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Sample records for action game training

  1. Action video game training reduces the Simon Effect.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Claire V; Barrett, Doug J K; Nitka, Aleksander; Raynes, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that training on action video games improves various aspects of visual cognition including selective attention and inhibitory control. Here, we demonstrate that action video game play can also reduce the Simon Effect, and, hence, may have the potential to improve response selection during the planning and execution of goal-directed action. Non-game-players were randomly assigned to one of four groups; two trained on a first-person-shooter game (Call of Duty) on either Microsoft Xbox or Nintendo DS, one trained on a visual training game for Nintendo DS, and a control group who received no training. Response times were used to contrast performance before and after training on a behavioral assay designed to manipulate stimulus-response compatibility (the Simon Task). The results revealed significantly faster response times and a reduced cost of stimulus-response incompatibility in the groups trained on the first-person-shooter game. No benefit of training was observed in the control group or the group trained on the visual training game. These findings are consistent with previous evidence that action game play elicits plastic changes in the neural circuits that serve attentional control, and suggest training may facilitate goal-directed action by improving players' ability to resolve conflict during response selection and execution.

  2. Effects of action video game training on visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Blacker, Kara J; Curby, Kim M; Klobusicky, Elizabeth; Chein, Jason M

    2014-10-01

    The ability to hold visual information in mind over a brief delay is critical for acquiring information and navigating a complex visual world. Despite the ubiquitous nature of visual working memory (VWM) in our everyday lives, this system is fundamentally limited in capacity. Therefore, the potential to improve VWM through training is a growing area of research. An emerging body of literature suggests that extensive experience playing action video games yields a myriad of perceptual and attentional benefits. Several lines of converging work suggest that action video game play may influence VWM as well. The current study utilized a training paradigm to examine whether action video games cause improvements to the quantity and/or the quality of information stored in VWM. The results suggest that VWM capacity, as measured by a change detection task, is increased after action video game training, as compared with training on a control game, and that some improvement to VWM precision occurs with action game training as well. However, these findings do not appear to extend to a complex span measure of VWM, which is often thought to tap into higher-order executive skills. The VWM improvements seen in individuals trained on an action video game cannot be accounted for by differences in motivation or engagement, differential expectations, or baseline differences in demographics as compared with the control group used. In sum, action video game training represents a potentially unique and engaging platform by which this severely capacity-limited VWM system might be enhanced.

  3. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies.

  4. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies. PMID:27378996

  5. Cognitive enhancement through action video game training: great expectations require greater evidence.

    PubMed

    Bisoglio, Joseph; Michaels, Timothy I; Mervis, Joshua E; Ashinoff, Brandon K

    2014-01-01

    Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence-based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects.

  6. Cognitive enhancement through action video game training: great expectations require greater evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bisoglio, Joseph; Michaels, Timothy I.; Mervis, Joshua E.; Ashinoff, Brandon K.

    2014-01-01

    Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence-based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects. PMID:24600427

  7. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others.

  8. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. PMID:25352805

  9. Playing Action Video Games Improves Visuomotor Control.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The findings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be beneficial training tools for driving.

  10. The Implementation and Evaluation of Teacher Training in Gaming Instruction for Secondary Science: An Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    This study implemented and evaluated gaming instruction as a professional development for science teachers at a Georgia high school. It was guided by four research questions that (a) assessed the impact of training in gaming instruction and evaluation of that training on science teachers' ability to use games; (b) examined evidence showing that…

  11. Action video game modifies visual selective attention.

    PubMed

    Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2003-05-29

    As video-game playing has become a ubiquitous activity in today's society, it is worth considering its potential consequences on perceptual and motor skills. It is well known that exposing an organism to an altered visual environment often results in modification of the visual system of the organism. The field of perceptual learning provides many examples of training-induced increases in performance. But perceptual learning, when it occurs, tends to be specific to the trained task; that is, generalization to new tasks is rarely found. Here we show, by contrast, that action-video-game playing is capable of altering a range of visual skills. Four experiments establish changes in different aspects of visual attention in habitual video-game players as compared with non-video-game players. In a fifth experiment, non-players trained on an action video game show marked improvement from their pre-training abilities, thereby establishing the role of playing in this effect.

  12. The implementation and evaluation of teacher training in gaming instruction for secondary science: An action research project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Veronica

    This study implemented and evaluated gaming instruction as a professional development for science teachers at a Georgia high school. It was guided by four research questions that (a) assessed the impact of training in gaming instruction and evaluation of that training on science teachers' ability to use games; (b) examined evidence showing that science teachers used games; (c) assessed the impact of the implementation and subsequent evaluation of games-based training on how science teachers instruct their students; and (d) explored the use of change management principles to help teachers transition from traditional to gaming instruction. The study included a purposive sampling of 10 volunteer science teachers who received the professional development of training in gaming instruction and were observed as they used games to instruct their students. Quantitative data were collected from interviews, observations, and reviews of student assignments and teacher plans, and were statistically analyzed to answer the research questions. These same methods were used to obtain qualitative data, which were also analyzed to answer the research questions as well as to understand the meaning, beliefs and experience behind the numbers. Ultimately, data analysis revealed that the science teachers not only used gaming instruction but also that the training helped them to use gaming instruction and that they considered gaming instruction a viable instruction methodology. Finally, data analysis revealed that change management was successfully used in the study.

  13. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Laura, Ponce de León; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become non-significant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary.

  14. Learning, attentional control and action video games

    PubMed Central

    Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.

    2012-01-01

    While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on ‘action video games’ produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. PMID:22440805

  15. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Laura, Ponce de León; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616) investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become non-significant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary. PMID:25926790

  16. Perceptual learning during action video game playing.

    PubMed

    Green, C Shawn; Li, Renjie; Bavelier, Daphne

    2010-04-01

    Action video games have been shown to enhance behavioral performance on a wide variety of perceptual tasks, from those that require effective allocation of attentional resources across the visual scene, to those that demand the successful identification of fleetingly presented stimuli. Importantly, these effects have not only been shown in expert action video game players, but a causative link has been established between action video game play and enhanced processing through training studies. Although an account based solely on attention fails to capture the variety of enhancements observed after action game playing, a number of models of perceptual learning are consistent with the observed results, with behavioral modeling favoring the hypothesis that avid video game players are better able to form templates for, or extract the relevant statistics of, the task at hand. This may suggest that the neural site of learning is in areas where information is integrated and actions are selected; yet changes in low-level sensory areas cannot be ruled out.

  17. Do action video games improve perception and cognition?

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Blakely, Daniel P; Simons, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Frequent action video game players often outperform non-gamers on measures of perception and cognition, and some studies find that video game practice enhances those abilities. The possibility that video game training transfers broadly to other aspects of cognition is exciting because training on one task rarely improves performance on others. At first glance, the cumulative evidence suggests a strong relationship between gaming experience and other cognitive abilities, but methodological shortcomings call that conclusion into question. We discuss these pitfalls, identify how existing studies succeed or fail in overcoming them, and provide guidelines for more definitive tests of the effects of gaming on cognition.

  18. Conventional Training Versus Game-Based Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    expertise is needed (simulator training, special FMS practical exercises) will yield high-quality, scientific data concerning the impact of serious game...promising medium for training effectiveness, particularly in military training environments; however, there are few empirically- supported guidelines on how...to best implement this approach. The development of a theoretically-driven, empirically- supported tool specifying when and how specific gaming elements

  19. Plasticity of Attentional Functions in Older Adults after Non-Action Video Game Training: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mayas, Julia; Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Andrés, Pilar; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2014-01-01

    A major goal of recent research in aging has been to examine cognitive plasticity in older adults and its capacity to counteract cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether older adults could benefit from brain training with video games in a cross-modal oddball task designed to assess distraction and alertness. Twenty-seven healthy older adults participated in the study (15 in the experimental group, 12 in the control group. The experimental group received 20 1-hr video game training sessions using a commercially available brain-training package (Lumosity) involving problem solving, mental calculation, working memory and attention tasks. The control group did not practice this package and, instead, attended meetings with the other members of the study several times along the course of the study. Both groups were evaluated before and after the intervention using a cross-modal oddball task measuring alertness and distraction. The results showed a significant reduction of distraction and an increase of alertness in the experimental group and no variation in the control group. These results suggest neurocognitive plasticity in the old human brain as training enhanced cognitive performance on attentional functions. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616 PMID:24647551

  20. Increasing Speed of Processing With Action Video Games

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Matthew W.G.; Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    In many everyday situations, speed is of the essence. However, fast decisions typically mean more mistakes. To this day, it remains unknown whether reaction times can be reduced with appropriate training, within one individual, across a range of tasks, and without compromising accuracy. Here we review evidence that the very act of playing action video games significantly reduces reaction times without sacrificing accuracy. Critically, this increase in speed is observed across various tasks beyond game situations. Video gaming may therefore provide an efficient training regimen to induce a general speeding of perceptual reaction times without decreases in accuracy of performance. PMID:20485453

  1. Training for Nonviolent Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Theodore W.; Shivers, Lynne

    The theory and practice of nonviolent action training as it exists to date are reviewed in this pamphlet. A response to a renewal of interest in alternative forms of social action, the pamphlet results specifically from an international seminar of experienced organizers and trainers held at Preston Patrick, Westmorland, England, June 27 - July 2,…

  2. Action video games make dyslexic children read better.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Sandro; Gori, Simone; Ruffino, Milena; Viola, Simona; Molteni, Massimo; Facoetti, Andrea

    2013-03-18

    Learning to read is extremely difficult for about 10% of children; they are affected by a neurodevelopmental disorder called dyslexia [1, 2]. The neurocognitive causes of dyslexia are still hotly debated [3-12]. Dyslexia remediation is far from being fully achieved [13], and the current treatments demand high levels of resources [1]. Here, we demonstrate that only 12 hr of playing action video games-not involving any direct phonological or orthographic training-drastically improve the reading abilities of children with dyslexia. We tested reading, phonological, and attentional skills in two matched groups of children with dyslexia before and after they played action or nonaction video games for nine sessions of 80 min per day. We found that only playing action video games improved children's reading speed, without any cost in accuracy, more so than 1 year of spontaneous reading development and more than or equal to highly demanding traditional reading treatments. Attentional skills also improved during action video game training. It has been demonstrated that action video games efficiently improve attention abilities [14, 15]; our results showed that this attention improvement can directly translate into better reading abilities, providing a new, fast, fun remediation of dyslexia that has theoretical relevance in unveiling the causal role of attention in reading acquisition.

  3. Adaptive thinking & leadership simulation game training for special forces officers.

    SciTech Connect

    Raybourn, Elaine Marie; Mendini, Kip; Heneghan, Jerry; Deagle, Edwin

    2005-07-01

    Complex problem solving approaches and novel strategies employed by the military at the squad, team, and commander level are often best learned experimentally. Since live action exercises can be costly, advances in simulation game training technology offer exciting ways to enhance current training. Computer games provide an environment for active, critical learning. Games open up possibilities for simultaneous learning on multiple levels; players may learn from contextual information embedded in the dynamics of the game, the organic process generated by the game, and through the risks, benefits, costs, outcomes, and rewards of alternative strategies that result from decision making. In the present paper we discuss a multiplayer computer game simulation created for the Adaptive Thinking & Leadership (ATL) Program to train Special Forces Team Leaders. The ATL training simulation consists of a scripted single-player and an immersive multiplayer environment for classroom use which leverages immersive computer game technology. We define adaptive thinking as consisting of competencies such as negotiation and consensus building skills, the ability to communicate effectively, analyze ambiguous situations, be self-aware, think innovatively, and critically use effective problem solving skills. Each of these competencies is an essential element of leader development training for the U.S. Army Special Forces. The ATL simulation is used to augment experiential learning in the curriculum for the U.S. Army JFK Special Warfare Center & School (SWCS) course in Adaptive Thinking & Leadership. The school is incorporating the ATL simulation game into two additional training pipelines (PSYOPS and Civil Affairs Qualification Courses) that are also concerned with developing cultural awareness, interpersonal communication adaptability, and rapport-building skills. In the present paper, we discuss the design, development, and deployment of the training simulation, and emphasize how the

  4. Video game training and the reward system.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training. Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG) or control group (CG). Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted using a non-video game related reward task. At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS) during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated. This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the VS in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training.

  5. Video game training and the reward system

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Robert C.; Gleich, Tobias; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training. Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG) or control group (CG). Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted using a non-video game related reward task. At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS) during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated. This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the VS in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training. PMID:25698962

  6. Can Massively Multiplayer Online Gaming Environments Support Team Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Debra L.; Menaker, Ellen S.

    2008-01-01

    Instructional games are created when training is deliberately added to a gaming environment or when gaming aspects are deliberately incorporated into training. One type of game that is currently attracting the attention of the education and training field is the massively multiplayer online game (MMOG). Because evidence about learning outcomes…

  7. Reduced attentional capture in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Hickey, Clayton; Theeuwes, Jan; Kingstone, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that playing action video games improves performance on a number of attention-based tasks. However, it remains unclear whether action video game experience primarily affects endogenous or exogenous forms of spatial orienting. To examine this issue, action video game players and non-action video game players performed an attentional capture task. The results show that action video game players responded quicker than non-action video game players, both when a target appeared in isolation and when a salient, task-irrelevant distractor was present in the display. Action video game players additionally showed a smaller capture effect than did non-action video game players. When coupled with the findings of previous studies, the collective evidence indicates that extensive experience with action video games may enhance players' top-down attentional control, which, in turn, can modulate the negative effects of bottom-up attentional capture.

  8. Enhancing perceptual and attentional skills requires common demands between the action video games and transfer tasks

    PubMed Central

    Oei, Adam C.; Patterson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that shows action video game play improves perceptual and cognitive skills, the mechanisms of transfer are not well-understood. In line with previous work, we suggest that transfer is dependent upon common demands between the game and transfer task. In the current study, participants played one of four action games with varying speed, visual, and attentional demands for 20 h. We examined whether training enhanced performance for attentional blink, selective attention, attending to multiple items, visual search and auditory detection. Non-gamers who played the game (Modern Combat) with the highest demands showed transfer to tasks of attentional blink and attending to multiple items. The game (MGS Touch) with fewer attentional demands also decreased attentional blink, but to a lesser degree. Other games failed to show transfer, despite having many action game characteristics but at a reduced intensity. The results support the common demands hypothesis. PMID:25713551

  9. Designing action games for appealing to buyers.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Lee, Feng-Liang; Wu, Muh-Cherng

    2005-12-01

    This study aims to identify design features for action games that would appeal to game-buyers, rather than game-players. Sixteen frequent-buyers of computer games identified 39 design features that appeal to buyers by contrasting different versions of Pacman games. Twenty-eight versions of Pacman were then evaluated in terms of the identified design features by 45 participants (27 male and 18 female college students). Qnet2000 neural network software was used to determine the relative importance of these design features. The results indicated that the top 10 most important design features could account for more than 50% of "perceived fun" among these 39 design features. The feature of avatar is important to game-buyers, yet not revealed in previous player-oriented studies. Moreover, six design factors underlying the 39 features were identified through factor analysis. These factors included "novelty and powerfulness," "appealing presentation," "interactivity," "challenging," "sense of control," and "rewarding," and could account for 54% of total variance. Among these six factors, appealing presentation has not been emphasized by player-oriented research. Implications of the findings were discussed.

  10. Action-video-game experience alters the spatial resolution of vision.

    PubMed

    Green, C S; Bavelier, D

    2007-01-01

    Playing action video games enhances several different aspects of visual processing; however, the mechanisms underlying this improvement remain unclear. Here we show that playing action video games can alter fundamental characteristics of the visual system, such as the spatial resolution of visual processing across the visual field. To determine the spatial resolution of visual processing, we measured the smallest distance a distractor could be from a target without compromising target identification. This approach exploits the fact that visual processing is hindered as distractors are brought close to the target, a phenomenon known as crowding. Compared with nonplayers, action-video-game players could tolerate smaller target-distractor distances. Thus, the spatial resolution of visual processing is enhanced in this population. Critically, similar effects were observed in non-video-game players who were trained on an action video game; this result verifies a causative relationship between video-game play and augmented spatial resolution.

  11. The influence of action video game playing on eye movement behaviour during visual search in abstract, in-game and natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Elham; Abel, Larry A; Stainer, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    Action game playing has been associated with several improvements in visual attention tasks. However, it is not clear how such changes might influence the way we overtly select information from our visual world (i.e. eye movements). We examined whether action-video-game training changed eye movement behaviour in a series of visual search tasks including conjunctive search (relatively abstracted from natural behaviour), game-related search, and more naturalistic scene search. Forty nongamers were trained in either an action first-person shooter game or a card game (control) for 10 hours. As a further control, we recorded eye movements of 20 experienced action gamers on the same tasks. The results did not show any change in duration of fixations or saccade amplitude either from before to after the training or between all nongamers (pretraining) and experienced action gamers. However, we observed a change in search strategy, reflected by a reduction in the vertical distribution of fixations for the game-related search task in the action-game-trained group. This might suggest learning the likely distribution of targets. In other words, game training only skilled participants to search game images for targets important to the game, with no indication of transfer to the more natural scene search. Taken together, these results suggest no modification in overt allocation of attention. Either the skills that can be trained with action gaming are not powerful enough to influence information selection through eye movements, or action-game-learned skills are not used when deciding where to move the eyes.

  12. The effects of an action video game on visual and affective information processing.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert

    2013-04-04

    Playing action video games can have beneficial effects on visuospatial cognition and negative effects on social information processing. However, these two effects have not been demonstrated in the same individuals in a single study. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of playing an action or non-action video game on the processing of emotion in facial expression. The data revealed that 10h of playing an action or non-action video game had differential effects on the ERPs relative to a no-contact control group. Playing an action game resulted in two effects: one that reflected an increase in the amplitude of the ERPs following training over the right frontal and posterior regions that was similar for angry, happy, and neutral faces; and one that reflected a reduction in the allocation of attention to happy faces. In contrast, playing a non-action game resulted in changes in slow wave activity over the central-parietal and frontal regions that were greater for targets (i.e., angry and happy faces) than for non-targets (i.e., neutral faces). These data demonstrate that the contrasting effects of action video games on visuospatial and emotion processing occur in the same individuals following the same level of gaming experience. This observation leads to the suggestion that caution should be exercised when using action video games to modify visual processing, as this experience could also have unintended effects on emotion processing.

  13. Real-time strategy game training: emergence of a cognitive flexibility trait.

    PubMed

    Glass, Brian D; Maddox, W Todd; Love, Bradley C

    2013-01-01

    Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS) game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function.

  14. The Development of Attention Skills in Action Video Game Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, M. W. G.; Green, C. S.; Bavelier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that action video game play improves attentional resources, allowing gamers to better allocate their attention across both space and time. In order to further characterize the plastic changes resulting from playing these video games, we administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT) to action game players and…

  15. Guidelines for Selecting, Using, and Evaluating Games in Corporate Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebenga, Susan R.

    2005-01-01

    The use of games in corporate training began in the 1950s. In subsequent years the use of games has increased, while the look and feel of the games being used has evolved. Unfortunately, very little research regarding the effectiveness of games as a training tool has been conducted; and, the research conducted often yields conflicting results. The…

  16. Designing Mixed Reality Mobile Games for Crisis Management Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Loreto, Ines; Mora, Simone; Divitini, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Games for crisis management offer an interesting complement to traditional training. Experiments on their usage show that games can be promising tools able to address some of the limitations of traditional training. Also our first assessment with a board game for panic management shows that this particular kind of game could be useful for soft…

  17. Is action video gaming related to sustained attention of adolescents?

    PubMed

    Daniela Carmen, Trisolini; Marco Alessandro, Petilli; Roberta, Daini

    2017-03-24

    Over the past few years, an increasing number of studies have shown that playing action video games can have positive effects on tasks that involve attention and visual-spatial cognition (e.g. visual search, enumeration tasks, tracking multiple objects). Although playing action video games can improve several cognitive functions, the intensive interaction with the exciting, challenging, intrinsically-stimulating and perceptually-appealing game environments may adversely affect other functions, including the ability to maintain attention when the level of stimulation is not as intense. This study investigated whether a relationship existed between action video gaming and sustained attention performance in a sample of 45 Italian teenagers. After completing a questionnaire about their video-games habits, participants were divided into Action Video Game Player and Non Action Video Game Player groups and underwent cognitive tests. The results confirm previous findings of studies of Action Video Game Players, as they had significantly enhanced performance for instantly enumerating a set of items. Nevertheless, we found that the drop in performance over time, typical of a sustained attention task, was significantly greater in the Action Video Game Player compared with the Non Action Video Game Player group. This result is consistent with our hypothesis and demonstrates a negative effect of playing action video games.

  18. Game Plan for Successful Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Blair

    1996-01-01

    Provides a description of and the rationale behind the development of a game called HAZWOPER. HAZWOPER provides an overview of important environmental health and safety issues and teaches trainees how to use reference materials to find information about these topics. (DDR)

  19. Leveraging Gaming Technology to Deliver Effective Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimino, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The best way to engage a soldier is to present them with training content consistent with their learning preference. Blended Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI) can be used to leach soldiers what they need to do, how to do each step, and utilize a COTS game engine to actually practices the skills learned. Blended IMI provides an enjoyable experience for the soldier, thereby increasing retention rates and motivation while decreasing the time to subject mastery. And now mobile devices have emerged as an exciting new platform, literally placing the training into the soldier's hands. In this paper, we will discuss how we leveraged commercial game engine technology, tightly integrated with the Blended IMI, to train soldiers on both laptops and mobile devices. We will provide a recent case study of how this training is being utilized, benefits and student/instructor feedback.

  20. Video game training to improve selective visual attention in older adults.

    PubMed

    Belchior, Patrícia; Marsiske, Michael; Sisco, Shannon M; Yam, Anna; Bavelier, Daphne; Ball, Karlene; Mann, William C

    2013-07-01

    The current study investigated the effect of video game training on older adult's useful field of view performance (the UFOV® test). Fifty-eight older adult participants were randomized to receive practice with the target action game (Medal of Honor), a placebo control arcade game (Tetris), a clinically validated UFOV training program, or into a no contact control group. Examining pretest-posttest change in selective visual attention, the UFOV improved significantly more than the game groups; all three intervention groups improved significantly more than no-contact controls. There was a lack of difference between the two game conditions, differing from findings with younger adults. Discussion considers whether games posing less challenge might still be effective interventions for elders, and whether optimal training dosages should be higher.

  1. Video game training to improve selective visual attention in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Belchior, Patrícia; Marsiske, Michael; Sisco, Shannon M.; Yam, Anna; Bavelier, Daphne; Ball, Karlene; Mann, William C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of video game training on older adult’s useful field of view performance (the UFOV® test). Fifty-eight older adult participants were randomized to receive practice with the target action game (Medal of Honor), a placebo control arcade game (Tetris), a clinically validated UFOV training program, or into a no contact control group. Examining pretest–posttest change in selective visual attention, the UFOV improved significantly more than the game groups; all three intervention groups improved significantly more than no-contact controls. There was a lack of difference between the two game conditions, differing from findings with younger adults. Discussion considers whether games posing less challenge might still be effective interventions for elders, and whether optimal training dosages should be higher. PMID:24003265

  2. Instructional games and activities for criticality safety training

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, B.; McBride, J. )

    1993-01-01

    During the past several years, the Training and Management Systems Division (TMSD) staff of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has designed and developed nuclear criticality safety (NCS) training programs that focus on high trainee involvement through the use of instructional games and activities. This paper discusses the instructional game, initial considerations for developing games, advantages and limitations of games, and how games may be used in developing and implementing NCS training. It also provides examples of the various instructional games and activities used in separate courses designed for Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES's) supervisors and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fuel facility inspectors.

  3. Game-based mass casualty burn training.

    PubMed

    Kurenov, Sergei N; Cance, William W; Noel, Ben; Mozingo, David W

    2009-01-01

    An interactive, video game-based training module, Burn Center, was developed to simulate the real-life emergency events of a mass casualty disaster scenario, involving in 40 victims.The game contains two components - triage and resuscitation. The goal of the triage game is to correctly stabilize, sort, tag and transport burn victims during a mass casualty event at a busy theme park. After complete the triage component, the player will then take on the role of a burn care provider, balancing the clinical needs of multiple burn patients through a 36-hour resuscitation period, using familiar computer-simulated hospital devices. Once complete, players of Burn Center will come away with applicable skills and knowledge of burn care, for both field triage and initial resuscitation of the burn patients.

  4. A Training Transfer Study of Simulation Games

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Training Transfer Study of Simulation Games 6. AUTHOR( S ) Ben Brown 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING...ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this

  5. Action Video Games Do Not Improve the Speed of Information Processing in Simple Perceptual Tasks

    PubMed Central

    van Ravenzwaaij, Don; Boekel, Wouter; Forstmann, Birte U.; Ratcliff, Roger; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that playing action video games improves performance on sensory, perceptual, and attentional tasks. For instance, Green, Pouget, and Bavelier (2010) used the diffusion model to decompose data from a motion detection task and estimate the contribution of several underlying psychological processes. Their analysis indicated that playing action video games leads to faster information processing, reduced response caution, and no difference in motor responding. Because perceptual learning is generally thought to be highly context-specific, this transfer from gaming is surprising and warrants corroborative evidence from a large-scale training study. We conducted 2 experiments in which participants practiced either an action video game or a cognitive game in 5 separate, supervised sessions. Prior to each session and following the last session, participants performed a perceptual discrimination task. In the second experiment, we included a third condition in which no video games were played at all. Behavioral data and diffusion model parameters showed similar practice effects for the action gamers, the cognitive gamers, and the nongamers and suggest that, in contrast to earlier reports, playing action video games does not improve the speed of information processing in simple perceptual tasks. PMID:24933517

  6. Action video games do not improve the speed of information processing in simple perceptual tasks.

    PubMed

    van Ravenzwaaij, Don; Boekel, Wouter; Forstmann, Birte U; Ratcliff, Roger; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2014-10-01

    Previous research suggests that playing action video games improves performance on sensory, perceptual, and attentional tasks. For instance, Green, Pouget, and Bavelier (2010) used the diffusion model to decompose data from a motion detection task and estimate the contribution of several underlying psychological processes. Their analysis indicated that playing action video games leads to faster information processing, reduced response caution, and no difference in motor responding. Because perceptual learning is generally thought to be highly context-specific, this transfer from gaming is surprising and warrants corroborative evidence from a large-scale training study. We conducted 2 experiments in which participants practiced either an action video game or a cognitive game in 5 separate, supervised sessions. Prior to each session and following the last session, participants performed a perceptual discrimination task. In the second experiment, we included a third condition in which no video games were played at all. Behavioral data and diffusion model parameters showed similar practice effects for the action gamers, the cognitive gamers, and the nongamers and suggest that, in contrast to earlier reports, playing action video games does not improve the speed of information processing in simple perceptual tasks.

  7. Improved probabilistic inference as a general learning mechanism with action video games.

    PubMed

    Green, C Shawn; Pouget, Alexandre; Bavelier, Daphne

    2010-09-14

    Action video game play benefits performance in an array of sensory, perceptual, and attentional tasks that go well beyond the specifics of game play [1-9]. That a training regimen may induce improvements in so many different skills is notable because the majority of studies on training-induced learning report improvements on the trained task but limited transfer to other, even closely related, tasks ([10], but see also [11-13]). Here we ask whether improved probabilistic inference may explain such broad transfer. By using a visual perceptual decision making task [14, 15], the present study shows for the first time that action video game experience does indeed improve probabilistic inference. A neural model of this task [16] establishes how changing a single parameter, namely the strength of the connections between the neural layer providing the momentary evidence and the layer integrating the evidence over time, captures improvements in action-gamers behavior. These results were established in a visual, but also in a novel auditory, task, indicating generalization across modalities. Thus, improved probabilistic inference provides a general mechanism for why action video game playing enhances performance in a wide variety of tasks. In addition, this mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning.

  8. Games for Training: Leveraging Commercial Off the Shelf Multiplayer Gaming Software for Infantry Squad Collective Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    game, stated that “This (Full Spectrum Command) is not a skills trainer. We are training your mind. You’re not holding a gun” ( Pappalardo , 2004...tools for students,” Journal of Education for Business, v. 78(3), p. 125, 2003. 90 Pappalardo , J., “Demand for Non-Combat Skills Fuels Interest in

  9. Video Game Learning Dynamics: Actionable Measures of Multidimensional Learning Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Debbie Denise; Tabachnick, Barbara G.; Kosko, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Valid, accessible, reusable methods for instructional video game design and embedded assessment can provide actionable information enhancing individual and collective achievement. Cyberlearning through game-based, metaphor-enhanced learning objects (CyGaMEs) design and embedded assessment quantify player behavior to study knowledge discovery and…

  10. Effect of Action Video Games on the Spatial Distribution of Visuospatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of action gaming on the spatial distribution of attention. The authors used the flanker compatibility effect to separately assess center and peripheral attentional resources in gamers versus nongamers. Gamers exhibited an enhancement in attentional resources compared with nongamers, not only in the periphery but also in central vision. The authors then used a target localization task to unambiguously establish that gaming enhances the spatial distribution of visual attention over a wide field of view. Gamers were more accurate than nongamers at all eccentricities tested, and the advantage held even when a concurrent center task was added, ruling out a trade-off between central and peripheral attention. By establishing the causal role of gaming through training studies, the authors demonstrate that action gaming enhances visuospatial attention throughout the visual field. PMID:17154785

  11. Simulation game provides financial management training.

    PubMed

    Uhles, Neville; Weimer-Elder, Barbette; Lee, James G

    2008-01-01

    Adventist HealthCare developed a workshop with a reality simulation game as an engaging means to teach nonfinancial managers about the relationships between cash flow, income statements, and balance sheets. Thirty AHC staff, about half financial and half nonfinancial, were trained as workshop facilitators, and all managers with budget oversight were asked to complete the workshop. The workshop was very positively received; participants' average scores on workshop questionnaires increased from 77.4 percent correct on a presession questionnaire to 91.3 percent correct on a postsession questionnaire.

  12. Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: the case of action video game players.

    PubMed

    Green, C S; Bavelier, D

    2006-08-01

    Here, we demonstrate that action video game play enhances subjects' ability in two tasks thought to indicate the number of items that can be apprehended. Using an enumeration task, in which participants have to determine the number of quickly flashed squares, accuracy measures showed a near ceiling performance for low numerosities and a sharp drop in performance once a critical number of squares was reached. Importantly, this critical number was higher by about two items in video game players (VGPs) than in non-video game players (NVGPs). A following control study indicated that this improvement was not due to an enhanced ability to instantly apprehend the numerosity of the display, a process known as subitizing, but rather due to an enhancement in the slower more serial process of counting. To confirm that video game play facilitates the processing of multiple objects at once, we compared VGPs and NVGPs on the multiple object tracking task (MOT), which requires the allocation of attention to several items over time. VGPs were able to successfully track approximately two more items than NVGPs. Furthermore, NVGPs trained on an action video game established the causal effect of game playing in the enhanced performance on the two tasks. Together, these studies confirm the view that playing action video games enhances the number of objects that can be apprehended and suggest that this enhancement is mediated by changes in visual short-term memory skills.

  13. Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: the case of action video game players

    PubMed Central

    Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that action video game play enhances subjects’ ability in two tasks thought to indicate the number of items that can be apprehended. Using an enumeration task, in which participants have to determine the number of quickly flashed squares, accuracy measures showed a near ceiling performance for low numerosities and a sharp drop in performance once a critical number of squares was reached. Importantly, this critical number was higher by about two items in video game players (VGPs) than in non-video game players (NVGPs). A following control study indicated that this improvement was not due to an enhanced ability to instantly apprehend the numerosity of the display, a process known as subitizing, but rather due to an enhancement in the slower more serial process of counting. To confirm that video game play facilitates the processing of multiple objects at once, we compared VGPs and NVGPs on the multiple object tracking task (MOT), which requires the allocation of attention to several items over time. VGPs were able to successfully track approximately two more items than NVGPs. Furthermore, NVGPs trained on an action video game established the causal effect of game playing in the enhanced performance on the two tasks. Together, these studies confirm the view that playing action video games enhances the number of objects that can be apprehended and suggest that this enhancement is mediated by changes in visual short-term memory skills. PMID:16359652

  14. Making Games Not Work: Paradoxes Embedded in Game-Based Training and Concepts for Overcoming Them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Phillip N.; Cuper, Taryn

    2010-01-01

    An interest in game-based training solutions is natural. All one has to do is watch someone fully engaged in a modern game to see the potential of harnessing that attention for training. However, the reality of game-based training has not fully satisfied these expectations. This paper explains two paradoxes that must be overcome for games to support training. These paradoxes are a result of the realities of the basic human condition clashing with the requirements of learning theory. 80th paradoxes arise from the concept of "engagement" that is central to games. The first comes from a more robust definition of engagement, which is the condition of Flow or Optimal Experience. Flow is the state game developers want to see in users. One aspect of Flow is loss of sense of self as the individual becomes immersed in the experience. The paradox arises because this loss of self directly contradicts the learning requirement of self-reflection. The second paradox comes from theories of play, which state in part that play requires a level of individual freedom. The contradiction arises when game-based play must be harnessed to an organizational training program or regimen. The paper will discuss these paradoxes in the context of an effort to design a game-based training modality to train combat medics and will close with a review of compensating strategies identified by the designers. The paper will provide information important to anyone interested in conceptualizing and designing game-based training.

  15. A dichoptic custom-made action video game as a treatment for adult amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Huang, Samuel J.; Zheng, Frank; Bayliss, Jessica; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have employed different experimental approaches to enhance visual function in adults with amblyopia including perceptual learning, videogame play, and dichoptic training. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel dichoptic action videogame combining all three approaches. This experimental intervention was compared to a conventional, yet unstudied method of supervised occlusion while watching movies. Adults with unilateral amblyopia were assigned to either playing the dichoptic action game (n = 23; ‘game’ group), or to watching movies monocularly while the fellow eye was patched (n = 15; ‘movies’ group) for a total of 40 h. Following training, visual acuity (VA) improved on average by ≈0.14 logMAR (≈27%) in the game group, with improvements noted in both anisometropic and strabismic patients. This improvement is similar to that described after perceptual learning, video game play or dichoptic training. Surprisingly, patients with anisometropic amblyopia in the movies group showed similar improvement, revealing a greater impact of supervised occlusion in adults than typically thought. Stereoacuity, reading speed, and contrast sensitivity improved more for game group participants compared with movies group participants. Most improvements were largely retained following a 2-month no-contact period. This novel video game, which combines action gaming, perceptual learning and dichoptic presentation, results in VA improvements equivalent to those previously documented with each of these techniques alone. Interestingly, however, our game intervention led to greater improvement than control training in a variety of visual functions, thus suggesting that this approach has promise for the treatment of adult amblyopia. PMID:25917239

  16. How to build better memory training games.

    PubMed

    Deveau, Jenni; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Zordan, Victor; Phung, Calvin; Seitz, Aaron R

    2014-01-01

    Can we create engaging training programs that improve working memory (WM) skills? While there are numerous procedures that attempt to do so, there is a great deal of controversy regarding their efficacy. Nonetheless, recent meta-analytic evidence shows consistent improvements across studies on lab-based tasks generalizing beyond the specific training effects (Au et al., 2014; Karbach and Verhaeghen, 2014), however, there is little research into how WM training aids participants in their daily life. Here we propose that incorporating design principles from the fields of Perceptual Learning (PL) and Computer Science might augment the efficacy of WM training, and ultimately lead to greater learning and transfer. In particular, the field of PL has identified numerous mechanisms (including attention, reinforcement, multisensory facilitation and multi-stimulus training) that promote brain plasticity. Also, computer science has made great progress in the scientific approach to game design that can be used to create engaging environments for learning. We suggest that approaches integrating knowledge across these fields may lead to a more effective WM interventions and better reflect real world conditions.

  17. How to build better memory training games

    PubMed Central

    Deveau, Jenni; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Zordan, Victor; Phung, Calvin; Seitz, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    Can we create engaging training programs that improve working memory (WM) skills? While there are numerous procedures that attempt to do so, there is a great deal of controversy regarding their efficacy. Nonetheless, recent meta-analytic evidence shows consistent improvements across studies on lab-based tasks generalizing beyond the specific training effects (Au et al., 2014; Karbach and Verhaeghen, 2014), however, there is little research into how WM training aids participants in their daily life. Here we propose that incorporating design principles from the fields of Perceptual Learning (PL) and Computer Science might augment the efficacy of WM training, and ultimately lead to greater learning and transfer. In particular, the field of PL has identified numerous mechanisms (including attention, reinforcement, multisensory facilitation and multi-stimulus training) that promote brain plasticity. Also, computer science has made great progress in the scientific approach to game design that can be used to create engaging environments for learning. We suggest that approaches integrating knowledge across these fields may lead to a more effective WM interventions and better reflect real world conditions. PMID:25620916

  18. Cognitive training with casual video games: points to consider

    PubMed Central

    Baniqued, Pauline L.; Kranz, Michael B.; Voss, Michelle W.; Lee, Hyunkyu; Cosman, Joshua D.; Severson, Joan; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Brain training programs have proliferated in recent years, with claims that video games or computer-based tasks can broadly enhance cognitive function. However, benefits are commonly seen only in trained tasks. Assessing generalized improvement and practicality of laboratory exercises complicates interpretation and application of findings. In this study, we addressed these issues by using active control groups, training tasks that more closely resemble real-world demands and multiple tests to determine transfer of training. We examined whether casual video games can broadly improve cognition, and selected training games from a study of the relationship between game performance and cognitive abilities. A total of 209 young adults were randomized into a working memory–reasoning group, an adaptive working memory–reasoning group, an active control game group, and a no-contact control group. Before and after 15 h of training, participants completed tests of reasoning, working memory, attention, episodic memory, perceptual speed, and self-report measures of executive function, game experience, perceived improvement, knowledge of brain training research, and game play outside the laboratory. Participants improved on the training games, but transfer to untrained tasks was limited. No group showed gains in reasoning, working memory, episodic memory, or perceptual speed, but the working memory–reasoning groups improved in divided attention, with better performance in an attention-demanding game, a decreased attentional blink and smaller trail-making costs. Perceived improvements did not differ across training groups and those with low reasoning ability at baseline showed larger gains. Although there are important caveats, our study sheds light on the mixed effects in the training and transfer literature and offers a novel and potentially practical training approach. Still, more research is needed to determine the real-world benefits of computer programs such as casual

  19. Cognitive training with casual video games: points to consider.

    PubMed

    Baniqued, Pauline L; Kranz, Michael B; Voss, Michelle W; Lee, Hyunkyu; Cosman, Joshua D; Severson, Joan; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-01-07

    Brain training programs have proliferated in recent years, with claims that video games or computer-based tasks can broadly enhance cognitive function. However, benefits are commonly seen only in trained tasks. Assessing generalized improvement and practicality of laboratory exercises complicates interpretation and application of findings. In this study, we addressed these issues by using active control groups, training tasks that more closely resemble real-world demands and multiple tests to determine transfer of training. We examined whether casual video games can broadly improve cognition, and selected training games from a study of the relationship between game performance and cognitive abilities. A total of 209 young adults were randomized into a working memory-reasoning group, an adaptive working memory-reasoning group, an active control game group, and a no-contact control group. Before and after 15 h of training, participants completed tests of reasoning, working memory, attention, episodic memory, perceptual speed, and self-report measures of executive function, game experience, perceived improvement, knowledge of brain training research, and game play outside the laboratory. Participants improved on the training games, but transfer to untrained tasks was limited. No group showed gains in reasoning, working memory, episodic memory, or perceptual speed, but the working memory-reasoning groups improved in divided attention, with better performance in an attention-demanding game, a decreased attentional blink and smaller trail-making costs. Perceived improvements did not differ across training groups and those with low reasoning ability at baseline showed larger gains. Although there are important caveats, our study sheds light on the mixed effects in the training and transfer literature and offers a novel and potentially practical training approach. Still, more research is needed to determine the real-world benefits of computer programs such as casual games.

  20. The development of attention skills in action video game players

    PubMed Central

    Dye, M.W.G.; Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that action video game play improves attentional resources, allowing gamers to better allocate their attention across both space and time. In order to further characterize the plastic changes resulting from playing these video games, we administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT) to action game players and non-playing controls aged between 7 and 22 years. By employing a mixture of cues and flankers, the ANT provides measures of how well attention is allocated to targets as a function of alerting and orienting cues, and to what extent observers are able to filter out the influence of task irrelevant information flanking those targets. The data suggest that action video game players of all ages have enhanced attentional skills that allow them to make faster correct responses to targets, and leaves additional processing resources that spill over to process distractors flanking the targets. PMID:19428410

  1. The development of attention skills in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Dye, M W G; Green, C S; Bavelier, D

    2009-07-01

    Previous research suggests that action video game play improves attentional resources, allowing gamers to better allocate their attention across both space and time. In order to further characterize the plastic changes resulting from playing these video games, we administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT) to action game players and non-playing controls aged between 7 and 22 years. By employing a mixture of cues and flankers, the ANT provides measures of how well attention is allocated to targets as a function of alerting and orienting cues, and to what extent observers are able to filter out the influence of task irrelevant information flanking those targets. The data suggest that action video game players of all ages have enhanced attentional skills that allow them to make faster correct responses to targets, and leaves additional processing resources that spill over to process distractors flanking the targets.

  2. Brain plasticity through the life span: learning to learn and action video games.

    PubMed

    Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Pouget, Alexandre; Schrater, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The ability of the human brain to learn is exceptional. Yet, learning is typically quite specific to the exact task used during training, a limiting factor for practical applications such as rehabilitation, workforce training, or education. The possibility of identifying training regimens that have a broad enough impact to transfer to a variety of tasks is thus highly appealing. This work reviews how complex training environments such as action video game play may actually foster brain plasticity and learning. This enhanced learning capacity, termed learning to learn, is considered in light of its computational requirements and putative neural mechanisms.

  3. Action video game play facilitates the development of better perceptual templates.

    PubMed

    Bejjanki, Vikranth R; Zhang, Ruyuan; Li, Renjie; Pouget, Alexandre; Green, C Shawn; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-11-25

    The field of perceptual learning has identified changes in perceptual templates as a powerful mechanism mediating the learning of statistical regularities in our environment. By measuring threshold-vs.-contrast curves using an orientation identification task under varying levels of external noise, the perceptual template model (PTM) allows one to disentangle various sources of signal-to-noise changes that can alter performance. We use the PTM approach to elucidate the mechanism that underlies the wide range of improvements noted after action video game play. We show that action video game players make use of improved perceptual templates compared with nonvideo game players, and we confirm a causal role for action video game play in inducing such improvements through a 50-h training study. Then, by adapting a recent neural model to this task, we demonstrate how such improved perceptual templates can arise from reweighting the connectivity between visual areas. Finally, we establish that action gamers do not enter the perceptual task with improved perceptual templates. Instead, although performance in action gamers is initially indistinguishable from that of nongamers, action gamers more rapidly learn the proper template as they experience the task. Taken together, our results establish for the first time to our knowledge the development of enhanced perceptual templates following action game play. Because such an improvement can facilitate the inference of the proper generative model for the task at hand, unlike perceptual learning that is quite specific, it thus elucidates a general learning mechanism that can account for the various behavioral benefits noted after action game play.

  4. Job Oriented Training: Handleiding Serious Gaming (Job Oriented Training: Handleiding (Handbook) Serious Gaming)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    vanafdag iin van een opleiding integrale taken uitvoeren in een omgeving die zoveel mogelijk lijkt op hun toekomstige beroepspraktijk. In dit geval...Korteling, dr A.H. van der Hulst, TNO Defensie en Veiligheid TNO Defensie en Veiligheid Program matitel Projecttitel Integrale opleidings- en PC Gaming...Oriented Training toegepast. Dit betekent in essentie dat de leerlingen vanaf dag een, integrale missies uitvoeren en niet eerst de theorie wordt

  5. High User Control in Game Design Elements Increases Compliance and In-game Performance in a Memory Training Game.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Aniket; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Computer games are increasingly being used for training cognitive functions like working memory and attention among the growing population of older adults. While cognitive training games often include elements like difficulty adaptation, rewards, and visual themes to make the games more enjoyable and effective, the effect of different degrees of afforded user control in manipulating these elements has not been systematically studied. To address this issue, two distinct implementations of the three aforementioned game elements were tested among healthy older adults (N = 21, 69.9 ± 6.4 years old) playing a game-like version of the n-back task on a tablet at home for 3 weeks. Two modes were considered, differentiated by the afforded degree of user control of the three elements: user control of difficulty vs. automatic difficulty adaptation, difficulty-dependent rewards vs. automatic feedback messages, and user choice of visual theme vs. no choice. The two modes ("USER-CONTROL" and "AUTO") were compared for frequency of play, duration of play, and in-game performance. Participants were free to play the game whenever and for however long they wished. Participants in USER-CONTROL exhibited significantly higher frequency of playing, total play duration, and in-game performance than participants in AUTO. The results of the present study demonstrate the efficacy of providing user control in the three game elements, while validating a home-based study design in which participants were not bound by any training regimen, and could play the game whenever they wished. The results have implications for designing cognitive training games that elicit higher compliance and better in-game performance, with an emphasis on home-based training.

  6. High User Control in Game Design Elements Increases Compliance and In-game Performance in a Memory Training Game

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Aniket; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Computer games are increasingly being used for training cognitive functions like working memory and attention among the growing population of older adults. While cognitive training games often include elements like difficulty adaptation, rewards, and visual themes to make the games more enjoyable and effective, the effect of different degrees of afforded user control in manipulating these elements has not been systematically studied. To address this issue, two distinct implementations of the three aforementioned game elements were tested among healthy older adults (N = 21, 69.9 ± 6.4 years old) playing a game-like version of the n-back task on a tablet at home for 3 weeks. Two modes were considered, differentiated by the afforded degree of user control of the three elements: user control of difficulty vs. automatic difficulty adaptation, difficulty-dependent rewards vs. automatic feedback messages, and user choice of visual theme vs. no choice. The two modes (“USER-CONTROL” and “AUTO”) were compared for frequency of play, duration of play, and in-game performance. Participants were free to play the game whenever and for however long they wished. Participants in USER-CONTROL exhibited significantly higher frequency of playing, total play duration, and in-game performance than participants in AUTO. The results of the present study demonstrate the efficacy of providing user control in the three game elements, while validating a home-based study design in which participants were not bound by any training regimen, and could play the game whenever they wished. The results have implications for designing cognitive training games that elicit higher compliance and better in-game performance, with an emphasis on home-based training. PMID:26635681

  7. Action video game players form more detailed representation of objects.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Hande; Boduroglu, Aysecan

    2012-02-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated action video game improvements in visual and spatial attention. The present study investigated action video game related changes in the resolution of representations for both dynamic and stationary objects by comparing video game players (VGP) and non-video game players (NVGP). In a color wheel task (adapted from Zhang & Luck, 2008) where viewers were asked to freely recall the color of briefly presented objects, we found that VGPs were more accurate than NVGPs. Furthermore, in the Multiple Identity Tracking task (Horowitz et al., 2007), we found that VGPs were able to track not only more objects but also maintain identity of tracked objects better than NVGPs. Finally, we demonstrated that VGPs had greater attentional breadth and higher spatial representation resolution.

  8. Brain Training with Video Games in Covert Hepatic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Ahluwalia, Vishwadeep; Thacker, Leroy R; Fagan, Andrew; Gavis, Edith A; Lennon, Michael; Heuman, Douglas M; Fuchs, Michael; Wade, James B

    2017-02-01

    Despite the associated adverse outcomes, pharmacologic intervention for covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) is not the standard of care. We hypothesized that a video game-based rehabilitation program would improve white matter integrity and brain connectivity in the visuospatial network on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), resulting in improved cognitive function in CHE subjects on measures consistent with the cognitive skill set emphasized by the two video games (e.g., IQ Boost-visual working memory, and Aim and Fire Challenge-psychomotor speed), but also generalize to thinking skills beyond the focus of the cognitive training (Hopkins verbal learning test (HVLT)-verbal learning/memory) and improve their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The trial included three phases over 8 weeks; during the learning phase (cognitive tests administered twice over 2 weeks without intervening intervention), training phase (daily video game training for 4 weeks), and post-training phase (testing 2 weeks after the video game training ended). Thirty CHE patients completed all visits with significant daily achievement on the video games. In a subset of 13 subjects that underwent brain MRI, there was a significant decrease in fractional anisotropy, and increased radial diffusivity (suggesting axonal sprouting or increased cross-fiber formation) involving similar brain regions (i.e., corpus callosum, internal capsule, and sections of the corticospinal tract) and improvement in the visuospatial resting-state connectivity corresponding to the video game training domains. No significant corresponding improvement in HRQOL or HVLT performance was noted, but cognitive performance did transiently improve on cognitive tests similar to the video games during training. Although multimodal brain imaging changes suggest reductions in tract edema and improved neural network connectivity, this trial of video game brain training did not improve the HRQOL or produce lasting improvement in

  9. Gaming to see: action video gaming is associated with enhanced processing of masked stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Carsten; Kunde, Wilfried; Ganz, Thomas; Conzelmann, Annette; Pauli, Paul; Kiesel, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that action video game players outperform non-players in a wide range of attentional, perceptual and cognitive tasks. Here we tested if expertise in action video games is related to differences regarding the potential of shortly presented stimuli to bias behavior. In a response priming paradigm, participants classified four animal pictures functioning as targets as being smaller or larger than a reference frame. Before each target, one of the same four animal pictures was presented as a masked prime to influence participants' responses in a congruent or incongruent way. Masked primes induced congruence effects, that is, faster responses for congruent compared to incongruent conditions, indicating processing of hardly visible primes. Results also suggested that action video game players showed a larger congruence effect than non-players for 20 ms primes, whereas there was no group difference for 60 ms primes. In addition, there was a tendency for action video game players to detect masked primes for some prime durations better than non-players. Thus, action video game expertise may be accompanied by faster and more efficient processing of shortly presented visual stimuli.

  10. Gaming to see: action video gaming is associated with enhanced processing of masked stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Carsten; Kunde, Wilfried; Ganz, Thomas; Conzelmann, Annette; Pauli, Paul; Kiesel, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that action video game players outperform non-players in a wide range of attentional, perceptual and cognitive tasks. Here we tested if expertise in action video games is related to differences regarding the potential of shortly presented stimuli to bias behavior. In a response priming paradigm, participants classified four animal pictures functioning as targets as being smaller or larger than a reference frame. Before each target, one of the same four animal pictures was presented as a masked prime to influence participants' responses in a congruent or incongruent way. Masked primes induced congruence effects, that is, faster responses for congruent compared to incongruent conditions, indicating processing of hardly visible primes. Results also suggested that action video game players showed a larger congruence effect than non-players for 20 ms primes, whereas there was no group difference for 60 ms primes. In addition, there was a tendency for action video game players to detect masked primes for some prime durations better than non-players. Thus, action video game expertise may be accompanied by faster and more efficient processing of shortly presented visual stimuli. PMID:24550879

  11. Evaluation of vision training using 3D play game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Kwon, Soon-Chul; Son, Kwang-Chul; Lee, Seung-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of the vision training, which is a benefit of watching 3D video images (3D video shooting game in this study), focusing on its accommodative facility and vergence facility. Both facilities, which are the scales used to measure human visual performance, are very important factors for man in leading comfortable and easy life. This study was conducted on 30 participants in their 20s through 30s (19 males and 11 females at 24.53 ± 2.94 years), who can watch 3D video images and play 3D game. Their accommodative and vergence facility were measured before and after they watched 2D and 3D game. It turned out that their accommodative facility improved after they played both 2D and 3D games and more improved right after they played 3D game than 2D game. Likewise, their vergence facility was proved to improve after they played both 2D and 3D games and more improved soon after they played 3D game than 2D game. In addition, it was demonstrated that their accommodative facility improved to greater extent than their vergence facility. While studies have been so far conducted on the adverse effects of 3D contents, from the perspective of human factor, on the imbalance of visual accommodation and convergence, the present study is expected to broaden the applicable scope of 3D contents by utilizing the visual benefit of 3D contents for vision training.

  12. The Sea of Simulation: Improving Naval Shiphandling Training and Readiness through Game-Based Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    9  B.  USE OF VIDEO GAMES FOR TRAINING ........................................... 9  1.  Video Game Experience...Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps NSST Navigation Seamanship and Shiphandling Training NVGP Non- Video Game Player OCS Officer Candidate’s...United States Navy VE Virtual Environment(s) VESUB Virtual Environment Submarine VGP Video Game Players WHEC High Endurance Cutter XO Executive

  13. Autocratic strategies for iterated games with arbitrary action spaces.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2016-03-29

    The recent discovery of zero-determinant strategies for the iterated prisoner's dilemma sparked a surge of interest in the surprising fact that a player can exert unilateral control over iterated interactions. These remarkable strategies, however, are known to exist only in games in which players choose between two alternative actions such as "cooperate" and "defect." Here we introduce a broader class of autocratic strategies by extending zero-determinant strategies to iterated games with more general action spaces. We use the continuous donation game as an example, which represents an instance of the prisoner's dilemma that intuitively extends to a continuous range of cooperation levels. Surprisingly, despite the fact that the opponent has infinitely many donation levels from which to choose, a player can devise an autocratic strategy to enforce a linear relationship between his or her payoff and that of the opponent even when restricting his or her actions to merely two discrete levels of cooperation. In particular, a player can use such a strategy to extort an unfair share of the payoffs from the opponent. Therefore, although the action space of the continuous donation game dwarfs that of the classic prisoner's dilemma, players can still devise relatively simple autocratic and, in particular, extortionate strategies.

  14. Autocratic strategies for iterated games with arbitrary action spaces

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of zero-determinant strategies for the iterated prisoner’s dilemma sparked a surge of interest in the surprising fact that a player can exert unilateral control over iterated interactions. These remarkable strategies, however, are known to exist only in games in which players choose between two alternative actions such as “cooperate” and “defect.” Here we introduce a broader class of autocratic strategies by extending zero-determinant strategies to iterated games with more general action spaces. We use the continuous donation game as an example, which represents an instance of the prisoner’s dilemma that intuitively extends to a continuous range of cooperation levels. Surprisingly, despite the fact that the opponent has infinitely many donation levels from which to choose, a player can devise an autocratic strategy to enforce a linear relationship between his or her payoff and that of the opponent even when restricting his or her actions to merely two discrete levels of cooperation. In particular, a player can use such a strategy to extort an unfair share of the payoffs from the opponent. Therefore, although the action space of the continuous donation game dwarfs that of the classic prisoner’s dilemma, players can still devise relatively simple autocratic and, in particular, extortionate strategies. PMID:26976578

  15. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG) playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control), as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control.

  16. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG) playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control), as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control. PMID:26655929

  17. Game and Training Load Differences in Elite Junior Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Brendan; Cook, Jill; Kidgell, Dawson J.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Game demands and training practices within team sports such as Australian football (AF) have changed considerably over recent decades, including the requirement of coaching staff to effectively control, manipulate and monitor training and competition loads. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the differences in external and internal physical load measures between game and training in elite junior AF. Twenty five male, adolescent players (mean ±SD: age 17.6 ± 0.5 y) recruited from three elite under 18 AF clubs participated. Global positioning system (GPS), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) data were obtained from 32 game files during four games, and 84 training files during 19 training sessions. Matched-pairs statistics along with Cohen’s d effect size and percent difference were used to compare game and training events. Players were exposed to a higher physical load in the game environment, for both external (GPS) and internal (HR, Session-RPE) load parameters, compared to in-season training. Session time (d = 1.23; percent difference = 31.4% (95% confidence intervals = 17.4 – 45.4)), total distance (3.5; 63.5% (17.4 – 45.4)), distance per minute (1.93; 33.0% (25.8 – 40.1)), high speed distance (2.24; 77.3% (60.3 – 94.2)), number of sprints (0.94; 43.6% (18.9 – 68.6)), mean HR (1.83; 14.3% (10.5 – 18.1)), minutes spent above 80% of predicted HRmax (2.65; 103.7% (89.9 – 117.6)) and Session-RPE (1.22; 48.1% (22.1 – 74.1)) were all higher in competition compared to training. While training should not be expected to fully replicate competition, the observed differences suggest that monitoring of physical load in both environments is warranted to allow comparisons and evaluate whether training objectives are being met. Key points Physical loads, including intensity, are typically lower in training compared to competition in junior elite Australian football. Monitoring of player loads in team sports should include both

  18. "Wesley says": a children's response inhibition playground training game yields preliminary evidence of transfer effects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Chen, Ling; Fu, Lily; Maes, Joseph H R

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the response inhibition ability of children can be modified through training. Based on the notion of embodied cognition, we investigated transfer effects of a 7-day training program using a game named "Wesley says" in 8- to 12-year-old children (n = 15). The game consists of providing commands for performing simple body actions, the actual execution of which is conditional upon the preceding verbal expression "Wesley says." Training effects were assessed with a computer-based visual go/no-go task and the Stroop color-word interference task. Relative to a control group playing other games mainly involving physical exercise (n = 15), the trained group showed a performance improvement on the go/no-go task, but not on the Stroop task. These results suggest the potential of an easy-to-use and ecologically valid training game to improve the inhibition capacity of children on related response inhibition tasks but not on tasks measuring other aspects of inhibition, such as interference control.

  19. Neural bases of selective attention in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Bavelier, D; Achtman, R L; Mani, M; Föcker, J

    2012-05-15

    Over the past few years, the very act of playing action video games has been shown to enhance several different aspects of visual selective attention, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms that mediate such attentional benefits. A review of the aspects of attention enhanced in action game players suggests there are changes in the mechanisms that control attention allocation and its efficiency (Hubert-Wallander, Green, & Bavelier, 2010). The present study used brain imaging to test this hypothesis by comparing attentional network recruitment and distractor processing in action gamers versus non-gamers as attentional demands increased. Moving distractors were found to elicit lesser activation of the visual motion-sensitive area (MT/MST) in gamers as compared to non-gamers, suggestive of a better early filtering of irrelevant information in gamers. As expected, a fronto-parietal network of areas showed greater recruitment as attentional demands increased in non-gamers. In contrast, gamers barely engaged this network as attentional demands increased. This reduced activity in the fronto-parietal network that is hypothesized to control the flexible allocation of top-down attention is compatible with the proposal that action game players may allocate attentional resources more automatically, possibly allowing more efficient early filtering of irrelevant information.

  20. Affirmative Action Training Program for Firemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBain, Z. E.

    This paper summarizes the "Affirmative Action" training of unskilled minorities for jobs as firemen. The various training approaches undertaken are discussed; some were more successful than others. Hopefully, the information provided in this report can be used by other fire departments as a basis for developing their own minority "Affirmative…

  1. Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching tasks.

    PubMed

    Cain, Matthew S; Landau, Ayelet N; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2012-05-01

    Video game expertise has been shown to have beneficial effects for visual attention processes, but the effects of action video game playing on executive functions, such as task switching and filtering out distracting information, are less well understood. In the main experiment presented here, video game players (VGPs) and nonplayers (nVGPs) switched between two tasks of unequal familiarity: a familiar task of responding in the direction indicated by an arrow, and a novel task of responding in the opposite direction. nVGPs had large response time costs for switching from the novel task to the familiar task, and small costs for switching from the familiar task to the novel task, replicating prior findings. However, as compared to the nVGPs, VGPs were more facile in switching between tasks, producing overall smaller and more symmetric switching costs, suggesting that experience with action video games produces improvements in executive functioning. In contrast, VGPs and nVGPs did not differ in filtering out the irrelevant flanking stimuli or in remembering details of aurally presented stories. The lack of global differences between the groups suggests that the improved task-switching performance seen in VGPs was not due to differences in global factors, such as VGPs being more motivated than nVGPs.

  2. Game-XP: Action Games as Experimental Paradigms for Cognitive Science.

    PubMed

    Gray, Wayne D

    2017-03-13

    Why games? How could anyone consider action games an experimental paradigm for Cognitive Science? In 1973, as one of three strategies he proposed for advancing Cognitive Science, Allen Newell exhorted us to "accept a single complex task and do all of it." More specifically, he told us that rather than taking an "experimental psychology as usual approach," we should "focus on a series of experimental and theoretical studies around a single complex task" so as to demonstrate that our theories of human cognition were powerful enough to explain "a genuine slab of human behavior" with the studies fitting into a detailed theoretical picture. Action games represent the type of experimental paradigm that Newell was advocating and the current state of programming expertise and laboratory equipment, along with the emergence of Big Data and naturally occurring datasets, provide the technologies and data needed to realize his vision. Action games enable us to escape from our field's regrettable focus on novice performance to develop theories that account for the full range of expertise through a twin focus on expertise sampling (across individuals) and longitudinal studies (within individuals) of simple and complex tasks.

  3. Action Video Games Improve Direction Discrimination of Parafoveal Translational Global Motion but Not Reaction Times.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Andrea; Boyce, Matthew; Ghin, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    Playing action video games enhances visual motion perception. However, there is psychophysical evidence that action video games do not improve motion sensitivity for translational global moving patterns presented in fovea. This study investigates global motion perception in action video game players and compares their performance to that of non-action video game players and non-video game players. Stimuli were random dot kinematograms presented in the parafovea. Observers discriminated the motion direction of a target random dot kinematogram presented in one of the four visual quadrants. Action video game players showed lower motion coherence thresholds than the other groups. However, when the task was performed at threshold, we did not find differences between groups in terms of distributions of reaction times. These results suggest that action video games improve visual motion sensitivity in the near periphery of the visual field, rather than speed response.

  4. Computerized tabletop games as a form of a video game training for old-old.

    PubMed

    Cujzek, Marina; Vranic, Andrea

    2016-10-24

    This research aimed at investigating the utility of a computerized version of a cognitively stimulating activity as a video game intervention for elderly. The study focused on the effect of a 6-week extensive practice intervention on aspects of cognitive functioning (vigilance, working memory (WM), inhibition, reasoning) of old-old participants (N = 29), randomly assigned to trained or active control group. The difference between groups was in the content of the extended video game practice - cognitively complex card game for trained and computerized version of a simple dice-game of chance for control participants. A pretest, posttest and a 4-month follow-up measurement was conducted. Results revealed improvements in both groups, except for improved reasoning found only in trained participants. These results suggest that: (1) improvements are dependent on the complexity of the program, (2) cognitively stimulating activity are a valid training procedure for old-old, (3) novelty of computer use is an important factor in determining training efficacy.

  5. The Effects of Applying Game-Based Learning to Webcam Motion Sensor Games for Autistic Students' Sensory Integration Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kun-Hsien; Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of applying game-based learning to webcam motion sensor games for autistic students' sensory integration training for autistic students. The research participants were three autistic students aged from six to ten. Webcam camera as the research tool wad connected internet games to engage in motion sensor…

  6. The effect of action video game experience on task-switching

    PubMed Central

    Green, C.Shawn; Sugarman, Michael A.; Medford, Katherine; Klobusicky, Elizabeth; Daphne Bavelier

    2012-01-01

    There is now a substantial body of work demonstrating that action video game experience results in enhancements in a wide variety of perceptual skills. More recently, several groups have also demonstrated improvements in abilities that are more cognitive in nature, in particular, the ability to efficiently switch between tasks. In a series of four experiments, we add to this body of work, demonstrating that the action video game player advantage is not exclusively due to an ability to map manual responses onto arbitrary buttons, but rather generalizes to vocal responses, is not restricted to tasks that are perceptual in nature (e.g. respond to a physical dimension of the stimulus such as its color), but generalizes to more cognitive tasks (e.g. is a number odd or even), and is present whether the switch requires a goal-switch or only a motor switch. Finally, a training study establishes that the relationship between the reduction in switch cost and action game playing is causal. PMID:22393270

  7. The effect of action video game experience on task-switching.

    PubMed

    Green, C Shawn; Sugarman, Michael A; Medford, Katherine; Klobusicky, Elizabeth; Daphne Bavelier

    2012-05-01

    There is now a substantial body of work demonstrating that action video game experience results in enhancements in a wide variety of perceptual skills. More recently, several groups have also demonstrated improvements in abilities that are more cognitive in nature, in particular, the ability to efficiently switch between tasks. In a series of four experiments, we add to this body of work, demonstrating that the action video game player advantage is not exclusively due to an ability to map manual responses onto arbitrary buttons, but rather generalizes to vocal responses, is not restricted to tasks that are perceptual in nature (e.g. respond to a physical dimension of the stimulus such as its color), but generalizes to more cognitive tasks (e.g. is a number odd or even), and is present whether the switch requires a goal-switch or only a motor switch. Finally, a training study establishes that the relationship between the reduction in switch cost and action game playing is causal.

  8. Learning game for training child bicyclists' situation awareness.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Esko; Sahlberg, Heidi; Rovamo, Emilia; Summala, Heikki

    2016-08-02

    Encouraging more children to bicycle would produce both environmental and health benefits, but bicycling accidents are a major source of injuries and fatalities among children. One reason for this may be children's less developed hazard perception skills. We assume that children's situation awareness could be trained with a computer based learning game, which should also improve their hazard perception skills. In this paper, we present a prototype for such a game and pilot it with 8-9year old children. The game consisted of videos filmed from a bicyclist's perspective. Using a touchscreen, the player's task was to point out targets early enough to gain points. The targets were either overt (other visible road users on a potentially conflicting course) or covert (occlusions, i.e. locations where other road users could suddenly emerge). If a target was missed or identified too late, the video was paused and feedback was given. The game was tested with 49 children from the 2nd grade of primary school (aged 8-9). 31 young adults (aged 22-34) played the game for comparison. The effect of the game on situation awareness was assessed with situation awareness tests in a crossover design. Similar videos were used in the tests as in the game, but instead of pointing out the targets while watching, the video was suddenly masked and participants were asked to locate all targets which had been present just before the masking, choosing among several possible locations. Their performance was analyzed using Signal Detection Theory and answer latencies. The game decreased answer latency and marginally changed response bias in a less conservative direction for both children and adults, but it did not significantly increase sensitivity for targets. Adults performed better in the tests and in the game, and it was possible to satisfactorily predict group membership based on the scores. Children found it especially difficult to find covert targets. Overall, the described version of the

  9. Effects of the number of players and game type constraints on heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and technical actions of small-sided soccer games.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Catarina I; Nunes, Marta I; Maçãs, Victor M; Leite, Nuno M; Sampaio, Jaime E

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the variation of heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and technical actions between 2 soccer small-sided games (SSGs; 3 × 3 and 4 × 4) in 3 game type constraints (when playing only offense [OFF], playing only defense [DEF], and both situations [GAME]). Sixteen high-level young male players were analyzed (age 15.75 ± 0.45 years; height 172.4 ± 4.83 cm; body mass 64.5 ± 6.44 kg; HRmax199.1 ± 9.08 b·min(-1); and 8.06 ± 1.98 years of soccer practice). All tasks were performed in 4 periods of 4 minutes interspersed with 2 minutes of active recovery. The HR was measured continuously and then analyzed by the time spent into 4 training zones according to individual %HRmax (zone 1 <75%; zone 2 75-84.9%; zone 3 85-89.9%; and zone 4 ≥90%). Results identified that players were most frequently in zones 2 and 3. The 3 × 3 SSGs elicited higher HR and RPE and the most intense situation was GAME. Despite the known higher frequencies from technical actions in SSGs with fewer players, player effectiveness in 3 × 3 and 4 × 4 was identical. The use of GAME, OFF, and DEF game type constraints should be carefully planned. Using the 3 × 3 format seems more adequate when aiming for aerobic performance optimal effects; however, DEF situations should only be used to promote aerobic recovery effects. The inclusion of an additional player in SSGs had different interactions in game type constraints, and only GAME presented adequate intensity.

  10. Serious gaming and voluntary laparoscopic skills training: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Verdaasdonk, E G G; Dankelman, J; Schijven, M P; Lange, J F; Wentink, M; Stassen, L P S

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the issue of voluntary training of a standardized online competition (serious gaming) between surgical residents. Surgical residents were invited to join a competition on a virtual reality (VR) simulator for laparoscopic motor skills. A final score was calculated based on the task performance of three exercises and was presented to all the participants through an online database on the Internet. The resident with the best score would win a lap-top computer. During three months, 31 individuals from seven hospitals participated (22 surgical residents, 3 surgeons and six interns). A total of 777 scores were logged in the database. In order to out-perform others some participants scheduled themselves voluntarily for additional training. More attempts correlated with higher scores. The serious gaming concept may enhance voluntary skills training. Online data capturing could facilitate monitoring of skills progression in surgical trainees and enhance (VR) simulator validation.

  11. Defining Learning Space in a Serious Game in Terms of Operative and Resultant Actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Michael W.; Shen, Yuzhong

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the distinction between operative and resultant actions in games, and proposes that the learning space created by a serious game is a function of these actions. Further, it suggests a possible relationship between these actions and the forms of cognitive load imposed upon the game player. Association of specific types of cognitive load with respective forms of actions in game mechanics also presents some heuristics for integrating learning content into serious games. Research indicates that different balances of these types of actions are more suitable for novice or experienced learners. By examining these relationships, we can develop a few basic principles of game design which have an increased potential to promote positive learning outcomes.

  12. Simulation training tools for nonlethal weapons using gaming environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donne, Alexsana; Eagan, Justin; Tse, Gabriel; Vanderslice, Tom; Woods, Jerry

    2006-05-01

    Modern simulation techniques have a growing role for evaluating new technologies and for developing cost-effective training programs. A mission simulator facilitates the productive exchange of ideas by demonstration of concepts through compellingly realistic computer simulation. Revolutionary advances in 3D simulation technology have made it possible for desktop computers to process strikingly realistic and complex interactions with results depicted in real-time. Computer games now allow for multiple real human players and "artificially intelligent" (AI) simulated robots to play together. Advances in computer processing power have compensated for the inherent intensive calculations required for complex simulation scenarios. The main components of the leading game-engines have been released for user modifications, enabling game enthusiasts and amateur programmers to advance the state-of-the-art in AI and computer simulation technologies. It is now possible to simulate sophisticated and realistic conflict situations in order to evaluate the impact of non-lethal devices as well as conflict resolution procedures using such devices. Simulations can reduce training costs as end users: learn what a device does and doesn't do prior to use, understand responses to the device prior to deployment, determine if the device is appropriate for their situational responses, and train with new devices and techniques before purchasing hardware. This paper will present the status of SARA's mission simulation development activities, based on the Half-Life gameengine, for the purpose of evaluating the latest non-lethal weapon devices, and for developing training tools for such devices.

  13. The Anatomy of Action Systems: Task Differentiation When Learning an EMG Controlled Game.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Ludger; Heerschop, Anniek; van der Sluis, Corry K; Bongers, Raoul M

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine to what extent the task for an action system in its initial development relies on functional and anatomical components. Fifty-two able-bodied participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups or to a control group. As a pre- and post-test all groups performed a computer game with the same goal and using the same musculature. One experimental group also trained to perform this test, while the other two experimental groups learned to perform a game that differed either in its goal or in the musculature used. The observed change in accuracy indicated that retaining the goal of the task or the musculature used equally increased transfer performance relative to controls. Conversely, changing either the goal or the musculature equally decreased transfer relative to training the test. These results suggest that in the initial development of an action system, the task to which the system pertains is not specified solely by either the goal of the task or the anatomical structures involved. It is suggested that functional specificity and anatomical dependence might equally be outcomes of continuously differentiating activity.

  14. The Anatomy of Action Systems: Task Differentiation When Learning an EMG Controlled Game

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Ludger; Heerschop, Anniek; van der Sluis, Corry K.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine to what extent the task for an action system in its initial development relies on functional and anatomical components. Fifty-two able-bodied participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups or to a control group. As a pre- and post-test all groups performed a computer game with the same goal and using the same musculature. One experimental group also trained to perform this test, while the other two experimental groups learned to perform a game that differed either in its goal or in the musculature used. The observed change in accuracy indicated that retaining the goal of the task or the musculature used equally increased transfer performance relative to controls. Conversely, changing either the goal or the musculature equally decreased transfer relative to training the test. These results suggest that in the initial development of an action system, the task to which the system pertains is not specified solely by either the goal of the task or the anatomical structures involved. It is suggested that functional specificity and anatomical dependence might equally be outcomes of continuously differentiating activity. PMID:28018278

  15. Does computerized working memory training with game elements enhance motivation and training efficacy in children with ADHD?

    PubMed

    Prins, Pier J M; Dovis, Sebastiaan; Ponsioen, Albert; ten Brink, Esther; van der Oord, Saskia

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the benefits of adding game elements to standard computerized working memory (WM) training. Specifically, it examined whether game elements would enhance motivation and training performance of children with ADHD, and whether it would improve training efficacy. A total of 51 children with ADHD aged between 7 and 12 years were randomly assigned to WM training in a gaming format or to regular WM training that was not in a gaming format. Both groups completed three weekly sessions of WM training. Children using the game version of the WM training showed greater motivation (i.e., more time training), better training performance (i.e., more sequences reproduced and fewer errors), and better WM (i.e., higher scores on a WM task) at post-training than children using the regular WM training. Results are discussed in terms of executive functions and reinforcement models of ADHD. It is concluded that WM training with game elements significantly improves the motivation, training performance, and working memory of children with ADHD. The findings of this study are encouraging and may have wide-reaching practical implications in terms of the role of game elements in the design and implementation of new intervention efforts for children with ADHD.

  16. Security personnel training using a computer-based game

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, J.; Bickner, L.

    1987-07-01

    Security personnel training is an integral part of a total physical security program, and is essential in enabling security personnel to perform their function effectively. Several training tools are currently available for use by security supervisors, including: textbook study, classroom instruction, and live simulations. However, due to shortcomings inherent in each of these tools, a need exists for the development of low-cost alternative training methods. This paper discusses one such alternative: a computer-based, game-type security training system. This system would be based on a personal computer with high-resolution graphics. Key features of this system include: a high degree of realism; flexibility in use and maintenance; high trainee motivation; and low cost.

  17. Action video game players' visual search advantage extends to biologically relevant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-07-01

    Research investigating the effects of action video game experience on cognition has demonstrated a host of performance improvements on a variety of basic tasks. Given the prevailing evidence that these benefits result from efficient control of attentional processes, there has been growing interest in using action video games as a general tool to enhance everyday attentional control. However, to date, there is little evidence indicating that the benefits of action video game playing scale up to complex settings with socially meaningful stimuli - one of the fundamental components of our natural environment. The present experiment compared action video game player (AVGP) and non-video game player (NVGP) performance on an oculomotor capture task that presented participants with face stimuli. In addition, the expression of a distractor face was manipulated to assess if action video game experience modulated the effect of emotion. Results indicate that AVGPs experience less oculomotor capture than NVGPs; an effect that was not influenced by the emotional content depicted by distractor faces. It is noteworthy that this AVGP advantage emerged despite participants being unaware that the investigation had to do with video game playing, and participants being equivalent in their motivation and treatment of the task as a game. The results align with the notion that action video game experience is associated with superior attentional and oculomotor control, and provides evidence that these benefits can generalize to more complex and biologically relevant stimuli.

  18. From gestures to gaming: visible embodiment of remote actions.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Risko, Evan F; Kingstone, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Teleoperation is the act of controlling an object that exists in a space, real or virtual, physically disconnected from the user. During such situations, it is not uncommon to observe those controlling the remote object exhibiting movement consistent with the behaviour of the remote object. Though this behaviour has no obvious impact on one's control of the remote object, it appears tied to one's intentions, thus, possibly representing an embodied representation of ongoing cognitive processes. In the present investigation, we applied a natural behaviour approach to test this notion, (a) first by identifying the representational basis for the behaviour and (b) by identifying factors that influence the occurrence of the behaviour. Each study involved observing participant behaviour while they played a racing video game. Results revealed that the spontaneous behaviour demonstrated in a teleoperation setting is tied to one's remote actions, rather than local actions or some combination of remote and local actions (Experiment 1). In addition, increasing task demand led to an increase in the occurrence of the spontaneous behaviour (Experiment 2). A third experiment was conducted to rule out the possible confound of greater immersion that tends to accompany greater demand (Experiment 3). The implications of these results not only suggest that spontaneous behaviour observed during teleoperation reflects a form of visible embodiment, sensitive to task demand, but also further emphasizes the utility of natural behaviour approaches for furthering our understanding of the relationship between the body and cognitive processes.

  19. Neural strategies for selective attention distinguish fast-action video game players.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Lavanya; Kang, Albert; Sperling, George; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the psychophysical and neurophysiological differences between fast-action video game players (specifically first person shooter players, FPS) and non-action players (role-playing game players, RPG) in a visual search task. We measured both successful detections (hit rates) and steady-state visually evoked EEG potentials (SSVEPs). Search difficulty was varied along two dimensions: number of adjacent attended and ignored regions (1, 2 and 4), and presentation rate of novel search arrays (3, 8.6 and 20 Hz). Hit rates decreased with increasing presentation rates and number of regions, with the FPS players performing on average better than the RPG players. The largest differences in hit rate, between groups, occurred when four regions were simultaneously attended. We computed signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of SSVEPs and used partial least squares regression to model hit rates, SNRs and their relationship at 3 Hz and 8.6 Hz. The following are the most significant results: RPG players' parietal responses to the attended 8.6 Hz flicker were predictive of hit rate and were positively correlated with it, indicating attentional signal enhancement. FPS players' parietal responses to the ignored 3 Hz flicker were predictive of hit rate and were positively correlated with it, indicating distractor suppression. Consistent with these parietal responses, RPG players' frontal responses to the attended 8.6 Hz flicker, increased as task difficulty increased with number of regions; FPS players' frontal responses to the ignored 3 Hz flicker increased with number of regions. Thus the FPS players appear to employ an active suppression mechanism to deploy selective attention simultaneously to multiple interleaved regions, while RPG primarily use signal enhancement. These results suggest that fast-action gaming can affect neural strategies and the corresponding networks underlying attention, presumably by training mechanisms of distractor suppression.

  20. Action video game play and transfer of navigation and spatial cognition skills in adolescents who are blind.

    PubMed

    Connors, Erin C; Chrastil, Elizabeth R; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2014-01-01

    For individuals who are blind, navigating independently in an unfamiliar environment represents a considerable challenge. Inspired by the rising popularity of video games, we have developed a novel approach to train navigation and spatial cognition skills in adolescents who are blind. Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES) is a software application that allows for the virtual exploration of an existing building set in an action video game metaphor. Using this ludic-based approach to learning, we investigated the ability and efficacy of adolescents with early onset blindness to acquire spatial information gained from the exploration of a target virtual indoor environment. Following game play, participants were assessed on their ability to transfer and mentally manipulate acquired spatial information on a set of navigation tasks carried out in the real environment. Success in transfer of navigation skill performance was markedly high suggesting that interacting with AbES leads to the generation of an accurate spatial mental representation. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between success in game play and navigation task performance. The role of virtual environments and gaming in the development of mental spatial representations is also discussed. We conclude that this game based learning approach can facilitate the transfer of spatial knowledge and further, can be used by individuals who are blind for the purposes of navigation in real-world environments.

  1. The Effects of Computer-Simulation Game Training on Participants' Opinions on Leadership Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewiorek, Anna; Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Lainema, Timo; Saarinen, Eeli; Lehtinen, Erno

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to elucidate new information on the possibility of leadership training through business computer-simulation gaming in a virtual working context. In the study, a business-simulation gaming session was organised for graduate students ("n"?=?26). The participants played the simulation game in virtual teams…

  2. Code Red: Triage or COgnition-Based DEsign Rules Enhancing Decisionmaking TRaining in a Game Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Spek, Erik D.; Wouters, Pieter; van Oostendorp, Herre

    2011-01-01

    Serious games have a great potential for training and educating people in novel and engaging ways. However, little empirical research has been done on the effectiveness of serious games, and although early findings do point to a moderately positive direction, even less is known about why some games succeed in effectively educating while others do…

  3. Effects of Game Design Patterns on Basic Life Support Training Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelle, Sebastian; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Based on a previous analysis of game design patterns and related effects in an educational scenario, the following paper presents an experimental study. In the study a course for Basic Life Support training has been evaluated and two game design patterns have been applied to the course. The hypotheses evaluated in this paper relate to game design…

  4. Effect of an educational game on university students' learning about action potentials.

    PubMed

    Luchi, Kelly Cristina Gaviao; Montrezor, Luís Henrique; Marcondes, Fernanda K

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an educational game that is used for teaching the mechanisms of the action potentials in cell membranes. The game was composed of pieces representing the intracellular and extracellular environments, ions, ion channels, and the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pump. During the game activity, the students arranged the pieces to demonstrate how the ions move through the membrane in a resting state and during an action potential, linking the ion movement with a graph of the action potential. To test the effect of the game activity on student understanding, first-year dental students were given the game to play at different times in a series of classes teaching resting membrane potential and action potentials. In all experiments, students who played the game performed better in assessments. According to 98% of the students, the game supported the learning process. The data confirm the students' perception, indicating that the educational game improved their understanding about action potentials.

  5. Attitudes of older adults toward shooter video games: An initial study to select an acceptable game for training visual processing.

    PubMed

    McKay, Sandra M; Maki, Brian E

    2010-01-01

    A computer-based 'Useful Field of View' (UFOV) training program has been shown to be effective in improving visual processing in older adults. Studies of young adults have shown that playing video games can have similar benefits; however, these studies involved realistic and violent 'first-person shooter' (FPS) games. The willingness of older adults to play such games has not been established. OBJECTIVES: To determine the degree to which older adults would accept playing a realistic, violent FPS-game, compared to video games not involving realistic depiction of violence. METHODS: Sixteen older adults (ages 64-77) viewed and rated video-clip demonstrations of the UFOV program and three video-game genres (realistic-FPS, cartoon-FPS, fixed-shooter), and were then given an opportunity to try them out (30 minutes per game) and rate various features. RESULTS: The results supported a hypothesis that the participants would be less willing to play the realistic-FPS game in comparison to the less violent alternatives (p's<0.02). After viewing the video-clip demonstrations, 10 of 16 participants indicated they would be unwilling to try out the realistic-FPS game. Of the six who were willing, three did not enjoy the experience and were not interested in playing again. In contrast, all 12 subjects who were willing to try the cartoon-FPS game reported that they enjoyed it and would be willing to play again. A high proportion also tried and enjoyed the UFOV training (15/16) and the fixed-shooter game (12/15). DISCUSSION: A realistic, violent FPS video game is unlikely to be an appropriate choice for older adults. Cartoon-FPS and fixed-shooter games are more viable options. Although most subjects also enjoyed UFOV training, a video-game approach has a number of potential advantages (for instance, 'addictive' properties, low cost, self-administration at home). We therefore conclude that non-violent cartoon-FPS and fixed-shooter video games warrant further investigation as an

  6. COGNITIVE SCIENCE IMPLICATIONS FOR ENHANCING TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS IN A SERIOUS GAMING CONTEXT

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kuchar, Olga A.; Huston, Kristy A.

    2007-08-01

    Serious games use entertainment principles, creativity, and technology to meet government or corporate training objectives, but these principles alone will not guarantee that the intended learning will occur. To be effective, serious games must incorporate sound cognitive, learning, and pedagogical principles into their design and structure. In this paper, we review cognitive principles that can be applied to improve the training effectiveness in serious games and we describe a process we used to design improvements for an existing game-based training application in the domain of cyber security education.

  7. Video Games as a Training Tool to Prepare the Next Generation of Cyber Warriors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    to make a large impact on the nation. The video game could then become one of our 1 best tools in improving information security awareness and... Video Games as a Training Tool to Prepare the Next Generation of Cyber Warriors Christopher Herr Dennis Allen Report...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Video Games as a Training Tool to Prepare the Next Generation of Cyber Warriors

  8. Association through Action: Identity Development in Real and Virtual Video Game Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Sandra Schamroth

    2011-01-01

    As an observer of the gaming situation, the author watched intently to understand how two boys' actions helped them succeed at "Band Hero," and she realized that their movements were both ways of being and ways of learning. These eighth-grade boys went beyond the scope and requirements of standard game play and appeared to employ specific…

  9. Video game training enhances cognitive control in older adults.

    PubMed

    Anguera, J A; Boccanfuso, J; Rintoul, J L; Al-Hashimi, O; Faraji, F; Janowich, J; Kong, E; Larraburo, Y; Rolle, C; Johnston, E; Gazzaley, A

    2013-09-05

    Cognitive control is defined by a set of neural processes that allow us to interact with our complex environment in a goal-directed manner. Humans regularly challenge these control processes when attempting to simultaneously accomplish multiple goals (multitasking), generating interference as the result of fundamental information processing limitations. It is clear that multitasking behaviour has become ubiquitous in today's technologically dense world, and substantial evidence has accrued regarding multitasking difficulties and cognitive control deficits in our ageing population. Here we show that multitasking performance, as assessed with a custom-designed three-dimensional video game (NeuroRacer), exhibits a linear age-related decline from 20 to 79 years of age. By playing an adaptive version of NeuroRacer in multitasking training mode, older adults (60 to 85 years old) reduced multitasking costs compared to both an active control group and a no-contact control group, attaining levels beyond those achieved by untrained 20-year-old participants, with gains persisting for 6 months. Furthermore, age-related deficits in neural signatures of cognitive control, as measured with electroencephalography, were remediated by multitasking training (enhanced midline frontal theta power and frontal-posterior theta coherence). Critically, this training resulted in performance benefits that extended to untrained cognitive control abilities (enhanced sustained attention and working memory), with an increase in midline frontal theta power predicting the training-induced boost in sustained attention and preservation of multitasking improvement 6 months later. These findings highlight the robust plasticity of the prefrontal cognitive control system in the ageing brain, and provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of how a custom-designed video game can be used to assess cognitive abilities across the lifespan, evaluate underlying neural mechanisms, and serve as a powerful tool

  10. GREENIFY: A Real-World Action Game for Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joey J.; Ceyhan, Pinar; Jordan-Cooley, William; Sung, Woonhee

    2013-01-01

    The literature on climate change education recommends social, accessible action-oriented learning that is specifically designed to resonate with a target audience's values and worldview. This article discusses GREENIFY, a real-world action game designed to teach adult learners about climate change and motivate informed action. A pilot study…

  11. Training basic laparoscopic skills using a custom-made video game.

    PubMed

    Goris, Jetse; Jalink, Maarten B; Ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O

    2014-09-01

    Video games are accepted and used for a wide variety of applications. In the medical world, research on the positive effects of playing games on basic laparoscopic skills is rapidly increasing. Although these benefits have been proven several times, no institution actually uses video games for surgical training. This Short Communication describes some of the theoretical backgrounds, development and underlying educational foundations of a specifically designed video game and custom-made hardware that takes advantage of the positive effects of games on basic laparoscopic skills.

  12. Motion analyses of adolescent rugby union players: a comparison of training and game demands.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Timothy B; Naughton, Geraldine; Searl, John

    2011-04-01

    This research described the physiological demands of participation in adolescent rugby union including positional differences and the degree to which training practices replicate game demands. Between 2003 and 2008, 118 male adolescent rugby players aged 14 to 18 years were recruited from 10 teams representing 3 levels of adolescent rugby. Time-motion analyses using global positioning satellite tracking devices (SPI10; GPSports Systems Pty Ltd 2003) and computer-based tracking software (Trak Performance; Sports Tec Pty Ltd) applied to video footage determined player movement patterns 161 times during rugby training sessions and 53 times during rugby games. Compared with rugby training, rugby games were consistently characterized by more time spent jogging (14 vs. 8%), striding (3.2 vs. 1.3%), and sprinting (1.3 vs. 0.1%) (p < 0.001). Players also covered greater distances (4000 ± 500 vs. 2710 ± 770 m) and performed more sprints (21.8 vs. 1) during games compared with training (p < 0.001). The average sprint duration of 2 seconds was similar in games and training; however, the frequency of sprint efforts in training sessions was low (1 per hour). A major finding of this study is the disparity between physical game demands and on-field rugby training practices in adolescent players determined using time-motion analyses. Sprint pattern differences between games and training in particular could have important implications for player performance during competition. Results of this study should assist in the development of game-specific training sessions and drills that provide the kinds of physically demanding experiences observed in games. Additionally, coaches could assist in the management of adolescent players' participation loads by increasing the intensity and specificity and decreasing the volume of training.

  13. Improved control of exogenous attention in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Cain, Matthew S; Prinzmetal, William; Shimamura, Arthur P; Landau, Ayelet N

    2014-01-01

    Action video game players (VGPs) have demonstrated a number of attentional advantages over non-players. Here, we propose that many of those benefits might be underpinned by improved control over exogenous (i.e., stimulus-driven) attention. To test this we used an anti-cueing task, in which a sudden-onset cue indicated that the target would likely appear in a separate location on the opposite side of the fixation point. When the time between the cue onset and the target onset was short (40 ms), non-players (nVGPs) showed a typical exogenous attention effect. Their response times were faster to targets presented at the cued (but less probable) location compared with the opposite (more probable) location. VGPs, however, were less likely to have their attention drawn to the location of the cue. When the onset asynchrony was long (600 ms), VGPs and nVGPs were equally able to endogenously shift their attention to the likely (opposite) target location. In order to rule out processing-speed differences as an explanation for this result, we also tested VGPs and nVGPs on an attentional blink (AB) task. In a version of the AB task that minimized demands on task switching and iconic memory, VGPs and nVGPs did not differ in second target identification performance (i.e., VGPs had the same magnitude of AB as nVGPs), suggesting that the anti-cueing results were due to flexible control over exogenous attention rather than to more general speed-of-processing differences.

  14. The effect of video game training on the vision of adults with bilateral deprivation amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seong Taek; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is a condition involving reduced acuity caused by abnormal visual input during a critical period beginning shortly after birth. Amblyopia is typically considered to be irreversible during adulthood. Here we provide the first demonstration that video game training can improve at least some aspects of the vision of adults with bilateral deprivation amblyopia caused by a history of bilateral congenital cataracts. Specifically, after 40 h of training over one month with an action video game, most patients showed improvement in one or both eyes on a wide variety of tasks including acuity, spatial contrast sensitivity, and sensitivity to global motion. As well, there was evidence of improvement in at least some patients for temporal contrast sensitivity, single letter acuity, crowding, and feature spacing in faces, but not for useful field of view. The results indicate that, long after the end of the critical period for damage, there is enough residual plasticity in the adult visual system to effect improvements, even in cases of deep amblyopia caused by early bilateral deprivation.

  15. Preparing Residents Effectively in Emergency Skills Training With a Serious Game

    PubMed Central

    Dankbaar, Mary E.W.; Roozeboom, Maartje Bakhuys; Oprins, Esther A.P. B.; Rutten, Frans; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J.G.; van Saase, Jan L.C.M.; Schuit, Stephanie C.E.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Training emergency care skills is critical for patient safety but cost intensive. Serious games have been proposed as an engaging self-directed learning tool for complex skills. The objective of this study was to compare the cognitive skills and motivation of medical residents who only used a course manual as preparation for classroom training on emergency care with residents who used an additional serious game. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study with residents preparing for a rotation in the emergency department. The “reading” group received a course manual before classroom training; the “reading and game” group received this manual plus the game as preparation for the same training. Emergency skills were assessed before training (with residents who agreed to participate in an extra pretraining assessment), using validated competency scales and a global performance scale. We also measured motivation. Results All groups had comparable important characteristics (eg, experience with acute care). Before training, the reading and game group felt motivated to play the game and spent more self-study time (+2.5 hours) than the reading group. Game-playing residents showed higher scores on objectively measured and self-assessed clinical competencies but equal scores on the global performance scale and were equally motivated for training, compared with the reading group. After the 2-week training, no differences between groups existed. Conclusions After preparing training with an additional serious game, residents showed improved clinical competencies, compared with residents who only studied course material. After a 2-week training, this advantage disappeared. Future research should study the retention of game effects in blended designs. PMID:27764018

  16. Importance of eccentric actions in performance adaptations to resistance training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Gary A.; Miller, Bruce J.; Buchanan, Paul; Tesch, Per A.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of eccentric (ecc) muscle actions in resistance training for the maintenance of muscle strength and mass in hypogravity was investigated in experiments in which human subjects, divided into three groups, were asked to perform four-five sets of 6 to 12 repetitions (rep) per set of three leg press and leg extension exercises, 2 days each weeks for 19 weeks. One group, labeled 'con', performed each rep with only concentric (con) actions, while group con/ecc with performed each rep with only ecc actions; the third group, con/con, performed twice as many sets with only con actions. Control subjects did not train. It was found that resistance training wih both con and ecc actions induced greater increases in muscle strength than did training with only con actions.

  17. Effects of in-season plyometric training within soccer practice on explosive actions of young players.

    PubMed

    Meylan, César; Malatesta, Davide

    2009-12-01

    In soccer, explosive actions such as jumping, sprinting, and changes of direction are essential to optimal performance not only in adults, but also in children's games. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the influence of a short-term plyometric training within regular soccer practice on explosive actions of early pubertal soccer players during the in-season. Fourteen children (13.3 +/- 0.6 years) were selected as the training group (TG) and 11 children (13.1 +/- 0.6 years) were defined as the control group (CG). All children were playing in the same league and trained twice per week for 90 minutes with the same soccer drills. The TG followed an 8-week plyometric program (i.e., jumping, hurdling, bouncing, skipping, and footwork) implemented as a substitute for some soccer drills to obtain the same session duration as CG. At baseline and after training, explosive actions were assessed with the following 6 tests: 10-meter sprint, agility test, 3 vertical jump tests (squat jump [SJ], countermovement jump [CMJ], contact test [CT] and multiple 5 bounds test [MB5]). Plyometric training was associated with significant decreases in 10-m sprint time (-2.1%) and agility test time (-9.6%) and significant increases in jump height for the CMJ (+7.9%) and CT (+10.9%). No significant changes in explosive actions after the 8-week period were recorded for the CG. The current study demonstrated that a plyometric program within regular soccer practice improved explosive actions of young players compared to conventional soccer training only. Therefore, the short-term plyometric program had a beneficial impact on explosive actions, such as sprinting, change of direction, and jumping, which are important determinants of match-winning actions in soccer performance.

  18. Performance profile of NCAA Division I men's basketball games and training sessions

    PubMed Central

    Tessitore, A; Smiley, K; Thomas, C; Favero, TG

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse live and stoppage time phases, their ratio, and action played on half and full court in college basketball games. Differences were assessed for the entire games and between halves. Moreover, differences of the live/stoppage time ratio were analysed between games and game-based conditioning drills. Ten games as well as fifteen defensive, fourteen offensive and six scrimmage-type drills of the same division I men's college team (13 players) were analysed using time-motion analysis technique. Live and stoppage time were classified in five classes of duration: 1-20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80, >80 seconds. Half court actions started and finished in the same half court. Full court actions were classified as transfer (TR) phases when at least 3 teammates crossed the mid-court line. TR phases were then classified in 5 classes of frequency: 1TR, 2TR, 3TR, 4TR, and >4TR. The results revealed no statistically significant differences between games or between halves for the considered parameters. The only significant difference was observed for live/stoppage time ratio between halves (p<0.001). Furthermore, a significant difference of the live/stoppage ratio was found between games and game-based drills (p<0.01). Post-hoc analysis demonstrated significant differences of scrimmage-type drills in comparison to games, and defensive and offensive drills (p<0.05), whereas no differences emerged for the other pairwise comparisons. The absence of differences between games in the analysed parameters might be important to characterize the model of performance in division I men's college games. Furthermore, these results encourage coaches to use game-based conditioning drills to replicate the LT/ST ratio documented during games. PMID:27274114

  19. Performance profile of NCAA Division I men's basketball games and training sessions.

    PubMed

    Conte, D; Tessitore, A; Smiley, K; Thomas, C; Favero, T G

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to analyse live and stoppage time phases, their ratio, and action played on half and full court in college basketball games. Differences were assessed for the entire games and between halves. Moreover, differences of the live/stoppage time ratio were analysed between games and game-based conditioning drills. Ten games as well as fifteen defensive, fourteen offensive and six scrimmage-type drills of the same division I men's college team (13 players) were analysed using time-motion analysis technique. Live and stoppage time were classified in five classes of duration: 1-20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80, >80 seconds. Half court actions started and finished in the same half court. Full court actions were classified as transfer (TR) phases when at least 3 teammates crossed the mid-court line. TR phases were then classified in 5 classes of frequency: 1TR, 2TR, 3TR, 4TR, and >4TR. The results revealed no statistically significant differences between games or between halves for the considered parameters. The only significant difference was observed for live/stoppage time ratio between halves (p<0.001). Furthermore, a significant difference of the live/stoppage ratio was found between games and game-based drills (p<0.01). Post-hoc analysis demonstrated significant differences of scrimmage-type drills in comparison to games, and defensive and offensive drills (p<0.05), whereas no differences emerged for the other pairwise comparisons. The absence of differences between games in the analysed parameters might be important to characterize the model of performance in division I men's college games. Furthermore, these results encourage coaches to use game-based conditioning drills to replicate the LT/ST ratio documented during games.

  20. Cognitive Science Implications for Enhancing Training Effectiveness in a Serious Gaming Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kuchar, Olga Anna; Huston, Kristy

    2007-01-01

    Serious games use entertainment principles, creativity, and technology to meet government or corporate training objectives, but these principles alone will not guarantee that the intended learning will occur. To be effective, serious games must incorporate sound cognitive, learning, and pedagogical principles into their design and structure. In…

  1. The use of scenarios and gaming in crisis management planning and training

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a brief introduction to scenarios and gaming. It clarifies the definitions of each, discusses their possible uses and purposes, and presents some principles of good practice. In then describes how scenarios and gaming can be used together with a computerized crisis management decision support system to provide useful tools for crisis management planning and training.

  2. MACBETH: Development of a Training Game for the Mitigation of Cognitive Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Norah E.; Wilson, Scott N.; Adame, Bradley J.; Elizondo, Javier; Jensen, Matthew L.; Miller, Claude H.; Kauffman, Abigail Allums; Seltsam, Toby; Bessarabova, Elena; Vincent, Cindy; Straub, Sara K.; Ralston, Ryan; Dulawan, Christopher L.; Ramirez, Dennis; Squire, Kurt; Valacich, Joseph S.; Burgoon, Judee K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the process of rapid iterative prototyping used by a research team developing a training video game for the Sirius program funded by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA). Described are three stages of development, including a paper prototype, and builds for alpha and beta testing. Game development is…

  3. Social Awareness and Action Training (SAAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Phase 2 • Phase 2: Conduct a Randomized Intervention Study to Determine Training Efficacy (MAY 2012-NOV 2013) o The PI met with MG McDonald and his...behaviors 5. Economy & politics Natural resources; labor issues; opium production 6. Recreation Sports, art, dance, music , film 7. Food, dress... Intervention adherence measurement. Training sessions are audiotaped to permit an evaluation of the Trainer’s adherence to the training manual for

  4. Habitual action video game playing is associated with caudate nucleus-dependent navigational strategies.

    PubMed

    West, Greg L; Drisdelle, Brandi Lee; Konishi, Kyoko; Jackson, Jonathan; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Bohbot, Veronique D

    2015-06-07

    The habitual playing of video games is associated with increased grey matter and activity in the striatum. Studies in humans and rodents have shown an inverse relationship between grey matter in the striatum and hippocampus. We investigated whether action video game playing is also associated with increased use of response learning strategies during navigation, known to be dependent on the caudate nucleus of the striatum, when presented in a dual solution task. We tested 26 action video game players (actionVGPs) and 33 non-action video game players (nonVGPs) on the 4-on-8 virtual maze and a visual attention event-related potential (ERP) task, which elicits a robust N-2-posterior-controlateral (N2pc) component. We found that actionVGPs had a significantly higher likelihood of using a response learning strategy (80.76%) compared to nonVGPs (42.42%). Consistent with previous evidence, actionVGPs and nonVGPs differed in the way they deployed visual attention to central and peripheral targets as observed in the elicited N2pc component during an ERP visual attention task. Increased use of the response strategy in actionVGPs is consistent with previously observed increases in striatal volume in video game players (VGPs). Using response strategies is associated with decreased grey matter in the hippocampus. Previous studies have shown that decreased volume in the hippocampus precedes the onset of many neurological and psychiatric disorders. If actionVGPs have lower grey matter in the hippocampus, as response learners normally do, then these individuals could be at increased risk of developing neurological and psychiatric disorders during their lifetime.

  5. Habitual action video game playing is associated with caudate nucleus-dependent navigational strategies

    PubMed Central

    West, Greg L.; Drisdelle, Brandi Lee; Konishi, Kyoko; Jackson, Jonathan; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Bohbot, Veronique D.

    2015-01-01

    The habitual playing of video games is associated with increased grey matter and activity in the striatum. Studies in humans and rodents have shown an inverse relationship between grey matter in the striatum and hippocampus. We investigated whether action video game playing is also associated with increased use of response learning strategies during navigation, known to be dependent on the caudate nucleus of the striatum, when presented in a dual solution task. We tested 26 action video game players (actionVGPs) and 33 non-action video game players (nonVGPs) on the 4-on-8 virtual maze and a visual attention event-related potential (ERP) task, which elicits a robust N-2-posterior-controlateral (N2pc) component. We found that actionVGPs had a significantly higher likelihood of using a response learning strategy (80.76%) compared to nonVGPs (42.42%). Consistent with previous evidence, actionVGPs and nonVGPs differed in the way they deployed visual attention to central and peripheral targets as observed in the elicited N2pc component during an ERP visual attention task. Increased use of the response strategy in actionVGPs is consistent with previously observed increases in striatal volume in video game players (VGPs). Using response strategies is associated with decreased grey matter in the hippocampus. Previous studies have shown that decreased volume in the hippocampus precedes the onset of many neurological and psychiatric disorders. If actionVGPs have lower grey matter in the hippocampus, as response learners normally do, then these individuals could be at increased risk of developing neurological and psychiatric disorders during their lifetime. PMID:25994669

  6. Space Fortress game training and executive control in older adults: A pilot intervention

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Yaakov; Blumen, Helena M.; Rich, Leigh W.; Richards, Alexis; Herzberg, Gray; Gopher, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using the Space Fortress (SF) game, a complex video game originally developed to study complex skill acquisition in young adults, to improve executive control processes in cognitively healthy older adults. The study protocol consisted of 36 one-hour game play sessions over 3 months with cognitive evaluations before and after, and a follow-up evaluation at 6 months. Sixty participants were randomized to one of three conditions: Emphasis Change (EC) – elders were instructed to concentrate on playing the entire game but place particular emphasis on a specific aspect of game play in each particular game; Active Control (AC) – game play with standard instructions; Passive Control (PC) – evaluation sessions without game play. Primary outcome measures were obtained from five tasks, presumably tapping executive control processes. A total of 54 older adults completed the study protocol. One measure of executive control, WAIS-III letter–number sequencing, showed improvement in performance from pre- to post-evaluations in the EC condition, but not in the other two conditions. These initial findings are modest but encouraging. Future SF interventions need to carefully consider increasing the duration and or the intensity of the intervention by providing at-home game training, reducing the motor demands of the game, and selecting appropriate outcome measures. PMID:21988726

  7. Cognitive Rehabilitation: ACTION Training for Soldiers with Executive Dysfunction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0198 TITLE: Cognitive Rehabilitation: ACTION Training for Soldiers with Executive Dysfunction PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cognitive ...For this proof of concept study, we have developed a cognitive intervention called ACTION (AutomatiC iniTiation of IntentiONs) sequence training in

  8. Actions for productivity improvement in crew training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    Improvement of the productivity of astronaut crew instructors in the Space Shuttle program and beyond is proposed. It is suggested that instructor certification plans should be established to shorten the time required for trainers to develop their skills and improve their ability to convey those skills. Members of the training cadre should be thoroughly cross trained in their task. This provides better understanding of the overall task and greater flexibility in instructor utilization. Improved facility access will give instructors the benefit of practical application experience. Former crews should be integrated into the training of upcoming crews to bridge some of the gap between simulated conditions and the real world. The information contained in lengthy and complex training manuals can be presented more clearly and efficiently as computer lessons. The illustration, animation and interactive capabilities of the computer combine an effective means of explanation.

  9. The Design and Development of a Computerized Attention-Training Game System for School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tsui-Ying; Huang, Ho-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    A computerized attention-training game system has been developed to support attention training for school-aged children. The present system offers various types of computer games that provide training in different aspects of attention, such as selective attention, sustained attention, and divided attention. The N-tier architecture of the Web-based…

  10. Skills-O-Mat: Computer Supported Interactive Motion- and Game-Based Training in Mixing Alginate in Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannig, Andreas; Lemos, Martin; Spreckelsen, Cord; Ohnesorge-Radtke, Ulla; Rafai, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The training of motor skills is a crucial aspect of medical education today. Serious games and haptic virtual simulations have been used in the training of surgical procedures. Otherwise, however, a combination of serious games and motor skills training is rarely used in medical education. This article presents Skills-O-Mat, an interactive serious…

  11. Enhanced visual short-term memory in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Blacker, Kara J; Curby, Kim M

    2013-08-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is critical for acquiring visual knowledge and shows marked individual variability. Previous work has illustrated a VSTM advantage among action video game players (Boot et al. Acta Psychologica 129:387-398, 2008). A growing body of literature has suggested that action video game playing can bolster visual cognitive abilities in a domain-general manner, including abilities related to visual attention and the speed of processing, providing some potential bases for this VSTM advantage. In the present study, we investigated the VSTM advantage among video game players and assessed whether enhanced processing speed can account for this advantage. Experiment 1, using simple colored stimuli, revealed that action video game players demonstrate a similar VSTM advantage over nongamers, regardless of whether they are given limited or ample time to encode items into memory. Experiment 2, using complex shapes as the stimuli to increase the processing demands of the task, replicated this VSTM advantage, irrespective of encoding duration. These findings are inconsistent with a speed-of-processing account of this advantage. An alternative, attentional account, grounded in the existing literature on the visuo-cognitive consequences of video game play, is discussed.

  12. Awarding Educational Credit for CETA Training: A Plan of Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullins, W. Robert; And Others

    A project was conducted to determine problems or barriers prohibiting awarding credit for Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) training in Virginia. Potential solutions and strategies for their implementation were to be identified. A variety of methods were used to obtain information required to produce a Plan of Action that presents…

  13. Action Video Game Playing Is Reflected In Enhanced Visuomotor Performance and Increased Corticospinal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Morin-Moncet, Olivier; Therrien-Blanchet, Jean-Marc; Ferland, Marie C.; Théoret, Hugo; West, Greg L.

    2016-01-01

    Action video game playing is associated with improved visuomotor performance; however, the underlying neural mechanisms associated with this increased performance are not well understood. Using the Serial Reaction Time Task in conjunction with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, we investigated if improved visuomotor performance displayed in action video game players (actionVGPs) was associated with increased corticospinal plasticity in primary motor cortex (M1) compared to non-video game players (nonVGPs). Further, we assessed if actionVGPs and nonVGPs displayed differences in procedural motor learning as measured by the SRTT. We found that at the behavioral level, both the actionVGPs and nonVGPs showed evidence of procedural learning with no significant difference between groups. However, the actionVGPs displayed higher visuomotor performance as evidenced by faster reaction times in the SRTT. This observed enhancement in visuomotor performance amongst actionVGPs was associated with increased corticospinal plasticity in M1, as measured by corticospinal excitability changes pre- and post- SRTT and corticospinal excitability at rest before motor practice. Our results show that aVGPs, who are known to have better performance on visual and motor tasks, also display increased corticospinal excitability after completing a novel visuomotor task. PMID:28005989

  14. Knowing the Game: Integrating Speech and Action in Games Teaching through TGfU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The "discursive turn" in the social sciences points to the potential in Teaching Games for Understanding pedagogy (TGfU) as a means of providing a holistic learning experience for students and a platform from which to reposition physical education among institutional forces that define boundaries between academic disciplines in the school…

  15. Training for Nonviolent Action for High School Students: A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Bidge

    The handbook for secondary students advocates nonviolent action, not passivity nor retaliation toward injustices. Emphasis is upon helping students to understand nonviolent action; to be familiar with training information on courses, time requirements, problems, costs, and procedures; and to deal with direct objectives toward peaceful social…

  16. The effects of game and training loads on perceptual responses of muscle soreness in Australian football.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Paul G; Hopkins, Will G

    2013-05-01

    Australian Football is an intense team sport played over ~120 min on a weekly basis. To determine the effects of game and training load on muscle soreness and the time frame of soreness dissipation, 64 elite Australian Football players (age 23.8 ± 1.8 y, height 183.9 ± 3.8 cm, weight 83.2 ± 5.0 kg; mean ± SD) recorded perceptions of muscle soreness, game intensity, and training intensity on scales of 1-10 on most mornings for up to 3 competition seasons. Playing and training times were also recorded in minutes. Data were analyzed with a mixed linear model, and magnitudes of effects on soreness were evaluated by standardization. All effects had acceptably low uncertainty. Game and training-session loads were 790 ± 182 and 229 ± 98 intensity-minutes (mean ± SD), respectively. General muscle soreness was 4.6 ± 1.1 units on d 1 postgame and fell to 1.9 ± 1.0 by d 6. There was a small increase in general muscle soreness (0.22 ± 0.07-0.50 ± 0.13 units) in the 3 d after high-load games relative to low-load games. Other soreness responses showed similar timelines and magnitudes of change. Training sessions made only small contributions to soreness over the 3 d after each session. Practitioners should be aware of these responses when planning weekly training and recovery programs, as it appears that game-related soreness dissipates after 3 d regardless of game load and increased training loads in the following week produce only small increases in soreness.

  17. Video game training enhances cognition of older adults: a meta-analytic study.

    PubMed

    Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2014-09-01

    It has been suggested that video game training enhances cognitive functions in young and older adults. However, effects across studies are mixed. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the hypothesis that training healthy older adults with video games enhances their cognitive functioning. The studies included in the meta-analysis were video game training interventions with pre- and posttraining measures. Twenty experimental studies published between 1986 and 2013, involving 474 trained and 439 healthy older controls, met the inclusion criteria. The results indicate that video game training produces positive effects on several cognitive functions, including reaction time (RT), attention, memory, and global cognition. The heterogeneity test did not show a significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 20.69%) but this did not preclude a further examination of moderator variables. The magnitude of this effect was moderated by methodological and personal factors, including the age of the trainees and the duration of the intervention. The findings suggest that cognitive and neural plasticity is maintained to a certain extent in old age. Training older adults with video games enhances several aspects of cognition and might be a valuable intervention for cognitive enhancement.

  18. Technology consumption and cognitive control: Contrasting action video game experience with media multitasking.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: (1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and (2) playing action video games (a particular subtype of video games). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, whereas playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. Because these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impacts of technology use on attention. Across four tasks (AX-continuous performance, N-back, task-switching, and filter tasks), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we showed that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports, though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking sometimes performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers, suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video-game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly, this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together, these findings show that media consumption can have complex and counterintuitive effects on attentional control.

  19. Technology consumption and cognitive control: Contrasting action video game experience with media multitasking

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: 1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and 2) playing action video games (a particular sub-type of video game). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, while playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. As these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impact of technology use on attention. Across four experiments (AX-CPT, N-back, Task-switching and Filter task), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we show that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking occasionally performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together this study shows that media consumption can have complex and counter-intuitive effects on attentional control. PMID:26474982

  20. Enumeration versus Multiple Object Tracking: The Case of Action Video Game Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, C. S.; Bavelier, D.

    2006-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that action video game play enhances subjects' ability in two tasks thought to indicate the number of items that can be apprehended. Using an enumeration task, in which participants have to determine the number of quickly flashed squares, accuracy measures showed a near ceiling performance for low numerosities and a sharp drop…

  1. Effect of Action Video Games on the Spatial Distribution of Visuospatial Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of action gaming on the spatial distribution of attention. The authors used the flanker compatibility effect to separately assess center and peripheral attentional resources in gamers versus nongamers. Gamers exhibited an enhancement in attentional resources compared with nongamers, not only in the periphery but…

  2. Getting Girls in the Game: Action Research in the Gymnasium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an action research project focused on improving physical education (PE) for adolescent female students. One university researcher, three male PE teachers, and 13 of their most disengaged female students participated in the one-year, two-cycle, action research project. The process and results are offered so that future PE…

  3. Smoothing the Wrinkles in Affirmative Action Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundale, Susan

    1980-01-01

    Covert discrimination has replaced overt racism and sexism in hiring programs, and relatively few women are hired in line areas. New issues, such as the rights of handicapped and older workers, are beginning to appear. Training and development professionals will be called on to ensure that equal employment opportunity is achieved. (CT)

  4. Brain Training Game Improves Executive Functions and Processing Speed in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Akitsuki, Yuko; Shigemune, Yayoi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Tsukiura, Takashi; Yomogida, Yukihito; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Background The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on cognitive functions in the elderly. Methods and Results Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). This study was completed by 14 of the 16 members in the Brain Age group and 14 of the 16 members in the Tetris group. To maximize the benefit of the interventions, all participants were non-gamers who reported playing less than one hour of video games per week over the past 2 years. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Each group played for a total of about 20 days. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into four categories (global cognitive status, executive functions, attention, and processing speed). Results showed that the effects of the brain training game were transferred to executive functions and to processing speed. However, the brain training game showed no transfer effect on any global cognitive status nor attention. Conclusions Our results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed) in the elderly. This result indicated that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions and processing speed in short term training. The results need replication in large samples. Long-term effects and relevance for every-day functioning remain uncertain as yet. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002825 PMID:22253758

  5. The perception-action dynamics of action competency are altered by both physical and observational training.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, John J; Ramos, Jorge; Robson, Nina

    2015-04-01

    Action competency is defined as the ability of an individual to self-evaluate their own performance capabilities. The current experiment demonstrated that physical and observational training with a motor skill alters action competency ratings in a similar manner. Using a pre-test and post-test protocol, the results revealed that action competency is constrained prior to training by the intrinsic dynamics of relative phase (ϕ), with in-phase (ϕ = 0°) and anti-phase (ϕ = 180°) patterns receiving higher competency ratings than other relative phase patterns. After 2 days of training, action competency ratings for two trained relative phase patterns, +60° and +120°, increased following physical practice or observational practice. A transfer test revealed that both physical performance ability and action competency ability transferred to the symmetry partners (-60° and -120°) of the two trained relative phase patterns following physical or observational training. The findings also revealed that relative motion direction acts as categorical information that helps to organize action production and facilitate action competency. The results are interpreted based on the coordination dynamics theory of perception-action coupling, and extend this theory by showing that visual perception, action production, and action competency are all constrained in a consistent manner by the dynamics of the order parameter relative phase. As a whole, the findings revealed that relative motion, relative phase, and possibly relative amplitude information are all distinct sources of information that contribute to the emergence of a kinematic understanding of action in the nervous system.

  6. A Web-Based Lean Simulation Game for Office Operations: Training the Other Side of a Lean Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriger, Glenn W.; Wan, Huang-da; Mirehei, S. Moussa; Tamma, Saumya; Chen, F. Frank

    2010-01-01

    This research proposes a Web-based version of a lean office simulation game (WeBLOG). The game is designed to be used to train lean concepts to office and administrative personnel. This group belongs to the frequently forgotten side of a lean enterprise. Over four phases, the game presents the following seven lean tools: one-piece flow,…

  7. Learning Strategies in Play during Basic Training for Medal of Honor and Call of Duty Video Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziaeehezarjeribi, Yadi

    2010-01-01

    This study, based on experiential play methodology was used to explore student engagement while playing "Medal of Honor (2002)" and "Call of Duty (2003)". It identifies some of the key issues related to the use of video games and simulations during the training phase of game play. Research into the effects of gaming in education has been extremely…

  8. Video Game Training Enhances Visuospatial Working Memory and Episodic Memory in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M.; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal intervention study with experimental and control groups, we investigated the effects of video game training on the visuospatial working memory (WM) and episodic memory of healthy older adults. Participants were 19 volunteer older adults, who received 15 1-h video game training sessions with a series of video games selected from a commercial package (Lumosity), and a control group of 20 healthy older adults. The results showed that the performance of the trainees improved significantly in all the practiced video games. Most importantly, we found significant enhancements after training in the trained group and no change in the control group in two computerized tasks designed to assess visuospatial WM, namely the Corsi blocks task and the Jigsaw puzzle task. The episodic memory and short-term memory of the trainees also improved. Gains in some WM and episodic memory tasks were maintained during a 3-month follow-up period. These results suggest that the aging brain still retains some degree of plasticity, and that video game training might be an effective intervention tool to improve WM and other cognitive functions in older adults. PMID:27199723

  9. Video Game Training Enhances Visuospatial Working Memory and Episodic Memory in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal intervention study with experimental and control groups, we investigated the effects of video game training on the visuospatial working memory (WM) and episodic memory of healthy older adults. Participants were 19 volunteer older adults, who received 15 1-h video game training sessions with a series of video games selected from a commercial package (Lumosity), and a control group of 20 healthy older adults. The results showed that the performance of the trainees improved significantly in all the practiced video games. Most importantly, we found significant enhancements after training in the trained group and no change in the control group in two computerized tasks designed to assess visuospatial WM, namely the Corsi blocks task and the Jigsaw puzzle task. The episodic memory and short-term memory of the trainees also improved. Gains in some WM and episodic memory tasks were maintained during a 3-month follow-up period. These results suggest that the aging brain still retains some degree of plasticity, and that video game training might be an effective intervention tool to improve WM and other cognitive functions in older adults.

  10. Social Awareness and Action Training (SAAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    NUMBER E-Mail: cacioppo@uchicago.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...quarter, we have continued to work with RFL/AAG and DHA to secure de-identified behavioral and performance data on Soldiers who participated in the...request and analyze behavioral and performance data on the Soldiers who participated in the SAAT training. A manuscript (see Appendix A) for the

  11. Social Awareness and Action Training (SAAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    potential to benefit not only average but also high-risk Soldiers. Analyses of perceived stress (pss) and depressive symptomatology (phq) failed to show...Awareness training was hypothesized to benefit Soldiers on measures of social fitness, whereas Cultural Awareness was hypothesized to benefit ...identified for replacing these with more practical exercises . First, listening to stories (regardless of whether they are about success or failure

  12. Z-DOC: a serious game for Z-plasty procedure training.

    PubMed

    Shewaga, Robert; Knox, Aaron; Ng, Gary; Kapralos, Bill; Dubrowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We present Z-DOC, a (prototype) serious game for training plastic surgery residents the steps comprising the Z-plasty surgical procedure. Z-DOC employs touch-based interactions and promotes competition amongst multiple players/users thus promote engagement and motivation. It is hypothesized that by learning the Z-plasty procedure in an interactive, engaging, and fun gaming environment, trainees will have a much better understanding of the procedure than by traditional learning modalities.

  13. [Practical games as one of the forms for optimizing the academic process in physician postgraduate training].

    PubMed

    Bobrov, V A; Davydova, I V; Bilinskiĭ, E A; Beziuk, N N; Shlykova, N A; Zaĭtseva, V I; Kozlovskiĭ, V I; Aleksandrova, L A

    1998-05-01

    Described in the article is one of the forms of optimization of the instructional process in the postgraduation physician training--"business-like games". Highly skilled, competent position of the teacher who conducts a business-like game secures an active participation in learning of students, helps in opening the mind, broadening the outlook on the problem under consideration, gives much incentive to further independent work on the discussed issues.

  14. A serious game for off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery procedure training.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Brent; Sabri, Hamed; Kapralos, Bill; Moussa, Fuad; Cristancho, Sayra; Dubrowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    We have begun development of an interactive, multi-player serious game for the purpose of training cardiac surgeons, fellows, and residents the series of steps comprising the Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass grafting (OPCAB) surgical procedure. It is hypothesized that by learning the OPCAB procedure in a "first-person-shooter gaming environment", trainees will have a much better understanding of the procedure than by traditional learning modalities. The serious game will allow for simulation parameters related to levels of fidelity to be easily adjusted so that the effect of fidelity on knowledge transfer can be examined.

  15. Examination of mechanisms underlying enhanced memory performance in action video game players: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed. PMID:26136720

  16. Action video games and improved attentional control: Disentangling selection- and response-based processes.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that experience with action video games is associated with improvements in a host of cognitive tasks. Evidence from paradigms that assess aspects of attention has suggested that action video game players (AVGPs) possess greater control over the allocation of attentional resources than do non-video-game players (NVGPs). Using a compound search task that teased apart selection- and response-based processes (Duncan, 1985), we required participants to perform an oculomotor capture task in which they made saccades to a uniquely colored target (selection-based process) and then produced a manual directional response based on information within the target (response-based process). We replicated the finding that AVGPs are less susceptible to attentional distraction and, critically, revealed that AVGPs outperform NVGPs on both selection-based and response-based processes. These results not only are consistent with the improved-attentional-control account of AVGP benefits, but they suggest that the benefit of action video game playing extends across the full breadth of attention-mediated stimulus-response processes that impact human performance.

  17. Examination of mechanisms underlying enhanced memory performance in action video game players: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed.

  18. Action First--Understanding Follows: An Expansion of Skills-Based Training Using Action Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Colin

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of training trainers in the skills they need to perform competently as trainers and how they follow their skills mastery with discussion on their new theoretical insight. Moreno's action method (psychodrama, sociodrama, sociometry, and role training) is the model used. (JOW)

  19. The influence of visual training on predicting complex action sequences.

    PubMed

    Cross, Emily S; Stadler, Waltraud; Parkinson, Jim; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    Linking observed and executable actions appears to be achieved by an action observation network (AON), comprising parietal, premotor, and occipitotemporal cortical regions of the human brain. AON engagement during action observation is thought to aid in effortless, efficient prediction of ongoing movements to support action understanding. Here, we investigate how the AON responds when observing and predicting actions we cannot readily reproduce before and after visual training. During pre- and posttraining neuroimaging sessions, participants watched gymnasts and wind-up toys moving behind an occluder and pressed a button when they expected each agent to reappear. Between scanning sessions, participants visually trained to predict when a subset of stimuli would reappear. Posttraining scanning revealed activation of inferior parietal, superior temporal, and cerebellar cortices when predicting occluded actions compared to perceiving them. Greater activity emerged when predicting untrained compared to trained sequences in occipitotemporal cortices and to a lesser degree, premotor cortices. The occipitotemporal responses when predicting untrained agents showed further specialization, with greater responses within body-processing regions when predicting gymnasts' movements and in object-selective cortex when predicting toys' movements. The results suggest that (1) select portions of the AON are recruited to predict the complex movements not easily mapped onto the observer's body and (2) greater recruitment of these AON regions supports prediction of less familiar sequences. We suggest that the findings inform both the premotor model of action prediction and the predictive coding account of AON function.

  20. Online games training aging brains: limited transfer to cognitive control functions.

    PubMed

    van Muijden, Jesse; Band, Guido P H; Hommel, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of age-related cognitive decline will increase due to graying of the global population. The goal of the present study was to test whether playing online cognitive training games can improve cognitive control (CC) in healthy older adults. Fifty-four older adults (age 60-77) played five different cognitive training games online for 30 min a day over a period of seven weeks (game group). Another group of 20 older adults (age 61-73) instead answered quiz questions about documentaries online (documentary group). Transfer was assessed by means of a cognitive test battery administered before and after the intervention. The test battery included measures of working memory updating, set shifting, response inhibition, attention, and inductive reasoning. Compared with the documentary group, the game group showed larger improvement of inhibition (Stop-Signal task) and inductive reasoning (Raven-SPM), whereas the documentary group showed more improvement in selective attention (UFoV-3). These effects qualify as transfer effects, because response inhibition, inductive reasoning and selective attention were not targeted by the interventions. However, because seven other indicators of CC did not show benefits of game training and some of those that did suffered from potential baseline differences, the study as a whole provides only modest support for the potential of videogame training to improve CC in healthy older adults.

  1. Joining the Game: Living and Learning as an Action Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on graduate students' thoughts and beliefs about utilizing action research as a means of professional development two years after their graduation from a Master of Arts program in Education. Because many school districts now encourage teachers to engage in self-study and to collect data that informs their instruction, the author…

  2. Action video gaming and cognitive control: playing first person shooter games is associated with improvement in working memory but not action inhibition.

    PubMed

    Colzato, Lorenza S; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Zmigrod, Sharon; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-03-01

    The interest in the influence of videogame experience in our daily life is constantly growing. "First Person Shooter" (FPS) games require players to develop a flexible mindset to rapidly react and monitor fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to inhibit erroneous actions. This study investigated whether and to which degree experience with such videogames generalizes to other cognitive control tasks. Experienced video game players (VGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed on a N-back task and a stop-signal paradigm that provide a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of the monitoring and updating of working memory (WM) and response inhibition (an index of behavioral impulsivity), respectively. VGPs were faster and more accurate in the monitoring and updating of WM than NVGPs, which were faster in reacting to go signals, but showed comparable stopping performance. Our findings support the idea that playing FPS games is associated with enhanced flexible updating of task-relevant information without affecting impulsivity.

  3. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hanako; Kasahara, Kazumi; Kato, Ryo; Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Sho K; Mori, Makoto; Hanakawa, Takashi; Sadato, Norihiro; Honda, Manabu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts.

  4. The eco-origins, actions and demonstration roles of Beijing Green Olympic Game.

    PubMed

    Wang, R S

    2001-10-01

    The 29th Olympic Game will be held in Beijing in 2008. It will be a green game to promote sustainable development of men, cities and regions through ecological development advocating "man and nature be in one". "Eco" here means a process, a driving force, an action, a culture and a kind of vitality leading to sustainable development. It is a mechanism embodying the Olympic spirit of competition, cooperation and self-reliance. The paper explained the ecological significance, connotation and objectives of Beijing Green Olympic Game. Ten major ecological heritages of Beijing have been investigated including ecologically sound landscape, culture, transportation, physical exercise, health care, sanitation, food, family relationship, agriculture, and human ecological totality. To preserve or restore the above mentioned old tradition, a green Olympic action plan has been made out in Beijing initiated by NGOs, supported by entrepreneurs and coordinated by government agencies. Four kinds of eco-engineering have been planned for blue sky, clean water, green land and eco-city development. The demonstration role of Beijing Green Olympic Game to developing regions and countries is also discussed.

  5. Working Memory Training in the Form of Structured Games in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Khalili Kermani, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Yadegari, Fariba; Haresabadi, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Seyed Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Objective: In this study, a new training method of working memory (WM) was used in the form of structured games, and the effect of training was evaluated with a controlled design. The training method of WM in the form of structured games includes 20 sets of structured games that can improve WM and performance of executive functions. Method: Sixty children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) aged 8.5 to 11.2 years (35 boys), using no stimulant medication were selected. We randomly assigned 30 participants to the experimental group and provided them with WM training. The training was in the form of structured games and was offered to the participants in two 60-minute sessions weekly for 12 weeks. Other participants were assigned to the control group, receiving no treatment. All the participants were also evaluated at follow-up 6 months later. The main measures were the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Digit Span and Symbol Search B subscale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV); and scores of dictation and mathematics were used in terms of pre and post-test. Results: The results of the t-test revealed a significant improvement in the post-test measures as well as a significant reduction of parents' reports of inattentiveness, and improvement in academic performance in the experimental group. However, no significant changes were found in the control group. Conclusion: The academic and working memory improvements were primarily due to the training method of WM. Our findings suggest that the training method of WM in the form of structured games may be a practical method for treating children with ADHD, but it needs to be further investigated.

  6. Working Memory Training in the Form of Structured Games in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Khalili Kermani, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Yadegari, Fariba; Haresabadi, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Seyed Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, a new training method of working memory (WM) was used in the form of structured games, and the effect of training was evaluated with a controlled design. The training method of WM in the form of structured games includes 20 sets of structured games that can improve WM and performance of executive functions. Method: Sixty children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) aged 8.5 to 11.2 years (35 boys), using no stimulant medication were selected. We randomly assigned 30 participants to the experimental group and provided them with WM training. The training was in the form of structured games and was offered to the participants in two 60-minute sessions weekly for 12 weeks. Other participants were assigned to the control group, receiving no treatment. All the participants were also evaluated at follow-up 6 months later. The main measures were the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Digit Span and Symbol Search B subscale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV); and scores of dictation and mathematics were used in terms of pre and post-test. Results: The results of the t-test revealed a significant improvement in the post-test measures as well as a significant reduction of parents’ reports of inattentiveness, and improvement in academic performance in the experimental group. However, no significant changes were found in the control group. Conclusion: The academic and working memory improvements were primarily due to the training method of WM. Our findings suggest that the training method of WM in the form of structured games may be a practical method for treating children with ADHD, but it needs to be further investigated. PMID:28050182

  7. Serious Games for Training and Education on Defense against Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    articulated game framed into a simulator (Bruzzone & Mosca 2003). 6. SIBILLA MODEL STRUCTURE Model structure under Sibilla Game is based on payment matrix...Bruzzone A.G., Mosca R., B.M., B.C., Spirito F., Coppa A.C.M. (2001) "Advanced Modeling for Customer Behaviour Analysis ", Proceedings of MIC2001...In Harbour Environments ", Proceedings of ITEC97, Lausanne (CH), April 22-25 [12] Bruzzone A.G, Mosca R., Revetria R., Rapallo S. (2000) "Risk

  8. Dynamic noise from action errors enhances network reciprocity in the prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Ogasawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the fact that people make mistakes in a transient, fluctuating or chaotic environment, we establish a spatial prisoner's dilemma model where an agent commits action errors proportionally varying with the increasing/decreasing rate of the global cooperation fraction. A series of numerical simulations reveal that the cooperation level is enhanced in games in which the stag hunt (SH)-type dilemma is dominant; however, it is slightly diminished in games in which the chicken-type dilemma is dominant, compared with the standard network reciprocity model. Intensive analysis reveals that the noise created by the action error contribute to the spatial expansion of a cooperators' cluster, because a dilemma that is less chicken-type and more SH-type makes it disadvantageous for defectors to neighbor cooperators. Our finding, that errors in behavior in a chaotic environment contribute to the evolution of cooperation, might aim to explain the problem of how network reciprocity works.

  9. Objective and subjective methods for quantifying training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina; Los Arcos, Asier; Yanci, Javier

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games and determine the relationship between heart rate (HR)-based training load and perceived exertion (RPE)-based training load methods among small-sided games bouts. HR-based measurements of training load included Edwards' training load and Stagno's training impulses (TRIMPMOD) while RPE-based training load measurements included cardiopulmonary (session RPEres) and muscular (session RPEmus) values. Data were collected from 12 wheelchair basketball players during five consecutive weeks. The total load for the small-sided games sessions was 67.5 ± 6.7 and 55.3 ± 12.5 AU in HR-based training load (Edwards' training load and TRIMPMOD), while the RPE-based training loads were 99.3 ± 26.9 (session RPEres) and 100.8 ± 31.2 AU (session RPEmus). Bout-to-bout analysis identified greater session RPEmus in the third [P < 0.05; effect size (ES) = 0.66, moderate] and fourth bouts (P < 0.05; ES = 0.64, moderate) than in the first bout, but other measures did not differ. Mean correlations indicated a trivial and small relationship among HR-based and RPE-based training loads. It is suggested that HR-based and RPE-based training loads provide different information, but these two methods could be complementary because one method could help us to understand the limitations of the other.

  10. Impact of Game-Based Training on Classroom Learning Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Leger, 2006), education (Dickey, 2007; Dondi & Moretti, 2007; Jong, Shang, Lee, & Lee, 2008) and the military (Beal, 2007, 2009; Lampton et al...online role-playing games (MMORPGs) foster intrinsic motivation. Educational Technology Research and Development, 55, 253-273. Dondi , C., & Moretti

  11. A Serious Game for Upper Limb Stroke Rehabilitation Using Biofeedback and Mirror-Neurons Based Training.

    PubMed

    Cargnin, Diego João; Cordeiro d'Ornellas, Marcos; Cervi Prado, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Upper limb stroke rehabilitation requires early, intensive and repetitive practice to be effective. Consequently, it is often difficult to keep patients committed to their rehabilitation regimen. In addition to direct measures of rehabilitation achievable through targeted assessments, other factors can indirectly lead to rehabilitation. Current levels of integration between commodity graphics software, hardware, and body-tracking devices have provided a reliable tool to build what are referred to as serious games, focusing on the rehabilitation paradigm. More specifically, serious games can captivate and engage players for a specific purpose such as developing new knowledge or skills. This paper discusses a serious game application with a focus on upper limb rehabilitation in patients with hemiplegia or hemiparesis. The game makes use of biofeedback and mirror-neurons to enhance the patient's engagement. Results from the application of a quantitative self-report instrument to assess in-game engagement suggest that the serious game is a viable instructional approach rather than an entertaining novelty and, furthermore, demonstrates the future potential for dual action therapy-focused games.

  12. Reputation in an economic game modulates premotor cortex activity during action observation.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Harry; Apps, Matthew; Tsakiris, Manos

    2016-09-01

    Our interactions with other people - and our processing of their actions - are shaped by their reputation. Research has identified an Action Observation Network (AON) which is engaged when observing other people's actions. Yet, little is known about how the processing of others' actions is influenced by another's reputation. Is the response of the AON modulated by the reputation of the actor? We developed a variant of the ultimatum game in which participants watched either the visible or occluded actions of two 'proposers'. These actions were tied to decisions of how to split a pot of money although the proposers' decisions on each trial were not known to participants when observing the actions. One proposer made fair offers on the majority of trials, establishing a positive reputation, whereas the other made predominantly, unfair offers resulting in a negative reputation. We found significant activations in two regions of the left dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC). The first of these showed a main effect of reputation with greater activation for the negative reputation proposer than the positive reputation proposer. Furthermore individual differences in trust ratings of the two proposers covaried with activation in the right primary motor cortex (M1). The second showed an interaction between visibility and reputation driven by a greater effect of reputation when participants were observing an occluded action. Our findings show that the processing of others' actions in the AON is modulated by an actor's reputation, and suggest a predictive role for the PMC during action observation.

  13. Effects of Wii Fit® balance game training on the balance ability of students with intellectual disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Tai-Yen

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 8 weeks of Wii Fit balance game training on the balance abilities of students with intellectual disabilities. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four students with intellectual disabilities were selected and randomly divided into Wii Fit balance game training, physical education, and sedentary activity groups. The Wii Fit balance game training group received two 40-minute Wii Fit balance game training sessions per week for a total of 8 weeks. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to compare differences. [Results] After eight weeks of training, the Wii Fit balance game training group showed significant differences between the pre- and post-training parameters, including the duration of standing on one leg with the eyes closed, average anteroposterior movement speed, swing area per unit time, and speed strength index. The physical education group showed significant differences between the pre- and post-training speed strength index values. The sedentary activity group did not show any significant differences between the pre- and post-training parameters. [Conclusion] Wii Fit balance game training can improve static balance and lower extremity muscle strength in students with intellectual disabilities. PMID:27313343

  14. Effects of Wii Fit(®) balance game training on the balance ability of students with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tai-Yen

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 8 weeks of Wii Fit balance game training on the balance abilities of students with intellectual disabilities. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four students with intellectual disabilities were selected and randomly divided into Wii Fit balance game training, physical education, and sedentary activity groups. The Wii Fit balance game training group received two 40-minute Wii Fit balance game training sessions per week for a total of 8 weeks. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to compare differences. [Results] After eight weeks of training, the Wii Fit balance game training group showed significant differences between the pre- and post-training parameters, including the duration of standing on one leg with the eyes closed, average anteroposterior movement speed, swing area per unit time, and speed strength index. The physical education group showed significant differences between the pre- and post-training speed strength index values. The sedentary activity group did not show any significant differences between the pre- and post-training parameters. [Conclusion] Wii Fit balance game training can improve static balance and lower extremity muscle strength in students with intellectual disabilities.

  15. Investigating Real-Time Predictors of Engagement: Implications for Adaptive Video Games and Online Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharek, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Engagement is a worthwhile psychological construct to examine in the context of online training and video games. In this context, previous research suggests that the more engaged a person is, the more likely they are to experience overall positive affect while performing at a high level. This research builds on theories of engagement, Flow Theory,…

  16. Extended Attention Span Training System: Video Game Neurotherapy for Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system for modifying attention deficits, which takes the concept of biofeedback one step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brain waves indicate that attention is waning. Notes contributions of this technology to neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on…

  17. Training by Gaming: Preparing Teachers of Today for Tomorrow's Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrader, P. G.; Archambault, Leanna M.; Oh-Young, Conrad

    2011-01-01

    Videogames have become a cultural and commercial phenomenon across the globe. Researchers and educators have been working to understand how to leverage these tools in education. However, there are few training opportunities that focus on the positive attributes of games in education for preservice teachers. This paper describes the preliminary…

  18. Can training in a real-time strategy video game attenuate cognitive decline in older adults?

    PubMed

    Basak, Chandramallika; Boot, Walter R; Voss, Michelle W; Kramer, Arthur F

    2008-12-01

    Declines in various cognitive abilities, particularly executive control functions, are observed in older adults. An important goal of cognitive training is to slow or reverse these age-related declines. However, opinion is divided in the literature regarding whether cognitive training can engender transfer to a variety of cognitive skills in older adults. In the current study, the authors trained older adults in a real-time strategy video game for 23.5 hr in an effort to improve their executive functions. A battery of cognitive tasks, including tasks of executive control and visuospatial skills, were assessed before, during, and after video-game training. The trainees improved significantly in the measures of game performance. They also improved significantly more than the control participants in executive control functions, such as task switching, working memory, visual short-term memory, and reasoning. Individual differences in changes in game performance were correlated with improvements in task switching. The study has implications for the enhancement of executive control processes of older adults.

  19. The Long History of Gaming in Military Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Evans & Sutherland. On the entertainment side, games like STEEL PANTHERS and CLOSE COMBAT carried a very strong military theme, while SIMEARTH and...innovation. He has lectured at the University of Central Florida , Full Sail, University of Texas, University of Virginia, Georgia Tech, and Florida ...Simulation. Smith holds degrees in Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, and Management. ADDRESS: U.S. Army PEO-STRI, 12350 Research Parkway, Orlando, Florida 32826

  20. Game-based situation awareness training for child and adult cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Airaksinen, Jasmiina; Kanerva, Kaisa; Rissanen, Anna; Ränninranta, Riikka; Åberg, Veera

    2017-01-01

    Safe cycling requires situation awareness (SA), which is the basis for recognizing and anticipating hazards. Children have poorer SA than adults, which may put them at risk. This study investigates whether cyclists' SA can be trained with a video-based learning game. The effect of executive working memory on SA was also studied. Thirty-six children (9–10 years) and 22 adults (21–48 years) played the game. The game had 30 video clips filmed from a cyclist's perspective. Each clip was suddenly masked and two or three locations were presented. The player's task was to choose locations with a potential hazard and feedback was given for their answers. Working memory capacity (WMC) was tested with a counting span task. Children's and adults' performance improved while playing the game, which suggests that playing the game trains SA. Adults performed better than children, and they also glanced at hazards more while the video was playing. Children expectedly had a lower WMC than adults, but WMC did not predict performance within the groups. This indicates that SA does not depend on WMC when passively viewing videos.

  1. Skill Transfer and Virtual Training for IND Response Decision-Making: Models for Government-Industry Collaboration for the Development of Game-Based Training Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-05

    agency selects an appropriate program structure that leverages existing talent from the video game industry, supports an iterative design and...we describe seven programmatic structures that can be leveraged to create game- based training materials. We describe the tradeoffs of the different...Likelihood of Impact 27 6.5 Product Maturity 28 6.6 Similar Government Structures 28 APPENDIX A. SERIOUS GAMES FOCUS GROUP NOTES 29 APPENDIX B

  2. Training Mothers in the Child's Game: A Comparison of Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantin-Page, Lisette; And Others

    This study compared immediate, short-term effects of different training components on mothers' acquisition of non-directive play skills. Subjects were dyads of 49 mothers and their sons, ages 4 to 6. Mother-son pairs were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. The control group received no training. All other mothers viewed the videotape…

  3. Playing Super Mario induces structural brain plasticity: gray matter changes resulting from training with a commercial video game.

    PubMed

    Kühn, S; Gleich, T; Lorenz, R C; Lindenberger, U; Gallinat, J

    2014-02-01

    Video gaming is a highly pervasive activity, providing a multitude of complex cognitive and motor demands. Gaming can be seen as an intense training of several skills. Associated cerebral structural plasticity induced has not been investigated so far. Comparing a control with a video gaming training group that was trained for 2 months for at least 30 min per day with a platformer game, we found significant gray matter (GM) increase in right hippocampal formation (HC), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and bilateral cerebellum in the training group. The HC increase correlated with changes from egocentric to allocentric navigation strategy. GM increases in HC and DLPFC correlated with participants' desire for video gaming, evidence suggesting a predictive role of desire in volume change. Video game training augments GM in brain areas crucial for spatial navigation, strategic planning, working memory and motor performance going along with evidence for behavioral changes of navigation strategy. The presented video game training could therefore be used to counteract known risk factors for mental disease such as smaller hippocampus and prefrontal cortex volume in, for example, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and neurodegenerative disease.

  4. Training a molecular automaton to play a game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Renjun; Matamoros, Elizabeth; Liu, Manhong; Stefanovic, Darko; Stojanovic, Milan N.

    2010-11-01

    Research at the interface between chemistry and cybernetics has led to reports of `programmable molecules', but what does it mean to say `we programmed a set of solution-phase molecules to do X'? A survey of recently implemented solution-phase circuitry indicates that this statement could be replaced with `we pre-mixed a set of molecules to do X and functional subsets of X'. These hard-wired mixtures are then exposed to a set of molecular inputs, which can be interpreted as being keyed to human moves in a game, or as assertions of logical propositions. In nucleic acids-based systems, stemming from DNA computation, these inputs can be seen as generic oligonucleotides. Here, we report using reconfigurable nucleic acid catalyst-based units to build a multipurpose reprogrammable molecular automaton that goes beyond single-purpose `hard-wired' molecular automata. The automaton covers all possible responses to two consecutive sets of four inputs (such as four first and four second moves for a generic set of trivial two-player two-move games). This is a model system for more general molecular field programmable gate array (FPGA)-like devices that can be programmed by example, which means that the operator need not have any knowledge of molecular computing methods.

  5. Surgical novices randomized to train in two video games become more motivated during training in MIST-VR and GI Mentor II than students with no video game training.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Leif; Schlickum, Marcus; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2013-01-01

    We investigated if engagement modes and perceived self-efficacy differed in surgical novices before and after randomized training in two different video games during five weeks, and a control group with no training. The control group expressed to a higher extent negative engagement modes during training in MIST-VR and GI Mentor II than the experimental groups. No statistically significant differences in self-efficacy were identified between groups. Both engagement modes and self-efficacy showed a positive correlation with previous and present video game experience. It is suggested that videogame training could have a framing effect on surgical simulator performance. EM and SE might be important intermediate variables between the strength of relationship between current videogame experience and simulator performance.

  6. Evolutionary game theory for physical and biological scientists. I. Training and validating population dynamics equations.

    PubMed

    Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D

    2014-08-06

    Failure to understand evolutionary dynamics has been hypothesized as limiting our ability to control biological systems. An increasing awareness of similarities between macroscopic ecosystems and cellular tissues has inspired optimism that game theory will provide insights into the progression and control of cancer. To realize this potential, the ability to compare game theoretic models and experimental measurements of population dynamics should be broadly disseminated. In this tutorial, we present an analysis method that can be used to train parameters in game theoretic dynamics equations, used to validate the resulting equations, and used to make predictions to challenge these equations and to design treatment strategies. The data analysis techniques in this tutorial are adapted from the analysis of reaction kinetics using the method of initial rates taught in undergraduate general chemistry courses. Reliance on computer programming is avoided to encourage the adoption of these methods as routine bench activities.

  7. Just for Fun: Using Programming Games in Software Programming Training and Education--A Field Study of IBM Robocode Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Ju

    2007-01-01

    Improving learning effectiveness has always been a constant challenge in software education and training. One of the primary tasks educators face is to motivate learners to perform to their best abilities. Using computer games is one means to encourage learners to learn (Klawe, 1994). When games are used in general education, they could enhance…

  8. Game-Based Practice versus Traditional Practice in Computer-Based Writing Strategy Training: Effects on Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proske, Antje; Roscoe, Rod D.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving sustained student engagement with practice in computer-based writing strategy training can be a challenge. One potential solution is to foster engagement by embedding practice in educational games; yet there is currently little research comparing the effectiveness of game-based practice versus more traditional forms of practice. In this…

  9. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Carvalho, Celso R. F.; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Teixeira-Carvalho, Etiene Farah; Mendonça, Juliana Fernandes Barreto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma. Design A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20) or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16). Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and lung function. Results No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05). Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG. Conclusion The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvementin their exercise capacity and a reductionin pulmonary inflammation. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294 PMID:26301706

  10. Join Us in a Participatory Approach to Training, Learning & Production. A Practical Guide to the Action Training Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frings, A.; And Others

    This handbook is intended to help trainers and development workers plan and conduct training programs based on the Action Training Model (ATM). The ATM combines training with action and learning with production by building upon participants' knowledge and learning needs and involving participants in a process of active learning and cooperative…

  11. Training Vegetable Parenting Practices Through a Mobile Game: Iterative Qualitative Alpha Test

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Alicia; Buday, Richard; Hughes, Sheryl; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Dadabhoy, Hafza R; Diep, Cassandra S; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Background Vegetable consumption protects against chronic diseases, but many young children do not eat vegetables. One quest within the mobile application Mommio was developed to train mothers of preschoolers in effective vegetable parenting practices, or ways to approach getting their child to eat and enjoy vegetables. A much earlier version of the game, then called Kiddio, was alpha tested previously, but the game has since evolved in key ways. Objective The purpose of this research was to alpha test the first quest, substantiate earlier findings and obtain feedback on new game features to develop an effective, compelling parenting game. Methods Mothers of preschool children (n=20) played a single quest of Mommio 2 to 4 times, immediately after which a semi-structured interview about their experience was completed. Interviews were transcribed and double coded using thematic analysis methods. Results Mothers generally liked the game, finding it realistic and engaging. Some participants had difficulties with mechanics for moving around the 3-D environment. Tips and hints were well received, and further expansion and customization were desired. Conclusions Earlier findings were supported, though Mommio players reported more enjoyment than Kiddio players. Continued development will include more user-friendly mechanics, customization, opportunities for environment interaction, and food parenting scenarios. PMID:26208899

  12. Effects of Action Video Game on Attention Distribution: A Cognitive Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuemin; Yan, Bin; Shu, Hua

    Based on the previous researches, Flanker compatibility effect paradigm was applied to explore the degree where people process the visual information presented on to-be-ignored locations. In present study, this paradigm was used to investigate attention distribution of Video Game Players (VGPs) and Non Video Game Players (NVGPs). The results suggested, under low perceptual load, VGPs tried to focus their attention on the task at-hand whereas the NVGPs tried to explore the adjacent locations with the left-over resources from the research task; however, under high perceptual load, the players would process the visual information at the adjacent locations of the target with the left-over resources, because they had comparatively greater attention capability, whereas the non-players focused their attention on the target locations to finish the search task. To conclude, the present study suggested that action video game play could not only enhance the attention capacity but also cause a different way of attention distribution in different perceptual load situations.

  13. Action video game playing is associated with improved visual sensitivity, but not alterations in visual sensory memory.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, L Gregory; Cain, Matthew S; Darling, Elise F; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2013-08-01

    Action video game playing has been experimentally linked to a number of perceptual and cognitive improvements. These benefits are captured through a wide range of psychometric tasks and have led to the proposition that action video game experience may promote the ability to extract statistical evidence from sensory stimuli. Such an advantage could arise from a number of possible mechanisms: improvements in visual sensitivity, enhancements in the capacity or duration for which information is retained in visual memory, or higher-level strategic use of information for decision making. The present study measured the capacity and time course of visual sensory memory using a partial report performance task as a means to distinguish between these three possible mechanisms. Sensitivity measures and parameter estimates that describe sensory memory capacity and the rate of memory decay were compared between individuals who reported high evels and low levels of action video game experience. Our results revealed a uniform increase in partial report accuracy at all stimulus-to-cue delays for action video game players but no difference in the rate or time course of the memory decay. The present findings suggest that action video game playing may be related to enhancements in the initial sensitivity to visual stimuli, but not to a greater retention of information in iconic memory buffers.

  14. "Braingame Brian": Toward an Executive Function Training Program with Game Elements for Children with ADHD and Cognitive Control Problems.

    PubMed

    Prins, Pier J M; Brink, Esther Ten; Dovis, Sebastiaan; Ponsioen, Albert; Geurts, Hilde M; de Vries, Marieke; van der Oord, Saskia

    2013-02-01

    In the area of childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, there is an urgent need for new, innovative, and child-focused treatments. A computerized executive functioning training with game elements aimed at enhancing self-control was developed. The first results are promising, and the next steps involve replication with larger samples, evaluating transfer of training effects to daily life, and enhancing motivation through more gaming elements.

  15. Enhancing visuospatial performance through video game training to increase learning in visuospatial science domains.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Christopher A

    2012-02-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated that performance on visuospatial assessments can be enhanced through relevant experience, an unaddressed question is whether such experience also produces a similar increase in target domains (such as science learning) where visuospatial abilities are directly relevant for performance. In the present study, participants completed either spatial or nonspatial training via interaction with video games and were then asked to read and learn about the geologic topic of plate tectonics. Results replicate the benefit of playing appropriate video games in enhancing visuospatial performance and demonstrate that this facilitation also manifests itself in learning science topics that are visuospatial in nature. This novel result suggests that visuospatial training not only can impact performance on measures of spatial functioning, but also can affect performance in content areas in which these abilities are utilized.

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-05-26

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Nevada Test Site's Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit (Corrective Action Unit 342) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 342 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 23-56-01. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for Corrective Action Unit 342. The scope of this document consists of the following: Develop corrective action objectives; Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; Develop corrective action alternatives; Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for the Corrective Action Unit.

  17. Into the Black Box: Using Data Mining of In-Game Actions to Draw Inferences from Educational Technology about Students' Math Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre Song

    2014-01-01

    Educational video games have the potential to be used as assessments of student understanding of complex concepts. However, the interpretation of the rich stream of complex data that results from the tracking of in-game actions is so difficult that it is one of the most serious blockades to the use of educational video games or simulations to…

  18. Brain training for silver gamers: effects of age and game form on effectiveness, efficiency, self-assessment, and gameplay experience.

    PubMed

    Nacke, Lennart E; Nacke, Anne; Lindley, Craig A

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, an aging demographic majority in the Western world has come to the attention of the game industry. The recently released "brain-training" games target this population, and research investigating gameplay experience of the elderly using this game form is lacking. This study employs a 2 x 2 mixed factorial design (age group: young and old x game form: paper and Nintendo DS) to investigate effects of age and game form on usability, self-assessment, and gameplay experience in a supervised field study. Effectiveness was evaluated in task completion time, efficiency as error rate, together with self-assessment measures (arousal, pleasure, dominance) and game experience (challenge, flow, competence, tension, positive and negative affect). Results indicate players, regardless of age, are more effective and efficient using pen-and-paper than using a Nintendo DS console. However, the game is more arousing and induces a heightened sense of flow in digital form for gamers of all ages. Logic problem-solving challenges within digital games may be associated with positive feelings for the elderly but with negative feelings for the young. Thus, digital logic-training games may provide positive gameplay experience for an aging Western civilization.

  19. Training of Evaluators in the Third World: Implementation of the Action Training Model (ATM) in Kenya and Botswana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    The Action Training Model (ATM) was developed for the delivery of evaluation training to development workers in Kenya and Botswana and implemented under the aegis of the German Foundation for International Development. Training of evaluators is a challenge in any context, but in the Third World environment, evaluation training offers special…

  20. MiRTE: Mixed Reality Triage and Evacuation game for Mass Casualty information systems design, testing and training.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a Mixed Reality Triage and Evacuation game, MiRTE, that is used in the development, testing and training of Mass Casualty Incident (MCI) information systems for first responders. Using the Source game engine from Valve software, MiRTE creates immersive virtual environments to simulate various incident scenarios, and enables interactions between multiple players/first responders. What distinguishes it from a pure computer simulation game is that it can interface with external mass casualty incident management systems, such as DIORAMA. The game will enable system developers to specify technical requirements of underlying technology, and test different alternatives of design. After the information system hardware and software are completed, the game can simulate various algorithms such as localization technologies, and interface with an actual user interface on PCs and Smartphones. We implemented and tested the game with the DIORAMA system.

  1. A study on the effectiveness of task manager board game as a training tool in managing project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd; Radzi, Shanizan Herman Md; Din, Sharifah Nadera Syed; Khalid, Nurhafizah

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, games have become one of the useful tools in training. Many instructors choose to use games to enhance the way of delivering the subject. Failure to apply the suitable tool in training will lead to discouragement in learning and causing waste to the resources. An effective game will help the student understand the concept quickly. It can also help students to get involve in experiential learning where the student can manage and solve the problem as in the actual situation. This study will focus on the effectiveness of board game as a training tool for managing projects. This game has 4 tasks to be completed by students. They will be divided into a group of 4 or 5. Two methods are used in this study, pilot test, and post-test. These methods are chosen to analyze the effectiveness of using Task Manager Board Game as a teaching tool and the improvement of student's knowledge in project management. Three sub-components assessed were motivation, user experience and learning using case studies on Kirkpatrick's level one base on the perception of the students. The result indicated that the use of Task Manager board game as a training tool for managing project has a positive impact on students. It helps students to experience the situation of managing projects. It is one of the easiest ways for improving time management, human resources and communication skill.

  2. Competition as rational action: Why young children cannot appreciate competitive games

    PubMed Central

    Priewasser, Beate; Roessler, Johannes; Perner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Understanding rational actions requires perspective taking both with respect to means and with respect to objectives. This study addresses the question of whether the two kinds of perspective taking develop simultaneously or in sequence. It is argued that evidence from competitive behavior is best suited for settling this issue. A total of 71 kindergarten children between 3 and 5 years of age participated in a competitive game of dice and were tested on two traditional false belief stories as well as on several control tasks (verbal intelligence, inhibitory control, and working memory). The frequency of competitive poaching moves in the game correlated with correct predictions of mistaken actions in the false belief task. Hierarchical linear regression after controlling for age and control variables showed that false belief understanding significantly predicted the amount of poaching moves. The results speak for an interrelated development of the capacity for “instrumental” and “telic” perspective taking. They are discussed in the light of teleology as opposed to theory use and simulation. PMID:23182381

  3. Competition as rational action: why young children cannot appreciate competitive games.

    PubMed

    Priewasser, Beate; Roessler, Johannes; Perner, Josef

    2013-10-01

    Understanding rational actions requires perspective taking both with respect to means and with respect to objectives. This study addresses the question of whether the two kinds of perspective taking develop simultaneously or in sequence. It is argued that evidence from competitive behavior is best suited for settling this issue. A total of 71 kindergarten children between 3 and 5 years of age participated in a competitive game of dice and were tested on two traditional false belief stories as well as on several control tasks (verbal intelligence, inhibitory control, and working memory). The frequency of competitive poaching moves in the game correlated with correct predictions of mistaken actions in the false belief task. Hierarchical linear regression after controlling for age and control variables showed that false belief understanding significantly predicted the amount of poaching moves. The results speak for an interrelated development of the capacity for "instrumental" and "telic" perspective taking. They are discussed in the light of teleology as opposed to theory use and simulation.

  4. How much training data for facial action unit detection?

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Jeffrey M.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Jeni, László A.; Lucey, Simon; De la Torre, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    By systematically varying the number of subjects and the number of frames per subject, we explored the influence of training set size on appearance and shape-based approaches to facial action unit (AU) detection. Digital video and expert coding of spontaneous facial activity from 80 subjects (over 350,000 frames) were used to train and test support vector machine classifiers. Appearance features were shape-normalized SIFT descriptors and shape features were 66 facial landmarks. Ten-fold cross-validation was used in all evaluations. Number of subjects and number of frames per subject differentially affected appearance and shape-based classifiers. For appearance features, which are high-dimensional, increasing the number of training subjects from 8 to 64 incrementally improved performance, regardless of the number of frames taken from each subject (ranging from 450 through 3600). In contrast, for shape features, increases in the number of training subjects and frames were associated with mixed results. In summary, maximal performance was attained using appearance features from large numbers of subjects with as few as 450 frames per subject. These findings suggest that variation in the number of subjects rather than number of frames per subject yields most efficient performance. PMID:27275131

  5. Automated Intelligent Training with a Tactical Decision Making Serious Game

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    exercise. Example Assessment Measure A more complex training example involves friendly fire incidents and fratricide. Avoiding fratricide is one of...cannot perform any function or be restored to a usable condition without being entirely rebuilt. The amount of damage needed to render a unit combat...located at the top of the map. Terrain. The map provides a two dimensional representation of the battlefield. Trees, streams , roads, buildings

  6. Serious Game and Virtual World Training: Instrumentation and Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-10

    typical grocery shopper purchases. Each data mining algorithm could possibly be context-specific (i.e., an Internet search algorithm would not be useful...J., "Selling the Virtual World for Navy Training," Southern Maryland Newspapers Online , http://ww2.somdnews.com/stories/03182011 /enternd...C, and P. Michiardi, "Characterizing User Mobility in Second Life, Proceedings of the First Workshop on Online Social Networks, 2008, pp. 79-84

  7. Short-Term Compassion Training Increases Prosocial Behavior in a Newly Developed Prosocial Game

    PubMed Central

    Leiberg, Susanne; Klimecki, Olga; Singer, Tania

    2011-01-01

    Compassion has been suggested to be a strong motivator for prosocial behavior. While research has demonstrated that compassion training has positive effects on mood and health, we do not know whether it also leads to increases in prosocial behavior. We addressed this question in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we introduce a new prosocial game, the Zurich Prosocial Game (ZPG), which allows for repeated, ecologically valid assessment of prosocial behavior and is sensitive to the influence of reciprocity, helping cost, and distress cues on helping behavior. Experiment 2 shows that helping behavior in the ZPG increased in participants who had received short-term compassion training, but not in participants who had received short-term memory training. Interindividual differences in practice duration were specifically related to changes in the amount of helping under no-reciprocity conditions. Our results provide first evidence for the positive impact of short-term compassion training on prosocial behavior towards strangers in a training-unrelated task. PMID:21408020

  8. Innovating Training through Immersive Environments: Generation Y, Exploratory Learning, and Serious Games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendron, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Over the next decade, those entering Service and Joint Staff positions within the military will come from a different generation than the current leadership. They will come from Generation Y and have differing preferences for learning. Immersive learning environments like serious games and virtual world initiatives can complement traditional training methods to provide a better overall training program for staffs. Generation Y members desire learning methods which are relevant and interactive, regardless of whether they are delivered over the internet or in person. This paper focuses on a project undertaken to assess alternative training methods to teach special operations staffs. It provides a summary of the needs analysis used to consider alternatives and to better posture the Department of Defense for future training development.

  9. Using a digital game for training desirable behavior in cognitive-behavioral therapy of burnout syndrome: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zielhorst, Thomas; van den Brule, Daphne; Visch, Valentijn; Melles, Marijke; van Tienhoven, Sam; Sinkbaek, Helle; Schrieken, Bart; Tan, Eduard S-H; Lange, Alfred

    2015-02-01

    Burnout is a globally increasing illness, and as a result, many forms of burnout therapy have arisen. The use of digital games can be psychotherapeutically effective because they can transform exercises that are by themselves unattractive into intrinsically motivated action. This pilot study aims to test whether a specially designed game contributes to patients learning desired behavior and achieving other specific therapeutic goals in an online cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based burnout treatment context. In total, 101 participants took part in the experiment, under four conditions: (a) Game+Therapy, (b) Therapy Only, (c) Game Only, and (d) No Game+No Therapy. Pre- and postmeasures were taken online. Results showed that the two therapy conditions (Game+Therapy and Therapy Only) showed a greater decrease in complaints and disengagement, and a stronger increase in coping skills than the nontherapy conditions (Game Only and No Game+No Therapy). As expected, the Game+Therapy condition outperformed the Therapy Only condition on combined improvement measures of burnout symptoms. However, analyses of individual measures showed no effects. It can be cautiously concluded that the therapeutic digital game may be a useful tool when embedded in a therapeutic burnout treatment program and is probably more efficient than CBT, as it is used in current practice.

  10. Cognitive and neural plasticity in older adults’ prospective memory following training with the Virtual Week computer game

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Nathan S.; Rendell, Peter G.; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Bidelman, Gavin M.; Craik, Fergus I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) – the ability to remember and successfully execute our intentions and planned activities – is critical for functional independence and declines with age, yet few studies have attempted to train PM in older adults. We developed a PM training program using the Virtual Week computer game. Trained participants played the game in 12, 1-h sessions over 1 month. Measures of neuropsychological functions, lab-based PM, event-related potentials (ERPs) during performance on a lab-based PM task, instrumental activities of daily living, and real-world PM were assessed before and after training. Performance was compared to both no-contact and active (music training) control groups. PM on the Virtual Week game dramatically improved following training relative to controls, suggesting PM plasticity is preserved in older adults. Relative to control participants, training did not produce reliable transfer to laboratory-based tasks, but was associated with a reduction of an ERP component (sustained negativity over occipito-parietal cortex) associated with processing PM cues, indicative of more automatic PM retrieval. Most importantly, training produced far transfer to real-world outcomes including improvements in performance on real-world PM and activities of daily living. Real-world gains were not observed in either control group. Our findings demonstrate that short-term training with the Virtual Week game produces cognitive and neural plasticity that may result in real-world benefits to supporting functional independence in older adulthood. PMID:26578936

  11. Broad-based visual benefits from training with an integrated perceptual-learning video game.

    PubMed

    Deveau, Jenni; Lovcik, Gary; Seitz, Aaron R

    2014-06-01

    Perception is the window through which we understand all information about our environment, and therefore deficits in perception due to disease, injury, stroke or aging can have significant negative impacts on individuals' lives. Research in the field of perceptual learning has demonstrated that vision can be improved in both normally seeing and visually impaired individuals, however, a limitation of most perceptual learning approaches is their emphasis on isolating particular mechanisms. In the current study, we adopted an integrative approach where the goal is not to achieve highly specific learning but instead to achieve general improvements to vision. We combined multiple perceptual learning approaches that have individually contributed to increasing the speed, magnitude and generality of learning into a perceptual-learning based video-game. Our results demonstrate broad-based benefits of vision in a healthy adult population. Transfer from the game includes; improvements in acuity (measured with self-paced standard eye-charts), improvement along the full contrast sensitivity function, and improvements in peripheral acuity and contrast thresholds. The use of this type of this custom video game framework built up from psychophysical approaches takes advantage of the benefits found from video game training while maintaining a tight link to psychophysical designs that enable understanding of mechanisms of perceptual learning and has great potential both as a scientific tool and as therapy to help improve vision.

  12. Improving fitness of elite handball players: small-sided games vs. high-intensity intermittent training.

    PubMed

    Iacono, Antonio Dello; Eliakim, Alon; Meckel, Yoav

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) and small-sided games (SSGs) training on fitness variables of elite handball players. Eighteen highly trained players (mean age ± SD: 25.6 ± 0.5 years) were assigned to either HIIT or SSGs group training protocols twice per week for 8 weeks. The HIIT consisted of 12-24 × 15 seconds of high-intensity runs interspersed by 15 seconds of recovery. The SSGs training consisted of 3 against 3 small-sided handball games. Both training methods were matched for exercise duration and recovery at each training session. Before and after 8-week training, the following fitness variables were assessed-speed: 10- and 20-m sprint time, agility: handball agility specific test (HAST), upper arm strength: 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test, lower limb power: counter-movement jump tests with (CMJarm) and without (CMJ) arm movement, and aerobic fitness (yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 [YYIRTL1]). Significant improvement was found in the YYIRTL1 (23.3 and 26.3%, respectively), 10-m sprint (2.3 and 4.1%, respectively) and 20-m sprint (2.1 and 4%, respectively), HAST (1.1 and 2.2%, respectively), 1RM bench press (6.8 and 12.3%, respectively), CMJ (7.4 and 10.8%, respectively), and CMJarm (6.4 and 8.9%, respectively) following training in both groups (p ≤ 0.05 for all). There was a significantly greater improvement in 10- and 20-m sprint, HAST, 1RM, CMJ, and CMJarm following the SSGs training compared with the HIIT (p ≤ 0.05 for all). These results indicated that both HIIT and SSGs are effective training methods for fitness development among elite adult handball players. However, SSGs training may be considered as the preferred training regimen for improving handball-specific fitness variables during the in-season period.

  13. Report on game species of concern associated with the Gunnison Remedial Action Project, Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This report provides background information and data used in the analysis of potential impacts to game species reported in the Environmental Assessment of the Proposed Remedial Action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Gunnison, Colorado. That environmental assessment provides details regarding proposed remedial action at the Gunnison site along with a description of existing conditions and projected environmental impacts. A summary of the proposed action is provided. The uranium mill tailings and other contaminated materials at the Gunnison processing site would be transported to the Landfill disposal site via the Tenderfoot Mountain (TM) haul route. The remedial action would take place over a three-year period with two six-month winter shutdowns. The first year would consist of site preparation and haul road construction. The second year would consist of moving the tailings. Movement of the radon/infiltration barrier cover material and erosion protection material would take place during the third construction year. The material used to cover the pile is fine-grained material for the radon/infiltration barrier (Sixmile Lane borrow site) and rock for erosion protection from the Chance Gulch borrow site. The location of the borrow sites used to obtain these materials and the associated haul roads is shown.

  14. Small-sided games in team sports training: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Halouani, Jamel; Chtourou, Hamdi; Gabbett, Tim; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim

    2014-12-01

    Small-sided games (SSGs) incorporating skills, sport-specific movements, at intensities sufficient to promote aerobic adaptations, are being increasingly implemented in professional team sport environments. Small-sided games are often employed by coaches based on the premise that the greatest training benefits occur when training simulates the specific movement patterns and physiological demands of the sport. At present, there is relatively little information regarding how SSG can best be used to improve physical capacities and technical and tactical skills in team sports. It is possible that with some modifications (e.g., number of players, pitch size, coach encouragement, and wrestling), such games may be physiologically beneficial for athletes with relatively high initial aerobic fitness levels. For instance, it has been shown that 3-a-side soccer SSG resulted in higher intensity (i.e., greater overall distance, less jogging and walking, higher heart rate, and more tackling, dribbling, goal attempts, and passes) than 5-a-side SSG. Likewise, when player numbers were kept constant, a larger playing area increased the intensity of the SSG with a smaller playing area having the opposite effect. It has also been demonstrated that energy expenditure was similar between badminton and volleyball courts, but lower than that obtained in a basketball court. Moreover, it has been demonstrated in rugby that wrestling can increase the physical demands of SSG. Consistent coach encouragement can also increase training intensity, although most rule changes have trivial or no effect on exercise intensity. Further research is required to examine the optimal periodization strategies of SSG training for the long-term development of physiological capacity, technical skill, and tactical proficiency, while also minimizing the associated risk of injuries.

  15. Enhanced change detection performance reveals improved strategy use in avid action video game players.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kait; Fleck, Mathias S; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that avid action video game players (VGPs) outperform non-video game players (NVGPs) on a variety of attentional and perceptual tasks. However, it remains unknown exactly why and how such differences arise; while some prior research has demonstrated that VGPs' improvements stem from enhanced basic perceptual processes, other work indicates that they can stem from enhanced attentional control. The current experiment used a change-detection task to explore whether top-down strategies can contribute to VGPs' improved abilities. Participants viewed alternating presentations of an image and a modified version of the image and were tasked with detecting and localizing the changed element. Consistent with prior claims of enhanced perceptual abilities, VGPs were able to detect the changes while requiring less exposure to the change than NVGPs. Further analyses revealed this improved change detection performance may result from altered strategy use; VGPs employed broader search patterns when scanning scenes for potential changes. These results complement prior demonstrations of VGPs' enhanced bottom-up perceptual benefits by providing new evidence of VGPs' potentially enhanced top-down strategic benefits.

  16. Improved top-down control reduces oculomotor capture: the case of action video game players.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2012-02-01

    Action video game players (AVGPs) have been demonstrated to outperform non-video-game players(NVGPs) on a range of cognitive tasks. Evidence to date suggests that AVGPs’ enhanced performance in attention based tasks can be accounted for by improved top-down control over the allocation of visuospatial attention. Thus,we propose that AVGPs provide a population that can be used to investigate the role of top-down factors in key models of attention. Previous work using AVGPs has indicated that they experience less interfering effects from a salient but task-irrelevant distractor in an attentional capture paradigm (Chisholm, Hickey, Theeuwes, & Kingstone,2010). Two fundamentally different bottom-up and top-down models of attention can account for this result. In the present study, we compared AVGP and NVGP performance in an oculomotor capture paradigm to address when and how top-down control modulates capture. In tracking eye movements, we acquired an explicit measurement of attention allocation and replicated the covert attention effect that AVGPs are quicker than NVGPs to attend to a target in the presence of a task-irrelevant distractor. Critically, our study reveals that this top-down gain is the result of fewer shifts of attention to the salient distractor, rather than faster disengagement after bottom-up capture has occurred. This supports the theory that top-down control can modulate the involuntary capture of attention [added].

  17. Functional Integration between Salience and Central Executive Networks: A Role for Action Video Game Experience.

    PubMed

    Gong, Diankun; He, Hui; Ma, Weiyi; Liu, Dongbo; Huang, Mengting; Dong, Li; Gong, Jinnan; Li, Jianfu; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Action video games (AVGs) have attracted increasing research attention as they offer a unique perspective into the relation between active learning and neural plasticity. However, little research has examined the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of neural network mechanisms. It has been proposed that AVG experience is related to the integration between Salience Network (SN) and Central Executive Network (CEN), which are responsible for attention and working memory, respectively, two cognitive functions essential for AVG playing. This study initiated a systematic investigation of this proposition by analyzing AVG experts' and amateurs' resting-state brain functions through graph theoretical analyses and functional connectivity. Results reveal enhanced intra- and internetwork functional integrations in AVG experts compared to amateurs. The findings support the possible relation between AVG experience and the neural network plasticity.

  18. Enhanced functional connectivity and increased gray matter volume of insula related to action video game playing

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Diankun; He, Hui; Liu, Dongbo; Ma, Weiyi; Dong, Li; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that distinct insular subregions are associated with particular neural networks (e.g., attentional and sensorimotor networks). Based on the evidence that playing action video games (AVGs) facilitates attentional and sensorimotor functions, this study examined the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of insular subregions and the functional networks therein that are related to attentional and sensorimotor functions. By comparing AVG experts and amateurs, we found that AVG experts had enhanced functional connectivity and grey matter volume in insular subregions. Furthermore, AVG experts exhibited increased functional connectivity between the attentional and sensorimotor networks, and the experience-related enhancement was predominantly evident in the left insula, an understudied brain area. Thus, AVG playing may enhance functional integration of insular subregions and the pertinent networks therein. PMID:25880157

  19. Functional Integration between Salience and Central Executive Networks: A Role for Action Video Game Experience

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Diankun; He, Hui; Ma, Weiyi; Liu, Dongbo; Huang, Mengting; Dong, Li; Gong, Jinnan; Li, Jianfu; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Action video games (AVGs) have attracted increasing research attention as they offer a unique perspective into the relation between active learning and neural plasticity. However, little research has examined the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of neural network mechanisms. It has been proposed that AVG experience is related to the integration between Salience Network (SN) and Central Executive Network (CEN), which are responsible for attention and working memory, respectively, two cognitive functions essential for AVG playing. This study initiated a systematic investigation of this proposition by analyzing AVG experts' and amateurs' resting-state brain functions through graph theoretical analyses and functional connectivity. Results reveal enhanced intra- and internetwork functional integrations in AVG experts compared to amateurs. The findings support the possible relation between AVG experience and the neural network plasticity. PMID:26885408

  20. Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood

    PubMed Central

    Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M.; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8–11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions. PMID:25431564

  1. Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8-11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions.

  2. Knowledge to action: the development of training strategies.

    PubMed

    D'Amour, Danielle; Timmons, Vianne; Sheps, Sam; Davies, Barbara

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of curriculum and program development activities at the four Canadian Regional Training Centres directed towards the goal of achieving increased knowledge to action. The RTCs have initiated learning opportunities to increase the skills of graduate students in conducting knowledge translation and exchange (KTE). The authors describe similar as well as unique approaches used at each centre to hone understanding and skills. RTC activities include the development of a new four-year residency program for doctoral students, new Web-based and real-time interactive theory courses and new linkages with departments of journalism. While formal evaluation is yet to be completed, interim feedback from participating graduate students has been encouraging.

  3. Using a smart wheelchair as a gaming device for floor-projected games: a mixed-reality environment for training powered-wheelchair driving skills.

    PubMed

    Secoli, R; Zondervan, D; Reinkensmeyer, D

    2012-01-01

    For children with a severe disability, such as can arise from cerebral palsy, becoming independent in mobility is a critical goal. Currently, however, driver's training for powered wheelchair use is labor intensive, requiring hand-over-hand assistance from a skilled therapist to keep the trainee safe. This paper describes the design of a mixed reality environment for semi-autonomous training of wheelchair driving skills. In this system, the wheelchair is used as the gaming input device, and users train driving skills by maneuvering through floor-projected games created with a multi-projector system and a multi-camera tracking system. A force feedback joystick assists in steering and enhances safety.

  4. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game

    PubMed Central

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of these changes. Here we show that playing a novel dichoptic video game indeed results in reduced suppression, improved visual acuity and, in some cases, improved stereopsis. Our relatively large cohort of adults with amblyopia, allowed us, for the first time, to assess the link between visual function recovery and reduction in suppression. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between decreased suppression and improved visual function. This finding challenges the prevailing view and suggests that while dichoptic training improves visual acuity and stereopsis in adult amblyopia, reduced suppression is unlikely to be at the root of visual recovery. These results are discussed in the context of their implication on recovery of amblyopia in adults. PMID:25719537

  5. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action Training: Strategies for Meeting the 2020 Vision

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    RCRA Corrective Action training to develop and enhance the skills of qualified personnel who will implement corrective actions for their sites by the year 2020 that are protective of human health and the environment while encouraging revitalization.

  6. Strategy switches and co-action equilibria in a minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasidevan, V.; Dhar, Deepak

    2014-05-01

    We propose an analytically tractable variation of the minority game in which rational agents use probabilistic strategies. In our model, N agents choose between two alternatives repeatedly, and those who are in the minority get a pay-off 1, others zero. The agents optimize the expectation value of their discounted future pay-off, the discount parameter being λ. We propose an alternative to the standard Nash equilibrium, called co-action equilibrium, which gives higher expected pay-off for all agents. The optimal choice of probabilities of different actions are determined exactly in terms of simple self-consistent equations. The optimal strategy is characterized by N real parameters, which are non-analytic functions of λ, even for a finite number of agents. The solution for N≤7 is worked out explicitly indicating the structure of the solution for larger N. For large enough future time horizon, the optimal strategy switches from random choice to a win-stay lose-shift strategy, with the shift probability depending on the current state and λ.

  7. Cognitive development: gaming your way out of dyslexia?

    PubMed

    Bavelier, D; Green, C S; Seidenberg, M S

    2013-04-08

    A recent study found that dyslexic children trained on action video games show significant improvements on basic measures of both attention and reading ability, suggesting future directions for the study of dyslexia intervention paradigms.

  8. Mission-Based Serious Games for Cross-Cultural Communication Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrider, Peter J.; Friedland, LeeEllen; Valente, Andre; Camacho, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate cross-cultural communication requires a critical skill set that is increasingly being integrated into regular military training regimens. By enabling a higher order of communication skills, military personnel are able to interact more effectively in situations that involve local populations, host nation forces, and multinational partners. The Virtual Cultural Awareness Trainer (VCAT) is specifically designed to help address these needs. VCAT is deployed by Joint Forces Command (JFCOM) on Joint Knowledge Online (JKO) as a means to provide online, mission-based culture and language training to deploying and deployed troops. VCAT uses a mix of game-based learning, storytelling, tutoring, and remediation to assist in developing the component skills required for successful intercultural communication in mission-based settings.

  9. Mobile Game for Learning Bacteriology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugimura, Ryo; Kawazu, Sotaro; Tamari, Hiroki; Watanabe, Kodai; Nishimura, Yohei; Oguma, Toshiki; Watanabe, Katsushiro; Kaneko, Kosuke; Okada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Motofumi; Takano, Shigeru; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This paper treats serious games. Recently, one of the game genres called serious game has become popular, which has other purposes besides enjoyments like education, training and so on. Especially, learning games of the serious games seem very attractive for the age of video games so that the authors developed a mobile game for learning…

  10. A Virtual Emergency Telemedicine Serious Game in Medical Training: A Quantitative, Professional Feedback-Informed Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Constantinou, Riana; Marangos, Charis; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Dafli, Eleni; Pattichis, Constantinos S

    2015-01-01

    Background Serious games involving virtual patients in medical education can provide a controlled setting within which players can learn in an engaging way, while avoiding the risks associated with real patients. Moreover, serious games align with medical students’ preferred learning styles. The Virtual Emergency TeleMedicine (VETM) game is a simulation-based game that was developed in collaboration with the mEducator Best Practice network in response to calls to integrate serious games in medical education and training. The VETM game makes use of data from an electrocardiogram to train practicing doctors, nurses, or medical students for problem-solving in real-life clinical scenarios through a telemedicine system and virtual patients. The study responds to two gaps: the limited number of games in emergency cardiology and the lack of evaluations by professionals. Objective The objective of this study is a quantitative, professional feedback-informed evaluation of one scenario of VETM, involving cardiovascular complications. The study has the following research question: “What are professionals’ perceptions of the potential of the Virtual Emergency Telemedicine game for training people involved in the assessment and management of emergency cases?” Methods The evaluation of the VETM game was conducted with 90 professional ambulance crew nursing personnel specializing in the assessment and management of emergency cases. After collaboratively trying out one VETM scenario, participants individually completed an evaluation of the game (36 questions on a 5-point Likert scale) and provided written and verbal comments. The instrument assessed six dimensions of the game: (1) user interface, (2) difficulty level, (3) feedback, (4) educational value, (5) user engagement, and (6) terminology. Data sources of the study were 90 questionnaires, including written comments from 51 participants, 24 interviews with 55 participants, and 379 log files of their interaction with

  11. Action being character: a promising perspective on the solution concept of game theory.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kuiying; Chu, Tianguang

    2011-05-09

    The inconsistency of predictions from solution concepts of conventional game theory with experimental observations is an enduring question. These solution concepts are based on the canonical rationality assumption that people are exclusively self-regarding utility maximizers. In this article, we think this assumption is problematic and, instead, assume that rational economic agents act as if they were maximizing their implicit utilities, which turns out to be a natural extension of the canonical rationality assumption. Implicit utility is defined by a player's character to reflect his personal weighting between cooperative, individualistic, and competitive social value orientations. The player who actually faces an implicit game chooses his strategy based on the common belief about the character distribution for a general player and the self-estimation of his own character, and he is not concerned about which strategies other players will choose and will never feel regret about his decision. It is shown by solving five paradigmatic games, the Dictator game, the Ultimatum game, the Prisoner's Dilemma game, the Public Goods game, and the Battle of the Sexes game, that the framework of implicit game and its corresponding solution concept, implicit equilibrium, based on this alternative assumption have potential for better explaining people's actual behaviors in social decision making situations.

  12. Effects of interactive physical-activity video-game training on physical and cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Maillot, Pauline; Perrot, Alexandra; Hartley, Alan

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential of exergame training based on physically simulated sport play as a mode of physical activity that could have cognitive benefits for older adults. If exergame play has the cognitive benefits of conventional physical activity and also has the intrinsic attractiveness of video games, then it might be a very effective way to induce desirable lifestyle changes in older adults. To examine this issue, the authors developed an active video game training program using a pretest-training-posttest design comparing an experimental group (24 × 1 hr of training) with a control group without treatment. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, assessing executive control, visuospatial functions, and processing speed, to measure the cognitive impact of the program. They were also given a battery of functional fitness tests to measure the physical impact of the program. The trainees improved significantly in measures of game performance. They also improved significantly more than the control participants in measures of physical function and cognitive measures of executive control and processing speed, but not on visuospatial measures. It was encouraging to observe that, engagement in physically simulated sport games yielded benefits to cognitive and physical skills that are directly involved in functional abilities older adults need in everyday living (e.g., Hultsch, Hertzog, Small, & Dixon, 1999).

  13. Improving Preschoolers' Theory of Mind Skills with Digital Games: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolayev, Mariya

    2015-01-01

    This single-subject research study examined functional relation between digital games enriched with voice-overs and theory of mind (ToM) when game play was either followed or not followed by a discussion focused on the game's content. The study employed multiple baseline design across participants to evaluate the effects of games with mental state…

  14. Serious-game for water resources management adaptation training to climatic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Eve; Saulnier, Georges-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Water resources access is a main issue for territorial development to ensure environmental and human well-being. Indeed, sustainable development is vulnerable to water availability and climate change may affect the quantity and temporality of available water resources for anthropogenic water uses. How then to adapt, how to change water management rules and practices and how to involve stakeholders is such process? To prevent water scarcity situations, which may generate conflicts and impacts on ecosystems, it is important to think about a sustainable development where anthropogenic water uses are in good balance with forecasted water resources availability. This implies to raise awareness and involve stakeholders for a sustainable water management. Stakeholders have to think about future territorial development taking into account climate change impacts on water resources. Collaboration between scientists and stakeholders is essential to insure consistent climate change knowledge, well identification of anthropogenic uses, tensions and stakes of the territory. However sharing information on complex questions such as climate change, hydro-meteorological modeling and practical constraints may be a difficult task. Therefore to contribute to an easier debate and to the global training of all the interested actors, a serious game about water management was built. The serious game uses scientist complex models with real data but via a simple and playful web-game interface. The advantage of this interface is that it may help stakeholders, citizen or the target group to raise their understandings of impacts of climate change on water resources and to raise their awareness to the need for a sustainable water management while using state-of-the-art knowledge. The principle of the game is simple. The gamer is a mayor of a city and has to manage the water withdrawals from hydro systems, water distribution and consumption, water retreatment etc. In the same time, a clock is

  15. Casual Video Games as Training Tools for Attentional Processes in Everyday Life.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Michael J; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    2015-11-01

    Three experiments examined the attentional components of the popular match-3 casual video game, Bejeweled Blitz (BJB). Attentionally demanding, BJB is highly popular among adults, particularly those in middle and later adulthood. In experiment 1, 54 older adults (Mage = 70.57) and 33 younger adults (Mage = 19.82) played 20 rounds of BJB, and completed online tasks measuring reaction time, simple visual search, and conjunction visual search. Prior experience significantly predicted BJB scores for younger adults, but for older adults, both prior experience and simple visual search task scores predicted BJB performance. Experiment 2 tested whether BJB practice alone would result in a carryover benefit to a visual search task in a sample of 58 young adults (Mage = 19.57) who completed 0, 10, or 30 rounds of BJB followed by a BJB-like visual search task with targets present or absent. Reaction times were significantly faster for participants who completed 30 but not 10 rounds of BJB compared with the search task only. This benefit was evident when targets were both present and absent, suggesting that playing BJB improves not only target detection, but also the ability to quit search effectively. Experiment 3 tested whether the attentional benefit in experiment 2 would apply to non-BJB stimuli. The results revealed a similar numerical but not significant trend. Taken together, the findings suggest there are benefits of casual video game playing to attention and relevant everyday skills, and that these games may have potential value as training tools.

  16. New Directions for Training: An Agenda for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanawaty, George; de Moura Castro, Claudio

    1990-01-01

    Training policy should try to match changing demand for skills with a labor supply that is changing qualitatively and quantitatively. Infrastructural reform involves establishing closer links between education, training, and the workplace and redirecting funds to new training priorities. (Author/JOW)

  17. Learning Associations between Action and Perception: Effects of Incompatible Training on Body Part and Spatial Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggett, Alison J.; Hudson, Matt; Tipper, Steve P.; Downing, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    Observation of another person executing an action primes the same action in the observer's motor system. Recent evidence has shown that these priming effects are flexible, where training of new associations, such as making a foot response when viewing a moving hand, can reduce standard action priming effects (Gillmeister, Catmur, Liepelt, Brass,…

  18. Business Games Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Robert G.; Gray, Clifford F.

    The aim of this handbook is to provide training directors and all others interested in business games with an organized listing and description of business games and their sources; and to provide a source of sufficient data to help them select games for a particular purpose. The games are categorized as general purpose games, used in management…

  19. Taking Action: Writing, Reading, Speaking, and Listening through Simulation-Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyka, Lynn Quitman; Nudelman, Jerrold

    Six simulation games for English instruction in the classroom are offered in this book, the aim of which is to encourage communication. In simulation games, rules are structured to correspond to those that are an integral part of a real situation, with supporting documentation replicating actual materials pertinent to the situation. The contents…

  20. Identifying Common Mathematical Misconceptions from Actions in Educational Video Games. CRESST Report 838

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    Educational video games provide an opportunity for students to interact with and explore complex representations of academic content and allow for the examination of problem-solving strategies and mistakes that can be difficult to capture in more traditional environments. However, data from such games are notoriously difficult to analyze. This…

  1. The effects of action observation training and mirror therapy on gait and balance in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Jeong; Kim, Young Mi; Lee, Dong Kyu

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of action observation training and mirror therapy to improve on balance and gait function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: The action observation training with activity group practiced additional action observation training with activity for three 30-minute session for six weeks (n=12). The mirror therapy with activity group practiced additional mirror therapy with activity for three 30-minute sessions for six weeks (n=11). The only action observation training group practiced additional action observation training for three 30-minute sessions for weeks (n=12). All groups received conventional therapy for five 60-minute sessions over a six-week period. [Results] There were significant improvements in balance and gait function. The action observation training with activity group significantly improved subjects’ static balance. The action observation training with activity group and the mirror therapy with activity group significantly improved subjects’ gait ability. [Conclusion] The activation of mirror neurons combined with a conventional stroke physiotherapy program enhances lower-extremity motor recovery and motor functioning in stroke patients. PMID:28356646

  2. Using Video Game Telemetry Data to Research Motor Chunking, Action Latencies, and Complex Cognitive-Motor Skill Learning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Joseph J; McColeman, C M; Stepanova, Ekaterina R; Blair, Mark R

    2017-02-07

    Many theories of complex cognitive-motor skill learning are built on the notion that basic cognitive processes group actions into easy-to-perform sequences. The present work examines predictions derived from laboratory-based studies of motor chunking and motor preparation using data collected from the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. We examined 996,163 action sequences in the telemetry data of 3,317 players across seven levels of skill. As predicted, the latency to the first action (thought to be the beginning of a chunked sequence) is delayed relative to the other actions in the group. Other predictions, inspired by the memory drum theory of Henry and Rogers, received only weak support.

  3. Personality Traits and Training Initiation Process: Intention, Planning, and Action Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Laguna, Mariola; Purc, Ewelina

    2016-01-01

    The article aims at investigating the role of personality traits in relation to training initiation. Training initiation is conceptualized as a goal realization process, and explained using goal theories. There are three stages of the process analyzed: intention to undertake training, plan formulation, and actual training undertaking. Two studies tested the relationships between five personality traits, defined according to the five factor model, and the stages of the goal realization process. In Study 1, which explains training intention and training plans’ formulation, 155 employees participated. In Study 2, which was time-lagged with two measurement points, and which explains intention, plans, and training actions undertaken, the data from 176 employees was collected at 3 month intervals. The results of these studies show that personality traits, mainly openness to experience, predict the training initiation process to some degree: intention, plans, and actual action initiation. The findings allow us to provide recommendations for practitioners responsible for human resource development. The assessment of openness to experience in employees helps predict their motivation to participate in training activities. To increase training motivation it is vital to strengthen intentions to undertake training, and to encourage training action planning. PMID:27909414

  4. Personality Traits and Training Initiation Process: Intention, Planning, and Action Initiation.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Mariola; Purc, Ewelina

    2016-01-01

    The article aims at investigating the role of personality traits in relation to training initiation. Training initiation is conceptualized as a goal realization process, and explained using goal theories. There are three stages of the process analyzed: intention to undertake training, plan formulation, and actual training undertaking. Two studies tested the relationships between five personality traits, defined according to the five factor model, and the stages of the goal realization process. In Study 1, which explains training intention and training plans' formulation, 155 employees participated. In Study 2, which was time-lagged with two measurement points, and which explains intention, plans, and training actions undertaken, the data from 176 employees was collected at 3 month intervals. The results of these studies show that personality traits, mainly openness to experience, predict the training initiation process to some degree: intention, plans, and actual action initiation. The findings allow us to provide recommendations for practitioners responsible for human resource development. The assessment of openness to experience in employees helps predict their motivation to participate in training activities. To increase training motivation it is vital to strengthen intentions to undertake training, and to encourage training action planning.

  5. A game-based platform for crowd-sourcing biomedical image diagnosis and standardized remote training and education of diagnosticians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Steve; Woo, Minjae; Chandramouli, Krithika; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, crowd-sourcing complex image analysis tasks to a human crowd has emerged as an alternative to energy-inefficient and difficult-to-implement computational approaches. Following this trend, we have developed a mathematical framework for statistically combining human crowd-sourcing of biomedical image analysis and diagnosis through games. Using a web-based smart game (BioGames), we demonstrated this platform's effectiveness for telediagnosis of malaria from microscopic images of individual red blood cells (RBCs). After public release in early 2012 (http://biogames.ee.ucla.edu), more than 3000 gamers (experts and non-experts) used this BioGames platform to diagnose over 2800 distinct RBC images, marking them as positive (infected) or negative (non-infected). Furthermore, we asked expert diagnosticians to tag the same set of cells with labels of positive, negative, or questionable (insufficient information for a reliable diagnosis) and statistically combined their decisions to generate a gold standard malaria image library. Our framework utilized minimally trained gamers' diagnoses to generate a set of statistical labels with an accuracy that is within 98% of our gold standard image library, demonstrating the "wisdom of the crowd". Using the same image library, we have recently launched a web-based malaria training and educational game allowing diagnosticians to compare their performance with their peers. After diagnosing a set of ~500 cells per game, diagnosticians can compare their quantified scores against a leaderboard and view their misdiagnosed cells. Using this platform, we aim to expand our gold standard library with new RBC images and provide a quantified digital tool for measuring and improving diagnostician training globally.

  6. A computer-based interactive game to train persons with cognitive impairments to perform recycling tasks independently.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Kang, Ya-Shu; Liu, Fang-Lin

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the possibility of training three people with cognitive impairments using a computer-based interactive game. A game was designed to provide task prompts in recycling scenarios, identify incorrect task steps on the fly, and help users learn to make corrections. Based on a multiple baseline design, the data showed that the three participants considerably increased their target response, which improved their vocational job skills during the intervention phases and enabled them to maintain the acquired job skills after intervention. The practical and developmental implications of the results are discussed.

  7. The facial and subjective emotional reaction in response to a video game designed to train emotional regulation (Playmancer).

    PubMed

    Claes, Laurence; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Santamaría, Juan J; Moussa, Maher B; Sánchez, Isabel; Forcano, Laura; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia; Konstantas, Dimitri; Overby, Mikkel L; Nielsen, Jeppe; Bults, Richard G A; Granero, Roser; Lam, Tony; Kalapanidas, Elias; Treasure, Janet; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2012-11-01

    Several aspects of social and emotional functioning are abnormal in people with eating disorders. The aim of the present study was to measure facial emotional expression in patients with eating disorders and healthy controls whilst playing a therapeutic video game (Playmancer) designed to train individuals in emotional regulation. Participants were 23 ED patients (11 AN, 12 BN) and 11 HCs. ED patients self reported more anger at baseline but expressed less facial expression of anger during the Playmancer game. The discrepancy between self-report and non-verbal expression may lead to problems in social communication.

  8. Rational action selection in 1½- to 3-year-olds following an extended training experience.

    PubMed

    Klossek, Ulrike M H; Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies failed to find evidence for rational action selection in children under 2 years of age. The current study investigated whether younger children required more training to encode the relevant causal relationships. Children between 1½ and 3 years of age were trained over two sessions to perform actions on a touch-sensitive screen to obtain video clips as outcomes. Subsequently, a visual habituation procedure was employed to devalue one of the training outcomes. As in previous studies, 2- and 3-year-olds chose actions associated with an expected valued outcome significantly more often during a subsequent choice test. Moreover, analysis of children's first responses in the post-devaluation test revealed evidence of rational action selection even in the youngest age group (18-23 months). Consistent with dual-process accounts of action control, the findings support the view that the ability to make rational action choices develops gradually.

  9. Repeated sprints, high-intensity interval training, small-sided games: theory and application to field sports.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, James J; Reed, Jacob P; Leiting, Keith; Chiang, Chieh-Ying; Stone, Michael H

    2014-03-01

    Due to the broad spectrum of physical characteristics necessary for success in field sports, numerous training modalities have been used develop physical preparedness. Sports like rugby, basketball, lacrosse, and others require athletes to be not only strong and powerful but also aerobically fit and able to recover from high-intensity intermittent exercise. This provides coaches and sport scientists with a complex range of variables to consider when developing training programs. This can often lead to confusion and the misuse of training modalities, particularly in the development of aerobic and anaerobic conditioning. This review outlines the benefits and general adaptations to 3 commonly used and effective conditioning methods: high-intensity interval training, repeated-sprint training, and small-sided games. The goals and outcomes of these training methods are discussed, and practical implementations strategies for coaches and sport scientists are provided.

  10. Wii Fit exer-game training improves sensory weighting and dynamic balance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Cone, Brian L; Levy, Susan S; Goble, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    The Nintendo Wii Fit is a balance training tool that is growing in popularity due to its ease of access and cost-effectiveness. While considerable evidence now exists demonstrating the efficacy of the Wii Fit, no study to date has determined the specific mechanism underlying Wii Fit balance improvement. This paucity of knowledge was addressed in the present study using the NeuroCom Balance Manager's Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and Limits of Stability (LOS) test. These well-recognized posturography assessments, respectively, measure sensory weighting and dynamic stability mechanisms of balance. Forty healthy, young participants were recruited into two groups: Wii Fit Balance Intervention (WFBI) (n=20) and Control (CON) (n=20). Balance training consisted of seven Wii Fit exer-games played over the course of six consecutive weeks (2-4×/week, 30-45min/day). The WFBI group performed Neurocom testing before and after the intervention, while the CON group was tested along a similar timeline with no intervention. Mixed-design ANOVAs found significant interactions for testing time point and condition 5 of the SOT (p<0.02), endpoint excursion (p<0.01), movement velocity (p<0.02), and response time (p<0.01). These effects were such that greater improvements were seen for the WFBI group following Wii Fit training. These findings suggest that individuals with known issues regarding the processing of multiple sources of sensory information and/or who have limited functional bases of support may benefit most from Wii Fit balance training.

  11. Short-Term Training--Where the Action Is!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, George R.

    In order to address major permanent changes in the economic structure and workforce of its community, Chemeketa Community College (CCC) in Oregon has made a commitment to initiate as many short-term training programs as its resources permit. Short-term training, which takes less time than regular one-year certificate or two-year associate degree…

  12. Effects of Video Game Training on Behavioral and Electrophysiological Measures of Attention and Memory: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mayas, Julia; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloisa; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Ponce de Leon, Laura; de Ceballos, Maria L; Reales Avilés, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Background Neuroplasticity-based approaches seem to offer promising ways of maintaining cognitive health in older adults and postponing the onset of cognitive decline symptoms. Although previous research suggests that training can produce transfer effects, this study was designed to overcome some limitations of previous studies by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of training expectations. Objective The main objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate the effects of a randomized computer-based intervention consisting of training older adults with nonaction video games on brain and cognitive functions that decline with age, including attention and spatial working memory, using behavioral measures and electrophysiological recordings (event-related potentials [ERPs]) just after training and after a 6-month no-contact period; (2) to explore whether motivation, engagement, or expectations might account for possible training-related improvements; and (3) to examine whether inflammatory mechanisms assessed with noninvasive measurement of C-reactive protein in saliva impair cognitive training-induced effects. A better understanding of these mechanisms could elucidate pathways that could be targeted in the future by either behavioral or neuropsychological interventions. Methods A single-blinded randomized controlled trial with an experimental group and an active control group, pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up repeated measures design is used in this study. A total of 75 cognitively healthy older adults were randomly distributed into experimental and active control groups. Participants in the experimental group received 16 1-hour training sessions with cognitive nonaction video games selected from Lumosity, a commercial brain training package. The active control group received the same number of training sessions with The Sims and SimCity, a simulation strategy game. Results We have recruited participants, have conducted the training protocol

  13. Learning through Play for School Readiness: A Training Program for Parents and Other Caregivers of Preschool Children. Learning Games To Strengthen Children's School Readiness Skills. [Videotape with Facilitator's Manual].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jerome; Singer, Dorothy

    This video-based program trains parents and other child caregivers to engage 3- to 5-year-olds in simple, motivating learning games to strengthen cognitive, social, and motor school-readiness skills. The training materials consist of a manual for training facilitators and a training video demonstrating how to play each learning game with preschool…

  14. The effects of gender, flow and video game experience on combat identification training.

    PubMed

    Plummer, John Paul; Schuster, David; Keebler, Joseph R

    2017-01-23

    The present study examined the effects of gender, video game experience (VGE), and flow state on multiple indices of combat identification (CID) performance. Individuals were trained on six combat vehicles in a simulation, presented through either a stereoscopic or non-stereoscopic display. Participants then reported flow state, VGE and were tested on their ability to discriminate friend vs. foe and identify both pictures and videos of the trained vehicles. The effect of stereoscopy was not significant. There was an effect of gender across three dependent measures. For the two picture-based measures, the effect of gender was mediated by VGE. Additionally, the effect of gender was moderated by flow state on the identification measures. Overall, the study suggests that gender differences may be overcome by VGE and by achieving flow state. Selection based on these individual differences may be useful for future military simulation. Practitioner Summary: This work investigates the effect of gender, VGE and flow state on CID performance. For three measures of performance, there was a main effect of gender. Gender was mediated by previous VGE on two measures, and gender was moderated by flow state on two measures.

  15. Effectiveness of an Upper Extremity Exercise Device Integrated With Computer Gaming for Aerobic Training in Adolescents With Spinal Cord Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Lana M; McDonald, Craig M; Abresch, R. Ted

    2006-01-01

    Background/Objective: To determine whether a new upper extremity exercise device integrated with a video game (GameCycle) requires sufficient metabolic demand and effort to induce an aerobic training effect and to explore the feasibility of using this system as an exercise modality in an exercise intervention. Design: Pre-post intervention. Setting: University-based research facility. Subject Population: A referred sample of 8 adolescent subjects with spina bifida (4 girls, 15.5 ± 0.6 years; 4 boys, 17.5 ± 0.9 years) was recruited to participate in the project. All subjects had some level of mobility impairment that did not allow them to participate in mainstream sports available to their nondisabled peers. Five subjects used a wheelchair full time, one used a wheelchair occasionally, but walked with forearm crutches, and 2 were fully ambulatory, but had impaired gait. Main Outcome Measures: Peak oxygen uptake, maximum work output, aerobic endurance, peak heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and user satisfaction. Results: Six of the 8 subjects were able to reach a Vo2 of at least 50% of their Vo2 reserve while using the GameCycle. Seven of the 8 subjects reached a heart rate of at least 50% of their heart rate reserve. One subject did not reach either 50% of Vo2 reserve or 50% of heart rate reserve. Seven of the 8 subjects increased their maximum work capability after training with the GameCycle at least 3 times per week for 16 weeks. Conclusions: The data suggest that the GameCycle seems to be adequate as an exercise device to improve oxygen uptake and maximum work capability in adolescents with lower extremity disability caused by spinal cord dysfunction. The subjects in this study reported that the video game component was enjoyable and provided a motivation to exercise. PMID:17044386

  16. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 342, the Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit (FTP), which is located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 88 km (55 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 342 is comprised of CAS 23-56-01. The FTP is an area approximately 100 m by 140 m (350 ft by 450 ft) located west of the town of Mercury, Nevada, which was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to train fire-fighting personnel (REECo, 1991; Jacobson, 1991). The surface and subsurface soils in the FTP have likely been impacted by hydrocarbons and other contaminants of potential concern (COPC) associated with burn activities and training exercises in the area.

  17. Learning to Control Actions: Transfer Effects following a Procedural Cognitive Control Computerized Training

    PubMed Central

    Shahar, Nitzan; Meiran, Nachshon

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have addressed action control training. In the current study, participants were trained over 19 days in an adaptive training task that demanded constant switching, maintenance and updating of novel action rules. Participants completed an executive functions battery before and after training that estimated processing speed, working memory updating, set-shifting, response inhibition and fluid intelligence. Participants in the training group showed greater improvement than a no-contact control group in processing speed, indicated by reduced reaction times in speeded classification tasks. No other systematic group differences were found across the different pre-post measurements. Ex-Gaussian fitting of the reaction-time distribution revealed that the reaction time reduction observed among trained participants was restricted to the right tail of the distribution, previously shown to be related to working memory. Furthermore, training effects were only found in classification tasks that required participants to maintain novel stimulus-response rules in mind, supporting the notion that the training improved working memory abilities. Training benefits were maintained in a 10-month follow-up, indicating relatively long-lasting effects. The authors conclude that training improved action-related working memory abilities. PMID:25799443

  18. Learning to control actions: transfer effects following a procedural cognitive control computerized training.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Nitzan; Meiran, Nachshon

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have addressed action control training. In the current study, participants were trained over 19 days in an adaptive training task that demanded constant switching, maintenance and updating of novel action rules. Participants completed an executive functions battery before and after training that estimated processing speed, working memory updating, set-shifting, response inhibition and fluid intelligence. Participants in the training group showed greater improvement than a no-contact control group in processing speed, indicated by reduced reaction times in speeded classification tasks. No other systematic group differences were found across the different pre-post measurements. Ex-Gaussian fitting of the reaction-time distribution revealed that the reaction time reduction observed among trained participants was restricted to the right tail of the distribution, previously shown to be related to working memory. Furthermore, training effects were only found in classification tasks that required participants to maintain novel stimulus-response rules in mind, supporting the notion that the training improved working memory abilities. Training benefits were maintained in a 10-month follow-up, indicating relatively long-lasting effects. The authors conclude that training improved action-related working memory abilities.

  19. Training and Work Organisation: An Action-Research Study in a Sales and Distribution Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardes, Alda Cristina; Lopes, Albino Pedro

    2005-01-01

    This study seeks to define a method of designing work-linked training, based on day-to-day work practices and the collaboration between all those involved. From diagnosis to evaluation, no training is designed or given without considering the opinions and interests of the parties involved. The method used is based on action research (AR) and on…

  20. 7 CFR 764.454 - Actions that an applicant must take when training is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actions that an applicant must take when training is required. 764.454 Section 764.454 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Borrower Training...

  1. Using virtual reality technology and hand tracking technology to create software for training surgical skills in 3D game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakirova, A. A.; Ganiev, B. A.; Mullin, R. I.

    2015-11-01

    The lack of visible and approachable ways of training surgical skills is one of the main problems in medical education. Existing simulation training devices are not designed to teach students, and are not available due to the high cost of the equipment. Using modern technologies such as virtual reality and hands movements fixation technology we want to create innovative method of learning the technics of conducting operations in 3D game format, which can make education process interesting and effective. Creating of 3D format virtual simulator will allow to solve several conceptual problems at once: opportunity of practical skills improvement unlimited by the time without the risk for patient, high realism of environment in operational and anatomic body structures, using of game mechanics for information perception relief and memorization of methods acceleration, accessibility of this program.

  2. Vocational Training in Juvenile Detention: A Call for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ameen, Edward J.; Lee, Debbiesiu L.

    2012-01-01

    Given high recidivism rates and the vulnerability of detained youth, the authors posit that juvenile detention centers may be most efficacious by serving as both place and process to create career opportunity through vocational training. The authors review the psychosocial factors contributing to delinquency and the primary theories of…

  3. After Action Review Tools For Team Training with Chat Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    Tools For Team Training with Chat Communications Dr. Sowmya Ramachandran, Randy Jensen, Oscar Bascara, Dr. Tamitha Carpenter Stottler Henke...networked digital communications proliferate in military operational command and control, chat messaging is emerging as a preferred communications ...incorporate techniques to associate and analyze chat room content to determine effectiveness of the communications . Chat room logs provide a rich source of

  4. [Models and practical games in training the medical service officers to control the medical care quality].

    PubMed

    Kartashov, V T; Romanovskiĭ, V V

    2006-02-01

    The 3-component structure of the model of medical service quality (MSQ) control is proposed. The model reflects the functional dependence of qualitative parameters of military treatment-and-prophylactic institutions' (TPI) activities: Qn = f(Rn, Mn), where the independent variables are the following: Rn is the provision of n-TPI with resources, Mn is the level of administrative activities and Qn function is MSQ. It allows transferring to information-and-analytical modeling of TPI as the triad of indices that reflect the resource quality (cadre, financial, material and technical), management and medical-and-statistical indices of medical service quality. For each of the model's component the information-and-analytical indices and criteria of their assessment are proposed. The scenario of practical games is based on abovementioned peculiarities of the model and consists of logically interconnected and successively solved situational problems. The methods and problems described can be used during medical service officers' training, for studying TPI physicians, in educational process of some departments of military medical higher schools. The specific feature of proposed models and methods is their applicability both in educational process and in practical work.

  5. Report on game species of concern associated with the Gunnison Remedial Action Project, Gunnison, Colorado. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This report provides background information and data used in the analysis of potential impacts to game species reported in the Environmental Assessment of the Proposed Remedial Action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Gunnison, Colorado. That environmental assessment provides details regarding proposed remedial action at the Gunnison site along with a description of existing conditions and projected environmental impacts. A summary of the proposed action is provided. The uranium mill tailings and other contaminated materials at the Gunnison processing site would be transported to the Landfill disposal site via the Tenderfoot Mountain (TM) haul route. The remedial action would take place over a three-year period with two six-month winter shutdowns. The first year would consist of site preparation and haul road construction. The second year would consist of moving the tailings. Movement of the radon/infiltration barrier cover material and erosion protection material would take place during the third construction year. The material used to cover the pile is fine-grained material for the radon/infiltration barrier (Sixmile Lane borrow site) and rock for erosion protection from the Chance Gulch borrow site. The location of the borrow sites used to obtain these materials and the associated haul roads is shown.

  6. No transfer between conditions in balance training regimes relying on tasks with different postural demands: Specificity effects of two different serious games.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Tim; Kindermann, Stefan; Joch, Michael; Munzert, Jörn; Reiser, Mathias

    2015-03-01

    Despite the increasing use of video games involving whole body movements to enhance postural control in health prevention and rehabilitation, there is no consistent proof that training effects actually transfer to other balance tasks. The present study aimed to determine whether training effects on two different video-game-based training devices were task-specific or could be transferred to either postural control in quiet stance or to performance on the other device. 37 young healthy adults were split into three groups: two intervention groups that trained for 30min on either the Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Balance Board or the MFT Challenge Disc(®) three times per week for 4 weeks and a control group that received no training. All games require participants to control virtual avatars by shifting the center of mass in different directions. Both devices differ in their physical properties. The Balance Board provides a stable surface, whereas the Challenge Disc can be tilted in all directions. Dependent variables were the game scores on both devices and the center of pressure (COP) displacements measured via force plate. At posttest, both intervention groups showed significant increases in performance on the trained games compared to controls. However, there were no relevant transfer effects to performance on the untrained device and no changes in COP path length in quiet stance. These results suggest that training effects on both devices are highly specific and do not transfer to tasks with different postural demands.

  7. Evaluating a Greek National Action on Parents' Training on ICT and Internet Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Riviou, Katerina; Palavitsinis, Nikos; Giannikopoulou, Vasiliki; Tsanakas, Panayotis

    The Greek national action "Goneis.gr" educates and trains the parents of highschool children on the issue of safer internet, as well as on the use of ICT. Having trained more than 28.300 parents, the initiative aims at providing about 45.000 parents with the same training. Examining the Beneficiaries' degree of satisfaction by the initiative, we conducted a survey in a sample of Beneficiaries that completed the training. This paper introduces the initiative and presents the results of the survey in order to conclude to specific decisions about the future implementation of the initiative which is still running.

  8. Class on Fire: Using the Hunger Games Trilogy to Encourage Social Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Amber M.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores ways to utilize students' interest in fantasy literature to support critical literacy. Focusing on Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games series (2008, 2009, 2010), the author addresses how elements of the trilogy relate to violent acts in our world, helping student understand that violence and brutality toward children is not…

  9. Effect of Small-Sided Games and Repeated Shuffle Sprint Training on Physical Performance in Elite Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Ardigò, Luca P; Meckel, Yoav; Padulo, Johnny

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of small-sided games (SSGs) and repeated shuffle sprint (RSS) training on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests performances of elite handball players. Eighteen highly trained players (24.8 ± 4.4 years) were assigned to either SSG or RSS group training protocols twice a week for 8 weeks. The SSG training consisted of 5 small-sided handball games with 3-a-side teams excluding goalkeepers. The RSS consisted of 2 sets of 14-17 of 20-m shuttle sprints and 9-m jump shots interspersed by 20-second recoveries. Before and after training, the following performance variables were assessed: speed on 10-m and 20-m sprint time, agility and RSA time, CMJ height, standing throw, and jump shot speed. Significant pre-to-post treatment improvements were found in all the assessed variables following both training protocols (multivariate analysis of variance, p ≤ 0.05). There was a significantly greater improvement on 10-m sprint, CMJ, and jump shooting, after the RSS in comparison with SSG training (+4.4% vs. +2.4%, +8.6% vs. +5.6%, and +5.5% vs. +2.7%, respectively). Conversely, agility and standing throwing showed lower improvements after RSS in comparison with SSG (+1.0% vs. +7.8% and +1.6% vs. +9.0%, respectively). These results indicate that these training methods are effective for fitness development among elite adult handball players during the last period of the competitive season. Specifically, SSG seems to be more effective in improving agility and standing throw, whereas RSS seems preferable in improving 10-m sprint, CMJ, and jump shot.

  10. A game-based crowdsourcing platform for rapidly training middle and high school students to perform biomedical image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Steve; Woo, Min-jae; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Eunso; Ki, Sojung; Shao, Lei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    We developed an easy-to-use and widely accessible crowd-sourcing tool for rapidly training humans to perform biomedical image diagnostic tasks and demonstrated this platform's ability on middle and high school students in South Korea to diagnose malaria infected red-blood-cells (RBCs) using Giemsa-stained thin blood smears imaged under light microscopes. We previously used the same platform (i.e., BioGames) to crowd-source diagnostics of individual RBC images, marking them as malaria positive (infected), negative (uninfected), or questionable (insufficient information for a reliable diagnosis). Using a custom-developed statistical framework, we combined the diagnoses from both expert diagnosticians and the minimally trained human crowd to generate a gold standard library of malaria-infection labels for RBCs. Using this library of labels, we developed a web-based training and educational toolset that provides a quantified score for diagnosticians/users to compare their performance against their peers and view misdiagnosed cells. We have since demonstrated the ability of this platform to quickly train humans without prior training to reach high diagnostic accuracy as compared to expert diagnosticians. Our initial trial group of 55 middle and high school students has collectively played more than 170 hours, each demonstrating significant improvements after only 3 hours of training games, with diagnostic scores that match expert diagnosticians'. Next, through a national-scale educational outreach program in South Korea we recruited >1660 students who demonstrated a similar performance level after 5 hours of training. We plan to further demonstrate this tool's effectiveness for other diagnostic tasks involving image labeling and aim to provide an easily-accessible and quickly adaptable framework for online training of new diagnosticians.

  11. Effects of a periodized small-sided game training intervention on physical performance in elite professional soccer.

    PubMed

    Owen, Adam L; Wong, Del P; Paul, Darren; Dellal, Alexandre

    2012-10-01

    The present study examined the effects of periodized small-sided game (SSG) training intervention during a 4-week in-season break on the physical performance changes (i.e., speed, aerobic performance, and repeated sprint ability) within elite European soccer players. Fifteen, elite, male, professional players (age: 24.5 ± 3.45 years; height: 181.1 ± 5.78 cm; body mass: 78.7 ± 7.67 kg; VO2max: 54.88 ± 5.25 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) from a Scottish Premier League team participated in 7 separate SSG sessions (3 vs. 3 plus goalkeepers) of which games lasted for a 3-minute duration for the selected number of games (ranged from 5 to 11) increasing over the intervention period. To examine the effects of the SSG intervention on physical performance changes, pre- and posttesting sessions took place over a 2-day period (day 1: anthropometry and repeated sprint ability [RSA] assessments; day 2: running economy [RE] and blood lactate assessments). Results show that the 4-week SSG training intervention induced significant improvement in RSA as indicated by faster 10-m sprint time (p < 0.05, small effect), total sprint time (p < 0.05, medium effect), and smaller percentage decrement score (p < 0.05, medium effect). Furthermore, the SSGs also led to an improvement in RE as indicated through significantly reduced VO2 and heart rate at running speed 9, 11, and 14 km·h(-1) (all p's < 0.05, large effects). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that implementing a periodized SSG training intervention during the 4-week in-season break is capable of improving elite-level soccer players' physical fitness characteristics. Being able to develop physical characteristics in conjunction to technical and tactical elements of the game, within a relatively short period, makes SSGs an appealing proposition for fitness coaches, players, and technical coaches alike.

  12. Technical Actions, Heart Rate, and Locomotor Activity in 7v7 and 8v8 Games for Female Youth Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Ørntoft, Christina; Larsen, Malte N; Andersen, Thomas B; Rasmussen, Lasse S; Póvoas, Susana C A; Randers, Morten B; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Ørntoft, C, Larsen, MN, Andersen, TB, Rasmussen, LS, Póvoas, SCA, Randers, MB, and Krustrup, P. Technical actions, heart rate, and locomotor activity in 7v7 and 8v8 games for female youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3298-3303, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate technical performance, heart rate (HR), and activity profile in 7v7 and 8v8 soccer games for 9- to 10-year-old girls (U11). A total of 24 female youth players participated in the study, all playing 20-minute 7v7 and 8v8 games with 160 and 223 m per player, respectively. Technical actions, HR, and activity profile were measured during the games using video filming, HR monitors, and 5-Hz Global positioning system (GPS) units. The number of technical actions was higher in 7v7 than in 8v8 games (34 ± 19 vs. 28 ± 14; p = 0.03; d = 0.37), as was the number of successful actions (25 ± 16 vs. 20 ± 12; p = 0.01; d = 0.35), with no difference in success rate for technical actions (70 ± 13 vs. 69 ± 14%; p = 0.63; d = 0.07). No differences were found between 7v7 and 8v8 in total distance covered (1,574 ± 251 and 1,622 ± 281 m; p = 0.66; d = 0.18), peak speed (19.5 ± 2.6 and 20.7 ± 1.5 km·h; p = 0.16; d = 0.56), mean HR values (85 ± 5 and 86 ± 6%HRpeak; p = 0.85; d = 0.18), and time of >90% HRpeak (37 ± 16 and 35 ± 14% of playing time; p = 0.70; d = 0.13). Distance covered at the highest running speeds of >16 km·h was lower in 7v7 than in 8v8 games (34 ± 24 vs. 63 ± 34 m; p = 0.018; d = 0.98), as was the number of entries into this speed zone (8 ± 5 vs. 13 ± 7; p = 0.006; d = 0.82). In conclusion, more technical actions and successful actions were observed in 7v7 than in 8v8 games, but players covered more ground with high-speed running in 8v8 games. This study also revealed that HR values were high in both game formats for U11 adolescent female players, with no difference between formats.

  13. Multi-domain training in healthy old age: Hotel Plastisse as an iPad-based serious game to systematically compare multi-domain and single-domain training

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Julia C.; Zöllig, Jacqueline; Eschen, Anne; Mérillat, Susan; Röcke, Christina; Schoch, Sarah F.; Jäncke, Lutz; Martin, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Finding effective training interventions for declining cognitive abilities in healthy aging is of great relevance, especially in view of the demographic development. Since it is assumed that transfer from the trained to untrained domains is more likely to occur when training conditions and transfer measures share a common underlying process, multi-domain training of several cognitive functions should increase the likelihood of such an overlap. In the first part, we give an overview of the literature showing that cognitive training using complex tasks, such as video games, leisure activities, or practicing a series of cognitive tasks, has shown promising results regarding transfer to a number of cognitive functions. These studies, however, do not allow direct inference about the underlying functions targeted by these training regimes. Custom-designed serious games allow to design training regimes according to specific cognitive functions and a target population's need. In the second part, we introduce the serious game Hotel Plastisse as an iPad-based training tool for older adults that allows the comparison of the simultaneous training of spatial navigation, visuomotor function, and inhibition to the training of each of these functions separately. Hotel Plastisse not only defines the cognitive functions of the multi-domain training clearly, but also implements training in an interesting learning environment including adaptive difficulty and feedback. We propose this novel training tool with the goal of furthering our understanding of how training regimes should be designed in order to affect cognitive functioning of older adults most broadly. PMID:26257643

  14. Multi-domain training in healthy old age: Hotel Plastisse as an iPad-based serious game to systematically compare multi-domain and single-domain training.

    PubMed

    Binder, Julia C; Zöllig, Jacqueline; Eschen, Anne; Mérillat, Susan; Röcke, Christina; Schoch, Sarah F; Jäncke, Lutz; Martin, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Finding effective training interventions for declining cognitive abilities in healthy aging is of great relevance, especially in view of the demographic development. Since it is assumed that transfer from the trained to untrained domains is more likely to occur when training conditions and transfer measures share a common underlying process, multi-domain training of several cognitive functions should increase the likelihood of such an overlap. In the first part, we give an overview of the literature showing that cognitive training using complex tasks, such as video games, leisure activities, or practicing a series of cognitive tasks, has shown promising results regarding transfer to a number of cognitive functions. These studies, however, do not allow direct inference about the underlying functions targeted by these training regimes. Custom-designed serious games allow to design training regimes according to specific cognitive functions and a target population's need. In the second part, we introduce the serious game Hotel Plastisse as an iPad-based training tool for older adults that allows the comparison of the simultaneous training of spatial navigation, visuomotor function, and inhibition to the training of each of these functions separately. Hotel Plastisse not only defines the cognitive functions of the multi-domain training clearly, but also implements training in an interesting learning environment including adaptive difficulty and feedback. We propose this novel training tool with the goal of furthering our understanding of how training regimes should be designed in order to affect cognitive functioning of older adults most broadly.

  15. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment. PMID:26331623

  16. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Los Arcos, Asier; Vázquez, Juan Sebastián; Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment.

  17. The efficacy of balance training with video game-based therapy in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Morone, Giovanni; Tramontano, Marco; Iosa, Marco; Shofany, Jacob; Iemma, Antonella; Musicco, Massimo; Paolucci, Stefano; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The video game-based therapy emerged as a potential valid tool in improving balance in several neurological conditions with controversial results, whereas little information is available regarding the use of this therapy in subacute stroke patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of balance training using video game-based intervention on functional balance and disability in individuals with hemiparesis due to stroke in subacute phase. Fifty adult stroke patients participated to the study: 25 subjects were randomly assigned to balance training with Wii Fit, and the other 25 subjects were assigned to usual balance therapy. Both groups were also treated with conventional physical therapy (40 min 2 times/day). The main outcome was functional balance (Berg Balance Scale-BBS), and secondary outcomes were disability (Barthel Index-BI), walking ability (Functional Ambulation Category), and walking speed (10-meters walking test). Wii Fit training was more effective than usual balance therapy in improving balance (BBS: 53 versus 48, P = 0.004) and independency in activity of daily living (BI: 98 versus 93, P = 0.021). A balance training performed with a Wii Fit as an add on to the conventional therapy was found to be more effective than conventional therapy alone in improving balance and reducing disability in patients with subacute stroke.

  18. Swimming performance changes during the final 3 weeks of training leading to the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Mujika, I; Padilla, S; Pyne, D

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of the swimming performance change during the final 3 weeks of training (F3T) leading to the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Olympic swimmers who took part in the same event or events at the Telstra 2000 Grand Prix Series in Melbourne, Australia, (26 - 27 August 2000), and 21 - 28 d later at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games (16 - 23 September 2000) were included in this analysis. A total of 99 performances (50 male, 49 female) were analysed. The overall performance improvement between pre- and post-F3T conditions for all swimmers was 2.18 +/- 1.50 % (p < 0.0001), (range - 1.14 % to 6.02 %). A total of 91 of the 99 analysed performances were faster after the F3T and only 8 were slower. The percentage improvement with F3T was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in males (2.57 +/- 1.45 %) than in females (1.78 +/- 1.45 %). In conclusion, the pre-Olympic F3T elicited a significant performance improvement of 2.57 % for male and 1.78 % for female swimmers at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. The magnitude was similar for all competition events, and was achieved by swimmers from different countries and performance levels. These data provide a quantitative framework for coaches and swimmers to set realistic performance goals based on individual performance levels before the final training phase leading to important competitions.

  19. Violent Video Games and the Military: Recruitment, Training, and Treating Mental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, John

    2014-01-01

    This article adds to the small collection of art education studies on video games (Parks, 2008; Patton, 2013; Sweeny, 2010) by critically examining the association between violent video games, the U.S. military, and mental disability--from a critical disability studies perspective. Derby overviews the controversies surrounding violent video games…

  20. Let's Play: The Use of Improv Games in Change Management Training: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajeev, Priya Nair; Kalpathi, Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the concept of Improv games as a promising mechanism and design principle for enhancing an organization's capacity for learning and adaptability. The study explores how Improv games can be used to create a mindset conducive to change, facilitate ideation and guide discussions on bringing about systemic change. In the case…

  1. Understanding spatial relationships in US: a computer-based training tool that utilizes inexpensive off-the-shelf game controllers.

    PubMed

    Teistler, Michael; Brunberg, James A; Bott, Oliver J; Breiman, Richard S; Ebert, Lars C; Ross, Steffen G; Dresing, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a simulation-based ultrasonographic (US) training tool that can help improve the understanding of spatial relationships in US. Use of a game controller to simulate a US probe allows examination of different virtual three-dimensional (3D) objects. These 3D objects are either completely artificial simple geometric objects (eg, spheres, tubes, and ellipsoids, or more complex combinations thereof) or derived from photographed gross anatomic data (eg, the Visible Human dataset [U.S. National Library of Medicine]) or clinical computed tomographic (CT) data. The virtual US probe allows infinitely variable real-time positioning of a "slice" that is displayed as a two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional image and as part of a 3D view. Combining the 2D and 3D views helps elucidate the spatial relationships between a 3D object and derived 2D images. This training tool provides reliable real-time interactivity and is widely available and easily affordable, since it utilizes standard personal computer technology and off-the-shelf gaming hardware. For instance, it can be used at home by medical students or residents as a complement to conventional US training. In the future, this system could be adapted to support training for US-guided needle biopsy, with use of a second game controller to control the biopsy needle. Furthermore, it could be used as a more general interactive visualization tool for the evaluation of clinical 3D CT and magnetic resonance imaging data, allowing efficient and intuitive real-time creation of oblique multiplanar reformatted images.

  2. Evaluating a Job Aid for Actions on Contact at the Joint Readiness Training Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Actions on Contact at the Joint Readiness Training Center Kenneth L. Evans U.S. Army Research Institute Captain Joshua J. Blizzard First...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 622785 6. AUTHOR(S) Kenneth L. Evans (U.S. Army Research Institute); CPT Joshua J. Blizzard , 1SG James E. Jones, and...Joshua J. Blizzard First Sergeant James E. Jones Sergeant First Class William C. Ryan Joint Readiness Training Center ARI-Fort Benning

  3. Method and Apparatus for Encouraging Physiological Self-Regulation Through Modulation of an Operator's Control Input to a Video Game or Training Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palsson, Olafur S. (Inventor); Harris, Randall L., Sr. (Inventor); Pope, Alan T. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for modulating the control authority (i.e., control function) of a computer simulation or game input device (e.g., joystick, button control) using physiological information so as to affect the user's ability to impact or control the simulation or game with the input device. One aspect is to use the present invention, along with a computer simulation or game, to affect physiological state or physiological self-regulation according to some programmed criterion (e.g., increase, decrease, or maintain) in order to perform better at the game task. When the affected physiological state or physiological self-regulation is the target of self-regulation or biofeedback training, the simulation or game play reinforces therapeutic changes in the physiological signal(s).

  4. Computer game-based upper extremity training in the home environment in stroke persons: a single subject design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to assess whether computer game-based training in the home setting in the late phase after stroke could improve upper extremity motor function. Methods Twelve subjects with prior stroke were recruited; 11 completed the study. Design The study had a single subject design; there was a baseline test (A1), a during intervention test (B) once a week, a post-test (A2) measured directly after the treatment phase, plus a follow-up (C) 16–18 weeks after the treatment phase. Information on motor function (Fugl-Meyer), grip force (GrippitR) and arm function in activity (ARAT, ABILHAND) was gathered at A1, A2 and C. During B, only Fugl-Meyer and ARAT were measured. The intervention comprised five weeks of game-based computer training in the home environment. All games were designed to be controlled by either the affected arm alone or by both arms. Conventional formulae were used to calculate the mean, median and standard deviations. Wilcoxon’s signed rank test was used for tests of dependent samples. Continuous data were analyzed by methods for repeated measures and ordinal data were analyzed by methods for ordered multinomial data using cumulative logistic models. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Six females and five males, participated in the study with an average age of 58 years (range 26–66). FMA-UE A-D (motor function), ARAT, the maximal grip force and the mean grip force on the affected side show significant improvements at post-test and follow-up compared to baseline. No significant correlation was found between the amount of game time and changes in the outcomes investigated in this study. Conclusion The results indicate that computer game-based training could be a promising approach to improve upper extremity function in the late phase after stroke, since in this study, changes were achieved in motor function and activity capacity. PMID:24625289

  5. Can Two Person Zero Sum Game Theory Improve Military Decision-Making Course of Action Selection?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Improve Military Decision Making Course of Action Selection? Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ...AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS , 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER( S ) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT APUBLIC...action. Remembering that the payoff s in the chart reflect losses to Player Two, the payoffs for Russian courses of action one, two and three are

  6. Deceived and Distorted: Game Outcome Retrospectively Determines the Reported Time of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isham, Eve A.; Banks, William P.; Ekstrom, Arne D.; Stern, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous work suggested the association between intentionality and the reported time of action was exclusive, with intentionality as the primary facilitator to the mental time compression between the reported time of action and its effect (Haggard, Clark, & Kalogeras, 2002). In three experiments, we examined whether mental time compression…

  7. A Guide for Training Neighborhood Workers in a Community Action Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee on Employment of Youth, New York, NY.

    One of a pair of publications prepared under contract with the Office of Economic Opportunity, this guide is designed to help trainers, administrators, and other Community Action Agency staff prepare themselves and their agencies for the recruitment, selection, training, and supervision of neighborhood workers. Topics covered include developing an…

  8. Action Research: Effects of Self-Efficacy Training on Low Achieving Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselden, Polly G.; Sanders, Marla; Sturkie, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This action research project investigated the effects of self-efficacy training on low achieving high school freshman who were considered to be at risk for academic failure. Six students participated in psycho-educational group counseling sessions for forty-five minutes weekly over the course of a nine-week reporting period. Findings indicated…

  9. The Curriculum Development for Science Teachers' Training: The Action Lesson Focusing on Science Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khayotha, Jesda; Sitti, Somsong; Sonsupap, Kanyarat

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop innovation curriculum and study the effect of curriculum usage in science teachers' training in establishing the supplementary subject curriculum for action lesson. It focuses on science process skills with 10 teachers for 4 days, and 236 Grade 9 students from 10 schools during the first semester of…

  10. In-Service Teacher Training and Coaching on Marzano's Instructional Strategies: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shenequa C.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this action research study was the implementation of a professional development initiative comprised of two phases: a training program for teachers on Marzano's nine research-based instructional strategies, and the implementation, supported by follow-up coaching, during "Pear Mountain" High School's (a pseudonym) six-week…

  11. The Impact of a Racing Feature on Middle School Science Students' Performance in an Educational Game: The Effect of Content-Free Game-Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Marilyn; Craig-Hare, Jana; Frey, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Reason Racer is an online, rate-based, multiplayer game designed to engage middle school students in the knowledge and skills related to scientific argumentation. Several game features are included as design considerations unrelated to science content or argumentation. One specific feature, a competitive racing component that occurs in between…

  12. The Missouri Deer Game. A Wildlife Conservation Action Game for 15-40 Players, Ages 10-Adult. Instructional Unit. Conservation Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyland, Jim

    This unit consists of a four-part game designed to provide students with a basic understanding of four possible interactions between animal populations. Management of the white-tailed deer, one of the most abundant large wild animals in Missouri, is the central focus of the game. Included with the unit are: (1) unit objectives; (2) pre-game…

  13. Evaluation of team-doctor actions during football games in Japanese professional football.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Shigeo; Nagano, Akira

    2009-11-01

    There have been many studies on football (soccer) match injuries both in national leagues and international tournaments, including the World Cup. However, no previous study on the number and types of actions taken by a team-doctor during a football season has been investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate what actions and how much a team doctor acts during professional football matches in a typical season of the Japanese professional football league (J-League). Injuries were prospectively recorded by team doctors with a Japanese professional league club during the 2004 season. Data recorded by the attending doctor after each match included information relating to the injury, time of occurrence and actions taken by the doctor in response to the injuries. The activity of the doctor was graded into 6 categories (grade A to F). During the 42 official matches held throughout the 2004 season, a total of 67 doctor-actions were taken. The overall doctor-action frequency rate (DAFR) was 1.6 actions per match. This study demonstrated how the team doctor acts during an average football match, and provides some useful information for team-doctors who attend football matches.

  14. Rational Action Selection in 1 1/2- to 3-Year-Olds Following an Extended Training Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klossek, Ulrike M. H.; Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies failed to find evidence for rational action selection in children under 2 years of age. The current study investigated whether younger children required more training to encode the relevant causal relationships. Children between 1 1/2 and 3 years of age were trained over two sessions to perform actions on a touch-sensitive screen…

  15. The Joint Role of Trained, Untrained, and Observed Actions at the Origins of Goal Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings across a variety of domains reveal the benefits of self-produced experience on object exploration, object knowledge, attention, and action perception. The influence of active experience may be particularly important in infancy, when motor development is undergoing great changes. Despite the importance of self-produced experience, we know that infants and young children are eventually able to gain knowledge through purely observational experience. In the current work, three-month-old infants were given experience with object-directed actions in one of three forms and their recognition of the goal of grasping actions was then assessed in a habituation paradigm. All infants were given the chance to manually interact with the toys without assistance (a difficult task for most three-month-olds). Two of the three groups were then given additional experience with object-directed actions, either through active training (in which Velcro mittens helped infants act more efficiently) or observational training. Findings support the conclusion that self-produced experience is uniquely informative for action perception and suggest that individual differences in spontaneous motor activity may interact with observational experience to inform action perception early in life. PMID:24468646

  16. Improved Tactical Engagement Simulation Training Techniques: Two Training Programs for the Conduct of After Action Reviews

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    the skills required for accurate reconstruction of exercise events and the management of the exercise partici- pants to produce the most effective le...Project 2Q763743A773 and the TRADOC System Manager for Tactical Engagement Simulation of the US Army Training Support Center, Fort Eustis, Virginia. ~JO...SAsking open-ended questions. e Maintaining a low profile. * Managing a learning group. * Summarizing. You probably have most of these skills right

  17. The ERP Effects of Combined Cognitive Training on Intention-Based and Stimulus-Based Actions in Older Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Xinyi; Li, Juan; Fu, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decreases in action are caused by neuromuscular weakness and cognitive decline. Although physical interventions have been reported to have beneficial effects on cognitive function in older adults, whether cognitive training improves action-related function remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of combined cognitive training on intention-based and stimulus-based actions in older adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). A total of 26 healthy older adults (16 in the training group and 10 in the control group) participated in the study. The training group received 16 sessions of cognitive training, including eight sessions of executive function training and eight sessions of memory strategy training. Before and after training, both groups of participants underwent cognitive assessments and ERP recordings during both the acquisition and test phases with a motor cognitive paradigm. During the acquisition phase, subjects were asked to press one of two keys, either using a self-selected (intention-based) method or based on the preceding stimulus (stimulus-based). During the test phase, subjects were asked to respond to the pre-cues with either congruent or incongruent tasks. Using ERP indices—including readiness potential, P3 and contingent negative variation to identify motor preparation, stimulus processing and interference effect, respectively—we revealed the effects of training on both intention-based and stimulus-based actions. The correlations were also computed between the improved cognitive performance and the ERP amplitudes. It was shown that the improved executive function might extend substantial benefits to both actions, whereas associative memory may be specifically related to the bidirectional action-effect association of intention-based action, although the training effect of memory was absent during the insufficient training hours. In sum, the present study provided empirical evidence demonstrating that action

  18. The ERP Effects of Combined Cognitive Training on Intention-Based and Stimulus-Based Actions in Older Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Xinyi; Li, Juan; Fu, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decreases in action are caused by neuromuscular weakness and cognitive decline. Although physical interventions have been reported to have beneficial effects on cognitive function in older adults, whether cognitive training improves action-related function remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of combined cognitive training on intention-based and stimulus-based actions in older adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). A total of 26 healthy older adults (16 in the training group and 10 in the control group) participated in the study. The training group received 16 sessions of cognitive training, including eight sessions of executive function training and eight sessions of memory strategy training. Before and after training, both groups of participants underwent cognitive assessments and ERP recordings during both the acquisition and test phases with a motor cognitive paradigm. During the acquisition phase, subjects were asked to press one of two keys, either using a self-selected (intention-based) method or based on the preceding stimulus (stimulus-based). During the test phase, subjects were asked to respond to the pre-cues with either congruent or incongruent tasks. Using ERP indices-including readiness potential, P3 and contingent negative variation to identify motor preparation, stimulus processing and interference effect, respectively-we revealed the effects of training on both intention-based and stimulus-based actions. The correlations were also computed between the improved cognitive performance and the ERP amplitudes. It was shown that the improved executive function might extend substantial benefits to both actions, whereas associative memory may be specifically related to the bidirectional action-effect association of intention-based action, although the training effect of memory was absent during the insufficient training hours. In sum, the present study provided empirical evidence demonstrating that action could

  19. Cultural competence in action for CAMHS: development of a cultural competence assessment tool and training programme.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Irena; Tilki, Mary; Ayling, Savita

    2008-04-01

    This article details the development of a tool to measure the cultural competence of individuals working within the Children and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). The CAMHS Cultural Competence in Action Tool - known as the CAMHS 'CCATool' - was one of the components of a national project which aimed at promoting cultural competence within CAMHS. The other component was a two day training programme. Both components were based on the Papadopoulos, Tilki and Taylor model of cultural competence development. The article also outlines the educational principles and learning strategies used in the training.

  20. Negotiation for Action: English Language Learning in Game-Based Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Dongping; Young, Michael F.; Wagner, Manuela Maria; Brewer, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the user chat logs and other artifacts of a virtual world, "Quest Atlantis" (QA), and proposes the concept of Negotiation for Action (NfA) to explain how interaction, specifically, avatar-embodied collaboration between native English speakers and nonnative English speakers, provided resources for English language acquisition.…

  1. The effects of action video game experience on the time course of inhibition of return and the efficiency of visual search.

    PubMed

    Castel, Alan D; Pratt, Jay; Drummond, Emily

    2005-06-01

    The ability to efficiently search the visual environment is a critical function of the visual system, and recent research has shown that experience playing action video games can influence visual selective attention. The present research examined the similarities and differences between video game players (VGPs) and non-video game players (NVGPs) in terms of the ability to inhibit attention from returning to previously attended locations, and the efficiency of visual search in easy and more demanding search environments. Both groups were equally good at inhibiting the return of attention to previously cued locations, although VGPs displayed overall faster reaction times to detect targets. VGPs also showed overall faster response time for easy and difficult visual search tasks compared to NVGPs, largely attributed to faster stimulus-response mapping. The findings suggest that relative to NVGPs, VGPs rely on similar types of visual processing strategies but possess faster stimulus-response mappings in visual attention tasks.

  2. ALFIL: A Crowd Simulation Serious Game for Massive Evacuation Training and Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-García, César; Fernández-Robles, José Luis; Larios-Rosillo, Victor; Luga, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the current development of a serious game for the simulation of massive evacuations. The purpose of this project is to promote self-protection through awareness of the procedures and different possible scenarios during the evacuation of a massive event. Sophisticated behaviors require massive computational power and it has…

  3. Building a Construction Procurement Negotiation Training Game Model: Learning Experiences and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzeng, Ren-Jye; Lin, Ken-Yu; Wang, Pei-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Game-based education is a promising method for encouraging student learning. Although learning construction procurement and negotiation require hands-on practice, in most construction management courses at the college level, this subject is taught by using lectures and case studies. In this study, a construction procurement and negotiation game…

  4. Pre-Service Teacher Training on Game-Enhanced Mathematics Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meletiou-Mavrotheris, Maria; Prodromou, Theodosia

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the main insights from a study aimed at equipping a group of pre-service teachers with the knowledge, skills, and practical experience required to effectively integrate educational games within the mathematics curriculum. An instructional intervention based on the Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge framework was…

  5. Perceptual training yields rapid improvements in visually impaired youth

    PubMed Central

    Nyquist, Jeffrey B.; Lappin, Joseph S.; Zhang, Ruyuan; Tadin, Duje

    2016-01-01

    Visual function demands coordinated responses to information over a wide field of view, involving both central and peripheral vision. Visually impaired individuals often seem to underutilize peripheral vision, even in absence of obvious peripheral deficits. Motivated by perceptual training studies with typically sighted adults, we examined the effectiveness of perceptual training in improving peripheral perception of visually impaired youth. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of three training regimens: (1) an action video game, (2) a psychophysical task that combined attentional tracking with a spatially and temporally unpredictable motion discrimination task, and (3) a control video game. Training with both the action video game and modified attentional tracking yielded improvements in visual performance. Training effects were generally larger in the far periphery and appear to be stable 12 months after training. These results indicate that peripheral perception might be under-utilized by visually impaired youth and that this underutilization can be improved with only ~8 hours of perceptual training. Moreover, the similarity of improvements following attentional tracking and action video-game training suggest that well-documented effects of action video-game training might be due to the sustained deployment of attention to multiple dynamic targets while concurrently requiring rapid attending and perception of unpredictable events. PMID:27901026

  6. Learning to associate novel words with motor actions: language-induced motor activity following short training.

    PubMed

    Fargier, Raphaël; Paulignan, Yves; Boulenger, Véronique; Monaghan, Padraic; Reboul, Anne; Nazir, Tatjana A

    2012-07-01

    Action words referring to face, arm or leg actions activate areas along the motor strip that also control the planning and execution of the actions specified by the words. This electroencephalogram (EEG) study aimed to test the learning profile of this language-induced motor activity. Participants were trained to associate novel verbal stimuli to videos of object-oriented hand and arm movements or animated visual images on two consecutive days. Each training session was preceded and followed by a test-session with isolated videos and verbal stimuli. We measured motor-related brain activity (reflected by a desynchronization in the μ frequency bands; 8-12 Hz range) localized at centro-parietal and fronto-central electrodes. We compared activity from viewing the videos to activity resulting from processing the language stimuli only. At centro-parietal electrodes, stable action-related μ suppression was observed during viewing of videos in each test-session of the two days. For processing of verbal stimuli associated with motor actions, a similar pattern of activity was evident only in the second test-session of Day 1. Over the fronto-central regions, μ suppression was observed in the second test-session of Day 2 for the videos and in the second test-session of Day 1 for the verbal stimuli. Whereas the centro-parietal μ suppression can be attributed to motor events actually experienced during training, the fronto-central μ suppression seems to serve as a convergence zone that mediates underspecified motor information. Consequently, sensory-motor reactivations through which concepts are comprehended seem to differ in neural dynamics from those implicated in their acquisition.

  7. Guided by Theory, Informed by Practice: Training and Support for the Good Behavior Game, a Classroom-Based Behavior Management Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poduska, Jeanne M.; Kurki, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Moving evidence-based practices for classroom behavior management into real-world settings is a high priority for education and public health. This article describes the development and use of a model of training and support for the Good Behavior Game (GBG), one of the few preventive interventions shown to have positive outcomes for elementary…

  8. Canoe game-based virtual reality training to improve trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung-Mo; Shin, Doo-Chul; Song, Chang-Ho

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at investigating the preliminary therapeutic efficacy and usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training for stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Ten stroke patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n=5) or a control group (CG; n=5). Patients in both groups participated in a conventional rehabilitation program, but those in the EG additionally participated in a 30-min canoe game-based virtual reality training program 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed based on trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function. In addition, the usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training was assessed in the EG and therapist group (TG; n=20), which consisted of physical and occupational therapists, by using the System Usability Scale (SUS). [Results] Improvements in trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function were observed in the EG and CG, but were greater in the EG. The mean SUS scores in the EG and TG were 71 ± 5.2 and 74.2 ± 4.8, respectively. [Conclusion] Canoe game-based virtual reality training is an acceptable and effective intervention for improving trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in stroke patients.

  9. Effects of training using video games on the muscle strength, muscle tone, and activities of daily living of chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyuchang

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect on the muscle strength, muscle tone, and activities of daily living of post-stroke patients. [Subjects] Fourteen stroke patients were recruited. They were randomly allocated into two groups; the experimental group (n=7) and the control group (n=7). [Methods] The experimental group performed training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect together with conventional occupational therapy for 6 weeks (1 hour/day, 3 days/week), and the control group received conventional occupational therapy only for 6 weeks (30 min/day, 3 days/week). Before and after the intervention, the participants were measured for muscle strength, muscle tone, and performance of activities of daily living. [Results] There were significant differences pre- and post-test in muscle strength of the upper extremities, except the wrist, and performance of activities of daily living in the experimental group. There were no significant differences between the two groups at post-test. [Conclusion] The training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect had a positive effect on the motor function and performance of activities of daily living. This study showed that training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect may be an effective intervention for the rehabilitation of stroke patients.

  10. Canoe game-based virtual reality training to improve trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung-Mo; Shin, Doo-Chul; Song, Chang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at investigating the preliminary therapeutic efficacy and usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training for stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Ten stroke patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n=5) or a control group (CG; n=5). Patients in both groups participated in a conventional rehabilitation program, but those in the EG additionally participated in a 30-min canoe game-based virtual reality training program 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed based on trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function. In addition, the usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training was assessed in the EG and therapist group (TG; n=20), which consisted of physical and occupational therapists, by using the System Usability Scale (SUS). [Results] Improvements in trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function were observed in the EG and CG, but were greater in the EG. The mean SUS scores in the EG and TG were 71 ± 5.2 and 74.2 ± 4.8, respectively. [Conclusion] Canoe game-based virtual reality training is an acceptable and effective intervention for improving trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in stroke patients. PMID:27512255

  11. Biomechanical Analysis of Defensive Cutting Actions During Game Situations: Six Cases in Collegiate Soccer Competitions

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Shogo; Koga, Hideyuki; Krosshaug, Tron; Kaneko, Satoshi; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The strengths of interpersonal dyads formed by the attacker and defender in one-on-one situations are crucial for performance in team ball sports such as soccer. The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinematics of one-on-one defensive movements in soccer competitions, and determine the relationships between lower limb kinematics and the center of mass translation during cutting actions. Six defensive scenes in which a player was responding to an offender’s dribble attack were selected for analysis. To reconstruct the three-dimensional kinematics of the players, we used a photogrammetric model-based image-matching technique. The hip and knee kinematics were calculated from the matched skeleton model. In addition, the center of mass height was expressed as a ratio of each participant’s body height. The relationships between the center of mass height and the kinematics were determined by the Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient. The normalized center of mass height at initial contact was correlated with the vertical center of mass displacement (r = 0.832, p = 0.040) and hip flexion angle at initial contact (r = −0.823, p = 0.044). This suggests that the lower center of mass at initial contact is an important factor to reduce the downwards vertical center of mass translation during defensive cutting actions, and that this is executed primarily through hip flexion. It is therefore recommended that players land with an adequately flexed hip at initial contact during one-on-one cutting actions to minimize the vertical center of mass excursion. PMID:26240644

  12. Automatic Content Creation for Games to Train Students Distinguishing Similar Chinese Characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kwong-Hung; Leung, Howard; Tang, Jeff K. T.

    In learning Chinese, many students often have the problem of mixing up similar characters. This can cause misunderstanding and miscommunication in daily life. It is thus important for students learning the Chinese language to be able to distinguish similar characters and understand their proper usage. In this paper, we propose a game style framework in which the game content in identifying similar Chinese characters in idioms and words is created automatically. Our prior work on analyzing students’ Chinese handwriting can be applied in the similarity measure of Chinese characters. We extend this work by adding the component of radical extraction to speed up the search process. Experimental results show that the proposed method is more accurate and faster in finding more similar Chinese characters compared with the baseline method without considering the radical information.

  13. Language Learners & Computer Games: From "Space Invaders" to "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Graham; Mawer, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    The term serious game is often used to refer to "games used for training, advertising, simulation, or education." In this article, the authors use the term computer game in its broadest sense, believing it to encompass the broad spectrum of what is usually referred to now as all digital gaming (video games, console games, online games, etc.). They…

  14. Cardiovascular and affective outcomes of active gaming: using the nintendo wii as a cardiovascular training tool.

    PubMed

    Naugle, Keith E; Naugle, Kelly M; Wikstrom, Erik A

    2014-02-01

    Active-video gaming is purported to produce similar cardiovascular responses as aerobic fitness activities. This study compared the emotional and cardiovascular effects of Wii games with those of traditional exercise in college-aged adults with different exercise backgrounds. Specifically, the percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), level of enjoyment, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scores were compared between subjects who reported exercising frequently at high intensities (high-intensity exerciser group: age = 20.18 years [0.87]; Height = 165.23 cm [9.97]; Mass = 62.37 kg [11.61]), N = 11 and those who exercise more often at lower intensities (low-intensity exercisers group: age = 20.72 years [1.19]; Height = 164.39 cm [8.05]; Mass = 68.04 kg [10.71]), N = 11. The subjects completed six 20-minute exercises sessions: treadmill walking, stationary cycling, and Wii's Tennis, Boxing, Cycling, and Step. The low-intensity exerciser group achieved a greater percentage of heart rate reserve (a) during traditional exercise compared with that during Wii boxing, (b) playing Wii boxing compared with that for Wii tennis, and (c) playing Wii boxing compared with that when the high-intensity exercisers group played any Wii games (p < 0.05). The RPE was greater for boxing and cycling compared with that for tennis and step (p < 0.05). Ratings of enjoyment and the increase in positive emotion were greater for boxing and for tennis compared with those for traditional exercises (p < 0.05). Results suggest that Wii boxing shows the greatest potential as a cardiovascular fitness tool among the Wii games, particularly for individuals who typically exercise at lower intensities.

  15. Adaptive Personalized Training Games for Individual and Collaborative Rehabilitation of People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Any rehabilitation involves people who are unique individuals with their own characteristics and rehabilitation needs, including patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The prominent variation of MS symptoms and the disease severity elevate a need to accommodate the patient diversity and support adaptive personalized training to meet every patient's rehabilitation needs. In this paper, we focus on integrating adaptivity and personalization in rehabilitation training for MS patients. We introduced the automatic adjustment of difficulty levels as an adaptation that can be provided in individual and collaborative rehabilitation training exercises for MS patients. Two user studies have been carried out with nine MS patients to investigate the outcome of this adaptation. The findings showed that adaptive personalized training trajectories have been successfully provided to MS patients according to their individual training progress, which was appreciated by the patients and the therapist. They considered the automatic adjustment of difficulty levels to provide more variety in the training and to minimize the therapists involvement in setting up the training. With regard to social interaction in the collaborative training exercise, we have observed some social behaviors between the patients and their training partner which indicated the development of social interaction during the training. PMID:24982862

  16. Adaptive personalized training games for individual and collaborative rehabilitation of people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Octavia, Johanna Renny; Coninx, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Any rehabilitation involves people who are unique individuals with their own characteristics and rehabilitation needs, including patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The prominent variation of MS symptoms and the disease severity elevate a need to accommodate the patient diversity and support adaptive personalized training to meet every patient's rehabilitation needs. In this paper, we focus on integrating adaptivity and personalization in rehabilitation training for MS patients. We introduced the automatic adjustment of difficulty levels as an adaptation that can be provided in individual and collaborative rehabilitation training exercises for MS patients. Two user studies have been carried out with nine MS patients to investigate the outcome of this adaptation. The findings showed that adaptive personalized training trajectories have been successfully provided to MS patients according to their individual training progress, which was appreciated by the patients and the therapist. They considered the automatic adjustment of difficulty levels to provide more variety in the training and to minimize the therapists involvement in setting up the training. With regard to social interaction in the collaborative training exercise, we have observed some social behaviors between the patients and their training partner which indicated the development of social interaction during the training.

  17. Periodization Training Focused on Technical-Tactical Ability in Young Soccer Players Positively Affects Biochemical Markers and Game Performance.

    PubMed

    L Q T Aquino, Rodrigo; Cruz Gonçalves, Luiz G; Palucci Vieira, Luiz H; Oliveira, Lucas P; Alves, Guilherme F; Pereira Santiago, Paulo R; Puggina, Enrico F

    2016-10-01

    Aquino, RLQT, Cruz Gonçalves, LG, Palucci Vieira, LH, Oliveira, LP, Alves, GF, Pereira Santiago, PR, and Puggina, EF. Periodization training focused on technical-tactical ability in young soccer players positively affects biochemical markers and game performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2723-2732, 2016-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 22 weeks of periodized training, with an emphasis on technical-tactical ability, on indirect markers of muscle damage, and the on-field performance of young soccer players. Fifteen players (age 15.4 ± 0.2 years, height 172.8 ± 3.6 cm; body mass 61.9 ± 2.9 kg; % fat 11.7 ± 1.6; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 48.67 ± 3.24 ml·kg·min) underwent 4 stages of evaluation: prepreparatory stage-T0; postpreparatory stage-T1; postcompetitive stage I-T2 and; postcompetitive stage II-T3. The plasmatic activity of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated, as well as the on-field performance (movement patterns, tactical variables). Regarding the plasmatic activity of CK and LDH, there was a significant reduction (p ≤ 0.05) throughout the periodization training (T0: 350 U·L; T3: 150 U·L). Significant increases were observed (p ≤ 0.05) in the intensity of the game, high-intensity activities (HIA) (T0: 22%; T3: 27%), maximum speed (T0: 30 km·h; T3: 34 km·h) and tactical performance, team surface area (T0: 515 m; T3: 683 m), and spread (T0: 130 m; T3: 148 m). In addition, we found significant inverse correlations between the percentage variation of T0 to T3 in CK and LDH activities with percentage variation in high-intensity running (r = -0.85; p ≤ 0.05 and r = -0.84; p < 0.01, respectively) and HIA (r = -0.71 and r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05, respectively) during the matches. We concluded that there was reduced activity in biochemical markers related to muscle damage, as well as increases in-game high-intensity performance and the tactical performance of the study participants. Furthermore

  18. Resistance Training Priming Activity Improves Upper-Body Power Output in Rugby Players: Implications for Game Day Performance.

    PubMed

    Mason, Billy R J; Argus, Christos K; Norcott, Ben; Ball, Nick B

    2017-04-01

    Mason, BRJ, Argus, CK, Norcott, B, and Ball, NB. Resistance training priming activity improves upper-body power output in rugby players: implications for game day performance. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 913-920, 2017-"Priming" or preactivation strategies performed in the hours leading into competition have been suggested to improve game day performance. Therefore, this study assessed the effectiveness of a resistance training priming activity on eliciting changes in lower- and upper-body power output, along with perceptual measures. To assess these changes, 13 state-level rugby players (aged 18.5 ± 0.5 years) completed a test-retest protocol using a counterbalanced crossover design. Perceptual (readiness to perform questionnaire) and performance measures (20-kg countermovement jump [CMJ], 20-kg bench throw) were completed before either a control (rest) or priming activity (4 sets of 3 banded back squats and banded bench press). After a 1-hour and 45-minute recovery period, perceptual and performance measures were repeated. Readiness to perform showed no meaningful differences pre- and postintervention. Bench throw peak power (8.5 ± 5.8%, 90% confidence limit; p ≤ 0.05) improved after the priming activity when compared with the control trial. Countermovement jump peak power (3.4 ± 4.9%; p > 0.05) had a small decrease after the priming activity when compared with the control trial. Therefore, completing a priming activity 1 hour and 45 minutes before competition is recommended to improve upper-body power output. However, further research into lower-body priming protocols should be conducted before implementing a lower-body priming activity before competition.

  19. Easy Games for the German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Linda

    1977-01-01

    The following easy games for the German classroom are described: around Germany, map identifications, fast response, bingo, memory training, geography college bowl, find the object, descriptions, pronunciation perfection, acrostics, simple board games, art lesson, treasure hunt, and miscellaneous games. (SW)

  20. Creating a gold medal Olympic and Paralympics health care team: a satisfaction survey of the mobile medical unit/polyclinic team training for the Vancouver 2010 winter games

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mobile medical unit/polyclinic (MMU/PC) was an essential part of the medical services to support ill or injured Olympic or Paralympics family during the 2010 Olympic and Paralympics winter games. The objective of this study was to survey the satisfaction of the clinical staff that completed the training programs prior to deployment to the MMU. Methods Medical personnel who participated in at least one of the four training programs, including (1) week-end sessions; (2) web-based modules; (3) just-in-time training; and (4) daily simulation exercises were invited to participate in a web-based survey and comment on their level of satisfaction with training program. Results A total of 64 (out of 94 who were invited) physicians, nurses and respiratory therapists completed the survey. All participants reported favorably that the MMU/PC training positively impacted their knowledge, skills and team functions while deployed at the MMU/PC during the 2010 Olympic Games. However, components of the training program were valued differently depending on clinical job title, years of experience, and prior experience in large scale events. Respondents with little or no experience working in large scale events (45%) rated daily simulations as the most valuable component of the training program for strengthening competencies and knowledge in clinical skills for working in large scale events. Conclusion The multi-phase MMU/PC training was found to be beneficial for preparing the medical team for the 2010 Winter Games. In particular this survey demonstrates the effectiveness of simulation training programs on teamwork competencies in ad hoc groups. PMID:24225074

  1. Media Education and Video Games: An Action-Research Project with Adolescents in an Out-of-school Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felini, Damiano

    2008-01-01

    Background: The penetration of video games in media consumption behaviors is statistically very significant all over the world. Education and media education cannot ignore this phenomenon, as it is so relevant for such a considerable part of the population, especially youth. The application of media education principles and goals to video games is…

  2. Process Drama and Digital Games as Text and Action in Virtual Worlds: Developing New Literacies in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the intersections between drama and digital gaming and the educational possibilities for literacy of both. The article draws on a model for the educational uses of digital gaming and three case studies from the Australian Research Council funded three and a half year project, "Literacy in the digital world of the twenty…

  3. Effects of acoustic noise on the auditory nerve compound action potentials evoked by electric pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Nourski, Kirill V; Abbas, Paul J; Miller, Charles A; Robinson, Barbara K; Jeng, Fuh-Cherng

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of acoustic noise on the auditory nerve compound action potentials in response to electric pulse trains. Subjects were adult guinea pigs, implanted with a minimally invasive electrode to preserve acoustic sensitivity. Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) were recorded from the auditory nerve trunk in response to electric pulse trains both during and after the presentation of acoustic white noise. Simultaneously presented acoustic noise produced a decrease in ECAP amplitude. The effect of the acoustic masker on the electric probe was greatest at the onset of the acoustic stimulus and it was followed by a partial recovery of the ECAP amplitude. Following cessation of the acoustic noise, ECAP amplitude recovered over a period of approximately 100-200 ms. The effects of the acoustic noise were more prominent at lower electric pulse rates (interpulse intervals of 3 ms and higher). At higher pulse rates, the ECAP adaptation to the electric pulse train alone was larger and the acoustic noise, when presented, produced little additional effect. The observed effects of noise on ECAP were the greatest at high electric stimulus levels and, for a particular electric stimulus level, at high acoustic noise levels.

  4. Video games as a means to reduce age-related cognitive decline: attitudes, compliance, and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J; Charness, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a "brain fitness" game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants' ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why.

  5. Multidirectional sprints and small-sided games training effect on agility and change of direction abilities in youth soccer.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Anis; Chtara, Moktar; Hammami, Raouf; Chtara, Hichem; Turki, Olfa; Castagna, Carlo

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the training effects of a small-sided game (SSG) and multidirectional sprint intervention on agility and change of direction (COD) ability in young male soccer players. Thirty-six soccer players (age: 14.2 ± 0.9 years; height: 167.2 ± 5.7 cm; body mass: 54.1 ± 6.3 kg, body fat: 12.5 ± 2.2%) participated in a short-term (6 weeks) randomized parallel fully controlled training study, with pre-to-post measurements. Players were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups: training with preplanned COD drills (CODG, n = 12) or using SSGs (SSGG, n = 12) and to a control group (CONG, n = 12). Pre- and post-training players completed a test battery involving linear sprinting (15- and 30-m sprint), COD sprinting (COD: 15 m, ball: 15 m, 10-8-8-10 m, zigzag: 20 m), reactive agility test (RAT, RAT-ball), and vertical and horizontal jumping (countermovement jump and 5-jump, respectively). A significant (p ≤ 0.05) group × time effect was detected for all variables in CODG and SSGG. Improvements in sprint, agility without ball, COD, and jumping performances, were higher in CODG than in the other groups. The SSGG improved significantly more (p ≤ 0.05) than other groups in agility tests with the ball. The CONG showed significant improvements (p ≤ 0.05) on linear sprinting over a distance longer than 10 m and in all the agility and COD tests used in this study. It is concluded that in young male soccer players, agility can be improved either using purpose-built SSG or preplanned COD sprints. However, the use of specifically designed SSG may provide superior results in match-relevant variables.

  6. Effects of small-sided game and change-of-direction training on reactive agility and change-of-direction speed.

    PubMed

    Young, Warren; Rogers, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of training change-of-direction speed and small-sided games on performance in the Planned-AFL agility test and reactive agility. Twenty-five elite-standard U-18 Australian Rules football players were randomly allocated either to a change-of-direction group or a small-sided games group. Players participated in one or two 15-min sessions per week with 11 sessions conducted over a 7-week period during the season. Tests conducted immediately before and after the training period included the Planned-AFL agility test and a video-based reactive agility test specific to Australian Rules football. The reactive agility test variables were total time, decision time and movement response time. The small-sided games group improved total time (P = 0.008, effect size = 0.93), which was entirely attributable to a very large reduction in decision time (P < 0.001, effect size = 2.32). Small-sided games produced a trivial change in movement response time as well as in the Planned-AFL agility test (P > 0.05). The change-of-direction training produced small to trivial changes in all of the test variables (P > 0.05, effect size = 0-0.2). The results suggest that small-sided games improve agility performance by enhancing the speed of decision-making rather than movement speed. The change-of-direction training was not effective for developing either change-of-direction speed as measured by the Planned-AFL test or reactive agility.

  7. Safer@home—Simulation and training: the study protocol of a qualitative action research design

    PubMed Central

    Wiig, Siri; Guise, Veslemøy; Anderson, Janet; Storm, Marianne; Lunde Husebø, Anne Marie; Testad, Ingelin; Søyland, Elsa; Moltu, Kirsti L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While it is predicted that telecare and other information and communication technology (ICT)-assisted services will have an increasingly important role in future healthcare services, their implementation in practice is complex. For implementation of telecare to be successful and ensure quality of care, sufficient training for staff (healthcare professionals) and service users (patients) is fundamental. Telecare training has been found to have positive effects on attitudes to, sustained use of, and outcomes associated with telecare. However, the potential contribution of training in the adoption, quality and safety of telecare services is an under-investigated research field. The overall aim of this study is to develop and evaluate simulation-based telecare training programmes to aid the use of videophone technology in elderly home care. Research-based training programmes will be designed for healthcare professionals, service users and next of kin, and the study will explore the impact of training on adoption, quality and safety of new telecare services. Methods and analysis The study has a qualitative action research design. The research will be undertaken in close collaboration with a multidisciplinary team consisting of researchers and managers and clinical representatives from healthcare services in two Norwegian municipalities, alongside experts in clinical education and simulation, as well as service user (patient) representatives. The qualitative methods used involve focus group interviews, semistructured interviews, observation and document analysis. To ensure trustworthiness in the data analysis, we will apply member checks and analyst triangulation; in addition to providing contextual and sample description to allow for evaluation of transferability of our results to other contexts and groups. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. The study is based on voluntary participation and informed

  8. Modulation of action potential trains in rabbit saphenous nerve unmyelinated fibers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhi-Ru; Liu, Yi-Hui; Ji, Wei-Gang; Duan, Jian-Hong; Hu, San-Jue

    2013-01-01

    Usually, the main axon is assumed to faithfully conduct action potentials (APs). Recent data have indicated that neural processing can occur along the axonal path. However, the patterns and mechanisms of temporal coding are not clear. In the present study, single fiber recording was used to analyze activity-dependent modulation of AP trains in the main axons of C fibers in the rabbit saphenous nerve. Trains of 5 superthreshold electrical pulses at interstimulus intervals of 20 or 50 ms were applied to the nerve trunk for 200 s. The interspike intervals (ISIs) for these trains were compared to the input interstimulus intervals. Three basic types of C fibers were observed in response to repeated stimuli: first, the ISI between the first and second AP (ISI1-2) of type 1 was longer than the interstimulus interval; second, the ISI1-2 of type 2 showed wavelike fluctuations around the interstimulus interval, and third, the ISI1-2 of type 3 exhibited shorter intervals for a long period. Furthermore, both 4-aminopyridine-sensitive potassium and hyperpolarization-activated cation currents were involved in the modulation of ISI1-2 of train pulses. These data provide new evidence that multiple modes of neural conduction can occur along the main axons of C fibers.

  9. 76 FR 10889 - Record of Decision (ROD) for Grow the Army (GTA) Actions at Fort Lewis and the Yakima Training...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Record of Decision (ROD) for Grow the Army (GTA) Actions at Fort Lewis and the Yakima Training Center (YTC), Washington AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Availability...

  10. A Model for Critical Games Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apperley, Tom; Beavis, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a model for teaching both computer games and videogames in the classroom for teachers. The model illustrates the connections between in-game actions and youth gaming culture. The article explains how the out-of-school knowledge building, creation and collaboration that occurs in gaming and gaming culture has an impact on…

  11. Virtual Reality Training with Three-dimensional Video Games Improves Postural Balance and Lower Extremity Strength in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongwoo; Choi, Wonjae; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho; Lee, Seungwon

    2017-03-14

    Avatar-based three-dimensional technology is a new approach to improve physical function in older adults. The aim of this study was to use three-dimensional video gaming technology in virtual reality training to improve postural balance and lower extremity strength in a population of community-dwelling older adults. The experimental group participated in the virtual reality training program for 60 minutes, twice a week, for 6 weeks. Both experimental and control groups were given 3 times for falls prevention education at the first, third, and fifth weeks. The experimental group showed significant improvements not only in static and dynamic postural balance but also lower extremity strength (p < .05). Furthermore, the experimental group was improved to overall parameters compared with control group (p < .05). Therefore, three-dimensional video gaming technology might be beneficial for improving postural balance, and lower extremity strength in community-dwelling older adults.

  12. Brain plasticity in Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait induced by action observation training.

    PubMed

    Agosta, Federica; Gatti, Roberto; Sarasso, Elisabetta; Volonté, Maria Antonietta; Canu, Elisa; Meani, Alessandro; Sarro, Lidia; Copetti, Massimiliano; Cattrysse, Erik; Kerckhofs, Eric; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Filippi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Gait disorders represent a therapeutic challenge in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigated the efficacy of 4-week action observation training (AOT) on disease severity, freezing of gait and motor abilities in PD, and evaluated treatment-related brain functional changes. 25 PD patients with freezing of gait were randomized into two groups: AOT (action observation combined with practicing the observed actions) and "Landscape" (same physical training combined with landscape-videos observation). At baseline and 4-week, patients underwent clinical evaluation and fMRI. Clinical assessment was repeated at 8-week. At 4-week, both groups showed reduced freezing of gait severity, improved walking speed and quality of life. Moreover, AOT was associated with reduced motor disability and improved balance. AOT group showed a sustained positive effect on motor disability, walking speed, balance and quality of life at 8-week, with a trend toward a persisting reduced freezing of gait severity. At 4-week vs. baseline, AOT group showed increased recruitment of fronto-parietal areas during fMRI tasks, while the Landscape group showed a reduced fMRI activity of the left postcentral and inferior parietal gyri and right rolandic operculum and supramarginal gyrus. In AOT group, functional brain changes were associated with clinical improvements at 4-week and predicted clinical evolution at 8-week. AOT has a more lasting effect in improving motor function, gait and quality of life in PD patients relative to physical therapy alone. AOT-related performance gains are associated with an increased recruitment of motor regions and fronto-parietal mirror neuron and attentional control areas.

  13. Athletes in Motion: Training for the Olympic Games with Mind and Body: Two Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven

    Two case studies illustrate the Fine-Tuning Effect and its benefit to participants in athletic competition. The Fine-Tuning Effect is the sharpening of psychological processes that enable physical skills to be expressed in a maximum fashion. Such techniques as muscle relaxation, visual imagery, guided fantasy, autogenic training, and meditation…

  14. Training vegetable parenting practices through a mobile game: Iterative qualitative alpha test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable consumption protects against chronic diseases, but many young children do not eat vegetables. One quest within the mobile application Mommio was developed to train mothers of preschoolers in effective vegetable parenting practices, or ways to approach getting their child to eat and enjoy v...

  15. An Interactive Training Game Using 3D Sound for Visually Impaired People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hsiao Ping; Huang, Yen-Hsuan; Sheu, Tzu-Fang

    2013-01-01

    The number of visually impaired people is increasing year by year. Although attention has been given to the needs of people with disabilities, most of the discussion has focused on social welfare, while talk about assistive technology for people with disabilities is rare. The blind need training courses for reconstruction and rehabilitation.…

  16. Intensive video gaming improves encoding speed to visual short-term memory in young male adults.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (<2h/month, N=12), casual players (4-8h/month, N=10), and experienced players (>15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed.

  17. Averaging methods for extracting representative waveforms from motor unit action potential trains.

    PubMed

    Malanda, Armando; Navallas, Javier; Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Rodriguez-Carreño, Ignacio; Gila, Luis

    2015-08-01

    In the context of quantitative electromyography (EMG), it is of major interest to obtain a waveform that faithfully represents the set of potentials that constitute a motor unit action potential (MUAP) train. From this waveform, various parameters can be determined in order to characterize the MUAP for diagnostic analysis. The aim of this work was to conduct a thorough, in-depth review, evaluation and comparison of state-of-the-art methods for composing waveforms representative of MUAP trains. We evaluated nine averaging methods: Ensemble (EA), Median (MA), Weighted (WA), Five-closest (FCA), MultiMUP (MMA), Split-sweep median (SSMA), Sorted (SA), Trimmed (TA) and Robust (RA) in terms of three general-purpose signal processing figures of merit (SPMF) and seven clinically-used MUAP waveform parameters (MWP). The convergence rate of the methods was assessed as the number of potentials per MUAP train (NPM) required to reach a level of performance that was not significantly improved by increasing this number. Test material comprised 78 MUAP trains obtained from the tibialis anterioris of seven healthy subjects. Error measurements related to all SPMF and MWP parameters except MUAP amplitude descended asymptotically with increasing NPM for all methods. MUAP amplitude showed a consistent bias (around 4% for EA and SA and 1-2% for the rest). MA, TA and SSMA had the lowest SPMF and MWP error figures. Therefore, these methods most accurately preserve and represent MUAP physiological information of utility in clinical medical practice. The other methods, particularly WA, performed noticeably worse. Convergence rate was similar for all methods, with NPM values averaged among the nine methods, which ranged from 10 to 40, depending on the waveform parameter evaluated.

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Game-Based Training: A Controlled Study with Dismounted Infantry Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    environment, their execution uses very different skills than those used in the live environment (e.g., using a keystroke to reload a weapon as...Australia (BIA). VBS2 provides a dynamic virtual environment that allows users to participate in training scenarios (or ‘missions’) from a first...casualties can be achieved with a single keystroke , therefore it is not comparable with the live environment. Movement Aggressive The aggression of

  19. First Responder Weapons of Mass Destruction Training Using Massively Multiplayer On-Line Gaming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Consortium New Mexico Tech Nevada Test Site National Exercise, Test & Training Center Louisiana State Univ. Center for Domestic Preparedness Texas A&M Univ...Sheet. New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center.” Office for State and Local Domestic...www.osha.gov/html/faq- hazwoper.html [Accessed 27 April 2004]. 29 _____, “ODP Fact Sheet. New Mexico .” 30 _____, “ODP Fact Sheet. Texas A&M University

  20. Massive Multiplayer Online Gaming: A Research Framework for Military Training and Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    cultivating communities of practice in the business world (Wenger, McDermott, & Snyder, 2002) as well as learning communities in education, research on the... Learning communities have a number of common principles. Chao (2001) and Bonk et al. (in press) note that online learning communities require...Technology in Training. Hyderabad, India: ICFAI Press. Bonk, C. J., Wisher, R. A., & Nigrelli, M. L. (in press). Learning communities , communities

  1. Falls prevention training for community health workers: strategies and actions for independent living (SAIL).

    PubMed

    Scott, Victoria J; Votova, Kristine; Gallagher, Elaine

    2006-10-01

    This article describes a quasi-experimental study on falls prevention for clients of home support services in British Columbia, Canada. The study tested a nurse-designed multifactorial intervention, delivered by community health workers. The intervention consisted of 1 day of falls surveillance and prevention training for 51 community health workers, followed by 6 months of evidence-based interventions with their clients (n = 70) using a pretested Checklist and Action Plan. Study findings showed a 43% reduction (chi2 = 8.742, p < .01) in falls and a 44% reduction (chi2 = 5.739, p < .05) for fallers (those who fell once or more) from the 6-month preintervention period to postintervention. The proportion of falls resulting in any injury did not decrease; however, fractures were reduced from seven in the 6-month preintervention period to one following the intervention. The results indicate this intervention is an effective and inexpensive falls prevention strategy for frail recipients of home support services.

  2. 77 FR 47517 - Enforcement Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 573 Enforcement Actions AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC or Commission) is... INFORMATION CONTACT: Melissa Schlichting, National Indian Gaming Commission, 1441 L Street NW., Suite...

  3. Are videogame training gains specific or general?

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames (AVGs). Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor) is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the AVGs because the AVGs and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-AVGs to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in AVGs, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking (MOT), rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision). In non-AVGs, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g., Tetris). In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning). Thus, the “common demands” hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in AVGs, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements. PMID:24782722

  4. Are videogame training gains specific or general?

    PubMed

    Oei, Adam C; Patterson, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames (AVGs). Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor) is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the AVGs because the AVGs and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-AVGs to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in AVGs, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking (MOT), rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision). In non-AVGs, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g., Tetris). In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning). Thus, the "common demands" hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in AVGs, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements.

  5. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA, Fort Devens Study Area 28 Waste Explosives Detonation Range (Training Area 14)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Response, Compensation and Lability Act ( CERCLA ) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. An Enhanced Preliminary...til3i NO FURT ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA FORT DEVENS STUDY AREA 28 WASTE EXPLOSIVES DETONATION RANGE (TRAINING AREA 14) DATA ITEM A009...UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 28 WASTE EXPLOSIVES DETONATION RANGE (TRAINING AREA 14) FORT DEVENS, MASSACHUSETTS Prepared for: U.S. Army Environmental

  6. The effect of 16-week plyometric training on explosive actions in early to mid-puberty elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Söhnlein, Quirin; Müller, Erich; Stöggl, Thomas L

    2014-08-01

    Plyometric training (PT) programs are widely used to improve explosive actions in soccer players of various ages, although there is debate about optimal training duration and time course of improvement. Twenty-two early to mid-puberty elite soccer players were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 10, regular soccer training) or a plyometric training group (PTG, n = 12, regular soccer training substituted with 2 PT sessions each week). Both groups trained for 16 weeks during the in-season period. Control group performed only tests at baseline and after intervention, whereas PTG performed additional tests after 4, 8, and 12 weeks. During each test, subjects' performances in speed (10 and 30 m; 5 and 20 m), agility, shuttle run, multiple 5 bounds (MB5), and standing long jump (LJ) were recorded. The PTG showed improved performance in 20-m sprint time (-3.2%), agility time (-6.1%), MB5 distance (+11.8%), and LJ distance (+7.3%) (all, p ≤ 0.05) after 16 weeks. All these improvements were higher compared with CG (all, p ≤ 0.05). The time course of improvement in the PT group showed that 20-m sprint time improved after 16 weeks (p = 0.012); agility after 4 (p = 0.047) and 8 weeks (p = 0.004) but stopped after 12 weeks (p = 0.007); MB5 after 8 (p = 0.039), 12 (p = 0.028), and 16 weeks (p < 0.001); and LJ improved after 4 (p = 0.045), 12 (p = 0.008), and 16 weeks (p < 0.001). Plyometric training seems to be an appropriate training tool to enhance some but not all explosive actions. The results indicate that the duration of a PT program is highly dependent on what type of explosive actions should be improved, or whether several explosive actions should be improved at the same time.

  7. Avatars in Analytical Gaming

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Cowell, Amanda K.

    2009-08-29

    This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC’s) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of planning the supporting cast role. This new ‘science’ of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables game developers to create learning and training opportunities on par with expensive real-world training scenarios. However, there needs to be care and attention placed on how avatars are represented and thus perceived. A taxonomy of non-verbal behavior is presented and its application to analytical gaming discussed.

  8. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA, Study Area 31, Moore Army Airfield Fire Fighting Training Area, Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act ( CERCLA ) as amended by the Superfund ...NLIl U.S. Army Environmental Center NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER I CERCLA STUDY AREA 31 MOORE ARMY AIRFIELD FIRE FIGHTING TRAINING AREA 3 FORT...RECYCLED PAPER AF AEC Form 󈧱,, 1 Feb 93 replaces THAMA Form 45 which is obsolete. I I I, NO FURTHER ACTION DECISIONU UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 313 MOORE

  9. Towards Integrating AI Story Controllers and Game Engines: Reconciling World State Representations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    the user. In this paper, I describe a general technique for translating between an arbi- trary game engine’s proprietary and procedural world state...story arc. That is, computer games use story to motivate action but typically have little or no branching. AI techniques have been applied to the...problem of inter- active storytelling for entertainment and training. A com- mon technique among AI research in interactive storytelling is to

  10. Using a Games Console in the Primary Classroom: Effects of "Brain Training" Programme on Computation and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David J.; Robertson, Derek P.

    2010-01-01

    It is known that computer games are motivating for children, but there is limited direct evidence of their effects on classroom learning. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the effects of a commercial off-the-shelf computer game on children's mental computation skills and on aspects of self-perceptions. A pre-post design was…

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Obi

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this Closure Report (CR) is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The corrective action was performed following the approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 1999b) and consisted of closure-in-place with partial excavation, disposal, backfilling, administrative controls, and post-closure monitoring. Soil with petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations above the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) Action Level of 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996) was removed to a depth of 1.5 meters (m) (5 feet [ft]). The excavations were backfilled with clean fill to restore the site and to prevent contact with deeper, closed-in-place soil that exceeded the NDEP Action Level. According to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (DOE, 1998), the Mercury Fire Training Pit was used from approximately 1965 to the early 1990s to train fire-fighting and emergency response personnel at the NTS and encompasses an area approximately 85 by 115 m (280 by 380 ft). The location of the Mercury Fire Training Pit is shown in Figure 1 and a site plan is shown in Figure 2. The Mercury Fire Training Pit formerly included a bermed bum pit with four small bum tanks; four large above ground storage tanks (ASTS); an overturned bus, a telephone pole storage area; and several areas for burning sheds, pallets, and cables. During the active life of the Mercury Fire Training Pit, training events were conducted at least monthly and sometimes as often as weekly. Fuels burned during these events included off-specification or rust-contaminated gasoline, diesel, and aviation fuel (JP-4). Other items burned during these events included paint, tires, a pond liner, wood, paper, cloth, and copper cable. Approximately 570 liters (L) (150 gallons [gal]) of fuel were used for each training event resulting in an approximate total of 136,000 L (36

  12. Gaming Personality and Game Dynamics in Online Discussion Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Chih-Hsiung; Yen, Cherng-Jyh; Sujo-Montes, Laura; Roberts, Gayle A.

    2015-01-01

    Gamification is the use of game mechanics to drive game-like engagements and actions. It applies game mechanics, dynamics and frameworks to promote desired learning behaviours. Positive and effective gamification could enhance learning and engage learners in more social and context-rich decision-making for problem-solving in learning tasks.…

  13. The complementary role of the Kinect virtual reality game training in a patient with metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Ulaşlı, Alper Murat; Türkmen, Utku; Toktaş, Hasan; Solak, Ozlem

    2014-06-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by demyelination of the peripheral and central nerves. Patients with MLD can present with gait disturbances, progressive spastic quadriparesis, diffuse muscle atrophy, and areflexia attributable to central or peripheral nerve involvements. The rehabilitation of patients with MLD generally focuses on gait disturbances, balance impairments, and muscle weaknesses. Here, we present a case of MLD in which virtual reality (VR) training was used as an adjunctive therapy. We also discuss the complementary role of VR therapy, which was successfully integrated with a conventional rehabilitation program for a young patient with MLD who had impaired balance and gait. After completion of the integrated rehabilitation program, the patient demonstrated improvements in functional independency, mobility, walking speed, and balance. His total Functional Independence Measure score increased from 97 to 109, 6-minute walk test increased from 342 to 396 m, 10-minute walk test decreased from 11 to 7 seconds, and Berg Balance Scale score increased from 38 to 42 points. Moreover, 6 weeks after completion of the therapy, these improvements were sustained for the most part. Adding VR to a conventional rehabilitation program is an emerging trend in neurologic rehabilitation. Our patient with MLD demonstrated considerable improvements with a high level of enjoyment and satisfaction.

  14. WORKING WITH PEOPLE IN COMMUNITY ACTION, AN INTERNATIONAL CASEBOOK FOR TRAINED COMMUNITY WORKERS AND VOLUNTEER COMMUNITY LEADERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KING, CLARENCE

    DRAWING EXAMPLES OF COMMUNITY PROBLEMS AND COMMUNITY ACTION FROM THE UNITED STATES, PUERTO RICO, IRAN, INDIA, KENYA, AND 14 OTHER COUNTRIES (MOSTLY DEVELOPING NATIONS), THIS CASEBOOK STRESSES COOPERATION BY TRAINED COMMUNITY WORKERS AND VOLUNTEER COMMUNITY LEADERS FOR COMMUNITY IMPROVEMENT. SEPARATE SECTIONS DEAL WITH MEANS OF DEVELOPING RAPPORT…

  15. Micronutrient Action Plan Instructional Tool (MAPit): A Training Tool to Support Public Health Professionals' Efforts to Eliminate Micronutrient Malnutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbon, Suzanne; Nsubuga, Peter; Knowles, Jacky; Bobrow, Emily; Parvanta, Ibrahim; Timmer, Arnold; van der Haar, Frits

    2006-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition (MM) is a global health problem that affects the national socioeconomic stability of an affected country. This article describes a multimedia training tool, the Micronutrient Action Plan instructional tool (MAPit), which has been designed to support public health professionals' efforts to eliminate MM. An overview and…

  16. Corrective action plan for corrective action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Nacht, S.

    1999-08-01

    The Mercury Fire Training Pit is a former fire training area located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Mercury Fire Training Pit was used from approximately 1965 to the early 1990s to train fire-fighting personnel at the NTS, and encompasses an area approximately 107 meters (m) (350 feet [ft]) by 137 m (450 ft). The Mercury Fire Training Pit formerly included a bermed burn pit with four small burn tanks, four large above ground storage tanks an overturned bus, a telephone pole storage area, and areas for burning sheds, pallets, and cables. Closure activities will include excavation of the impacted soil in the aboveground storage tank and burn pit areas to a depth of 1.5 m (5 ft), and excavation of the impacted surface soil downgradient of the former ASTs and burnpit areas to a depth of 0.3 m (1 ft). Excavated soil will be disposed in the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill at the NTS.

  17. 76 FR 42722 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Assistant... of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C. 2710, the...

  18. 75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewas (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  19. 76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  20. 75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary... section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C. 2710,...

  1. 77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking...-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde... Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  2. 75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendment. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of the Amendments to the Class III Gaming Compact (Amendment... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  3. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  4. Validation of a Computerized, Game-based Assessment Strategy to Measure Training Effects on Motor-Cognitive Functions in People With Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Nele; Werner, Christian; Hauer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Background Exergames often used for training purpose can also be applied to create assessments based on quantitative data derived from the game. A number of studies relate to these use functionalities developing specific assessment tasks by using the game software and provided good data on psychometric properties. However, (1) assessments often include tasks other than the original game task used for training and therefore relate to similar but not to identical or integrated performances trained, (2) people with diagnosed dementia have insufficiently been addressed in validation studies, and (3) studies did commonly not present validation data such as sensitivity to change, although this is a paramount objective for validation to evaluate responsiveness in intervention studies. Objective Specific assessment parameters have been developed using quantitative data directly derived from the data stream during the game task of a training device (Physiomat). The aim of this study was to present data on construct validity, test–retest reliability, sensitivity to change, and feasibility of this internal assessment approach, which allows the quantification of Physiomat training effects on motor-cognitive functions in 105 multimorbid patients with mild-to-moderate dementia (mean age 82.7±5.9). Methods Physiomat assessment includes various tasks at different complexity levels demanding balance and cognitive abilities. For construct validity, motor-cognitive Physiomat assessment tasks were compared with established motor and cognitive tests using Spearman’s rank correlations (rs). For test–retest reliability, we used intra-class correlations (ICC3,1) and focused on all Physiomat tasks. Sensitivity to change of trained Physiomat tasks was tested using Wilcoxon statistic and standardized response means (SRMs). Completion rate and time were calculated for feasibility. Results Analyses have mostly shown moderate-to-high correlations between established motor as well as

  5. An Unofficial Guide to Web-Based Instructional Gaming and Simulation Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.

    Games and digital-based games and simulations are slowly becoming an accepted learning strategy. Public school teachers, college professors, corporate trainers, and military trainers are embracing games as an effective means of motivating learners and teaching complex concepts. Popular games include action games, adventure games,arcade games,…

  6. Cognitive benefits of computer games for older adults.

    PubMed

    Zelinski, Elizabeth M; Reyes, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a basis for the hypothesis that digital action games may produce cognitive benefits for older adults. First, a discussion of the relationship between cognitive and physical health shows the increasing weight given to the role of declines in cognition in the development of dependency in older adult population studies. Second, evidence that cognitive training produces 'far transfer' in elders is presented. The key issue is that one approach, known as extended practice training, has been successful in producing far transfer to memory and other processes. Its principles, which are consistent with those associated with positive brain plasticity effects, are identified. Those principles are then related to the mechanics of digital action games, which also have the important added feature of producing the experiences of presence, engagement, and flow, the subjective elements of game play that are likely to sustain interest and emotional investment in the skills practiced so that the play produces cognitive benefits. The specific cognitive abilities proposed to be improved by different types of game genres are outlined, and recent developments in game and interface design that may affect the willingness of older adults to play are described.

  7. Cognitive benefits of computer games for older adults

    PubMed Central

    Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Reyes, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a basis for the hypothesis that digital action games may produce cognitive benefits for older adults. First, a discussion of the relationship between cognitive and physical health shows the increasing weight given to the role of declines in cognition in the development of dependency in older adult population studies. Second, evidence that cognitive training produces ‘far transfer’ in elders is presented. The key issue is that one approach, known as extended practice training, has been successful in producing far transfer to memory and other processes. Its principles, which are consistent with those associated with positive brain plasticity effects, are identified. Those principles are then related to the mechanics of digital action games, which also have the important added feature of producing the experiences of presence, engagement, and flow, the subjective elements of game play that are likely to sustain interest and emotional investment in the skills practiced so that the play produces cognitive benefits. The specific cognitive abilities proposed to be improved by different types of game genres are outlined, and recent developments in game and interface design that may affect the willingness of older adults to play are described. PMID:25126043

  8. A prosocial online game for social cognition training in adolescents with high-functioning autism: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Un-Sun; Han, Doug Hyun; Shin, Yee Jin; Renshaw, Perry F

    2016-01-01

    To help patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) improve their social skills, effective interventions and new treatment modalities are necessary. We hypothesized that a prosocial online game would improve social cognition in ASD adolescents, as assessed using metrics of social communication, facial recognition, and emotional words. Ten ASD adolescents underwent cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) using a prosocial online game (game-CBT), and ten ASD adolescents participated in an offline-CBT. At baseline and 6 weeks later, social communication quality, correct identification of emotional words and facial emoticons, and brain activity were assessed in both groups. Social communication quality and correct response rate of emotional words and facial emoticons improved in both groups over the course of the intervention, and there were no significant differences between groups. In response to the emotional words, the brain activity within the temporal and parietal cortices increased in the game-CBT group, while the brain activity within cingulate and parietal cortices increased in the offline-CBT group. In addition, ASD adolescents in the game-CBT group showed increased brain activity within the right cingulate gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, left cerebellum, left fusiform gyrus, left insular cortex, and sublobar area in response to facial emoticons. A prosocial online game designed for CBT was as effective as offline-CBT in ASD adolescents. Participation in the game especially increased social arousal and aided ASD adolescents in recognizing emotion. The therapy also helped participants more accurately consider associated environments in response to facial emotional stimulation. However, the online CBT was less effective than the offline-CBT at evoking emotions in response to emotional words.

  9. A prosocial online game for social cognition training in adolescents with high-functioning autism: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Un-sun; Han, Doug Hyun; Shin, Yee Jin; Renshaw, Perry F

    2016-01-01

    To help patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) improve their social skills, effective interventions and new treatment modalities are necessary. We hypothesized that a prosocial online game would improve social cognition in ASD adolescents, as assessed using metrics of social communication, facial recognition, and emotional words. Ten ASD adolescents underwent cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) using a prosocial online game (game-CBT), and ten ASD adolescents participated in an offline-CBT. At baseline and 6 weeks later, social communication quality, correct identification of emotional words and facial emoticons, and brain activity were assessed in both groups. Social communication quality and correct response rate of emotional words and facial emoticons improved in both groups over the course of the intervention, and there were no significant differences between groups. In response to the emotional words, the brain activity within the temporal and parietal cortices increased in the game-CBT group, while the brain activity within cingulate and parietal cortices increased in the offline-CBT group. In addition, ASD adolescents in the game-CBT group showed increased brain activity within the right cingulate gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, left cerebellum, left fusiform gyrus, left insular cortex, and sublobar area in response to facial emoticons. A prosocial online game designed for CBT was as effective as offline-CBT in ASD adolescents. Participation in the game especially increased social arousal and aided ASD adolescents in recognizing emotion. The therapy also helped participants more accurately consider associated environments in response to facial emotional stimulation. However, the online CBT was less effective than the offline-CBT at evoking emotions in response to emotional words. PMID:27051288

  10. Improving Executive Functioning in Children with ADHD: Training Multiple Executive Functions within the Context of a Computer Game. A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; Van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W.; Prins, Pier J. M.

    2015-01-01

    training conditions). As such, in this multiple EF-training, mainly nonspecific treatment factors – as opposed to the specific effects of training EFs—seem related to far transfer effects found on EF and behavior. Trial Registration trialregister.nl NTR2728. Registry name: improving executive functioning in children with ADHD: training executive functions within the context of a computer game; registry number: NTR2728. PMID:25844638

  11. Impact of a web based interactive simulation game (PULSE) on nursing students' experience and performance in life support training--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cook, Neal F; McAloon, Toni; O'Neill, Philip; Beggs, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The delivery of effective life support measures is highly associated with the quality, design and implementation of the education that underpins it. Effectively responding to a critical event is a requirement for all nurses illustrating the need for effective educational approaches from pre-registration training through to enhancing and maintaining life support skills after qualification. This paper reports the findings of utilising a web-based multimedia simulation game PULSE (Platform for Undergraduate Life Support Education). The platform was developed to enhance the student experience of life support education, to motivate on-going learning and engagement and to improve psychomotor skills associated with the provision of Intermediate Life Support (ILS) training. Pre training participants played PULSE and during life support training data was collected from an intervention and a control group of final year undergraduate nursing students (N=34). Quantitative analysis of performance took place and qualitative data was generated from a questionnaire assessing the learning experience. A statistically significant difference was found between the competence the groups displayed in the three skills sets of checking equipment, airway assessment and the safe/effective use of defibrillator at ILS level, and PULSE was positively evaluated as an educational tool when used alongside traditional life support training.

  12. Guided by Theory, Informed by Practice: Training and Support for the Good Behavior Game, a Classroom-based Behavior Management Strategy.

    PubMed

    Poduska, Jeanne M; Kurki, Anja

    2014-06-01

    Moving evidence-based practices for classroom behavior management into real-world settings is a high priority for education and public health. This paper describes the development and use of a model of training and support for the Good Behavior Game (GBG), one of the few preventive interventions shown to have positive outcomes for elementary school children lasting through to young adulthood, ages 19-21, including reductions in the use of drugs and alcohol, school-based mental health services, and suicide ideation and attempts. We first describe the conceptual framework guiding the development of the model of training and support. Data on implementation of the model, from an ongoing trial of GBG being conducted in partnership with the Houston Independent School District, are then presented. We end with a discussion of the lessons learned and the implications for the next stage of research and practice.

  13. Guided by Theory, Informed by Practice: Training and Support for the Good Behavior Game, a Classroom-based Behavior Management Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Poduska, Jeanne M.; Kurki, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Moving evidence-based practices for classroom behavior management into real-world settings is a high priority for education and public health. This paper describes the development and use of a model of training and support for the Good Behavior Game (GBG), one of the few preventive interventions shown to have positive outcomes for elementary school children lasting through to young adulthood, ages 19–21, including reductions in the use of drugs and alcohol, school-based mental health services, and suicide ideation and attempts. We first describe the conceptual framework guiding the development of the model of training and support. Data on implementation of the model, from an ongoing trial of GBG being conducted in partnership with the Houston Independent School District, are then presented. We end with a discussion of the lessons learned and the implications for the next stage of research and practice. PMID:26236144

  14. Evaluating the Implementation of a Training Program for Improving Quality Service: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierre, Ketly Dieudonne

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to implement a comprehensive training program to build employees' knowledge, skills, and attitudes in order to improve quality service at ABC Restaurant because of a surge in customer complaints. The purpose of this study was to develop a training program that included an employee handbook as a training tool, a handbook designed…

  15. Complexity, Heuristic, and Search Analysis for the Games of Crossings and Epaminondas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    second. 40 Next, leveraging heuristics from Lines of Action and the ancient Egyptian game Seega, the evaluation function was modified to take into account...Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and Training Command in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of...17 2.7.3 History Heuristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.7.4 Transposition Tables

  16. The Effectiveness of Instructional Games: A Literature Review and Discussion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    1989) conducted surveys of training managers, businesses, and business schools on their use of games. Of the 223 training managers who responded, 54.7...games and 1,700 four-year business schools used games in their programs. Wolfe (1997) observed that by 1974 hundreds of articles on business gaming had

  17. The Coaching Cycle: A Coaching-by-Gaming Approach in Serious Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia; Backlund, Per; Niklasson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Military organizations have a long history of using simulations, role-play, and games for training. This also encompasses good practices concerning how instructors utilize games and gaming behavior. Unfortunately, the work of instructors is rarely described explicitly in research relating to serious gaming. Decision makers also tend to have…

  18. Homemade Powerpoint Games: Game Design Pedagogy Aligned to the TPACK Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siko, Jason P.; Barbour, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    While researchers are examining the role of playing games to learn, others are looking at using game design as an instructional tool. However, game-design software may require additional time to train both teachers and students. In this article, the authors discuss the use of Microsoft PowerPoint as a tool for game-design instruction and the…

  19. Effects of Small-Sided Games on Physical Conditioning and Performance in Young Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different small-sided games and, second, their effects on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m) participated in the study. Small-sided games included three-a-side (3 versus 3 players) and six-a-side (6 versus 6 players) games consisting of 10 bouts of 4 min duration with 3 min active recovery between bouts. Soccer player performance was evaluated using five field tests: a) 30m sprint, b) throw-in for distance, c) Illinois Agility Test, d) dribbling the ball and e) horizontal jump before, in the middle and after the implementation of both game situations. Heart rate was monitored during the entire testing session. Each game was also filmed to measure soccer movements within the game. The ANOVA analysis indicated that the three-a- side games displayed significantly higher heart rate values compared with the six-a-side games (p < 0.05). The number of short passes, kicks, tackles, dribbles and scoring goals were significantly higher during the three-a-side compared with the six-a-side game condition (p < 0. 05) while players performed more long passes and headed the ball more often during the six-a-side (p < 0.05). After the three-a-side games, there was a significant decline in sprint and agility performance (p < 0.05), while after both game conditions significant alterations in the throw-in and the horizontal jump performance were observed (p < 0.05). The results of the present study indicated that three-a-side games provide higher stimulus for physical conditioning and technical improvement than six-a-side games and their use for training young soccer players is recommended. Key points Three-a-side games display higher HR compared with six-a-side games. In the three-a-side games players performed more short passes, kicks, dribbles, tackles and scored more goals

  20. Games Managers Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jack

    1985-01-01

    Describes "Looking Glass," the Financial Services Industry, and other simulations for management training seminars. The article examines how the games teach decision making and allow participants to become involved. It also discusses the future of computer-based training and the costs of such programs. (CT)

  1. 77 FR 48167 - Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact; Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact; Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY... the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. The Compact permits the...

  2. Measuring Change during Behavioral Parent Training Using the Parent Instruction-Giving Game with Youngsters (PIGGY): A Clinical Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hupp, Stephen D. A.; Reitman, David; Everett, Gregory E.; Allen, Keith D.; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2011-01-01

    This is the second study to investigate the clinical use of the Parent-Instruction Game with Youngsters (PIGGY) which is a structured observation system derived from the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System II (DPICS-II; Eyberg, Bessmer, Newcomb, Edwards, & Robinson, 1994) and the Behavior Coding System (BCS; Forehand & McMahon, 1981). In…

  3. Small-sided games versus interval training in amateur soccer players: effects on the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with changes of direction.

    PubMed

    Dellal, Alexandre; Varliette, Christophe; Owen, Adam; Chirico, Erica N; Pialoux, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of small-sided games (SSGs) in soccer versus high-intensity intermittent training (HIT) on a continuous aerobic test (Vameval) and the performance in an intermittent test with changes of direction (CODs; 30-15 intermittent fitness test [30-15(IFT)]). Twenty-two amateur soccer players (mean age ± SD: 26.3 ± 4.7 years) were assigned to 3 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 8), HIT group (n = 8), and control group (CG; n = 6). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 9 sessions of 2 versus 2 and 1 versus 1 SSGs, whereas the HIT group performed 9 sessions of intermittent runs in the form of 30 seconds of effort interspersed with 30 seconds of passive recovery (30s-30s), 15s-15s, and 10s-10s. The HIT and SSG groups showed performance improvements in the Vameval test (5.1 and 6.6%, respectively) and the 30-15(IFT) intermittent test with CODs (5.1 and 5.8%, respectively), whereas there was no change in the performance of the CG. Players from HIT and SSG groups showed similar increase in their performance in the 30-15(IFT) and the Vameval tests during the 6-week training period, especially with an increase significantly different to that in a traditional training as in the CG (p < 0.05). This investigation demonstrates that both SSG and HIT interventions are equally effective in developing the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with CODs in male amateur soccer players. Furthermore, these 2 methods of training applied during the 6 weeks induce similar effect on the recovery capacity and on the ability to repeat directional changes of 180°. Coaches will now be able to choose between these two methods according to the objective of the training and to optimize the training.

  4. Experimental simulation of cat electromyogram: evidence for algebraic summation of motor-unit action-potential trains.

    PubMed

    Day, S J; Hulliger, M

    2001-11-01

    Prompted by the observation that the slope of the relationship between average rectified electromyography (EMG) and the ensemble activation rate of a pool of motor units progressively decreased (showing a downward nonlinearity), an experimental study was carried out to test the widely held notion that the EMG is the simple algebraic sum of motor-unit action-potential trains. The experiments were performed on the cat soleus muscle under isometric conditions, using electrical stimulation of alpha-motor axons isolated in ventral root filaments. The EMG signals were simulated experimentally under conditions where the activation of nearly the entire pool of motor units or of subsets of motor units was completely controlled by the experimenter. Sets of individual motor units or of small groups of motor units were stimulated independently, using stimulation profiles that were strictly repeatable between trials. This permitted a rigorous quantitative comparison of EMGs that were recorded during combined activation of multiple motor filaments with EMGs that were synthesized from the algebraic summation of motor unit action potential trains generated by individual nerve filaments. These were recorded separately by individually stimulating the same filaments with the same activation profiles that were employed during combined stimulation. During combined activation of up to 10 motor filaments, experimentally recorded and computationally synthesized EMGs were virtually identical. This indicates that EMG signals indeed are the outcome of the simple algebraic summation of motor-unit action-potential trains generated by concurrently active motor units. For both recorded and synthesized EMGs, it was confirmed that EMG magnitude increased nonlinearly with the ensemble activation rate of a pool of motor units. The nonlinearity was largely abolished when EMG magnitude was estimated as the sum of rectified, instead of raw, motor-unit action-potential trains. This suggests that the

  5. Engagement Theory in Action: An Investigation of Athletic Training Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the use of good practice indicators by athletic training program directors and to provide a theoretical framework using engagement theory, a learner-centered process focusing on program improvement through continuous planning and evaluation, as a foundation for implementing good practices in athletic training education…

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 541: Small Boy Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada with ROTC 1

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 541 is co-located on the boundary of Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site and Range 65C of the Nevada Test and Training Range, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 541 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 541, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): 05-23-04, Atmospheric Tests (6) - BFa Site; 05-45-03, Atmospheric Test Site - Small Boy. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the investigation report. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 1, 2014, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 541. The site investigation process also will be conducted in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices to be applied to this activity. The potential contamination sources associated with CASs 05-23-04 and 05-45-03 are from nuclear testing activities conducted at the Atmospheric Tests (6) - BFa Site and Atmospheric Test Site - Small Boy sites. The presence and nature of

  7. Playful Gaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makedon, Alexander

    A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…

  8. Learning to take action: the goals of health and safety training.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Deborah; Slatin, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Worker health and safety training is an important part of occupational health and safety programs. In the United States, governments, unions, employers, university programs, and health and safety advocacy organizations make training available. This article considers training effectiveness research conducted and supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and some done in collaboration with the Institute for Work and Health (Canada). Differing perspectives regarding the purpose of worker health and safety training are reviewed and critiqued. We assert that a focus on changing the working behaviors of workers exposed to hazardous conditions is less appropriate and scientifically rigorous than a focus on helping workers establish the power to reduce and eliminate workplace hazards. For training to lead to a decrease in morbidities and fatalities related to hazardous exposures, it needs to be integrated with workers' attainment of such power.

  9. Task-oriented training with computer gaming in people with rheumatoid arthritisor osteoarthritis of the hand: study protocol of a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant restriction in the ability to participate in home, work and community life results from pain, fatigue, joint damage, stiffness and reduced joint range of motion and muscle strength in people with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis of the hand. With modest evidence on the therapeutic effectiveness of conventional hand exercises, a task-oriented training program via real life object manipulations has been developed for people with arthritis. An innovative, computer-based gaming platform that allows a broad range of common objects to be seamlessly transformed into therapeutic input devices through instrumentation with a motion-sense mouse has also been designed. Personalized objects are selected to target specific training goals such as graded finger mobility, strength, endurance or fine/gross dexterous functions. The movements and object manipulation tasks that replicate common situations in everyday living will then be used to control and play any computer game, making practice challenging and engaging. Methods/Design The ongoing study is a 6-week, single-center, parallel-group, equally allocated and assessor-blinded pilot randomized controlled trial. Thirty people with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis affecting the hand will be randomized to receive either conventional hand exercises or the task-oriented training. The purpose is to determine a preliminary estimation of therapeutic effectiveness and feasibility of the task-oriented training program. Performance based and self-reported hand function, and exercise compliance are the study outcomes. Changes in outcomes (pre to post intervention) within each group will be assessed by paired Student t test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test and between groups (control versus experimental) post intervention using unpaired Student t test or Mann–Whitney U test. Discussion The study findings will inform decisions on the feasibility, safety and completion rate and will also provide preliminary

  10. Design of a Serious Game for Handling Obstetrical Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Bot-Robin, Virginie; Libessart, Aurélien; Doucède, Guillaume; Cosson, Michel; Rubod, Chrystèle

    2016-01-01

    Background The emergence of new technologies in the obstetrical field should lead to the development of learning applications, specifically for obstetrical emergencies. Many childbirth simulations have been recently developed. However, to date none of them have been integrated into a serious game. Objective Our objective was to design a new type of immersive serious game, using virtual glasses to facilitate the learning of pregnancy and childbirth pathologies. We have elaborated a new game engine, placing the student in some maternity emergency situations and delivery room simulations. Methods A gynecologist initially wrote a scenario based on a real clinical situation. He also designed, along with an educational engineer, a tree diagram, which served as a guide for dialogues and actions. A game engine, especially developed for this case, enabled us to connect actions to the graphic universe (fully 3D modeled and based on photographic references). We used the Oculus Rift in order to immerse the player in virtual reality. Each action in the game was linked to a certain number of score points, which could either be positive or negative. Results Different pathological pregnancy situations have been targeted and are as follows: care of spontaneous miscarriage, threat of preterm birth, forceps operative delivery for fetal abnormal heart rate, and reduction of a shoulder dystocia. The first phase immerses the learner into an action scene, as a doctor. The second phase ask the student to make a diagnosis. Once the diagnosis is made, different treatments are suggested. Conclusions Our serious game offers a new perspective for obstetrical emergency management trainings and provides students with active learning by immersing them into an environment, which recreates all or part of the real obstetrical world of emergency. It is consistent with the latest recommendations, which clarify the importance of simulation in teaching and in ongoing professional development. PMID

  11. Health policy and systems research training: global status and recommendations for action

    PubMed Central

    Tancred, Tara M; Schleiff, Meike; Peters, David H

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the characteristics of health policy and systems research training globally and to identify recommendations for improvement and expansion. Methods We identified institutions offering health policy and systems research training worldwide. In 2014, we recruited participants from identified institutions for an online survey on the characteristics of the institutions and the courses given. Survey findings were explored during in-depth interviews with selected key informants. Findings The study identified several important gaps in health policy and systems research training. There were few courses in central and eastern Europe, the Middle East, North Africa or Latin America. Most (116/152) courses were instructed in English. Institutional support for courses was often lacking and many institutions lacked the critical mass of trained individuals needed to support doctoral and postdoctoral students. There was little consistency between institutions in definitions of the competencies required for health policy and systems research. Collaboration across disciplines to provide the range of methodological perspectives the subject requires was insufficient. Moreover, the lack of alternatives to on-site teaching may preclude certain student audiences such as policy-makers. Conclusion Training in health policy and systems research is important to improve local capacity to conduct quality research in this field. We provide six recommendations to improve the content, accessibility and reach of training. First, create a repository of information on courses. Second, establish networks to support training. Third, define competencies in health policy and systems research. Fourth, encourage multidisciplinary collaboration. Fifth, expand the geographical and language coverage of courses. Finally, consider alternative teaching formats. PMID:27429488

  12. The Fire-Alarm Game: Exit Training Using Negative and Positive Reinforcement under Varied Stimulus Conditions. Short Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holburn, C. Steven; Dougher, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques for training a severely retarded blind client to exit his living unit during a fire drill used a combination of negative and positive reinforcement. Following a shaping procedure, the client learned to leave his living unit from any internal point through generalization training and subsequent test probes. (Author/CL)

  13. The design and evaluation of a peripheral device for use with a computer game intended for children with motor disabilities.

    PubMed

    Scardovelli, Terigi Augusto; Frère, Annie France

    2015-01-01

    Many children with motor impairments cannot participate in games and jokes that contribute to their formation. Currently, commercial computer games there are few options of software and sufficiently flexible access devices to meet the needs of this group of children. In this study, a peripheral access device and a 3D computerized game that do not require the actions of dragging, clicking, or activating various keys at the same time were developed. The peripheral access device consists of a webcam and a supervisory system that processes the images. This method provides a field of action that can be adjusted to various types of motor impairments. To analyze the sensitivity of the commands, a virtual course was developed using the scenario of a path of straight lines and curves. A volunteer with good ability in virtual games performed a short training with the virtual course and, after 15min of training, obtained similar results with a standard keyboard and the adapted peripheral device. A 3D game in the Amazon forest was developed using the Blender 3D tool. This free software was used to model the characters and scenarios. To evaluate the usability of the 3D game, the game was tested by 20 volunteers without motor impairments (group A) and 13 volunteers with severe motor limitations of the upper limbs (group B). All the volunteers (group A and B) could easily execute all the actions of the game using the adapted peripheral device. The majority positively evaluated the questions of usability and expressed their satisfaction. The computerized game coupled to the adapted device will offer the option of leisure and learning to people with severe motor impairments who previously lacked this possibility. It also provided equality in this activity to all the users.

  14. The action of aminoguanidine on the liver of trained diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the effect of aminoguanidine on liver of diabetic rats subject to physical exercises using histological and histochemical techniques. Methods The rats used in this study were divided into five groups: sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, sedentary diabetic and treated with aminoguanidine, trained diabetic and treated with aminoguanidine. Results The results showed no effect of aminoguanidine on the liver tissue, although there was improvement with exercise training showing cytological, morpho-histological and histochemical alterations in liver cells of animals from groups trained diabetic and/or treated diabetic compared to those individuals in the sedentary control and sedentary diabetic. These changes included: hepatocytes hypertrophy, presence and distribution of polysaccharides in the hepatocytes cytoplasm and, especially, congestion of the liver blood vessels. Conclusion Our results suggest that aminoguanidine is not hepatotoxic, when used at dosage of 1 g/L for the treatment of diabetes complications, and confirmed that the practice of moderate physical exercise assuaged the damage caused by diabetes without the use of insulin. PMID:23837632

  15. Training and Action for Patient Safety: Embedding Interprofessional Education for Patient Safety within an Improvement Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Beverley L.; Lawton, Rebecca; Armitage, Gerry; Bibby, John; Wright, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Despite an explosion of interest in improving safety and reducing error in health care, one important aspect of patient safety that has received little attention is a systematic approach to education and training for the whole health care workforce. This article describes an evaluation of an innovative multiprofessional, team-based…

  16. Effect of action-oriented communication training on nurses' communication self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Raica, Dagmar A

    2009-01-01

    Miscommunication poses a significant threat to the safety of hospitalized patients, but nurses often lack the communication confidence (self-efficacy) needed to represent their views regarding patient situations. Findings of this study suggest training programs are needed to help nurses develop confident, assertive communication skills.

  17. Facilitation in Action: The Reflective Practice of Two Facilitators Using a Participation Training Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treff, Marjorie E.; Earnest, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of two graduate faculty members from Indiana University who facilitated two workshops sponsored by Ball State University at Highlander Research and Education Center, one in May of 2013, and another in May of 2014. We describe the history of Participation Training, the program we used to plan and conduct…

  18. Action Research Evaluation of Bystander Intervention Training Created by Munche, Stern, and O'Brien

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiflet, Jacqueline H.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, appreciative inquiry study was an examination of bystander intervention as related to sexual assault in the military. The purpose of the study was to examine how military personnel and Department of Defense civilian employees reflecting diverse backgrounds perceived the effectiveness of bystander intervention training and sexual…

  19. Differential games.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varaiya, P. P.

    1972-01-01

    General discussion of the theory of differential games with two players and zero sum. Games starting at a fixed initial state and ending at a fixed final time are analyzed. Strategies for the games are defined. The existence of saddle values and saddle points is considered. A stochastic version of a differential game is used to examine the synthesis problem.

  20. Evaluating STAR--A Transformative Learning Framework: Interdisciplinary Action Research in Health Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Margaret; Oprescu, Florin; Downer, Teresa; Lyons, Michael; Pelly, Fiona; Barr, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Transformative learning aims to awaken students to issues of injustice, and to promote their critical analysis of assumptions, beliefs and values that lead to and sustain social inequities, so that they may become agents of social change. This paper introduces the Sensitise Take Action and Reflection (STAR) framework, which encapsulates…

  1. 1983 Assistant Commandant/Deputy Commander Visit to Seventh Army Training Command after Action Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-06

    provide modeling support. c. Proponent for action: USACGSC I* WPCO910B/OCT83 -𔃺 -9--. , G . . . ,:,.- -,:.::..;.’,,: . .. :-.,.., . ". _7~ W V ~ 4 - J J...TRADOC COMB ARMS ATCT-BA-SPS (5) Fort Hood, TX 76544 TEST ACTV . CDR USACIDC CIPP -TS (5) 5611 Columbia Pike, " Falls Church, VA 22041 CDR USACSC ACSC

  2. Inspiring and Training Students for Social Action: Renewing a Needed Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Shannon R.; Altman, Julie Cooper; Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner; Kagotho, Njeri; Palley, Elizabeth; Paul, Marilyn S.

    2012-01-01

    In social work, it is believed that certain knowledge and skills are learned more effectively through experience than through didactic classroom content. Members of the faculty of a school of social work have developed a Social Action Day to reinforce curriculum and translate into practice material about advocacy and ethical responsibilities for…

  3. Fitness Effects of 10-Month Frequent Low-Volume Ball Game Training or Interval Running for 8–10-Year-Old School Children

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Claus Malta; Ørntoft, Christina; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Eva Wulff; Madsen, Mads; Manniche, Vibeke; Hansen, Lone; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the exercise intensity and fitness effects of frequent school-based low-volume high-intensity training for 10 months in 8–10-year-old children. 239 Danish 3rd-grade school children from four schools were cluster-randomised into a control group (CON, n = 116) or two training groups performing either 5 × 12 min/wk small-sided football plus other ball games (SSG, n = 62) or interval running (IR, n = 61). Whole-body DXA scans, flamingo balance, standing long-jump, 20 m sprint, and Yo-Yo IR1 children's tests (YYIR1C) were performed before and after the intervention. Mean running velocity was higher (p < 0.05) in SSG than in IR (0.88 ± 0.14 versus 0.63 ± 0.20 m/s), while more time (p < 0.05) was spent in the highest player load zone (>2; 5.6 ± 3.4 versus 3.7 ± 3.4%) and highest HR zone (>90% HRmax; 12.4 ± 8.9 versus 8.4 ± 8.0%) in IR compared to SSG. After 10 months, no significant between-group differences were observed for YYIR1C performance and HR after 2 min of YYIR1C (HRsubmax), but median-split analyses showed that HRsubmax was reduced (p < 0.05) in both training groups compared to CON for those with the lowest aerobic fitness (SSG versus CON: 3.2%  HRmax [95% CI: 0.8–5.5]; IR versus CON: 2.6%  HRmax [95% CI: 1.1–5.2]). After 10 months, IR had improved (p < 0.05) 20 m sprint performance (IR versus CON: 154 ms [95% CI: 61–241]). No between-group differences (p > 0.05) were observed for whole-body or leg aBMD, lean mass, postural balance, or jump length. In conclusion, frequent low-volume ball games and interval running can be conducted over a full school year with high intensity rate but has limited positive fitness effects in 8–10-year-old children. PMID:28303248

  4. Fitness Effects of 10-Month Frequent Low-Volume Ball Game Training or Interval Running for 8-10-Year-Old School Children.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Ørntoft, Christina; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Eva Wulff; Madsen, Mads; Manniche, Vibeke; Hansen, Lone; Hansen, Peter Riis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the exercise intensity and fitness effects of frequent school-based low-volume high-intensity training for 10 months in 8-10-year-old children. 239 Danish 3rd-grade school children from four schools were cluster-randomised into a control group (CON, n = 116) or two training groups performing either 5 × 12 min/wk small-sided football plus other ball games (SSG, n = 62) or interval running (IR, n = 61). Whole-body DXA scans, flamingo balance, standing long-jump, 20 m sprint, and Yo-Yo IR1 children's tests (YYIR1C) were performed before and after the intervention. Mean running velocity was higher (p < 0.05) in SSG than in IR (0.88 ± 0.14 versus 0.63 ± 0.20 m/s), while more time (p < 0.05) was spent in the highest player load zone (>2; 5.6 ± 3.4 versus 3.7 ± 3.4%) and highest HR zone (>90% HRmax; 12.4 ± 8.9 versus 8.4 ± 8.0%) in IR compared to SSG. After 10 months, no significant between-group differences were observed for YYIR1C performance and HR after 2 min of YYIR1C (HRsubmax), but median-split analyses showed that HRsubmax was reduced (p < 0.05) in both training groups compared to CON for those with the lowest aerobic fitness (SSG versus CON: 3.2%  HRmax [95% CI: 0.8-5.5]; IR versus CON: 2.6%  HRmax [95% CI: 1.1-5.2]). After 10 months, IR had improved (p < 0.05) 20 m sprint performance (IR versus CON: 154 ms [95% CI: 61-241]). No between-group differences (p > 0.05) were observed for whole-body or leg aBMD, lean mass, postural balance, or jump length. In conclusion, frequent low-volume ball games and interval running can be conducted over a full school year with high intensity rate but has limited positive fitness effects in 8-10-year-old children.

  5. Internet-based brain training games, citizen scientists, and big data: ethical issues in unprecedented virtual territories.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Ryan H; Rommelfanger, Karen S

    2015-04-22

    Internet brain training programs, where consumers serve as both subjects and funders of the research, represent the closest engagement many individuals have with neuroscience. Safeguards are needed to protect participants' privacy and the evolving scientific enterprise of big data.

  6. Real-Time Strategy Video Game Experience and Visual Perceptual Learning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Hye-Jin; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2015-07-22

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is defined as long-term improvement in performance on a visual-perception task after visual experiences or training. Early studies have found that VPL is highly specific for the trained feature and location, suggesting that VPL is associated with changes in the early visual cortex. However, the generality of visual skills enhancement attributable to action video-game experience suggests that VPL can result from improvement in higher cognitive skills. If so, experience in real-time strategy (RTS) video-game play, which may heavily involve cognitive skills, may also facilitate VPL. To test this hypothesis, we compared VPL between RTS video-game players (VGPs) and non-VGPs (NVGPs) and elucidated underlying structural and functional neural mechanisms. Healthy young human subjects underwent six training sessions on a texture discrimination task. Diffusion-tensor and functional magnetic resonance imaging were performed before and after training. VGPs performed better than NVGPs in the early phase of training. White-matter connectivity between the right external capsule and visual cortex and neuronal activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were greater in VGPs than NVGPs and were significantly correlated with RTS video-game experience. In both VGPs and NVGPs, there was task-related neuronal activity in the right IFG, ACC, and striatum, which was strengthened after training. These results indicate that RTS video-game experience, associated with changes in higher-order cognitive functions and connectivity between visual and cognitive areas, facilitates VPL in early phases of training. The results support the hypothesis that VPL can occur without involvement of only visual areas. Significance statement: Although early studies found that visual perceptual learning (VPL) is associated with involvement of the visual cortex, generality of visual skills enhancement by action video-game experience

  7. 77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming... Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. On November 6, 2012, the Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate of the Lake Traverse Reservation and State of South Dakota submitted an Amended Class III Tribal-State...

  8. A Serious Game for Massive Training and Assessment of French Soldiers Involved in Forward Combat Casualty Care (3D-SC1): Development and Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Mérat, Stéphane; Malgras, Brice; Petit, Ludovic; Queran, Xavier; Bay, Christian; Boutonnet, Mathieu; Jault, Patrick; Ausset, Sylvain; Auroy, Yves; Perez, Jean Paul; Tesnière, Antoine; Pons, François; Mignon, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background The French Military Health Service has standardized its military prehospital care policy in a ‘‘Sauvetage au Combat’’ (SC) program (Forward Combat Casualty Care). A major part of the SC training program relies on simulations, which are challenging and costly when dealing with more than 80,000 soldiers. In 2014, the French Military Health Service decided to develop and deploy 3D-SC1, a serious game (SG) intended to train and assess soldiers managing the early steps of SC. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation and production of 3D-SC1 and to present its deployment. Methods A group of 10 experts and the Paris Descartes University Medical Simulation Department spin-off, Medusims, coproduced 3D-SC1. Medusims are virtual medical experiences using 3D real-time videogame technology (creation of an environment and avatars in different scenarios) designed for educational purposes (training and assessment) to simulate medical situations. These virtual situations have been created based on real cases and tested on mannequins by experts. Trainees are asked to manage specific situations according to best practices recommended by SC, and receive a score and a personalized feedback regarding their performance. Results The scenario simulated in the SG is an attack on a patrol of 3 soldiers with an improvised explosive device explosion as a result of which one soldier dies, one soldier is slightly stunned, and the third soldier experiences a leg amputation and other injuries. This scenario was first tested with mannequins in military simulation centers, before being transformed into a virtual 3D real-time scenario using a multi-support, multi–operating system platform, Unity. Processes of gamification and scoring were applied, with 2 levels of difficulty. A personalized debriefing was integrated at the end of the simulations. The design and production of the SG took 9 months. The deployment, performed in 3 months, has reached 84 of 96

  9. Retraining function in people with Parkinson’s disease using the Microsoft kinect: game design and pilot testing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computer based gaming systems, such as the Microsoft Kinect (Kinect), can facilitate complex task practice, enhance sensory feedback and action observation in novel, relevant and motivating modes of exercise which can be difficult to achieve with standard physiotherapy for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, there is a current need for safe, feasible and effective exercise games that are appropriate for PD rehabilitation. The aims of this study were to i) develop a computer game to rehabilitate dynamic postural control for people with PD using the Kinect; and ii) pilot test the game’s safety and feasibility in a group of people with PD. Methods A rehabilitation game aimed at training dynamic postural control was developed through an iterative process with input from a design workshop of people with PD. The game trains dynamic postural control through multi-directional reaching and stepping tasks, with increasing complexity across 12 levels of difficulty. Nine people with PD pilot tested the game for one session. Participant feedback to identify issues relating to safety and feasibility were collected using semi-structured interviews. Results Participants reported that they felt safe whilst playing the game. In addition, there were no adverse events whilst playing. In general, the participants stated that they enjoyed the game and seven of the nine participants said they could imagine themselves using the game at home, especially if they felt it would improve their balance. The Flow State Scale indicated participants were immersed in the gameplay and enjoyed the experience. However, some participants reported that they found it difficult to discriminate between different types and orientations of visual objects in the game and some also had difficulty with the stepping tasks, especially when performed at the same time as the reaching tasks. Conclusion Computer-based rehabilitation games using the Kinect are safe and feasible for people with

  10. Evaluating a Greek National Action on Students' Training on ICT and Programming Competences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riviou, Katerina; Papakonstantinou, Katerina; Tsanakas, Panayotis

    It is well understood that university graduates, regardless of discipline, must have appropriate information and communication technology (ICT) competencies to function and be employable in the modern world. Nevertheless, the results of surveys indicate significant deficiencies in the use of ICT by students of higher education. e-kpaidefteite.gr is an initiative launched by the Greek government that aims to train and certify students of higher education on ICT. This paper presents the results of two separate surveys that took place during the period December 2008 - January 2009. The first survey targeted the students that have completed the programme and the second one the educational providers that participated in the programme and offered the training to the beneficiaries.

  11. A call to action: training public health students to be effective agents for social change.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Hilary; Heymann, S Jody

    2015-03-01

    In the 21st century, we face enormous public health challenges that differ fundamentally from those of the last century, because these challenges involve widespread societal change and complexity. To address these challenges, public health professionals need to be able to place their work in a larger social context, understand local and global perspectives on a deeper level, and effectively engage a wide variety of stakeholders. To confer these skills, we need to change the way we train our students. We present two examples of low-cost innovative approaches to teaching public health that promote active engagement with individuals across a wide range of backgrounds and fields and that train students to be effective agents for change.

  12. Using after-action review based on automated performance assessment to enhance training effectiveness.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Gieseler, Charles J.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris

    2010-09-01

    Training simulators have become increasingly popular tools for instructing humans on performance in complex environments. However, the question of how to provide individualized and scenario-specific assessment and feedback to students remains largely an open question. In this work, we follow-up on previous evaluations of the Automated Expert Modeling and Automated Student Evaluation (AEMASE) system, which automatically assesses student performance based on observed examples of good and bad performance in a given domain. The current study provides a rigorous empirical evaluation of the enhanced training effectiveness achievable with this technology. In particular, we found that students given feedback via the AEMASE-based debrief tool performed significantly better than students given only instructor feedback on two out of three domain-specific performance metrics.

  13. A Call to Action: Training Public Health Students to Be Effective Agents for Social Change

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, S. Jody

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st century, we face enormous public health challenges that differ fundamentally from those of the last century, because these challenges involve widespread societal change and complexity. To address these challenges, public health professionals need to be able to place their work in a larger social context, understand local and global perspectives on a deeper level, and effectively engage a wide variety of stakeholders. To confer these skills, we need to change the way we train our students. We present two examples of low-cost innovative approaches to teaching public health that promote active engagement with individuals across a wide range of backgrounds and fields and that train students to be effective agents for change. PMID:25706013

  14. Handbook for Action Officers and Training Developers for New Materiel Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Personnel Support (IPS) Model Integrated Logistic Support (ILS), AR 700-127, is the process by which the Army obtains reliable , maintainable...this list is empha- sized. 111-18 Table Il1-i ELEMENTS AN D PROCEDURAL STEPS OF EVENJT A3, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS A3.1 TDENTIFY UISSi N CRTICAL /HIGH...interoperability; continuity of operations (CONOPS); security; reliability , availability, and maintainability (RAM), standardization to include commonality for

  15. Tandem action of exercise training and food restriction completely preserves ischemic preconditioning in the aging heart.

    PubMed

    Abete, P; Testa, G; Galizia, G; Mazzella, F; Della Morte, D; de Santis, D; Calabrese, C; Cacciatore, F; Gargiulo, G; Ferrara, N; Rengo, G; Sica, V; Napoli, C; Rengo, F

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) has been proposed as an endogenous form of protection against ischemia reperfusion injury. IP, however, does not prevent post-ischemic dysfunction in the aging heart but may be partially corrected by exercise training and food restriction. We investigated the role of exercise training combined with food restriction on restoring IP in the aging heart. Effects of IP against ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated hearts from adult (A, 6 months old), sedentary 'ad libitum' fed (SL), trained ad libitum fed (TL), sedentary food-restricted (SR), trained- and food-restricted senescent rats (TR) (24 months old) were investigated. Norepinephrine release in coronary effluent was determined by high performance liquid cromatography. IP significantly improved final recovery of percent developed pressure in hearts from A (p<0.01) but not in those from SL (p=NS) vs unconditioned controls. Developed pressure recovery was partial in hearts from TL and SR (64.3 and 67.3%, respectively; p<0.05 vs controls) but it was total in those from TR (82.3%, p=NS vs A; p<0.05 vs hearts from TL and SR). Similarly, IP determined a similar increase of norepinephrine release in A (p<0.001) and in TR (p<0.001, p=NS vs adult). IP was abolished by depletion of myocardial norepinephrine stores by reserpine in all groups. Thus, IP reduces post-ischemic dysfunction in A but not in SL. Moreover, IP was preserved partially in TR and SR and totally in TR. Complete IP maybe due to full restoration of norepinephrine release in response to IP stimulus.

  16. Serious Games that Improve Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Clement, III; Pecheux, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Serious games can help people function more effectively in complex settings, facilitate their role as team members, and provide insight into their team's mission. In such games, coordination and cooperation among team members are foundational to the mission's success and provide a preview of what individuals and the team as a whole could choose to do in a real scenario. Serious games often model events requiring life-or-death choices, such as civilian rescue during chemical warfare. How the players communicate and what actions they take can determine the number of lives lost or saved. However, merely playing a game is not enough to realize its most practical value, which is in learning what actions and communication methods are closest to what the mission requires. Teams often play serious games in isolation, so when the game is complete, an analytical stage is needed to extract the strategies used and examine each strategy's success relative to the others chosen. Recognizing the importance of this next stage, Noblis has been developing Game Analysis, software that parses individual game play into meaningful units and generates a strategic analysis. Trainers create a custom game-specific grammar that reflects the objects and range of actions allowable in a particular game, which Game Analysis then uses to parse the data and generate a practical analysis. Trainers have then enough information to represent strategies in tools, such as Gantt and heat map charts. First-responder trainees in North Carolina have already partnered Hot-Zone and Game Analysis with great success.

  17. Games in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walford, Rex

    Six games designed for classroom use are described in this book: 1) Shopping Game; 2) Bus Service Game; 3) North Sea Gas Game; 4) Railway Pioneers Game; 5) Development Game; and 6) Export Drive Game. The description of each game comprises a separate chapter, and includes information about the general aims of the game, how the various game elements…

  18. [Matrix of food and nutrition actions in primary health care: a benchmark for training of nutritionists in the context of education by skillsets].

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Túlio da Silva; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre

    2014-05-01

    This study had two objectives, namely to conduct a critical review of studies that underpin the training and practice of nutritionists in the context of Primary Health Care (PHC) in the Unified Health System (SUS), and evaluate the contribution of the matrix of food and nutrition actions in primary health care in this discussion. A protocol was developed to conduct the review in a systematic way. For the selection of studies, major databases were consulted, i.e. those used in health facilities, using intersections of the key search words: Nutritionist, National Policy on Food and Nutrition; National Curriculum Guidelines on health, Skill-based education; PHC. The array of actions can contribute to the training of nutritionists in the context of skill-based education to serve as a benchmark for actions, skills and abilities to train individuals, such that they are better able to cope with the needs of the population with emphasis on the SUS. Using it as a benchmark for training can contribute to the improvement of the latter and governmental actions based on the adoption of action on food and nutrition in PHC, in an effort complementing actions of all the other health programs, in particular the Family Health Strategy.

  19. Video-Games: Do They Require General Intelligence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroga, M. A.; Herranz, M.; Gomez-Abad, M.; Kebir, M.; Ruiz, J.; Colom, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Here we test if playing video-games require intelligence. Twenty-seven university undergraduate students were trained on three games from Big Brain Academy (Wii): Calculus, Backward Memory and Train. Participants did not have any previous experience with these games. General intelligence was measured by five ability tests before the training…

  20. Helping Video Games Rewire "Our Minds"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Alan T.; Palsson, Olafur S.

    2001-01-01

    Biofeedback-modulated video games are games that respond to physiological signals as well as mouse, joystick or game controller input; they embody the concept of improving physiological functioning by rewarding specific healthy body signals with success at playing a video game. The NASA patented biofeedback-modulated game method blends biofeedback into popular off-the- shelf video games in such a way that the games do not lose their entertainment value. This method uses physiological signals (e.g., electroencephalogram frequency band ratio) not simply to drive a biofeedback display directly, or periodically modify a task as in other systems, but to continuously modulate parameters (e.g., game character speed and mobility) of a game task in real time while the game task is being performed by other means (e.g., a game controller). Biofeedback-modulated video games represent a new generation of computer and video game environments that train valuable mental skills beyond eye-hand coordination. These psychophysiological training technologies are poised to exploit the revolution in interactive multimedia home entertainment for the personal improvement, not just the diversion, of the user.

  1. Intercultural Competency in Public Health: A Call for Action to Incorporate Training into Public Health Education.

    PubMed

    Fleckman, Julia M; Dal Corso, Mark; Ramirez, Shokufeh; Begalieva, Maya; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Although these programs share common goals for improving clinical care for patients and reducing health disparities, there is little standardization across programs. Furthermore, little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultures needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. By focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness, and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt, and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions.

  2. Medical Civic Action Programs (MEDCAPS) and Medical Readiness Training Exercises (MEDRETES) as Instruments of Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-24

    treated livestock. Veterinary Civic Action Teams (VETCAP) were organized to treat and vaccinate animals . 1 Statistics ruled the day -- two million...Patients Patients Animals S Comayagua 74 22,010 4,553 36,934 40,659 Puerto Lampira 4 616 84 0 999 Aguacate 5 1,014 0 0 1,573 San Lorenzo 30 18,146 2,263 122...teeth extracted, inoculations given, animals wormed, rather than lower infant mortality, decreased malaria rates, or increased life expectancy. The

  3. Efficacy and Safety of Exercise Training in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: HF-ACTION Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Christopher M.; Whellan, David J.; Lee, Kerry L.; Keteyian, Steven J.; Cooper, Lawton S.; Ellis, Stephen J.; Leifer, Eric S.; Kraus, William E.; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Blumenthal, James A.; Rendall, David S.; Miller, Nancy Houston; Fleg, Jerome L.; Schulman, Kevin A.; McKelvie, Robert S.; Zannad, Faiez; Piña, Ileana L.

    2010-01-01

    Context Guidelines recommend that exercise training be considered for medically stable outpatients with heart failure. Previous studies have not had adequate statistical power to measure the effects of exercise training on clinical outcomes. Objective To test the efficacy and safety of exercise training among patients with heart failure. Design, Setting, and Patients Multicenter, randomized controlled trial among 2331 medically stable outpatients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Participants in Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training (HF-ACTION) were randomized from April 2003 through February 2007 at 82 centers within the United States, Canada, and France; median follow-up was 30 months. Interventions Usual care plus aerobic exercise training, consisting of 36 supervised sessions followed by home-based training, or usual care alone. Main Outcome Measures Composite primary end point of all-cause mortality or hospitalization and prespecified secondary end points of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization, and cardiovascular mortality or heart failure hospitalization. Results The median age was 59 years, 28% were women, and 37% had New York Heart Association class III or IV symptoms. Etiology was ischemic in 51%. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 25%. Exercise adherence decreased from a median of 95 minutes per week during months 4 through 6 of follow-up to 74 minutes per week during months 10 through 12. A total of 759 (65%) patients in the exercise group died or were hospitalized, compared with 796 (68%) in the usual care group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84–1.02; P = .13). There were nonsignificant reductions in the exercise training group for mortality (189 [16%] in the exercise group vs 198 [17%] in the usual care group; HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.79–1.17; P = .70), cardiovascular mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization (632

  4. Combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical formulation is proposed of a combat game between two opponents with offensive capabilities and offensive objective is proposed. Resolution of the combat involves solving two differential games with state constraints. Depending on the game dynamics and parameters, the combat can terminate in one of four ways: the first player wins; the second player wins; a draw (neither wins); or joint capture. In the first two cases, the optimal strategies of the two players are determined from suitable zero-sum games, whereas in the latter two the relevant games are nonzero-sum. Further, to avoid certain technical difficulties, the concept of a delta-combat game is introduced.

  5. Phosphatidic acid: biosynthesis, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms of action and effect on strength and body composition in resistance-trained individuals.

    PubMed

    Bond, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has received much attention in the field of exercise physiology as a master regulator of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The multiprotein complex is regulated by various signals such as growth factors, energy status, amino acids and mechanical stimuli. Importantly, the glycerophospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA) appears to play an important role in mTORC1 activation by mechanical stimulation. PA has been shown to modulate mTOR activity by direct binding to its FKBP12-rapamycin binding domain. Additionally, it has been suggested that exogenous PA activates mTORC1 via extracellular conversion to lysophosphatidic acid and subsequent binding to endothelial differentiation gene receptors on the cell surface. Recent trials have therefore evaluated the effects of PA supplementation in resistance-trained individuals on strength and body composition. As research in this field is rapidly evolving, this review attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of its biosynthesis, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms of action and effect on strength and body composition in resistance-trained individuals.

  6. Shorthand Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostal, June

    1973-01-01

    Games can be used to stimulate interest and to make learning shorthand fun. Suggested games include these: geographic shorthand rummy, shorthand concentration, shorthand baseball geography, shorthand geography spelldown, shorthand password, and shorthand hangman's bluff. (SC)

  7. Evaluating the Influence of Past Gaming Experience on Learner Preferences and Motivation to Learn in a Military Training Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Significance of Study The future of the Air Force is dependent on well -trained Airman, capable of maintaining, operating, and engineering state-of-the-art...literature review concentrates on the problems facing the academic community: maintaining the attention of and teaching millennial generation students...kids leave college. And, maybe, at the very most, 5,000 hours of book reading (p.1). Clearly, the millennial generation is spending far more time

  8. Games as an Artistic Medium: Investigating Complexity Thinking in Game-Based Art Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    This action research study examines the making of video games, using an integrated development environment software program called GameMaker, as art education curriculum for students between the ages of 8-13. Through a method I designed, students created video games using the concepts of move, avoid, release, and contact (MARC) to explore their…

  9. Playful Gaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makedon, Alex

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of playful gaming (an idea not expressed fully by either term alone) and uses it as an analytical tool to study the playfulness of games in the context of several social phenomena; i.e., social change, socialization, utopian systems, and educational gaming. An extensive reference list is provided. (MBR)

  10. Winter Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

    Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…

  11. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  12. 76 FR 80846 - Definition of Enforcement Action

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 502 RIN 3141-AA43 Definition of Enforcement Action AGENCY... proposes to amend NIGC regulations to include definitions for ``enforcement action''. The Indian Gaming... regulations, and tribal gaming ordinances. However, current NIGC regulations do not provide a definition...

  13. Mindful Climate Action: Health and Environmental Co-Benefits from Mindfulness-Based Behavioral Training.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Bruce; Grabow, Maggie; Middlecamp, Cathy; Mooney, Margaret; Checovich, Mary M; Converse, Alexander K; Gillespie, Bob; Yates, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change, creating risks for people around the globe. Behaviors involving transportation, diet, energy use, and purchasing drive greenhouse gas emissions, but are also related to health and well-being, providing opportunity for co-benefits. Replacing shorter automobile trips with walking or cycling, or eating plants rather than animals, for example, may increase personal health, while also reducing environmental impact. Mindfulness-based practices have been shown to enhance a variety of health outcomes, but have not been adapted towards environmental purposes. We designed the Mindful Climate Action (MCA) curriculum to help people improve their health while simultaneously lowering their carbon footprints. Combining mindfulness-based practices with the Stages of Change theory, the MCA program aims to: (1) improve personal health and well-being; (2) decrease energy use; (3) reduce automobile use; (4) increase active transport; (5) shift diet towards plant-based foods; and (6) reduce unnecessary purchasing. Mindfulness practices will foster attentional awareness, openness, and response flexibility, supporting positive behavior change. We plan to test MCA in a randomized controlled trial, with rigorous assessment of targeted outcomes. Our long-term goal is to refine and adapt the MCA program to a variety of audiences, in order to enhance public health and environmental sustainability.

  14. Mindful Climate Action: Health and Environmental Co-Benefits from Mindfulness-Based Behavioral Training

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Bruce; Grabow, Maggie; Middlecamp, Cathy; Mooney, Margaret; Checovich, Mary M.; Converse, Alexander K.; Gillespie, Bob; Yates, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change, creating risks for people around the globe. Behaviors involving transportation, diet, energy use, and purchasing drive greenhouse gas emissions, but are also related to health and well-being, providing opportunity for co-benefits. Replacing shorter automobile trips with walking or cycling, or eating plants rather than animals, for example, may increase personal health, while also reducing environmental impact. Mindfulness-based practices have been shown to enhance a variety of health outcomes, but have not been adapted towards environmental purposes. We designed the Mindful Climate Action (MCA) curriculum to help people improve their health while simultaneously lowering their carbon footprints. Combining mindfulness-based practices with the Stages of Change theory, the MCA program aims to: (1) improve personal health and well-being; (2) decrease energy use; (3) reduce automobile use; (4) increase active transport; (5) shift diet towards plant-based foods; and (6) reduce unnecessary purchasing. Mindfulness practices will foster attentional awareness, openness, and response flexibility, supporting positive behavior change. We plan to test MCA in a randomized controlled trial, with rigorous assessment of targeted outcomes. Our long-term goal is to refine and adapt the MCA program to a variety of audiences, in order to enhance public health and environmental sustainability. PMID:28008371

  15. 78 FR 24061 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... for Class II gaming systems and equipment to harmonize the charitable gaming exemption amount in the technical standards with the charitable gaming exemption amount in its Class II minimum internal control... Gaming Systems and Equipment AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  16. Small Acute Benefits of 4 Weeks Processing Speed Training Games on Processing Speed and Inhibition Performance and Depressive Mood in the Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Nouchi, Rui; Saito, Toshiki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing speed training using a 1-year intervention period improves cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term processing speed training such as 4 weeks can benefit elderly people. This study was designed to investigate effects of 4 weeks of processing speed training on cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Methods: We used a single-blinded randomized control trial (RCT). Seventy-two older adults were assigned randomly to two groups: a processing speed training game (PSTG) group and knowledge quiz training game (KQTG) group, an active control group. In PSTG, participants were asked to play PSTG (12 processing speed games) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. In the KQTG group, participants were asked to play KQTG (four knowledge quizzes) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. We measured several cognitive functions and emotional states before and after the 4 week intervention period. Results: Our results revealed that PSTG improved performances in processing speed and inhibition compared to KQTG, but did not improve performance in reasoning, shifting, short term/working memory, and episodic memory. Moreover, PSTG reduced the depressive mood score as measured by the Profile of Mood State compared to KQTG during the 4 week intervention period, but did not change other emotional measures. Discussion: This RCT first provided scientific evidence related to small acute benefits of 4 week PSTG on processing speed, inhibition, and depressive mood in healthy elderly people. We discuss possible mechanisms for improvements in processing speed and inhibition and reduction of the depressive mood. Trial registration: This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000022250).

  17. Small Acute Benefits of 4 Weeks Processing Speed Training Games on Processing Speed and Inhibition Performance and Depressive Mood in the Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nouchi, Rui; Saito, Toshiki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing speed training using a 1-year intervention period improves cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term processing speed training such as 4 weeks can benefit elderly people. This study was designed to investigate effects of 4 weeks of processing speed training on cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Methods: We used a single-blinded randomized control trial (RCT). Seventy-two older adults were assigned randomly to two groups: a processing speed training game (PSTG) group and knowledge quiz training game (KQTG) group, an active control group. In PSTG, participants were asked to play PSTG (12 processing speed games) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. In the KQTG group, participants were asked to play KQTG (four knowledge quizzes) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. We measured several cognitive functions and emotional states before and after the 4 week intervention period. Results: Our results revealed that PSTG improved performances in processing speed and inhibition compared to KQTG, but did not improve performance in reasoning, shifting, short term/working memory, and episodic memory. Moreover, PSTG reduced the depressive mood score as measured by the Profile of Mood State compared to KQTG during the 4 week intervention period, but did not change other emotional measures. Discussion: This RCT first provided scientific evidence related to small acute benefits of 4 week PSTG on processing speed, inhibition, and depressive mood in healthy elderly people. We discuss possible mechanisms for improvements in processing speed and inhibition and reduction of the depressive mood. Trial registration: This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000022250). PMID:28066229

  18. The neural processing of voluntary completed, real and virtual violent and nonviolent computer game scenarios displaying predefined actions in gamers and nongamers.

    PubMed

    Regenbogen, Christina; Herrmann, Manfred; Fehr, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Studies investigating the effects of violent computer and video game playing have resulted in heterogeneous outcomes. It has been assumed that there is a decreased ability to differentiate between virtuality and reality in people that play these games intensively. FMRI data of a group of young males with (gamers) and without (controls) a history of long-term violent computer game playing experience were obtained during the presentation of computer game and realistic video sequences. In gamers the processing of real violence in contrast to nonviolence produced activation clusters in right inferior frontal, left lingual and superior temporal brain regions. Virtual violence activated a network comprising bilateral inferior frontal, occipital, postcentral, right middle temporal, and left fusiform regions. Control participants showed extended left frontal, insula and superior frontal activations during the processing of real, and posterior activations during the processing of virtual violent scenarios. The data suggest that the ability to differentiate automatically between real and virtual violence has not been diminished by a long-term history of violent video game play, nor have gamers' neural responses to real violence in particular been subject to desensitization processes. However, analyses of individual data indicated that group-related analyses reflect only a small part of actual individual different neural network involvement, suggesting that the consideration of individual learning history is sufficient for the present discussion.

  19. Learning by observing: the effect of multiple sessions of action-observation training on the spontaneous movement tempo and motor resonance.

    PubMed

    Lagravinese, Giovanna; Bisio, Ambra; Ruggeri, Piero; Bove, Marco; Avanzino, Laura

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to explore the changes in motor performance and motor resonance after multiple sessions of action observation (AO) training. Subjects were exposed to the observation of a video showing finger tapping movements executed at 3Hz, a frequency higher than the spontaneous one (2Hz) for four consecutive days. Motor performance and motor resonance were tested before the AO training on the first day, and on the last day. Results showed that multiple sessions of AO training induced a shift of the speed of execution of finger tapping movements toward the observed one and a change in motor resonance. Before the 3Hz-AO training cortical excitability was highest during the observation of the 2Hz video. This motor resonance effect was lost after one single session of 3Hz-AO training whereas after multiple sessions of 3Hz-AO training cortical excitability was highest during the observation of the 3Hz video. Our study shows for the first time that multiple sessions of AO training are able not only to induce performance gains but also to change the way by which the observer's motor system recognizes a certain movement as belonging to the individual motor repertoire. These results may encourage the development of novel rehabilitative protocols based on multiple sessions of action observation aimed to regain a correct movement when its spontaneous speed is modified by pathologies or to modify the innate temporal properties of certain movements.

  20. Optimally designing games for behavioural research.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anna N; Zaharia, Matei; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2014-07-08

    Computer games can be motivating and engaging experiences that facilitate learning, leading to their increasing use in education and behavioural experiments. For these applications, it is often important to make inferences about the knowledge and cognitive processes of players based on their behaviour. However, designing games that provide useful behavioural data are a difficult task that typically requires significant trial and error. We address this issue by creating a new formal framework that extends optimal experiment design, used in statistics, to apply to game design. In this framework, we use Markov decision processes to model players' actions within a game, and then make inferences about the parameters of a cognitive model from these actions. Using a variety of concept learning games, we show that in practice, this method can predict which games will result in better estimates of the parameters of interest. The best games require only half as many players to attain the same level of precision.

  1. Optimally designing games for behavioural research

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Anna N.; Zaharia, Matei; Griffiths, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Computer games can be motivating and engaging experiences that facilitate learning, leading to their increasing use in education and behavioural experiments. For these applications, it is often important to make inferences about the knowledge and cognitive processes of players based on their behaviour. However, designing games that provide useful behavioural data are a difficult task that typically requires significant trial and error. We address this issue by creating a new formal framework that extends optimal experiment design, used in statistics, to apply to game design. In this framework, we use Markov decision processes to model players' actions within a game, and then make inferences about the parameters of a cognitive model from these actions. Using a variety of concept learning games, we show that in practice, this method can predict which games will result in better estimates of the parameters of interest. The best games require only half as many players to attain the same level of precision. PMID:25002821

  2. Game theory.

    PubMed

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  3. Video games.

    PubMed

    Funk, Jeanne B

    2005-06-01

    The video game industry insists that it is doing everything possible to provide information about the content of games so that parents can make informed choices; however, surveys indicate that ratings may not reflect consumer views of the nature of the content. This article describes some of the currently popular video games, as well as developments that are on the horizon, and discusses the status of research on the positive and negative impacts of playing video games. Recommendations are made to help parents ensure that children play games that are consistent with their values.

  4. Heart rate responses and technical comparison between small- vs. large-sided games in elite professional soccer.

    PubMed

    Owen, Adam L; Wong, Del P; McKenna, Michael; Dellal, Alexandre

    2011-08-01

    This study aims to examine the difference in heart rate (HR) responses and technical activities placed upon European elite players when exposed to 2-sided games differing in the number of players and playing area. Fifteen male soccer players from a Scottish Premier League team (26.3 ± 4.85 years, 182.4 ± 6.99 cm, 79.5 ± 8.05 kg, VO2max of 54.36 ± 5.45 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed both small (3 vs. 3 plus goalkeepers) and large (9 vs. 9 plus goalkeepers) sided games each lasting for 3 × 5 minutes interspersed with 4-minute passive recovery during the 2009-2010 season. The HR responses and players' technical actions were recorded throughout all sided games. Results show that small-sided games (SSG) induced significantly (p < 0.05, large effect) higher HR responses as compared to large-sided games. Furthermore, during SSGs, players spent significantly longer time in the >85% maximal HR zone (p < 0.05, large effect) as compared to large-sided games. Technical analysis revealed a large practical difference (effect size ranged from 1.5 to 21.2) between small- and large-sided games: less number of blocks, headers, interceptions, passes, and receives but more dribbles, shots, and tackles in SSG. Furthermore, SSG induced significantly lesser total ball contacts per game (p < 0.05, large effect) but significantly greater ball contacts per individual (p < 0.05, large effect) when compared to larger-sided games. The different technical requirements also enable coaches to carry out training games more suitable to specific playing positions such as SSG for midfielders (more dribbles, tackles, and ball contacts per player) strikers (more shots), and large-sided games for defender (more blocks, headers, and interceptions).

  5. TBT: Telecommunications-Based Training in the 90s (DELTA Programme--Action Line III). Proceedings of the Workshop (Madrid, Spain, January 21-22, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    This report contains a collection of papers presented at a workshop on telecommunications-based training systems as part of the DELTA (Developing European Learning through Technological Advance) Action Line III, which addressed research in telecommunications for open and distance education. The following presentations are included: (1)…

  6. Assessment in the Cooperative Classroom: Using an Action Research Enhanced Version of the Train the Trainer In-service Model To Impact Teacher Attitudes and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolheiser, Carol; Ross, John A.; Hogaboam-Gray, Anne

    This research investigated the impact of combining two approaches to inservice teacher education (action research and train the trainer) on teacher attitudes and practices. The inservice developed assessment approaches aligned with cooperative learning instructional approaches. Teachers were introduced to a model of collaborative assessment aimed…

  7. The Role of Training in Improving Peer Assessment Skills amongst Year Six Pupils in Primary School Writing: An Action Research Enquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Stuart Ian

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is where students assess the quality of a peer's work. Studies have demonstrated its positive impact on learning yet most of these are in higher education. This study used training to improve the quality of written feedback in a year six primary school classroom. Action Research was selected as a research strategy given the need to…

  8. Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Drinking Water Academy provides online training and information to ensure that water professionals, public officials, and involved citizens have the knowledge and skills necessary to protect our drinking water supply.

  9. The development of an RDoC-based treatment program for adolescent depression: "Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action" (TARA).

    PubMed

    Henje Blom, Eva; Duncan, Larissa G; Ho, Tiffany C; Connolly, Colm G; LeWinn, Kaja Z; Chesney, Margaret; Hecht, Frederick M; Yang, Tony T

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the current leading causes of disability worldwide. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the onset of depression, with MDD affecting 8-20% of all youth. Traditional treatment methods have not been sufficiently effective to slow the increasing prevalence of adolescent depression. We therefore propose a new model for the treatment of adolescent depression - Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action (TARA) - that is based on current understanding of developmental and depression neurobiology. The TARA model is aligned with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) of the National Institute of Mental Health. In this article, we first address the relevance of RDoC to adolescent depression. Second, we identify the major RDoC domains of function involved in adolescent depression and organize them in a way that gives priority to domains thought to be driving the psychopathology. Third, we select therapeutic training strategies for TARA based on current scientific evidence of efficacy for the prioritized domains of function in a manner that maximizes time, resources, and feasibility. The TARA model takes into consideration the developmental limitation in top-down cognitive control in adolescence and promotes bottom-up strategies such as vagal afference to decrease limbic hyperactivation and its secondary effects. The program has been informed by mindfulness-based therapy and yoga, as well as modern psychotherapeutic techniques. The treatment program is semi-manualized, progressive, and applied in a module-based approach designed for a group setting that is to be conducted one session per week for 12 weeks. We hope that this work may form the basis for a novel and more effective treatment strategy for adolescent depression, as well as broaden the discussion on how to address this challenge.

  10. Serious gaming in women's health care.

    PubMed

    de Wit-Zuurendonk, L D; Oei, S G

    2011-11-01

    Computer-based (serious) gaming is a new field in medical education, which has the potential to become an important tool for healthcare professionals for learning a range of clinical skills. To evaluate the current status of serious gaming in medicine, we performed a systematic literature review. In June 2011, we undertook a search in PubMed and Embase databases with the MeSH terms video games, education, training, gaming and healthcare. Thirty relevant papers were identified, reviewed and summarised. The studies showed that serious gaming is a stimulating learning method and that students are enthusiastic about its use. Studies have shown that previous recreational gaming is associated with greater surgical skill, especially for laparoscopy. In addition to surgical skills, serious gaming is potentially a good method for learning clinical decision-making and patient interaction. Games are already being developed for teaching specific clinical skills, for example in cardiology and orthopaedics for example. Initial studies suggest that serious gaming is likely to be an effective training method; however, there is a paucity of studies showing the conclusive clinical benefit of serious gaming. Future studies should focus on demonstrating the clinical effectiveness of serious gaming on skills used in patient care.

  11. Effects of age and spa treatment on match running performance over two consecutive games in highly trained young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Horobeanu, Cosmin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Simpson, Ben M; Bourdon, Pitre C

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of age and spa treatment (i.e. combined sauna, cold water immersion, and jacuzzi) on match running performance over two consecutive matches in highly trained young soccer players. Fifteen pre- (age 12.8 ± 0.6 years) and 13 post- (15.9 ± 1 y) peak height velocity (PHV) players played two matches (Matches 1 and 2) within 48 h against the same opposition, with no specific between-match recovery intervention (control). Five post-PHV players also completed another set of two consecutive matches, with spa treatment implemented after the first match. Match running performance was assessed using a global positioning system with very-high-intensity running (> 16.1-19.0 km · h(-1)), sprinting distance (>19 km · h(-1)), and peak match speed determined. Match 2 very-high-intensity running was "possibly" impaired in post-PHV players (-9 ± 33%; ± 90% confidence limits), whereas it was "very likely" improved for the pre-PHV players (+27 ± 22%). The spa treatment had a beneficial impact on Match 2 running performance, with a "likely" rating for sprinting distance (+30 ± 67%) and "almost certain" for peak match speed (+6.4 ± 3%). The results suggest that spa treatment is an effective recovery intervention for post-PHV players, while its value in pre-PHV players is questionable.

  12. Women's water polo world championships: technical and tactical aspects of winning and losing teams in close and unbalanced games.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Corrado; Condello, Giancarlo; Capranica, Laura; Tessitore, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the technical and tactical aspects between winning and losing teams in close (i.e., 1-3 goals of difference) and unbalanced (i.e., >3 goals of difference) elite women's water polo games. A notational analysis was performed on 45 games to evaluate occurrence of action, mean duration, action outcome, origin and execution of shot, offensive and defensive role, and arrangement of even, counterattack, power play, and transition situations. Independent 2-sided t-tests were applied to show differences (p < 0.05) between teams. Regarding close games, effects emerged for action outcome (counterattack: lost possessions; power play: goals, no goal shots), origin (even: zone 1, zone 4; counterattack: zone 1, zone 5) and execution (even: off-the-water shots; counterattack: shots after > than 2 fakes; power play: drive shots) of shots, offensive even arrangements (6 vs. 6/5 vs. 5; 2 vs. 2/1 vs. 1), and role. Regarding unbalanced games, differences emerged for the occurrence of action (even, counterattack), duration (even; power play), action outcome (even: goals, penalties; counterattack: goals, no goal shots, penalties; power play: goals, no goal shots; transition: lost possessions), origin (even: zone 2, zone 4; counterattack: zone 5) and execution (even: free throws, drive shots; counterattack: drive shots, shots after > 2 fakes; power play: drive shots, shots after 1 fake) of shots; offensive even arrangements (2 vs. 2/1 vs. 1), and role; and defensive even arrangements (pressing, zones 1-2, zone M, zones 2-3-4). Differences between close and unbalanced games underlining that water polo performance should be analyzed in relation to specific margins of victory. Therefore, water polo coaches and physical trainers can plan a sound training session according to the most important aspects of close (opponent's exclusion, center forward play, and power play actions) and unbalanced (defensive skills) games.

  13. Video Game Adapts To Brain Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic training system based on video game developed to help children afflicted with attention-deficit disorder (ADD) learn to prolong their attention spans. Uses combination of electroencephalography (EEG) and adaptive control to encourage attentiveness. Monitors trainee's brain-wave activity: if EEG signal indicates attention is waning, system increases difficulty of game, forcing trainee to devote more attention to it. Game designed to make trainees want to win and, in so doing, learn to pay attention for longer times.

  14. Global Maritime Partnerships Game

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-08

    identified during the game, players determined there appeared to be sufficient national and international legal frameworks in place to support the...knowledgeable in the social heritage of a group (organized community or society) due to his or her study, training, or experience in the subject matter...GMPG took place 3 – 8 October 2010 at the Naval War College in Newport, RI and the event week was divided into three general phases. a. The first

  15. Building a Knowledge Culture: An Education and Training Action Plan for the Information Economy, 2005-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA) Joint Statement on Education and Training in the Information Economy released in 2005 provides a national vision for improving education and training outcomes for all Australians through the ubiquitous use of information and communications technology (ICT). In…

  16. How to Assess Gaming-Induced Benefits on Attention and Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Jyoti; Bavelier, Daphne; Gazzaley, Adam

    2012-06-01

    Our daily actions are driven by our goals in the moment, constantly forcing us to choose among various options. Attention and working memory are key enablers of that process. Attention allows for selective processing of goal-relevant information and rejecting task-irrelevant information. Working memory functions to maintain goal-relevant information in memory for brief periods of time for subsequent recall and/or manipulation. Efficient attention and working memory thus support the best extraction and retention of environmental information for optimal task performance. Recent studies have evidenced that attention and working memory abilities can be enhanced by cognitive training games as well as entertainment videogames. Here we review key cognitive paradigms that have been used to evaluate the impact of game-based training on various aspects of attention and working memory. Common use of such methodology within the scientific community will enable direct comparison of the efficacy of different games across age groups and clinical populations. The availability of common assessment tools will ultimately facilitate development of the most effective forms of game-based training for cognitive rehabilitation and education.

  17. Inuit Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keewatin Regional Education Authority, Rankin Inlet (Northwest Territories).

    The purpose of this publication is to record the traditional games played by the Inuit and to preserve a unique form of sports and recreation found in northern Canada. Written in English and Inupiaq, this manual contains descriptions of games played throughout the Arctic with special emphasis on the Keewatin Region, suggestions for teaching Inuit…

  18. Game Time!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Edmund; Howell, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classic playground game called "Sharks and Fishes" to introduce second- to fourth-grade students to the concept of "predation," or the relationships between a predator and its prey. By incorporating the game in a learning cycle on predation, students not only learn about predation in a memorable way, but they…

  19. Stochastic games

    PubMed Central

    Solan, Eilon; Vieille, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In 1953, Lloyd Shapley contributed his paper “Stochastic games” to PNAS. In this paper, he defined the model of stochastic games, which were the first general dynamic model of a game to be defined, and proved that it admits a stationary equilibrium. In this Perspective, we summarize the historical context and the impact of Shapley’s contribution. PMID:26556883

  20. Epistemic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David Williamson

    2005-01-01

    In an article in this issue of "Innovate", Jim Gee asks the question "What would a state of the art instructional video game look like?" Based on the game "Full Spectrum Warrior", he concludes that one model is "to pick [a] domain of authentic professionalism well, intelligently select the skills and knowledge to…

  1. Fun & Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Amy; Kohl, Julie

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how math skills, teamwork and higher-level thinking come together when students create strategic board games. In this article, the authors provide a glimpse of what it was like to be part of "To the Sun!," a game designed by students in the fifth-grade class at Olive Martin School in Lake Villa, IL. Students combined a math…

  2. Game On!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deubel, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This article describes digital game-based learning (DGBL), the uniting of educational content with computer or online games, that holds the potential for a wealth of educational applications, if managed properly. DGBL motivates by virtue of being fun. It is versatile, can be used to teach almost any subject or skill, and, when used correctly, is…

  3. Toward Using Games to Teach Fundamental Computer Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgington, Jeffrey Michael

    2010-01-01

    Video and computer games have become an important area of study in the field of education. Games have been designed to teach mathematics, physics, raise social awareness, teach history and geography, and train soldiers in the military. Recent work has created computer games for teaching computer programming and understanding basic algorithms. …

  4. Adaptivity in Educational Games: Including Player and Gameplay Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewaetere, Mieke; Cornillie, Frederik; Clarebout, Geraldine; Desmet, Piet

    2013-01-01

    The use of educational games for teaching and training is nowadays well-known, although its effectiveness in terms of learning and motivation has not been firmly corroborated. A first reason for this is that research on instructional design research often does not reach the fields of game development and game design. Consequently, instructional…

  5. Serious Video Games for Health How Behavioral Science Guided the Development of a Serious Video Game.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Victoria; Jago, Russell; Griffith, Melissa Juliano

    2010-08-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain players while attempting to modify some aspect of their health behavior. Behavior is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, often making it difficult to change. Behavioral science provides insight into factors that influence specific actions that can be used to guide key game design decisions. This article reports how behavioral science guided the design of a serious video game to prevent Type 2 diabetes and obesity among youth, two health problems increasing in prevalence. It demonstrates how video game designers and behavioral scientists can combine their unique talents to create a highly focused serious video game that entertains while promoting behavior change.

  6. Game Over?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    This level marks the ending of the book. After comparing the game design process to a children's book about designing a butterfly, it goes into how a balance is found when designing a game. To explain this, an analogy is made with the concept of Yin and Yang. This level further deals with the “so what” and “who cares” question of the Triadic Game Design (TGD) approach. It is concluded that it can be used as an “analytical lens,” “application tool,” or “puzzle frame” in the field of games. But to have a real impact on the actual practice, it is needed that people are familiar with the idea of TGD. Since game design is (generally) collaborative, it would be beneficial that more than one person knows about it. For this reason, a game-based workshop has been developed that can be employed at the beginning of a project. Besides making sure that a project runs smoothly during the design, considerations should also be made about what happens if the game is finished. From the observations of the “life after the design” it becomes clear that this is certainly an issue that should not be neglected. The main message of this level concerns, however, that although this book is “game over,” it is everything but “over” for the design and research of games. To bring the field to “the next level,” structural approaches are needed and TGD is one of them. With the insights of this approach in mind, people can start to “dance.” Because it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a game with a meaningful purpose.

  7. Creating Digital Games as Interactive Learning Environments: Factors That Affect Palestinian Teachers' Success in Modifying Video Games for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younis, Bilal Khaleel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that might predict Palestinian teachers' success in modding games for instruction. An instructional game design model named Game Modding for Non-Professionals (GMNP) was created specifically for the training of Palestinian teachers during this study. This study addressed the question: To…

  8. Effects of in-season low-volume high-intensity plyometric training on explosive actions and endurance of young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, César; Alvarez, Cristian; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez, Cristian; Cañas-Jamett, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-05-01

    Integrating specific training methods to improve explosive actions and endurance in youth soccer is an essential part of players' development. This study investigated the efficiency of short-term vertical plyometric training program within soccer practice to improve both explosive actions and endurance in young soccer players. Seventy-six players were recruited and assigned either to a training group (TG; n = 38; 13.2 ± 1.8 years) or a control group (CG; n = 38; 13.2 ± 1.8 years) group. All players trained twice per week, but the TG followed a 7-week plyometric program implemented within soccer practice, whereas the CG followed regular practice. Twenty-meter sprint time (20-m), Illinois agility test time, countermovement jump (CMJ) height, 20- (RSI20) and 40- (RSI40) cm drop jump reactive strength index, multiple 5 bounds distance (MB5), maximal kicking test for distance (MKD), and 2.4-km time trial were measured before and after the 7-week period. Plyometric training induced significant (p ≤ 0.05) and small to moderate standardized effect (SE) improvement in the CMJ (4.3%; SE = 0.20), RSI20 (22%; SE = 0.57), RSI40 (16%; SE = 0.37), MB5 (4.1%; SE = 0.28), Illinois agility test time (-3.5%, SE = -0.26), MKD (14%; SE = 0.53), 2.4-km time trial (-1.9%; SE = -0.27) performances but had a trivial and nonsignificant effect on 20-m sprint time (-0.4%; SE = -0.03). No significant improvements were found in the CG. An integrated vertical plyometric program within the regular soccer practice can substitute soccer drills to improve most explosive actions and endurance, but horizontal exercises should also be included to enhance sprinting performance.

  9. Using Data Mining Results to Improve Educational Video Game Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    This study uses information about in-game strategy use, identified through cluster analysis of actions in an educational video game, to make data-driven modifications to the game in order to reduce construct-irrelevant behavior. The examination of student strategies identified through cluster analysis indicated that (a) it was common for students…

  10. Simulation Games in Production Management Education--A Review. Department of Management Systems Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basnet, C.

    Some 40 years after the inception of management simulation games, the effectiveness of games in management education/training remains unclear. Despite the lack of consensus regarding the teaching and grading methods to be used in conjunction with such games, it is clear that well-conducted simulation games can provide excellent experiential…

  11. Relationships between Game Attributes and Learning Outcomes: Review and Research Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Katherine A.; Bedwell, Wendy L.; Lazzara, Elizabeth H.; Salas, Eduardo; Burke, C. Shawn; Estock, Jamie L.; Orvis, Kara L.; Conkey, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    Games are an effective and cost-saving method in education and training. Although much is known about games and learning in general, little is known about what components of these games (i.e., game attributes) influence learning outcomes. The purpose of this article is threefold. First, we review the literature to understand the "state of play" in…

  12. Toward a Taxonomy Linking Game Attributes to Learning: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedwell, Wendy L.; Pavlas, Davin; Heyne, Kyle; Lazzara, Elizabeth H.; Salas, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The serious games community is moving toward research focusing on direct comparisons between learning outcomes of serious games and those of more traditional training methods. Such comparisons are difficult, however, due to the lack of a consistent taxonomy of game attributes for serious games. Without a clear understanding of what truly…

  13. Characterization of an early afterhyperpolarization after a brief train of action potentials in rat hippocampal neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Williamson, A; Alger, B E

    1990-01-01

    1. In rat hippocampal pyramidal cells in vitro, a brief train of action potentials elicited by direct depolarizing current pulses injected through an intracellular recording electrode is followed by a medium-duration afterhyperpolarization (mAHP) and a longer, slow AHP. We studied the mAHP with the use of current-clamp techniques in the presence of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) to block the slow AHP and isolate the mAHP. 2. The mAHP evoked at hyperpolarized membrane potentials was complicated by a potential generated by the anomalous rectifier current, IQ. The mAHP is insensitive to chloride ions (Cl-), whereas it is sensitive to the extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o). 3. At slightly depolarized levels, the mAHP is partially Ca2+ dependent, being enhanced by increased [Ca2+]o and BAY K 8644 and depressed by decreased [Ca2+]o, nifedipine, and Cd2+. The Ca2(+)-dependent component of the mAHP was also reduced by 100 microM tetraethylammonium (TEA) and charybdotoxin (CTX), suggesting it is mediated by the voltage- and Ca2(+)-dependent K+ current, IC. 4. Most of the Ca2(+)-independent mAHP was blocked by carbachol, implying that IM plays a major role. In a few cells, a small Ca2(+)- and carbachol-insensitive mAHP component was detectable, and this component was blocked by 10 mM TEA, suggesting it was mediated by the delayed rectifier current, IK. The K+ channel antagonist 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 500 microM) did not reduce the mAHP. 5. We infer that the mAHP is a complex potential due either to IQ or to the combined effects of IM and IC. The contributions of each current depend on the recording conditions, with IC playing a role when the cells are activated from depolarized potentials and IM dominating at the usual resting potential. IQ is principally responsible for the mAHP recorded at hyperpolarized membrane potentials.

  14. Building Local Leadership for Change: A National Scan of Parent Leadership Training Programs. Education Policy for Action Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Anne T.

    2010-01-01

    The New York State Senate has given New York City an unprecedented opportunity--to create a Parent Training Center that will build cadres of parent leaders across all five boroughs. The legislation, which places the responsibility for the Center at the City University of New York (CUNY), mandates that the program train and support parents to…

  15. Developmental TVET Rhetoric In-Action: The White Paper for Post-School Education and Training in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoojee, Salim

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the extent to which latest developments in the Technical and Vocational Education and Training System in South Africa respond to key principles espoused for a developmental, democratic and inclusionary ideal. The White Paper for post school education and training (DHET, 2013) approved by Cabinet in November, 2013 is referred to…

  16. Developmental TVET Rhetoric In-Action: The White Paper for Post-School Education and Training in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoojee, Salim

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the extent to which latest developments in the Technical and Vocational Education and Training System in South Africa respond to key principles espoused for a developmental, democratic and inclusionary ideal. The White Paper for post school education and training approved by Cabinet in November, 2013 is referred to by the…

  17. Night Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)

  18. Serious Gaming for Predictive Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Riensche, Roderick M.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Danielson, Gary R.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Butner, R. Scott; Miller, Sarah M.; Franklin, Lyndsey; Zuljevic, Nino

    2009-03-24

    We describe a methodology and architecture to support the development of games in a predictive analytics context. These games serve as part of an overall family of systems designed to gather input knowledge, calculate results of complex predictive technical and social models, and explore those results in an engaging fashion. The games provide an environment shaped and driven in part by the outputs of the models, allowing users to exert influence over a limited set of parameters, and displaying the results when those actions cause changes in the underlying model. We have crafted a prototype system in which we are implementing test versions of games driven by models in such a fashion, using a flexible architecture to allow for future continuation and expansion of this work.

  19. 78 FR 47003 - Proposed Appointment to the National Indian Gaming Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Office of the Secretary Proposed Appointment to the National Indian Gaming Commission ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act provides for a three-person National Indian Gaming Commission... Indian Gaming Commission for a term of 3 years. DATES: Comments must be received before September 3,...

  20. 75 FR 2795 - Amendments to Various National Indian Gaming Commission Regulations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 514 RIN 3141-0001 Amendments to Various National Indian Gaming Commission Regulations; Correction AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Correcting amendments. SUMMARY: On July 27, 2009 (74 FR 36926), the National Indian Gaming Commission...

  1. Transfer of conflict and cooperation from experienced games to new games: a connectionist model of learning

    PubMed Central

    Spiliopoulos, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether, and if so how, learning can be transfered from previously experienced games to novel games has recently attracted the attention of the experimental game theory literature. Existing research presumes that learning operates over actions, beliefs or decision rules. This study instead uses a connectionist approach that learns a direct mapping from game payoffs to a probability distribution over own actions. Learning is operationalized as a backpropagation rule that adjusts the weights of feedforward neural networks in the direction of increasing the probability of an agent playing a myopic best response to the last game played. One advantage of this approach is that it expands the scope of the model to any possible n × n normal-form game allowing for a comprehensive model of transfer of learning. Agents are exposed to games drawn from one of seven classes of games with significantly different strategic characteristics and then forced to play games from previously unseen classes. I find significant transfer of learning, i.e., behavior that is path-dependent, or conditional on the previously seen games. Cooperation is more pronounced in new games when agents are previously exposed to games where the incentive to cooperate is stronger than the incentive to compete, i.e., when individual incentives are aligned. Prior exposure to Prisoner's dilemma, zero-sum and discoordination games led to a significant decrease in realized payoffs for all the game classes under investigation. A distinction is made between superficial and deep transfer of learning both—the former is driven by superficial payoff similarities between games, the latter by differences in the incentive structures or strategic implications of the games. I examine whether agents learn to play the Nash equilibria of games, how they select amongst multiple equilibria, and whether they transfer Nash equilibrium behavior to unseen games. Sufficient exposure to a strategically heterogeneous

  2. Transfer of conflict and cooperation from experienced games to new games: a connectionist model of learning.

    PubMed

    Spiliopoulos, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether, and if so how, learning can be transfered from previously experienced games to novel games has recently attracted the attention of the experimental game theory literature. Existing research presumes that learning operates over actions, beliefs or decision rules. This study instead uses a connectionist approach that learns a direct mapping from game payoffs to a probability distribution over own actions. Learning is operationalized as a backpropagation rule that adjusts the weights of feedforward neural networks in the direction of increasing the probability of an agent playing a myopic best response to the last game played. One advantage of this approach is that it expands the scope of the model to any possible n × n normal-form game allowing for a comprehensive model of transfer of learning. Agents are exposed to games drawn from one of seven classes of games with significantly different strategic characteristics and then forced to play games from previously unseen classes. I find significant transfer of learning, i.e., behavior that is path-dependent, or conditional on the previously seen games. Cooperation is more pronounced in new games when agents are previously exposed to games where the incentive to cooperate is stronger than the incentive to compete, i.e., when individual incentives are aligned. Prior exposure to Prisoner's dilemma, zero-sum and discoordination games led to a significant decrease in realized payoffs for all the game classes under investigation. A distinction is made between superficial and deep transfer of learning both-the former is driven by superficial payoff similarities between games, the latter by differences in the incentive structures or strategic implications of the games. I examine whether agents learn to play the Nash equilibria of games, how they select amongst multiple equilibria, and whether they transfer Nash equilibrium behavior to unseen games. Sufficient exposure to a strategically heterogeneous

  3. Game Animals of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

    This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game animals typical of Colorado. Discussions in both English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game animals, individual game species, and introduced species of game animals. (RE)

  4. Donor Tag Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community Real Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Enter your ...

  5. Superman vs. BAD man? The effects of empathy and game character in violent video games.

    PubMed

    Happ, Christian; Melzer, André; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-10-01

    Recent findings indicate that events in video games, as well as players' perceptions of game characters, moderate well-established video game effects. This includes the level of identification with game characters, and players' interpretation of whether or not the actions of the characters are conceived as moral. In the present study, it was tested whether manipulating empathy for well-known game characters influences video game effects in a violent beat-'em-up game. As was expected, playing the comic hero Superman led to more prosocial behavior (i.e., returning a lost letter) than playing the evil villain Joker. A similar positive effect was observed for inducing game characters as warm and empathic before playing. Compared to a neutral text, participants in the empathy text condition judged the violence in the game as less justified, irrespective of game character. When looking at hostile perception, an interaction was found between empathy and game character. For Superman, empathy led participants to interpret neutral faces as less aggressive. When playing the evil Joker, however, empathy even increased hostile perception. This is in line with previous findings that empathy may not be positive per se. In fact, it may backfire depending on the interaction of game characters and the empathy players feel for them.

  6. Imitation games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Junji; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    1994-08-01

    Mutual-imitation games among artificial birds are studied. By employing a variety of mappings and game rules, the evolution to the edge between chaos and windows is confirmed. Some other general features are observed, including punctuated equilibria, and successive alternations of dominant species with temporal complexity. It is also shown that diversity of species is drastically enhanced if the songs are represented by discrete symbols.

  7. Immersive audiomotor game play enhances neural and perceptual salience of weak signals in noise.

    PubMed

    Whitton, Jonathon P; Hancock, Kenneth E; Polley, Daniel B

    2014-06-24

    All sensory systems face the fundamental challenge of encoding weak signals in noisy backgrounds. Although discrimination abilities can improve with practice, these benefits rarely generalize to untrained stimulus dimensions. Inspired by recent findings that action video game training can impart a broader spectrum of benefits than traditional perceptual learning paradigms, we trained adult humans and mice in an immersive audio game that challenged them to forage for hidden auditory targets in a 2D soundscape. Both species learned to modulate their angular search vectors and target approach velocities based on real-time changes in the level of a weak tone embedded in broadband noise. In humans, mastery of this tone in noise task generalized to an improved ability to comprehend spoken sentences in speech babble noise. Neural plasticity in the auditory cortex of trained mice supported improved decoding of low-intensity sounds at the training frequency and an enhanced resistance to interference from background masking noise. These findings highlight the potential to improve the neural and perceptual salience of degraded sensory stimuli through immersive computerized games.

  8. Exploring the Challenges in Scaling up the Delivery of Action Learning Facilitator Training within a Global Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antell, Sonja; Heywood, John

    2015-01-01

    Action learning is often used as an element of leadership development programmes. The intention is to support classroom learning with an experiential thread which runs throughout the life of the programme. Action Learning Associates (ALA) has been working with an international organisation for three years to deliver the global "First Line…

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 411. Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis), Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 411, Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis). CAU 411 is located on the Nevada Test and Training Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), NAFR-23-01, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1996 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 411 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 411 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, and to determine whether the CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU. The results of the field investigation will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on November 20, 2014, by representatives of NDEP, the U.S. Air Force (USAF), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine whether CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. The following text summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 411; Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information; If COCs are no longer present, establish clean closure as the corrective action; If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions

  10. Spring-action Apparatus for Fixation of Eyeball (SAFE): a novel, cost-effective yet simple device for ophthalmic wet-lab training.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Seema; Baskaran, Prabu; Fazal, Romana; Sulaiman, Syed Mohammad; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Venkatesh, Rengaraj

    2016-10-01

    Achieving a formed and firm eyeball which is stably fixed in a holding device is a major challenge of surgical wet-lab training. Our innovation, the 'Spring-action Apparatus for Fixation of Eyeball (SAFE)' is a robust, simple and economical device to solve this problem. It consists of a hollow iron cylinder to which a spring-action syringe is attached. The spring-action syringe generates vacuum and enables reliable fixation of a human or animal cadaveric eye on the iron cylinder. The rise in intraocular pressure due to vacuum fixation can be varied as per need or nature of surgery being practised. A mask-fixed version of this device is also designed to train surgeons for appropriate hand positioning. An experienced surgeon performed various surgeries including manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS), phacoemulsification, laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), femtosecond LASIK docking, Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, penetrating keratoplasty and trabeculectomy on this device, while a trainee surgeon practised MSICS and wound suturing. Skill-appropriate comfort level was much higher with SAFE than with conventional globe holders for both surgeons. Due to its stability, pressure adjustability, portability, cost-efficiency and simplicity, we recommend SAFE as the basic equipment for every wet lab.

  11. Developing Cooperatives in the Sahel. National Experts Trained by the ILO Take the Reins of International Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromont, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Describes the network of experts in training and the organization of cooperatives that is being in formed in Central Africa. Suggests that government authorities must encourage their efforts and create a favorable environment for the organization of rural producers. (JOW)

  12. Parietal plasticity after training with a complex video game is associated with individual differences in improvements in an untrained working memory task.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Aki; Voss, Michelle W; Lee, Hyunkyu; Vo, Loan T K; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have devoted considerable attention and resources to cognitive training, yet there have been few examinations of the relationship between individual differences in patterns of brain activity during the training task and training benefits on untrained tasks (i.e., transfer). While a predominant hypothesis suggests that training will transfer if there is training-induced plasticity in brain regions important for the untrained task, this theory lacks sufficient empirical support. To address this issue we investigated the relationship between individual differences in training-induced changes in brain activity during a cognitive training videogame, and whether those changes explained individual differences in the resulting changes in performance in untrained tasks. Forty-five young adults trained with a videogame that challenges working memory, attention, and motor control for 15 2-h sessions. Before and after training, all subjects received neuropsychological assessments targeting working memory, attention, and procedural learning to assess transfer. Subjects also underwent pre- and post-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while they played the training videogame to assess how these patterns of brain activity change in response to training. For regions implicated in working memory, such as the superior parietal lobe (SPL), individual differences in the post-minus-pre changes in activation predicted performance changes in an untrained working memory task. These findings suggest that training-induced plasticity in the functional representation of a training task may play a role in individual differences in transfer. Our data support and extend previous literature that has examined the association between training related cognitive changes and associated changes in underlying neural networks. We discuss the role of individual differences in brain function in training generalizability and make suggestions for future cognitive training research.

  13. Industrial Partnership Prosperity Game{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Boyak, K.; Berman, M.; Beck, D.

    1998-02-01

    Prosperity Games TM are an outgrowth and adaptation move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games TM are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education, and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games TM are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Industry Partnership Prosperity Game sponsored by the Technology Partnerships and Commercialization Center at Sandia National Laboratories. Players came from the Sandia line organizations, the Sandia business development and technology partnerships organizations, the US Department of Energy, academia, and industry The primary objectives of this game were to: explore ways to increase industry partnerships to meet long-term Sandia goals; improve Sandia business development and marketing strategies and tactics; improve the process by which Sandia develops long-term strategic alliances. The game actions and recommendations of these players provided valuable insights as to what Sandia can do to meet these objectives.

  14. Iterated crowdsourcing dilemma game

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Koji; Cebrian, Manuel; Abeliuk, Andres; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the class of so-called reactive strategies, i.e., those depending on the last action of the opponent. Among the 4096 possible reactive strategies, we find 16 strategies each of which is stable in some parameter regions. Repeated encounters of the players can improve social welfare when the damage inflicted by an attack and the cost of attack are both small. Under the current framework, repeated interactions do not really ameliorate the crowdsourcing dilemma in a majority of the parameter space. PMID:24526244

  15. Iterated crowdsourcing dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Koji; Cebrian, Manuel; Abeliuk, Andres; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-02-01

    The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the class of so-called reactive strategies, i.e., those depending on the last action of the opponent. Among the 4096 possible reactive strategies, we find 16 strategies each of which is stable in some parameter regions. Repeated encounters of the players can improve social welfare when the damage inflicted by an attack and the cost of attack are both small. Under the current framework, repeated interactions do not really ameliorate the crowdsourcing dilemma in a majority of the parameter space.

  16. Motor training and the combination of action observation and peripheral nerve stimulation reciprocally interfere with the plastic changes induced in primary motor cortex excitability.

    PubMed

    Bisio, Ambra; Avanzino, Laura; Biggio, Monica; Ruggeri, Piero; Bove, Marco

    2017-04-21

    AO-PNS is a stimulation protocol combining action observation (AO) and peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) to induce plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1) (increased excitability). Another method to increase M1 excitability is motor training. The combination of two protocols, which individually induce long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in overlapping neural circuits, results in a transitory occlusion or reverse of this phenomenon. This study aimed to understand the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying AO-PNS by testing whether AO-PNS and motor training induced LTP-like plasticity in, at least partially, overlapping neural networks. One group of participants practiced a motor training (finger opposition movements) followed by AO-PNS, whereas another group performed the two protocols in reverse order. Motor performance was evaluated by means of a sensor-engineered glove and transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess M1 excitability before and after each conditioning protocol. Motor training increased movement frequency, suggesting the occurrence of motor learning in both groups. When applied on first, both motor training and AO-PNS significantly increased the motor-evoked potential (MEP), but occluded the increase of cortical excitability expected after the following protocol, leading to a significant decrease of MEP amplitude. These results suggest that motor training and AO-PNS act on partially overlapping neuronal networks, which include M1, and that AO-PNS might be able to induce LTP-like plasticity in a similar way to overt movement execution. This candidates AO-PNS as methodology potentially useful when planning rehabilitative interventions on patients who cannot voluntarily move.

  17. 77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Deemed Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III... Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. On October 31, 2012, the Coyote Valley Band of Pomo Indians and the State of California submitted Amendment I to the Class III compact approved on December...

  18. Handouts for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action Training Strategies for Meeting the 2020 Vision

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Materials for course intended to develop and enhance the skills of qualified personnel who will implement corrective actions for their sites by the year 2020 that are protective of human health and the environment while encouraging revitalization.

  19. Stacking the deck: teaching social skills to retarded adults with a modified table game.

    PubMed

    Foxx, R M; McMorrow, M J; Schloss, C N

    1983-01-01

    This study developed and evaluated a social skills training program for institutionalized mildly or moderately retarded and dually diagnosed individuals. Social skills were conceptualized as requiring an action or reaction within six skill areas: compliments, social interactions, politeness, criticism, social confrontation, and questions/answers. The program taught social skills using a commercially available table game, Sorry, and a specially designed card deck. Each card represented one of the skill areas and was designed to train either an actor or reactor response. The program featured response specific feedback, self-monitoring, individualized reinforcers, and individualized performance criterion levels. A multiple baseline across two groups (N = 3 per group) revealed that the game contingencies increased social skills in all targeted areas. After training, the subjects displayed their newly learned skills at or above their trained levels in two different settings with novel persons present. Although untargeted, the complexity of the subjects' responses increased across conditions, since there was a steady increase in the number of words they used per response. The program appears to be a viable means of training social skills since it uses standardized training procedures, requires only one facilitator, and is in itself a social situation that may encourage interactions with peers, cooperation, competition, and politeness.

  20. Juegos - Cuentos - Cantos - Y - Rimas. Programa Piloto de Entrenamiento Para El Asociado Bilinque y Bicultural En El Desarrollo del Nino: Guia XII [Games - Stories - Songs -And - Rhymes. Pilot Program for the Training of Bilingual and Bicultural Teachers for the Cognitive Development of the Child: Guide XII].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Celis, Margarita

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, the twelfth in a series of 16, is designed for preschool teachers and paraprofessional trainees and contains (in four separate sections) games, stories, songs and rhymes in Spanish that can be used in a bilingual, multicultural classroom setting. The module, written in Spanish, offers…