU 500 is based on these results. Analytes detected were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CAU 500, and it was determined that the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90 for any of the soil samples collected. COCs were identified only within the septic tank and distribution box at the CAU. No COCs were identified outside these two areas; therefore, no corrective action was necessary for the soil. Closure activities were performed to address the COCs identified within the septic tank and distribution box. The DOE/NV recommended that neither corrective action nor a corrective action plan was required at CAU 500. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 500, and the septic tank and distribution box have been closed in accordance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site.

  2. Mechanism for the antibacterial action of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) on Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Motokazu; Shimatani, Kanami; Ozawa, Tadahiro; Shigemune, Naofumi; Tomiyama, Daisuke; Yui, Koji; Katsuki, Mao; Ikeda, Keisuke; Nonaka, Ai; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Catechins are a class of polyphenols and have high anti-bacterial activity against various microorganisms. Here, we report the mechanism for antibacterial activity of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) against Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, which is highly sensitive to EGCg. Transmission electron microscope analysis revealed that deposits containing EGCg were found throughout the cell envelope from the outermost surface to the outer surface of cytoplasmic membrane. Aggregating forms of proteins and EGCg were identified as spots that disappeared or showed markedly decreased intensity after the treatment with EGCg compared to the control by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Among the identified proteins included 4 cell surface proteins, such as oligopeptide ABC transporter binding lipoprotein, glucose phosphotransferase system transporter protein, phosphate ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, and penicillin-binding protein 5. Observations of glucose uptake of cells and cell shape B. subtilis after the treatment with EGCg suggested that EGCg inhibits the major functions of these proteins, leading to growth inhibition of B. subtilis.

  3. Antagonistic Action of Bacillus subtilis Strain SG6 on Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yueju; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Yan; Song, Huimin; Tan, Xinxin; Sun, Lichao; Sangare, Lancine; Folly, Yawa Minnie Elodie; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease that leads to extensive yield and quality loss of wheat and barley. Bacteria isolated from wheat kernels and plant anthers were screened for antagonistic activity against F. graminearum. Based on its in vitro effectiveness, strain SG6 was selected for characterization and identified as Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis SG6 exhibited a high antifungal effect on the mycelium growth, sporulation and DON production of F. graminearum with the inhibition rate of 87.9%, 95.6% and 100%, respectively. In order to gain insight into biological control effect in situ, we applied B. subtilis SG6 at anthesis through the soft dough stage of kernel development in field test. It was revealed that B. subtilis SG6 significantly reduced disease incidence (DI), FHB index and DON (P≤0.05). Further, ultrastructural examination shows that B. subtilis SG6 strain induced stripping of F. graminearum hyphal surface by destroying the cellular structure. When hypha cell wall was damaged, the organelles and cytoplasm inside cell would exude, leading to cell death. The antifungal activity of SG6 could be associated with the coproduction of chitinase, fengycins and surfactins. PMID:24651513

  4. Bactericidal Action of 2-Hydroxy-3-(Cyclohexylpropyl)-1,4-Naphthoquinone on Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Olenick, John G.; Cook, Thomas M.; Hahn, Fred E.

    1971-01-01

    The antimalarial drug, 2-hydroxy-3-(cyclohexylpropyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), at concentrations of approximately 10−5m (3 μg/ml), was bactericidal for the gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus megaterium. Only a few other gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to this drug. All growth inhibitory concentrations of NQ were also bactericidal for B. megaterium, and even resting suspensions of cells were killed. The incorporation of radioactive-labeled leucine, thymidine, uracil, and diaminopimelic acid into protein, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and the cell wall polymer was arrested immediately and completely upon addition of NQ to cultures in exponential growth. NQ produced a delayed effect on aerobic respiration and no change in the rate of oxygen consumption was observed at a time when all major biosyntheses had failed. 3H-NQ was demonstrated to bind strongly and preferentially to the bacterial cell membrane. This simultaneous shutdown of all major categories of in vivo macromolecular syntheses points to an effect of NQ upon membrane-centered energy supplying reactions or transport of essential nutrients, or both. PMID:5000306

  5. 46 CFR 1.03-45 - Appeals from decisions or actions involving documentation of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a formal appeal of that decision or action to the Director of Prevention Policy, Commandant (CG-54... Director of Prevention Policy, Commandant (CG-54), on such an appeal will constitute final agency action....

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit 365 comprises one corrective action site (CAS), CAS 08-23-02, U-8d Contamination Area. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 365 based on the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with a use restriction (UR). Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18, 2011, through August 2, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 365 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in supporting the DQO decisions. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were found to be present to the southwest of the Baneberry crater. It was also assumed that radionuclide levels present within the crater and fissure exceed the FAL. Corrective actions were undertaken that consisted of establishing a UR and posting warning signs for the crater, fissure, and the area located to the southwest of the crater where soil concentrations exceeded the FAL. These URs were recorded in the FFACO database; the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Facility Information Management System; and the NNSA/NSO CAU/CAS files. Therefore, NNSA/NSO provides the following recommendations: (1) No further corrective actions beyond what are described in this document are necessary for CAU 365. (2) A Notice of Completion to

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 106: Area 5, 11 Frenchman Flat Atmospheric Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews and Dawn Peterson

    2011-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit 106 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 05-20-02, Evaporation Pond; (2) 05-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site - Able; (3) 05-45-04, 306 GZ Rad Contaminated Area; (4) 05-45-05, 307 GZ Rad Contaminated Area. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 106 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of clean closure was implemented at CASs 05-45-04 and 05-45-05, while no corrective action was necessary at CASs 05-20-02 and 05-23-05. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 20, 2010, through June 1, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 106: Areas 5, 11 Frenchman Flat Atmospheric Sites. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of other releases (mechanical displacement and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 106 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Industrial Area exposure scenario (2,250 hours of annual exposure). The only radiological dose exceeding the FAL was at CAS 05-45-05 and was associated with potential source material (PSM). It is also assumed that additional PSM in the form of depleted uranium (DU) and DU-contaminated debris at CASs 05-45-04 and 05-45-05 exceed the FAL. Therefore, corrective actions were undertaken at these CASs that consisted of removing PSM and collecting verification

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-09-26

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of recommended corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 127 consists of twelve corrective action sites (CASs). Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 24, 2003, through May 2, 2003, with additional sampling conducted on June 6, 2003, June 9, 2003, and June 24, 2003. Analytes detected during these investigation activities were evaluated against preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern (COCs) for each CAS, resulting in the determination that only two of the CASs did not have COCs exceeding regulatory levels. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action is the preferred corrective action for the two CASs (25-02-13, 26-02-01) identified with no COCs; (2) Clean Closure is the preferred corrective action for eight of the CASs (25-01-05, 25-23-11, 25-12-01, 25-01-06, 26-01-01, 26-01-02, 26-99-01, 26-23-01); and (3) Closure in Place is the preferred corrective action for the remaining two CASs (25-01-07, 25-02-02). These three alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, these alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites at CAU 127 and will reduce potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 367 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): • 10-09-03, Mud Pit • 10-45-01, U-10h Crater (Sedan) • 10-45-02, Ess Crater Site • 10-45-03, Uncle Crater Site The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation of the corrective actions and site closure activities implemented at CAU 367. A corrective action of closure in place with use restrictions was completed at each of the three crater CASs (10-45-01, 10-45-02, and 10-45-03); corrective actions were not required at CAS 10-09-03. In addition, a limited soil removal corrective action was conducted at the location of a potential source material release. Based on completion of these correction actions, no additional corrective action is required at CAU 367, and site closure is considered complete. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 2010 through March 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of non-test or other releases (e.g., migration in washes and potential source material). Based on the proximity of the Uncle, Ess, and Sedan craters, the impact of the Sedan test on the fallout deposited from the two earlier tests, and aerial radiological surveys, the CAU 367 investigation was designed to study the releases from the three crater CASs as one combined release (primary release). Corrective Action Site 10-09-03, Mud Pit, consists of two mud pits identified at CAU 367. The mud pits are considered non-test releases or other releases and were investigated independent of the three crater CASs. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 367 dataset of

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 551, Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The corrective actions proposed in this document are in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 551 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that are shown on Figure 1-2 and listed below: CAS 12-01-09, Aboveground Storage Tank and Stain; CAS 12-06-05, U-12b Muckpile; CAS 12-06-07, Muckpile; and CAS 12-06-08, Muckpile. A detailed discussion of the history of this CAU is presented in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). This CADD/CR provides justification for the closure of CAU 551 in place with administrative controls. This justification is based upon process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NSO, 2004). The CAIP provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, this information will not be repeated in the CADD/CR. Corrective Action Unit 551, Area 12 Muckpiles, consists of four inactive sites located in the southwestern portion of Area 12. The four CAU 551 sites consist of three muckpiles, and an aboveground storage tank (AST) and stain. The CAU 551 sites were all used during underground nuclear testing at the B-, C-, D- and F-Tunnels in the late 1950s and early 1960s and have mostly remained inactive since that period.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 541: Small Boy Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC-1

    SciTech Connect

    Kidman, Raymond; Matthews, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 541 based on the no further action alternative listed in Table ES-1.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1, 2, and Errata

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) north of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 204 are located in Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Unit 204 is comprised of the six CASs identified in Table 1-1. As shown in Table 1-1, the FFACO describes four of these CASs as bunkers one as chemical exchange storage and one as a blockhouse. Subsequent investigations have identified four of these structures as instrumentation bunkers (CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, 05-33-01), one as an explosives storage bunker (CAS 05-99-02), and one as both (CAS 05-18-02). The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2007-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996). The corrective action sites (CASs) are located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 166 is comprised of the following CASs: • 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North • 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South • 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area • 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard • 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum • 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank • 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the seven CASs within CAU 166. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 31, 2006, through February 28, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 166 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2006).

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1 with ROTC 1

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred N. Wickline

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 516 is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) 03-59-01 - Bldg 3C-36 Septic System; (2) 03-59-02 - Bldg 3C-45 Septic System; (3) 06-51-01 - Sump and Piping; (4) 06-51-02 - Clay Pipe and Debris; (5) 06-51-03 - Clean Out Box and Piping; and (7) 22-19-04 - Vehicle Decontamination Area. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of an acceptable corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 516. Corrective action investigation activities were performed between July 22 and August 14, 2003, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Supplemental sampling was conducted in late 2003 and early 2004.

  15. [beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase in sporeforming microorganisms. III. Substrate specificity and action patterns of some Bacillus-beta-glucan-hydrolases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Borriss, R; Zemek, J

    1980-01-01

    Comparative investigations were carried out concerning substrate specificity and action patterns of seven Bacillus-endo-beta-glucanases produced by the species, B. subtilis, B. macerans, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. circulans, B. laterosporus, B. pumilus and B. polymyxa. All enzymes with the exception of beta-glucanase from B. macerans hydrolyze lichenan and barley-beta-glucan only and were without action on laminaran and CM-cellulose. It was suggested that hydrolysis products of beta-glucanase produced by B. macerans were markedly different from the products of the other enzymes. We conclude that B. macerans enzyme, which cleaves laminaran and beta-1,3-1,4-glucans, represents "laminarinase" type (1-3-beta-D-glucan glucanohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.6). On the other hand the glucanases produced by the other Bacillus strains belong to "licheninases" 1-3,1-4-beta-D-glucan glucanohydrolases, E.C. 3.2.1.73).

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 568. Area 3 Plutonium Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for the 14 CASs within CAU 568. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from April 2014 through May 2015, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 568: Area 3 Plutonium Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the DQO process. The CAU 568 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated that the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations at the 14 CASs, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following corrective actions are recommended for CAU 568: • No further action is the preferred corrective action for CASs 03-23-17, 03-23-22, 03-23-26. • Closure in place is the preferred corrective action for CAS 03-23-19; 03-45-01; the SE DCBs at CASs 03-23-20, 03-23-23, 03-23-31, 03-23-32, 03-23-33, and 03-23-34; and the Pascal-BHCA at CAS 03-23-31. • Clean closure is the preferred corrective action for CASs 03-08-04, 03-23-30, and 03-26-04; and the four well head covers at CASs 03-23-20, 03-23-23, 03-23-31, and 03-23-33.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various locations and

  18. Action of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on heterotypic biofilm: Candida albicans and Bacillus atrophaeus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Michelle Peneluppi; dos Santos, Thais Alves; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; de Camargo Ribeiro, Felipe; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2016-05-01

    The increase in survival and resistance of microorganisms organized in biofilms demonstrates the need for new studies to develop therapies able to break this barrier, such as photodynamic therapy, which is characterized as an alternative, effective, and non-invasive treatment. The objective was to evaluate in vitro the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on heterotypic biofilms of Candida albicans and Bacillus atrophaeus using rose bengal (12.5 μM) and light-emitting diode (LED) (532 nm and 16.2 J). We used standard strains of B. atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) and C. albicans (ATCC 18804). The biofilm was formed in the bottom of the plate for 48 h. For the photodynamic therapy (PDT) experimental groups, we added 100 μL of rose bengal with LED (P+L+), 100 μL of rose bengal without LED (P+L-), 100 μL of NaCl 0.9 % solution with LED (P-L+), and a control group without photosensitizer or LED (P-L-). The plates remained in agitation for 5 min (pre-irradiation) and were irradiated with LED for 3 min, and the biofilm was detached using an ultrasonic homogenizer for 30 s. Serial dilutions were plated in BHI agar and HiChrom agar and incubated at 37 °C/48 h. There was a reduction of 33.92 and 29.31 % of colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) for C. albicans and B. atrophaeus, respectively, from the control group to the group subjected to PDT. However, statistically significant differences were not observed among the P+L+, P+L-, P-L+, and P-L- groups. These results suggest that antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using rose bengal (12.5 μM) with a pre-irradiation period of 5 min and LED for 3 min was not enough to cause a significant reduction in the heterotypic biofilms of C. albicans and B. atrophaeus.

  19. S-Layered Aneurinibacillus and Bacillus spp. Are Susceptible to the Lytic Action of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Kadurugamuwa, J. L.; Mayer, A.; Messner, P.; Sára, M.; Sleytr, U. B.; Beveridge, T. J.

    1998-01-01

    When S-layered strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus and Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus, possessing S-layers of different lattice type and lattice constant as well as S-(glyco)protein chemistry, and isogenic S-layerless variants were subjected to membrane vesicles (MVs) from P. aeruginosa during plaque assays on plates or CFU measurements on cell suspensions, all bacterial types lysed. Electron microscopy of negative stains, thin sections, and immunogold-labelled MV preparations revealed that the vesicles adhered to all bacterial surfaces, broke open, and digested the underlying peptidoglycan-containing cell wall of all cell types. Reassembled S-layer did not appear to be affected by MVs, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the S-(glyco)proteins remained intact. meso-Diaminopimelic acid, as a peptidoglycan breakdown product, was found in all culture supernatants after MV attack. These results suggest that even though MVs are much larger than the channels which penetrate these proteinaceous arrays, S-layers on gram-positive bacteria do not form a defensive barrier against the lytic action of MVs. The primary mode of attack is by the liberation from the MVs of a peptidoglycan hydrolase, which penetrates through the S-layer to digest the underlying peptidoglycan-containing cell wall. The S-layer is not affected by MV protease. PMID:9573179

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with Errata

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 536 is comprised of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS), 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge, and is located in Area 3 of the NTS (Figure 1-2). The CAU was investigated in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) and Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 (NNSA/NV, 2003). The CADD provides or references the specific information necessary to support the recommended corrective action alternative selected to complete closure of the site. The CAU 536, Area 3 Release Site, includes the Steam Jenny Discharge (CAS 03-44-02) that was historically used for steam cleaning equipment in the Area 3 Camp. Concerns at this CAS include contaminants commonly associated with steam cleaning operations and Area 3 Camp activities that include total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), unspecified solvents, radionuclides, metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The CAIP for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NV, 2003), provides additional information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the CAS within CAU 536. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2003) that was approved prior to the start of the

  1. Towards Optimal Spectral and Spatial Documentation of Cultural Heritage. Cosch - AN Interdisciplinary Action in the Cost Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boochs, F.; Bentkowska-Kafel, A.; Degringy, C.; Hautta-Kasari, M.; Rizvic, S.; Sitnik, R.; Tremeau, A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces the aims and early activities of Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage (COSCH), an interdisciplinary European network of experts in the latest optical measuring techniques and electronic imaging applied to documentation of artefacts. COSCH is a forum open to organisations, institutions and companies interested in collaboration within the emerging field of precise spectral and spatial imaging techniques, in physical and chemical sciences applied to cultural heritage objects, as well as in research and applications to conservation and art-historical analysis of such objects. COSCH started in November 2012. Funded by COST, an intergovernmental framework for European Cooperation in Science and Technology, COSCH networking activities enable knowledge exchange and coordination of nationally-funded research on a European level with occasional contribution of experts from other countries. Funding has been made available for four years (2012-2016). Participation is open to researchers across a wide range of disciplines, including computer scientists and museum professionals, art historians and academics in heritage-related fields. COSCH is a trans-domain Action (TD1201) of the COST Domain Materials, Physics and Nanosciences (MPNS) which facilitates and promotes innovation in material science. The work of COSCH is defined in the Memorandum of Understanding between the COST Office and the Chairman of COSCH. The Memorandum is available from actions/mpns/Actions/TD1201"_target="blank">http://www.cost.eu/domains_actions/mpns/Actions/TD1201 alongside the latest progress report and other documents. The scientific work draws on earlier and current research of the participants and is organised around the following areas: spectral and spatial object documentation; algorithms and procedures; analysis and restoration of surfaces and objects of material culture; visualisation of cultural heritage objects and its dissemination

  2. Toxicity and mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins in the Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre).

    PubMed

    González-Cabrera, Joel; Farinós, Gema P; Caccia, Silvia; Díaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Castañera, Pedro; Leonardi, Maria Giovanna; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan

    2006-04-01

    Sesamia nonagrioides is one of the most damaging pests of corn in Spain and other Mediterranean countries. Bt corn expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin is being grown on about 58,000 ha in Spain. Here we studied the mode of action of this Cry protein on S. nonagrioides (binding to specific receptors, stability of binding, and pore formation) and the modes of action of other Cry proteins that were found to be active in this work (Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, and Cry1Fa). Binding assays were performed with (125)I- or biotin-labeled toxins and larval brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Competition experiments indicated that these toxins bind specifically and that Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac share a binding site. Cry1Ca and Cry1Fa bind to different sites. In addition, Cry1Fa binds to Cry1A's binding site with very low affinity and vice versa. Binding of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac was found to be stable over time, which indicates that the observed binding is irreversible. The pore-forming activity of Cry proteins on BBMV was determined using the voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye DiSC(3)(5). Membrane permeability increased in the presence of the active toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa but not in the presence of the nonactive toxin Cry1Da. In terms of resistance management, based on our results and the fact that Cry1Ca is not toxic to Ostrinia nubilalis, we recommend pyramiding of Cry1Ab with Cry1Fa in the same Bt corn plant for better long-term control of corn borers.

  3. Toxicity and Mode of Action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry Proteins in the Mediterranean Corn Borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre)

    PubMed Central

    González-Cabrera, Joel; Farinós, Gema P.; Caccia, Silvia; Díaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Castañera, Pedro; Leonardi, Maria Giovanna; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Sesamia nonagrioides is one of the most damaging pests of corn in Spain and other Mediterranean countries. Bt corn expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin is being grown on about 58,000 ha in Spain. Here we studied the mode of action of this Cry protein on S. nonagrioides (binding to specific receptors, stability of binding, and pore formation) and the modes of action of other Cry proteins that were found to be active in this work (Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, and Cry1Fa). Binding assays were performed with 125I- or biotin-labeled toxins and larval brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Competition experiments indicated that these toxins bind specifically and that Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac share a binding site. Cry1Ca and Cry1Fa bind to different sites. In addition, Cry1Fa binds to Cry1A's binding site with very low affinity and vice versa. Binding of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac was found to be stable over time, which indicates that the observed binding is irreversible. The pore-forming activity of Cry proteins on BBMV was determined using the voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye DiSC3(5). Membrane permeability increased in the presence of the active toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa but not in the presence of the nonactive toxin Cry1Da. In terms of resistance management, based on our results and the fact that Cry1Ca is not toxic to Ostrinia nubilalis, we recommend pyramiding of Cry1Ab with Cry1Fa in the same Bt corn plant for better long-term control of corn borers. PMID:16597962

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles and Debris) Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, Laura

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 511, Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris). The CAU is comprised of nine corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, 7, 18, and 19 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 511 is comprised of nine CASs: (1) 03-08-02, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (2) 03-99-11, Waste Dump (Piles); (3) 03-99-12, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (4) 04-99-04, Contaminated Trench/Berm; (5) 06-16-01, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (6) 06-17-02, Scattered Ordnance/Automatic Weapons Range; (7) 07-08-01, Contaminated Mound; (8) 18-99-10, Ammunition Dump; and (9) 19-19-03, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris). The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 511 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) and closure activities were performed from January 2005 through August 2005, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris)'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 511 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the data quality objective data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify the COCs for each

  5. [50 years ago: documentation of the Bernburg "euthanasia" action program (II)].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1991-05-01

    The history of the "euthanasia" action programme began at Bernburg in 1940 and finished in 1943. It passed under regional peculiarities. In this second part of the report the organisational details of criminal actions were analysed and additionally the development of the physicians who took part in.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-02-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428, Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada, CAU 428 is comprised of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-05-002-SW01, Septic Waste System 1 and (2) CAS 03-05-002- SW05, Septic Waste System 5. A corrective action investigation performed in 1999 detected analyte concentrations that exceeded preliminary action levels; specifically, contaminants of concern (COCs) included benzo(a) pyrene in a septic tank integrity sample associated with Septic Tank 33-1A of Septic Waste System 1, and arsenic in a soil sample associated with Septic Waste System 5. During this investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to contents of the septic tanks and distribution box, to subsurface soil containing COCs, and the spread of COCs beyond the CAU. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 3 of the TTR, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls; and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of the evaluation, the preferred CAA was Alternative 3. This alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 219: Septic Systems and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David Strand

    2006-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 219, Septic Systems and Injection Wells, in Areas 3, 16, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 219 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-11-01, Steam Pipes and Asbestos Tiles; (2) 16-04-01, Septic Tanks (3); (3) 16-04-02, Distribution Box; (4) 16-04-03, Sewer Pipes; (5) 23-20-01, DNA Motor Pool Sewage and Waste System; and (6) 23-20-02, Injection Well. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 219 with no further corrective action beyond the application of a use restriction at CASs 16-04-01, 16-04-02, and 16-04-03. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from June 20 through October 12, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 219 Corrective Action Investigation Plan and Record of Technical Change No. 1. A best management practice was implemented at CASs 16-04-01, 16-04-02, and 16-04-03, and corrective action was performed at CAS 23-20-01 between January and April 2006. In addition, a use restriction will be applied to CASs 16-04-01, 16-04-02, and 16-04-03 to provide additional protection to Nevada Test Site personnel. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 219 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Laura Pastor

    2005-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 552, Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The corrective actions proposed in this document are in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 552 is comprised of the corrective action site (CAS) that is shown on Figure 1-2 and listed below: 12-23-05, Ponds. The ponds were originally constructed to catch runoff from the muckpile. As the muckpile continued to be extended to the north and to the east, it became impossible to ensure that all of the runoff from the muckpile was funneled into the pond. Some of the runoff from the muckpile continues to be caught in the upper pond, but portions of the muckpile have eroded, diverting much of the runoff away from the ponds. Regarding the other ponds, there is no evidence that any of the overflow ponds ever received runoff from overflow of the upper pond. The muckpile was removed from CAU 552 because an active leachfield exists within the muckpile and there are current activities at G-Tunnel. A detailed discussion of the history of this CAU is presented in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', Rev. 1 (NNSA/NSO, 2005). Corrective Action Unit 552, Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, consists of one site located in the southern portion of Area 12. Corrective Action Site 12-23-05 consists of dry ponds adjacent to the G-Tunnel muckpile. The ponds were used to contain effluent from the G-Tunnel. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification for the closure of CAU 552 with no further corrective action. This justification is based on

  9. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR THE AREA 3 LANDFILL COMPLEX, TONOPAH TEST RANGE, CAU 424, REVISION 0, MARCH 1998

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-03-03

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for the Area 3 Landfill Complex (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 424) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Corrective Action Unit 424 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs), each an individual landfill located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound (DOE/NV, 1996a): (1) Landfill A3-1 is CAS No. 03-08-001-A301. (2) Landfill A3-2 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A302. (3) Landfill A3-3 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A303. (4) Landfill A3-4 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A304. (5) Landfill A3-5 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A305. (6) Landfill A3-6 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A306. (7) Landfill A3-7 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A307. (8) Landfill A3-8 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A308. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives. (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. (3) Develop corrective action alternatives. (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. (6) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS. In June and July 1997, a corrective action investigation was performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1997). Details can be found in Appendix A of this document. The results indicated four groupings of site characteristics as shown in Table ES-1. Based on the potential exposure pathways, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for CAU No. 424: (1) Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soils containing waste. (2) Remediate the site per

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-02-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (located southwest of Area 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of Area 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area (located south of the Area 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant Burn Area or the Station 44 Burn Area; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training Area and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on

  11. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR AREA 9 UXO LANDFILL, TONOPAH TEST RNGE, CAU 453, REVISION 0, MARCH 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for the Area 9 Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Landfill (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 453) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Corrective Action Unit 453 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, and is comprised of three individual landfill cells located northwest of Area 9. The cells are listed as one Corrective Action Site (CAS) 09-55-001-0952. The landfill cells have been designated as: � Cell A9-1 � Cell A9-2 � Cell A9-3 The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for CAU 453. The scope of this CADD consists of the following tasks: � Develop corrective action objectives. � Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. � Develop corrective action alternatives. � Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. � Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for the CAU. In June and July 1997, a corrective action investigation was performed that consisted of activities set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (DOE/NV, 1997). Subsurface investigation of the soils surrounding the cells revealed no contaminants of concern (COCs) above preliminary action levels. The cell contents were not investigated due to the potential for live UXO. Details concerning the analytical and investigation results can be found in Appendix A of this CADD. Based on the potential exposure pathways, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for CAU 453: � Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soils containing COCs, solid waste, and/or UXO. � Prevent adverse impacts to groundwater quality. Based on the review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the TTR, the

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick and Sloop, Christy

    2011-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 372, Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters, located within Areas 18 and 20 at the Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 372 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): • 18-45-02, Little Feller I Surface Crater • 18-45-03, Little Feller II Surface Crater • 20-23-01, U-20k Contamination Area • 20-45-01, U-20L Crater (Cabriolet) The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 372 based on the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at all CASs. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from November 9, 2009, through December 10, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 372 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL was established of 25 millirem per year based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were found to be present at all four CASs. It is assumed that radionuclide levels present within the Little Feller I and Cabriolet high

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, Grant

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 554, Area 23 Release Site, located in Mercury at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): CAS 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 554 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18 through May 5, 2005, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Records of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 554 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) established in the CAU 554 CAIP for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and trichloroethene (TCE). Specifically: (1) The soil beneath and laterally outward from former underground storage tanks at CAS 23-02-08 contains TPH-diesel-range organics (DRO) above the PAL of 100 milligrams per kilogram, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 400 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs). The

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-10-24

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action (CAU) 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 5 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs). The corrective action investigation (CAI) of CAU 5 was conducted from October 7, 2002 through January 30, 2003, with geophysical surveys completed from March 6 through May 8, 2002, and topographic surveys conducted from March 11 through April 29, 2003. Contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified only at CAS 12-15-01. Those COCs included total petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations in Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following single alternative was developed for consideration. Close in Place with Administrative Controls is the recommended alternative for all of the CASs in CAU 5. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate inadvertent intrusion into landfills at CAU 5.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-10-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 140 consists of nine corrective action sites (CASs). Investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002, with additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Results obtained from the investigation activities and sampling indicated that only 3 of the 9 CASs at CAU 140 had COCs identified. Following a review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the NTS, the following preferred alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action - six CASs (05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05-35-01, 05-99-04, and 22-99-04); (2) Clean Closure - one CAS (05-08-01), and (3) Closure-in-Place - two CASs (05-23-01 and 23-17-01). These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 140.

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, June 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-06-12

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located near Area 3 on the TTR approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 409 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS RG-24-001-RGCR, Battery Dump Site; CAS TA-53-001-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit (referred to as Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.1); CAS TA-53-002-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit (referred to as Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.2). This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 409. The CADD/CR have been combined into one report based on sample data collected during the field investigation performed in November 2000. Analysis of the data generated from these investigation activities indicates preliminary action levels were not exceeded for total volatile organic compounds, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, TCLP semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (except arsenic), TCLP RCRA metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline- and diesel-range organics, isotopic uranium, and gamma-emitting radionuclides (except thorium-234) for any of the soil samples collected. Concentrations of arsenic were detected above the preliminary action level in all samples; however, the concentrations are considered representative of ambient conditions at the site. Thorium-234 was tentatively identified in one sample; however, the concentration is considered no greater than background. The NNSA/NV's final determination is that CAU 409 shows no evidence of soil

  17. Compendium of ORD and OSWER documents relevant to RCRA corrective action

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Throughout the past decade, several offices within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been involved in hazardous waste management technologies research, remedial action at chemically contaminated sites, and regulatory development for permitting hazardous waste management facilities. The primary offices involved in these activities include the Office of Research and Development (ORD) and the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). During this period, substantial knowledge and experience have been gained relevant to the a placability of remedial action technologies in various environmental setting

  18. Acid Rain: Federal Policy Action 1983-1985. A Guide to Government Documents and Commercial Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovenburg, Susan, Comp.

    The problems associated with acid rain as well as strategies on what to do and how to do it are addressed in this resource guide. The first section identifies and describes the U.S. agencies and congressional committees which play a role in acid rain research, legislation, and regulation. Actions already taken by the executive and legislative…

  19. A Record of Experience. Catalogue of FFHC/Action for Development Documents, 1971-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedom from Hunger Campaign, Rome (Italy).

    The FFHC/AD (Freedom From Hunger Campaign/Action for Development) is the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) link with peoples' organizations in the world's poor and rich countries. During its 18 years of activities, FFHC/AD has channelled additional funds collected by private financing agencies in the industrialized countries to rural…

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1998-09-18

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Plutonium (Pu) and Depleted Uranium (DU) Site, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located at the Cactus Spring Ranch on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, CAU 485 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-39-001-TAGR. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 485. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the preliminary assessment investigation (PAI) performed in January and February 1998 showed no evidence of contamination at the site. In the past, this CAU included holding pens which housed sheep and burros used to test inhalation uptake from atmospheric releases of Pu and DU, and the animals were sacrificed after the tests. Specifically, the investigation focused on data to determine: if surface activities of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides were present; if potential contaminants of concern (COCs) such as Pu and DU were present; and if plutonium was present in the soil and dung at levels significantly above background levels. Investigation results concluded that surface radiological activities of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides were within range of typical background levels. Evaluation of process knowledge determined plutonium to be the only potential COC, but soil and dung samples tested were not positive for plutonium-238 and only two samples had positive concentrations of plutonium 239/240 (subsequent plutonium alpha spectroscopy results demonstrated that there was no plutonium contamination in the Cactus Spring surface soil or dung). Therefore, the DOE/NV recommended that no corrective action was required at CAU 485; further, no Corrective Action

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 375 comprises three corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 25-23-22, Contaminated Soils Site; (2) 25-34-06, Test Cell A Bunker; and (3) 30-45-01, U-30a, b, c, d, e Craters. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 375 based on the implementation of corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at CAS 25-23-22, no further action at CAS 25-34-06, and closure in place with administrative controls and removal of potential source material (PSM) at CAS 30-45-01. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 28, 2010, through April 4, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 375 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were assumed to be present within the default contamination boundaries at CASs 25-23-22 and 30-45-01. No contaminants were identified at CAS 25-34-06, and no corrective action is necessary. Potential source material in the form of lead plate, lead-acid batteries, and oil within an abandoned transformer were identified at CAS 30-45-01, and corrective actions were undertaken that

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Boehlecke

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 529, Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash, is the only CAS in CAU 529 and is located in Area 25 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Site 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash, was divided into nine parcels because of the large area impacted by past operations and the complexity of the source areas. The CAS was subdivided into separate parcels based on separate and distinct releases as determined and approved in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process and Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). Table 1-1 summarizes the suspected sources for the nine parcels. Corrective Action Site 25-23-17 is comprised of the following nine parcels: (1) Parcel A, Kiwi Transient Nuclear Test (TNT) 16,000-foot (ft) Arc Area (Kiwi TNT); (2) Parcel B, Phoebus 1A Test 8,000-ft Arc Area (Phoebus); (3) Parcel C, Topopah Wash at Test Cell C (TCC); (4) Parcel D, Buried Contaminated Soil Area (BCSA) l; (5) Parcel E, BCSA 2; (6) Parcel F, Borrow Pit Burial Site (BPBS); (7) Parcel G, Drain/Outfall Discharges; (8) Parcel H, Contaminated Soil Storage Area (CSSA); and (9) Parcel J, Main Stream/Drainage Channels.

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action 405: Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Rev. No.: 0, April 2002

    SciTech Connect

    IT Coroporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-04-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 405, Area 3 Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) approximately 235 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 405 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-05-002-SW03, Septic Waste System (aka: Septic Waste System [SWS] 3); 03-05-002-SW04, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 4); 03-05-002-SW07, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 7). The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU, and this report provides specific information necessary to support this recommendation. The CAU consists of three leachfields and associated collection systems that were installed in or near Area 3 for wastewater disposal. These systems were used until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990. Historically, operations within various buildin gs in and near Area 3 of the TTR generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters. There is a potential that contaminants of concern (COCs) were present in the wastewaters and were disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. The justification for closure of this CAU without further action is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities. Closure activities were performed at these CASs between January 14 and February 2, 2002, and included the removal and proper disposal of media containing regulated constituents and proper closure of septic tanks. No further action is appropriate because all necessary activities have been completed. No use restrictions are required to be imposed for these sites since the investigation showed no evidence of COCs identified in the soil for CAU 405.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various locations and

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 556: Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 556, Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, located at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 556 is comprised of four corrective action sites (CASs): • 06-20-04, National Cementers Dry Well • 06-99-09, Birdwell Test Hole • 25-60-03, E-MAD Stormwater Discharge and Piping • 25-64-01, Vehicle Washdown and Drainage Pit The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 556 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities began on February 7 and were completed on June 19, 2008, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 556: Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 556 data were evaluated based on the data quality assessment process, which demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the data for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the COCs for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at one of the four CASs in CAU 556 that required the completion of a corrective action. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 556 revealed the following: • Corrective Action Sites 06-20-04, 06-99-09, and 25-64-01 do not contain contamination at

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this CADD/CAP is to present the corrective action alternatives (CAAs) evaluated for CAU 547, provide justification for selection of the recommended alternative, and describe the plan for implementing the selected alternative. Corrective Action Unit 547 consists of the following three corrective action sites (CASs): (1) CAS 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly; (2) CAS 03-99-19, Gas Sampling Assembly; and(3) CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly. The gas sampling assemblies consist of inactive process piping, equipment, and instrumentation that were left in place after completion of underground safety experiments. The purpose of these safety experiments was to confirm that a nuclear explosion would not occur in the case of an accidental detonation of the high-explosive component of the device. The gas sampling assemblies allowed for the direct sampling of the gases and particulates produced by the safety experiments. Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 is located in Area 2 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and is associated with the Mullet safety experiment conducted in emplacement borehole U2ag on October 17, 1963. Corrective Action Site 03-99-19 is located in Area 3 of the NNSS and is associated with the Tejon safety experiment conducted in emplacement borehole U3cg on May 17, 1963. Corrective Action Site 09-99-06 is located in Area 9 of the NNSS and is associated with the Player safety experiment conducted in emplacement borehole U9cc on August 27, 1964. The CAU 547 CASs were investigated in accordance with the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for CAU 547. Existing radiological survey data and historical knowledge of

  7. Crossmapping of Nursing Problem and Action Statements in Telephone Nursing Consultation Documentations with International Classification for Nursing Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study is to cross-map telephone nursing consultation documentations with International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP; ver. 1.0 concepts). Methods The narrative telephone nursing consultation documentations of 170 ophthalmology nursing unit patients were analyzed. The nursing statements were examined and cross-mapped with the Korean version of the ICNP ver. 1.0. If all the concepts of a statement were mapped to ICNP concepts, it was classified as 'completely mapped'. If any concept of a statement wasnot mapped, it was classified as 'partially mapped'. If none of the concepts were mapped, it was classified as 'not mapped'. Results A total of 738 statements wereused for documenting telephone nursing consultations. These statements were divided into 3 groups according to their content: 1) 294 nursing phenomena-related statements (72 unique statements), 2) 440 nursing actions-related statements (76 unique statements), and 3) 4 other statements (2 unique statements). In total, 189 unique nursing concepts extracted from 150 unique statements and 108 concepts (62.44%) were mapped onto ICNP concepts. Conclusions This study demonstrated the feasibility of computerizing narrative nursing documentations for electronic telephone triagein the ophthalmology nursing unit. PMID:21818446

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 573: Alpha Contaminated Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    CAU 573 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 05-23-02, GMX Alpha Contaminated Area • 05-45-01, Atmospheric Test Site - Hamilton These two CASs include the release at the Hamilton weapons-related tower test and a series of 29 atmospheric experiments conducted at GMX. The two CASs are located in two distinctly separate areas within Area 5. To facilitate site investigation and data quality objective (DQO) decisions, all identified releases (i.e., CAS components) were organized into study groups. The reporting of investigation results and the evaluation of DQO decisions are at the release level. The corrective action alternatives (CAAs) were evaluated at the FFACO CAS level. The purpose of this CADD/CAP is to evaluate potential CAAs, provide the rationale for the selection of recommended CAAs, and provide the plan for implementation of the recommended CAA for CAU 573. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 2015 through November 2015, as set forth in the CAU 573 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the contaminants of concern. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 573 revealed the following: • Radiological contamination within CAU 573 does not exceed the FALs (based on the Occasional Use Area exposure scenario). • Chemical contamination within CAU 573 does not exceed the FALs. • Potential source material—including lead plates, lead bricks, and lead-shielded cables—was removed during the investigation and requires no additional corrective action.

  9. Final decision document for the interim response action at the lime settling basins, Rocky Mountain Arsenal, version 4.0

    SciTech Connect

    1990-03-01

    The objective of the interim response action at the lime settling basins is to mitigate the threat of releases from the basins. The proposed IRA consists of: (1) relocation of sludge material to the settling basin; (2) construction of a 360 degree subsurface barrier around the basins; (3) construction of a soil and vegetative cover over the material; and (4) installation of a ground water extraction system. This decision document provides summaries of: (1) alternative technologies considered, (2) significant events leading to the initiation of the IRA, (3) the IRA Project, and (4) applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements, standards, criteria, and limitations (ARAR`s) associated with the program.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two disposal cells contained within the

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, Grant

    2005-07-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 554, Area 23 Release Site, located in Mercury at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): (1) CAS 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 554 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18 through May 5, 2005, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Records of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 554 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) established in the CAU 554 CAIP for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and trichloroethene (TCE). Specifically: (1) The soil beneath and laterally outward from former underground storage tanks at CAS 23-02-08 contains TPH-diesel-range organics (DRO) above the PAL of 100 milligrams per kilogram, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 400 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs). The

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-09-16

    This corrective action decision document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 271, Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Located on the NTS approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 271 consists of fifteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CASs consist of 13 septic systems, a radioactive leachfield, and a contaminated reservoir. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended CAA for each CAS within CAU 271. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 29, 2001, through February 22, 2002, and April 29, 2002, through June 25, 2002. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels and regulatory disposal limits to determine contaminants of concern (COC) for each CAS. It was determined that contaminants of concern included hydrocarbon-contaminated media, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radiologically-contaminated media. Three corrective action objectives were identified for these CASs, and subsequently three CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Areas 25, 26, and 27 of the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Clean Closure, and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 2, Clean Closure, was chosen as the preferred CAA for all but two of the CASs (25-04-04 and 27-05-02) because Nevada Administrative Control 444.818 requires clean closure of the septic tanks involved with these CASs. Alternative 3, Closure in Place, was chosen for the final two CASs because the short-term risks of

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2006-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151, Septic Systems and Discharge Area, at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, according to the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 151 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs): (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for each of the eight CASs within CAU 151. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from September 12 through November 18, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 151 Corrective Action Investigation Plan and Record of Technical Change No. 1. Additional confirmation sampling was performed on December 9, 2005; January 10, 2006; and February 13, 2006. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the contaminants of concern for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified contaminants of concern at two of the eight CASs in CAU 151 and required the evaluation of CAAs. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 151 revealed the following: (1) Soils at CASs 02-05-01, 12-04-01, 12-04-02, 12-04-03, 12-47-01, 18-03-01, 18-99-09, and Lagoons B through G of CAS 12-03-01 do not contain contamination at concentrations exceeding the FALs. (2) Lagoon A of CAS 12-03-01 has arsenic above FALs in shallow subsurface soils. (3) One of the two tanks of CAS 12-04-01, System No.1, has polychlorinated biphenyls (aroclor-1254), trichloroethane, and cesium-137 above FALs in the sludge. Both CAS 12-04-01, System No.1 tanks contain

  14. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document phase 1 assessment corrective actions/compliance schedule approval report

    SciTech Connect

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1996-09-30

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase I Assessment Corrective Actions/Compliance Schedule Approval Report for the subject facility, contains the corrective actions required to bring the facility into compliance as a result of an Administrative Assessment to determine whether S/RID requirements are fully addressed by existing policies, plans or procedures. These actions are delineated in the Compliance Schedule Approvals which also contain; noncompliances, risks, compensatory measures, schedules for corrective actions, justifications for approval, and resource impacts.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 104: Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2012-10-01

    CAU 104 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 07-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-7C • 07-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T7-1 • 07-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site • 07-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T7-5a • 07-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site - Dog (T-S) • 07-23-08, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (T-S) • 07-23-09, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (T-S) • 07-23-10, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie • 07-23-11, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie • 07-23-12, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (Bus) • 07-23-13, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (Buster) • 07-23-14, Atmospheric Test Site - Ruth • 07-23-15, Atmospheric Test Site T7-4 • 07-23-16, Atmospheric Test Site B7-b • 07-23-17, Atmospheric Test Site - Climax These 15 CASs include releases from 30 atmospheric tests conducted in the approximately 1 square mile of CAU 104. Because releases associated with the CASs included in this CAU overlap and are not separate and distinguishable, these CASs are addressed jointly at the CAU level. The purpose of this CADD/CAP is to evaluate potential corrective action alternatives (CAAs), provide the rationale for the selection of recommended CAAs, and provide the plan for implementation of the recommended CAA for CAU 104. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 4, 2011, through May 3, 2012, as set forth in the CAU 104 Corrective Action Investigation Plan.

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, in Areas 2, 3, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (1996, as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 545 is comprised of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): • 02-09-01, Mud Disposal Area • 03-08-03, Mud Disposal Site • 03-17-01, Waste Consolidation Site 3B • 03-23-02, Waste Disposal Site • 03-23-05, Europium Disposal Site • 03-99-14, Radioactive Material Disposal Area • 09-23-02, U-9y Drilling Mud Disposal Crater • 20-19-01, Waste Disposal Site While all eight CASs are addressed in this CADD/CR, sufficient information was available for the following three CASs; therefore, a field investigation was not conducted at these sites: • For CAS 03-08-03, though the potential for subsidence of the craters was judged to be extremely unlikely, the data quality objective (DQO) meeting participants agreed that sufficient information existed about disposal and releases at the site and that a corrective action of close in place with a use restriction is recommended. Sampling in the craters was not considered necessary. • For CAS 03-23-02, there were no potential releases of hazardous or radioactive contaminants identified. Therefore, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 545 concluded that: “Sufficient information exists to conclude that this CAS does not exist as originally identified. Therefore, there is no environmental concern associated with CAS 03-23-02.” This CAS is closed with no further action. • For CAS 03-23-05, existing information about the two buried sources and lead pig was considered to be

  17. Comment and response document for the final remedial action plan site design for stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Sites at Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document consists of comments and responses; the reviewers are the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Colorado Dept. of Public Health and Environment, and the remedial action contractor (RAC).

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 482: Area 15 U15a/e Muckpiles and Ponds Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-09-30

    This Corrective Action Decision Document /Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 482 U15a/e Muckpiles and Ponds. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 482 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and one adjacent area: CAS 15-06-01, U15e Muckpile; CAS 15-06-02, U15a Muckpile; CAS 15-38-01, Area 15 U15a/e Ponds; and Drainage below the U15a Muckpile. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure with no further corrective action, by placing use restrictions on the three CASs and the adjacent area of CAU 482. To support this recommendation, a corrective action investigation (CAI) was performed in September 2002. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to determine appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 482 dataset from the CAI was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Tier 2 FALS were determined for the hazardous constituents of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-diesel-range organics (DRO) and the radionuclides americium (Am)-241, cesium (Cs)-137, plutonium (Pu)-238, and Pu-239. The Tier 2 FALs were calculated for the radionuclides using site-specific information. The hazardous constituents of TPH-DRO were compared to the PALs

  19. The action modes of an extracellular beta-1,3-glucanase isolated from Bacillus clausii NM-1 on beta-1,3-glucooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Miyanishi, Nobumitsu; Matsubara, Yasuhito; Hamada, Naoko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Imada, Chiaki; Watanabe, Etsuo

    2003-01-01

    The mode of action of an extracellular -1,3-glucanase from Bacillus clausii NM-1 on beta-1,3-3glucooligosaccharides and their alditols was studied. The enzyme could not hydrolyze laminaribiose or laminaritriose. beta-1,3-Glucooligosaccharides higher than laminarihexaose were rapidly hydrolyzed, while laminaritetraose was slowly hydrolyzed. The k(cat)/K(m) ratios for a series of beta-1,3-glucooligosaccharides from laminaritetraose to laminariheptaose showed that the substrate binding site of the enzyme covered a wide range of beta-1,3-glucooligosaccharides having six glucose residues. The action pattern of the enzyme on the alditols corresponding to each laminarioligosaccharide suggested that the catalytic site of the enzyme existed between the third and fourth glucose residue from the non-reducing terminal. The value of k(cat)/K(m) also suggested that the sixth binding position contributed to the catalytic efficiency and stability.

  20. Comment and response document for the final remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document for the final remedial action plan and site design has been prepared for US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Division as part of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action plan. Comments and responses are included for the site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado.

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320. Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Appenzeller, Janet

    2000-04-20

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons, and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Referred to as CAU 230/320, both CAUs are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comprise two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), 22-03-01 (Sewage Lagoons) and 22-99-01 (Strainer Box). The Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site also includes a buried Imhoff Tank, sludge bed, and associated sewer piping. A September 1999 corrective action investigation identified the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels at this CAU (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics). During this same investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to subsurface debris and contaminated soil. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 22 of the NTS, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Excavation and Removal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Alternative 3 was chosen on technical merit as the preferred alternative for CAU 230/320. This alternative was judged to meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the buried debris and contaminated soils at both of the CASs within Area 22.

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-04-20

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons, and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Referred to as CAU 230/320, both CAUs are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and comprise two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), 22-03-01 (Sewage Lagoons) and 22-99-01 (Strainer Box). The Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site also includes a buried Imhoff Tank, sludge bed, and associated sewer piping. A September 1999 corrective action investigation identified the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels at this CAU (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics). During this same investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to subsurface debris and contaminated soil. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 22 of the NTS, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Excavation and Removal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Alternative 3 was chosen on technical merit as the preferred alternative for CAU 230/320. This alternative was judged to meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the buried debris and contaminated soils at both of the CASs within Area 22.

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2011-08-01

    CAU 561 comprises 10 CASs: (1) 01-19-01, Waste Dump; (2) 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area; (3) 03-19-02, Debris Pile; (4) 05-62-01, Radioactive Gravel Pile; (5) 12-23-09, Radioactive Waste Dump; (6) 22-19-06, Buried Waste Disposal Site; (7) 23-21-04, Waste Disposal Trenches ; (8) 25-08-02, Waste Dump; (9) 25-23-21, Radioactive Waste Dump; and (10) 25-25-19, Hydrocarbon Stains and Trench. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 561 with no further corrective action. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the DQO process: (1) Determine whether COCs are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: (1) No contamination exceeding FALs was identified at CASs 01-19-01, 03-19-02, 05-62-01, 12-23-09, and 22-19-06. (2) The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area at CAS 02-08-02 contains arsenic and lead above the FALs of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area also contains melted lead slag (potential source material [PSM]). The soil within the waste piles contains polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) above the FALs. The contamination within the burn area is spread throughout the area, as it was not feasible to remove all the PSM (melted lead), while at the waste piles, the contamination is confined to the piles. (3) The surface and subsurface soils within Trenches 3 and 5 at CAS 23-21-04 contain arsenic and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above the FALs of 23 mg/kg and 0.74 mg/kg, respectively. The soil was removed from both trenches, and the soil that remains at this CAS does not contain contamination exceeding the FALs. Lead bricks and

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NTS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative analysis of the

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-11-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NNSS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Sites, Nevada with ROTC 1, Errata Sheet, Revision 0, January 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the seven CASs within CAU 139. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from June 26 through September 27, 2006, as set forth in the CAU 139 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP).

  7. An Effective Degumming Enzyme from Bacillus sp. Y1 and Synergistic Action of Hydrogen Peroxide and Protease on Enzymatic Degumming of Ramie Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fenfen; Zou, Mouyong; Li, Xuezhi; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2013-01-01

    Enzymatic degumming, as an alternative to chemical processing, has attracted wide attention. However, to date, little information about other enzyme components with effective degumming except pectinase has been reported, and there is no report about the effect of bleaching agent (H2O2) on enzymatic degumming and combining enzymatic degumming and H2O2 bleaching process. In this study, we found that the crude enzyme of wild-type Bacillus sp. Y1 had a powerful and fast degumming ability. Its PGL activity was the highest at pH 9.6–10.0 and 60°C and stable at pH 7–10.5 and 30–50°C, having a wide scope of pH and temperature. Its PGL also had a high H2O2 tolerance, and the gum loss and brightness of fibers could be significantly improved when H2O2 was added into it for degumming. The synergistic action was also found between it and H2O2 on the degumming and bleaching of ramie fibers. All showed that it was very suitable for a joint process of enzymatic degumming and H2O2 bleaching. It also contained more proteins compared with a control pectinase, and its high protease content was further substantiated as a factor for effective degumming. Protease and pectinase also had a synergistic action on degumming. PMID:23586022

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 569: Area 3 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Sloop, Christy

    2013-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 569: Area 3 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 569 comprises the following nine corrective action sites (CASs): • 03-23-09, T-3 Contamination Area • 03-23-10, T-3A Contamination Area • 03-23-11, T-3B Contamination Area • 03-23-12, T-3S Contamination Area • 03-23-13, T-3T Contamination Area • 03-23-14, T-3V Contamination Area • 03-23-15, S-3G Contamination Area • 03-23-16, S-3H Contamination Area • 03-23-21, Pike Contamination Area The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 569 based on the implementation of the corrective actions listed in Table ES-2.

  9. Bacillus coagulans

    MedlinePlus

    Bacillus coagulans is a type of bacteria. It is used similarly to lactobacillus and other probiotics as "beneficial" bacteria. People take Bacillus coagulans for diarrhea, including infectious types such as ...

  10. Mode of action of AraR, the key regulator of L-arabinose metabolism in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Mota, L J; Tavares, P; Sá-Nogueira, I

    1999-08-01

    The AraR protein is a negative regulator involved in L-arabinose-inducible expression of the Bacillus subtilis araABDLMNPQ-abfA metabolic operon and of the araE/araR genes that are organized as a divergent transcriptional unit. The two ara gene clusters are found at different positions in the bacterial chromosome. AraR was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to more than 95% homogeneity. AraR binds specifically to DNA fragments carrying the promoter region of the ara genes. DNase I protection assays showed that AraR binds to two sequences within the promoters of the araABDLMNPQ-abfA operon and the araE gene, and to one sequence in the araR promoter. The AraR target sequences are palindromic and share high identity, defining a 16 bp AraR consensus operator sequence showing half-symmetry, ATTTGTAC. Binding of AraR to DNA was inhibited by L-arabinose but not by other sugars. The two operator sites within the araABDLMNPQ-abfA operon and araE promoters are located on the same side of the DNA helix, and a pattern of enhanced and diminished DNase I cleavage was observed between them, but not in the araR promoter. Quantitative DNase I footprinting in DNA templates containing one, two or three AraR binding sites showed that the repressor binds cooperatively to the two operator sites within the metabolic operon and araE promoters but not to the site located in the araR promoter. These results are consistent with two modes for AraR transcriptional repression that might correlate with different physiological requirements: a high level of repression is achieved by DNA bending requiring two in-phase operator sequences (metabolic operon and araE transport gene), whereas binding to a single operator, which autoregulates araR expression, is 10-fold less effective.

  11. Biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial action of lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by heavy metal tolerant strain Bacillus cereus NK1.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Muthu Irulappan; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Deepak, Venkataraman; Gracerosepat, Raja; Srisakthi, Kandasamy; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2011-07-01

    Biosurfactants are worthful microbial amphiphilic molecules with efficient surface-active and biological properties applicable to several industries and processes. Among them lipopeptides represent a class of microbial surfactants with increasing scientific, therapeutic and biotechnological interests. A heavy metal tolerant Bacillus strain has been isolated and the biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial activity of biosurfactant produced by the strain have been studied. Biosurfactant production was confirmed by the conventional screening methods including hemolytic activity, drop collapsing test, oil displacement test, emulsification and lipase production assays. The biosurfactant produced by this strain was a lipopeptide and exhibited strong surface activity. The biosurfactant has been characterized using FTIR, TLC and HPLC. The minimum active dose of this biosurfactant when compared with the other chemical surfactants was found as 0.150±0.06 μg. The critical micelle concentration was found to be 45 mg/l. The biosurfactant was found to be stable and active over a wide range of pH, temperature and NaCl concentration. It was also able to emulsify a wide range of hydrocarbons and oils thereby extending its application for the bioremediation of oil contaminated sites. The biosurfactant exhibited significant reduction in biofilm formation by pathogens and showed potent antimicrobial activity against various gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. Agar diffusion assay for heavy metal resistance showed that the isolate was resistant to ferrous, lead and zinc. Considering the biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial property of biosurfactant, it can be utilized as a potential therapeutic molecule for numerous microbial infections. The heavy metal resistance of the strain can also be harnessed as an invaluable biological tool for in situ bioremediation.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2012-09-01

    CAU 366 comprises six corrective action sites (CASs): • 11-08-01, Contaminated Waste Dump #1 • 11-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump #2 • 11-23-01, Radioactively Contaminated Area A • 11-23-02, Radioactively Contaminated Area B • 11-23-03, Radioactively Contaminated Area C • 11-23-04, Radioactively Contaminated Area D The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of corrective action alternatives (CAA) for the six CASs within CAU 366. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 12, 2011, to May 14, 2012, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites.

  13. Addendum to: Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, DOE/NV-977

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    The environmental remediation closure process for the nuclear test at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) has progressed from the approved Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) to this addendum. The closure process required the installation of three monitoring/validation (MV) wells and validation analysis of the flow and transport model. The model validation analysis led to the conclusion that the hydraulic heads simulated by the flow model did not adequately predict observed heads at the MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3 validation points (wells and piezometers). The observed heads from screened intervals near the test horizon were higher than the model predicted and are believed to be the result of detonation-related effects that have persisted since the nuclear test. These effects, which include elevated heads out from the detonation zone and lower heads in the immediate vicinity of the detonation, are seen at other nuclear tests and typically dissipate within a few years. These effects were not included in the initial head distribution of the model. The head variations at CNTA are believed to have persisted due to the very low permeability of the material at the detonation level.

  14. Draft Final Decision Document for Element One of the CERCLA Hazardous Wastes Interim Response Action at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    I ELECTE I •• 17 1993 D-A273 792 SA ":-: •I~lhh l~III gJ 5 Draft Final Decision Document for Element One of the CERCLA Hazardous Wastes Interim...ARARs FOR THE CERCLA WASTEWATER3 TREATMENT SYSTEM INTERIM RESPONSE I I Draft Fini DecWja Docameu for Eleana Ow of the CERCLA Luid Wades - ’ftm Responae...as a result of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ( CERCLA ) I activities. This Decision Document, however, does not

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 374: Area 20 Schooner Unit Crater, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada with ROTC 1 and 2, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 374 comprises five corrective action sites (CASs): • 18-22-05, Drum • 18-22-06, Drums (20) • 18-22-08, Drum • 18-23-01, Danny Boy Contamination Area • 20-45-03, U-20u Crater (Schooner) The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 374 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls was implemented at CASs 18-23-01 and 20-45-03, and a corrective action of removing potential source material (PSM) was conducted at CAS 20-45-03. The other CASs require no further action; however, best management practices of removing PSM and drums at CAS 18-22-06, and removing drums at CAS 18-22-08 were performed. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from May 4 through October 6, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 374: Area 20 Schooner Unit Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigating the primary release of radionuclides and investigating other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 374 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Radiological doses exceeding the FAL of 25 millirem per year were found to be present in the surface soil that was sampled. It is assumed that radionuclide levels present in subsurface media within the craters and ejecta fields (default contamination boundaries) at the Danny Boy and

  16. A possible mechanism of action of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain Bacillus pumilus WP8 via regulation of soil bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yijun; Shen, Min; Wang, Huanli; Zhao, Qingxin

    2013-01-01

    According to the traditional view, establishment and maintenance of critical population densities in the rhizosphere was the premise of PGPR to exert growth-promoting effects. In light of the facts that soil bacterial community structures can be changed by some PGPR strains including Bacillus pumilus WP8, we hypothesize that regulation of soil bacterial community structure is one of the plant growth-promoting mechanisms of B. pumilus WP8, rather than depending on high-density cells in soil. In this study, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was performed to evaluate the relationship between changes in soil bacterial community structure and growth-promoting effect on the seedling growth of fava beans (Vicia faba L.) during three successive cultivations. We found that B. pumilus WP8 lacks capacity to reproduce in large enough numbers to survive in bulk soil more than 40 days, yet the bacterial community structures were gradually influenced by inoculation of WP8, especially on dominant populations. Despite WP8 being short-lived, it confers the ability of steadily promoting fava bean seedling growth on soil during the whole growing period for at least 90 days. Pseudomonas chlororaphis RA6, another tested PGPR strain, exists in large numbers for at least 60 days but less than 90 days, whilst giving rise to slight influence on bacterial community structure. In addition, along with the extinction of RA6 cells in bulk soils, the effect of growth promotion disappeared simultaneously. Furthermore, the increment of soil catalase activity from WP8 treatment implied the ability to stimulate soil microbial activity, which may be the reason why the dominant population changed and increased as time passed. Our study suggests that regulation of treated soil bacterial community structure may be another possible action mechanism.

  17. Control of postharvest soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora of vegetables by a strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and its potential modes of action.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yancun; Li, Pengxia; Huang, Kaihong; Wang, Yuning; Hu, Huali; Sun, Ya

    2013-03-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc), the causal agent of bacterial soft rot, is one of the destructive pathogens of postharvest vegetables. In this study, a bacterial isolate (BGP20) from the vegetable farm soil showed strong antagonistic activity against Ecc in vitro, and its twofold cell-free culture filtrate showed excellent biocontrol effect in controlling the postharvest bacterial soft rot of potatoes at 25 °C. The anti-Ecc metabolites produced by the isolate BGP20 had a high resistance to high temperature, UV-light and protease K. Based on the colonial morphology, cellular morphology, sporulation, and partial nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA and gyrB gene, the isolate BGP20 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum. Further in vivo assays showed that the BGP20 cell culture was more effective in controlling the postharvest bacterial soft rot of green peppers and Chinese cabbages than its twofold cell-free culture filtrate. In contrast, the biocontrol effect and safety of the BGP20 cell culture were very poor on potatoes. In the wounds of potatoes treated with both the antagonist BGP20 and the pathogen Ecc, the viable count of Ecc was 31,746 times that of BGP20 at 48 h of incubation at 25 °C. But in the wounds of green peppers, the viable count of BGP20 increased 182.3 times within 48 h, and that of Ecc increased only 51.3 %. In addition, the treatment with both BGP20 and Ecc induced higher activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) than others in potatoes. But the same treatment did not induce an increase of PAL activity in green peppers. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the isolate BGP20 is a promising candidate in biological control of postharvest bacterial soft rot of vegetables, but its main mode of action is different among various vegetables.

  18. When Soda Is a Social Justice Issue: Design and Documentation of a Participatory Action Research Project with Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, James

    2015-01-01

    Schools are increasingly seen as having a promising role to play in reducing adverse health and wellness outcomes among young people. This paper uses a collaborative action research approach to examine the effects of one school's efforts to change its students' eating habits by implementing a "junk-food free campus." By engaging school…

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-08-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of recommended corrective action alternatives (CAAs) to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU)168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 25 and 26 at the NTS in Nevada, CAU 168 is comprised of twelve Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Review of data collected during the corrective action investigation, as well as consideration of current and future operations in Areas 25 and 26 of the NTS, led the way to the development of three CAAs for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Close in Place with Administrative Controls. As a result of this evaluation, a combination of all three CAAs is recommended for this CAU. Alternative 1 was the preferred CAA for three CASs, Alternative 2 was the preferred CAA for six CASs (and nearly all of one other CAS), and Alternative 3 was the preferred CAA for two CASs (and a portion of one other CAS) to complete the closure at the CAU 168 sites. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and elimination of potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at CAU 168.

  20. The mode of action of the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A differs from that of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Kyong; Walters, Frederick S; Hart, Hope; Palekar, Narendra; Chen, Jeng-Shong

    2003-08-01

    The Vip3A protein, secreted by Bacillus spp. during the vegetative stage of growth, represents a new family of insecticidal proteins. In our investigation of the mode of action of Vip3A, the 88-kDa Vip3A full-length toxin (Vip3A-F) was proteolytically activated to an approximately 62-kDa core toxin either by trypsin (Vip3A-T) or lepidopteran gut juice extracts (Vip3A-G). Biotinylated Vip3A-G demonstrated competitive binding to lepidopteran midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Furthermore, in ligand blotting experiments with BBMV from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Linnaeus), activated Cry1Ab bound to 120-kDa aminopeptidase N (APN)-like and 250-kDa cadherin-like molecules, whereas Vip3A-G bound to 80-kDa and 100-kDa molecules which are distinct from the known Cry1Ab receptors. In addition, separate blotting experiments with Vip3A-G did not show binding to isolated Cry1A receptors, such as M. sexta APN protein, or a cadherin Cry1Ab ecto-binding domain. In voltage clamping assays with dissected midgut from the susceptible insect, M. sexta, Vip3A-G clearly formed pores, whereas Vip3A-F was incapable of pore formation. In the same assay, Vip3A-G was incapable of forming pores with larvae of the nonsusceptible insect, monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus). In planar lipid bilayers, both Vip3A-G and Vip3A-T formed stable ion channels in the absence of any receptors, supporting pore formation as an inherent property of Vip3A. Both Cry1Ab and Vip3A channels were voltage independent and highly cation selective; however, they differed considerably in their principal conductance state and cation specificity. The mode of action of Vip3A supports its use as a novel insecticidal agent.

  1. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 & Building 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 & Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the March 2000, Corrective Action Decision Document / Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 & 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 & Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points (TTR) as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 03-51-001-0355 – Photo Shop UDP, Drains in CAU 429. It should be noted that there are no changes to CAU 406. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data

  2. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of LI-F type peptides produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa JSa-9 mode of action against Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Han, Jinzhi; Gao, Peng; Zhao, Shengming; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Chong; Lv, Fengxia

    2017-01-06

    LI-F type peptides (AMP-jsa9) produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa JSa-9 are a group of cyclic lipodepsipeptide antibiotics that exhibit a broad antimicrobial spectrum against Gram-positive bacteria and filamentous fungi, especially Bacillus cereus and Fusarium moniliforme. In this study, to better understand the antibacterial mechanism of AMP-jsa9 against B. cereus, the ultrastructure of AMP-jsa9-treated B. cereus cells was observed by both atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and quantitative proteomic analysis was performed on proteins extracted from treated and untreated bacterial cells by using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis to access differentially expressed proteins. Furthermore, multiple experiments were conducted to validate the results of the proteomic analysis, including determinations of ATP, NAD((+))H, NADP((+))H, reactive oxygen species (ROS), the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the relative expression of target genes by quantitative real-time PCR. Bacterial cells exposed to AMP-jsa9 showed irregular surfaces with bleb projections and concaves; we hypothesize that AMP-jsa9 penetrated the cell wall and was anchored on the cytoplasmic membrane and that ROS accumulated in the cell membrane after treatment with AMP-jsa9, modulating the bacterial membrane properties and increasing membrane permeability. Consequently, the blebs were formed on the cell wall by the impulsive force of the leakage of intercellular contents. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis detected a total of 1317 proteins, including 176 differentially expressed proteins (75 upregulated (fold >2) and 101 downregulated (fold <0.5)). Based on proteome analysis, the putative pathways of AMP-jsa9 action against B. cereus can be summarized as: (i) inhibition of bacterial sporulation, thiamine biosynthesis, energy metabolism, DNA transcription and translation, and cell wall biosynthesis

  3. MaqFACS (Macaque Facial Action Coding System) can be used to document facial movements in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

    PubMed Central

    Julle-Danière, Églantine; Whitehouse, Jamie; Joly, Marine; Gass, Carolin; Burrows, Anne M.; Waller, Bridget M.

    2015-01-01

    Human and non-human primates exhibit facial movements or displays to communicate with one another. The evolution of form and function of those displays could be better understood through multispecies comparisons. Anatomically based coding systems (Facial Action Coding Systems: FACS) are developed to enable such comparisons because they are standardized and systematic and aid identification of homologous expressions underpinned by similar muscle contractions. To date, FACS has been developed for humans, and subsequently modified for chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, orangutans, hylobatids, dogs, and cats. Here, we wanted to test whether the MaqFACS system developed in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could be used to code facial movements in Barbary macaques (M. sylvanus), a species phylogenetically close to the rhesus macaques. The findings show that the facial movement capacity of Barbary macaques can be reliably coded using the MaqFACS. We found differences in use and form of some movements, most likely due to specializations in the communicative repertoire of each species, rather than morphological differences. PMID:26401458

  4. Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-14

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis were harvested shortly after release from sporangia, incubated under...Dec-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 spores, Bacillus , spore dormancy, 3-phosphoglycerate REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  5. Phase II Documentation Overview of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Ruskauff

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject to assess and evaluate radiologic groundwater contamination resulting from underground nuclear testing at the NTS. These activities are overseen by the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended March 2010). For Frenchman Flat, the UGTA Subproject addresses media contaminated by the underground nuclear tests, which is limited to geologic formations within the saturated zone or 100 meters (m) or less above the water table. Transport in groundwater is judged to be the primary mechanism of migration for the subsurface contamination away from the Frenchman Flat underground nuclear tests. The intent of the UGTA Subproject is to assess the risk to the public from the groundwater contamination produced as a result of nuclear testing. The primary method used to assess this risk is the development of models of flow and contaminant transport to forecast the extent of potentially contaminated groundwater for the next 1,000 years, establish restrictions to groundwater usage, and implement a monitoring program to verify protectiveness. For the UGTA Subproject, contaminated groundwater is that which exceeds the radiological standards of the Safe Drinking Water Act (CFR, 2009) the State of Nevada’s groundwater quality standard to protect human health and the environment. Contaminant forecasts are expected to be uncertain, and groundwater monitoring will be used in combination with land-use control to build confidence in model results and reduce risk to the public. Modeling forecasts of contaminant transport will provide the basis for negotiating a compliance boundary for the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). This compliance boundary represents a regulatory-based distinction between groundwater contaminated or not contaminated by underground testing. Transport modeling simulations

  6. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Decision document for no further response action planned: Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report, December 1995-May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-05-03

    This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for nine sites located at the Barter Island radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the 14 sites located at the Barter Island installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, nine sites are recommended for no further action.

  7. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Decision document for no further response action planned Oliktok Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-06-03

    This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for four sites located at the Oliktok Point radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the eight sites located at the Oliktok Point installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, four sites are recommended for no further action.

  8. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Decision document for no further response action planned: Bullen Point Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.

    1996-05-24

    This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for two sites located at the Bullen Point radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the five sites located at the Bullen Point installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, two sites are recommended for no further action. Sites at the Bullen Point radar installation recommended for no further action are: Old Landfill/Dump Site East (LF06) and Drum Storage Area (SS10).

  9. Anti-methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Compound Isolation from Halophilic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MHB1 and Determination of Its Mode of Action Using Electron Microscope and Flow Cytometry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeyanthi, Venkadapathi; Velusamy, Palaniyandi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to purify, characterize and evaluate the antibacterial activity of bioactive compound against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The anti-MRSA compound was produced by a halophilic bacterial strain designated as MHB1. The MHB1 strain exhibited 99 % similarity to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. The culture conditions of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MHB1 were optimized using nutritional and environmental parameters for enhanced anti-MRSA compound production. The pure bioactive compound was isolated using silica gel column chromatography and Semi-preparative High-performance liquid chromatography (Semi-preparative HPLC). The Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and proton NMR ((1)H NMR) analysis indicated the phenolic nature of the compound. The molecular mass of the purified compound was 507 Da as revealed by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The compound inhibited the growth of MRSA with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 62.5 µg mL(-1). MRSA bacteria exposed to 4× MIC of the compound and the cell viability was determined using flow cytometric analysis. Scanning electron microscope and Transmission electron microscope analysis was used to determine the ultrastructural changes in bacteria. This is the first report on isolation of anti-MRSA compound from halophilic B. amyloliquefaciens MHB1 and could act as a promising biocontrol agent.

  10. Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, R C

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 and the subsequent anthrax outbreaks have shown that the West needs to be prepared for an increasing number of terrorist attacks, which may include the use of biological warfare. Bacillus anthracis has long been considered a potential biological warfare agent, and this review will discuss the history of its use as such. It will also cover the biology of this organism and the clinical features of the three disease forms that it can produce: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalation anthrax. In addition, treatment and vaccination strategies will be reviewed. PMID:12610093

  11. Genomics of Bacillus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

  12. [Regulation of citrate synthese in bacteria: Comparison of the action of various effectors on the enzymes of Rhodospirillum rurbum and Bacillus stearothermophilus].

    PubMed

    Higa, A I; Massarini, E; Cazzulo, J J

    1976-01-01

    A comparative study of the citrate synthases purified from the facultatively photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum (Gram negative) and the thermophile Bacillus stearothermophilus (Gram positive) was made. The citrate synthase from R. rubrum was activated by KCl (6-fold at 0.1 M KCl) and, less effectively, by NaCl and NH4Cl. Its molecular weight was about 300,000. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by NADH, and this inhibition was counteracted by AMP. The citrate synthase from B. stearothermophilus was little affected by KCl, NaCl and NH4Cl, all of which activated by about 25% at 0.1 M. Its molecular weight was ca 100,000. The enzyme was not affected by NADH or AMP. Both citrate synthases were insensitive to alpah-oxoglutarate concentrations up to 5 mM, and were inhibited by ATP; the B. stearothermophilus enzyme was more strongly inhibited than the R. rubrum enzyme. In both cases the ATP inhibition was strictly competitive towards acetyl-CoA and non-competitive towards oxaloacetate. Both enzymes, in spite of the peculiar physiological properties of their bacterial sources, followed the close correlation between the properties of the citrate synthase and the taxonomical position of the microorganism, proposed by Weitzman and his co-workers.

  13. Cadherin is involved in the action of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Hou, Leilei; Zhang, Boyao; Liu, Lang; Li, Bo; Deng, Pan; Ma, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoping; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Chen, Lizhen; Lei, Chaoliang

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins are effective against some insect pests in sprays and transgenic crops, although the evolution of resistance could threaten the long-term efficacy of such Bt use. One strategy to delay resistance to Bt crops is to "pyramid" two or more Bt proteins that bind to distinct receptor proteins within the insect midgut. The most common Bt pyramid in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) employs Cry1Ac with Cry2Ab to target several key lepidopteran pests, including the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), which is a serious migratory pest of many vegetable crops and is increasingly important in cotton in China. While cadherin and aminopeptidase-N are key receptors of Cry1 toxins in many lepidopterans including S. exigua, the receptor for Cry2A toxins remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that a heterologous expressed peptide corresponding to cadherin repeat 7 to the membrane proximal extracellular domain (CR7-MPED) in the S. exigua cadherin 1b (SeCad1b) binds Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa. Moreover, SeCad1b transcription was suppressed in S. exigua larvae by oral RNA interference and susceptibility to Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa was significantly reduced. These results indicate that SeCad1b plays important functional roles of both Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa, having major implications for resistance management for S. exigua in Bt crops.

  14. Bacillus anthracis inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase in action: the first bacterial series of structures of phosphate ion-, substrate-, and product-bound complexes.

    PubMed

    Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Kim, Youngchang; Wu, Ruiying; Wilton, Rosemarie; Gollapalli, Deviprasad R; Wang, Ximi K; Zhang, Rongguang; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Mack, Jamey C; Maltseva, Natalia; Mulligan, Rory; Binkowski, T Andrew; Gornicki, Piotr; Kuhn, Misty L; Anderson, Wayne F; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2012-08-07

    Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) catalyzes the first unique step of the GMP branch of the purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway. This enzyme is found in organisms of all three kingdoms. IMPDH inhibitors have broad clinical applications in cancer treatment, as antiviral drugs and as immunosuppressants, and have also displayed antibiotic activity. We have determined three crystal structures of Bacillus anthracis IMPDH, in a phosphate ion-bound (termed "apo") form and in complex with its substrate, inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), and product, xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP). This is the first example of a bacterial IMPDH in more than one state from the same organism. Furthermore, for the first time for a prokaryotic enzyme, the entire active site flap, containing the conserved Arg-Tyr dyad, is clearly visible in the structure of the apoenzyme. Kinetic parameters for the enzymatic reaction were also determined, and the inhibitory effect of XMP and mycophenolic acid (MPA) has been studied. In addition, the inhibitory potential of two known Cryptosporidium parvum IMPDH inhibitors was examined for the B. anthracis enzyme and compared with those of three bacterial IMPDHs from Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, and Vibrio cholerae. The structures contribute to the characterization of the active site and design of inhibitors that specifically target B. anthracis and other microbial IMPDH enzymes.

  15. 77 FR 2910 - Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Strain D747; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance; Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Strain D747; Exemption From the Requirement of a... establishment of an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747 (formerly known as Bacillus subtilis variant amyloliquefaciens strain D747). This document...

  16. 76 FR 28689 - Microbiology Devices; Classification of In Vitro Diagnostic Device for Bacillus Species Detection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Vitro Diagnostic Device for Bacillus Species Detection AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... devices for Bacillus species (spp). detection into ] class II (special controls), in accordance with the.... Regulatory History of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for Bacillus Spp. Detection After the enactment of...

  17. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores in Soil Matrices with ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report This report documents the results of a laboratory study designed to better understand the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas to decontaminate soil materials contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores.

  18. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Tuba City, Arizona: Phase 2, Construction, Subcontract documents: Appendix E, final report. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This appendix discusses Phase II construction and subcontract documents uranium mill site near Tuba City, Arizona. It contains the bid schedule, special conditions, specifications, and subcontract drawings.

  19. Report: Administrative Leave Decisions for EPA Employee Disciplinary Actions Should Be Better Documented, and Parameters on Use of Such Leave Should Be Established

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #16-P-0036, November 9, 2015. EPA’s use of extended administrative leave can result in unnecessary and excessive payroll costs, and lack of documentation and justification can lead others to second guess the agency’s decisions.

  20. Comment and response document on the final remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report contains comments provided by the Oregon Department of Energy and responses to these comments on the final remedial action plan for the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Lakeview, Oregon.

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Griko, Natalya; Junker, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a unique bacterium in that it shares a common place with a number of chemical compounds which are used commercially to control insects important to agriculture and public health. Although other bacteria, including B. popilliae and B. sphaericus, are used as microbial insecticides, their spectrum of insecticidal activity is quite limited compared to Bt. Importantly, Bt is safe for humans and is the most widely used environmentally compatible biopesticide worldwide. Furthermore, insecticidal Bt genes have been incorporated into several major crops, rendering them insect resistant, and thus providing a model for genetic engineering in agriculture. This review highlights what the authors consider the most relevant issues and topics pertaining to the genomics and proteomics of Bt. At least one of the authors (L.A.B.) has spent most of his professional life studying different aspects of this bacterium with the goal in mind of determining the mechanism(s) by which it kills insects. The other authors have a much shorter experience with Bt but their intellect and personal insight have greatly enriched our understanding of what makes Bt distinctive in the microbial world. Obviously, there is personal interest and bias reflected in this article notwithstanding oversight of a number of published studies. This review contains some material not published elsewhere although several ideas and concepts were developed from a broad base of scientific literature up to 2010. PMID:21327125

  2. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ramya, T. N. C.; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions. PMID:27258038

  3. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Indu; Sharma, Shailza; Ramya, T N C; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  4. HIV Provider Documentation and Actions Following Patient Reports of At-risk Behaviors and Conditions When Identified by a Web-Based Point-of-Care Assessment.

    PubMed

    Crane, Heidi M; Crane, Paul K; Tufano, James T; Ralston, James D; Wilson, Ira B; Brown, Tyler D; Davis, Thomas E; Smith, Laurie F; Lober, William B; McReynolds, Justin; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Harrington, Robert D; Rodriguez, Carla V; Nance, Robin M; Delaney, Joseph A C; Safren, Steven A; Kitahata, Mari M; Fredericksen, Rob J

    2017-02-15

    We compared same-day provider medical record documentation and interventions addressing depression and risk behaviors before and after delivering point-of-care patient-reported outcomes (PROs) feedback for patients who self-reported clinically relevant levels of depression or risk behaviors. During the study period (1 January 2006-15 October 2010), 2289 PRO assessments were completed by HIV-infected patients. Comparing the 8 months before versus after feedback implementation, providers were more likely to document depression (74% before vs. 87% after feedback, p = 0.02) in patients with moderate-to-severe depression (n = 317 assessments), at-risk alcohol use (41 vs. 64%, p = 0.04, n = 155) and substance use (60 vs. 80%, p = 0.004, n = 212). Providers were less likely to incorrectly document good adherence among patients with inadequate adherence after feedback (42 vs. 24%, p = 0.02, n = 205). While PRO feedback of depression and adherence were followed by increased provider intervention, other domains were not. Further investigation of factors associated with the gap between awareness and intervention are needed in order to bridge this divide.

  5. Termination Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  6. Declassified Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Karen M.

    Journalists and other investigators are daily using declassified government documents to shed light on historical and current events, but few have discovered how to tap the wealth of documents once classified but now in the public realm. An executive order from President Reagan eliminating declassification procedures and allowing released…

  7. Document Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The charters of Freedom Monitoring System will periodically assess the physical condition of the U.S. Constitution, Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights. Although protected in helium filled glass cases, the documents are subject to damage from light vibration and humidity. The photometer is a CCD detector used as the electronic film for the camera system's scanning camera which mechanically scans the document line by line and acquires a series of images, each representing a one square inch portion of the document. Perkin-Elmer Corporation's photometer is capable of detecting changes in contrast, shape or other indicators of degradation with 5 to 10 times the sensitivity of the human eye. A Vicom image processing computer receives the data from the photometer stores it and manipulates it, allowing comparison of electronic images over time to detect changes.

  8. "Notable Documents."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Government Publications Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 569 documents from local, state, provincial, and national governments and from international organizations that have been selected on the basis of their reference value and/or subject coverage. Topics covered include health sciences, business and economics, government and politics, social problems, education,…

  9. Scientific Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Gail W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how scientific documentation is taught in three 50-minute sessions in a technical writing course. Tells how session one distinguishes between in-text notes, footnotes, and reference entries; session two discusses the author-year system of citing references; and session three is concerned with the author-number system of reference…

  10. Technical approach document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  11. Orbitmpi Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa L. Lowe

    2000-10-05

    Orbitmpi is a parallelized version of Roscoe White's Orbit code. The code has been parallelized using MPI, which makes it portable to many types of machines. The guidelines used for the parallelization were to increase code performance with minimal changes to the code's original structure. This document gives a general description of how the parallel sections of the code run. It discusses the changes made to the original code and comments on the general procedure for future additions to Orbitmpi, as well as describing the effects of a parallelized random number generator on the code's output. Finally, the scaling results from Hecate and from Puffin are presented. Hecate is a 64-processor Origin 2000 machine, with MIPS R12000 processors and 16GB of memory, and Puffin is a PC cluster with 9 dual-processor 450 MHz Pentium III (18 processors max.), with 100Mbits ethernet communication.

  12. Lantibiotics, class I bacteriocins from the genus Bacillus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2011-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides exhibit high levels of antimicrobial activity against a broad range of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Compared with bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria, antimicrobial peptides from the genus Bacillus have been relatively less recognized despite their broad antimicrobial spectra. These peptides can be classified into two different groups based on whether they are ribosomally (bacteriocins) or nonribosomally (polymyxins and iturins) synthesized. Because of their broad spectra and high activity, antimicrobial peptides from Bacillus spp. may have great potential for applications in the food, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries to prevent or control spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. In this review, we introduce ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, the lantibiotic bacteriocins produced by members of Bacillus. In addition, the biosynthesis, genetic organization, mode of action, and regulation of subtilin, a well-investigated lantibiotic from Bacillus subtilis, are discussed.

  13. Automating clinical dietetics documentation.

    PubMed

    Grace-Farfaglia, P; Rosow, P

    1995-06-01

    A review of commonly used charting formats discussed in the dietetics literature revealed that the subjective, objective assessment and planning (SOAP) approach is most frequently used by dietitians. Formats reported in the nursing literature were charting by exception (CBE); problem, intervention, evaluation (PIE); and focus/data, action, response (Focus/DAR). The strengths and weaknesses of the charting styles as they apply to the needs of clinical dietetic specialists were reviewed. We then decided to test in house the Focus/DAR format by assessing chart entries for adherence to style, brevity, and physician response. Dietitians pilot tested all the methods, but found them time consuming to use. The consensus was that SOAP could be adapted to the documentation needs of the individual situation and required little additional staff training. Often because of time limitations, a narrative summary was most appropriate. Chart entry length was reduced as much as 200% when staff were given brief clinical communication as a goal, and a further reduction when line limits were imposed. The physician response was positive, with recommendations followed in 50% of charts, compared with 34% in a previous audit. A nutrition documentation system was developed by the researchers by reviewing medical chart structure, documentation standards, methods of risk identification, and terminology for clinical documentation style. The resulting system affected the decision making of physicians, who could now scan notes more quickly and implement nutrition recommendations in a more timely fashion.

  14. 76 FR 14289 - Bacillus thuringiensis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 174 Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab Protein in Corn; Temporary Exemption From the... regulation extends a temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus... permissible level for residues of Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab protein in corn. The temporary...

  15. 75 FR 34040 - Bacillus thuringiensis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 174 Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab Protein in Corn; Temporary Exemption from the... regulation establishes a temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus... Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab protein in corn under the FFDCA. The temporary tolerance exemption...

  16. Omega documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

  17. Bacillus odysseyi isolate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri (Inventor); La Duc, Myron Thomas (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus odysseyi isolate with high adherence and sterilization resistant properties. B. odysseyi is a round spore forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and the type strain is 34hs-1.sup.T (=ATCC PTA-4993.sup.T=NRRL B-30641.sup.T=NBRC 100172.sup.T). The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of strain 34hs-1.sup.T is AF526913.

  18. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp plantarum and ‘Bacillus oryzicola’ are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rhizosphere isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of comm...

  19. Ruling Out Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Houhoula, Dimitra P.; Papadimitriou, Maria; Saroglou, Georgios; Legakis, Nicholas J.

    2004-01-01

    Optimization of methods for ruling out Bacillus anthracis leads to increased yields, faster turnaround times, and a lighter workload. We used 72 environmental non–B. anthracis bacilli to validate methods for ruling out B. anthracis. Most effective were horse blood agar, motility testing after a 2-h incubation in trypticase soy broth, and screening with a B. anthracis–selective agar. PMID:15200872

  20. Documenting Dene Traditional Environmental Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Martha

    1992-01-01

    In a participatory action research project, local Dene and non-Native researchers in Fort Good Hope and Colville Lake, Northwest Territories (Canada), are documenting Dene traditional environmental knowledge and resource management systems. Problems in integrating Dene knowledge and Western science stem from incompatible world views. (SV)

  1. Interactive Video Disc Orientation Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, William J.; And Others

    This report provides the documentation for a proposed interactive videodisk to be produced for use in orienting freshman students to the Harvey A. Andruss Library of Bloomsburg University (Pennsylvania). A rationale for the project and a plan of action are followed by a production time line and tentative program outline. An outline of the library…

  2. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; Reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617**T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618**T. Compara...

  3. Expression of Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen in Bacillus megaterium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    protective antigen in Bacillus megaterium B.J. Berger, K.E. Schwandt and C.L. Radford Defence R&D Canada - Suffield Technical Memorandum DISTRIBUTION...antigen in Bacillus megaterium B. J. Berger, K. E. Schwandt, and C. L. Radford Defence R&D Canada - Suffield Defence R&D Canada - Suffield Technical...expressed using Bacillus megaterium and a xylose-inducible heterologous expression system. After only 3.5 hours growth post-induction in Luria

  4. Document Update and Compare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoch, C. F.; Caldwell, D. C.; Caldwell, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Document Update and Compare programs provide simple computerized documentmaintenance system on Data General NOVA 840 computer. Document Update program allows user to update document either by batch or terminal input. Documents are modified and lists of modifications printed out.

  5. MICs of Selected Antibiotics for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides From a Range of Clinical and Environmental Sources as Determined by the Etest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    1184–1187. 21. Kemmerly, S. A., and G. A. Pankey. 1993. Oral ciprofloxacin therapy for Bacillus cereus wound infection and bacteremia . Clin. Infect...Antibiotics for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus , Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides from a Range of Clinical and Environmental Sources...76 isolates of Bacillus anthracis chosen for their diverse histories and 67, 12, and 4 cultures, respectively, of its close relatives B. cereus , B

  6. The tubercle bacillus

    PubMed Central

    1949-01-01

    A series of lectures on the tubercle bacillus by eminent authorities from various countries was organized at the Institut d'Hygiène et de Bactériologie of the University of Lausanne by Professor Paul Hauduroy, from 22 to 25 April 1949. Through the kindness of Professor Hauduroy it has been possible for the World Health Organization to publish in the Bulletin summaries of these lectures. * PMID:20603940

  7. Bacillus laterosporus endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Yabbara, K F; Juffali, F; Matossian, R M

    1977-12-01

    A strain of Bacillus laterosporus was isolated from the aqueous and vitreous humors of a patient with endophthalmitis that developed after a penetrating injury of the cornea. Intravitreal inoculation of the isolate into rabbits produced severe panophthalmitis, corneal perforation, orbital cellulitis, and even meningitis. These observations suggest that B laterosporus, hitherto classified as nonpathogenic, is an opportunist that can cause disease when conditions are favorable.

  8. Wind system documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Froggatt, J.R.; Tatum, C.P.

    1993-01-15

    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed by the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center to calculate the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The output from these models has been used to support initial on-site and off-site emergency response activities such as protective action decision making and field monitoring coordination. These atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been incorporated into an automated computer-based system called the (Weather Information and Display) System and linked to real-time meteorological and radiological monitoring instruments to provide timely information for these emergency response activities (Hunter, 1990). This report documents various aspects of the WIND system.

  9. Centrality based Document Ranking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    approach. We model the documents to be ranked as nodes in a graph and place edges between documents based on their similarity. Given a query, we compute...similarity of the query with respect to every document in the graph . Based on these similarity values, documents are ranked for a given query...clinical documents using centrality based approach. We model the documents to be ranked as nodes in a graph and place edges between documents based on their

  10. Microbial genotyping and differentiating between Bacillus mojavensis and Bacillus subtilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus mojavensis, a specie recently distinguished from its previous Bacillus subtilis classification, was discovered in corn kernels and later determined to possess endophytic character. The bacterium was also determined to have biocontrol potential due to its growth inhibition of the maize mycot...

  11. ISR meets SAR outside: additive action of the endophyte Bacillus pumilus INR7 and the chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole, on induced resistance against bacterial spot in field-grown pepper.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hwe-Su; Yang, Jung Wook; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-01-01

    Induced resistance has been recognized as an attractive tool for plant disease management in modern agriculture. During the last two decades, studies on chemically- and biologically elicited induced resistance have revealed previously unknown features of the plant defense response including defense priming. As a biological trigger for induced resistance, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of root-associated bacteria that can reduce plant disease severity and incidence, and augment plant growth and yield under greenhouse and field conditions. We evaluated the potential of an endophytic PGPR, Bacillus pumilus INR7, to induce systemic resistance against bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in pepper. Trials in the greenhouse showed significantly less symptom development in pepper plants inoculated with strain INR7 compared to a water treatment. Furthermore, a single dipping treatment with INR7 before transplantation of pepper plants into the field elicited an induced systemic resistance response against bacterial spot caused by artificially infiltration of X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and even against naturally occurring bacterial spot disease. We identified an additive effect on induced resistance after administration of a combination treatment composed of strain INR7 with a chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole (BTH) in the field. The combination treatment stimulated expression of pepper defense marker genes CaPR1, CaTin1, and CaPR4 to a greater extent than did treatment with either agent alone. Similar experiments conducted with tobacco revealed no additive effects under field conditions. Interestingly, co-application of plants with INR7 lifted the growth repressing effect of BTH. Application of BTH onto pepper and tobacco did not affect rhizosphere colonization but supported a higher population density inside plant roots when compared to water-treated control plants. Our results indicate that PGPR can be used in

  12. ISR meets SAR outside: additive action of the endophyte Bacillus pumilus INR7 and the chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole, on induced resistance against bacterial spot in field-grown pepper

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hwe-Su; Yang, Jung Wook; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-01-01

    Induced resistance has been recognized as an attractive tool for plant disease management in modern agriculture. During the last two decades, studies on chemically- and biologically elicited induced resistance have revealed previously unknown features of the plant defense response including defense priming. As a biological trigger for induced resistance, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of root-associated bacteria that can reduce plant disease severity and incidence, and augment plant growth and yield under greenhouse and field conditions. We evaluated the potential of an endophytic PGPR, Bacillus pumilus INR7, to induce systemic resistance against bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in pepper. Trials in the greenhouse showed significantly less symptom development in pepper plants inoculated with strain INR7 compared to a water treatment. Furthermore, a single dipping treatment with INR7 before transplantation of pepper plants into the field elicited an induced systemic resistance response against bacterial spot caused by artificially infiltration of X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and even against naturally occurring bacterial spot disease. We identified an additive effect on induced resistance after administration of a combination treatment composed of strain INR7 with a chemical inducer, benzothiadiazole (BTH) in the field. The combination treatment stimulated expression of pepper defense marker genes CaPR1, CaTin1, and CaPR4 to a greater extent than did treatment with either agent alone. Similar experiments conducted with tobacco revealed no additive effects under field conditions. Interestingly, co-application of plants with INR7 lifted the growth repressing effect of BTH. Application of BTH onto pepper and tobacco did not affect rhizosphere colonization but supported a higher population density inside plant roots when compared to water-treated control plants. Our results indicate that PGPR can be used in

  13. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided.

  14. Characterisation of Potential Antimicrobial Targets in Bacillus spp. I. Aminotransferases and Methionine Regeneration in Bacillus subtilis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    targets in Bacillus spp. I. Aminotransferases and methionine regeneration in Bacillus subtilis. Bradley J. Berger and Marvin H. Knodel Defence R&D...Characterisation of potential antimicrobial targets in Bacillus spp. I. Aminotransferases and methionine regeneration in Bacillus subtilis. Bradley J...examined in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Homogenates of this bacterium were able to convert ketomethiobutyrate to methionine, utilising

  15. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  16. Cloning of the maltose phosphorylase gene from Bacillus sp. strain RK-1 and efficient production of the cloned gene and the trehalose phosphorylase gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus SK-1 in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasushi; Yasutake, Nozomu; Oshima, Yoshie; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Tomita, Tetsuji; Miyoshi, Shinsuke; Yatake, Tsuneya

    2002-12-01

    The maltose phosphorylase (MPase) gene of Bacillus sp. strain RK-1 was cloned by PCR with oligonucleotide primers designed on the basis of a partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme. The MPase gene consisted of 2,655 bp encoding a theoretical protein with a Mr of 88,460, and had no secretion signal sequence, although most of the MPase activity was detected in the culture supernatant of RK-1. This cloned MPase gene and the trehalose phosphorylase (TPase) gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus SK-1 were efficiently expressed intracellularly under the control of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens alpha-amylase promoter in Bacillus subtilis. The production yields were estimated to be more than 2 g of enzyme per liter of medium, about 250 times the production of the original strains, in a simple shake flask. About 60% of maltose was converted into trehalose by the simultaneous action of both enzymes produced in B. subtilis.

  17. Reclassification of bioindicator strains Bacillus subtilis DSM 675 and Bacillus subtilis DSM 2277 as Bacillus atrophaeus.

    PubMed

    Fritze, D; Pukall, R

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of high DNA-DNA reassociation values and confirmatory automated RiboPrint analysis, two aerobic spore-forming strains hitherto allocated to Bacillus subtilis and used as bioindicators (DSM 675, hot-air sterilization control; DSM 2277, ethylene oxide sterilization control) are reclassified as Bacillus atrophaeus.

  18. Automated document analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Jeffrey D.; Dietzel, Robert; Hartnett, David

    2002-08-01

    A software application has been developed to aid law enforcement and government intelligence gathering organizations in the translation and analysis of foreign language documents with potential intelligence content. The Automated Document Analysis System (ADAS) provides the capability to search (data or text mine) documents in English and the most commonly encountered foreign languages, including Arabic. Hardcopy documents are scanned by a high-speed scanner and are optical character recognized (OCR). Documents obtained in an electronic format bypass the OCR and are copied directly to a working directory. For translation and analysis, the script and the language of the documents are first determined. If the document is not in English, the document is machine translated to English. The documents are searched for keywords and key features in either the native language or translated English. The user can quickly review the document to determine if it has any intelligence content and whether detailed, verbatim human translation is required. The documents and document content are cataloged for potential future analysis. The system allows non-linguists to evaluate foreign language documents and allows for the quick analysis of a large quantity of documents. All document processing can be performed manually or automatically on a single document or a batch of documents.

  19. Bacillus weihenstephanensis characteristics are present in Bacillus cereus and Bacillus mycoides strains.

    PubMed

    Soufiane, Brahim; Côté, Jean-Charles

    2013-04-01

    The Bacillus cereus group comprises seven bacterial species: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides, Bacillus cytotoxicus, and Bacillus weihenstephanensis. Bacillus weihenstephanensis is distinguished based on its capability to grow at 7 °C but not at 43 °C, and the presence of specific signature sequences in the 16S rRNA and cspA genes and in several housekeeping genes: glpF, gmK, purH, and tpi. Bacillus weihenstephanensis-specific signature sequences were found in some B. cereus and B. mycoides strains suggesting psychrotolerance. This was confirmed by growth at 7 °C but not at 43 °C. The other B. cereus and B. mycoides strains and all B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. pseudomycoides harbored the mesophilic signature sequences. The strains tested grew at 43 °C but did not grow at 7 °C. A maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree was inferred from comparisons of the concatenated nucleotide sequences. Three groups and one branch were revealed. Group I, II, and III comprised the mesophilic B. cereus, some mesophilic B. mycoides, and all B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis strains; the psychrotolerant B. cereus and B. mycoides, and all B. weihenstephanensis strains; and some mesophilic B. mycoides and all B. pseudomycoides strains, respectively. The branch corresponds to the single B. cytotoxicus strain. Based on psychrotolerance and multilocus sequence analysis, further confirmed by comparisons of amino acid sequences, we show that some B. cereus and B. mycoides strains should be reclassified as B. weihenstephanensis.

  20. Transduction in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    THORNE, C B

    1962-01-01

    Thorne, Curtis B. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.). Transduction in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 83:106-111. 1962.-A bacteriophage, SP-10, isolated from soil carries out general transduction in Bacillus subtilis. Phage propagated on a streptomycin-resistant mutant of the wild-type strain W-23 was capable of transducing to prototrophy strain 168 (indole(-)), as well as all of the auxotrophic mutants of W-23-S(r) tested, which included mutants requiring arginine, histidine, adenine, guanine, thiamine, leucine, or methionine. Although strain 168 was transduced by phage SP-10, lytic activity on this strain could not be detected and attempts to propagate the phage on it failed. Transductions occurred at frequencies in the range of 10(-6) to 10(-5) per plaque-forming unit. Homologous phage was ineffective, deoxyribonuclease had no effect on the frequency of transduction, and transduction was prevented by the addition of phage antiserum. Phage SP-10 was capable of lysogenizing strain W-23-S(r), and this condition was maintained through repeated growth and sporulation cycles in potato-extract medium. Although heating at 65 C for 60 min inactivated free phage particles, spores retained their lysogenic condition after such heat treatment. When heat-treated spores of the lysogenic cultures were used as inocula for growth in a nutrient broth-yeast extract-glucose medium, filtrates contained 10(9), or more, phage particles per ml.

  1. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

  2. Computer software documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comella, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    A tutorial in the documentation of computer software is presented. It presents a methodology for achieving an adequate level of documentation as a natural outgrowth of the total programming effort commencing with the initial problem statement and definition and terminating with the final verification of code. It discusses the content of adequate documentation, the necessity for such documentation and the problems impeding achievement of adequate documentation.

  3. CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 543: LIQUID DISPOSAL UNITS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan is to provide the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document.

  4. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  5. CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ENDOSPORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possibility of a bioterrorism event resulting in the release of Bacillus anthracis endospores into a drinking water distribution system necessitates research into means by which these endospores can be inactivated. This study was designed to determine the chlorine resistance...

  6. Degraded document image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, G.; Bal, G.; Frieder, G.; Frieder, O.

    2007-01-01

    Poor quality documents are obtained in various situations such as historical document collections, legal archives, security investigations, and documents found in clandestine locations. Such documents are often scanned for automated analysis, further processing, and archiving. Due to the nature of such documents, degraded document images are often hard to read, have low contrast, and are corrupted by various artifacts. We describe a novel approach for the enhancement of such documents based on probabilistic models which increases the contrast, and thus, readability of such documents under various degradations. The enhancement produced by the proposed approach can be viewed under different viewing conditions if desired. The proposed approach was evaluated qualitatively and compared to standard enhancement techniques on a subset of historical documents obtained from the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum. In addition, quantitative performance was evaluated based on synthetically generated data corrupted under various degradation models. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. Phase I Flow and Transport Model Document for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1 with ROTCs 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Robert

    2013-09-01

    The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 97, Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, in the northeast part of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) requires environmental corrective action activities to assess contamination resulting from underground nuclear testing. These activities are necessary to comply with the UGTA corrective action strategy (referred to as the UGTA strategy). The corrective action investigation phase of the UGTA strategy requires the development of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models whose purpose is to identify the lateral and vertical extent of contaminant migration over the next 1,000 years. In particular, the goal is to calculate the contaminant boundary, which is defined as a probabilistic model-forecast perimeter and a lower hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) boundary that delineate the possible extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear testing. Because of structural uncertainty in the contaminant boundary, a range of potential contaminant boundaries was forecast, resulting in an ensemble of contaminant boundaries. The contaminant boundary extent is determined by the volume of groundwater that has at least a 5 percent chance of exceeding the radiological standards of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (CFR, 2012).

  8. Adult Environmental Education: Awareness and Environmental Action. Adult Learning in the Context of Environment, Health and Population. A Series of 29 Booklets Documenting Workshops Held at the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (Hamburg, Germany, July 14-18, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. for Education.

    This booklet discusses the present state of environmental adult education and its major difficulties and shortcomings and develops recommendations for further development of this field. Section 1 discusses linking environmental and social issues and locating environmental problems within the context of one's daily life and action. Section 2…

  9. 78 FR 52776 - Documents to Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Documents to Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability on the Agency Web site of...

  10. Action Learning. Symposium 1. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document contains three papers on action learning. "Action Learning: Case Studies of Most Valued Learning and Application" (Suzanne D. Butterfield) reports on a qualitative study in which longitudinal data was collected from document analysis and first-line consulting managers who had participated in action learning. The study…

  11. Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis—One Species on the Basis of Genetic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Helgason, Erlendur; Økstad, Ole Andreas; Caugant, Dominique A.; Johansen, Henning A.; Fouet, Agnes; Mock, Michéle; Hegna, Ida; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2000-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are members of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, demonstrating widely different phenotypes and pathological effects. B. anthracis causes the acute fatal disease anthrax and is a potential biological weapon due to its high toxicity. B. thuringiensis produces intracellular protein crystals toxic to a wide number of insect larvae and is the most commonly used biological pesticide worldwide. B. cereus is a probably ubiquitous soil bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen that is a common cause of food poisoning. In contrast to the differences in phenotypes, we show by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and by sequence analysis of nine chromosomal genes that B. anthracis should be considered a lineage of B. cereus. This determination is not only a formal matter of taxonomy but may also have consequences with respect to virulence and the potential of horizontal gene transfer within the B. cereus group. PMID:10831447

  12. Documentation and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel; Moseley, Warren

    1990-01-01

    Traditional approaches to knowledge acquisition have focused on interviews. An alternative focuses on the documentation associated with a domain. Adopting a documentation approach provides some advantages during familiarization. A knowledge management tool was constructed to gain these advantages.

  13. Effects of Thermoradiation Treatments on the DNA of Bacillus Subtilis Endospores

    SciTech Connect

    JACOBS, JENNIFER A.; TURMAN, BOBBY N.; FAGUY, D.M.

    2002-06-01

    Endospores of the bacterium, Bacillus subfilis, have been shown to exhibit a synergistic rate of cell death when treated with particular levels of heat and ionizing radiation in combination. This synergism has been documented for a number of different organisms at various temperatures and radiation doses (Sivinski, H.D., D.M. Garst, M.C. Reynolds, C.A. Trauth, Jr., R.E. Trujillo, and W.J. Whitfield, ''The Synergistic Inactivation of Biological Systems by Thermoradiation,'' Industrial Sterilization, International Symposium, Amsterdam, 1972, Duke University Press, Durham, NC, pp. 305-335). However, the mechanism of the synergistic action is unknown. This study attempted to determine whether the mechanism of synergism was specifically connected to the DNA strand breakage--either single strand breakage or double strand breakage. Some work was also done to examine the effect of free radicals and ions created in the spore body by the radiation treatments, as well as to determine the functionality of repair enzymes following heat, radiation, and thermoradiation treatments. Bacillus subtilis spores were treated at combinations of 33 kr/hr, 15 kr/hr, 105 C, 85 C, 63 C, and 50 C. Some synergistic correlation was found with the number of double strand breaks, and a strong correlation was found with the number of single strand breaks. In cases displaying synergism of spore killing, single strand breakage while the DNA was in a denatured state is suspected as a likely mechanism. DNA was damaged more by irradiation in the naked state than when encased within the spore, indicating that the spore encasement provides an overall protective effect from radiation damage in spite of free radicals and ions which may be created from molecules other than the DNA molecule within the spore body. Repair enzymes were found to be functional following treatments by radiation only, heat only, and thermoradiation.

  14. JSC document index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

  15. STUDIES ON BACILLUS WELCHII WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO GAS GANGRENE

    PubMed Central

    Simonds, J. P.

    1917-01-01

    1. Spores of the Bacillus welchii group of bacteria were found on 100 per cent of the uniforms of Belgian soldiers who had come directly from the trenches, and in the meshes of all the samples examined of the new cloth from which the uniforms were made. 2. In fifteen out of twenty fresh war wounds members of this group of bacteria were found. Of the fifteen patients, only three later developed gas gangrene. Once the spores of Bacillus welchii have been carried into a wound the deep-lying lacerated muscle tissue appears to be the most important factor in the onset of gas gangrene. 3. Bacillus welchii is able to grow and produce gas in broth containing up to 40 per cent saccharose. Some strains were able to multiply and produce gas in 50 per cent saccharose broth; but none of those examined were able to grow when the concentration of the sugar reached 60 per cent. 4. The bubbling of pure oxygen through milk or dextrose broth cultures of Bacillus welchii has a definite depressor action on the production of gas. This does not appear to be-due to a reduced number of organisms in the culture. PMID:19868125

  16. Guidelines for Document Designers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felker, Daniel B.; And Others

    Intended to improve the quality of public documents by making them clearer to the people who use them, this book contains document design principles concerned with writing documents that are visually distinct, attractive, and easily understood. Following an introduction, the major portion of the book presents the 25 principles, each of which…

  17. Documenting Employee Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Jason

    2009-01-01

    One of the best ways for a child care program to lose an employment-related lawsuit is failure to document the performance of its employees. Documentation of an employee's performance can provide evidence of an employment-related decision such as discipline, promotion, or discharge. When properly implemented, documentation of employee performance…

  18. Program analysis for documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lolmaugh, G. H.

    1970-01-01

    A program analysis for documentation (PAD) written in FORTRAN has three steps: listing the variables, describing the structure and writing the program specifications. Technical notes on editing criteria for reviewing program documentation, technical notes for PAD, and FORTRAN program analyzer for documentation are appended.

  19. Automated Management Of Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy

    1995-01-01

    Report presents main technical issues involved in computer-integrated documentation. Problems associated with automation of management and maintenance of documents analyzed from perspectives of artificial intelligence and human factors. Technologies that may prove useful in computer-integrated documentation reviewed: these include conventional approaches to indexing and retrieval of information, use of hypertext, and knowledge-based artificial-intelligence systems.

  20. Documents and Civic Duties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    All of the documents featured in this article come from the holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration. Primary source documents illustrate what is meant by responsible citizenship. The people who create documents as well as those who are featured in them can serve as models of civic behavior--both appropriate and…

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis and Its Pesticidal Crystal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schnepf, E.; Crickmore, N.; Van Rie, J.; Lereclus, D.; Baum, J.; Feitelson, J.; Zeigler, D. R.; Dean, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    During the past decade the pesticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the complex relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of the organism’s pesticidal crystal proteins, and a coherent picture of these relationships is beginning to emerge. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins, their performance in agricultural and other natural settings, and the evolution of resistance mechanisms in target pests. Armed with this knowledge base and with the tools of modern biotechnology, researchers are now reporting promising results in engineering more-useful toxins and formulations, in creating transgenic plants that express pesticidal activity, and in constructing integrated management strategies to insure that these products are utilized with maximum efficiency and benefit. PMID:9729609

  2. ES H action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains planned actions to correct the deficiencies identified in the Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA), January 1991, of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL -- Albuquerque, New Mexico; Tonopah, Nevada; and Kauai, Hawaii). The Self-Assessment was conducted by a Self-Assessment Working Group consisting of 19 department managers, with support from Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) professionals, from October through December 1990. Findings from other past audits, dating back to 1985, were reviewed and compared with the PTTSA findings to determine if additional findings, key findings, or root causes were warranted. The resulting ES H Action Plan and individual planned actions were prepared by the ES H Action Plan Project Group with assistance from the Program owners/authors during February and March 1991. The plan was reviewed by SNL Management in April 1991. This document serves as a planning instrument for the Laboratories to aid in the scoping and sizing of activities related to ES H compliance for the coming five years. It will be modified as required to ensure a workload/funding balance and to address the findings resulting from the Tiger Team assessment at SNL, Albuquerque. The process of producing this document has served well to prepare SNL, Albuquerque, for the coming task of producing the required post-Tiger Team action plan document. 8 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of Three Methods for Discrimination of Bacillus anthracis From Other Bacillus Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    EVALUATION OF THREE METHODS FOR DISCRIMINATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS FROM OTHER BACILLUS SPECIES. Diane L. Dutt Geo-Centers Aberdeen...ABSTRACT Bacillus anthracis shares the same ecological niche with other members of the B. cereus group: especially B. cereus and B. thuringiensis...Techniques that differentiate among Bacillus species using metabolic characteristics can be used to compliment PCR-based methods. These

  4. Starlink Document Styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawden, M. D.

    This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

  5. PSD Guidance Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. Bacillus novalis sp. nov., Bacillus vireti sp. nov., Bacillus soli sp. nov., Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov., from the Drentse A grasslands.

    PubMed

    Heyrman, Jeroen; Vanparys, Bram; Logan, Niall A; Balcaen, An; Rodríguez-Díaz, Marina; Felske, Andreas; De Vos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    A group of 42 isolates were isolated from the soil of several disused hay fields, in the Drentse A agricultural research area (The Netherlands), that were taken out of production at different times. The group represents hitherto-uncultured Bacillus lineages that have previously been found, by a non-cultural method, to be predominant in soil. The strains were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study, including (GTG)5-PCR, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base-ratio determination, fatty acid analysis and morphological and biochemical characterization. By comparing the groupings obtained by (GTG)5-PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, six clusters of similar strains could be recognized. A DNA-DNA relatedness study showed that these clusters represented five novel genospecies. Further analysis supported the proposal of five novel species in the genus Bacillus, namely Bacillus novalis sp. nov. (type strain IDA3307T=R-15439T=LMG 21837T=DSM 15603T), Bacillus vireti sp. nov. (type strain IDA3632T=R-15447T=LMG 21834T=DSM 15602T), Bacillus soli sp. nov. (type strain IDA0086T=R-16300T=LMG 21838T=DSM 15604T), Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. (type strain IDA1115T=R-16315T=LMG 21833T=DSM 15601T) and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov. (type strain IDA1967T=R-16337T=LMG 21831T=DSM 15600T).

  7. 40 CFR 300.160 - Documentation and cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation and cost recovery. 300... CONTINGENCY PLAN Responsibility and Organization for Response § 300.160 Documentation and cost recovery. (a... actions taken under the NCP and to form the basis for cost recovery. In general, documentation shall...

  8. 40 CFR 300.160 - Documentation and cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Documentation and cost recovery. 300... CONTINGENCY PLAN Responsibility and Organization for Response § 300.160 Documentation and cost recovery. (a... actions taken under the NCP and to form the basis for cost recovery. In general, documentation shall...

  9. Capsule Depolymerase Overexpression Reduces Bacillus anthracis Virulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Friedlander, A. M. (2004). The NheA component of the non- hemolytic enterotoxin of Bacillus cereus is produced by Bacillus anthracis but is not required for...Capsule depolymerase overexpression reduces Bacillus anthracis virulence Angelo Scorpio,3 Donald J. Chabot, William A. Day,4 Timothy A. Hoover and...depolymerase (CapD) is a c-glutamyl transpeptidase and a product of the Bacillus anthracis capsule biosynthesis operon. In this study, we examined the

  10. Modeling Thermal Inactivation of Bacillus Spores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    models which theorize damage to Bacillus spores by various methods. These models use multiple Bacillus species such as anthracis, cereus , and subtilis...MODELING THERMAL INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES THESIS Emily A. Knight Captain, USAF AFIT/GAM/ENC/09-01 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY...United States Government. AFIT/GAM/ENC/09-01 MODELING THERMAL INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Mathematics

  11. Complete Genome Sequences for 35 Biothreat Assay-Relevant Bacillus Species

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Davenport, Karen W.; ...

    2015-04-30

    In 2011, the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) International released a list of Bacillus strains relevant to biothreat molecular detection assays. Presented in this document are the complete and annotated genome assemblies for the 15 strains listed on the inclusivity panel, as well as the 20 strains listed on the exclusivity panel.

  12. Protein secretion in Bacillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Simonen, M; Palva, I

    1993-01-01

    Bacilli secrete numerous proteins into the environment. Many of the secretory proteins, their export signals, and their processing steps during secretion have been characterized in detail. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms of protein secretion have been relatively poorly characterized. However, several components of the protein secretion machinery have been identified and cloned recently, which is likely to lead to rapid expansion of the knowledge of the protein secretion mechanism in Bacillus species. Comparison of the presently known export components of Bacillus species with those of Escherichia coli suggests that the mechanism of protein translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane is conserved among gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria differences are found in steps preceding and following the translocation process. Many of the secretory proteins of bacilli are produced industrially, but several problems have been encountered in the production of Bacillus heterologous secretory proteins. In the final section we discuss these problems and point out some possibilities to overcome them. PMID:8464403

  13. 14 CFR 1216.310 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... actions. (a) Classification does not relieve NASA of the requirement to assess, document, and consider the environmental impacts of a proposed action. (b) When classified information can reasonably be separated...

  14. Superfund Removal Guidance for Preparing Action Memoranda

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dated September 2009, this updates and replaces previous documents. An Action Memo (AM) should substantiate need for removal action based upon criteria in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). Includes AM template.

  15. Toward Parallel Document Clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Mogill, Jace A.; Haglin, David J.

    2011-09-01

    A key challenge to automated clustering of documents in large text corpora is the high cost of comparing documents in a multimillion dimensional document space. The Anchors Hierarchy is a fast data structure and algorithm for localizing data based on a triangle inequality obeying distance metric, the algorithm strives to minimize the number of distance calculations needed to cluster the documents into “anchors” around reference documents called “pivots”. We extend the original algorithm to increase the amount of available parallelism and consider two implementations: a complex data structure which affords efficient searching, and a simple data structure which requires repeated sorting. The sorting implementation is integrated with a text corpora “Bag of Words” program and initial performance results of end-to-end a document processing workflow are reported.

  16. Tobacco documents research methodology

    PubMed Central

    McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings. PMID:21504933

  17. Novel Routes for Improving Biocontrol Activity of Bacillus Based Bioinoculants

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liming; Wu, Hui-Jun; Qiao, Junqing; Gao, Xuewen; Borriss, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Biocontrol (BC) formulations prepared from plant-growth-promoting bacteria are increasingly applied in sustainable agriculture. Especially inoculants prepared from endospore-forming Bacillus strains have been proven as efficient and environmental-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides due to their long shelf life, which is comparable with that of agrochemicals. However, these formulations of the first generation are sometimes hampered in their action and do not fulfill in each case the expectations of the appliers. In this review we use the well-known plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens type strain FZB42 as example for the successful application of different techniques offered today by comparative, evolutionary and functional genomics, site-directed mutagenesis and strain construction including marker removal, for paving the way for preparing a novel generation of BC agents. PMID:26696998

  18. School Reform in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Christine

    This study describes and analyzes the impact on student learning and the learning environment of 55 schools in Broward, Palm Beach, and Miami-Dade school districts as they implemented the schoolwide action-research framework for school improvement. Interviews, observations, document review during site visits, school framework reports, surveys,…

  19. Action Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and…

  20. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteriophages (phages) have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here. PMID:25010767

  1. A comparison of the RCRA Corrective Action and CERCLA Remedial Action Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Traceski, Thomas T.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a comprehensive side-by-side comparison of the RCRA corrective action and the CERCLA remedial action processes. On the even-numbered pages a discussion of the RCRA corrective action process is presented and on the odd-numbered pages a comparative discussion of the CERCLA remedial action process can be found. Because the two programs have a difference structure, there is not always a direct correlation between the two throughout the document. This document serves as an informative reference for Departmental and contractor personnel responsible for oversight or implementation of RCRA corrective action and CERCLA remedial action activities at DOE environmental restoration sites.

  2. System Documentation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmel, Melvyn I.; Olson, Jerry

    The document is a system documentation manual of the Computer-Assisted Teacher Training System (CATTS) developed by the Center for Innovation in Teaching the Handicapped (Indiana University). CATTS is characterized as a system capable of providing continuous, instantaneous, and/or delayed feedback of relevant teacher-student interaction data to a…

  3. IDC System Specification Document.

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  4. Document Design: Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Deborah C., Ed.; Dyrud, Marilyn, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Presents four articles that provide suggestions for teaching document design: (1) "Teaching the Rhetoric of Document Design" (Michael J. Hassett); (2) "Teaching by Example: Suggestions for Assignment Design" (Marilyn A. Dyrud); (3) "Teaching the Page as a Visual Unit" (Bill Hart-Davidson); and (4) "Designing a…

  5. NASA Software Documentation Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  6. 24 CFR 55.27 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management § 55.27 Documentation. (a... outside the floodplain, but within the local housing market area, the local public utility service area... the proposed action on the affected floodplain as identified in § 55.20(d) have been applied to...

  7. 24 CFR 55.27 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management § 55.27 Documentation. (a... outside the floodplain, but within the local housing market area, the local public utility service area... the proposed action on the affected floodplain as identified in § 55.20(d) have been applied to...

  8. 24 CFR 55.27 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management § 55.27 Documentation. (a... outside the floodplain, but within the local housing market area, the local public utility service area... the proposed action on the affected floodplain as identified in § 55.20(d) have been applied to...

  9. 24 CFR 55.27 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management § 55.27 Documentation. (a... outside the floodplain, but within the local housing market area, the local public utility service area... the proposed action on the affected floodplain as identified in § 55.20(d) have been applied to...

  10. Insecticidal activity of Bacillus laterosporus.

    PubMed

    Orlova, M V; Smirnova, T A; Ganushkina, L A; Yacubovich, V Y; Azizbekyan, R R

    1998-07-01

    The Bacillus laterosporus strains 921 and 615 were shown to have toxicity for larvae of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex pipiens. The larvicidal activity of B. laterosporus was associated with spores and crystalline inclusions. Purified B. laterosporus 615 crystals were highly toxic for Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.

  11. Combined Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis infection in a patient with oesophageal perforation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, You La; Yang, John Jeongseok; Kim, Min Jin; Lim, Gayoung; Cho, Sun Young; Park, Tae Sung; Suh, Jin-Tae; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Mi Suk; Kim, Soo Cheol; Lee, Hee Joo

    2012-12-01

    Species of the genus Bacillus are a common laboratory contaminant, therefore, isolation of these organisms from blood cultures does not always indicate infection. In fact, except for Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, most species of the genus Bacillus are not considered human pathogens, especially in immunocompetent individuals. Here, we report an unusual presentation of bacteraemia and mediastinitis due to co-infection with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis, which were identified by 16S RNA gene sequencing, in a patient with an oesophageal perforation.

  12. Characterisation and profiling of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis by MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Fernández-No, I C; Böhme, K; Díaz-Bao, M; Cepeda, A; Barros-Velázquez, J; Calo-Mata, P

    2013-04-01

    The Bacillus genus includes species such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis, some of which may be pathogenic or causative agents in the spoilage of food products. The main goal of this work was to apply matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass fingerprinting to the classification of these Bacillus species. Genetic analyses were also compared to phyloproteomic analyses. A collection of 57 Bacillus strains isolated from fresh and processed food and from culture collections were studied and their mass spectra compiled. The resulting mass fingerprints were compared and characteristic peaks at the strain and species levels were assigned. The results showed that MALDI-TOF was a good complementary approach to 16S rRNA sequencing and even a more powerful tool in the accurate classification of Bacillus species, especially for differentiating B. subtilis and B. cereus from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus thuringiensis, respectively. MALDI-TOF was also found to provide valuable information at both intra- and interspecies levels in the Bacillus species studied.

  13. Antimicrobial peptides of the genus Bacillus: a new era for antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Chandra Datta; Yang, Byung Wook; Yeo, In-Cheol; Hahm, Young Tae

    2015-02-01

    The rapid onset of resistance reduces the efficacy of most conventional antimicrobial drugs and is a general cause of concern for human well-being. Thus, there is great demand for a continuous supply of novel antibiotics to combat this problem. Bacteria-derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have long been used as food preservatives; moreover, prior to the development of conventional antibiotics, these AMPs served as an efficient source of antibiotics. Recently, peptides produced by members of the genus Bacillus were shown to have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microbes. Bacillus-derived AMPs can be synthesized both ribosomally and nonribosomally and can be classified according to peptide biosynthesis, structure, and molecular weight. The precise mechanism of action of these AMPs is not yet clear; however, one proposed mechanism is that these AMPs kill bacteria by forming channels in and (or) disrupting the bacterial cell wall. Bacillus-derived AMPs have potential in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the food and agricultural sectors. Here, we focus on Bacillus-derived AMPs as a novel alternative approach to antibacterial drug development. We also provide an overview of the biosynthesis, mechanisms of action, applications, and effectiveness of different AMPs produced by members of the Bacillus genus, including several recently identified novel AMPs.

  14. American Samoa: Energy Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, J. Erik; Haase, Scott; Conrad, Misty

    2016-09-01

    This document outlines actions being taken to reduce American Samoa's petroleum consumption. It describes the four near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee during action-planning workshops conducted in May 2016, and describes the steps that will need to be taken to implement those strategies.

  15. NACA documents database project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ruth S.

    1991-01-01

    The plan to get all the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) collection online, with quality records, led to the NACA Documents Data base Project. The project has a two fold purpose: (1) to develop the definitive bibliography of NACA produced and/or held documents; and (2) to make that bibliography and the associated documents available to the aerospace community. This study supports the first objective by providing an analysis of the NACA collection and its bibliographic records, and supports the second objective by defining the NACA archive and recommending methodologies for meeting the project objectives.

  16. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  17. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  18. Bacillus thiaminolyticus sp. nov., nom. rev.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, L K

    1990-07-01

    The name "Bacillus thiaminolyticus" Kuno 1951 was not included on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and has lost standing in bacteriological nomenclature. The genetic homogeneity of "Bacillus thiaminolyticus" was assessed by determining guanine-plus-cytosine contents by the buoyant density method and by measuring DNA relatedness by using spectrophotometric reassociation procedures. Of the 26 strains which I studied, 24 had guanine-plus-cytosine contents in the range from 52 to 54 mol%. The consistently high DNA relatedness values of 60 to 100% of these 24 strains to the type strain indicated that the "B. thiaminolyticus" group is genetically homogeneous. Low DNA relatedness values of 20 to 31% showed that "B. thiaminolyticus" is genetically unrelated to Bacillus alvei, "Bacillus aneurinolyticus," "Bacillus apiarius," Bacillus larvae, Bacillus laterosporus, Bacillus macerans, and Bacillus stearothermophilus. In general, the "B. thiaminolyticus" group was highly homogeneous for 49 phenotypic characteristics and clearly distinguishable from B. alvei, with which it was allegedly synonymous. On the basis of these findings, revival of the name Bacillus thiaminolyticus is proposed.

  19. Transportation System Requirements Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  20. Geochemistry Technical Basis Document

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, Jr., F. Christopher; Rose, Timothy P.; Thomas, James M.; Waddell, Richard; Jacobson, Roger

    2003-12-01

    This document presents a methodology whereby geochemical data can more effectively contribute to the development , calibration, and verification of groundwater flow and slute transport models for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project.

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period of January-June 1996. The report includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violations sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to the enforcement actions.

  2. LCS Content Document Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  3. Photothermal spectroscopy of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus with microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    Wig, Andrew G; Arakawa, Edward T; Passian, Ali; Ferrell, Thomas L; Thundat, Thomas George

    2006-03-01

    Microcalorimetric optical and infrared spectroscopy is a method of determining the spectral absorption of small quantities of materials over a wide range of incident wavelengths. In this paper, the first spectroscopic results for microcantilevers coated with Bacillus anthracis (BA) are presented. These results, for B. anthracis from 2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m, are compared with results from microcantilevers coated with Bacillus cereus (BC) and standard spectroscopic absorption data. The results demonstrate strong correlation between the deflection measurements and the reference spectroscopic absorption peaks. An advantage of this microcantilever-based method over traditional spectroscopy is that much smaller amounts of material (nanogram quantities) can be detected in comparison with the milligram amounts needed for standard methods. Another advantage is that the complete system can be relatively small without sacrificing spectral resolution.

  4. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  5. Environmental Persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis Spores

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Joseph P.; Meyer, Kathryn M.; Kelly, Thomas J.; Choi, Young W.; Rogers, James V.; Riggs, Karen B.; Willenberg, Zachary J.

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of data for how the viability of biological agents may degrade over time in different environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores on outdoor materials with and without exposure to simulated sunlight, using ultraviolet (UV)-A/B radiation. Spores were inoculated onto glass, wood, concrete, and topsoil and recovered after periods of 2, 14, 28, and 56 days. Recovery and inactivation kinetics for the two species were assessed for each surface material and UV exposure condition. Results suggest that with exposure to UV, decay of spore viability for both Bacillus species occurs in two phases, with an initial rapid decay, followed by a slower inactivation period. The exception was with topsoil, in which there was minimal loss of spore viability in soil over 56 days, with or without UV exposure. The greatest loss in viable spore recovery occurred on glass with UV exposure, with nearly a four log10 reduction after just two days. In most cases, B. subtilis had a slower rate of decay than B. anthracis, although less B. subtilis was recovered initially. PMID:26372011

  6. Environmental Persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis Spores.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joseph P; Meyer, Kathryn M; Kelly, Thomas J; Choi, Young W; Rogers, James V; Riggs, Karen B; Willenberg, Zachary J

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of data for how the viability of biological agents may degrade over time in different environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores on outdoor materials with and without exposure to simulated sunlight, using ultraviolet (UV)-A/B radiation. Spores were inoculated onto glass, wood, concrete, and topsoil and recovered after periods of 2, 14, 28, and 56 days. Recovery and inactivation kinetics for the two species were assessed for each surface material and UV exposure condition. Results suggest that with exposure to UV, decay of spore viability for both Bacillus species occurs in two phases, with an initial rapid decay, followed by a slower inactivation period. The exception was with topsoil, in which there was minimal loss of spore viability in soil over 56 days, with or without UV exposure. The greatest loss in viable spore recovery occurred on glass with UV exposure, with nearly a four log10 reduction after just two days. In most cases, B. subtilis had a slower rate of decay than B. anthracis, although less B. subtilis was recovered initially.

  7. 1992 Conversion Resources Supply Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    In recent years conservation of electric power has become an integral part of utility planning. The 1980 Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act) requires that the region consider conservation potential in planning acquisitions of resources to meet load growth. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) developed its first estimates of conservation potential in 1982. Since that time BPA has updated its conservation supply analyses as a part of its Resource Program and other planning efforts. Major updates were published in 1985 and in January 1990. This 1992 document presents updated supply curves, which are estimates of the savings potential over time (cumulative savings) at different cost levels of energy conservation measures (ECMs). ECMs are devices, pieces of equipment, or actions that increase the efficiency of electricity use and reduce the amount of electricity used by end-use equipment.

  8. 78 FR 41412 - Notice of Availability of Policy Document

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Notice of Availability of Policy Document AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Final Agency Guidance and... . Background: HHS' Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) provides grants to eligible...

  9. Spore Size Comparison Between Several Bacillus Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    Spore Size Comparison Between Several Bacillus Species Ruben O. Zandomeni1, Joseph E. Fitzgibbon2, Monica Carrera1, Edward Stuebing2, James E...OCT 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Spore Size Comparison Between Several Bacillus Species 5a. CONTRACT...Systematic comparison of the size of B.anthracis spores to size of other Bacillus spores (simulants/surrogates) - all spores produced under the same

  10. Morphogenesis of the Bacillus anthracis Spore

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    layers in B. subtilis is unknown. Unlike B. subtilis, in B. anthracis, Bacillus megaterium , and other species, the spore is surrounded by an additional...nonpathogenic species including B. megaterium and Bacillus odysseyi (45, 85), suggesting that their primary role need not be in disease. Nonetheless, the exospo...S. 1994. Prime time for Bacillus megaterium . Microbiology 140:1001– 1013. 86. Warth, A. D., D. F. Ohye, and W. G. Murrell. 1963. The composition and

  11. Screening for Bacillus Isolates in the Broiler Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Teresa M.; Serra, Cláudia R.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Henriques, Adriano O.

    2005-01-01

    Spores from a number of different Bacillus species are currently being used as human and animal probiotics, although their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we describe the isolation of 237 presumptive gut-associated Bacillus spp. isolates that were obtained by heat and ethanol treatment of fecal material from organically reared broilers followed by aerobic plating. Thirty-one representative isolates were characterized according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties as well as partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and screening for the presence of plasmid DNA. The Bacillus species identified included B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. clausii, B. megaterium, B. firmus, and species of the B. cereus group, whereas a number of our isolates could not be classified. Intrinsic properties of potential importance for survival in the gut that could be advantageous for spore-forming probiotics were further investigated for seven isolates belonging to five different species. All isolates sporulated efficiently in the laboratory, and the resulting spores were tolerant to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. They also exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including food spoilage and pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Importantly, the isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, arguing that they would not act as donors for resistance determinants if introduced in the form of probiotic preparations. Together, our results suggest that some of the sporeformers isolated in this study have the potential to persist in or transiently associate with the complex gut ecosystem. PMID:15691955

  12. Screening for bacillus isolates in the broiler gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Teresa M; Serra, Cláudia R; La Ragione, Roberto M; Woodward, Martin J; Henriques, Adriano O

    2005-02-01

    Spores from a number of different Bacillus species are currently being used as human and animal probiotics, although their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we describe the isolation of 237 presumptive gut-associated Bacillus spp. isolates that were obtained by heat and ethanol treatment of fecal material from organically reared broilers followed by aerobic plating. Thirty-one representative isolates were characterized according to their morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties as well as partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and screening for the presence of plasmid DNA. The Bacillus species identified included B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. clausii, B. megaterium, B. firmus, and species of the B. cereus group, whereas a number of our isolates could not be classified. Intrinsic properties of potential importance for survival in the gut that could be advantageous for spore-forming probiotics were further investigated for seven isolates belonging to five different species. All isolates sporulated efficiently in the laboratory, and the resulting spores were tolerant to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. They also exhibited antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including food spoilage and pathogenic organisms such as Bacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Importantly, the isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, arguing that they would not act as donors for resistance determinants if introduced in the form of probiotic preparations. Together, our results suggest that some of the sporeformers isolated in this study have the potential to persist in or transiently associate with the complex gut ecosystem.

  13. Document Concurrence System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list has concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

  14. Standardizing Documentation of FITS Headers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourcle, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Although the FITS file format[1] can be self-documenting, human intervention is often needed to read the headers to write the necessary transformations to make a given instrument team's data compatible with our preferred analysis package. External documentation may be needed to determine what the values are of coded values or unfamiliar acronyms.Different communities have interpreted keywords slightly differently. This has resulted in ambiguous fields such as DATE-OBS, which could be either the start or mid-point of an observation.[2]Conventions for placing units and additional information within the comments of a FITS card exist, but they require re-writing the FITS file. This operation can be quite costly for large archives, and should not be taken lightly when dealing with issues of digital preservation.We present what we believe is needed for a machine-actionable external file describing a given collection of FITS files. We seek comments from data producers, archives, and those writing software to help develop a single, useful, implementable standard.References:[1] Pence, et.al. 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201015362[2] Rots, et.al, (in preparation), http://hea-www.cfa.harvard.edu arots/TimeWCS/

  15. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS DOCUMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Health and Environmental Effects Documents (HEEDS) are prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). This document series is intended to support listings under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as to provide health-related limits and goals for emergency and remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency Program Office files are evaluated as they pertain to potential human health, aquatic life and environmental effects of hazardous waste constituents. Several quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. For systemic toxicants, these include Reference Doses (RfDs) for chronic and subchronic exposures for both the inhalation and oral exposures. In the case of suspected carcinogens, RfDs may not be estimated. Instead, a carcinogenic potency factor, or q1*, is provided. These potency estimates are derived for both oral and inhalation exposures where possible. In addition, unit risk estimates for air and drinking water are presented based on inhalation and oral data, respectively. Reportable quantities (RQs) based on both chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity are derived. The RQ is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified under CERCLA.

  16. System Documentation: A Symposium on Printer Documentation for Computer Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Denise, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This symposium on printed documentation covers (1) Tacoma Public Library's documentation (Lare Mischo); (2) characteristics of bad documentation (Linda Bills); (3) GEAC manuals (Joe Matthews); (4) Personal Bibliographic Software manuals (Victor Rosenberg); (5) DIALOG documentation (Barbara E. Anderson); (6) documentation problems and improvements…

  17. Computer integrated documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy

    1991-01-01

    The main technical issues of the Computer Integrated Documentation (CID) project are presented. The problem of automation of documents management and maintenance is analyzed both from an artificial intelligence viewpoint and from a human factors viewpoint. Possible technologies for CID are reviewed: conventional approaches to indexing and information retrieval; hypertext; and knowledge based systems. A particular effort was made to provide an appropriate representation for contextual knowledge. This representation is used to generate context on hypertext links. Thus, indexing in CID is context sensitive. The implementation of the current version of CID is described. It includes a hypertext data base, a knowledge based management and maintenance system, and a user interface. A series is also presented of theoretical considerations as navigation in hyperspace, acquisition of indexing knowledge, generation and maintenance of a large documentation, and relation to other work.

  18. Perceptions of document relevance

    PubMed Central

    Bruza, Peter; Chang, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q–test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances. PMID:25071622

  19. Bacillus cereus, a volatile human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Bottone, Edward J

    2010-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely distributed environmentally. While B. cereus is associated mainly with food poisoning, it is being increasingly reported to be a cause of serious and potentially fatal non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. The pathogenicity of B. cereus, whether intestinal or nonintestinal, is intimately associated with the production of tissue-destructive exoenzymes. Among these secreted toxins are four hemolysins, three distinct phospholipases, an emesis-inducing toxin, and proteases. The major hurdle in evaluating B. cereus when isolated from a clinical specimen is overcoming its stigma as an insignificant contaminant. Outside its notoriety in association with food poisoning and severe eye infections, this bacterium has been incriminated in a multitude of other clinical conditions such as anthrax-like progressive pneumonia, fulminant sepsis, and devastating central nervous system infections, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals, intravenous drug abusers, and neonates. Its role in nosocomial acquired bacteremia and wound infections in postsurgical patients has also been well defined, especially when intravascular devices such as catheters are inserted. Primary cutaneous infections mimicking clostridial gas gangrene induced subsequent to trauma have also been well documented. B. cereus produces a potent beta-lactamase conferring marked resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrobials noted to be effective in the empirical management of a B. cereus infection while awaiting antimicrobial susceptibility results for the isolate include ciprofloxacin and vancomycin.

  20. Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Sanfilippo, Antonio; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2009-12-22

    Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

  1. Comparison of Bacillus Anthracis to the Surrogate Bacillus Atrophaeus for Spore Inactivation on a Novel Antimicrobial Fabric

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    AFRL-HE-WP-TP-2006-0061 AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Comparison of Bacillus Anthracis to the Surrogate Bacillus Atrophaeus for Spore Inactivation on...CONTRACT NUMBER Comparison of Bacillus Anthracis to the Surrogate Bacillus Atrophaeus for Spore Inactivation on a Novel Antimicrobial Fabric 5b. GRANT NUMBER...239.18 Comparison of Bacillus anthracis to the Surrogate Bacillus atrophaeus for Spore Inactivation on a Novel Antimicrobial Fabric Christopher C

  2. Customer Communication Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

  3. Related environmental documents

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report is a listing of related environmental documents used in the drafting of this report. Specifically, the documents are the final environmental impact statements for: (1) Bellefonte Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (2) Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant 1, 2, & 3, (3) Sequoyah Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (4) Watts Bar Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (5) Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Facility, (6) Policies relating to rates, (7) Tennessee River and reservoir system operation and planning, (8) Policies related to the use of coal.

  4. 7 CFR 1780.83 - Bond transcript documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Bonds and Bond Transcript Documents for Public Body Applicants § 1780.83 Bond transcript documents. Any... of the governing body at which action was taken in connection with the authorizing and issuing of the... or validity of the obligation. It is permissible for such opinion to contain language referring...

  5. 78 FR 48457 - Correction of Document Revoking Customs Broker Licenses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Correction of Document Revoking Customs Broker Licenses AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Correction of document revoking certain customs broker licenses. SUMMARY: In a notice published in the Federal Register...

  6. 75 FR 66319 - State Systems Advance Planning Document (APD) Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 95 RIN 0970-AC33 State Systems Advance Planning Document (APD) Process AGENCY... Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Advance Planning Document (APD) process... and Human Services (HHS) provides national leadership and direction in planning, managing,...

  7. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  8. Motivation through Routine Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koth, Laurie J.

    2016-01-01

    This informed commentary article offers a simple, effective classroom management strategy in which the teacher uses routine documentation to motivate students both to perform academically and to behave in a manner consistent with established classroom rules and procedures. The pragmatic strategy is grounded in literature, free to implement,…

  9. Teaching America's Founding Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, James

    1993-01-01

    Reflects on the author's experiences teaching a course on great documents in American history to high school students, concentrating on teaching the Declaration of Independence and the "Federalist Papers." Countering the students' tendencies toward superficial reading and encouraging deep analysis are the teacher's primary goals. (SLD)

  10. Using Primary Source Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

  11. Extremely secure identification documents

    SciTech Connect

    Tolk, K.M.; Bell, M.

    1997-09-01

    The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office.

  12. The Iranian Documentation Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    The purpose of the Iranian Documentation Centr (Irandoc) was to collect that portion of the world's literature which was pertinent to Iran's research interests, to organize that material, and to promote its use by Iranian researchers. Stated more succinctly, Irandoc's purpose was to obtain ready access to the world's scientific literature in order…

  13. ELT Documents, January 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    The theme of this issue of ELT Documents is the use of the language laboratory in language learning. An article by A. Maley summarizes the conference on the use of the language laboratory for advanced learners, held in Paris, 2-4 Oct. 1974, from which two main perspectives emerged. One is critical of the structuralist audio-lingual assumptions…

  14. Documenting Early Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jacqueline; Courtney, Rosalea

    2002-01-01

    Three principles that guide documentation and assessment of children's early science understanding are: collect a variety of forms of evidence, collect evidence over a period of time, and collect evidence on the understanding of groups of children as well as individuals. Information and insights gained from this process help teachers plan future…

  15. A selective chromogenic agar that distinguishes Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A; Gingras, Bruce A; Restaino, Lawrence; Frampton, Elon W

    2006-08-01

    A selective and differential plating medium, R & F anthracis chromogenic agar (ACA), has been developed for isolating and identifying presumptive colonies of Bacillus anthracis. ACA contains the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-choline phosphate that upon hydrolysis yields teal (blue green) colonies indicating the presence of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activity. Among seven Bacillus species tested on ACA, only members of the Bacillus cereus group (B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis) produced teal colonies (PC-PLC positive) having cream rings. Examination of colony morphology in 18 pure culture strains of B. anthracis (15 ATCC strains plus AMES-1-RIID, ANR-1, and AMED-RIID), with one exception, required 48 h at 35 to 37 degrees C for significant color production, whereas only 24 h was required for B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. This differential rate of PC-PLC synthesis in B. anthracis (due to the truncated plcR gene and PlcR regulator in B. anthracis) allowed for the rapid differentiation on ACA of presumptive colonies of B. anthracis from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in both pure and mixed cultures. Effective recovery of B. anthracis from a variety of matrices having both high (soil and sewage) and low microbial backgrounds (cloth, paper, and blood) spiked with B. anthracis ANR-1 spores suggests the probable utility of ACA plating for B. anthracis recovery in a diversity of applications.

  16. Complementary actions.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person's movements, (ii) to predict another person's future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one's own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception-action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  17. Complementary actions

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person’s movements, (ii) to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions. PMID:25983717

  18. TOXINS AND ANTITOXINS OF BACILLUS DYSENTERIAE SHIGA.

    PubMed

    Olitsky, P K; Kligler, I J

    1920-01-01

    With the methods which have been described we have separated an exotoxin and an endotoxin from cultures of the Shiga dysenteric bacillus. The study of the nature and effect of the poison of this microorganism is thus simplified. The two toxins are physically and biologically distinct. The exotoxin is relatively heat-labile, arises in the early period of growth, and yields an antiexotoxic immune serum. The endotoxin, on the other hand, is heat-stable, is formed in the later period of growth, and is not neutralized by the antiexotoxic serum. The exotoxin exhibits a specific affinity for the central nervous organs in the rabbit, giving rise to a characteristic lesion-mainly, hemorrhages, necroses, and possibly a perivascular infiltration in the gray matter of the upper spinal cord and medulla. The endotoxin exerts a typical action on the intestinal tract, producing edema, hemorrhages, necroses, and ulcerations, especially in the large intestine. In dysentery in man the intestinal lesions predominate, but in severe epidemics paralysis and neuritis have been observed (Osler(17)). These facts become specially significant from the standpoint of the serum therapy of bacillary dysentery. A potent antidysenteric serum should contain antibodies against the exotoxin as well as the endotoxin. That such a serum can be produced in horses has been experimentally demonstrated.

  19. 41 CFR 51-7.3 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in agency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making... environmental documents as a part of their decision-making: (1) Action: Request. (2) Start of NEPA process:...

  20. 41 CFR 51-7.3 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in agency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making... environmental documents as a part of their decision-making: (1) Action: Request. (2) Start of NEPA process:...

  1. 41 CFR 51-7.3 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in agency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making... environmental documents as a part of their decision-making: (1) Action: Request. (2) Start of NEPA process:...

  2. 41 CFR 51-7.3 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in agency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making... environmental documents as a part of their decision-making: (1) Action: Request. (2) Start of NEPA process:...

  3. 41 CFR 51-7.3 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in agency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making... environmental documents as a part of their decision-making: (1) Action: Request. (2) Start of NEPA process:...

  4. 75 FR 9607 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Guidance Document Request and Evaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; Guidance Document Request and Evaluation AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-Day notice and request for comments; new... and Programs Directorate. Title: Guidance Document Request and Evaluation. Form: Not Applicable....

  5. GLUCOSE CATABOLISM BY BACILLUS POPILLIAE AND BACILLUS LENTIMORBUS.

    PubMed

    PEPPER, R E; COSTILOW, R N

    1964-02-01

    Pepper, Rollin E. (Michigan State University, East Lansing), and Ralph N. Costilow. Glucose catabolism by Bacillus popilliae and Bacillus lentimorbus. J. Bacteriol. 87:303-310. 1964.-Resting cells of Bacillus popilliae and B. lentimorbus catabolize glucose with the production of CO(2), lactic acid, acetic acid, glycerol, ethanol, and trace amounts of acetoin and acetaldehyde. The first three products are the major ones, and their ratios may be varied by controlling the availability of oxygen. Practically no lactic acid is produced when oxygen is not limiting, whereas it may comprise up to 80% of the total acid when oxygen is greatly limited. However, no glucose is catabolized by resting cells in the absence of molecular oxygen. Isotope and inhibitor studies and assays for key enzymes of the established metabolic routes all indicate that these organisms utilize both the Embden-Meyerhof and hexosemonophosphate pathways for glucose dissimilation. With a concentrated resting-cell suspension, the extent of participation of the latter route was estimated to be as high as 40% in an atmosphere of pure oxygen, and as low as 2% in air. Acetate was oxidized by only one of the cultures of B. popilliae tested, which is apparently a mutant. Cells of this strain from stationary phase cultures oxidized acetate at pH 7.0 or higher, but not at pH 6.0; however, they oxidized succinate, fumarate, and malate more rapidly at pH 6.0 than at 7.0. The oxidation of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, the presence of condensing enzyme in extracts of cells capable of oxidizing acetate, and the complete inhibition of acetate oxidation by arsenite and partial inhibition by malonate all indicate that terminal oxidation of acetate by this strain of B. popilliae is via the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

  6. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

  7. 14 CFR 1261.406 - Aggressive collection action; documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSING OF MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Collection of Civil Claims of the United States Arising Out of the..., to collect all claims of the United States for money or property arising out of NASA activities,...

  8. Richland Environmental Restoration Project management action process document

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    A critical mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the planning, implementation, and completion of environmental restoration programs at DOE facilities. An integral part of this mission involves the safe and cost-effective environmental restoration of the Hanford Site. For over 40 years the Hanford Site supported United States national defense programs, largely through the production of nuclear materials. One legacy of historical Hanford Site operations is a significant waste inventory of radioactive and/or regulated chemical materials. Releases of these materials have, in some cases, contaminated the Hanford Site environment. The DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) is responsible for protecting human health and the environment from potential Hanford Site environmental hazards by identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks posed by contaminated sites.

  9. Redmedial Action, Decision Document, Leaseback Area, Alabama Army Ammunition Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    areas, finishing in January 1946. The government released the constructing and operating contractor in a final settlement in September 1946. During the...SuMDs 102-A Tank Farm 0 102-3 Tank Farm 0 102-C Tank Farm 0 104-A Wood ?ulp Dry House 0 104-3 Coton Dry House 0 I04-C Cotton Dry House 0 105-A

  10. 78 FR 22554 - Document to Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document-Specifications for File...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Internet may obtain the documents at either http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/Forms... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Document to Support Submission of an Electronic Common... Specifications; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food...

  11. Action plan for the Tiger Team assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-30

    This document contains responses and planned actions that address the findings of the Tiger Team Assessment of Brookhaven National Laboratory, June 1990. In addition, the document contains descriptions of the management and organizational structure to be used in conducting planned actions, root causes for the problems identified in the findings, responses, planned actions, schedules and milestones for completing planned actions, and, where known, costs associated with planned actions.

  12. Pacemaker-associated Bacillus cereus endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Barraud, Olivier; Hidri, Nadia; Ly, Kim; Pichon, Nicolas; Manea, Petrus; Ploy, Marie-Cécile; Garnier, Fabien

    2012-11-01

    We report the case of a pacemaker-associated Bacillus cereus endocarditis in a nonimmunocompromised patient. Antibiotic treatment was ineffective, and the pacemaker had to be removed. B. cereus was cultured from several blood samples and from the pacemaker electrodes. This case underlines the contribution of the rpoB gene for Bacillus species determination.

  13. Bovine Bacillus anthracis in Cameroon ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pilo, Paola; Rossano, Alexandra; Bamamga, Hamadou; Abdoulkadiri, Souley; Perreten, Vincent; Frey, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Bovine Bacillus anthracis isolates from Cameroon were genetically characterized. They showed a strong homogeneity, and they belong, together with strains from Chad, to cluster Aβ, which appears to be predominant in western Africa. However, one strain that belongs to a newly defined clade (D) and cluster (D1) is penicillin resistant and shows certain phenotypes typical of Bacillus cereus. PMID:21705535

  14. Do informed consent documents matter?

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2009-03-01

    This commentary argues that, despite extensive critiques of informed consent documents, there are several ethical and legal reasons for investigators and IRB members to take these documents seriously.

  15. [The effect of Bacillus intermedius RNAse on the multiplication of Candida tropicalis yeasts].

    PubMed

    Kupriianova-Ashina, F G; Kolpakov, A I; Egorov, S Iu

    1992-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus intermedius RNAse on the reproduction of Candida tropicalis and synthesis of the main biopolymers in the yeast cells. It has been found that stimulating action of the enzyme appears at the concentration of 10(-5)-10(-6) mg/ml and does not depend on the physiological state of the sowing culture. The connection between the increase of the ionic penetration and stimulation of the RNA and proteins synthesis in the yeast cells subjected to the RNAse action is shown. The mechanism of chromatine-associated RNA-polymerase activation is suggested to include the alteration of the ionic penetration of cells under the RNAse action.

  16. On the fate of ingested Bacillus spores.

    PubMed

    Spinosa, M R; Braccini, T; Ricca, E; De Felice, M; Morelli, L; Pozzi, G; Oggioni, M R

    2000-06-01

    Spores of various Bacillus species, including B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. clausii, are used as probiotics, although they are generally absent from the normal microflora of man. We used two nonpathogenic Bacillus species, B. subtilis and B. clausii, to follow the fate of spores inoculated intragastrically in mice. We did not find detectable amounts of vegetative cells in intestinal samples, probably because of high toxicity of the conjugated bile salt taurodeoxycholic acid against Bacillus species. Both spores and cells were detected in the lymph nodes and spleen of one mouse. Our results indicate that Bacillus is present in the intestinal tract solely as spores and that nonpathogenic Bacillus spores may germinate in lymphoid organs, a finding reminiscent of B. anthracis germination in macrophages. These results indicate that any claimed probiotic effect of B. subtilis should be due to spores or, alternatively, to vegetative growth outside the intestine.

  17. Sequential document visualization.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yi; Dillon, Joshua; Lebanon, Guy

    2007-01-01

    Documents and other categorical valued time series are often characterized by the frequencies of short range sequential patterns such as n-grams. This representation converts sequential data of varying lengths to high dimensional histogram vectors which are easily modeled by standard statistical models. Unfortunately, the histogram representation ignores most of the medium and long range sequential dependencies making it unsuitable for visualizing sequential data. We present a novel framework for sequential visualization of discrete categorical time series based on the idea of local statistical modeling. The framework embeds categorical time series as smooth curves in the multinomial simplex summarizing the progression of sequential trends. We discuss several visualization techniques based on the above framework and demonstrate their usefulness for document visualization.

  18. SANSMIC design document.

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Paula D.; Rudeen, David Keith

    2015-07-01

    The United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) maintains an underground storage system consisting of caverns that were leached or solution mined in four salt domes located near the Gulf of Mexico in Texas and Louisiana. The SPR comprises more than 60 active caverns containing approximately 700 million barrels of crude oil. Sandia National Labo- ratories (SNL) is the geotechnical advisor to the SPR. As the most pressing need at the inception of the SPR was to create and fill storage volume with oil, the decision was made to leach the caverns and fill them simultaneously (leach-fill). Therefore, A.J. Russo developed SANSMIC in the early 1980s which allows for a transient oil-brine interface (OBI) making it possible to model leach-fill and withdrawal operations. As the majority of caverns are currently filled to storage capacity, the primary uses of SANSMIC at this time are related to the effects of small and large withdrawals, expansion of existing caverns, and projecting future pillar to diameter ratios. SANSMIC was identified by SNL as a priority candidate for qualification. This report continues the quality assurance (QA) process by documenting the "as built" mathematical and numerical models that comprise this document. The pro- gram flow is outlined and the models are discussed in detail. Code features that were added later or were not documented previously have been expounded. No changes in the code's physics have occurred since the original documentation (Russo, 1981, 1983) although recent experiments may yield improvements to the temperature and plume methods in the future.

  19. Cadmium technical support document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This Position Document addresses the risks and benefits of pesticide products containing the subject active ingredient. The Agency has determined that the use of products containing the subject active ingredient may meet or exceed a risk criterion described in 40 CFR Part 154. Potential hazards will be examined further to determine the nature and extent of the risk, and considering the benefits of the subject active ingredient, whether such risks cause unreasonable adverse effects on the environment.

  20. Content Documents Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

  1. Diversity in the antibacterial potential of probiotic cultures Bacillus licheniformis MCC2514 and Bacillus licheniformis MCC2512.

    PubMed

    Shobharani, Papanna; Padmaja, Radhakrishnan J; Halami, Prakash M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristic diversity and stability of antimicrobial compounds produced by two probiotic strains of Bacillus licheniformis (MCC2514 and MCC2512). Antimicrobial compounds from the two strains notably varied, related to stability and potency. The inhibitory spectrum of B. licheniformis MCC2512 was higher than MCC2514, but, related to the effect on Micrococcus luteus ATCC9341, MCC2514 (LD50 = 450 AU ml(-1)) was more potent than MCC2512 (LD50 = 750 AU ml(-1)). The compounds were thermo-resistant and stable at a wide range of pH and exhibited considerable resistance to digestive enzymes and bile salts (anionic biological detergents), contributing to their appropriate application in various food systems. The isolate B. licheniformis MCC2512 gave a positive response to Bacillus subtilis-based biosensors BSF2470 and BS168.BS2, confirming the mode of action on the cell wall and subtilin-type, respectively. For B. licheniformis MCC2514, the mode of action was characterized by constructing B. subtilis reporters that interfered in five major biosynthetic pathways, i.e., biosynthesis of DNA, RNA, protein, the cell wall and fatty acids. B. licheniformis MCC2514 responded to the yvgS reporter, indicating it as an RNA synthesis inhibitor. Overall, the investigation reveals variability of the antimicrobial compounds from B. licheniformis of different origins and for their possible application as biopreservative agents.

  2. Tryptophanless Death in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Majerfeld, Irene; Barlati, Sergio; Ciferri, Orio

    1970-01-01

    A decline in colony-forming ability is observed in actively growing cultures of a tryptophan arginine auxotroph of Bacillus subtilis after removal of tryptophan (tryptophanless death). This phenomenon can be prevented by simultaneous starvation of the other required amino acid or by chloramphenicol administered in bacteriostatic concentration but not by actinomycin. Addition of tryptophan analogues not only prevents the death but also allows recovery of the cells that have lost the ability to form colonies on solid media. The term tryptophanless death is therefore inappropriate. Chloramphenicol but not actinomycin inhibits the recovery brought about by tryptophan analogues. PMID:4189906

  3. Fictibacillus phosphorivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. and proposal to reclassify Bacillus arsenicus, Bacillus barbaricus, Bacillus macauensis, Bacillus nanhaiensis, Bacillus rigui, Bacillus solisalsi and Bacillus gelatini in the genus Fictibacillus.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, Stefanie P; Dott, Wolfgang; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Kämpfer, Peter

    2013-08-01

    A Gram-positive-staining, aerobic, endospore-forming bacterium (Ca7(T)) was isolated from a bioreactor showing extensive phosphorus removal. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain Ca7(T) was grouped in the genus Bacillus, most closely related to Bacillus nanhaiensis JSM 082006(T) (100 %), Bacillus barbaricus V2-BIII-A2(T) (99.2 %) and Bacillus arsenicus Con a/3(T) (97.7 %). Moderate 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were found to the type strains of the species Bacillus gelatini and Bacillus rigui (96.4 %), Bacillus macauensis (95.1 %) and Bacillus solisalsi (96.1 %). All these species were grouped into a monophyletic cluster and showed very low sequence similarities (<94 %) to the type species of the genus Bacillus, Bacillus subtilis. The quinone system of strain Ca7(T) consists predominantly of menaquinone MK-7. The polar lipid profile exhibited the major compounds diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. In addition, minor compounds of an unidentified phospholipid and an aminophospholipid were detected. No glycolipids were found in strain Ca7(T), which was consistent with the lipid profiles of B. nanhaiensis, B. barbaricus, B. arsenicus, B. rigui, B. solisalsi, B. macauensis and B. gelatini, but in contrast to B. subtilis. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the polyamine pattern contained predominantly spermidine and spermine. The major fatty acids, which were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0, supported the grouping of strain Ca7(T) in the family Bacillaceae. The strain showed DNA-DNA similarities of 48 % (reciprocal 47 %) to B. nanhaiensis DSM 23009(T), 31 % (reciprocal 36 %) to B. barbaricus V2-BIII-A2(T) and 29 % (reciprocal 39 %) to B. arsenicus DSM 15822(T), respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that strain Ca7(T) is a representative of a novel species, which can be differentiated from its closest relatives by physiological and

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND PATHOGENESIS OF BACILLUS X (STERNBERG), BACILLUS ICTEROIDES (SANARELLI), AND THE HOG-CHOLERA BACILLUS (SALMON AND SMITH)

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Walter; Carroll, James

    1900-01-01

    1. Bacillus X (Sternberg) belongs to the colon group. 2. Bacillus icteroides (Sanarelli) is a member of the hog-cholera group. 3. The various channels of infection, the duration of the disease and the gross and microscopical lesions in mice, guinea-pigs and rabbits are the same for Bacillus icteroides and the hog-cholera bacillus. 4. The clinical symptoms and the lesions observed in dogs inoculated intravenously with Bacillus icteroides, are reproduced in these animals by infection with the hog-cholera bacillus. 5. Bacillus icteroides when fed to the domestic pig causes fatal infection, accompanied by diphtheritic, necrotic and ulcerative lesions in the digestive tract, such as are seen in hogs when infected with the hog-cholera bacillus. 6. This disease may be acquired by exposing swine in pens already infected with Bacillus icteroides, or by feeding them with the viscera of infected pigs. 7. Guinea-pigs may be immunized with sterilized cultures ofBacillus icteroides from a fatal dose of the hog-cholera bacillus and vice versa. 8. Rabbits may be rendered immune by gradually increasing doses of a living culture of Bacillus icteroides of weak virulence from a fatal dose of a virulent culture of the hog-cholera bacillus 9. The sera of animals immunized with Bacillus icteroides and with the hog-cholera bacillus, respectively, show a marked reciprocal agglutinative reaction. 10. While the blood of yellow fever practically does not exercise an agglutinative reaction upon Bacillus icteroides, the blood of hog-cholera agglutinates this bacillus in a much more marked degree, thus pointing, we think, to the closer etiological relationship of this bacillus to hog-cholera than to yellow fever. PMID:19866945

  5. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  6. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings…

  7. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    PubMed Central

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required. PMID:8269390

  8. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Brodetsky, Anna M.; Romig, W. R.

    1965-01-01

    Brodetsky, Anna M. (University of California, Los Angeles), and W. R. Romig. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophages. J. Bacteriol. 90:1655–1663. 1965.—A group of six phages, SP5, SP6, SP7, SP8, SP9, and SP13, which use the Marburg strain of Bacillus subtilis as host was characterized. These phages, referred to as group 1, were examined for the following properties: host range, plaque morphology, stability, adsorption kinetics, one-step growth characteristics, calcium requirements, serum neutralization, thermal inactivation, and inactivation by ultraviolet irradiation. Five unrelated B. subtilis phages, SP3, SP10, PBS1, SP alpha, and SP beta, were included in the studies. When first isolated, none of the group 1 phages was able to replicate efficiently on B. subtilis SB19, a mutant of the “transforming” B. subtilis 168. Host range mutants capable of growth in SB19 were isolated for all of the group 1 phages except SP13, and are designated the “star” phages (SP5* through SP9*). For characterization, SB19 was used as host for the star phages, and another B. subtilis mutant, 168B, was host for SP13. PMID:4955056

  9. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    PubMed

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required.

  10. Teaching portfolios: documenting teaching.

    PubMed

    Regan-Smith, M G

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, teaching portfolios have been developed as a way teachers can document teaching scholarship and demonstrate their teaching accomplishments, skills, and strategies. Most medical schools reward good teaching, often with promotion on clinician-teacher tracks, thereby acknowledging the contributions made by clinical faculty who serve the academic mission as teachers. Teaching portfolios provide a means for teachers to demonstrate their teaching achievements and display their best work. This article gives recommendations for constructing a teaching portfolio and includes examples of what can be included.

  11. Whole-genome sequences of Bacillus subtilis and close relatives.

    PubMed

    Earl, Ashlee M; Eppinger, Mark; Fricke, W Florian; Rosovitz, M J; Rasko, David A; Daugherty, Sean; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto; Ravel, Jacques

    2012-05-01

    We sequenced four strains of Bacillus subtilis and the type strains for two closely related species, Bacillus vallismortis and Bacillus mojavensis. We report the high-quality Sanger genome sequences of B. subtilis subspecies subtilis RO-NN-1 and AUSI98, B. subtilis subspecies spizizenii TU-B-10(T) and DV1-B-1, Bacillus mojavensis RO-H-1(T), and Bacillus vallismortis DV1-F-3(T).

  12. Regulatory guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

  13. ExactPack Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, Jr., Robert; Israel, Daniel M.; Doebling, Scott William; Woods, Charles Nathan; Kaul, Ann; Walter, Jr., John William; Rogers, Michael Lloyd

    2016-05-09

    For code verification, one compares the code output against known exact solutions. There are many standard test problems used in this capacity, such as the Noh and Sedov problems. ExactPack is a utility that integrates many of these exact solution codes into a common API (application program interface), and can be used as a stand-alone code or as a python package. ExactPack consists of python driver scripts that access a library of exact solutions written in Fortran or Python. The spatial profiles of the relevant physical quantities, such as the density, fluid velocity, sound speed, or internal energy, are returned at a time specified by the user. The solution profiles can be viewed and examined by a command line interface or a graphical user interface, and a number of analysis tools and unit tests are also provided. We have documented the physics of each problem in the solution library, and provided complete documentation on how to extend the library to include additional exact solutions. ExactPack’s code architecture makes it easy to extend the solution-code library to include additional exact solutions in a robust, reliable, and maintainable manner.

  14. BENCHMARK DOSE TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA conducts risk assessments for an array of health effects that may result from exposure to environmental agents, and that require an analysis of the relationship between exposure and health-related outcomes. The dose-response assessment is essentially a two-step process, the first being the definition of a point of departure (POD), and the second extrapolation from the POD to low environmentally-relevant exposure levels. The benchmark dose (BMD) approach provides a more quantitative alternative to the first step in the dose-response assessment than the current NOAEL/LOAEL process for noncancer health effects, and is similar to that for determining the POD proposed for cancer endpoints. As the Agency moves toward harmonization of approaches for human health risk assessment, the dichotomy between cancer and noncancer health effects is being replaced by consideration of mode of action and whether the effects of concern are likely to be linear or nonlinear at low doses. Thus, the purpose of this project is to provide guidance for the Agency and the outside community on the application of the BMD approach in determining the POD for all types of health effects data, whether a linear or nonlinear low dose extrapolation is used. A guidance document is being developed under the auspices of EPA's Risk Assessment Forum. The purpose of this project is to provide guidance for the Agency and the outside community on the application of the benchmark dose (BMD) appr

  15. [Overview of study on Bacillus subtilis spores].

    PubMed

    Watabe, Kazuhito

    2013-01-01

    This review documents my research for the past 29 years in the work of bacterial sporulation. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis forms spores when conditions are unsuitable for growth. The mature spores remain for long periods of starvation and are resistant to harsh environment. This property is attributed mainly to the unique figures of spore's outer layers, spore coat. The protein composition of the spores was comprehensively analyzed by a combination of SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. The total of 154 proteins were identified and 69 of them were novel. The expression of the genes encoding them was dependent on sporulation-specific sigma factors, σF, σE, σG and σK. The expression of a coat protein gene, cotS, was dependent on σK and GerE. CotE is essential for the assembly of CotS in the coat layer. Many coat genes were identified by reverse genetics and the regulation of the gene expression was studied in detail. Some cot genes are functioned in the resistance to heat and lysozyme, and some of the coat proteins are involved in the specificity of germinants. The yrbA is essential in spore development, yrbA deficient cells revealed abnormal figures of spore coat structure and changed the response to germinants. The location of 16 coat proteins was determined by the observation of fluorescence microscopy using fluorescence-labelled proteins. One protein was assigned to the cortex, nine to the inner coat, and four to the outer coat. In addition, CotZ and CgeA appeared in the outermost layer of the spore coat.

  16. Bacillus cereus endocarditis in native aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Ngow, H A; Wan Khairina, W M N

    2013-02-01

    Bacillus cereus endocarditis is rare. It has been implicated in immunocompromised individuals, especially in intravenous drug users as well as in those with a cardiac prosthesis. The patient was a 31-year-old ex-intravenous drug addict with a past history of staphylococcal pulmonary valve endocarditis, who presented with symptoms of decompensated cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed severe aortic regurgitation with an oscillating vegetation seen on the right coronary cusp of the aortic valve. The blood cultures grew Bacillus cereus. We report this as a rare case of Bacillus cereus endocarditis affecting a native aortic valve.

  17. Bacillus phytases: present scenario and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shijun; Sun, Jianyi; Qian, Lichun; Li, Zhiyu

    2008-10-01

    Phytases are a special class of phosphatases that catalyze the sequential hydrolysis of phytate to less-phosphorylated myo-inositol derivatives and inorganic phosphate. Bacillus phytases, which exhibit their desirable activity profile under neutral pH, higher thermal stability, and strict substrate specificity for the calcium-phytate complex, have considerable potential in commercial and environmental applications. This review describes recent findings concerning the production, biochemical properties, molecular characteristics, and expression of Bacillus phytases. Several potential applications of the Bacillus phytases in animal nutrition, human health, and synthesis of lower myo-inositol phosphates are also summarized.

  18. LDRD 149045 final report distinguishing documents.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Scott A.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD 149045 final report describes work that Sandians Scott A. Mitchell, Randall Laviolette, Shawn Martin, Warren Davis, Cindy Philips and Danny Dunlavy performed in 2010. Prof. Afra Zomorodian provided insight. This was a small late-start LDRD. Several other ongoing efforts were leveraged, including the Networks Grand Challenge LDRD, and the Computational Topology CSRF project, and the some of the leveraged work is described here. We proposed a sentence mining technique that exploited both the distribution and the order of parts-of-speech (POS) in sentences in English language documents. The ultimate goal was to be able to discover 'call-to-action' framing documents hidden within a corpus of mostly expository documents, even if the documents were all on the same topic and used the same vocabulary. Using POS was novel. We also took a novel approach to analyzing POS. We used the hypothesis that English follows a dynamical system and the POS are trajectories from one state to another. We analyzed the sequences of POS using support vector machines and the cycles of POS using computational homology. We discovered that the POS were a very weak signal and did not support our hypothesis well. Our original goal appeared to be unobtainable with our original approach. We turned our attention to study an aspect of a more traditional approach to distinguishing documents. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) turns documents into bags-of-words then into mixture-model points. A distance function is used to cluster groups of points to discover relatedness between documents. We performed a geometric and algebraic analysis of the most popular distance functions and made some significant and surprising discoveries, described in a separate technical report.

  19. Cyt toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis: a protein fold conserved in several pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Soberón, Mario; López-Díaz, Jazmin A; Bravo, Alejandra

    2013-03-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria produce different insecticidal proteins known as Cry and Cyt toxins. Among them the Cyt toxins represent a special and interesting group of proteins. Cyt toxins are able to affect insect midgut cells but also are able to increase the insecticidal damage of certain Cry toxins. Furthermore, the Cyt toxins are able to overcome resistance to Cry toxins in mosquitoes. There is an increasing potential for the use of Cyt toxins in insect control. However, we still need to learn more about its mechanism of action in order to define it at the molecular level. In this review we summarize important aspects of Cyt toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, including current knowledge of their mechanism of action against mosquitoes and also we will present a primary sequence and structural comparison with related proteins found in other pathogenic bacteria and fungus that may indicate that Cyt toxins have been selected by several pathogenic organisms to exert their virulence phenotypes.

  20. The Cortical Peptidoglycan from Spores of Bacillus Megaterium and Bacillus Subtilis Is Not Highly Cross-Linked

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    Bacilius megaterium and Bacillus subtilis Is Not Highly Cross-Linked 6. AUTHOR(S) David L. Popham and Peter Setlow 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...Determination by amino acid analyses of the percentage of diaminopimelic acid in the spore cortex of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis which is...Peptidoglycan from Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis Is Not Highly Cross-Linked DAVID L. POPHAM ANDl PETER SETLOW* Department of Biochemistry

  1. The Bacillus BioBrick Box: generation and evaluation of essential genetic building blocks for standardized work with Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Standardized and well-characterized genetic building blocks are a prerequisite for the convenient and reproducible assembly of novel genetic modules and devices. While numerous standardized parts exist for Escherichia coli, such tools are still missing for the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. The goal of this study was to develop and thoroughly evaluate such a genetic toolbox. Results We developed five BioBrick-compatible integrative B. subtilis vectors by deleting unnecessary parts and removing forbidden restriction sites to allow cloning in BioBrick (RFC10) standard. Three empty backbone vectors with compatible resistance markers and integration sites were generated, allowing the stable chromosomal integration and combination of up to three different devices in one strain. In addition, two integrative reporter vectors, based on the lacZ and luxABCDE cassettes, were BioBrick-adjusted, to enable β-galactosidase and luciferase reporter assays, respectively. Four constitutive and two inducible promoters were thoroughly characterized by quantitative, time-resolved measurements. Together, these promoters cover a range of more than three orders of magnitude in promoter strength, thereby allowing a fine-tuned adjustment of cellular protein amounts. Finally, the Bacillus BioBrick Box also provides five widely used epitope tags (FLAG, His10, cMyc, HA, StrepII), which can be translationally fused N- or C-terminally to any protein of choice. Conclusion Our genetic toolbox contains three compatible empty integration vectors, two reporter vectors and a set of six promoters, two of them inducible. Furthermore, five different epitope tags offer convenient protein handling and detection. All parts adhere to the BioBrick standard and hence enable standardized work with B. subtilis. We believe that our well-documented and carefully evaluated Bacillus BioBrick Box represents a very useful genetic tool kit, not only for the iGEM competition but any other

  2. Transcriptional Responses of Bacillus cereus towards Challenges with the Polysaccharide Chitosan

    PubMed Central

    Mellegård, Hilde; Kovács, Ákos T.; Lindbäck, Toril; Christensen, Bjørn E.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Granum, Per E.

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of the polysaccharide chitosan towards different bacterial species has been extensively documented. The response mechanisms of bacteria exposed to this biopolymer and the exact molecular mechanism of action, however, have hardly been investigated. This paper reports the transcriptome profiling using DNA microarrays of the type-strain of Bacillus cereus (ATCC 14579) exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of two water-soluble chitosan preparations with defined chemical characteristics (molecular weight and degree of acetylation (FA)). The expression of 104 genes was significantly altered upon chitosan A (weight average molecular weight (Mw) 36.0 kDa, FA = 0.01) exposure and 55 genes when treated with chitosan B (Mw 28.4 kDa, FA = 0.16). Several of these genes are involved in ion transport, especially potassium influx (BC0753-BC0756). Upregulation of a potassium transporting system coincides with previous studies showing a permeabilizing effect on bacterial cells of this polymer with subsequent loss of potassium. Quantitative PCR confirmed the upregulation of the BC0753 gene encoding the K+-transporting ATPase subunit A. A markerless gene replacement method was used to construct a mutant strain deficient of genes encoding an ATP-driven K+ transport system (Kdp) and the KdpD sensor protein. Growth of this mutant strain in potassium limiting conditions and under salt stress did not affect the growth pattern or growth yield compared to the wild-type strain. The necessity of the Kdp system for potassium acquisition in B. cereus is therefore questionable. Genes involved in the metabolism of arginine, proline and other cellular constituents, in addition to genes involved in the gluconeogenesis, were also significantly affected. BC2798 encoding a chitin binding protein was significantly downregulated due to chitosan exposure. This study provides insight into the response mechanisms of B. cereus to chitosan treatment and the significance of

  3. Insulation of the σF Regulatory System in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Carniol, Karen; Kim, Tae-Jong; Price, Chester W.; Losick, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The transcription factors σF and σB are related RNA polymerase sigma factors that govern dissimilar networks of adaptation to stress conditions in Bacillus subtilis. The two factors are controlled by closely related regulatory pathways, involving protein kinases and phosphatases. We report that insulation of the σF pathway from the σB pathway involves the integrated action of both the cognate kinase and the cognate phosphatase. PMID:15205443

  4. [Unpublished documents concerning Dupuytren].

    PubMed

    Boulinier, G

    1996-01-01

    In the present paper is proposed a first incursion in various archives - mainly notarial ones - concerning Dupuytren and his close relatives, investigated by the author. They will be more thoroughly dealt with in a forthcoming book. These documents give us a better knowledge of various events of Dupuytren's public and private life. They namely disclose the great challenge shown by the surgeon-in-chief of the Hôtel-Dieu in marrying his daughter Adeline in the midst of the Paris cholera epidemic in 1832. They show moreover in this unusual character the essential role continually played by some preoccupations such as nobility, power, religion and wealth, amidst a family of which he is the only member to have shown the ambition to become famous in the medical field.

  5. 22 CFR 161.7 - Categories of actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... includes routine administrative procurements (e.g., general supplies, negotiating leases for office space... study activities; and (5) Document and information exchanges. Even though an action may be...

  6. 22 CFR 161.7 - Categories of actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... includes routine administrative procurements (e.g., general supplies, negotiating leases for office space... study activities; and (5) Document and information exchanges. Even though an action may be...

  7. 14 CFR § 1216.310 - Classified actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Classified actions. (a) Classification does not relieve NASA of the requirement to assess, document, and consider the environmental impacts of a proposed action. (b) When classified information can reasonably...

  8. Automated document content characterization for a multimedia document retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivusaari, Maija; Sauvola, Jaakko J.; Pietikaeinen, Matti

    1997-10-01

    We propose a new approach to automate document image layout extraction for an object- oriented database feature population using rapid low level feature analysis, preclassification and predictive coding. The layout information comprised of region location and classification data is transformed into 'feature object(s)'. The information is then fed into an intelligent document image retrieval system (IDIR) to be utilized in document retrieval schemes. The IDIR system consists of user interface, object-oriented database and a variety of document image analysis algorithms. In this paper the object-oriented storage model and the database system are presented in formal and functional domains. Moreover, the graphical user interface and a visual document image browser are described. The document analysis techniques used at document characterization are also presented. In this context the documents consist of text, picture and other media data. Documents are stored in the database as document, page and region objects. Our test systems has been implemented and tested using a document database of 10,000 documents.

  9. Mechanisms of Bacillus cereus enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Singh, D K; Narayan, K G; Gupta, M K

    1992-04-01

    Three strains of Bacillus cereus isolated from sausages (Salami and Trekker, RANBAC, Ranchi) produced enterotoxin which caused vascular permeability in skin and haemorrhage in the ligated ileal loops of rabbits. Histopathological studies revealed haemorrhage and congestion in submucosa, mononuclear cell infiltration in lamina propria and submucosa and villous atrophy. Histochemical studies ruled out the effect on mitochondrial enzymes of intestinal epithelial cells. Purified enterotoxin given intradermally to rabbits caused severe necrotic reaction at the site of injection and death within 4 hr. Histopathological changes observed in liver included congestion of portal veins and sinusoids, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, and hyperplasia of bile ducts. These suggested that B. cereus enterotoxin affected the capillaries of blood vessels locally and also systemically resulting into release of proteinaceous exudates and red blood cells.

  10. [Extracellular ribonuclease from Bacillus thuringiensis].

    PubMed

    Chepurnova, N K; Liakhov, D L; Rechinskiĭ, V O; Karpeĭskiĭ, M Ia

    1988-04-01

    The ability of the strain Bacillus thuringiensis var. subtoxicus to produce extracellular ribonuclease (ribonuclease Bt) was studied. It was found that the culture medium possesses a RNA-depolymerizing activity whose maximum is observed 4-5 hours after the beginning of the linear growth phase. A three-step chromatography of the culture extract on phosphocellulose resulted in a homogeneous enzyme with a molecular mass of 12000 Da. The enzyme showed the maximum activity towards RNA at pH 8.5, catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyribonucleotides and guanosine-2',3'-cyclophosphate. Hence, the enzyme can be related to base-nonspecific cyclizing ribonucleases showing the guanylic specificity towards nucleoside-2',3'-cyclophosphates.

  11. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  12. Action perception predicts action performance.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system.

  13. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, Scott; Esterly, Sean; Herdrich, David; Bodell, Tim; Visser, Charles

    2013-08-01

    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  14. Microbial Transformation of Quercetin by Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Koppaka V.; Weisner, Nghe T.

    1981-01-01

    Biotransformation of quercetin was examined with a number of bacterial cultures. In the presence of a bacterial culture (Bacillus cereus), quercetin was transformed into two crystalline products, identified as protocatechuic acid and quercetin-3-glucoside (isoquercitrin). PMID:16345844

  15. A case of Bacillus cereus bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Barnham, M; Taylor, A J

    1977-07-01

    A case is presented of Bacillus cereus bacteraemia in a patient receiving hepatic perfusion with 5-fluorouracil (5FU) for metastasis from a carcinoma of the breast. The literature concerning systemic B. cereus infections is briefly reviewed.

  16. 75 FR 862 - Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Proposed Decision; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... AGENCY Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Proposed Decision; Notice of Availability AGENCY... proposed registration review decision for the pesticide Bacillus subtilis (case 6012) and opens a public... EPA's proposed registration review decision Bacillus subtilis (case 6012). The Bacillus subtilis...

  17. SDDL- SOFTWARE DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION LANGUAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleine, H.

    1994-01-01

    and a collection of directives which control processor actions. The designer has complete control over the choice of keywords, commanding the capabilities of the processor in a way which is best suited to communicating the intent of the design. The SDDL processor translates the designer's creative thinking into an effective document for communication. The processor performs as many automatic functions as possible, thereby freeing the designer's energy for the creative effort. Document formatting includes graphical highlighting of structure logic, accentuation of structure escapes and module invocations, logic error detection, and special handling of title pages and text segments. The SDDL generated document contains software design summary information including module invocation hierarchy, module cross reference, and cross reference tables of user selected words or phrases appearing in the document. The basic forms of the methodology are module and block structures and the module invocation statement. A design is stated in terms of modules that represent problem abstractions which are complete and independent enough to be treated as separate problem entities. Blocks are lower-level structures used to build the modules. Both kinds of structures may have an initiator part, a terminator part, an escape segment, or a substructure. The SDDL processor is written in PASCAL for batch execution on a DEC VAX series computer under VMS. SDDL was developed in 1981 and last updated in 1984.

  18. Fatal meningoencephalitis due to Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Kwong, K L; Que, T L; Wong, S N; So, K T

    1997-12-01

    We report the first case of fatal anthrax meningoencephalitis in Hong Kong over the past 60 years. A 13 year-old boy presented with right lower quadrant pain, diarrhoea and progressive headache. Lumbar puncture yielded gram positive bacilli initially thought to be Bacillus cereus, a contaminant. He was treated with ampicillin and cefotaxime, but died 3 days after hospitalization. The organism isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid was later identified as Bacillus anthracis.

  19. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  20. Language Documentation in the Americas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchetto, Bruna; Rice, Keren

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the documentation of endangered languages has advanced greatly in the Americas. In this paper we survey the role that international funding programs have played in advancing documentation in this part of the world, with a particular focus on the growth of documentation in Brazil, and we examine some of the major opportunities…

  1. Software design and documentation language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleine, H.

    1977-01-01

    A communications medium to support the design and documentation of complex software applications is studied. The medium also provides the following: (1) a processor which can convert design specifications into an intelligible, informative machine reproducible document; (2) a design and documentation language with forms and syntax that are simple, unrestrictive, and communicative; and (3) methodology for effective use of the language and processor.

  2. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  3. 3RS action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Solid Waste Interim Steering Committee (SWISC) process is to develop a long-term waste management system for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), to be in place by 1996, which is environmentally, socially, economically and technically sound. This background report is being released to the public and member Regional Councils to facilitate input to the SWISC planning process. The report documents current reduction, reuse and recycling initiatives in the GTA, identifies opportunities for coordination and collaboration among the GTA communities, and develops an action plan for improving the effectiveness of the reduction, reuse and recycling efforts within the GTA.

  4. MFIX documentation theory guide

    SciTech Connect

    Syamlal, M.; Rogers, W.; O`Brien, T.J.

    1993-12-01

    This report describes the MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase exchanges) computer model. MFIX is a general-purpose hydrodynamic model that describes chemical reactions and heat transfer in dense or dilute fluid-solids flows, flows typically occurring in energy conversion and chemical processing reactors. MFIX calculations give detailed information on pressure, temperature, composition, and velocity distributions in the reactors. With such information, the engineer can visualize the conditions in the reactor, conduct parametric studies and what-if experiments, and, thereby, assist in the design process. The MFIX model, developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), has the following capabilities: mass and momentum balance equations for gas and multiple solids phases; a gas phase and two solids phase energy equations; an arbitrary number of species balance equations for each of the phases; granular stress equations based on kinetic theory and frictional flow theory; a user-defined chemistry subroutine; three-dimensional Cartesian or cylindrical coordinate systems; nonuniform mesh size; impermeable and semi-permeable internal surfaces; user-friendly input data file; multiple, single-precision, binary, direct-access, output files that minimize disk storage and accelerate data retrieval; and extensive error reporting. This report, which is Volume 1 of the code documentation, describes the hydrodynamic theory used in the model: the conservation equations, constitutive relations, and the initial and boundary conditions. The literature on the hydrodynamic theory is briefly surveyed, and the bases for the different parts of the model are highlighted.

  5. Phylogenomic analysis shows that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus methylotrophicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rhizosphere isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of comm...

  6. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2008-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA s Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This report specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as a final report for that internship. The topics discussed include: the documentation of REVEAL source code; the migration of REVEAL to other platforms; and an end-to-end field test that successfully validates the efforts.

  7. Remedial Action Contacts Directory - 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This document, which was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), is a directory of 2628 individuals interested or involved in environmental restoration and/or remedial actions at radioactively contaminated sites. This directory contains a list of mailing addresses and phone numbers of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor offices; an index of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor office sorted by state; a list of individuals, presented by last name, facsimile number, and e-mail address; an index of affiliations presented alphabetically, with individual contacts appearing below each affiliation name; and an index of foreign contacta sorted by country and affiliation. This document was generated from the Remedial Action Contacts Database, which is maintained by the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC).

  8. Plantazolicin is an ultra-narrow spectrum antibiotic that targets the Bacillus anthracis membrane

    PubMed Central

    Molohon, Katie J.; Blair, Patricia M.; Park, Seongjin; Doroghazi, James R.; Maxson, Tucker; Hershfield, Jeremy R.; Flatt, Kristen M.; Schroeder, Nathan E.; Ha, Taekjip; Mitchell, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    Plantazolicin (PZN) is a ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified natural product from Bacillus methylotrophicus FZB42 and Bacillus pumilus. Extensive tailoring to twelve of the fourteen amino acid residues in the mature natural product endows PZN with not only a rigid, polyheterocyclic structure, but also antibacterial activity. Here we report a remarkably discriminatory activity of PZN toward Bacillus anthracis, which rivals a previously-described gamma (γ) phage lysis assay in distinguishing B. anthracis from other members of the Bacillus cereus group. We evaluate the underlying cause of this selective activity by measuring the RNA expression profile of PZN-treated B. anthracis, which revealed significant upregulation of genes within the cell envelope stress response. PZN depolarizes the B. anthracis membrane like other cell envelope-acting compounds but uniquely localizes to distinct foci within the envelope. Selection and whole-genome sequencing of PZN-resistant mutants of B. anthracis implicate a relationship between the action of PZN and cardiolipin (CL) within the membrane. Exogenous CL increases the potency of PZN in wild type B. anthracis and promotes the incorporation of fluorescently tagged PZN in the cell envelope. We propose that PZN localizes to and exacerbates structurally compromised regions of the bacterial membrane, which ultimately results in cell lysis. PMID:27152321

  9. Plantazolicin is an ultra-narrow spectrum antibiotic that targets the Bacillus anthracis membrane.

    PubMed

    Molohon, Katie J; Blair, Patricia M; Park, Seongjin; Doroghazi, James R; Maxson, Tucker; Hershfield, Jeremy R; Flatt, Kristen M; Schroeder, Nathan E; Ha, Taekjip; Mitchell, Douglas A

    2016-03-10

    Plantazolicin (PZN) is a ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified natural product from Bacillus methylotrophicus FZB42 and Bacillus pumilus. Extensive tailoring to twelve of the fourteen amino acid residues in the mature natural product endows PZN with not only a rigid, polyheterocyclic structure, but also antibacterial activity. Here we report a remarkably discriminatory activity of PZN toward Bacillus anthracis, which rivals a previously-described gamma (γ) phage lysis assay in distinguishing B. anthracis from other members of the Bacillus cereus group. We evaluate the underlying cause of this selective activity by measuring the RNA expression profile of PZN-treated B. anthracis, which revealed significant upregulation of genes within the cell envelope stress response. PZN depolarizes the B. anthracis membrane like other cell envelope-acting compounds but uniquely localizes to distinct foci within the envelope. Selection and whole-genome sequencing of PZN-resistant mutants of B. anthracis implicate a relationship between the action of PZN and cardiolipin (CL) within the membrane. Exogenous CL increases the potency of PZN in wild type B. anthracis and promotes the incorporation of fluorescently tagged PZN in the cell envelope. We propose that PZN localizes to and exacerbates structurally compromised regions of the bacterial membrane, which ultimately results in cell lysis.

  10. Iturin levels on wheat spikes linked to biological control of Fusarium head blight by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    PubMed

    Crane, J M; Gibson, D M; Vaughan, R H; Bergstrom, G C

    2013-02-01

    The TrigoCor strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens provides consistent control against Fusarium head blight of wheat in controlled settings but there is a lack of disease and deoxynivalenol suppression in field settings. Since production of antifungal compounds is thought to be the main mode of action of TrigoCor control, we quantified levels of a key family of antifungal metabolites, iturins, as well as monitored Bacillus populations on wheat spikes over 14 days post-application in both the greenhouse and the field. We found that initial iturin levels on spikes in the greenhouse were three times greater than on spikes in the field, but that by 3 days post-application, iturin levels were equivalent and very low in both settings. We also determined that iturins declined rapidly over a 3-day post-application period on wheat spikes in both environments, despite the presence of significant Bacillus populations. Greenhouse trials and antibiosis tests indicated that the lower iturin levels on wheat spikes in the field could be a major factor limiting disease control in field settings. Future efforts to improve Bacillus disease control on wheat spikes and in the phyllosphere of various plants should focus on maintaining higher levels of iturins over critical infection periods.

  11. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 214: BUNKERS AND STORAGE AREAS NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this Closure Report is to document that the closure of CAU 214 complied with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved Corrective Action Plan closure requirements. The closure activities specified in the Corrective Action Plan were based on the approved corrective action alternatives presented in the CAU 214 Corrective Action Decision Document.

  12. Bacillus thuringiensis: a specific gamma-cyclodextrin producer strain.

    PubMed

    Goo, Bon Geun; Hwang, You Jin; Park, Jae Kweon

    2014-03-11

    An anaerobic microbial isolate Bacillus species, designated B. thuringiensis GU-2, was isolated from soil as a specific γ-cyclodextrin (CD) producer strain in alkaline medium under anaerobic conditions. The optimum pH and temperature for bacterial growth and γ-CD production were estimated to be pH 8.5 and 37°C in the presence of 1.0% starch substrate, respectively. A high purity yield >95% of γ-CD from the total CD yield in the reaction mixture was obtained from starch that was supposed to be converted by gamma-cyclodextrin glycotransferase, tentatively named as γ-CGTase. The maximum γ-CGTase activity was estimated at 2.45U/mL under optimized condition. This is the first report demonstrating the generation of a specific γ-cyclodextrin (CD) producer strain by the action of a γ-CGTase under anaerobic conditions.

  13. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant environmental documents shall accompany other decision documents as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The major decision points for VA actions... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false VA environmental...

  14. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant environmental documents shall accompany other decision documents as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The major decision points for VA actions... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false VA environmental...

  15. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant environmental documents shall accompany other decision documents as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The major decision points for VA actions... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false VA environmental...

  16. 38 CFR 26.7 - VA environmental decision making and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... environmental decision making and documents. (a) Relevant environmental documents shall accompany other decision documents as they proceed through the decision-making process. (b) The major decision points for VA actions... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false VA environmental...

  17. The Collective Black and "Principles to Actions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Danny Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, Danny Martin describes five key take-aways and two sets of questions that arose from his reading of "Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematics Success for All (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM], 2014). Martin begins by noting that "Principles to Actions" is clearly a political document that…

  18. [Civic Achievement Award Program (CAAP) in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This document consists of a student resource book entitled "CAAP in Action: The Environment" and an instructor guide entitled "CAAP in Action". CAAP is a program developed by the Close Up Foundation, a nonprofit, nonpartisan civic education organizations, in cooperation with the National Association of Elementary School…

  19. Characterization of a bacteriocin-like substance produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Márcia P; Bonatto, Diego; Bizani, Delmar; Henriques, João A P; Brandelli, Adriano

    2006-06-01

    A Bacillus strain producing a bacteriocin-like substance was characterized by biochemical profiling and 16S rDNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strain has high sequence similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The antimicrobial substance was inhibitory to pathogenic and food-spoilage bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens, and Pasteurella haemolytica. It was stable over a wide temperature range, but lost activity when the temperature reached 121 degrees C/15 min. Maximum activity was observed at acidic and neutral pH values, but not at alkaline pH. The antimicrobial substance was sensitive to the proteolytic action of trypsin, papain, proteinase K, and pronase E. Except for iturins, other antimicrobial peptides have not been described for B. amyloliquefaciens. The identification of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance active against L. monocytogenes addresses an important aspect of food protection.

  20. Document Skimming Support Environment for Surveying Documents in Creative Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayama, Tessai; Kanai, Takashi; Kunifuji, Susumu

    This paper proposes a document skimming environment for surveying documents in our research. Although there are a lot of on-line documents on our surroundings, people, generally, prefer printing out on-line research papers from computer screen. For this reason, although skimming is used for reading documents in our daily life, it is difficult for us to skim documents from computer screens. Therefore, we developed a document skimming environment. The environment has a skimming support system and a recommendation system. The skimming support system supports skimming documents from computer screens by the interface, which is applied the Fisheye effect and the Overview+detail effect. Focus points of the Fisheye effect are the sentences selected by the original sentence extraction algorithm based on the value of standard distribution, and the Overview interface is displayed automatically the generated table of contents. The recommendation system generates personalized summaries by the collaborate filtering, which use users' log of the skimming support system. Furthermore, evaluation results show as follows; The value of F-measure of our sentence extraction algorithm is higher than it of the sentence extraction algorithm based on TF or Japanese lexical chaining method, the skimming support system is more effective method to skim documents from computer screen than paper, and the skimming support environment is more effective method to product research proposal documents than paper.

  1. Robust document image binarization technique for degraded document images.

    PubMed

    Su, Bolan; Lu, Shijian; Tan, Chew Lim

    2013-04-01

    Segmentation of text from badly degraded document images is a very challenging task due to the high inter/intra-variation between the document background and the foreground text of different document images. In this paper, we propose a novel document image binarization technique that addresses these issues by using adaptive image contrast. The adaptive image contrast is a combination of the local image contrast and the local image gradient that is tolerant to text and background variation caused by different types of document degradations. In the proposed technique, an adaptive contrast map is first constructed for an input degraded document image. The contrast map is then binarized and combined with Canny's edge map to identify the text stroke edge pixels. The document text is further segmented by a local threshold that is estimated based on the intensities of detected text stroke edge pixels within a local window. The proposed method is simple, robust, and involves minimum parameter tuning. It has been tested on three public datasets that are used in the recent document image binarization contest (DIBCO) 2009 & 2011 and handwritten-DIBCO 2010 and achieves accuracies of 93.5%, 87.8%, and 92.03%, respectively, that are significantly higher than or close to that of the best-performing methods reported in the three contests. Experiments on the Bickley diary dataset that consists of several challenging bad quality document images also show the superior performance of our proposed method, compared with other techniques.

  2. DOCFIND -- Starlink document index searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bly, M. J.; Allan, P. M.

    One of the recurrent problems with Starlink is that as the volume of software grows, so does the number of documents describing it. These include project wide documents and documents which are local to other sites. It is often extremely difficult to find out which document should be consulted about a particular topic. Starlink maintains a list of currently valid project wide documents called `STARLINK DOCUMENTATION' in the file /star/docs/docs_lis. This may be printed if required. It is maintained at RAL by the Starlink Software Librarian and updated at other sites by the Starlink software update process. The current date is stated at the beginning of the file so you can see if your site is up to date by comparing your site's file with the RAL file available via the WWW. An alternative approach is to consult file /star/docs/subject_lis. This is a Key-Word index to Starlink documentation which does not rely only on document titles. Once again, it is maintained up to date at RAL but other sites may lag behind. The specified current date will tell all. /star/docs/analysis_lis is also centrally maintained. This is a list of the Starlink documents listed by which Software item is the main subject of each document. The docfind program has been developed to help users search this mass of information.

  3. Evolution of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Alejandra; Gómez, Isabel; Porta, Helena; García-Gómez, Blanca Ines; Rodriguez-Almazan, Claudia; Pardo, Liliana; Soberón, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis are use worldwide in transgenic crops for efficient pest control. Among the family of Cry toxins, the three domain Cry family is the better characterized regarding their natural evolution leading to a large number of Cry proteins with similar structure, mode of action but different insect specificity. Also, this group is the better characterized regarding the study of their mode of action and the molecular basis of insect specificity. In this review we discuss how Cry toxins have evolved insect specificity in nature and analyse several cases of improvement of Cry toxin action by genetic engineering, some of these examples are currently used in transgenic crops. We believe that the success in the improvement of insecticidal activity by genetic evolution of Cry toxins will depend on the knowledge of the rate-limiting steps of Cry toxicity in different insect pests, the mapping of the specificity binding regions in the Cry toxins, as well as the improvement of mutagenesis strategies and selection procedures.

  4. Inhibition of Bacillus anthracis Spore Outgrowth by Nisin▿

    PubMed Central

    Gut, Ian M.; Prouty, Angela M.; Ballard, Jimmy D.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Blanke, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    The lantibiotic nisin has previously been reported to inhibit the outgrowth of spores from several Bacillus species. However, the mode of action of nisin responsible for outgrowth inhibition is poorly understood. By using B. anthracis Sterne 7702 as a model, nisin acted against spores with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and an IC90 of 0.57 μM and 0.90 μM, respectively. Viable B. anthracis organisms were not recoverable from cultures containing concentrations of nisin greater than the IC90. These studies demonstrated that spores lose heat resistance and become hydrated in the presence of nisin, thereby ruling out a possible mechanism of inhibition in which nisin acts to block germination initiation. Rather, germination initiation is requisite for the action of nisin. This study also revealed that nisin rapidly and irreversibly inhibits growth by preventing the establishment of oxidative metabolism and the membrane potential in germinating spores. On the other hand, nisin had no detectable effects on the typical changes associated with the dissolution of the outer spore structures (e.g., the spore coats, cortex, and exosporium). Thus, the action of nisin results in the uncoupling of two critical sequences of events necessary for the outgrowth of spores: the establishment of metabolism and the shedding of the external spore structures. PMID:18809941

  5. Bacillus thuringiensis: A story of a successful bioinsecticide.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Alejandra; Likitvivatanavong, Supaporn; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario

    2011-07-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacteria are insect pathogens that rely on insecticidal pore forming proteins known as Cry and Cyt toxins to kill their insect larval hosts. At least four different non-structurally related families of proteins form the Cry toxin group of toxins. The expression of certain Cry toxins in transgenic crops has contributed to an efficient control of insect pests resulting in a significant reduction in chemical insecticide use. The mode of action of the three domain Cry toxin family involves sequential interaction of these toxins with several insect midgut proteins facilitating the formation of a pre-pore oligomer structure and subsequent membrane insertion that leads to the killing of midgut insect cells by osmotic shock. In this manuscript we review recent progress in understanding the mode of action of this family of proteins in lepidopteran, dipteran and coleopteran insects. Interestingly, similar Cry-binding proteins have been identified in the three insect orders, as cadherin, aminopeptidase-N and alkaline phosphatase suggesting a conserved mode of action. Also, recent data on insect responses to Cry toxin attack is discussed. Finally, we review the different Bt based products, including transgenic crops, that are currently used in agriculture.

  6. Evolution of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins insecticidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Alejandra; Gómez, Isabel; Porta, Helena; García-Gómez, Blanca Ines; Rodriguez-Almazan, Claudia; Pardo, Liliana; Soberón, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis are use worldwide in transgenic crops for efficient pest control. Among the family of Cry toxins, the three domain Cry family is the better characterized regarding their natural evolution leading to a large number of Cry proteins with similar structure, mode of action but different insect specificity. Also, this group is the better characterized regarding the study of their mode of action and the molecular basis of insect specificity. In this review we discuss how Cry toxins have evolved insect specificity in nature and analyse several cases of improvement of Cry toxin action by genetic engineering, some of these examples are currently used in transgenic crops. We believe that the success in the improvement of insecticidal activity by genetic evolution of Cry toxins will depend on the knowledge of the rate-limiting steps of Cry toxicity in different insect pests, the mapping of the specificity binding regions in the Cry toxins, as well as the improvement of mutagenesis strategies and selection procedures. PMID:22463726

  7. Fatal Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a patient with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Orrett, F A

    2000-04-01

    This report describes a fatal case of Bacillus cereus septicemia in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes and re-emphasizes the potential seriousness of Bacillus infections in patients with compromised immune function.

  8. Hydrazine vapor inactivates Bacillus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Engler, Diane L.; Beaudet, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    NASA policy restricts the total number of bacterial spores that can remain on a spacecraft traveling to any planetary body which might harbor life or have evidence of past life. Hydrazine, N2H4, is commonly used as a propellant on spacecraft. Hydrazine as a liquid is known to inactivate bacterial spores. We have now verified that hydrazine vapor also inactivates bacterial spores. After Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 spores deposited on stainless steel coupons were exposed to saturated hydrazine vapor in closed containers, the spores were recovered from the coupons, serially diluted, pour plated and the surviving bacterial colonies were counted. The exposure times required to reduce the spore population by a factor of ten, known as the D-value, were 4.70 ± 0.50 h at 25 °C and 2.85 ± 0.13 h at 35 °C. These inactivation rates are short enough to ensure that the bioburden of the surfaces and volumes would be negligible after prolonged exposure to hydrazine vapor. Thus, all the propellant tubing and internal tank surfaces exposed to hydrazine vapor do not contribute to the total spore count.

  9. Diversity and applications of Bacillus bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Abriouel, Hikmate; Franz, Charles M A P; Ben Omar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Members of the genus Bacillus are known to produce a wide arsenal of antimicrobial substances, including peptide and lipopeptide antibiotics, and bacteriocins. Many of the Bacillus bacteriocins belong to the lantibiotics, a category of post-translationally modified peptides widely disseminated among different bacterial clades. Lantibiotics are among the best-characterized antimicrobial peptides at the levels of peptide structure, genetic determinants and biosynthesis mechanisms. Members of the genus Bacillus also produce many other nonmodified bacteriocins, some of which resemble the pediocin-like bacteriocins of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB), while others show completely novel peptide sequences. Bacillus bacteriocins are increasingly becoming more important due to their sometimes broader spectra of inhibition (as compared with most LAB bacteriocins), which may include Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts or fungi, in addition to Gram-positive species, some of which are known to be pathogenic to humans and/or animals. The present review provides a general overview of Bacillus bacteriocins, including primary structure, biochemical and genetic characterization, classification and potential applications in food preservation as natural preservatives and in human and animal health as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Furthermore, it addresses their environmental applications, such as bioprotection against the pre- and post-harvest decay of vegetables, or as plant growth promoters.

  10. Asymptotic cost in document conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blostein, Dorothea; Nagy, George

    2012-01-01

    In spite of a hundredfold decrease in the cost of relevant technologies, the role of document image processing systems is gradually declining due to the transition to an on-line world. Nevertheless, in some high-volume applications, document image processing software still saves millions of dollars by accelerating workflow, and similarly large savings could be realized by more effective automation of the multitude of low-volume personal document conversions. While potential cost savings, based on estimates of costs and values, are a driving force for new developments, quantifying such savings is difficult. The most important trend is that the cost of computing resources for DIA is becoming insignificant compared to the associated labor costs. An econometric treatment of document processing complements traditional performance evaluation, which focuses on assessing the correctness of the results produced by document conversion software. Researchers should look beyond the error rate for advancing both production and personal document conversion.

  11. Alternatives/action plan report for outfall 17

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    This Document contains information pertaining to alternatives/action associated with controlling ammonia entering through outfall 17. This document identifies the location of contaminate source, the ammonia concentration levels entering East Fork Poplar Creek, and the action taken to reduce/eliminate the toxicity problem.

  12. Adult Basic Skills: Developing a Local Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basic Skills Agency, London (England).

    This document presents advice from the United Kingdom's Basic Skills Agency regarding developing local action plans. The first 20% of the document defines basic skills and discusses the following action plan components: (1) an estimate of the area's need for basic skills training; (2) a target to reduce the area's estimated scale of need; (3)…

  13. Determination of the most closely related bacillus isolates to Bacillus anthracis by multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kijeong; Cheon, Eunhee; Wheeler, Katherine E.; Youn, Youngchul; Leighton, Terrance J.; Park, Chulmin; Kim, Wonyong; Chung, Sang-In

    2005-01-01

    There have been many efforts to develop Bacillus anthracis detection assays, but the problem of false-positive results has often been encountered. Therefore, to validate an assay for B. anthracis detection, it is critical to examine its specificity with the most closely related Bacillus isolates that are available. To define the most closely related Bacillus isolates to B. anthracis in our Bacillus collections, we analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) the phylogeny of 77 closely related Bacillus isolates selected from 264 Bacillus isolates. The selection includes all the Bacillus isolates that have been shown in our previous studies to produce false-positive results by some anthrax-detection assays. The MLST phylogenetic analyses revealed that 27 of the non-B. anthracis isolates clustered within the B. anthracis clade, and four of them (three sequence types, STs) had the highest degree of genetic relatedness with B. anthracis, 18 (11 STs) had the second highest, and five (five STs) had the third highest. We anticipate that the inclusion of the 19 ST isolates when analyzing B. anthracis detection assays will prove to be useful for screening for their specificity to detect B. anthracis. PMID:16197725

  14. Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin gene by Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Selinger, L B; Khachatourians, G G; Byers, J R; Hynes, M F

    1998-03-01

    The delta-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis were introduced into a rhizosphere-inhabiting Bacillus pumilus isolate to create a delta-endotoxin expression and delivery system for subterranean feeding insects such as the larvae of pale western cutworm (Agrotis orthogonia Morrison (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)). Preliminary experiments indicated that Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki cultures were toxic to pale western cutworm larvae. Three different cry genes from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki were cloned into high and low copy number vectors and mated into Bacillus pumilus RB8. When carried on high copy number vectors, cry genes appeared to inhibit sporulation and delta-endotoxin production in Bacillus pumilus RB8 cultures, since microscopic examination of these cultures revealed that < 0.1% of the cells of late stationary phase cultures had sporulated and produced parasporal inclusions. On low copy number vectors, the cry genes did not inhibit sporulation; however, production of delta-endotoxins was undetectable. Using a heat shock regime for enrichment of sporogenous crystalliferous variants, a Bacillus pumilus isolate, carrying cryIA(c) on a high copy number plasmid, was obtained in which high level delta-endotoxin production occurred concomitant with sporulation. Synthesis of functional delta-endotoxin by this strain was confirmed by Western blot analysis and bioassay with pale western cutworm larvae. These results show that rhizosphere-inhabiting bacilli are indeed a potential route for introduction of delta-endotoxins to the root environment for biocontrol purposes.

  15. DECONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACTS USING A HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas. Methods and Results: B. anthracis, B. subtilis, and G. Stearothermophilus spores were dried on seven...

  16. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  17. Disaster documentation for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Zoraster, Richard M; Burkle, Christopher M

    2013-08-01

    Documentation of the patient encounter is a traditional component of health care practice, a requirement of various regulatory agencies and hospital oversight committees, and a necessity for reimbursement. A disaster may create unexpected challenges to documentation. If patient volume and acuity overwhelm health care providers, what is the acceptable appropriate documentation? If alterations in scope of practice and environmental or resource limitations occur, to what degree should this be documented? The conflicts arising from allocation of limited resources create unfamiliar situations in which patient competition becomes a component of the medical decision making; should that be documented, and, if so, how? In addition to these challenges, ever-present liability worries are compounded by controversies over the standards to which health care providers will be held. Little guidance is available on how or what to document. We conducted a search of the literature and found no appropriate references for disaster documentation, and no guidelines from professional organizations. We review here the challenges affecting documentation during disasters and provide a rationale for specific patient care documentation that avoids regulatory and legal pitfalls.

  18. Transmission line environmental assessment guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.; Pentecost, E.; Muzzarelli, J.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1939, U.S. utility companies have been required to obtain a Presidential Permit to construct electric transmission lines that cross a U.S. border and connect with a foreign utility. The purpose of this document is to provide Presidential Permit applicants with two types of guidance: (1) on the type of environmental and project descriptive information needed to assess the potential impacts of the proposed and alternative actions and (2) on compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. The main three chapters present information on the purpose and content of this document (Chapter 1); legislative, regulatory, and consultation requirements for transmission line interconnect projects (Chapter 2); and identification of basic transmission system design parameters and environmental data requirements for analysis of potential impacts of the proposed action (Chapter 3). Chapter 3 also includes information on possible techniques or measures to mitigate impacts. Appendix A presents an overview of NEPA requirements and DOE`s implementing procedures. Appendix B summarizes information on legislation that may be applicable to transmission line projects proposed in Presidential Permit applications.

  19. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    SciTech Connect

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  20. Antagonism of Bacillus spp. isolated from marine biofilms against terrestrial phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Morales, B O; Ortega-Morales, F N; Lara-Reyna, J; De la Rosa-García, S C; Martínez-Hernández, A; Montero-M, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    We aimed at determining the antagonistic behavior of bacteria derived from marine biofilms against terrestrial phytopathogenic fungi. Some bacteria closely related to Bacillus mojavensis (three isolates) and Bacillus firmus (one isolate) displayed antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ATCC 42374, selected as first screen organism. The four isolates were further quantitatively tested against C. gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Fusarium oxysporum on two culture media, potato dextrose agar (PDA) and a marine medium-based agar [yeast extract agar (YEA)] at different times of growth of the antagonists (early, co-inoculation with the pathogen and late). Overall antagonistic assays showed differential susceptibility among the pathogens as a function of the type of culture media and time of colonization (P < 0.05). In general, higher suppressive activities were recorded for assays performed on YEA than on PDA; and also when the antagonists were allowed to grow 24 h earlier than the pathogen. F. oxysporum was the most resistant fungus while the most sensitive was C. gloeosporioides ATCC 42374. Significant differences in antagonistic activity (P < 0.05) were found between the different isolates. In general, Bacillus sp. MC3B-22 displayed a greater antagonistic effect than the commercial biocontrol strain Bacillus subtilis G03 (Kodiak). Further incubation studies and scanning electronic microscopy revealed that Bacillus sp. MC3B-22 was able to colonize, multiply, and inhibit C. gloeosporioides ATCC 42374 when tested in a mango leaf assay, showing its potential for fungal biocontrol. Additional studies are required to definitively identify the active isolates and to determine their mode of antifungal action, safety, and biocompatibility.

  1. Pressure Inactivation of Bacillus Endospores

    PubMed Central

    Margosch, Dirk; Gänzle, Michael G.; Ehrmann, Matthias A.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2004-01-01

    The inactivation of bacterial endospores by hydrostatic pressure requires the combined application of heat and pressure. We have determined the resistance of spores of 14 food isolates and 5 laboratory strains of Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. licheniformis to treatments with pressure and temperature (200 to 800 MPa and 60 to 80°C) in mashed carrots. A large variation in the pressure resistance of spores was observed, and their reduction by treatments with 800 MPa and 70°C for 4 min ranged from more than 6 log units to no reduction. The sporulation conditions further influenced their pressure resistance. The loss of dipicolinic acid (DPA) from spores that varied in their pressure resistance was determined, and spore sublethal injury was assessed by determination of the detection times for individual spores. Treatment of spores with pressure and temperature resulted in DPA-free, phase-bright spores. These spores were sensitive to moderate heat and exhibited strongly increased detection times as judged by the time required for single spores to grow to visible turbidity of the growth medium. The role of DPA in heat and pressure resistance was further substantiated by the use of the DPA-deficient mutant strain B. subtilis CIP 76.26. Taken together, these results indicate that inactivation of spores by combined pressure and temperature processing is achieved by a two-stage mechanism that does not involve germination. At a pressure between 600 and 800 MPa and a temperature greater than 60°C, DPA is released predominantly by a physicochemical rather than a physiological process, and the DPA-free spores are inactivated by moderate heat independent of the pressure level. Relevant target organisms for pressure and temperature treatment of foods are proposed, namely, strains of B. amyloliquefaciens, which form highly pressure-resistant spores. PMID:15574932

  2. Antifungal Activity of Selected Indigenous Pseudomonas and Bacillus from the Soybean Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    León, M.; Yaryura, P. M.; Montecchia, M. S.; Hernández, A. I.; Correa, O. S.; Pucheu, N. L.; Kerber, N. L.; García, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate and select indigenous soil Pseudomonas and Bacillus bacteria capable of developing multiple mechanisms of action related to the biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi affecting soybean crops. The screening procedure consisted of antagonism tests against a panel of phytopathogenic fungi, taxonomic identification, detection by PCR of several genes related to antifungal activity, in vitro detection of the antifungal products, and root colonization assays. Two isolates, identified and designated as Pseudomonas fluorescens BNM296 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BNM340, were selected for further studies. These isolates protected plants against the damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum and were able to increase the seedling emergence rate after inoculation of soybean seeds with each bacterium. Also, the shoot nitrogen content was higher in plants when seeds were inoculated with BNM296. The polyphasic approach of this work allowed us to select two indigenous bacterial strains that promoted the early development of soybean plants. PMID:20016811

  3. Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Nicholaus J; Schelonka, Robert L; Waites, Ken B

    2003-07-01

    Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for the diagnostic laboratory and clinicians when Bacillus species are detected in normally sterile sites are discussed, and the small numbers of infant infections proven to be due to this organism that have been described previously are reviewed.

  4. Scientific and Technical Document Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scientific and Technical Document Database (PC database for purchase)   The images in NIST Special Database 20 contain a very rich set of graphic elements from scientific and technical documents, such as graphs, tables, equations, two column text, maps, pictures, footnotes, annotations, and arrays of such elements.

  5. Government Documents Departmental Operations Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John S.; And Others

    This manual for the operation and maintenance of the Government Documents Department at Baylor University's Moody Memorial Library is divided into 13 topical sections. The guide opens with the collection development policy statement, which covers the general collection, the maps division, and weeding government documents. Technical processing…

  6. Document Delivery over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mary E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses three innovative Internet-based electronic document delivery systems: Ariel, developed by the Research Libraries Group; Digitized Document Transmission Project, developed by North Carolina State University; and Network Fax Project, developed by Ohio State University. System are compared in terms of equipment, operation, advantages and…

  7. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  8. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do. PMID:27667859

  9. Conscious Action/Zombie Action.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co-conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do.

  10. 45 CFR 641.16 - Preparation of environmental documents, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation of environmental documents, generally. 641.16 Section 641.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS...

  11. 45 CFR 641.19 - Modification of environmental documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modification of environmental documents. 641.19 Section 641.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  12. 45 CFR 641.16 - Preparation of environmental documents, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preparation of environmental documents, generally. 641.16 Section 641.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS...

  13. 45 CFR 641.19 - Modification of environmental documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modification of environmental documents. 641.19 Section 641.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  14. 32 CFR 651.8 - Disposition of final documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposition of final documents. 651.8 Section 651.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Introduction § 651.8 Disposition...

  15. 32 CFR 651.8 - Disposition of final documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposition of final documents. 651.8 Section 651.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Introduction § 651.8 Disposition...

  16. 32 CFR 651.8 - Disposition of final documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of final documents. 651.8 Section 651.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Introduction § 651.8 Disposition...

  17. 32 CFR 651.8 - Disposition of final documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Disposition of final documents. 651.8 Section 651.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Introduction § 651.8 Disposition...

  18. 32 CFR 651.8 - Disposition of final documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Disposition of final documents. 651.8 Section 651.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Introduction § 651.8 Disposition...

  19. 45 CFR 641.16 - Preparation of environmental documents, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preparation of environmental documents, generally. 641.16 Section 641.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS...

  20. 45 CFR 641.19 - Modification of environmental documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modification of environmental documents. 641.19 Section 641.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  1. 45 CFR 641.19 - Modification of environmental documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modification of environmental documents. 641.19 Section 641.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  2. 45 CFR 641.19 - Modification of environmental documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modification of environmental documents. 641.19 Section 641.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS IN...

  3. 45 CFR 641.16 - Preparation of environmental documents, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preparation of environmental documents, generally. 641.16 Section 641.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS...

  4. 45 CFR 641.16 - Preparation of environmental documents, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preparation of environmental documents, generally. 641.16 Section 641.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR PROPOSED NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACTIONS...

  5. Texas Solar Collaboration Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Winland, Chris

    2013-02-14

    Texas Solar Collaboration Permitting and Interconenction Process Improvement Action Plan. San Antonio-specific; Investigate feasibility of using electronic signatures; Investigate feasibility of enabling other online permitting processes (e.g., commercial); Assess need for future document management and workflow/notification IT improvements; Update Information Bulletin 153 regarding City requirements and processes for PV; Educate contractors and public on CPS Energy’s new 2013 solar program processes; Continue to discuss “downtown grid” interconnection issues and identify potential solutions; Consider renaming Distributed Energy Resources (DER); and Continue to participate in collaborative actions.

  6. Soybean fermentation with Bacillus licheniformis increases insulin sensitizing and insulinotropic activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Moon, Na Rang; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Hee Joo; Jung, Do Yeon; Park, Sunmin

    2013-11-01

    Traditionally fermented soybeans (chungkookjang; TFC) may have potent anti-diabetic activity, depending on the ambient microorganisms and conditions. We hypothesized that one of the major Bacillus species in TFC contributes to the anti-diabetic activity and could be used to standardize a highly functional TFC. We tested the hypothesis by using cell-based studies to evaluate insulin sensitizing and insulinotropic action of chungkookjangs fermented with various Bacillus spp. and fermentation periods. The 70% methanol and water extracts of chungkookjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (BL) for 48 h contained similar profiles of isoflavonoids and peptides to methanol and water extracts of TFC with potent anti-diabetic activity. Water extracts (mainly containing peptides) of TFC and BL fermented for 48 h and 72 h had a better insulin sensitizing action via activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and increased the expression of PPAR-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes better than unfermented cooked soybeans (CSB). The 70% methanol extracts (predominantly isoflavone aglycones) of BL fermented for 48 h and 72 h improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and protected β-cell viability better than CSB in insulinoma cells, and the improvement by BL was similar to TFC. In conclusion, the BL water extract fermented for 48 h exhibited equal insulin sensitization as TFC and BL methanol extract exerted similar insulinotropic actions to those of TFC. B. licheniformis may be one of the major microorganisms responsible for anti-diabetic actions of chungkookjang. It is important to make chungkookjang that retains the anti-diabetic properties of the most efficacious traditional chungkookjang using a standardized method.

  7. BOOK REVIEW – BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS: A CORNERSTONE OF MODERN AGRICULTURE BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are you interested in the technical issues surrounding the use of Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal traits as sprays and as plant incorporated protectants (transgenic crops)? Should the dimensions of human health, ecology, entomology, risk assessment, resistance management, and d...

  8. Expression of low endotoxin 3-O-sulfotransferase in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenya; Englaender, Jacob A; Xu, Peng; Mehta, Krunal K; Suwan, Jiraporn; Dordick, Jonathan S; Zhang, Fuming; Yuan, Qipeng; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos

    2013-10-01

    A key enzyme for the biosynthesis and bioengineering of heparin, 3-O-sulfotransferase-1 (3-OST-1), was expressed and purified in Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium. Western blotting, protein sequence analysis, and enzyme activity measurement confirmed the expression. The enzymatic activity of 3-OST-1 expressed in Bacillus species were found to be similar to those found when expressed in Escherichia coli. The endotoxin level in 3-OST-1 from B. subtilis and B. megaterium were 10(4)-10(5)-fold lower than that of the E. coli-expressed 3-OST-1, which makes the Bacillus expression system of particular interest for the generation of pharmaceutical grade raw heparin from nonanimal sources.

  9. Evaluation of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites for anthelmintic activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. L. Vijaya; Thippeswamy, B.; Kuppust, I. L.; Naveenkumar, K. J.; Shivakumar, C. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the anthelmintic acivity of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites. Materials and Methods: The successive solvent extractions with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The solvent extracts were tested for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma at 20 mg/ml concentration. The time of paralysis and time of death of the worms was determined for all the extracts. Albendazole was taken as a standard reference and sterile water as a control. Results: All the sample extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity in paralyzing the worms comparable with that of the standard drug. The time of death exhibited by BP metabolites was close to the time exhibited by standard. Conclusion: The study indicates both bacteria Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus have anthelmintic activity indicating potential metabolites in them. PMID:25598639

  10. Multiple Asparagine Deamidation of Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Causes Charge Isoforms Whose Complexity Correlates with Reduced Biological Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour...subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1 . REPORT DATE 1 ...FEB 2007 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multiple asparagine deamidation of Bacillus anthracis protective

  11. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  12. Strategy for identification of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains closely related to Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Raddadi, Noura; Merabishvili, Maya; Cherif, Ameur; Carmagnola, Lorenzo; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Rizzi, Aurora; Chanishvili, Nina; Visca, Paolo; Sharp, Richard; Borin, Sara

    2006-02-01

    Bacillus cereus strains that are genetically closely related to B. anthracis can display anthrax-like virulence traits (A. R. Hoffmaster et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:8449-8454, 2004). Hence, approaches that rapidly identify these "near neighbors" are of great interest for the study of B. anthracis virulence mechanisms, as well as to prevent the use of such strains for B. anthracis-based bioweapon development. Here, a strategy is proposed for the identification of near neighbors of B. anthracis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (ITS) containing tRNA genes, characteristic of B. anthracis. By using restriction site insertion-PCR (RSI-PCR) the presence of two SNP typical of B. anthracis was screened in 126 B. cereus group strains of different origin. Two B. cereus strains and one B. thuringiensis strain showed RSI-PCR profiles identical to that of B. anthracis. The sequencing of the entire ITS containing tRNA genes revealed two of the strains to be identical to B. anthracis. The strict relationship with B. anthracis was confirmed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of four other independent loci: cerA, plcR, AC-390, and SG-749. The relationship to B. anthracis of the three strains described by MLST was comparable and even higher to that of four B. cereus strains associated with periodontitis in humans and previously reported as the closest known strains to B. anthracis. SNP in ITS containing tRNA genes combined with RSI-PCR provide a very efficient tool for the identification of strains closely related to B. anthracis.

  13. [Law courts and clinical documentation].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Carnicero, M P; Magallón, A I; Gordillo, A

    2006-01-01

    Background. Until 2004, requests for clinical documentation proceeding from the Judicial Administration on Specialist Care of Pamplona were received in six different centres and were processed independently, with different procedures, and documents were even sent in duplicate, with the resulting work load. This article describes the procedure for processing requests for documentation proceeding from the Law Courts and analyses the requests received. Methods. A circuit was set up to channel the judicial requests that arrived at the Specialist Health Care Centres of Pamplona and at the Juridical Regime Service of the Health System of Navarra-Osasunbidea, and a Higher Technician in Health Documentation was contracted to centralise these requests. A proceedings protocol was established to unify criteria and speed up the process, and a database was designed to register the proceedings. Results. In the course of 2004, 210 requests for documentation by legal requirement were received. Of these, 24 were claims of patrimonial responsibility and 13 were requested by lawyers with the patient's authorisation. The most frequent jurisdictional order was penal (43.33%). Ninety-three point one five percent (93.15%) of the requests proceeded from law courts in the autonomous community of Navarra. The centre that received the greatest number of requests was the "Príncipe de Viana" Consultation Centre (33.73%).The most frequently requested documentation was a copy of reports (109) and a copy of the complete clinical record (39). On two occasions the original clinical record was required. The average time of response was 6.6 days. Conclusions. The centralisation of administration has brought greater agility to the process and homogeneity in the criteria of processing. Less time is involved in preparing and dispatching the documentation, the dispatch of duplicate documents is avoided, the work load has been reduced and the dispersal of documentation is avoided, a situation that

  14. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D'Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch,Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman,Eugene; Chu, Lien; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.

  15. Genetic competence in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Dubnau, D

    1991-01-01

    Genetic competence may be defined as a physiological state enabling a bacterial culture to bind and take up high-molecular-weight exogenous DNA (transformation). In Bacillus subtilis, competence develops postexponentially and only in certain media. In addition, only a minority of the cells in a competent culture become competent, and these are physiologically distinct. Thus, competence is subject to three regulatory modalities: growth stage specific, nutritionally responsive, and cell type specific. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning competence in B. subtilis. The study of genes required for transformability has permitted their classification into two broad categories. Late competence genes are expressed under competence control and specify products required for the binding, uptake, and processing of transforming DNA. Regulatory genes specify products that are needed for the expression of the late genes. Several of the late competence gene products have been shown to be membrane localized, and others are predicted to be membrane associated on the basis of amino acid sequence data. Several of these predicted protein sequences show a striking resemblance to gene products that are involved in the export and/or assembly of extracellular proteins and structures in gram-negative organisms. This observation is consistent with the idea that the late products are directly involved in transport of DNA and is equally consistent with the notion that they play a morphogenetic role in the assembly of a transport apparatus. The competence regulatory apparatus constitutes an elaborate signal transduction system that senses and interprets environmental information and passes this information to the competence-specific transcriptional machinery. Many of the regulatory gene products have been identified and partially characterized, and their interactions have been studied genetically and in some cases biochemically as well. These include several

  16. Standard classification of software documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    General conceptual requirements for standard levels of documentation and for application of these requirements to intended usages. These standards encourage the policy to produce only those forms of documentation that are needed and adequate for the purpose. Documentation standards are defined with respect to detail and format quality. Classes A through D range, in order, from the most definitive down to the least definitive, and categories 1 through 4 range, in order, from high-quality typeset down to handwritten material. Criteria for each of the classes and categories, as well as suggested selection guidelines for each are given.

  17. Grants Document-Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hairell, Terri; Kreymer, Lev; Martin, Greg; Sheridan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The Grants Document-Generation System (GDGS) software allows the generation of official grants documents for distribution to the appropriate parties. The documents are created after the selection and entry of specific data elements and clauses. GDGS is written in Cold Fusion that resides on an SQL2000 database and is housed on-site at Goddard Space Flight Center. It includes access security written around GSFC's (Goddard Space Flight Center's) LIST system, and allows for the entry of Procurement Request information necessary for the generation of the resulting Grant Award.

  18. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus endophyticus 2102.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Sang-Jae; Kim, Sun Hong; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Byoung-Chan; Lee, Han-Seung; Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2012-10-01

    Bacillus endophyticus 2102 is an endospore-forming, plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium isolated from a hypersaline pond in South Korea. Here we present the draft sequence of B. endophyticus 2102, which is of interest because of its potential use in the industrial production of algaecides and bioplastics and for the treatment of industrial textile effluents.

  19. Genome sequence of Bacillus licheniformis WX-02.

    PubMed

    Yangtse, Wuming; Zhou, Yinhua; Lei, Yang; Qiu, Yimin; Wei, Xuetuan; Ji, Zhixia; Qi, Gaofu; Yong, Yangchun; Chen, Lingling; Chen, Shouwen

    2012-07-01

    Bacillus licheniformis is an important bacterium that has been used extensively for large-scale industrial production of exoenzymes and peptide antibiotics. B. licheniformis WX-02 produces poly-gamma-glutamate increasingly when fermented under stress conditions. Here its genome sequence (4,270,104 bp, with G+C content of 46.06%), which comprises a circular chromosome, is announced.

  20. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus oceanisediminis 2691.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Sang-Jae; Jeong, Haeyoung; Kim, Hyun Ju; Ryu, Naeun; Kim, Byoung-Chan; Lee, Han-Seung; Lee, Dong-Woo; Lee, Sang Jun

    2012-11-01

    Bacillus oceanisediminis 2691 is an aerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming, and moderately halophilic bacterium that was isolated from marine sediment of the Yellow Sea coast of South Korea. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. oceanisediminis 2691 that may have an important role in the bioremediation of marine sediment.

  1. Complete Genome of Bacillus megaterium Podophage Pascal.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Jeffery D; Vega Gonzalez, Alexander E; Maroun, Justin W; Hernandez, Adriana C; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-29

    Podophage Pascal infects Bacillus megaterium, a commonly used model organism in biochemical research and an important industrial-scale protein production system. Here, we report the sequenced and annotated genome of Pascal and describe its prominent features. Bacteriophages such as Pascal may be valuable tools for research and industry.

  2. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  3. Parasporal bodies of Bacillus laterosporus sporangia.

    PubMed

    Montaldi, F A; Roth, I L

    1990-04-01

    Intact colonies of Bacillus laterosporus examined by thin-section transmission electron microscopy revealed sporangia in various stages of development and degeneration as the endospores matured. The sporangia formed a surface layer of hexagonally arranged subunits. The variety of parasporal bodies raised questions of developmental and ecologic utility.

  4. Bacillus cereus endocarditis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Block, C S; Levy, M L; Fritz, V U

    1978-04-08

    Bacillus cereus may cause infective problems in compromised patients. No previous record of infective endocarditis due to this organism could be found. A 51-year-old White woman with B. cereus endocarditis after prosthetic mitral valve replacement is described. The problems of interpreting the significance of B. cereus bacteraemia, delayed diagnosis, and the inherent resistance of the organism are discussed.

  5. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis: source of the organism.

    PubMed

    Shamsuddin, D; Tuazon, C U; Levy, C; Curtin, J

    1982-01-01

    Serious infections with the "nonpathogenic" Bacillus species are increasingly being recognized, especially in drug abusers. Cases of panophthalmitis secondary to infection with Bacillus cereus, with and without associated bacteremia, have been reported. Three drug abusers with panophthalmitis seen in our hospitals during a three-year period are described, and the similar cases reported in the literature are reviewed. The syndrome is characterized by an acute onset with a rapid fulminating course that eventually leads to enucleation or evisceration of the eye. The pathogenic mechanism is unknown, but is probably related to the production of toxin (lecithinase) by B. cereus. Clindamycin appears to be the antibiotic of choice in the treatment of this infection. In order to identify a possible source of the organism, 59 samples of heroin and injection paraphernalia were cultured. Twenty cultures yielded organisms; Bacillus species were the predominant isolates. Thirty-eight percent of the isolates were identified as B. cereus. Thus, infections caused by Bacillus species in drug abusers can probably be associated with intravenous heroin abuse because heroin mixtures and injection paraphernalia are frequently contaminated with this organism.

  6. Trail of Tears Documentation Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Wamp, Zach [R-TN-3

    2009-01-09

    02/04/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.146, which became Public Law 111-11 on 3/30/2009. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. 76 FR 14402 - Draft Action Plan-A Public Health Action Plan To Combat Antimicrobial Resistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... To Combat Antimicrobial Resistance AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance. HHS/CDC is publishing this notice on behalf of the HHS Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance. The draft Action Plan and supporting documents can...

  8. THE EXPERIMENTAL VASCULAR LESIONS PRODUCED BY BACILLUS MALLEI

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Charles W.

    1907-01-01

    1. Bacillus malleiand its poison produce a variety of vascular lesions in the rabbit and the guinea pig. 2. The type of the lesion depends upon, (a) the virulence of the culture, (b) the sex of the animal and (c) the degree of acquired immunity. 3. The vascular changes of a proliferative and degenerative nature produced by the slow action of the glanders poison in rabbits and guinea pigs are analogous to the vascular lesions caused by sub-acute glanders infection in man. 4. The most common site of the glanders vascular lesions of animals and man is the peripheral vessels, and especially the smaller visceral arteries. 5. The aorta is a less common site of the experimental lesions. 6. The vascular lesions produced experimentally by Bacillus mallei and its poison consist of three processes, (a) exudation, (b) proliferation, (c) degeneration. 7. The lesions produced by sub-acute glanders in man consist of two processes, proliferation and degeneration. 8. The primary reaction of the vessels in experimental animals and in sub-acute human glanders consists of a proliferation of the endothelium of the intima. 9. The first degenerative changes observed in experimental animals and in sub-acute human glanders occur in the "innermost layer" of the media and not in the so-called " middle zone." 10. The cause of the degenerative change in the inner layer of the media appears to be interference with the nourishment of the circular muscle fibres of the media by proliferation of the endothelium of the intima. PMID:19867086

  9. Mechanism of action of purpuromycin.

    PubMed Central

    Landini, P; Corti, E; Goldstein, B P; Denaro, M

    1992-01-01

    Purpuromycin, an antibiotic active against both fungi and bacteria, shows different modes of action against these two kinds of micro-organisms; in Candida albicans it inhibits RNA synthesis, whereas in Bacillus subtilis protein synthesis is primarily affected, with DNA and RNA synthesis blocked at higher concentrations of the drug. In bacterial cell-free protein-synthesis systems, purpuromycin did not inhibit synthesis from endogenous mRNA (elongation of peptides initiated within the intact cell) but inhibited MS2-phase RNA-dependent protein synthesis (which requires initiation) by 50% at 0.1 mg/l. Poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis was 50% inhibited by 20 mg of purpuromycin/l when added to a complete system; however, when purpuromycin was preincubated with ribosomes dissociated into 30 S and 50 S subunits, the concentration for 50% inhibition fell to 0.1 mg/l. By contrast, in a C. albicans cell-free system poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis was partially inhibited only at 200 mg/l. Purpuromycin also inhibited polynucleotide synthesis in vitro in reactions using Escherichia coli or wheat-germ RNA polymerases or E. coli DNA polymerase I. We suggest that in bacteria the primary target of purpuromycin is on ribosomes and that its action precedes the elongation step of protein synthesis. The effect on nucleic acid synthesis in both fungi and bacteria may be due to interaction of purpuromycin with DNA. PMID:1599409

  10. Action Research: Enhancing Classroom Practice and Fulfilling Educational Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark R.; Rapp, Eve; Murphy, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Action Research is an applied scholarly paradigm resulting in action for continuous improvement in our teaching and learning techniques offering faculty immediate classroom payback and providing documentation of meeting our educational responsibilities as required by AACSB standards. This article reviews the iterative action research process of…

  11. "Like Water for Chocolate": Action Theory for the OB Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazen, Abdelmagid M.

    2000-01-01

    Argyris' Action Theory (individual actions are related to espoused theory and theory-in-use) was used in an organizational behavior course for 6 years. Multiple longitudinal assessments document the feasibility of Action Theory when it is used to create the learning environment it purports to facilitate. (SK)

  12. Underground storage tank corrective action technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, R.

    1987-01-01

    The document contains information on corrective action technologies for releases from underground storage tanks (UST). It probes general background information on UST construction techniques, leak detection methods, and failure mechanisms. It also addresses transport pathways of released substances, techniques for evaluating the extent of a release, factors influencing risk to human health and the environment, techniques for selecting initial corrective-action response technologies, and detailed technical profiles of corrective action technologies. Emphasis is on corrective actions associated with releases from gasoline and petroleum USTs.

  13. Guidance Documents for Marine Fuel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following guidance documents apply to marine fuel used in ocean-going vessels. All vessels that operate in the North American Emission Control Area (ECA) must generally use fuel with 1,000 ppm sulfur or less.

  14. Quarantine document system indexing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

  15. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  16. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  17. Industrial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  18. Transportation Sector Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model.

  19. Renewable Fuels Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook forecasts.

  20. Reactor operation environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)