Science.gov

Sample records for action goals established

  1. Set Goals & Select Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This phase of the Local Climate Action Framework will help users articulate the goals for their climate, energy, and sustainability programs, as well as to identify the actions that are most appropriate to help meet those goals.

  2. How the gastroenterology nurse can establish and meet career goals.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    A career goal promotes professional growth for the gastroenterology nurse. Short-term goals (achievable in less than one year) focus toward attaining a long-term goal (achievable in 5 to 10 years). The steps to achieving a career goal are self-assessment, career goal development, action plan development, implementation of the action plan, evaluation, and the establishment of a new goal. A career goal must be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and have a specified time frame. A tailor-made action plan is a list of interventions to promote goal achievement within the specified time frame. A goal posted in a prominent area is less likely to be forgotten and can guide day-to-day activities. A career goal should be reviewed and revised at least annually. A professional resume documents these career achievements.

  3. Goal-Directed Action Representation in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalla, Tiziana; Labruyere, Nelly; Georgieff, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of individuals with autism to represent goal-directed behavioural actions. We compared the performance of subjects with autism (n=16), mentally retarded subjects (n=14) and normal healthy subjects (n=15) in a sequencing task consisted in arranging pictures of single events in their…

  4. Motor contagion: goal-directed actions are more contagious than non-goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, Cédric A; Shipley, Thomas F; Capa, Rémi L; Marshall, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Recent theories posit a mirror-matching system mapping observed actions onto one's own motor system. Determining whether this system makes a distinction between goal-directed and non-goal-directed actions is crucial for the understanding of its function. The present study tested whether motor interference between observed and executed actions, which is thought to be an index of perceptual-motor matching, depends on the presence of goals in the observed action. Participants executed sinusoidal arm movements while observing a video of another person making similar or different movements. In certain conditions, elements representing goals for the observed movement were superimposed on the video displays. Overall, observing an incongruent movement interfered with movement execution. This interference was markedly increased when the observed incongruent movement was directed toward a visible goal, suggesting a greater perceptual-motor matching during observation of goal-directed versus non-goal-directed actions. This finding supports an action-reconstruction model of mirror system function rather than the traditional direct-matching model.

  5. A framework for establishing restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Anne M; Larson, Diane L; DalSoglio, Julie A; Harris, James A; Labus, Paul; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Skrabis, Kristin E

    2016-04-01

    As natural resources become increasingly limited, the value of restoring contaminated sites, both terrestrial and aquatic, becomes increasingly apparent. Traditionally, goals for remediation have been set before any consideration of goals for ecological restoration. The goals for remediation have focused on removing or limiting contamination whereas restoration goals have targeted the ultimate end use. Here, we present a framework for developing a comprehensive set of achievable goals for ecological restoration of contaminated sites to be used in concert with determining goals for remediation. This framework was developed during a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and Society of Ecological Restoration (SER) cosponsored workshop that brought together experts from multiple countries. Although most members were from North America, this framework is designed for use internationally. We discuss the integration of establishing goals for both contaminant remediation and overall restoration, and the need to include both the restoration of ecological and socio-cultural-economic value in the context of contaminated sites. Although recognizing that in some countries there may be regulatory issues associated with contaminants and clean up, landscape setting and social drivers can inform the restoration goals. We provide a decision tree support tool to guide the establishment of restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems. The overall intent of this decision tree is to provide a framework for goal setting and to identify outcomes achievable given the contamination present at a site.

  6. A guide for establishing restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Anne M.; Larson, Diane L.; DalSoglio, Julie A.; Harris, James A.; Labus, Paul; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Skarbis, Krisin E.

    2016-01-01

    As natural resources become increasingly limited, the value of restoring contaminated sites, both terrestrial and aquatic, becomes increasingly apparent. Traditionally, goals for remediation have been set before any consideration of goals for ecological restoration. The goals for remediation have focused on removing or limiting contamination whereas restoration goals have targeted the ultimate end use. Here, we present a framework for developing a comprehensive set of achievable goals for ecological restoration of contaminated sites to be used in concert with determining goals for remediation. This framework was developed during a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and Society of Ecological Restoration (SER) cosponsored workshop that brought together experts from multiple countries. Although most members were from North America, this framework is designed for use internationally. We discuss the integration of establishing goals for both contaminant remediation and overall restoration, and the need to include both the restoration of ecological and socio-cultural-economic value in the context of contaminated sites. Although recognizing that in some countries there may be regulatory issues associated with contaminants and clean up, landscape setting and social drivers can inform the restoration goals. We provide a decision tree support tool to guide the establishment of restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems. The overall intent of this decision tree is to provide a framework for goal setting and to identify outcomes achievable given the contamination present at a site.

  7. Teaching Students to Attain Annual Transition Goals Using the Take Action Goal Attainment Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jodie D.; Martin, James E.; Osmani, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    This study used the Take Action goal attainment lesson package and assistive technology to teach nine high school students with mild to moderate disabilities to attain annual transition goals. The Take Action lessons increased students' goal attainment knowledge, and this knowledge generalized to improved Plan Organizers, and slightly increased…

  8. The case of pretense: observing actions and inferring goals.

    PubMed

    Schubotz, Ricarda I; von Cramon, D Yves

    2009-04-01

    When we observe an action, we know almost immediately what goal is pursued by the actor. Strikingly, this applies also to pretend action (pantomime), which provides relevant information about the manipulation itself but not about the manipulated objects. The present fMRI study addressed the issue of goal inference from pretend action as compared with real action. We found differences as well as commonalities for the brain correlates of inferring goals from both types of action. They differed with regard to the weights of the underlying action observation network, indicating the exploitation of object information in the case of real actions and manipulation information in the case of pretense. However, goal inferences from manipulation information resulted in a common network for both real and pretend action. Interestingly, this latter network also comprised areas that are not identified by action observation and that might be due to the processing of scene gist and to the evaluation of fit of putative action goals. These findings suggest that observation of pretense emphasizes the requirement to internally simulate the observed act but rule out fundamental differences of how observers cope with real and pretend action.

  9. The Construction of Career through Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard A.; Valach, Ladislav

    2004-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that occupational career is constructed through a system of intentional, goal-directed processes in the form of actions and projects as well as other careers, such as the family career and relationship careers. A contextual action theory of career is proposed as an approach that reflects a constructionist stance and…

  10. Evolving the capacity to understand actions, intentions, and goals.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Marc; Wood, Justin

    2010-01-01

    We synthesize the contrasting predictions of motor simulation and teleological theories of action comprehension and present evidence from a series of studies showing that monkeys and apes-like humans-extract the meaning of an event by (a) going beyond the surface appearance of actions, attributing goals and intentions to the agent; (b) using details about the environment to infer when an action is rational or irrational; (c) making predictions about an agent's goal and the most probable action to obtain the goal, within the constraints of the situation; (d) predicting the most probable outcome of actions even when they are physiologically incapable of producing the actions; and (e) combining information about means and outcomes to make decisions about social interactions, some with moral relevance. These studies reveal the limitations of motor simulation theories, especially those that rely on the notion of direct matching and mirror neuron activation. They provide support, however, for a teleological theory, rooted in an inferential process that extracts information about action means, potential goals, and the environmental constraints that limit rational action.

  11. Goal Reconstruction: How Teton Blends Situated Action and Planned Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-03

    5. Appendix: Teton 36 5.1. Knowledge representation 36 5.2. The execution cycle 37 5.3. Memories 39 Accssj-,n For NTIS 2A&I J, ’I, : t I .... J/J...Conclusions 35 5. Appendix: Teton 36 5.1. Knowledge representation 36 5.2. The execution cycle 37 5.3. Memories 39 When you purchase a programming language...inadequacies in current accounts of human working memory for goals. The third problem is that current accounts of problem solving overemphasize planning

  12. A motivated action theory account of goal orientation.

    PubMed

    DeShon, Richard P; Gillespie, Jennifer Z

    2005-11-01

    Rapid organizational change is increasing the pressure on employees to continually update their skills and adapt their behavior to new organizational realities. Goal orientation is a promising motivational construct that may explain why some individuals adapt to change better. Unfortunately, the current goal orientation literature is in a state of conceptual and methodological disarray. This presentation reviews the goal orientation literature and identifies numerous conceptual ambiguities, including definitional inconsistencies, dimensional inconsistencies, and inconsistencies in the conceptualization of stability. These conceptual ambiguities result in a confusing array of goal orientation measures and manipulations and ultimately an incoherent empirical database. A dynamic self-regulation model of goal orientation, termed motivated action theory, is presented to integrate the various conceptual perspectives and to provide guidelines for future goal orientation research.

  13. Connecting Goals and Actions during Reading: The Role of Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrantia, Josetxu; Múñez, David; Tarín, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate information that is separated within a text, such as connecting a character's action to a goal stated earlier in the text, is a critical factor in narrative comprehension. In the present study, we analyze the ability of 9- and 11-year olds to integrate such information. In addition, we examined the effect of…

  14. Conceptual knowledge for understanding other's actions is organized primarily around action goals.

    PubMed

    van Elk, M; van Schie, H T; Bekkering, H

    2008-07-01

    Semantic knowledge about objects entails both knowing how to grasp an object (grip-related knowledge) and what to do with an object (goal-related knowledge). Considerable evidence suggests a hierarchical organization in which specific hand-grips in action execution are most often selected to accomplish a remote action goal. The present study aimed to investigate whether a comparable hierarchical organization of semantic knowledge applies to the recognition of other's object-directed actions as well. Correctness of either the Grip (hand grip applied to the object) or the Goal (end-location at which an object was directed) were manipulated independently in two experiments. In Experiment 1, subjects were required to attend selectively to either the correctness of the grip or the goal of the observed action. Subjects were faster when attending to the goal of the action and a strong interference of goal-violations was observed when subjects attended to the grip of the action. Importantly, observation of irrelevant goal- or grip-related violations interfered with making decisions about the correctness of the relevant dimension only when the relevant dimension was correct. In contrast, in Experiment 2, when subjects attended to an action-irrelevant stimulus dimension (i.e. orientation of the object), no interference of goal- or grip-related violations was found, ruling out the possibility that interference-effects result from perceptual differences between stimuli. These findings suggest that understanding the correctness of an action selectively recruits specialized, but interacting networks, processing the correctness of goal- and grip-specific information during action observation.

  15. Impaired acquisition of goal-directed action in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    de Wit, S; van de Vijver, I; Ridderinkhof, K R

    2014-06-01

    According to dual-system theories, instrumental learning is supported by dissociable goal-directed and habitual systems. Previous investigations of the dual-system balance in healthy aging have yielded mixed results. To further investigate this issue, we compared performance of young (17-24 years) and older (69-84 years) adults on an instrumental learning task. Following the initial learning phase, the behavioral autonomy of the motivational significance of the instrumental outcome was assessed with an outcome-devaluation test and slips-of-action test. The present study provides evidence for a disrupted dual-system balance in healthy aging, as reflected in reduced outcome-induced conflict during acquisition, as well as in impaired performance during the test stage, during which participants had to flexibly adjust their actions to changes in the current desirability of the behavioral outcome. These findings will be discussed in relation to previous aging studies into habitual and goal-directed control, as well as other cognitive impairments, challenges that older adults may face in everyday life, and to the neurobiological basis of the developmental pattern of goal-directed action across the lifespan.

  16. Exploring the brain basis of joint action: co-ordination of actions, goals and intentions.

    PubMed

    Newman-Norlund, Roger D; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Bekkering, Harold

    2007-01-01

    Humans are frequently confronted with goal-directed tasks that can not be accomplished alone, or that benefit from co-operation with other agents. The relatively new field of social cognitive neuroscience seeks to characterize functional neuroanatomical systems either specifically or preferentially engaged during such joint-action tasks. Based on neuroimaging experiments conducted on critical components of joint action, the current paper outlines the functional network upon which joint action is hypothesized to be dependant. This network includes brain areas likely to be involved in interpersonal co-ordination at the action, goal, and intentional levels. Experiments focusing specifically on joint-action situations similar to those encountered in real life are required to further specify this model.

  17. Establishing an Intellectual and Theoretical Foundation for the After Action Review Process - A Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Research Note 2011-07 Establishing an Intellectual and Theoretical Foundation for the After Action Review Process – A Literature Review...Dec 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Establishing an Intellectual and Theoretical Foundation for the After Action Review Process – A Literature Review...of the cognitive and learning science research that is relevant to defining an effective after action review (AAR) process . The goal of this review

  18. 49 CFR 26.49 - How are overall goals established for transit vehicle manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How are overall goals established for transit... PROGRAMS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting § 26.49 How are overall goals established for transit... transit vehicle manufacturer, as a condition of being authorized to bid or propose on FTA-assisted...

  19. 49 CFR 26.49 - How are overall goals established for transit vehicle manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How are overall goals established for transit... PROGRAMS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting § 26.49 How are overall goals established for transit... transit vehicle manufacturer, as a condition of being authorized to bid or propose on FTA-assisted...

  20. 49 CFR 26.49 - How are overall goals established for transit vehicle manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are overall goals established for transit... PROGRAMS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting § 26.49 How are overall goals established for transit... transit vehicle manufacturer, as a condition of being authorized to bid or propose on FTA-assisted...

  1. 49 CFR 26.49 - How are overall goals established for transit vehicle manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are overall goals established for transit... PROGRAMS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting § 26.49 How are overall goals established for transit... transit vehicle manufacturer, as a condition of being authorized to bid or propose on FTA-assisted...

  2. 49 CFR 26.49 - How are overall goals established for transit vehicle manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How are overall goals established for transit... PROGRAMS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting § 26.49 How are overall goals established for transit... transit vehicle manufacturer, as a condition of being authorized to bid or propose on FTA-assisted...

  3. Predicting goals in action episodes attenuates BOLD response in inferior frontal and occipitotemporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Hrkać, Mari; Morikawa, Yuka; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2014-11-01

    Actions are usually made of several action steps gearing towards an overarching goal. During observation of such action episodes the overarching action goal becomes more and more clear and upcoming action steps can be predicted with increasing precision. To tap this process, the present fMRI study investigated the dynamic changes of neural activity during the observation of distinct action steps that cohere by an overarching goal. Our hypotheses specifically addressed the role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a region assumed to be a key hub for integration functions during action processing, as well as the role of regions involved in action perception (often referred to as action observation network or AON) that should benefit from the predictability of forthcoming action steps. Participants watched separate action steps that formed a coherent action goal or not (factor goal coherence) and were performed by a single actor or not (factor actor coherence). Independent of actor coherence, neural activity in IFG and occipitotemporal cortex decreased as a function of goal predictability during the unfolding of goal-coherent episodes. In addition, we identified a network (precuneus, dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, angular gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus) that showed increased activity for goal coherence. We conclude that IFG fosters the integration of action steps to build overarching goals. Identifying the unifying goal of an action episode allows anticipation, and thus efficient processing, of forthcoming action steps. To this end, past action steps of the action episode are buffered and recollected with recourse to episodic memory.

  4. Accomplishing the Goals of Affirmative Action--with or without Affirmative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Might it be possible to achieve some or all of the goals of affirmative action through an approach based on an entirely different definition of the problem? This article says "yes." Its logic rests not upon an approach that creates informal quotas for identified groups, but instead on one aimed at discovering merit in people who are…

  5. SADC establishes a regional action plan.

    PubMed

    Klouda, T

    1997-02-01

    The regional meeting held on AIDS strategy in Lilongwe, Malawi, in December, 1996, made important advances. The 12 countries of the SADC (Southern Africa Development Community) joined the European Union to institute a regional action plan for the reduction of susceptibility of people to HIV because of social, cultural, and environmental factors; the vulnerability of people with HIV infection to social and other difficulties; and the vulnerability of institutions because of the foregoing impacts. At the conference the issues explored were employment, mining, medical drugs, education, and tourism. An employment charter was seen as crucial for the success of AIDS and workplace activities. Facilitation of travel across borders was important for the reduction of susceptibility to HIV infection. Enhancement of regional policies for essential drugs was vital for drugs for the treatment of AIDS. The clarification of the regional role was critical for regional support of national action (strengthening technical and institutional capacities) and for regional joint action such as studies on research, harmonization of data collection on HIV/AIDS; organization of training; development of information and education on HIV/AIDS; facilitation of manufacturing of drugs and condoms; and the development of a regional information and education program about HIV/AIDS. The conference also clarified HIV/AIDS programs in relation to other health and socioeconomic problems.

  6. Equipping Every Student with Psychological Tools: A Vygotskian Guide to Establishing the Goals of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eun, Barohny

    2016-01-01

    The present conceptual analysis begins with an assertion that the most fundamental act in any educational endeavors is establishing their goals. The discussion proceeds to reviewing recent pertinent literature that presents Vygotsky's theory of development as a useful source in providing guidance to establishing the goals of education in rapidly…

  7. Goal Plans of Action and Inferences During Comprehension of Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trabasso, Tom; Wiley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A theory of how readers monitor concerns of characters and make causal inferences during reading is presented. The focus is on the reader's understanding of what characters do when goals either succeed or fail. Knowledge of goal processes enable coherent understanding to be achieved when characters change goal plans and pursue new courses of…

  8. Goals influence memory and imitation for dynamic human action in 36-month-old children.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Jeff; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2013-02-01

    Adults' memory for action is organized according to a hierarchy of goals. Little previous research has examined whether goals also play a crucial role in young children's memory for action, and particularly whether goal information is privileged over veridical sequential order information. The current experiment investigated 3-year-old children's (N = 40) memory for naturally occurring interleaved action sequences: Sequences in which an actor switched back and forth between carrying out actions related to two distinct goals. Such sequences allowed a test of whether children's action representations prioritize a goal interpretation over veridical sequential information. Children's memory for the action events was assessed by deferred imitation, 5-min after the demonstration had ceased. Results indicated that children's memory prioritizes goals over veridical sequential order - even to the extent that the actual sequential order is distorted in memory. These findings deepen our understanding of action processing and memory with implications for social-cognitive development.

  9. Actors and Actions: The Role of Agent Behavior in Infants' Attribution of Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan C.; Shimizu, Y. Alpha; Ok, Su-Jeong

    2007-01-01

    Twelve-month-old infants attribute goals to both familiar, human agents and unfamiliar, non-human agents. They also attribute goal-directedness to both familiar actions and unfamiliar ones. Four conditions examined information 12-month-olds use to determine which actions of an unfamiliar agent are goal-directed. Infants who witnessed the agent…

  10. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Establishing affirmative action plans. 1608.4 Section 1608.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED §...

  11. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishing affirmative action plans. 1608.4 Section 1608.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED §...

  12. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Establishing affirmative action plans. 1608.4 Section 1608.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED §...

  13. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishing affirmative action plans. 1608.4 Section 1608.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED §...

  14. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishing affirmative action plans. 1608.4 Section 1608.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED §...

  15. The struggle of giving up personal goals: affective, physiological, and cognitive consequences of an action crisis.

    PubMed

    Brandstätter, Veronika; Herrmann, Marcel; Schüler, Julia

    2013-12-01

    A critical phase in goal striving occurs when setbacks accumulate and goal disengagement becomes an issue. This critical phase is conceptualized as an action crisis and assumed to be characterized by an intrapsychic conflict in which the individual becomes torn between further goal pursuit and goal disengagement. Our theorizing converges with Klinger's conceptualization of goal disengagement as a process, rather than a discrete event. Two longitudinal field studies tested and found support for the hypothesis that an action crisis not only compromises an individual's psychological and physiological well-being, but also dampens the cognitive evaluation of the respective goal. In Study 3, marathon runners experiencing an action crisis in their goal of running marathons showed a stronger cortisol secretion and a lower performance in the race 2 weeks later. Results are interpreted in terms of action-phase-specific mindsets with a focus on self-regulatory processes in goal disengagement.

  16. Dysregulation in level of goal and action identification across psychological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Goals, events, and actions can be mentally represented within a hierarchical framework that ranges from more abstract to more concrete levels of identification. A more abstract level of identification involves general, superordinate, and decontextualized mental representations that convey the meaning of goals, events, and actions, “why” an action is performed, and its purpose, ends, and consequences. A more concrete level of identification involves specific and subordinate mental representations that include contextual details of goals, events, and actions, and the specific “how” details of an action. This review considers three lines of evidence for considering that dysregulation of level of goal/action identification may be a transdiagnostic process. First, there is evidence that different levels of identification have distinct functional consequences and that in non-clinical samples level of goal/action identification appears to be regulated in a flexible and adaptive way to match the level of goal/action identification to circumstances. Second, there is evidence that level of goal/action identification causally influences symptoms and processes involved in psychological disorders, including emotional response, repetitive thought, impulsivity, problem solving and procrastination. Third, there is evidence that the level of goal/action identification is biased and/or dysregulated in certain psychological disorders, with a bias towards more abstract identification for negative events in depression, GAD, PTSD, and social anxiety. PMID:20579789

  17. Reaching Your Development Goals. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Cynthia D.; Martineau, Jennifer W.

    Current research and practice suggest that those who commit to pursuing goals immediately following a feedback experience are more likely to capitalize on their strengths and set a productive path for growth. Any intentional effort to learn, grow, and change involves seeking challenging assignments, training for targeted skills, and developmental…

  18. Perceiving Goals and Actions in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalla, Tiziana; Labruyère, Nelly; Georgieff, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the ability to parse familiar sequences of action into meaningful events in young individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), as compared to young individuals with typical development (TD) and young individuals with moderate mental retardation or learning disabilities (MLDs). While viewing two…

  19. Action Type and Goal Type Modulate Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts in 14-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gredeback, Gustaf; Stasiewicz, Dorota; Falck-Ytter, Terje; von Hofsten, Claes; Rosander, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Ten- and 14-month-old infants' gaze was recorded as the infants observed videos of different hand actions directed toward multiple goals. Infants observed an actor who (a) reached for objects and displaced them, (b) reached for objects and placed them inside containers, or (c) moved his fisted hand. Fourteen-month-olds, but not 10-month-olds,…

  20. The role of immediate and final goals in action planning: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Majdandzić, Jasminka; Grol, Meike J; van Schie, Hein T; Verhagen, Lennart; Toni, Ivan; Bekkering, Harold

    2007-08-15

    To interact effectively with our environment, we need to specify the intended outcomes (goals) of our actions. In this process, immediate goals and final goals can be regarded as different levels within a hierarchically organized system for action planning: immediate goals and movement details are selected to accomplish more remote goals. Behavioral studies support this notion of different levels of action planning, but the neurophysiological basis remains unclear. Using fMRI, we examined the neural correlates of preparing object manipulations based on either the desired end-state (the final goal) or the initial movement towards a target (the immediate goal). Subjects had to insert an object (consisting of a large and a small cube) into one of two corresponding large and small slots. The subjects were cued on either which slot to fill (Final Goal trials) or which object part to grasp (Immediate Goal trials). These actions required similar movements, but different planning. During Final Goal trials, there was differential preparatory activity along the superior frontal gyrus (bilaterally) and in left inferior parietal cortex. Immediate Goal trials evoked differential activity in occipito-parietal and occipito-temporal cortex. These findings support the notion that actions can be planned at different levels. We show that different fronto-parietal circuits plan the same action, by a relative emphasis on either selecting a sequence of movements to achieve a desired end-state, or selecting movements spatially compatible with given object properties.

  1. How Task Goals Mediate the Interplay between Perception and Action.

    PubMed

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition suppose that perception, action, and cognition are tightly intertwined and share common representations and processes. Indeed, numerous empirical studies demonstrate interaction between stimulus perception, response planning, and response execution. In this paper, we present an experiment and a connectionist model that show how the Simon effect, a canonical example of perception-action congruency, can be moderated by the (cognitive representation of the) task instruction. To date, no representational account of this influence exists. In the experiment, a two-dimensional Simon task was used, with critical stimuli being colored arrows pointing in one of four directions (backward, forward, left, or right). Participants stood on a Wii balance board, oriented diagonally toward the screen displaying the stimuli. They were either instructed to imagine standing on a snowboard or on a pair of skis and to respond to the stimulus color by leaning toward either the left or right foot. We expected that participants in the snowboard condition would encode these movements as forward or backward, resulting in a Simon effect on this dimension. This was confirmed by the results. The left-right congruency effect was larger in the ski condition, whereas the forward-backward congruency effect appeared only in the snowboard condition. The results can be readily accounted for by HiTEC, a connectionist model that aims at capturing the interaction between perception and action at the level of representations, and the way this interaction is mediated by cognitive control. Together, the empirical work and the connectionist model contribute to a better understanding of the complex interaction between perception, cognition, and action.

  2. How Task Goals Mediate the Interplay between Perception and Action

    PubMed Central

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition suppose that perception, action, and cognition are tightly intertwined and share common representations and processes. Indeed, numerous empirical studies demonstrate interaction between stimulus perception, response planning, and response execution. In this paper, we present an experiment and a connectionist model that show how the Simon effect, a canonical example of perception–action congruency, can be moderated by the (cognitive representation of the) task instruction. To date, no representational account of this influence exists. In the experiment, a two-dimensional Simon task was used, with critical stimuli being colored arrows pointing in one of four directions (backward, forward, left, or right). Participants stood on a Wii balance board, oriented diagonally toward the screen displaying the stimuli. They were either instructed to imagine standing on a snowboard or on a pair of skis and to respond to the stimulus color by leaning toward either the left or right foot. We expected that participants in the snowboard condition would encode these movements as forward or backward, resulting in a Simon effect on this dimension. This was confirmed by the results. The left–right congruency effect was larger in the ski condition, whereas the forward–backward congruency effect appeared only in the snowboard condition. The results can be readily accounted for by HiTEC, a connectionist model that aims at capturing the interaction between perception and action at the level of representations, and the way this interaction is mediated by cognitive control. Together, the empirical work and the connectionist model contribute to a better understanding of the complex interaction between perception, cognition, and action. PMID:23675361

  3. What's in a goal? The role of motivational relevance in cognition and action.

    PubMed

    Eitam, Baruch; Higgins, E Tory

    2014-04-01

    We argue that it is possible to go beyond the "selfish goal" metaphor and make an even stronger case for the role of unconscious motivation in cognition and action. Through the relevance of a representation (ROAR) framework, we describe how not only value motivation, which relates to "selfish goals," but also truth motivation and control motivation impact cognition and action.

  4. Visual Experience Influences 12-Month-Old Infants' Perception of Goal-Directed Actions of Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Kawakita, Yuka; Okanda, Mako; Takeshita, Hideko

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether infants' own visual experiences affected their perception of the visual status of others engaging in goal-directed actions. In Experiment 1, infants viewed video clips of successful and failed goal-directed actions performed by a blindfolded adult, with half the infants having previously experienced…

  5. General Action and Inaction Goals: Their Behavioral, Cognitive, and Affective Origins and Influences.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Dolores; Hepler, Justin; Tannenbaum, Melanie

    2011-04-01

    Since the 1970s, researchers on motivation and behavior have taken the stance that important human behaviors are determined by specific attitudes, intentions, and goals. In the present article, we review evidence suggesting that, in addition to specific motivational constructs, general goals of action and inaction are also vital determinants of many important human behaviors. This research examines the effects of these goals on motor behavior, cognitive performance, and political participation. Furthermore, we connect these general action and inaction goals with other important areas in psychology, including affect, approach/avoidance, energization, material resources, mindsets, and power. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of individual and regional/cultural differences in action and inaction. Overall, general goals for action and inaction are shown to influence a vast array of important behaviors, suggesting that in addition to considering specific attitudes, intentions, and goals, researchers may gain important insight into human behavior by considering general motivations.

  6. General Action and Inaction Goals: Their Behavioral, Cognitive, and Affective Origins and Influences

    PubMed Central

    Albarracin, Dolores; Hepler, Justin; Tannenbaum, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1970s, researchers on motivation and behavior have taken the stance that important human behaviors are determined by specific attitudes, intentions, and goals. In the present article, we review evidence suggesting that, in addition to specific motivational constructs, general goals of action and inaction are also vital determinants of many important human behaviors. This research examines the effects of these goals on motor behavior, cognitive performance, and political participation. Furthermore, we connect these general action and inaction goals with other important areas in psychology, including affect, approach/avoidance, energization, material resources, mindsets, and power. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of individual and regional/cultural differences in action and inaction. Overall, general goals for action and inaction are shown to influence a vast array of important behaviors, suggesting that in addition to considering specific attitudes, intentions, and goals, researchers may gain important insight into human behavior by considering general motivations. PMID:23766569

  7. Triangles have goals too: understanding action representation in left aIPS.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Richard; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2010-07-01

    Humans freely interpret moving shapes as being "alive" and having social intentions, such as beliefs and desires. The brain systems underpinning these processes are the same as those used to detect animacy and infer mental states from human behaviour. However, it is not yet known if the brain systems that respond to human action-goals also respond to the action-goals of shapes. In the present paper, we used a repetition suppression paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain systems that respond to the action-goals of shapes. Participants watched video clips of simple, geometrical shapes performing different 'take-object' goals. Repeated presentation of the same goal suppressed the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), a brain region known to distinguish the goals of human hand actions. This finding shows that left aIPS shows similar sensitivity to the action-goals of human and non-human agents. Our data complement previous work on animacy perception and mental state inference, which suggest components of the social brain are driven by the type of action comprehension that is engaged rather than by the form of the acting agent (i.e., human or shape). Further, the results have consequence for theories of goal understanding in situations without access to biological form or motion.

  8. Making smart social judgments takes time: infants' recruitment of goal information when generating action predictions.

    PubMed

    Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Woodward, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that young infants perceive others' actions as structured by goals. One open question is whether the recruitment of this understanding when predicting others' actions imposes a cognitive challenge for young infants. The current study explored infants' ability to utilize their knowledge of others' goals to rapidly predict future behavior in complex social environments and distinguish goal-directed actions from other kinds of movements. Fifteen-month-olds (N = 40) viewed videos of an actor engaged in either a goal-directed (grasping) or an ambiguous (brushing the back of her hand) action on a Tobii eye-tracker. At test, critical elements of the scene were changed and infants' predictive fixations were examined to determine whether they relied on goal information to anticipate the actor's future behavior. Results revealed that infants reliably generated goal-based visual predictions for the grasping action, but not for the back-of-hand behavior. Moreover, response latencies were longer for goal-based predictions than for location-based predictions, suggesting that goal-based predictions are cognitively taxing. Analyses of areas of interest indicated that heightened attention to the overall scene, as opposed to specific patterns of attention, was the critical indicator of successful judgments regarding an actor's future goal-directed behavior. These findings shed light on the processes that support "smart" social behavior in infants, as it may be a challenge for young infants to use information about others' intentions to inform rapid predictions.

  9. The sound of you and me: Novices represent shared goals in joint action.

    PubMed

    Loehr, Janeen D; Vesper, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    People performing joint actions coordinate their individual actions with each other to achieve a shared goal. The current study investigated the mental representations that are formed when people learn a new skill as part of a joint action. In a musical transfer-of-learning paradigm, piano novices first learned to perform simple melodies in the joint action context of coordinating with an accompanist to produce musical duets. Participants then performed their previously learned actions with two types of auditory feedback: while hearing either their individual action goal (the melody) or the shared action goal (the duet). As predicted, participants made more performance errors in the individual goal condition than in the shared goal condition. Further experimental manipulations indicated that this difference was not due to different coordination requirements in the two conditions or perceptual dissimilarities between learning and test. Together, these findings indicate that people form representations of shared goals in contexts that promote minimal representations, such as when learning a new action together with another person.

  10. Institutional implications of establishing safety goals for nuclear power plants. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Hooper, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to anticipate and address institutional problems that may arise from the adoption of NRC's proposed Policy Statement on Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants. The report emphasizes one particular category of institutional problems: the possible use of safety goals as a basis for legal challenges to NRC actions, and the resolution of such challenges by the courts. Three types of legal issues are identified and analyzed. These are, first, general legal issues such as access to the legal system, burden of proof, and standard of proof. Second is the particular formulation of goals. Involved here are such questions as sustainable rationale, definitions, avoided issues, vagueness of time and space details, and degree of conservatism. Implementation brings up the third set of issues which include interpretation and application, linkage to probabilistic risk assessment, consequences as compared to events, and the use of results.

  11. Goals Influence Memory and Imitation for Dynamic Human Action in 36-month-old Children

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Jeff; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2012-01-01

    Adults’ memory for action is organized according to a hierarchy of goals. Little previous research has examined whether goals also play a crucial role young children’s memory for action, and particularly whether goal information is privileged over veridical sequential order information. The current experiment investigated 3-year-old children’s (N = 40) memory for naturally occurring interleaved action sequences: Sequences in which an actor switched back and forth between carrying out actions related to two distinct goals. Such sequences allowed a test of whether children’s action representations prioritize a goal interpretation over veridical sequential information. Children’s memory for the action events was assessed by deferred imitation, 5-min after the demonstration had ceased. Results indicated that children’s memory prioritizes goals over veridical sequential order – even to the extent that the actual sequential order is distorted in memory. These findings deepen our understanding of action processing and memory with implications for social-cognitive development. PMID:23121600

  12. The Neural Representation of Goal-Directed Actions and Outcomes in the Ventral Striatum's Olfactory Tubercle

    PubMed Central

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    2016-01-01

    The ventral striatum is critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. The many cellular, afferent, and efferent similarities between the ventral striatum's nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle (OT) suggests the distributed involvement of neurons within the ventral striatopallidal complex in motivated behaviors. Although the nucleus accumbens has an established role in representing goal-directed actions and their outcomes, it is not known whether this function is localized within the nucleus accumbens or distributed also within the OT. Answering such a fundamental question will expand our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying motivated behaviors. Here we address whether the OT encodes natural reinforcers and serves as a substrate for motivational information processing. In recordings from mice engaged in a novel water-motivated instrumental task, we report that OT neurons modulate their firing rate during initiation and progression of the instrumental licking behavior, with some activity being internally generated and preceding the first lick. We further found that as motivational drive decreases throughout a session, the activity of OT neurons is enhanced earlier relative to the behavioral action. Additionally, OT neurons discriminate the types and magnitudes of fluid reinforcers. Together, these data suggest that the processing of reward information and the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors is a global principle of the ventral striatum and have important implications for understanding the neural systems subserving addiction and mood disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed behaviors are widespread among animals and underlie complex behaviors ranging from food intake, social behavior, and even pathological conditions, such as gambling and drug addiction. The ventral striatum is a neural system critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. Here we

  13. Action Goal Selection and Motor Planning Can Be Dissociated by Tool Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Therese; Schicke, Tobias; Roder, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of eye or hand movements enhances visual perception at the upcoming movement end position. The spatial location of this influence of action on perception could be determined either by goal selection or by motor planning. We employed a tool use task to dissociate these two alternatives. The instructed goal location was a visual…

  14. Target- and Effect-Directed Actions towards Temporal Goals: Similar Mechanisms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Andrea M.; Rieger, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The goal of an action can consist of generating a change in the environment (to produce an effect) or changing one's own situation in the environment (to move to a physical target). To investigate whether the mechanisms of effect-directed and target-directed action control are similar, participants performed continuous reversal movements. They…

  15. Age-related differences in task goal processing strategies during action cascading.

    PubMed

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Gohil, Krutika; Beste, Christian

    2016-06-01

    We are often faced with situations requiring the execution of a coordinated cascade of different actions to achieve a goal, but we can apply different strategies to do so. Until now, these different action cascading strategies have, however, not been examined with respect to possible effects of aging. We tackled this question in a systems neurophysiological study using EEG and source localization in healthy older adults and employing mathematical constraints to determine the strategy applied. The results suggest that older adults seem to apply a less efficient strategy when cascading different actions. Compared to younger adults, older adults seem to struggle to hierarchically organize their actions, which leads to an inefficient and more parallel processing of different task goals. On a systems level, the observed deficit is most likely due to an altered processing of task goals at the response selection level (P3 ERP) and related to changes of neural processes in the temporo-parietal junction.

  16. Increasing and decreasing motor and cognitive output: a model of general action and inaction goals.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M; Noguchi, Kenji; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Li, Hong; Leeper, Joshua; Brown, Rick D; Earl, Allison; Hart, William P

    2008-09-01

    General action and inaction goals can influence the amount of motor or cognitive output irrespective of the type of behavior in question, with the same stimuli producing trivial and important motor and cognitive manifestations normally viewed as parts of different systems. A series of experiments examined the effects of instilling general action and inaction goals using word primes, such as "action" and "rest." The first 5 experiments showed that the same stimuli influenced motor output, such as doodling on a piece of paper and eating, as well as cognitive output, such as recall and problem solving. The last 2 experiments supported the prediction that these diverse effects can result from the instigation of general action and inaction goals. Specifically, these last 2 studies confirmed that participants were motivated to achieve active or inactive states and that attaining them decreased the effects of the primes on behavior.

  17. The evolution of social cognition: goal familiarity shapes monkeys' action understanding.

    PubMed

    Rochat, Magali J; Serra, Elisabetta; Fadiga, Luciano; Gallese, Vittorio

    2008-02-12

    What is the evolutionary origin of the human ability to understand and predict the behavior of others? Recent studies suggest that human infants' early capacity for understanding others' goal-directed actions relies on nonmentalistic strategies [1-8]. However, there is no consensus about the nature of the mechanisms underpinning these strategies and their evolutionary history. Comparative studies can shed light on these controversial issues. We carried out three preferential looking-time experiments on macaques, modeled on previous work on human infants [1-5], to test whether macaques are sensitive to the functional efficacy of familiar goal-related hand motor acts performed by an experimenter in a given context and to examine to which extent this sensitivity also is present when observing non-goal-related or unusual goal-related motor acts. We demonstrate that macaque monkeys, similar to human infants, do indeed detect action efficacy by gazing longer at less efficient actions. However, they do so only when the observed behavior is directed to a perceptible and familiar goal. Our results show that the direct detection of the functional fitness of action, in relation to goals that have become familiar through previous experience, is the phylogenetic precursor of intentional understanding.

  18. Six-and-a-Half-Month-Old Children Positively Attribute Goals to Human Action and to Humanoid-Robot Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamewari, K.; Kato, M.; Kanda, T.; Ishiguro, H.; Hiraki, K.

    2005-01-01

    Recent infant studies indicate that goal attribution (understanding of goal-directed action) is present very early in infancy. We examined whether 6.5-month-olds attribute goals to agents and whether infants change the interpretation of goal-directed action according to the kind of agent. We conducted three experiments using the visual habituation…

  19. Translational studies of goal-directed action as a framework for classifying deficits across psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kristi R.; Morris, Richard W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to learn contingencies between actions and outcomes in a dynamic environment is critical for flexible, adaptive behavior. Goal-directed actions adapt to changes in action-outcome contingencies as well as to changes in the reward-value of the outcome. When networks involved in reward processing and contingency learning are maladaptive, this fundamental ability can be lost, with detrimental consequences for decision-making. Impaired decision-making is a core feature in a number of psychiatric disorders, ranging from depression to schizophrenia. The argument can be developed, therefore, that seemingly disparate symptoms across psychiatric disorders can be explained by dysfunction within common decision-making circuitry. From this perspective, gaining a better understanding of the neural processes involved in goal-directed action, will allow a comparison of deficits observed across traditional diagnostic boundaries within a unified theoretical framework. This review describes the key processes and neural circuits involved in goal-directed decision-making using evidence from animal studies and human neuroimaging. Select studies are discussed to outline what we currently know about causal judgments regarding actions and their consequences, action-related reward evaluation, and, most importantly, how these processes are integrated in goal-directed learning and performance. Finally, we look at how adaptive decision-making is impaired across a range of psychiatric disorders and how deepening our understanding of this circuitry may offer insights into phenotypes and more targeted interventions. PMID:24904322

  20. One Step Ahead: The Perceived Kinematics of Others’ Actions Are Biased Toward Expected Goals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Action observation is often conceptualized in a bottom-up manner, where sensory information activates conceptual (or motor) representations. In contrast, here we show that expectations about an actor’s goal have a top-down predictive effect on action perception, biasing it toward these goals. In 3 experiments, participants observed hands reach for or withdraw from objects and judged whether a probe stimulus corresponded to the hand’s final position. Before action onset, participants generated action expectations on the basis of either object types (safe or painful, Experiments 1 and 2) or abstract color cues (Experiment 3). Participants more readily mistook probes displaced in a predicted position (relative to unpredicted positions) for the hand’s final position, and this predictive bias was larger when the movement and expectation were aligned. These effects were evident for low-level movement and high-level goal expectancies. Expectations bias action observation toward the predicted goals. These results challenge current bottom-up views and support recent predictive models of action observation. PMID:26595838

  1. Choosing goals, not rules: deciding among rule-based action plans.

    PubMed

    Klaes, Christian; Westendorff, Stephanie; Chakrabarti, Shubhodeep; Gail, Alexander

    2011-05-12

    In natural situations, movements are often directed toward locations different from that of the evoking sensory stimulus. Movement goals must then be inferred from the sensory cue based on rules. When there is uncertainty about the rule that applies for a given cue, planning a movement involves both choosing the relevant rule and computing the movement goal based on that rule. Under these conditions, it is not clear whether primates compute multiple movement goals based on all possible rules before choosing an action, or whether they first choose a rule and then only represent the movement goal associated with that rule. Supporting the former hypothesis, we show that neurons in the frontoparietal reach areas of monkeys simultaneously represent two different rule-based movement goals, which are biased by the monkeys' choice preferences. Apparently, primates choose between multiple behavioral options by weighing against each other the movement goals associated with each option.

  2. A commentary on the pluralistic goals, logics of action, and institutional contexts of translational team science.

    PubMed

    Winter, Susan J; Berente, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    Teams have emerged as a pivotal form for organizing science efforts. Team goals and issues such as goal alignment are generally considered to be essential to team success. However, given the interdisciplinary and pluralistic goals associated with translational science, team goals become a challenging area for studies that cannot be reconciled without attention to the broader institutional contexts of translational teams. In this commentary, we draw attention to how different goals in team science can be rooted in the broader institutional context and associated logics of action. For the science of team science (SciTS) to impact practice, it is imperative that we be clear about the logic of team goals and their relation to preferred patterns of organizing. We conclude with a reflection on how contextual issues should be at the foreground of SciTS along with the other important issues of team science.

  3. The establishment of an attachment research network in Latin America: goals, accomplishments, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Causadias, José M; Sroufe, L Alan; Herreros, Francisca

    2011-03-01

    In the face of a pressing need for expanded attachment research programs and attachment informed interventions in Latin America, a research network was established: Red Iberoamericana de Apego: RIA (Iberian-American Attachment Network). The purpose of RIA is to promote human development and well being, informed by attachment theory, centering on research, and with implications for public policies, education, and intervention. We report the proceedings of the second meeting of RIA held in Panama City, Panama, in February 2010. As part of this meeting, RIA sponsored the first Latin-American attachment conference. Proceedings of the conference are described, as are future goals of this new organization.

  4. Use of sediment serial dilution series to establish biological effect levels and clean-up goals

    SciTech Connect

    Timmer, E.; DeLong, T.; Millard, J.; Dobroski, C.

    1995-12-31

    A sediment serial dilution study was used to determine biological effect levels for two freshwater invertebrates, Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca. The sediments for the test were collected from a New England brook which contained elevated levels of lead and polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of the sediment dilution study was two-fold: (1 ) to provide a site-specific estimation of biological effect levels, thus reducing uncertainties associated with using literature-based values, and (2) to establish clean-up goals specific to this freshwater system.

  5. Being Active and Impulsive: The Role of Goals for Action and Inaction in Self-Control

    PubMed Central

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores; McCulloch, Kathleen C.; Noguchi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Although self-control often requires behavioral inaction (i.e., not eating a piece of cake), the process of inhibiting impulsive behavior is commonly characterized as cognitively active (i.e., actively exerting self-control). Two experiments examined whether motivation for action or inaction facilitates self-control behavior in the presence of tempting stimuli. Experiment 1 used a delay discounting task to assess the ability to delay gratification with respect to money. Experiment 2 used a Go/No-Go task to assess the ability to inhibit a dominant but incorrect motor response to the words “condom” and “sex”. The results demonstrate that goals for inaction promote self-control, whereas goals for action promote impulsive behavior. These findings are discussed in light of recent evidence suggesting that goals for action and inaction modulate physiological resources that promote behavioral execution. PMID:23766548

  6. Being Active and Impulsive: The Role of Goals for Action and Inaction in Self-Control.

    PubMed

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Noguchi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    Although self-control often requires behavioral inaction (i.e., not eating a piece of cake), the process of inhibiting impulsive behavior is commonly characterized as cognitively active (i.e., actively exerting self-control). Two experiments examined whether motivation for action or inaction facilitates self-control behavior in the presence of tempting stimuli. Experiment 1 used a delay discounting task to assess the ability to delay gratification with respect to money. Experiment 2 used a Go/No-Go task to assess the ability to inhibit a dominant but incorrect motor response to the words "condom" and "sex". The results demonstrate that goals for inaction promote self-control, whereas goals for action promote impulsive behavior. These findings are discussed in light of recent evidence suggesting that goals for action and inaction modulate physiological resources that promote behavioral execution.

  7. Increasing and Decreasing Motor and Cognitive Output: A Model of General Action and Inaction Goals

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M.; Noguchi, Kenji; McCulloch, Kathleen C.; Li, Hong; Leeper, Joshua; Brown, Rick D.; Earl, Allison; Hart, William P.

    2013-01-01

    General action and inaction goals can influence the amount of motor or cognitive output irrespective of the type of behavior in question, with the same stimuli producing trivial and important motor and cognitive manifestations normally viewed as parts of different systems. A series of experiments examined the effects of instilling general action and inaction goals using word primes, such as “action” and “rest.” The first 5 experiments showed that the same stimuli influenced motor output, such as doodling on a piece of paper and eating, as well as cognitive output, such as recall and problem solving. The last 2 experiments supported the prediction that these diverse effects can result from the instigation of general action and inaction goals. Specifically, these last 2 studies confirmed that participants were motivated to achieve active or inactive states and that attaining them decreased the effects of the primes on behavior. PMID:18729691

  8. Involvement of the globus pallidus in behavioral goal determination and action specification.

    PubMed

    Arimura, Nariko; Nakayama, Yoshihisa; Yamagata, Tomoko; Tanji, Jun; Hoshi, Eiji

    2013-08-21

    Multiple loop circuits interconnect the basal ganglia and the frontal cortex, and each part of the cortico-basal ganglia loops plays an essential role in neuronal computational processes underlying motor behavior. To gain deeper insight into specific functions played by each component of the loops, we compared response properties of neurons in the globus pallidus (GP) with those in the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and the ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC and dlPFC) while monkeys performed a behavioral task designed to include separate processes for behavioral goal determination and action selection. Initially, visual signals instructed an abstract behavioral goal, and seconds later, a choice cue to select an action was presented. When the instruction cue appeared, GP neurons started to reflect visual features as early as vlPFC neurons. Subsequently, GP neurons began to reflect goals informed by the visual signals no later than neurons in the PMd, vlPFC, and dlPFC, indicating that the GP is involved in the early determination of behavioral goals. In contrast, action specification occurred later in the GP than in the cortical areas, and the GP was not as involved in the process by which a behavioral goal was transformed into an action. Furthermore, the length of time representing behavioral goal and action was shorter in the GP than in the PMd and dlPFC, indicating that the GP may play an important role in detecting individual behavioral events. These observations elucidate the involvement of the GP in goal-directed behavior.

  9. How to Build an Intentional Android: Infants' Imitation of a Robot's Goal-Directed Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itakura, Shoji; Ishida, Hiraku; Kanda, Takayuki; Shimada, Yohko; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether young children are able to imitate a robot's goal-directed actions. Children (24-35 months old) viewed videos showing a robot attempting to manipulate an object (e.g., putting beads inside a cup) but failing to achieve its goal (e.g., beads fell outside the cup). In 1 video, the robot made eye contact with a human…

  10. Age, Action Orientation, and Self-Regulation during the Pursuit of a Dieting Goal.

    PubMed

    Hennecke, Marie; Freund, Alexandra M

    2016-03-01

    Two studies tested the hypotheses that (1) action orientation (vs. state orientation) is positively correlated with age across adulthood and (2) action orientation aids the self-regulation of one's feelings, thoughts, and behavior during the pursuit of a dieting goal. Hypotheses were partly confirmed. In Study 1, N = 126 overweight women (age: 19-77 years) intended to lose weight by means of a low-calorie diet. In Study 2, N = 322 adults (age: 18-82 years) reported on their action orientation to replicate the association of age and action orientation found in Study 1. Study 2 corroborated only the expected positive association of age and decision-related action orientation. In Study 1, decision-related action orientation predicted higher affective well-being during the diet as well as less self-reported deviations from the diet; failure-related action orientation predicted lower levels of rumination in response to dieting failures. Action orientation partially mediated the negative effects of age on deviations and rumination (see Hennecke & Freund, ). Weight loss was not predicted by action orientation. We discuss action orientation as one factor of increased motivational competence in older adulthood.

  11. Infant Eye-Tracking in the Context of Goal-Directed Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbetta, Daniela; Guan, Yu; Williams, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two methods that we applied to our research to record infant gaze in the context of goal-oriented actions using different eye-tracking devices: head-mounted and remote eye-tracking. For each type of eye-tracking system, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, describe the particular experimental setups we used to study…

  12. Goal-Directed Action Control in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M; de Wit, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive behavior is a key characteristic of autism spectrum disorders. Our aim was to investigate the hypothesis that this abnormal behavioral repetition results from a tendency to over-rely on habits at the expense of flexible, goal-directed action. Twenty-four children with autism spectrum disorders and 24 age- and gender-matched controls…

  13. Academic Misconduct: A Goals-Plans-Action Approach to Peer Confrontation and Whistle-Blowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henningsen, Mary Lynn Miller; Valde, Kathleen S.; Denbow, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Academic misconduct is a serious, pervasive, communication phenomenon on college campuses. In this study, the goals-plans-action model (Dillard, 1990) was used as a theoretical framework to investigate peer confrontation of cheating and whistle-blowing to a course instructor. In an experiment, participants were asked to respond to measures of…

  14. Young Volunteers in Action. Goal Accomplishment and Perceived Outcomes Evaluation. Supplemental Site Visit Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of an evaluation of goal accomplishment at Young Volunteers in Action (YVA) projects at three sites: ALexander City, Alabama; Gainesville, Florida; and New Orleans, Louisiana. First, a brief introduction describes the YVA program and discusses the evaluation approach. The next three sections present case studies…

  15. Counseling for the Transition to Adulthood as Joint, Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard A.; Marshall, Sheila K.; Foulkes, Kristen; Haber, Carla; Lee, Celine S. M.; Penner, Carey; Rostram, Hajara

    2011-01-01

    Transition is important in the career literature as it identifies times at which people are often likely to consult counselors about issues for which they need help. However, the counseling literature has not provided a conceptualization of, or research on, the joint, goal-directed actions and projects of the counselor and the client, which…

  16. Movement-related activity during goal-directed hand actions in the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Simone, Luciano; Rozzi, Stefano; Bimbi, Marco; Fogassi, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    Grasping actions require the integration of two neural processes, one enabling the transformation of object properties into corresponding motor acts, and the other involved in planning and controlling action execution on the basis of contextual information. The first process relies on parieto-premotor circuits, whereas the second is considered to be a prefrontal function. Up to now, the prefrontal cortex has been mainly investigated with conditional visuomotor tasks requiring a learned association between cues and behavioural output. To clarify the functional role of the prefrontal cortex in grasping actions, we recorded the activity of ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPF) neurons while monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performed tasks requiring reaching-grasping actions in different contextual conditions (in light and darkness, memory-guided, and in the absence of abstract learned rules). The results showed that the VLPF cortex contains neurons that are active during action execution (movement-related neurons). Some of them showed grip selectivity, and some also responded to object presentation. Most movement-related neurons discharged during action execution both with and without visual feedback, and this discharge typically did not change when the action was performed with object mnemonic information and in the absence of abstract rules. The findings of this study indicate that a population of VLPF neurons play a role in controlling goal-directed grasping actions in several contexts. This control is probably exerted within a wider network, involving parietal and premotor regions, where the role of VLPF movement-related neurons would be that of activating, on the basis of contextual information, the representation of the motor goal of the intended action (taking possession of an object) during action planning and execution.

  17. Do robots have goals? How agent cues influence action understanding in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Kupferberg, Aleksandra; Glasauer, Stefan; Burkart, Judith M

    2013-06-01

    The capacity to understand goals and intentions emerges early and universally in humans and is a basic precondition for the interpretation and prediction of others' actions, be it other humans, animals, or even robots. It is unclear, however, how this goal attribution system is acquired, in particular with regard to the role of prior experience with the actor and visual characteristics that are necessary. In four preferential looking time experiments we examined how familiarity, appearance, and movement of different agents influence the capability of marmosets to perceive the behavior of these agents as goal directed. To this end we compared the monkeys' reactions to the same goal-directed actions performed by four different agents: a human actor, a conspecific, a monkey-like small robot, and a black box. The results showed that monkeys attributed goals to the human actor, the conspecific, and the robot, but not the box. Thus, the monkeys extended their capacity for goal attribution not only to familiar agents, but also to agents not previously encountered, provided that they had some conspecific-like features. Our results suggest that in non-human primates, the system for goal attribution does not require previous experience with a specific agent or agent-category, as long as it exhibits certain visual characteristics like face, body or legs. Furthermore, the results suggest that the capacity to attribute goals emerged very early during evolution and, at least in marmoset monkeys, does not necessarily require pre-learned associations in order to fulfill its function when dealing with unfamiliar agents.

  18. Neural mechanisms underlying immediate and final action goals in object use reflected by slow wave brain potentials.

    PubMed

    van Schie, Hein T; Bekkering, Harold

    2007-05-07

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the neural mechanisms underlying goal-directed object use distinguishing between processes supporting immediate and final action goals during action planning and execution. Subjects performed a grasping and transportation task in which actions were cued either with the immediate action goal (the part of the object to grasp) or with the final action goal of the movement (the end position for transportation). Slow wave potentials dissociated between processes supporting immediate and final goals: reaching for the object was accompanied by the development of a parietal-occipital slow wave that peaked in congruency with the grasping event, whereas transport of the object towards the final goal location was found accompanied by slow wave components developing over left frontal regions with a peak towards the movement end. Source localization of cueing differences indicated activation centered around the parieto-occipital sulcus during reaching of the immediate action goal, followed by enhanced activation in the anterior prefrontal cortex during transport to the final action goal. These results suggest the existence of separate neural controllers for immediate and final action goals during the execution of goal-directed actions with objects.

  19. Should I stay or should I go? Conceptual underpinnings of goal-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    All actions, even the simplest like moving an arm to grasp a pen, are associated with energy costs. Thus all mobile organisms possess the ability to evaluate resources and select those behaviors that are most likely to lead to the greatest accrual of valuable items (reward) in the near or, especially in the case of humans, distant future. The evaluation process is performed at all possible stages of the series of decisions that lead to the building of a goal-directed action or to its suppression. This is because all animals have a limited amount of energy and resources; to survive and be able to reproduce they have to minimize the costs and maximize the outcomes of their actions. These computations are at the root of behavioral flexibility. Two executive functions play a major role in generating flexible behaviors: (i) the ability to predict future outcomes of goal-directed actions; and (ii) the ability to cancel them when they are unlikely to accomplish valuable results. These two processes operate continuously during the entire course of a movement: during its genesis, its planning and even its execution, so that the motor output can be modulated or suppressed at any time before its execution. In this review, functional interactions of the extended neural network subserving generation and inhibition of goal-directed movements will be outlined, leading to the intriguing hypothesis that the performance of actions and their suppression are not specified by independent sets of brain regions. Rather, it will be proposed that acting and stopping are functions emerging from specific interactions between largely overlapping brain regions, whose activity is intimately linked (directly or indirectly) to the evaluations of pros and cons of an action. Such mechanism would allow the brain to perform as a highly efficient and flexible system, as different functions could be computed exploiting the same components operating in different configurations. PMID:25404898

  20. Should I stay or should I go? Conceptual underpinnings of goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    All actions, even the simplest like moving an arm to grasp a pen, are associated with energy costs. Thus all mobile organisms possess the ability to evaluate resources and select those behaviors that are most likely to lead to the greatest accrual of valuable items (reward) in the near or, especially in the case of humans, distant future. The evaluation process is performed at all possible stages of the series of decisions that lead to the building of a goal-directed action or to its suppression. This is because all animals have a limited amount of energy and resources; to survive and be able to reproduce they have to minimize the costs and maximize the outcomes of their actions. These computations are at the root of behavioral flexibility. Two executive functions play a major role in generating flexible behaviors: (i) the ability to predict future outcomes of goal-directed actions; and (ii) the ability to cancel them when they are unlikely to accomplish valuable results. These two processes operate continuously during the entire course of a movement: during its genesis, its planning and even its execution, so that the motor output can be modulated or suppressed at any time before its execution. In this review, functional interactions of the extended neural network subserving generation and inhibition of goal-directed movements will be outlined, leading to the intriguing hypothesis that the performance of actions and their suppression are not specified by independent sets of brain regions. Rather, it will be proposed that acting and stopping are functions emerging from specific interactions between largely overlapping brain regions, whose activity is intimately linked (directly or indirectly) to the evaluations of pros and cons of an action. Such mechanism would allow the brain to perform as a highly efficient and flexible system, as different functions could be computed exploiting the same components operating in different configurations.

  1. Goal-directed action control in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Hilde M; de Wit, Sanne

    2014-05-01

    Repetitive behavior is a key characteristic of autism spectrum disorders. Our aim was to investigate the hypothesis that this abnormal behavioral repetition results from a tendency to over-rely on habits at the expense of flexible, goal-directed action. Twenty-four children with autism spectrum disorders and 24 age- and gender-matched controls (8-12 years) initially learned to give specific responses to different pictorial stimuli in order to gain valuable outcomes. Subsequently, in the "slips-of-action" test, some of these outcomes were no longer valuable. Children needed to refrain from responding when stimuli were shown that signaled the availability of those outcomes while continuing to respond for the still-valuable outcomes. Reliance on habits should lead to "slips of action" toward no longer valuable outcomes. Therefore, the children's ability to respond selectively for still-valuable outcomes provides a measure of relative habitual versus goal-directed control. Two additional tasks were included to control for general task characteristics (i.e. working memory and inhibition). Children with autism spectrum disorders learned equally well as controls and were not impaired at flexibly adjusting their behavior to devaluation of the outcomes or stimuli. We found no evidence for a disruption in the balance between goal-directed and habitual behavioral control in children with autism spectrum disorders.

  2. Psychophysiological mechanisms of interindividual differences in goal activation modes during action cascading.

    PubMed

    Mückschel, Moritz; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2014-08-01

    Our daily life is characterized by multiple response options that need to be cascaded in order to avoid overstrain of restricted response selection resources. While response selection and goal activation in action cascading are likely driven by a process varying from serial to parallel processing, little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms that may underlie interindividual differences in these modes of response selection. To investigate these mechanisms, we used a stop-change paradigm for the recording of event-related potentials and standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography source localizations in healthy subjects. Systematically varying the stimulus onset asynchrony (the temporal spacing of "stop" and "change" signals), we applied mathematical constraints to classify subjects in more parallel or more serial goal activators during action cascading. On that basis, the electrophysiological data show that processes linking stimulus processing and response execution, but not attentional processes, underlie interindividual differences in either serial or parallel response selection modes during action cascading. On a systems level, these processes were mediated via a distributed fronto-parietal network, including the anterior cingulate cortex (Brodman area 32, BA32) and the temporo-parietal junction (BA40). There was a linear relation between the individual degree of overlap in activated task goals and electrophysiological processes.

  3. The Joint Role of Trained, Untrained, and Observed Actions at the Origins of Goal Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings across a variety of domains reveal the benefits of self-produced experience on object exploration, object knowledge, attention, and action perception. The influence of active experience may be particularly important in infancy, when motor development is undergoing great changes. Despite the importance of self-produced experience, we know that infants and young children are eventually able to gain knowledge through purely observational experience. In the current work, three-month-old infants were given experience with object-directed actions in one of three forms and their recognition of the goal of grasping actions was then assessed in a habituation paradigm. All infants were given the chance to manually interact with the toys without assistance (a difficult task for most three-month-olds). Two of the three groups were then given additional experience with object-directed actions, either through active training (in which Velcro mittens helped infants act more efficiently) or observational training. Findings support the conclusion that self-produced experience is uniquely informative for action perception and suggest that individual differences in spontaneous motor activity may interact with observational experience to inform action perception early in life. PMID:24468646

  4. The Feeling of Action Tendencies: On the Emotional Regulation of Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review the nature of the functional and causal relationship between neurophysiologically/psychologically generated states of emotional feeling and action tendencies and extrapolate a novel perspective. Emotion theory, over the past century and beyond, has tended to regard feeling and action tendency as independent phenomena: attempts to outline the functional and causal relationship that exists between them have been framed therein. Classically, such relationships have been viewed as unidirectional, but an argument for bidirectionality rooted in a dynamic systems perspective has gained strength in recent years whereby the feeling–action tendency relationship is viewed as a composite whole. On the basis of our review of somatic–visceral theories of feelings, we argue that feelings are grounded upon neural-dynamic representations (elevated and stable activation patterns) of action tendency. Such representations amount to predictions updated by cognitive and bodily feedback. Specifically, we view emotional feelings as minimalist predictions of the action tendency (what the agent is physiologically and cognitively primed to do) in a given situation. The essence of this point is captured by our exposition of action tendency prediction–feedback loops which we consider, above all, in the context of emotion regulation, and in particular, of emotional regulation of goal-directed behavior. The perspective outlined may be of use to emotion theorists, computational modelers, and roboticists. PMID:22207854

  5. Understanding others' actions and goals by mirror and mentalizing systems: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Overwalle, Frank; Baetens, Kris

    2009-11-15

    This meta-analysis explores the role of the mirror and mentalizing systems in the understanding of other people's action goals. Based on over 200 fMRI studies, this analysis demonstrates that the mirror system - consisting of the anterior intraparietal sulcus and the premotor cortex - is engaged when one perceives articulated motions of body parts irrespective of their sensory (visual or auditory) or verbal format as well as when the perceiver executes them. This confirms the matching role of the mirror system in understanding biological action. Observation of whole-body motions and gaze engage the posterior superior temporal sulcus and most likely reflects an orientation response in line with the action or attention of the observed actor. In contrast, the mentalizing system - consisting of the temporo-parietal junction, the medial prefrontal cortex and the precuneus - is activated when behavior that enables inferences to be made about goals, beliefs or moral issues is presented in abstract terms (e.g., verbal stories or geometric shapes) and there is no perceivable biological motion of body parts. A striking overlap of brain activity at the temporo-parietal junction between social inferences and other, non-social observations (e.g., Posner's cuing task) suggests that this area computes the orientation or direction of the behavior in order to predict its likely end-state (or goal). No conclusions are drawn about the specific functionality of the precuneus and the medial prefrontal cortex. Because the mirror and mentalizing systems are rarely concurrently active, it appears that neither system subserves the other. Rather, they are complementary. There seems, however, to be a transition from the mirror to the mentalizing system even when body-part motions are observed by perceivers who are consciously deliberating about the goals of others and their behavioral executions, such as when perceived body motions are contextually inconsistent, implausible or pretended.

  6. Being in two minds: the neural basis of experiencing action crises in personal long-term goals.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Marcel; Baur, Volker; Brandstätter, Veronika; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Although the successful pursuit of long-term goals constitutes an essential prerequisite to personal development, health, and well-being, little research has been devoted to the understanding of its underlying neural processes. A critical phase in the pursuit of long-term goals is defined as an action crisis, conceptualized as the intra-psychic conflict between further goal pursuit and disengagement from the goal. In the present research, we applied an interdisciplinary (cognitive and neural) approach to the analysis of processes underlying the experience of an action crisis. In Study 1, a longitudinal field study, action crises in personal goals gave rise to an increased and unbiased (re)evaluation of the costs and benefits (i.e., rewards) of the goal. Study 2 was a magnetic resonance imaging study examining resting-state functional connectivity. The extent of experienced action crises was associated with enhanced fronto-accumbal connectivity signifying increased reward-related impact on prefrontal action control. Action crises, furthermore, mediated the relationship between a dispositional measure of effective goal pursuit (action orientation) and fronto-accumbal connectivity. The converging and complementary results from two methodologically different approaches advance the understanding of the neurobiology of personal long-term goals, especially with respect to the role of rewards in the context of goal-related conflicts.

  7. Encoding the Goal of an Object-Directed but Uncompleted Reaching Action in 6- and 9-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daum, Moritz M.; Prinz, Wolfgang; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2008-01-01

    Infants start to interpret completed human actions as goal-directed in the second half of the first year of life. In a series of three studies, the understanding of a goal-directed but uncompleted action was investigated in 6- and 9-month-old infants using a preferential looking paradigm. Infants saw the video of an actor's reaching movement…

  8. Development of goal-directed action selection guided by intrinsic motivations: an experiment with children.

    PubMed

    Taffoni, Fabrizio; Tamilia, Eleonora; Focaroli, Valentina; Formica, Domenico; Ricci, Luca; Di Pino, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Keller, Flavio

    2014-07-01

    Action selection is extremely important, particularly when the accomplishment of competitive tasks may require access to limited motor resources. The spontaneous exploration of the world plays a fundamental role in the development of this capacity, providing subjects with an increasingly diverse set of opportunities to acquire, practice and refine the understanding of action-outcome connection. The computational modeling literature proposed a number of specific mechanisms for autonomous agents to discover and target interesting outcomes: intrinsic motivations hold a central importance among those mechanisms. Unfortunately, the study of the acquisition of action-outcome relation was mostly carried out with experiments involving extrinsic tasks, either based on rewards or on predefined task goals. This work presents a new experimental paradigm to study the effect of intrinsic motivation on action-outcome relation learning and action selection during free exploration of the world. Three- and four-year-old children were observed during the free exploration of a new toy: half of them were allowed to develop the knowledge concerning its functioning; the other half were not allowed to learn anything. The knowledge acquired during the free exploration of the toy was subsequently assessed and compared.

  9. Resolution of conflict between goal-directed actions: outcome encoding and neural control processes.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Sanne; Ostlund, Sean B; Balleine, Bernard W; Dickinson, Anthony

    2009-07-01

    According to O-R theory of instrumental learning, incongruent biconditional discriminations should be impossible to solve in a goal-directed manner because the event acting as the outcome of one response also acts as a discriminative stimulus for an opposite response. Each event should therefore be associated with two competing responses. However, Dickinson and de Wit (2003) have presented evidence that rats can learn incongruent discriminations. The present study investigated whether rats were able to engage additional processes to solve incongruent discriminations in a goal-directed manner. Experiment 1 provides evidence that rats resolve the response conflict that arises in the incongruent discrimination by differentially encoding events in their roles as discriminative stimulus and as outcome. Furthermore, Experiment 2 shows that once goal-directed control has been established the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex is not directly involved in its maintenance but rather plays a central role in conflict resolution processes.

  10. Amalgamation of Future Time Orientation, Epistemological Beliefs, Achievement Goals and Study Strategies: Empirical Evidence Established

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently research evidence emphasizes two main lines of inquiry, namely the relations between future time perspective (FTP), achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance) and study processing strategies, and the relations between epistemological beliefs, achievement goals and study processing strategies.…

  11. Motivating Exercise: The Interactive Effect of General Action Goals and Past Behavior on Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Hepler, Justin; Wang, Wei; Albarracin, Dolores

    2012-09-01

    Although exercise is recognized as a powerful tool to combat obesity, remarkably few US adults pursue adequate amounts of exercise, with one major impediment being a lack of motivation for active behaviors. Recent empirical work has demonstrated that behavior can be guided by goals to be generally active or inactive. In the present paper, an experiment is presented in which participants played or observed a video game, were primed with action or inaction goals, and practiced a stretching exercise for as long as desired. Exposure to environmental action cues led to increased time spent exercising. This effect was moderated by past behavior, such that individuals who had just engaged in an active task (played a videogame) were insensitive to attempts to motivate general action. This suggests that the effectiveness of attempts to motivate activity ("just do it", "be active") hinges on the recent past-behavior of the targeted individuals. An implication of this work is that participation in certain leisure activities, such as playing videogames, may be causally related to a lack of motivation for exercise.

  12. Motivating Exercise: The Interactive Effect of General Action Goals and Past Behavior on Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hepler, Justin; Wang, Wei; Albarracin, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Although exercise is recognized as a powerful tool to combat obesity, remarkably few US adults pursue adequate amounts of exercise, with one major impediment being a lack of motivation for active behaviors. Recent empirical work has demonstrated that behavior can be guided by goals to be generally active or inactive. In the present paper, an experiment is presented in which participants played or observed a video game, were primed with action or inaction goals, and practiced a stretching exercise for as long as desired. Exposure to environmental action cues led to increased time spent exercising. This effect was moderated by past behavior, such that individuals who had just engaged in an active task (played a videogame) were insensitive to attempts to motivate general action. This suggests that the effectiveness of attempts to motivate activity (“just do it”, “be active”) hinges on the recent past-behavior of the targeted individuals. An implication of this work is that participation in certain leisure activities, such as playing videogames, may be causally related to a lack of motivation for exercise. PMID:23606776

  13. Perturbing the action observation network during perception and categorization of actions' goals and grips: state-dependency and virtual lesion TMS effects.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Pierre O; Avenanti, Alessio

    2015-03-01

    Watching others grasping and using objects activates an action observation network (AON), including inferior frontal (IFC), anterior intraparietal (AIP), and somatosensory cortices (S1). Yet, causal evidence of the differential involvement of such AON sensorimotor nodes in representing high- and low-level action components (i.e., end-goals and grip type) is meager. To address this issue, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation-adaptation (TMS-A) during 2 novel action perception tasks. Participants were shown adapting movies displaying a demonstrator performing goal-directed actions with a tool, using either power or precision grips. They were then asked to match the end-goal (Goal-recognition task) or the grip (Grip-recognition task) of actions shown in test pictures to the adapting movies. TMS was administered over IFC, AIP, or S1 during presentation of test pictures. Virtual lesion-like effects were found in the Grip-recognition task where IFC stimulation induced a general performance decrease, suggesting a critical role of IFC in perceiving grips. In the Goal-recognition task, IFC and S1 stimulation differently affected the processing of "adapted" and "nonadapted" goals. These "state-dependent" effects suggest that the overall goal of seen actions is encoded into functionally distinct and spatially overlapping neural populations in IFC-S1 and such encoding is critical for recognizing and understanding end-goals.

  14. Effects of goal- and task-oriented motivation in the guilty action test.

    PubMed

    Elaad, Eitan

    2013-04-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of the Guilty Action Test in detecting critical information from goal-oriented and task-oriented informed innocent examinees. A mock crime procedure was employed and informed innocent participants were either motivated to prove innocence (goal-oriented motivation) or to prove innocence by being cooperative on the test (task-oriented motivation). Half of the participants in each motivation condition were promised course credit reward for successful completion of their mission to prove innocence or to be cooperative (high incentive level). The other half were promised no reward (low incentive level). A fifth group of uninformed innocent participants served for control purposes. Electrodemal, respiration, and cardiovascular measures were used to indicate the motivation effects. Results showed that the combination of goal-oriented instructions and an incentive for success contributed to enhanced responses to the crime-related information. The combination of task-oriented instructions and an incentive for success attenuated these responses. Skin conductance responses were most sensitive to these effects. Theoretical and practical aspects of the results were discussed.

  15. Establishing Goals and Maintaining Coherence in Multiparty Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Martin; Noyes, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Communicating via text-only computer-mediated communication (CMC) channels is associated with a number of issues that would impair users in achieving dialogue coherence and goals. It has been suggested that humans have devised novel adaptive strategies to deal with those issues. However, it could be that humans rely on "classic"…

  16. From recording discrete actions to studying continuous goal-directed behaviours in team sports.

    PubMed

    Correia, Vanda; Araújo, Duarte; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of examining interpersonal interactions in performance analysis of team sports, predicated on the relationship between perception and action, compared to the traditional cataloguing of actions by individual performers. We discuss how ecological dynamics may provide a potential unifying theoretical and empirical framework to achieve this re-emphasis in research. With reference to data from illustrative studies on performance analysis and sport expertise, we critically evaluate some of the main assumptions and methodological approaches with regard to understanding how information influences action and decision-making during team sports performance. Current data demonstrate how the understanding of performance behaviours in team sports by sport scientists and practitioners may be enhanced with a re-emphasis in research on the dynamics of emergent ongoing interactions. Ecological dynamics provides formal and theoretically grounded descriptions of player-environment interactions with respect to key performance goals and the unfolding information of competitive performance. Developing these formal descriptions and explanations of sport performance may provide a significant contribution to the field of performance analysis, supporting design and intervention in both research and practice.

  17. Action observers implicitly expect actors to act goal-coherently, even if they do not: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hrkać, Mari; Wurm, Moritz F; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2014-05-01

    Actions observed in everyday life normally consist of one person performing sequences of goal-directed actions. The present fMRI study tested the hypotheses that observers are influenced by the actor's identity, even when this information is task-irrelevant, and that this information shapes their expectation on subsequent actions of the same actor. Participants watched short video clips of action steps that either pertained to a common action with an overarching goal or not, and were performed by either one or by varying actors (2 × 2 design). Independent of goal coherence, actor coherence elicited activation in dorsolateral and ventromedial frontal cortex, together pointing to a spontaneous attempt to integrate all actions performed by one actor. Interestingly, watching an actor performing unrelated actions elicited additional activation in left inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting a search in semantic memory in an attempt to construct an overarching goal that can reconcile the disparate action steps with a coherent intention. Post-experimental surveys indicate that these processes occur mostly unconsciously. Findings strongly suggest a spontaneous expectation bias toward actor-related episodes in action observers, and hence to the immense impact of actor information on action observation.

  18. Predicting Physical Activity Outcomes During Episodes of Academic Goal Conflict: The Differential Role of Action Planning and Coping Planning.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Natasha; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The moderating role of academic goal conflict in the relations between action planning (AP) and coping planning (CP) with physical activity was tested using samples of university students concurrently pursuing an academic and a physical activity goal. In Study 1 (N = 317), AP was found to positively relate to physical activity goal progress at low, but not at high, levels of goal conflict. CP trended toward being positively related to goal progress at high, but not at low levels of goal conflict. Study 2 (N = 97), using a 1-week daily diary design and measures of self-reported physical activity behavior and goal progress, showed that daily AP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced lower, but not higher, levels of goal conflict relative to their average. Conversely, CP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced higher, but not lower, levels of goal conflict.

  19. Decreasing Striatopallidal Pathway Function Enhances Motivation by Energizing the Initiation of Goal-Directed Action

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho Poyraz, Fernanda; Holzner, Eva; Bailey, Matthew R.; Meszaros, Jozsef; Kenney, Lindsay; Kheirbek, Mazen A.

    2016-01-01

    Altered dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum has been associated with abnormal motivation in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Here, we tested whether motivational deficits observed in mice with upregulated D2Rs (D2R-OEdev mice) are reversed by decreasing function of the striatopallidal “no-go” pathway. To this end, we expressed the Gαi-coupled designer receptor hM4D in adult striatopallidal neurons and activated the receptor with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Using a head-mounted miniature microscope we confirmed with calcium imaging in awake mice that hM4D activation by CNO inhibits striatopallidal function measured as disinhibited downstream activity in the globus pallidus. Mice were then tested in three operant tasks that address motivated behavior, the progressive ratio task, the progressive hold-down task, and outcome devaluation. Decreasing striatopallidal function in the dorsomedial striatum or nucleus accumbens core enhanced motivation in D2R-OEdev mice and control littermates. This effect was due to increased response initiation but came at the cost of goal-directed efficiency. Moreover, response vigor and the sensitivity to changes in reward value were not altered. Chronic activation of hM4D by administering CNO for 2 weeks in drinking water did not affect motivation due to a tolerance effect. However, the acute effect of CNO on motivation was reinstated after discontinuing chronic treatment for 48 h. Used as a therapeutic approach, striatopallidal inhibition should consider the risk of impairing goal-directed efficiency and behavioral desensitization. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Motivation involves a directional component that allows subjects to efficiently select the behavior that will lead to an optimal outcome and an activational component that initiates and maintains the vigor and persistence of actions. Striatal output pathways modulate motivated behavior, but it remains unknown how these pathways regulate specific

  20. A 1% Solution: Establishing and Reaching Enrollment Goals in Geoscience Departments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, D. D.

    2005-12-01

    Because of the small number of recent graduates, the Department of Geology and Geography at Georgia Southern University was placed on the list of programs to be monitored by the University System of Georgia's Board of Regents in August 1998. With only 23 majors at the time, the need to grow the program was obvious to everyone. Facing the reality that the survival of the Department was at stake, the faculty made enhancing enrollments its highest priority. After consulting a variety of published information and talking to faculty from the incredibly successful Department of Geology and Geography at Northwest Missouri State University, the faculty adopted a goal of having the combined number of geology and geography majors in the department equal 1% of the university's undergraduate enrollment, which then stood at 12,400. The most important move toward the goal occurred when the Department began actively recruiting majors from all introductory geology and geography courses. Recruiting took a variety of forms that ranged from suggesting that students doing well in a course consider majoring in the field to formal presentations on geology and geography as careers. Since the Spring 2001 semester, recruiting talks have been given in every introductory level geography and geology class by a member of the faculty other than the course's instructor. The presentations emphasize how geology and geography promote the development of important marketable skills (e.g., critical thinking, problem solving, writing, public speaking, cultural awareness) and technical expertise (especially GIS) that are essential in obtaining employment and in career advancement. The presentations occur during the week preceding the Thanksgiving holidays, so students will have the opportunity to discuss this important choice with their parents. This schedule also gives students time to make their decision before registration for the spring semester. Soon after the recruitment efforts started the number

  1. A goal-based mechanism for delayed motor intention: considerations from motor skills, tool use and action memory.

    PubMed

    Badets, Arnaud; Osiurak, François

    2015-05-01

    Thinking about our behaviors for a future recall like playing a piano sonata during the next weekend (i.e., delayed motor intention) should engage at some level sensorimotor-based representations. Theoretically, such representations can be stored through both an action- and a goal-based mechanism. An action-based mechanism is related to the specific motor sequence of fingers like the key presses on the piano, and a goal-based mechanism is related to the musical tones generated by the key presses. From these considerations, the present article tries to explore whether the cognitive nature of delayed motor intention is more based on an action or goal mechanism. We reviewed empirical evidence and theoretical accounts of different domains such as motor skills, tool use, and action memory supporting the idea that such delayed motor intentions are rather represented through a goal-based mechanism. The specific role of this goal-based mechanism is to envision the future in an implementation-neutral mode to flexibly and efficiently retrieve an adapted action to environmental constraints. This goal-based account offers an interesting alternative to reshape the classical models about the representations of delayed motor intention. We also discuss how this account can be applied to practical activities in daily life situations.

  2. Children's Representation and Imitation of Events: How Goal Organization Influences 3-Year-Old Children's Memory for Action Sequences.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Jeff; Mutschler, Christina; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2016-11-24

    Children's imitation of adults plays a prominent role in human cognitive development. However, few studies have investigated how children represent the complex structure of observed actions which underlies their imitation. We integrate theories of action segmentation, memory, and imitation to investigate whether children's event representation is organized according to veridical serial order or a higher level goal structure. Children were randomly assigned to learn novel event sequences either through interactive hands-on experience (Study 1) or via storybook (Study 2). Results demonstrate that children's representation of observed actions is organized according to higher level goals, even at the cost of representing the veridical temporal ordering of the sequence. We argue that prioritizing goal structure enhances event memory, and that this mental organization is a key mechanism of social-cognitive development in real-world, dynamic environments. It supports cultural learning and imitation in ecologically valid settings when social agents are multitasking and not demonstrating one isolated goal at a time.

  3. Memory for goal-directed sequences of actions: is doing better than seeing?

    PubMed

    Steffens, Meianie C

    2007-12-01

    Verb-object phrases are usually remembered better if they have been enacted during study than if theyhave been learned verbally or if one has observed another person enact the phrases. Researchers have explained this well-established enactment effect by assuming that enactment leaves an additional motor code enhancing memory. We assume instead that enactment provokes excellentitem-specific processing at t he expense of processing relations between items. Thus, if recall were to depend on this relational processing that is hindered by enactment, enactment should not be a more effective encoding strategy than observation. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the recall of sequences of related actions. In two experiments, we found no recall advantage of enactment over observing another person perform, though both encoding tasks were superior to verbal learning. Organization was best after observation. These findings imply that learning by viewing is not inferior to learning by doing.

  4. Social change as an important goal or likely outcome: how regulatory focus affects commitment to collective action.

    PubMed

    Zaal, Maarten P; Van Laar, Colette; Ståhl, Tomas; Ellemers, Naomi; Derks, Belle

    2012-03-01

    The results of three experiments showed that regulatory focus influences the way in which the importance and likelihood of social change affect individuals' commitment to collective action. In Studies 1 (N= 82) and 2 (N= 153), the strength of participants' chronic regulatory focus was measured. In Study 3 (N= 52), promotion or prevention focus was experimentally induced. The results showed that for individuals under promotion focus, commitment to collective action depended on the perceived likelihood that through this action important social change would be achieved. Individuals under prevention focus were willing to commit to collective action when they attached high importance to its goal, regardless of the extent to which they believed that attainment of this goal was likely. Implications of these results for work on regulatory focus and collective action are discussed.

  5. Goal Disengagement in Emerging Adulthood: The Adaptive Potential of Action Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandstätter, Veronika; Herrmann, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In emerging adulthood, being committed to and making progress on important personal goals constitutes a source of identity and well-being. Goal striving, however, does not always go without problems. Even though highly committed to a goal, individuals may experience recurring setbacks and, consequently, increasing doubts about the goal that might…

  6. Preventing the stress-induced shift from goal-directed to habit action with a β-adrenergic antagonist.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Höffken, Oliver; Tegenthoff, Martin; Wolf, Oliver T

    2011-11-23

    Stress modulates instrumental action in favor of habit processes that encode the association between a response and preceding stimuli and at the expense of goal-directed processes that learn the association between an action and the motivational value of the outcome. Here, we asked whether this stress-induced shift from goal-directed to habit action is dependent on noradrenergic activation and may therefore be blocked by a β-adrenoceptor antagonist. To this end, healthy men and women were administered a placebo or the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol before they underwent a stress or a control procedure. Shortly after the stress or control procedure, participants were trained in two instrumental actions that led to two distinct food outcomes. After training, one of the food outcomes was selectively devalued by feeding participants to satiety with that food. A subsequent extinction test indicated whether instrumental behavior was goal-directed or habitual. As expected, stress after placebo rendered participants' behavior insensitive to the change in the value of the outcome and thus habitual. After propranolol intake, however, stressed participants behaved, same as controls, goal-directed, suggesting that propranolol blocked the stress-induced bias toward habit behavior. Our findings show that the shift from goal-directed to habitual control of instrumental action under stress necessitates noradrenergic activation and could have important clinical implications, particularly for addictive disorders.

  7. Enactment versus observation: item-specific and relational processing in goal-directed action sequences (and lists of single actions).

    PubMed

    Schult, Janette; von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C

    2014-01-01

    What are the memory-related consequences of learning actions (such as "apply the patch") by enactment during study, as compared to action observation? Theories converge in postulating that enactment encoding increases item-specific processing, but not the processing of relational information. Typically, in the laboratory enactment encoding is studied for lists of unrelated single actions in which one action execution has no overarching purpose or relation with other actions. In contrast, real-life actions are usually carried out with the intention to achieve such a purpose. When actions are embedded in action sequences, relational information provides efficient retrieval cues. We contrasted memory for single actions with memory for action sequences in three experiments. We found more reliance on relational processing for action-sequences than single actions. To what degree can this relational information be used after enactment versus after the observation of an actor? We found indicators of superior relational processing after observation than enactment in ordered pair recall (Experiment 1A) and in emerging subjective organization of repeated recall protocols (recall runs 2-3, Experiment 2). An indicator of superior item-specific processing after enactment compared to observation was recognition (Experiment 1B, Experiment 2). Similar net recall suggests that observation can be as good a learning strategy as enactment. We discuss possible reasons why these findings only partly converge with previous research and theorizing.

  8. Enactment versus Observation: Item-Specific and Relational Processing in Goal-Directed Action Sequences (and Lists of Single Actions)

    PubMed Central

    Schult, Janette; von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C.

    2014-01-01

    What are the memory-related consequences of learning actions (such as “apply the patch”) by enactment during study, as compared to action observation? Theories converge in postulating that enactment encoding increases item-specific processing, but not the processing of relational information. Typically, in the laboratory enactment encoding is studied for lists of unrelated single actions in which one action execution has no overarching purpose or relation with other actions. In contrast, real-life actions are usually carried out with the intention to achieve such a purpose. When actions are embedded in action sequences, relational information provides efficient retrieval cues. We contrasted memory for single actions with memory for action sequences in three experiments. We found more reliance on relational processing for action-sequences than single actions. To what degree can this relational information be used after enactment versus after the observation of an actor? We found indicators of superior relational processing after observation than enactment in ordered pair recall (Experiment 1A) and in emerging subjective organization of repeated recall protocols (recall runs 2–3, Experiment 2). An indicator of superior item-specific processing after enactment compared to observation was recognition (Experiment 1B, Experiment 2). Similar net recall suggests that observation can be as good a learning strategy as enactment. We discuss possible reasons why these findings only partly converge with previous research and theorizing. PMID:24927279

  9. 37 CFR 3.73 - Establishing right of assignee to take action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Action Taken... section to the satisfaction of the Director. The establishment of ownership by the assignee may...

  10. 37 CFR 3.73 - Establishing right of assignee to take action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Action Taken... section to the satisfaction of the Director. The establishment of ownership by the assignee may...

  11. 78 FR 68020 - Evaluation of Established Plant Pests for Action at Ports of Entry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Evaluation of Established Plant Pests for Action at Ports of Entry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising... the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). Pursuant to the PPA,...

  12. Setting Your Development Goals: Start with Your Values. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternbergh, Bill; Weitzel, Sloan R.

    This guidebook is about changing the way people think about setting goals; it is about identifying goals that are important and meaningful. Creating those kinds of goals means taking stock of personal values--what one believes and how one can act to carry out those beliefs--in five key areas of life: career, self, family, community, and spirit.…

  13. Transformational Action as the Goal of Teaching Public Issues: Creating a Classroom Environment Where Social Action Can Flourish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara; Parsons, Jim

    This paper renews the case for social action as a necessary and exciting part of the social studies curriculum and suggests that the social study of public issues should have a central place within this vision. The document focuses more on practical ideas that social studies teachers who have chosen to work in the area of social action, or those…

  14. 37 CFR 3.73 - Establishing right of assignee to take action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Action Taken... this section to the satisfaction of the Director. The establishment of ownership by the assignee may be... the satisfaction of the Director. The establishment of ownership by the assignee may be combined...

  15. 37 CFR 3.73 - Establishing right of assignee to take action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Action Taken... this section to the satisfaction of the Director. The establishment of ownership by the assignee may be... the satisfaction of the Director. The establishment of ownership by the assignee may be combined...

  16. Understanding human original actions directed at real-world goals: the role of the lateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sitnikova, Tatiana; Rosen, Bruce R; Lord, Louis-David; West, W Caroline

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive, original actions, which can succeed in multiple contextual situations, require understanding of what is relevant to a goal. Recognizing what is relevant may also help in predicting kinematics of observed, original actions. During action observation, comparisons between sensory input and expected action kinematics have been argued critical to accurate goal inference. Experimental studies with laboratory tasks, both in humans and nonhuman primates, demonstrated that the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) can learn, hierarchically organize, and use goal-relevant information. To determine whether this LPFC capacity is generalizable to real-world cognition, we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in the human brain during comprehension of original and usual object-directed actions embedded in video-depictions of real-life behaviors. We hypothesized that LPFC will contribute to forming goal-relevant representations necessary for kinematic predictions of original actions. Additionally, resting-state fMRI was employed to examine functional connectivity between the brain regions delineated in the video fMRI experiment. According to behavioral data, original videos could be understood by identifying elements relevant to real-life goals at different levels of abstraction. Patterns of enhanced activity in four regions in the left LPFC, evoked by original, relative to usual, video scenes, were consistent with previous neuroimaging findings on representing abstract and concrete stimuli dimensions relevant to laboratory goals. In the anterior left LPFC, the activity increased selectively when representations of broad classes of objects and actions, which could achieve the perceived overall behavioral goal, were likely to bias kinematic predictions of original actions. In contrast, in the more posterior regions, the activity increased even when concrete properties of the target object were more likely to bias the kinematic prediction. Functional

  17. Exam Preparation: The Influence of Action Control, Procrastination and Examination Experience on Students' Goal Intention and Implementation Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In the framework of the intention-behavior-gap analysis in relation to exam preparation I examined whether intention--subdivided into goal and implementation intention--is influenced directly by the determinants action control, procrastination and examination experience which is consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior and…

  18. Australia's leading public health body delays action on the revision of the public health goal for blood lead exposures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Winder, Chris; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2014-09-01

    Globally, childhood blood lead levels have fallen precipitously in developed countries since the 1970s following action by international bodies such as the WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. These reductions have been affected by the activities of national agencies such as the US EPA and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the establishment of air lead and blood lead standards, the introduction of legislation to remove lead from petrol, paint and consumer products and tighter restrictions on lead emissions. The outcome of recent major international reviews of research into the effects of low-level lead exposures (e.g. by WHO, USA health and environmental agencies, German and Canadian health bodies) has resulted in recommendations to reduce and eliminate lead exposures. By contrast, Australian policy responses to the incontrovertible evidence that adverse neurocognitive and behavioural effects that occur at levels well below the current national goal of 10μg/dL have stalled. The delayed response by Australia occurs at a time when blood lead levels in two of Australia's three primary lead mining and smelting cities: Port Pirie, South Australia and Broken Hill, New South Wales, are rising. In the third city, Mount Isa, Queensland, there is still no systematic, annual testing of childhood blood lead values. This is despite the fact that Mount Isa has the highest lead (and other toxic metals such as cadmium and arsenic) emissions to the environment (120tonnes of lead in 2011/12) from any single point source in Australia. It is clear that both state and national policy approaches to the ongoing risks of lead exposure need to be revised urgently and in line with contemporary international standards. Recommended changes should include a new lower blood lead intervention level of no more than 5μg/dL, with a national goal for all children under 5years of age to have a blood lead level of below 1μg/dL by 2020. In order to

  19. Dorsal and ventral streams: The distinct role of striatal subregions in the acquisition and performance of goal-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Genevra; Leung, Beatrice K.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that distinct neural processes mediate the acquisition and performance of goal-directed instrumental actions. Whereas a cortical-dorsomedial striatal circuit appears critical for the acquisition of goal-directed actions, a cortical-ventral striatal circuit appears to mediate instrumental performance, particularly the motivational control of performance. Here we review evidence that these distinct mechanisms of learning and performance constitute two distinct ‘streams’ controlling instrumental conditioning. From this perspective, the regulation of the interaction between these ‘streams’ becomes a matter of considerable importance. We describe evidence that the basolateral amygdala, which is heavily interconnected with both the dorsal and ventral subregions of the striatum, coordinates this interaction providing input to the final common path to action as a critical component of the limbic-motor interface. PMID:24231424

  20. The sequential encoding of competing action goals involves dynamic restructuring of motor plans in working memory.

    PubMed

    Gallivan, Jason P; Bowman, Natasha A R; Chapman, Craig S; Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2016-06-01

    Recent neural and behavioral findings provide support for the influential idea that in situations in which multiple action options are presented simultaneously, we prepare action plans for each competing option before deciding between and executing one of those plans. However, in natural, everyday environments, our available action options frequently change from one moment to the next, and there is often uncertainty as to whether additional options will become available before having to select a particular course of action. Here, with the use of a target-directed reaching task, we show that in this situation, the brain specifies a competing action for each new, sequentially presented potential target and that recently formed action plans can be revisited and updated so as to conform with separate, more newly developed, plans. These findings indicate that the brain forms labile motor plans for sequentially arising target options that can be flexibly restructured to accommodate new motor plans.

  1. Should an individual composed of selfish goals be held responsible for her actions?

    PubMed

    Washington, Natalia; Kelly, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the implications of the Selfish Goal model for moral responsibility, arguing it suggests a form of skepticism we call the "locus problem." In denying that individuals contain any genuine psychological core of information processing, the Selfish Goal model denies the kind of locus of control intuitively presupposed by ascriptions of responsibility. We briefly consider ways the problem might be overcome.

  2. The Attribution of Attention: 9-Month-Olds' Interpretation of Gaze as Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan C.; Ok, Su-Jeong; Luo, Yuyan

    2007-01-01

    The current study distinguishes between attributions of goal-directed perception (i.e. attention) and non-goal-directed perception to examine 9-month-olds' interpretation of others' head and eye turns. In a looking time task, 9-month-olds encoded the relationship between an actor's head and eye turns and a target object if the head and eye turns…

  3. Facilitating Engagement in New Career Goals: The Moderating Effects of Personal Resources and Career Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praskova, Anna; Creed, Peter A.; Hood, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Goal engagement in young adults is variable. We recruited university students to test whether general personal characteristics (educational ability, core self-evaluations, and well-being; study 1, N = 195) and career adaptive variables (career confidence, exploration, and planning; study 2, N = 152) facilitated career goal engagement. Goal…

  4. A spiking neuron model of the cortico-basal ganglia circuits for goal-directed and habitual action learning.

    PubMed

    Chersi, Fabian; Mirolli, Marco; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-05-01

    Dual-system theories postulate that actions are supported either by a goal-directed or by a habit-driven response system. Neuroimaging and anatomo-functional studies have provided evidence that the prefrontal cortex plays a fundamental role in the first type of action control, while internal brain areas such as the basal ganglia are more active during habitual and overtrained responses. Additionally, it has been shown that areas of the cortex and the basal ganglia are connected through multiple parallel "channels", which are thought to function as an action selection mechanism resolving competitions between alternative options available in a given context. In this paper we propose a multi-layer network of spiking neurons that implements in detail the thalamo-cortical circuits that are believed to be involved in action learning and execution. A key feature of this model is that neurons are organized in small pools in the motor cortex and form independent loops with specific pools of the basal ganglia where inhibitory circuits implement a multistep selection mechanism. The described model has been validated utilizing it to control the actions of a virtual monkey that has to learn to turn on briefly flashing lights by pressing corresponding buttons on a board. When the animal is able to fluently execute the task the button-light associations are remapped so that it has to suppress its habitual behavior in order to execute goal-directed actions. The model nicely shows how sensory-motor associations for action sequences are formed at the cortico-basal ganglia level and how goal-directed decisions may override automatic motor responses.

  5. Defense Infrastructure: DOD Needs to Take Actions to Address Challenges in Meeting Federal Renewable Energy Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    renewable energy be generated by sources placed into service in 1999 or later; and (3) the 2007 Defense Authorization Act directed that at least 25 percent of electricity consumed by DoD come from renewable sources in fiscal year 2025. GAO was asked to examine the following: (1) DoD’s progress toward these three key goals for consuming renewable energy in fiscal years 2007 and 2008, (2) challenges to DoD meeting those goals, and (3) DoD’s plans to meet the goals. GAO reviewed relevant laws and DoD and Department of Energy (DOE) policy,

  6. Road map for polio eradication--establishing the link with Millennium Development Goal no. 4 for child survival.

    PubMed

    Arita, Isao; Nakane, Miyuki

    2008-05-01

    The global polio eradication program, started in 1988, initially targeted the year 2000 for the worldwide elimination of the disease. Although poliovirus transmission has been markedly reduced, it has not been eliminated. As we enter the 20th year of the campaign, poliovirus continues to infect and cause paralysis in localized areas of South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. To combat this scourge, the World Health Organization, together with other worldwide partners, has newly committed to worldwide eradication by 2009. It appears that the delay has been caused by a combination of the failure of globalization to deliver the prosperity it initially promised and technical problems specific to polio eradication. We hope that the world can reach zero level status for polio report, but verification would take many years and extended research due to the nature of poliovirus. We propose a scientific joint enterprise by which the polio endgame is accelerate, at the same time that a special immunization program against multiple other vaccine-preventable diseases is initiated. This newly organized collaborative effort, we believe, will maximize the benefits achieved by polio eradication and reduce childhood disease and deaths, namely achieve the Millennium Development Goal no. 4, in sub-Saharan Africa, the region that especially needs such action.

  7. Six- and 9-Month-Old Infants Discriminate between Goals Despite Similar Action Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Heidi L.; Stavropoulos, Jennifer; Nienhuis, Tom; Legerstee, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Behne, Carpenter, Call, and Tomasello (2005) showed that 9- to 18-month-olds, but not 6-month-olds, differentiated between people who were unwilling and unable to share toys. As the outcome of the two tasks is the same (i.e., the toy is not shared), the infants must respond to the different goals of the actor. However, visual habituation paradigms…

  8. When action meets emotions: how facial displays of emotion influence goal-related behavior.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Francesca; Stoianov, Ivilin Peev; Gianelli, Claudia; D'Amico, Luigi; Borghi, Anna M; Gallese, Vittorio

    2010-10-01

    Many authors have proposed that facial expressions, by conveying emotional states of the person we are interacting with, influence the interaction behavior. We aimed at verifying how specific the effect is of the facial expressions of emotions of an individual (both their valence and relevance/specificity for the purpose of the action) with respect to how the action aimed at the same individual is executed. In addition, we investigated whether and how the effects of emotions on action execution are modulated by participants' empathic attitudes. We used a kinematic approach to analyze the simulation of feeding others, which consisted of recording the "feeding trajectory" by using a computer mouse. Actors could express different highly arousing emotions, namely happiness, disgust, anger, or a neutral expression. Response time was sensitive to the interaction between valence and relevance/specificity of emotion: disgust caused faster response. In addition, happiness induced slower feeding time and longer time to peak velocity, but only in blocks where it alternated with expressions of disgust. The kinematic profiles described how the effect of the specificity of the emotional context for feeding, namely a modulation of accuracy requirements, occurs. An early acceleration in kinematic relative-to-neutral feeding profiles occurred when actors expressed positive emotions (happiness) in blocks with specific-to-feeding negative emotions (disgust). On the other hand, the end-part of the action was slower when feeding happy with respect to neutral faces, confirming the increase of accuracy requirements and motor control. These kinematic effects were modulated by participants' empathic attitudes. In conclusion, the social dimension of emotions, that is, their ability to modulate others' action planning/execution, strictly depends on their relevance and specificity to the purpose of the action. This finding argues against a strict distinction between social and nonsocial

  9. Evidence of action sequence chunking in goal-directed instrumental conditioning and its dependence on the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Sean B; Winterbauer, Neil E; Balleine, Bernard W

    2009-06-24

    The current study investigated the contribution of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) to instrumental action selection. We found that cell body lesions of the dmPFC, centered on the medial agranular area, spared rats' ability to choose between actions based on either the value or the discriminative stimulus properties of an outcome. We next examined the effects of these lesions on action sequence learning using a concurrent bidirectional heterogeneous chain task in which the identity of the reward delivered was determined by the order in which the two lever press actions were performed. Although both lesioned rats and sham controls learned to perform the task, we found that they relied on different behavioral strategies to do so. In subsequent tests, rats in the sham group were able to withhold their performance of a sequence when either its associated outcome was devalued or the contingency between that sequence and its outcome was degraded by delivering the outcome noncontingently. Interestingly, lesioned rats failed to reorganize their performance at the action sequence level and, rather, were found to withhold their performance of the terminal response in the sequence that had earned the devalued outcome relative to the more distal response, suggesting that they represented the elements of the sequence as distinct behavioral units. These findings demonstrate that rats can use sequence-level representations, or action chunks, to organize their behavior in a goal-directed manner and indicate that the dmPFC plays a critical role in this process.

  10. Interaction of insular cortex and ventral striatum mediates the effect of incentive memory on choice between goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Shauna L; Bradfield, Laura A; Balleine, Bernard W

    2015-04-22

    The anterior insular cortex (IC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core have been separately implicated in the selection and performance of actions based on the incentive value of the instrumental outcome. Here, we examined the role of connections between the IC and the NAc core in the performance of goal-directed actions. Rats were trained on two actions for distinct outcomes, after which one of the two outcomes was devalued by specific satiety immediately before a choice extinction test. We first confirmed the projection from the IC to the NAc core and then disconnected these structures via asymmetrical excitotoxic lesions before training. Contralateral, but not ipsilateral, disconnection of the IC and NAc core disrupted outcome devaluation. We hypothesized that communication between the IC and NAc core is necessary for the retrieval of incentive value at test. To test this, we infused the GABAA agonist muscimol into the IC and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist CTAP into the contralateral NAc before the choice extinction test. As expected, inactivation of the IC in one hemisphere and blocking μ-opioid receptors in the contralateral NAc core abolished outcome-selective devaluation. These results suggest that the IC and NAc core form part of a circuit mediating the retrieval of outcome values and the subsequent choice between goal-directed actions based on those values.

  11. Intrinsically motivated action-outcome learning and goal-based action recall: a system-level bio-constrained computational model.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mannella, Francesco; Fiore, Vincenzo G; Redgrave, Peter; Gurney, Kevin; Mirolli, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Reinforcement (trial-and-error) learning in animals is driven by a multitude of processes. Most animals have evolved several sophisticated systems of 'extrinsic motivations' (EMs) that guide them to acquire behaviours allowing them to maintain their bodies, defend against threat, and reproduce. Animals have also evolved various systems of 'intrinsic motivations' (IMs) that allow them to acquire actions in the absence of extrinsic rewards. These actions are used later to pursue such rewards when they become available. Intrinsic motivations have been studied in Psychology for many decades and their biological substrates are now being elucidated by neuroscientists. In the last two decades, investigators in computational modelling, robotics and machine learning have proposed various mechanisms that capture certain aspects of IMs. However, we still lack models of IMs that attempt to integrate all key aspects of intrinsically motivated learning and behaviour while taking into account the relevant neurobiological constraints. This paper proposes a bio-constrained system-level model that contributes a major step towards this integration. The model focusses on three processes related to IMs and on the neural mechanisms underlying them: (a) the acquisition of action-outcome associations (internal models of the agent-environment interaction) driven by phasic dopamine signals caused by sudden, unexpected changes in the environment; (b) the transient focussing of visual gaze and actions on salient portions of the environment; (c) the subsequent recall of actions to pursue extrinsic rewards based on goal-directed reactivation of the representations of their outcomes. The tests of the model, including a series of selective lesions, show how the focussing processes lead to a faster learning of action-outcome associations, and how these associations can be recruited for accomplishing goal-directed behaviours. The model, together with the background knowledge reviewed in the paper

  12. Understanding the Goals of Everyday Instrumental Actions Is Primarily Linked to Object, Not Motor-Kinematic, Information: Evidence from fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Toby; Roser, Matt; Bach, Patric

    2017-01-01

    Prior research conceptualised action understanding primarily as a kinematic matching of observed actions to own motor representations but has ignored the role of object information. The current study utilized fMRI to identify (a) regions uniquely involved in encoding the goal of others’ actions, and (b) to test whether these goal understanding processes draw more strongly on regions involved in encoding object semantics or movement kinematics. Participants watched sequences of instrumental actions while attending to either the actions’ goal (goal task), the movements performed (movement task) or the objects used (object task). The results confirmed, first, a unique role of the inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus and medial frontal gyrus in action goal understanding. Second, they show for the first time that activation in the goal task overlaps directly with object- but not movement-related activation. Moreover, subsequent parametric analyses revealed that movement-related regions become activated only when goals are unclear, or observers have little action experience. In contrast to motor theories of action understanding, these data suggest that objects—rather than movement kinematics—carry the key information about others’ actions. Kinematic information is additionally recruited when goals are ambiguous or unfamiliar. PMID:28081175

  13. Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees numerous sites on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other locations in the State of Nevada that have been impacted by activities related to the development and testing of nuclear devices and by other activities. NNSA/NSO is responsible for protecting members of the public, including site workers, from harmful exposure to both chemical and radiological contaminants at these sites as they remediate these sites. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) is the primary state agency responsible for protection of human health and the environment with respect to chemical and radiological wastes. In 1996 the DOE, U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada entered into an agreement known as the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Appendix VI to the FFACO describes the strategy employed to plan, implement, and complete environmental corrective action activities at NTS and other locations in the state of Nevada. One of the categories of corrective action units (CAUs) is Industrial Sites, which consists of approximately 1,150 locations that may require some level of investigation and corrective action. To evaluate the need for the extent of corrective action at a particular site, NNSA/NSO assesses the potential impacts to receptors by comparing measurements of contaminant concentrations to risk-based (chemical) and dose-based (radionuclide) standards (action levels). Preliminary action levels (PALs) are established as part of the data quality objective (DQO) process, and are presented in one or more FFACO documents generated as part of the corrective action process. This document formally defines and clarifies the NDEP-approved process NNSA/NSO Industrial Sites Project uses to fulfill the requirements of the FFACO and state regulations. This process establishes final action levels (FALs) based on the risk

  14. Perceptions of Intentionality for Goal-Related Action: Behavioral Description Matters

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Andrew E.; Reeder, Glenn D.; James, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of intentionality critically guide everyday social interactions, though the literature provides diverging portraits of how such judgments are made. One view suggests that people have an "intentionality bias," predisposing them toward labeling behaviors as intentional. A second view focuses on a more complex pattern of reasoning whereby judgments of intentionality are shaped by information about social context and mental states. Drawing on the theory of action-identification, we attempt to integrate these two perspectives. We propose that people parse intentionality into two categories: judgments about concrete, low-level behaviors and judgments about relatively more abstract, high-level behaviors. Evidence from five studies supports this distinction. Low-level behaviors were perceived as intentional regardless of mental state information, supporting the “intentionality bias” view. In contrast, judgments about the intentionality of high-level behaviors varied depending on social context and mental states, supporting the systematic view of intentionality. PMID:25781315

  15. The motor system resonates to the distal goal of observed actions: testing the inverse pliers paradigm in an ecological setting.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Luigi; Maule, Francesca; Barchiesi, Guido; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2013-11-01

    Does motor mirroring in humans reflect the observed movements or the goal of the observed motor acts? Tools that dissociate the agent/object dynamics from the movements of the body parts used to operate them provide a model for testing resonance to both movements and goals. Here, we describe the temporal relationship of the observer's motor excitability, assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with the observed goal-directed tool actions, in an ecological setting. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to TMS were recorded from the opponens pollicis (OP, thumb flexor) and the extensor indicis proprius (EIP, index extensor) muscles of participants while they observed a person moving several small objects with a pair of normal pliers (closed by finger flexion) or reverse pliers (opened by finger flexion). The MEPs were a significant predictor of the pliers' kinematics that occurred in a variable time interval between -400 and +300 ms from TMS. Whatever pliers' type was being observed, OP MEPs correlated positively and EIP MEPs correlated negatively with the velocity of pliers' tips closure. This datum was confirmed both at individual and at a group level. Motor simulation can be demonstrated in single observers in a "real-life" ecological setting. The relation of motor resonance to the tool type shows that the observer's motor system codes the distal goal of the observed acts (i.e., grasping and releasing objects) in terms of its own motor vocabulary, irrespective of the actual finger movements that were performed by the observed actor.

  16. The time for doing is not the time for change: effects of general action and inaction goals on attitude retrieval and attitude change.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M

    2011-06-01

    Implicit in many informal and formal principles of psychological change is the understudied assumption that change requires either an active approach or an inactive approach. This issue was systematically investigated by comparing the effects of general action goals and general inaction goals on attitude change. As prior attitudes facilitate preparation for an upcoming persuasive message, general action goals were hypothesized to facilitate conscious retrieval of prior attitudes and therefore hinder attitude change to a greater extent than general inaction goals. Experiment 1 demonstrated that action primes (e.g., "go," "energy") yielded faster attitude report than inaction primes (e.g., "rest," "still") among participants who were forewarned of an upcoming persuasive message. Experiment 2 showed that the faster attitude report identified in Experiment 1 was localized on attitudes toward a message topic participants were prepared to receive. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 showed that, compared with inaction primes, action primes produced less attitude change and less argument scrutiny in response to a counterattitudinal message on a previously forewarned topic. Experiment 6 confirmed that the effects of the primes on attitude change were due to differential attitude retrieval. That is, when attitude expression was induced immediately after the primes, action and inaction goals produced similar amounts of attitude change. In contrast, when no attitude expression was induced after the prime, action goals produced less attitude change than inaction goals. Finally, Experiment 7 validated the assumption that these goal effects can be reduced or reversed when the goals have already been satisfied by an intervening task.

  17. How do we infer others' goals from non-stereotypic actions? The outcome of context-sensitive inferential processing in right inferior parietal and posterior temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Liepelt, Roman; Von Cramon, D Yves; Brass, Marcel

    2008-12-01

    Humans permanently monitor others' behaviour and reason about their goals and intentions. Recent studies provided evidence suggesting that a very simple mechanism might underlie these functions. When observing stereotypic actions of others, goal inference seems to work through internal simulation of these actions in the self. However, less is known about the functional mechanisms and brain areas that are involved in inferring goals from others' actions when these actions are not stereotypic. Here we investigated the neural processes that are involved in goal inference processing of simple, non-stereotypic actions using functional brain imaging. We developed a paradigm in which we compared four simple finger lifting movements that differed in plausibility and intentionality as varied by action context. We found three regions that seem to be involved in goal inference processing of non-stereotypic implausible actions: (1) The superior temporal sulcus, (2) the right inferior parietal cortex, at the junction with the posterior temporal cortex (TPJ), and (3) the angular gyrus of the inferior parietal lobule. In line with teleological reasoning accounts of action understanding, inferring others' goals from non-stereotypic actions seems to be the outcome of context-sensitive inferential processing. In agreement with previous findings, we found the mirror system to be more strongly activated for intentionally produced actions [Iacoboni, M., Molnar-Szakacs, I., Gallese, V., Buccino, G., Mazziotta, J.C., Rizzolatti, G., 2005. Grasping the intentions of others with one's own mirror neuron system. PLoS Biol. 3, e79.], indicating an involvement of the IFG in representing intentional actions. Our findings support the idea that goal inference processing for non-stereotypic actions is primarily mediated by reasoning about action and context rather than by a direct mapping process via the mirror system.

  18. Factors Related to Establishing a Comfort Care Goal in Nursing Home Patients with Dementia: A Cohort Study among Family and Professional Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    van Soest-Poortvliet, Mirjam C.; de Vet, Henrica C.W.; Hertogh, Cees M.P.M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Deliens, Luc H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Many people with dementia die in long-term care settings. These patients may benefit from a palliative care goal, focused on comfort. Admission may be a good time to revisit or develop care plans. Objective: To describe care goals in nursing home patients with dementia and factors associated with establishing a comfort care goal. Design: We used generalized estimating equation regression analyses for baseline analyses and multinomial logistic regression analyses for longitudinal analyses. Setting: Prospective data collection in 28 Dutch facilities, mostly nursing homes (2007–2010; Dutch End of Life in Dementia study, DEOLD). Results: Eight weeks after admission (baseline), 56.7% of 326 patients had a comfort care goal. At death, 89.5% had a comfort care goal. Adjusted for illness severity, patients with a baseline comfort care goal were more likely to have a religious affiliation, to be less competent to make decisions, and to have a short survival prediction. Their families were less likely to prefer life-prolongation and more likely to be satisfied with family–physician communication. Compared with patients with a comfort care goal established later during their stay, patients with a baseline comfort care goal also more frequently had a more highly educated family member. Conclusions: Initially, over half of the patients had a care goal focused on comfort, increasing to the large majority of the patients at death. Optimizing patient–family–physician communication upon admission may support the early establishing of a comfort care goal. Patient condition and family views play a role, and physicians should be aware that religious affiliation and education may also affect the (timing of) setting a comfort care goal. PMID:25226515

  19. Learning to take action: the goals of health and safety training.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Deborah; Slatin, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Worker health and safety training is an important part of occupational health and safety programs. In the United States, governments, unions, employers, university programs, and health and safety advocacy organizations make training available. This article considers training effectiveness research conducted and supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and some done in collaboration with the Institute for Work and Health (Canada). Differing perspectives regarding the purpose of worker health and safety training are reviewed and critiqued. We assert that a focus on changing the working behaviors of workers exposed to hazardous conditions is less appropriate and scientifically rigorous than a focus on helping workers establish the power to reduce and eliminate workplace hazards. For training to lead to a decrease in morbidities and fatalities related to hazardous exposures, it needs to be integrated with workers' attainment of such power.

  20. Slips of Action and Sequential Decisions: A Cross-Validation Study of Tasks Assessing Habitual and Goal-Directed Action Control.

    PubMed

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Dietrich, Anja; Deserno, Lorenz; de Wit, Sanne; Villringer, Arno; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Horstmann, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Instrumental learning and decision-making rely on two parallel systems: a goal-directed and a habitual system. In the past decade, several paradigms have been developed to study these systems in animals and humans by means of e.g., overtraining, devaluation procedures and sequential decision-making. These different paradigms are thought to measure the same constructs, but cross-validation has rarely been investigated. In this study we compared two widely used paradigms that assess aspects of goal-directed and habitual behavior. We correlated parameters from a two-step sequential decision-making task that assesses model-based (MB) and model-free (MF) learning with a slips-of-action paradigm that assesses the ability to suppress cue-triggered, learnt responses when the outcome has been devalued and is therefore no longer desirable. MB control during the two-step task showed a very moderately positive correlation with goal-directed devaluation sensitivity, whereas MF control did not show any associations. Interestingly, parameter estimates of MB and goal-directed behavior in the two tasks were positively correlated with higher-order cognitive measures (e.g., visual short-term memory). These cognitive measures seemed to (at least partly) mediate the association between MB control during sequential decision-making and goal-directed behavior after instructed devaluation. This study provides moderate support for a common framework to describe the propensity towards goal-directed behavior as measured with two frequently used tasks. However, we have to caution that the amount of shared variance between the goal-directed and MB system in both tasks was rather low, suggesting that each task does also pick up distinct aspects of goal-directed behavior. Further investigation of the commonalities and differences between the MF and habit systems as measured with these, and other, tasks is needed. Also, a follow-up cross-validation on the neural systems driving these constructs

  1. Slips of Action and Sequential Decisions: A Cross-Validation Study of Tasks Assessing Habitual and Goal-Directed Action Control

    PubMed Central

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Dietrich, Anja; Deserno, Lorenz; de Wit, Sanne; Villringer, Arno; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Horstmann, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Instrumental learning and decision-making rely on two parallel systems: a goal-directed and a habitual system. In the past decade, several paradigms have been developed to study these systems in animals and humans by means of e.g., overtraining, devaluation procedures and sequential decision-making. These different paradigms are thought to measure the same constructs, but cross-validation has rarely been investigated. In this study we compared two widely used paradigms that assess aspects of goal-directed and habitual behavior. We correlated parameters from a two-step sequential decision-making task that assesses model-based (MB) and model-free (MF) learning with a slips-of-action paradigm that assesses the ability to suppress cue-triggered, learnt responses when the outcome has been devalued and is therefore no longer desirable. MB control during the two-step task showed a very moderately positive correlation with goal-directed devaluation sensitivity, whereas MF control did not show any associations. Interestingly, parameter estimates of MB and goal-directed behavior in the two tasks were positively correlated with higher-order cognitive measures (e.g., visual short-term memory). These cognitive measures seemed to (at least partly) mediate the association between MB control during sequential decision-making and goal-directed behavior after instructed devaluation. This study provides moderate support for a common framework to describe the propensity towards goal-directed behavior as measured with two frequently used tasks. However, we have to caution that the amount of shared variance between the goal-directed and MB system in both tasks was rather low, suggesting that each task does also pick up distinct aspects of goal-directed behavior. Further investigation of the commonalities and differences between the MF and habit systems as measured with these, and other, tasks is needed. Also, a follow-up cross-validation on the neural systems driving these constructs

  2. Motor planning of goal-directed action is tuned by the emotional valence of the stimulus: a kinematic study

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, P. O.; Oliveira, L. A. S.; Nogueira-Campos, A. A.; Saunier, G.; Pozzo, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Rodrigues, E. C.; Volchan, E.; Vargas, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    The basic underpinnings of homeostatic behavior include interacting with positive items and avoiding negative ones. As the planning aspects of goal-directed actions can be inferred from their movement features, we investigated the kinematics of interacting with emotion-laden stimuli. Participants were instructed to grasp emotion-laden stimuli and bring them toward their bodies while the kinematics of their wrist movement was measured. The results showed that the time to peak velocity increased for bringing pleasant stimuli towards the body compared to unpleasant and neutral ones, suggesting higher easiness in undertaking the task with pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, bringing unpleasant stimuli towards the body increased movement time in comparison with both pleasant and neutral ones while the time to peak velocity for unpleasant stimuli was the same as for that of neutral stimuli. There was no change in the trajectory length among emotional categories. We conclude that during the “reach-to-grasp” and “bring-to-the-body” movements, the valence of the stimuli affects the temporal but not the spatial kinematic features of motion. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that the kinematic features of a goal-directed action are tuned by the emotional valence of the stimuli. PMID:27364868

  3. Scale Matters: An Action Plan for Realizing Sector-Wide"Zero-Energy" Performance Goals in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Stephen; Selkowitz, Stephen; Granderson, Jessica; Haves, Philip; Mathew, Paul; Harris, Jeff

    2008-06-16

    It is widely accepted that if the United States is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it must aggressively address energy end use in the building sector. While there have been some notable but modest successes with mandatory and voluntary programs, there have also been puzzling failures to achieve expected savings. Collectively, these programs have not yet reached the majority of the building stock, nor have they yet routinely produced very large savings in individual buildings. Several trends that have the potential to change this are noteworthy: (1) the growing market interest in 'green buildings' and 'sustainable design', (2) the major professional societies (e.g. AIA, ASHRAE) have more aggressively adopted significant improvements in energy efficiency as strategic goals, e.g. targeting 'zero energy', carbon-neutral buildings by 2030. While this vision is widely accepted as desirable, unless there are significant changes to the way buildings are routinely designed, delivered and operated, zero energy buildings will remain a niche phenomenon rather than a sector-wide reality. Toward that end, a public/private coalition including the Alliance to Save Energy, LBNL, AIA, ASHRAE, USGBC and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) are developing an 'action plan' for moving the U.S. commercial building sector towards zero energy performance. It addresses regional action in a national framework; integrated deployment, demonstration and R&D threads; and would focus on measurable, visible performance indicators. This paper outlines this action plan, focusing on the challenge, the key themes, and the strategies and actions leading to substantial reductions in GHG emissions by 2030.

  4. Stakeholder involvement in establishing a milk quality sub-index in dairy cow breeding goals: a Delphi approach.

    PubMed

    Henchion, M; McCarthy, M; Resconi, V C; Berry, D P; McParland, S

    2016-05-01

    The relative weighting on traits within breeding goals are generally determined by bio-economic models or profit functions. While such methods have generally delivered profitability gains to producers, and are being expanded to consider non-market values, current approaches generally do not consider the numerous and diverse stakeholders that affect, or are affected, by such tools. Based on principles of respondent anonymity, iteration, controlled feedback and statistical aggregation of feedback, a Delphi study was undertaken to gauge stakeholder opinion of the importance of detailed milk quality traits within an overall dairy breeding goal for profit, with the aim of assessing its suitability as a complementary, participatory approach to defining breeding goals. The questionnaires used over two survey rounds asked stakeholders: (a) their opinion on incorporating an explicit sub-index for milk quality into a national breeding goal; (b) the importance they would assign to a pre-determined list of milk quality traits and (c) the (relative) weighting they would give such a milk quality sub-index. Results from the survey highlighted a good degree of consensus among stakeholders on the issues raised. Similarly, revelation of the underlying assumptions and knowledge used by stakeholders to make their judgements illustrated their ability to consider a range of perspectives when evaluating traits, and to reconsider their answers based on the responses and rationales given by others, which demonstrated social learning. Finally, while the relative importance assigned by stakeholders in the Delphi survey (4% to 10%) and the results of calculations based on selection index theory of the relative emphasis that should be placed on milk quality to halt any deterioration (16%) are broadly in line, the difference indicates the benefit of considering more than one approach to determining breeding goals. This study thus illustrates the role of the Delphi technique, as a complementary

  5. Student-Faculty Interactions about Disappointing Grades: Application of the Goals-Plans-Actions Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henningsen, Mary Lynn Miller; Valde, Kathleen S.; Russell, Gregory A.; Russell, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    The goals-plans-actions model and the theory of planned behavior were used to predict what lead to students having a conversation about a disappointing grade with a faculty member. Participants (N = 130) completed two surveys. In the first survey, participants completed measures of primary and secondary goals, planning, decision to engage,…

  6. Leveraging the Zachman framework implementation using action - research methodology - a case study: aligning the enterprise architecture and the business goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Juan Manuel; Romero, David; Espadas, Javier; Molina, Arturo

    2013-02-01

    With the emergence of new enterprise models, such as technology-based enterprises, and the large quantity of information generated through technological advances, the Zachman framework continues to represent a modelling tool of great utility and value to construct an enterprise architecture (EA) that can integrate and align the IT infrastructure and business goals. Nevertheless, implementing an EA requires an important effort within an enterprise. Small technology-based enterprises and start-ups can take advantage of EAs and frameworks but, because these enterprises have limited resources to allocate for this task, an enterprise framework implementation is not feasible in most cases. This article proposes a new methodology based on action-research for the implementation of the business, system and technology models of the Zachman framework to assist and facilitate its implementation. Following the explanation of cycles of the proposed methodology, a case study is presented to illustrate the results of implementing the Zachman framework in a technology-based enterprise: PyME CREATIVA, using action-research approach.

  7. The Allocation of Attention to Learning of Goal-Directed Actions: A Cognitive Neuroscience Framework Focusing on the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Franz, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper builds on the idea that attention is largely in service of our actions. A framework and model which captures the allocation of attention for learning of goal-directed actions is proposed and developed. This framework highlights an evolutionary model based on the notion that rudimentary functions of the basal ganglia have become embedded into increasingly higher levels of networks which all contribute to adaptive learning. Supporting the proposed model, background literature is presented alongside key evidence based on experimental studies in the so-called “split-brain” (surgically divided cerebral hemispheres), and selected evidence from related areas of research. Although overlap with other existing findings and models is acknowledged, the proposed framework is an original synthesis of cognitive experimental findings with supporting evidence of a neural system and a carefully formulated model of attention. It is the hope that this new synthesis will be informative in fields of cognition and other fields of brain sciences and will lead to new avenues for experimentation across domains. PMID:23267335

  8. The Time for Doing is Not the Time for Change: Effects of General Action and Inaction Goals on Attitude Retrieval and Attitude Change

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    Implicit in many informal and formal principles of psychological change is the understudied assumption that change requires either an active approach or an inactive approach. This issue was systematically investigated by comparing the effects of general action goals and general inaction goals on attitude change. As prior attitudes facilitate preparation for an upcoming persuasive message, general action goals were hypothesized to facilitate conscious retrieval of prior attitudes and therefore hinder attitude change to a greater extent than general inaction goals. Experiment 1 demonstrated that action primes (e.g., “go,” “energy”) yielded faster attitude report than inaction primes (e.g., “rest,” “still”) among participants who were forewarned of an upcoming persuasive message. Experiment 2 showed that the faster attitude report identified in Experiment 1 was localized on attitudes towards a message topic participants were prepared to receive. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 showed that, compared to inaction primes, action primes produced less attitude change and less argument scrutiny in response to a counterattitudinal message on a previously forewarned topic. Experiment 6 confirmed that the effects of the primes on attitude change were due to differential attitude retrieval. That is, when attitude expression was induced immediately after the primes, action and inaction goals produced similar amounts of attitude change. In contrast, when no attitude expression was induced after the prime, action goals produced less attitude change than inaction goals. Finally, Experiment 7 validated the assumption that these goal effects can be reduced or reversed when the goals have already been satisfied by an intervening task. PMID:21639651

  9. The interaction of approach-alcohol action tendencies, working memory capacity, and current task goals predicts the inability to regulate drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Sharbanee, Jason M; Stritzke, Werner G K; Wiers, Reinout W; Young, Paul; Rinck, Mike; MacLeod, Colin

    2013-09-01

    The inability to regulate alcohol consumption has been attributed to an imbalance between stimulus-driven behavioral biases, or action tendencies, and the ability to exert goal-directed control, or working memory capacity (WMC). Previous research assessing the interaction between these variables has not considered the effect of whether individuals' current goals or task demands require goal-directed control. Our aim was to examine the potential interaction of appetitive action tendencies and the ability to exert control over these action tendencies as a function of whether task demands require applying control for successful task completion. Two groups of social drinkers (n = 40 per group) who differed in their ability to regulate their alcohol consumption completed a novel variant of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT), which separately assessed approach and avoid trials. The approach and avoidance responses differentially require goal-directed control, depending on whether the task-relevant response is incongruent with the stimulus-driven action tendency. Results indicated that (a) group differences in AAT indices were only observed on trials that required an avoidance movement, which are trials where the task-relevant response would be incongruent with an approach action tendency, and (b) the extent of the group differences for these avoidance trials was moderated by individual differences in WMC, such that problem drinkers with lower WMC showed greater behavioral bias toward alcohol than those with higher WMC. These findings suggest that difficulties in regulating alcohol consumption arise from a complex interaction of action-tendencies, WMC, and current goals or task demands.

  10. 41 CFR 60-2.16 - Placement goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... good faith effort to make all aspects of the entire affirmative action program work. Placement goals... placement goal for a particular job group, the contractor must establish a percentage annual placement goal... job group. (d) The placement goal-setting process described above contemplates that contractors...

  11. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... danger in products designed for their special use or frequently used by them, the Commission will usually... Commission action. 1009.8 Section 1009.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL... action. (a) This document states the Consumer Product Safety Commission's policy on...

  12. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... danger in products designed for their special use or frequently used by them, the Commission will usually... Commission action. 1009.8 Section 1009.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL... action. (a) This document states the Consumer Product Safety Commission's policy on...

  13. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... danger in products designed for their special use or frequently used by them, the Commission will usually... Commission action. 1009.8 Section 1009.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL... action. (a) This document states the Consumer Product Safety Commission's policy on...

  14. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... danger in products designed for their special use or frequently used by them, the Commission will usually... Commission action. 1009.8 Section 1009.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL... action. (a) This document states the Consumer Product Safety Commission's policy on...

  15. Differential effects of systemic cholinergic receptor blockade on Pavlovian incentive motivation and goal-directed action selection.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Sean B; Kosheleff, Alisa R; Maidment, Nigel T

    2014-05-01

    Reward-seeking actions can be guided by external cues that signal reward availability. For instance, when confronted with a stimulus that signals sugar, rats will prefer an action that produces sugar over a second action that produces grain pellets. Action selection is also sensitive to changes in the incentive value of potential rewards. Thus, rats that have been prefed a large meal of sucrose will prefer a grain-seeking action to a sucrose-seeking action. The current study investigated the dependence of these different aspects of action selection on cholinergic transmission. Hungry rats were given differential training with two unique stimulus-outcome (S1-O1 and S2-O2) and action-outcome (A1-O1 and A2-O2) contingencies during separate training phases. Rats were then given a series of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer tests, an assay of cue-triggered responding. Before each test, rats were injected with scopolamine (0, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, or mecamylamine (0, 0.75, or 2.25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Although the reward-paired cues were capable of biasing action selection when rats were tested off-drug, both anticholinergic treatments were effective in disrupting this effect. During a subsequent round of outcome devaluation testing-used to assess the sensitivity of action selection to a change in reward value--we found no effect of either scopolamine or mecamylamine. These results reveal that cholinergic signaling at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors mediates action selection based on Pavlovian reward expectations, but is not critical for flexibly selecting actions using current reward values.

  16. The Smoke around Mirror Neurons: Goals as Sociocultural and Emotional Organizers of Perception and Action in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2008-01-01

    From the pragmatists to the neo-Piagetians, development has been understood to involve cycles of perception and action--the internalization of interactions with the world and the construction of skills for acting in the world. From a neurobiological standpoint, new evidence suggests that neural activities related to action and perception converge…

  17. Characterizing the associative content of brain structures involved in habitual and goal-directed actions in humans: a multivariate FMRI study.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Daniel; Liljeholm, Mimi; Zika, Ondrej; O'Doherty, John P

    2015-03-04

    While there is accumulating evidence for the existence of distinct neural systems supporting goal-directed and habitual action selection in the mammalian brain, much less is known about the nature of the information being processed in these different brain regions. Associative learning theory predicts that brain systems involved in habitual control, such as the dorsolateral striatum, should contain stimulus and response information only, but not outcome information, while regions involved in goal-directed action, such as ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsomedial striatum, should be involved in processing information about outcomes as well as stimuli and responses. To test this prediction, human participants underwent fMRI while engaging in a binary choice task designed to enable the separate identification of these different representations with a multivariate classification analysis approach. Consistent with our predictions, the dorsolateral striatum contained information about responses but not outcomes at the time of an initial stimulus, while the regions implicated in goal-directed action selection contained information about both responses and outcomes. These findings suggest that differential contributions of these regions to habitual and goal-directed behavioral control may depend in part on basic differences in the type of information that these regions have access to at the time of decision making.

  18. Goal-Directed Actions Activate the Face-Sensitive Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus and Fusiform Gyrus in the Absence of Human-Like Perceptual Cues

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The conditions under which we identify entities as animate agents and the neural mechanisms supporting this ability are central questions in social neuroscience. Prior studies have focused upon 2 perceptual cues for signaling animacy: 1) surface features representing body forms such as faces, torsos, and limbs and 2) motion cues associated with biological forms. Here, we consider a third cue—the goal-directedness of an action. Regions in the social brain network, such as the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and fusiform face area (FFA), are activated by human-like motion and body form perceptual cues signaling animacy. Here, we investigate whether these same brain regions are activated by goal-directed motion even when performed by entities that lack human-like perceptual cues. We observed an interaction effect whereby the presence of either human-like perceptual cues or goal-directed actions was sufficient to activate the right pSTS and FFA. Only stimuli that lacked human-like perceptual cues and goal-directed actions failed to activate the pSTS and FFA at the same level. PMID:21768227

  19. Using goal- and grip-related information for understanding the correctness of other's actions: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; Bousardt, Roel; Bekkering, Harold; van Schie, Hein T

    2012-01-01

    Detecting errors in other's actions is of pivotal importance for joint action, competitive behavior and observational learning. Although many studies have focused on the neural mechanisms involved in detecting low-level errors, relatively little is known about error-detection in everyday situations. The present study aimed to identify the functional and neural mechanisms whereby we understand the correctness of other's actions involving well-known objects (e.g. pouring coffee in a cup). Participants observed action sequences in which the correctness of the object grasped and the grip applied to a pair of objects were independently manipulated. Observation of object violations (e.g. grasping the empty cup instead of the coffee pot) resulted in a stronger P3-effect than observation of grip errors (e.g. grasping the coffee pot at the upper part instead of the handle), likely reflecting a reorienting response, directing attention to the relevant location. Following the P3-effect, a parietal slow wave positivity was observed that persisted for grip-errors, likely reflecting the detection of an incorrect hand-object interaction. These findings provide new insight in the functional significance of the neurophysiological markers associated with the observation of incorrect actions and suggest that the P3-effect and the subsequent parietal slow wave positivity may reflect the detection of errors at different levels in the action hierarchy. Thereby this study elucidates the cognitive processes that support the detection of action violations in the selection of objects and grips.

  20. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.4 Establishment of tolerances... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory...

  1. Using Goal- and Grip-Related Information for Understanding the Correctness of Other’s Actions: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    van Elk, Michiel; Bousardt, Roel; Bekkering, Harold; van Schie, Hein T.

    2012-01-01

    Detecting errors in other’s actions is of pivotal importance for joint action, competitive behavior and observational learning. Although many studies have focused on the neural mechanisms involved in detecting low-level errors, relatively little is known about error-detection in everyday situations. The present study aimed to identify the functional and neural mechanisms whereby we understand the correctness of other’s actions involving well-known objects (e.g. pouring coffee in a cup). Participants observed action sequences in which the correctness of the object grasped and the grip applied to a pair of objects were independently manipulated. Observation of object violations (e.g. grasping the empty cup instead of the coffee pot) resulted in a stronger P3-effect than observation of grip errors (e.g. grasping the coffee pot at the upper part instead of the handle), likely reflecting a reorienting response, directing attention to the relevant location. Following the P3-effect, a parietal slow wave positivity was observed that persisted for grip-errors, likely reflecting the detection of an incorrect hand-object interaction. These findings provide new insight in the functional significance of the neurophysiological markers associated with the observation of incorrect actions and suggest that the P3-effect and the subsequent parietal slow wave positivity may reflect the detection of errors at different levels in the action hierarchy. Thereby this study elucidates the cognitive processes that support the detection of action violations in the selection of objects and grips. PMID:22606261

  2. Object visibility alters the relative contribution of ventral visual stream and mirror neuron system to goal anticipation during action observation.

    PubMed

    Thioux, Marc; Keysers, Christian

    2015-01-15

    We used fMRI to study the effect of hiding the target of a grasping action on the cerebral activity of an observer whose task was to anticipate the size of the object being grasped. Activity in the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS) was higher when the target was concealed from the view of the observer and anticipating the size of the object being grasped requested paying attention to the hand kinematics. In contrast, activity in ventral visual areas outside the pMNS increased when the target was fully visible, and the performance improved in this condition. A repetition suppression analysis demonstrated that in full view, the size of the object being grasped by the actor was encoded in the ventral visual stream. Dynamic causal modeling showed that monitoring a grasping action increased the coupling between the parietal and ventral premotor nodes of the pMNS. The modulation of the functional connectivity between these nodes was correlated with the subject's capability to detect the size of hidden objects. In full view, synaptic activity increased within the ventral visual stream, and the connectivity with the pMNS was diminished. The re-enactment of observed actions in the pMNS is crucial when interpreting others' actions requires paying attention to the body kinematics. However, when the context permits, visual-spatial information processing may complement pMNS computations for improved action anticipation accuracy.

  3. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... documentation on each and every criterion before making a decision. In addition, the Commission emphasizes that... which many decisions are made that substantially determine the content of the final documents, the... predicted future illnesses and injuries and the effectiveness of Commission action in reducing...

  4. The QUIPPED Project: Exploring Relevance and Rigor of Action Research Using Established Principles and Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Christine; Paterson, Margo; Medves, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the last in a series of three manuscripts published in the TQR journal over the past few years. This work is part of a larger program of research that has been carried out by a team of researchers detailing various aspects of a three year action research project carried out from 2005 and 2008. This particular paper addresses issues…

  5. SOVEREIGN: An autonomous neural system for incrementally learning planned action sequences to navigate towards a rewarded goal.

    PubMed

    Gnadt, William; Grossberg, Stephen

    2008-06-01

    How do reactive and planned behaviors interact in real time? How are sequences of such behaviors released at appropriate times during autonomous navigation to realize valued goals? Controllers for both animals and mobile robots, or animats, need reactive mechanisms for exploration, and learned plans to reach goal objects once an environment becomes familiar. The SOVEREIGN (Self-Organizing, Vision, Expectation, Recognition, Emotion, Intelligent, Goal-oriented Navigation) animat model embodies these capabilities, and is tested in a 3D virtual reality environment. SOVEREIGN includes several interacting subsystems which model complementary properties of cortical What and Where processing streams and which clarify similarities between mechanisms for navigation and arm movement control. As the animat explores an environment, visual inputs are processed by networks that are sensitive to visual form and motion in the What and Where streams, respectively. Position-invariant and size-invariant recognition categories are learned by real-time incremental learning in the What stream. Estimates of target position relative to the animat are computed in the Where stream, and can activate approach movements toward the target. Motion cues from animat locomotion can elicit head-orienting movements to bring a new target into view. Approach and orienting movements are alternately performed during animat navigation. Cumulative estimates of each movement are derived from interacting proprioceptive and visual cues. Movement sequences are stored within a motor working memory. Sequences of visual categories are stored in a sensory working memory. These working memories trigger learning of sensory and motor sequence categories, or plans, which together control planned movements. Predictively effective chunk combinations are selectively enhanced via reinforcement learning when the animat is rewarded. Selected planning chunks effect a gradual transition from variable reactive exploratory

  6. Information Consultancy in Action: A Case Study in Establishing a Library and Information Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittin, Margaret; Henderson, Fiona

    1991-01-01

    Describes the stages of an information consultancy project that established a management resource center to provide senior managers in a major financial institution with access to material for self-development. Interviews to assess information needs are described, success factors are considered, and personal qualities needed for information…

  7. [Successor establishment in familiy business as field of action in health promotion].

    PubMed

    Hetzel, C; Holzer, M

    2014-10-01

    Successor establishment in familiy business may lead to interpersonal and intrapsychological conflicts and is mostly a transition to retirement. This may have a negative impact on the senior's health. The "Sozialversicherung für Landwirtschaft, Forsten und Gartenbau (SVLFG)" reacts with an intervention of several days duration. Evaluation aim is measuring participants changes in specific activities and confidence on successor establishment and retirement indicating mental health stabilisation. The method comprises a panel of intervention group (I, n=61) and comparison group (V, n=28) randomly selected, structurally similar and parallelised to point of transfer. Retirement activities significantly rise in I (p=0.001, Cohen's d=0.48) and are steady in V (p=0.54) after one year. Level of confidence is equal in both groups and steady but strongly indicating response shift in I. Intervention activates targeted activities and improves confidence at least qualitatively in a field that has hardly been researched.

  8. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: State Action to Establish SHOP Marketplaces.

    PubMed

    Dash, Sarah J; Lucia, Kevin W; Thomas, Amy

    2014-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act seeks to help small employers offer coverage by reforming the small-group market and establishing Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) marketplaces. Seventeen states and the District of Columbia chose to operate their own SHOP marketplaces in 2014, with the federal government operating the SHOP marketplace in 33 states. This brief examines state decisions to enhance the value of SHOP marketplaces for small employers and finds that most have set predictable participation and eligibility requirements and will offer a competitive choice of insurers and plans. States also are seeking to facilitate small employers' shopping experience through online tools and access to personalized assistance. While not all SHOP marketplaces are yet functioning as intended, their establishment offers an opportunity to identify successful strategies for improving the affordability and accessibility of coverage for small employers.

  9. Is there any Influence of Variations in Context on Object-Affordance Effects in Schizophrenia? Perception of Property and Goals of Action

    PubMed Central

    Sevos, Jessica; Grosselin, Anne; Brouillet, Denis; Pellet, Jacques; Massoubre, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The simple perception of an object can potentiate an associated action. This affordance effect depends heavily on the action context in which the object is presented. In recent years, psychologists, psychiatrists, and phenomenologists have agreed that subjects with schizophrenia may not perceive the affordances of people or objects that could lead to a loss of ease in their actions. We examined whether the addition of contextually congruent elements, during the perception of everyday objects, could promote the emergence of object-affordance effects in subjects with schizophrenia and controls. Participants performed two Stimulus–Response-Compatibility tasks in which they were presented with semantic primes related to sense of property (Experiment 1) or goal of action (Experiment 2) prior to viewing each graspable object. Controls responded faster when their response hand and the graspable part of the object were compatibly oriented, but only when the context was congruent with the individual’s needs and goals. When the context operated as a constraint, the affordance-effect was disrupted. These results support the understanding that object-affordance is flexible and not just intrinsic to an object. However, the absence of this object-affordance effect in subjects with schizophrenia suggests the possible impairment of their ability to experience the internal simulation of motor action potentialities. In such case, all activities of daily life would require the involvement of higher cognitive processes rather than lower level sensorimotor processes. The study of schizophrenia requires the consideration of concepts and methods that arise from the theories of embodied and situated cognition. PMID:27761127

  10. Is there any Influence of Variations in Context on Object-Affordance Effects in Schizophrenia? Perception of Property and Goals of Action.

    PubMed

    Sevos, Jessica; Grosselin, Anne; Brouillet, Denis; Pellet, Jacques; Massoubre, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The simple perception of an object can potentiate an associated action. This affordance effect depends heavily on the action context in which the object is presented. In recent years, psychologists, psychiatrists, and phenomenologists have agreed that subjects with schizophrenia may not perceive the affordances of people or objects that could lead to a loss of ease in their actions. We examined whether the addition of contextually congruent elements, during the perception of everyday objects, could promote the emergence of object-affordance effects in subjects with schizophrenia and controls. Participants performed two Stimulus-Response-Compatibility tasks in which they were presented with semantic primes related to sense of property (Experiment 1) or goal of action (Experiment 2) prior to viewing each graspable object. Controls responded faster when their response hand and the graspable part of the object were compatibly oriented, but only when the context was congruent with the individual's needs and goals. When the context operated as a constraint, the affordance-effect was disrupted. These results support the understanding that object-affordance is flexible and not just intrinsic to an object. However, the absence of this object-affordance effect in subjects with schizophrenia suggests the possible impairment of their ability to experience the internal simulation of motor action potentialities. In such case, all activities of daily life would require the involvement of higher cognitive processes rather than lower level sensorimotor processes. The study of schizophrenia requires the consideration of concepts and methods that arise from the theories of embodied and situated cognition.

  11. A novel strategy for dissecting goal-directed action and arousal components of motivated behavior with a progressive hold-down task.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Matthew R; Jensen, Greg; Taylor, Kathleen; Mezias, Chris; Williamson, Cait; Silver, Rae; Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D

    2015-06-01

    Motivation serves 2 important functions: It guides actions to be goal-directed, and it provides the energy and vigor required to perform the work necessary to meet those goals. Dissociating these 2 processes with existing behavioral assays has been a challenge. In this article, we report a novel experimental strategy to distinguish the 2 processes in mice. First, we characterize a novel motivation assay in which animals must hold down a lever for progressively longer intervals to earn each subsequent reward; we call this the progressive hold-down (PHD) task. We find that performance on the PHD task is sensitive to both food deprivation level and reward value. Next, we use a dose of methamphetamine (METH) 1.0 mg/kg, to evaluate behavior in both the progressive ratio (PR) and PHD tasks. Treatment with METH leads to more persistent lever pressing for food rewards in the PR. In the PHD task, we found that METH increased arousal, which leads to numerous bouts of hyperactive responding but neither increases nor impairs goal-directed action. The results demonstrate that these tools enable a more precise understanding of the underlying processes being altered in manipulations that alter motivated behavior.

  12. Establishing a regulatory framework for a RCRA (Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act) corrective action program

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, the environmental community has become keenly aware of problems associated with integration of the demanding regulations that apply to environmental restoration activities. One can not attend an EPA-sponsored conference on Superfund without distracting questions concerning the Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the applicability of the National Contingency Plan (NCP) to sites that do not qualify for the National Priorities List (NPL). In particular, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been greatly criticized for its inability to define a comprehensive approach for cleaning up its hazardous waste sites. This article presents two decision flowcharts designed to resolve some of this confusion for DOE. The RCRA/CERCLA Integration Diagram can help the environmental manager determine which law applies and under what conditions, and the RCRA Corrective Action Decision Flowchart can guide the manager in determining which specific sections of RCRA apply to a RCRA-lead environmental restoration program. 13 refs.

  13. Human parietal and primary motor cortical interactions are selectively modulated during the transport and grip formation of goal-directed hand actions.

    PubMed

    Vesia, Michael; Bolton, David A; Mochizuki, George; Staines, W R

    2013-02-01

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) constitutes a critical cortical node in the sensorimotor system in which goal-directed actions are computed. This information then must be transferred into commands suitable for hand movements to the primary motor cortex (M1). Complexity arises because reach-to-grasp actions not only require directing the hand towards the object (transport component), but also preshaping the hand according to the features of the object (grip component). Yet, the functional influence that specific PPC regions exert over ipsilateral M1 during the planning of different hand movements remains unclear in humans. Here we manipulated transport and grip components of goal-directed hand movements and exploited paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation ((pp)TMS) to probe the functional interactions between M1 and two different PPC regions, namely superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC) and the anterior region of the intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), in the left hemisphere. We show that when the extension of the arm is required to contact a target object, SPOC selectively facilitates motor evoked potentials, suggesting that SPOC-M1 interactions are functionally specific to arm transport. In contrast, a different pathway, linking the aIPS and ipsilateral M1, shows enhanced functional connections during the sensorimotor planning of grip. These results support recent human neuroimaging findings arguing for specialized human parietal regions for the planning of arm transport and hand grip during goal-directed actions. Importantly, they provide new insight into the causal influences these different parietal regions exert over ipsilateral motor cortex for specific types of planned hand movements.

  14. Pulling habits out of rats: adenosine 2A receptor antagonism in dorsomedial striatum rescues meth-amphetamine-induced deficits in goal-directed action.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Teri M; Supit, Alva S A; Corbit, Laura H; Killcross, Simon; Balleine, Bernard W

    2017-01-01

    Addiction is characterized by a persistent loss of behavioral control resulting in insensitivity to negative feedback and abnormal decision-making. Here, we investigated the influence of methamphetamine (METH)-paired contextual cues on decision-making in rats. Choice between goal-directed actions was sensitive to outcome devaluation in a saline-paired context but was impaired in the METH-paired context, a deficit that was also found when negative feedback was provided. Reductions in c-Fos-related immunoreactivity were found in dorsomedial striatum (DMS) but not dorsolateral striatum after exposure to the METH context suggesting this effect reflected a loss specifically in goal-directed control in the METH context. This reduction in c-Fos was localized to non-enkephalin-expressing neurons in the DMS, likely dopamine D1-expressing direct pathway neurons, suggesting a relative change in control by the D1-direct versus D2-indirect pathways originating in the DMS may have been induced by METH-context exposure. To test this suggestion, we infused the adenosine 2A receptor antagonist ZM241385 into the DMS prior to test to reduce activity in D2 neurons relative to D1 neurons in the hope of reducing the inhibitory output from this region of the striatum. We found that this treatment fully restored sensitivity to negative feedback in a test conducted in the METH-paired context. These results suggest that drug exposure alters decision-making by downregulation of the circuitry mediating goal-directed action, an effect that can be ameliorated by acute A2A receptor inhibition in this circuit.

  15. Goal representation in the infant brain.

    PubMed

    Southgate, Victoria; Begus, Katarina; Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; di Gangi, Valentina; Hamilton, Antonia

    2014-01-15

    It is well established that, from an early age, human infants interpret the movements of others as actions directed towards goals. However, the cognitive and neural mechanisms which underlie this ability are hotly debated. The current study was designed to identify brain regions involved in the representation of others' goals early in development. Studies with adults have demonstrated that the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) exhibits repetition suppression for repeated goals and a release from suppression for new goals, implicating this specific region in goal representation in adults. In the current study, we used a modified paired repetition suppression design with 9-month-old infants to identify which cortical regions are suppressed when the infant observes a repeated goal versus a new goal. We find a strikingly similar response pattern and location of activity as had been reported in adults; the only brain region displaying significant repetition suppression for repeated goals and a release from suppression for new goals was the left anterior parietal region. Not only does our data suggest that the left anterior parietal region is specialized for representing the goals of others' actions from early in life, this demonstration presents an opportunity to use this method and design to elucidate the debate over the mechanisms and cues which contribute to early action understanding.

  16. Field and action potential recordings in heart slices: correlation with established in vitro and in vivo models

    PubMed Central

    Himmel, Herbert M; Bussek, Alexandra; Hoffmann, Michael; Beckmann, Rolf; Lohmann, Horst; Schmidt, Matthias; Wettwer, Erich

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Action potential (AP) recordings in ex vivo heart preparations constitute an important component of the preclinical cardiac safety assessment according to the ICH S7B guideline. Most AP measurement models are sensitive, predictive and informative but suffer from a low throughput. Here, effects of selected anti-arrhythmics (flecainide, quinidine, atenolol, sotalol, dofetilide, nifedipine, verapamil) on field/action potentials (FP/AP) of guinea pig and rabbit ventricular slices are presented and compared with data from established in vitro and in vivo models. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Data from measurements of membrane currents (hERG, INa), AP/FP (guinea pig and rabbit ventricular slices), AP (rabbit Purkinje fibre), haemodynamic/ECG parameters (conscious, telemetered dog) were collected, compared and correlated to complementary published data (focused literature search). KEY RESULTS The selected anti-arrhythmics, flecainide, quinidine, atenolol, sotalol, dofetilide, nifedipine and verapamil, influenced the shape of AP/FP of guinea pig and rabbit ventricular slices in a manner similar to that observed for rabbit PF. The findings obtained from slice preparations are in line with measurements of membrane currents in vitro, papillary muscle AP in vitro and haemodynamic/ECG parameters from conscious dogs in vivo, and were also corroborated by published data. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS FP and AP recordings from heart slices correlated well with established in vitro and in vivo models in terms of pharmacology and predictability. Heart slice preparations yield similar results as papillary muscle but offer enhanced throughput for mechanistic investigations and may substantially reduce the use of laboratory animals. PMID:22074238

  17. "I want to be 100 years old, but I smoke too much": Exploring the gap between positive aging goals and reported preparatory actions in different social circumstances.

    PubMed

    Craciun, Catrinel; Flick, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    Preparing for positive aging is shaped by the social context a person lives in. The present qualitative study explores and compares representations about preparatory actions in precarious workers (i.e., with temporary job contracts and insecure pension plans) and individuals with secure pension plans living in Germany. It also examines, the discrepancy between what middle-aged persons think they should be doing in preparation and what they report doing for aging well. Findings from the analysis of the semi-structured interviews conducted here show that people who have insecure pension plans tend to see themselves as social networkers and optimists, while those with secure pension plans see themselves as social activists and careful planners of old age. All participants value an active, healthy body but manage to do little in order to attain it due to lacking time and discipline. In accordance with the socioemotional selectivity theory, perceiving a short-time perspective makes precarious individuals focus on emotional goals, while financially secure individuals value social goals. Implications for practice and policy change are discussed.

  18. Incentive memory: evidence the basolateral amygdala encodes and the insular cortex retrieves outcome values to guide choice between goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Shauna L; Balleine, Bernard W

    2013-05-15

    Choice between goal-directed actions is determined by the relative value of their consequences. Such values are encoded during incentive learning and later retrieved to guide performance. Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the gustatory region of insular cortex (IC) have been implicated in these processes, their relative contribution is still a matter of debate. Here we assessed whether these structures interact during incentive learning and retrieval to guide choice. In these experiments, rats were trained on two actions for distinct outcomes after which one of the two outcomes was devalued by specific satiety immediately before a choice extinction test. We first confirmed that, relative to appropriate controls, outcome devaluation recruited both the BLA and IC based on activation of the immediate early gene Arc; however, we found that infusion of the NMDAr antagonist ifenprodil into the BLA only abolished outcome devaluation when given before devaluation. In contrast, ifenprodil infusion into the IC was effective whether made before devaluation or test. We hypothesized that the BLA encodes and the IC retrieves incentive value for choice and, to test this, developed a novel sequential disconnection procedure. Blocking NMDAr activation unilaterally in the BLA before devaluation and then contralaterally in the IC before test abolished selective devaluation. In contrast, reversing the order of these infusions left devaluation intact. These results confirm that the BLA and IC form a circuit mediating the encoding and retrieval of outcome values, with the BLA encoding and the IC retrieving such values to guide choice.

  19. Learning-Related Translocation of δ-Opioid Receptors on Ventral Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons Mediates Choice between Goal-Directed Actions

    PubMed Central

    Bertran-Gonzalez, Jesus; Laurent, Vincent; Chieng, Billy C.; Christie, MacDonald J.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of animals to extract predictive information from the environment to inform their future actions is a critical component of decision-making. This phenomenon is studied in the laboratory using the pavlovian–instrumental transfer protocol in which a stimulus predicting a specific pavlovian outcome biases choice toward those actions earning the predicted outcome. It is well established that this transfer effect is mediated by corticolimbic afferents on the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc-S), and recent evidence suggests that δ-opioid receptors (DORs) play an essential role in this effect. In DOR-eGFP knock-in mice, we show a persistent, learning-related plasticity in the translocation of DORs to the somatic plasma membrane of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) in the NAc-S during the encoding of the specific stimulus–outcome associations essential for pavlovian–instrumental transfer. We found that increased membrane DOR expression reflected both stimulus-based predictions of reward and the degree to which these stimuli biased choice during the pavlovian–instrumental transfer test. Furthermore, this plasticity altered the firing pattern of CINs increasing the variance of action potential activity, an effect that was exaggerated by DOR stimulation. The relationship between the induction of membrane DOR expression in CINs and both pavlovian conditioning and pavlovian–instrumental transfer provides a highly specific function for DOR-related modulation in the NAc-S, and it is consistent with an emerging role for striatal CIN activity in the processing of predictive information. Therefore, our results reveal evidence of a long-term, experience-dependent plasticity in opioid receptor expression on striatal modulatory interneurons critical for the cognitive control of action. PMID:24107940

  20. 31 CFR 30.8 - Q-8: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TARP recipient to comply with the standards established under section 111(b)(3)(B) of EESA (the... the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.8 Q-8: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established under section 111(b)(3)(B) of...

  1. 31 CFR 30.8 - Q-8: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TARP recipient to comply with the standards established under section 111(b)(3)(B) of EESA (the... the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.8 Q-8: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established under section 111(b)(3)(B) of...

  2. 31 CFR 30.8 - Q-8: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TARP recipient to comply with the standards established under section 111(b)(3)(B) of EESA (the... the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.8 Q-8: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established under section 111(b)(3)(B) of...

  3. 31 CFR 30.8 - Q-8: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TARP recipient to comply with the standards established under section 111(b)(3)(B) of EESA (the... the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.8 Q-8: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established under section 111(b)(3)(B) of...

  4. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  5. Spine Calcium Transients Induced by Synaptically-Evoked Action Potentials Can Predict Synapse Location and Establish Synaptic Democracy

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Rhiannon M.; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    CA1 pyramidal neurons receive hundreds of synaptic inputs at different distances from the soma. Distance-dependent synaptic scaling enables distal and proximal synapses to influence the somatic membrane equally, a phenomenon called “synaptic democracy”. How this is established is unclear. The backpropagating action potential (BAP) is hypothesised to provide distance-dependent information to synapses, allowing synaptic strengths to scale accordingly. Experimental measurements show that a BAP evoked by current injection at the soma causes calcium currents in the apical shaft whose amplitudes decay with distance from the soma. However, in vivo action potentials are not induced by somatic current injection but by synaptic inputs along the dendrites, which creates a different excitable state of the dendrites. Due to technical limitations, it is not possible to study experimentally whether distance information can also be provided by synaptically-evoked BAPs. Therefore we adapted a realistic morphological and electrophysiological model to measure BAP-induced voltage and calcium signals in spines after Schaffer collateral synapse stimulation. We show that peak calcium concentration is highly correlated with soma-synapse distance under a number of physiologically-realistic suprathreshold stimulation regimes and for a range of dendritic morphologies. Peak calcium levels also predicted the attenuation of the EPSP across the dendritic tree. Furthermore, we show that peak calcium can be used to set up a synaptic democracy in a homeostatic manner, whereby synapses regulate their synaptic strength on the basis of the difference between peak calcium and a uniform target value. We conclude that information derived from synaptically-generated BAPs can indicate synapse location and can subsequently be utilised to implement a synaptic democracy. PMID:22719238

  6. Student Goals: Psychological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muirhead, Brent; Little, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The paper will discuss research insights into student academic goals. Cognitive psychologists have found that effective goal setting procedures involves establishing specific and challenging learning objectives. Students who set difficult goals must be persistent while facing the risk of potential failure that could diminish their intrinsic…

  7. 36 CFR Exhibit B to Part 906 - Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... affirmative action policy in advertisements and employment literature. (3) Utilization of minority media in... review of minority, female, Vietnam era veteran, and handcapped employees to identify underutilized...

  8. From muscles synergies and individual goals to interpersonal synergies and shared goals: Mirror neurons and interpersonal action hierarchies. Comment on "Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by D'Ausilio et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candidi, Matteo; Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-03-01

    D'Ausilio et al. [28] must be praised for bringing attention to the important question of how human Mirror Neurons (MNs) may contribute to action perception, prediction and understanding [1] and for linking their role with the granularity of the motor system as conceptualized in the domain of action control theories. Although we think that the Authors are right in saying that the granularity of the motor system constrains the granularity of the MN system, we speculate that the contribution of MNs to action perception, prediction and understanding is also constrained by the connections between MNs and other cortical and subcortical regions, and by the identity of MNs, i.e. whether they are interneurons or pyramidal cells [2]. In other words, the functional contribution of MS depends on whether they are connected to sensory, emotional and cognitive networks for the service of action perception, prediction and understanding.

  9. When you have to climb downhill to reach the top: the effect of action versus state orientation on solvinga goal-subgoal conflict in the Tower of Hanoi task.

    PubMed

    Jostmann, Nils B; Gieselmann, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Complex problems often include a response conflict between a subgoal and a final goal. The present experiment investigated the roles of situational demands and individual differences in self-regulation on solving goal-subgoal conflicts in a computerized Tower of Hanoi task. Action-oriented versus state-oriented individuals were randomly assigned to a demanding condition in which they deliberated about a personal decision problem, or to a nondemanding control condition. In line with expectations state-oriented individuals had greater difficulties to solve goal-subgoal conflicts in the demanding compared to the nondemanding condition. Action-oriented individuals performed well in both conditions. In line with Personality Systems Interactions theory (Kuhl, 2000) the findings show that complex problem solving depends on how well people are able to deal with situational demands.

  10. Goals, dilemmas and assumptions in infant feeding education and support. Applying theory of constraints thinking tools to develop new priorities for action.

    PubMed

    Trickey, Heather; Newburn, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Three important infant feeding support problems are addressed: (1) mothers who use formula milk can feel undersupported and judged; (2) mothers can feel underprepared for problems with breastfeeding; and (3) many mothers who might benefit from breastfeeding support do not access help. Theory of constraints (TOC) is used to examine these problems in relation to ante-natal education and post-natal support. TOC suggests that long-standing unresolved problems or 'undesirable effects' in any system (in this case a system to provide education and support) are caused by conflicts, or dilemmas, within the system, which might not be explicitly acknowledged. Potential solutions are missed by failure to question assumptions which, when interrogated, often turn out to be invalid. Three core dilemmas relating to the three problems are identified, articulated and explored using TOC methodology. These are whether to: (1) promote feeding choice or to promote breastfeeding; (2) present breastfeeding positively, as straightforward and rewarding, or focus on preparing mothers for problems; and (3) offer support proactively or ensure that mothers themselves initiate requests for support. Assumptions are identified and interrogated, leading to clarified priorities for action relating to each problem. These are (1) shift the focus from initial decision-making towards support for mothers throughout their feeding journeys, enabling and protecting decisions to breastfeed as one aspect of ongoing support; (2) to promote the concept of an early-weeks investment and adjustment period during which breastfeeding is established; and (3) to develop more proactive mother-centred models of support for all forms of infant feeding.

  11. Overall goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George; Heyman, Joseph S.; Madaras, Eric; Salkowski, Charles; Weston, Bert; Woodis, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Space transportation propulsion systems symposium is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: overall goals; main issues; materials characterization; reduction of manufacturing defects; standards and certification; advanced NDE techniques; designing for inspectability; candidate programs/milestones; and NDE technology potentials.

  12. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  13. DOD Task Force for Business and Stability Operations: Actions Needed to Establish Project Management Guidelines and Enhance Information Sharing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    requirements to establish metrics, and monitoring and evaluation processes. As a result, the Task Force does not have the framework needed to ensure a...requirements to establish project metrics, monitoring and evaluation processes, and the type of project information that should be collected and documented...metrics, monitoring and evaluation processes, or how program managers should maintain project information. Standards for Internal Control in the

  14. The Selfish Goal

    PubMed Central

    Bargh, John A.; Green, Michelle; Fitzsimons, Gráinne

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis that consciously intended goal pursuits have unintended consequences for social judgment and behavior. From evolutionary theory (Dawkins 1976/2006) and empirical evidence of a nonconscious mode of goal pursuit (Bargh, 2005) we derive the hypothesis that most human goal pursuits are open-ended in nature: Once active, goals will operate on goal-relevant content in the environment, even if that content is not the intended focus of the conscious goal. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that goals to evaluate a job applicant for either a waiter or crime reporter position also shape impressions of incidental bystanders in the situation, such that the bystander is later liked or disliked not on his own merits, but on how well his behavior matches the criteria consciously applied in evaluating the job applicant. Experiment 3 finds that a goal to help a specific target person spills over to influence actions toward incidental bystanders, but only while active. Implications of these findings for goal pursuit in everyday life are discussed. PMID:19081795

  15. Workshop Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet

    2004-01-01

    The goals are: 1. Report and document recent progress on radiation belt model and plasma model development. Metrics for past and current programs. 2. Complete a roadmap for the development of new standard radiation belt and space plasma models for spacecraft engineering: input to agencies for future investments, interagency cooperation.

  16. The Goal Circuit Model: A Hierarchical Multi-Route Model of the Acquisition and Control of Routine Sequential Action in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard P.; Ruh, Nicolas; Mareschal, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Human control of action in routine situations involves a flexible interplay between (a) task-dependent serial ordering constraints; (b) top-down, or intentional, control processes; and (c) bottom-up, or environmentally triggered, affordances. In addition, the interaction between these influences is modulated by learning mechanisms that, over time,…

  17. REAL-TIME INTRAVITAL IMAGING ESTABLISHES TUMOUR-ASSOCIATED MACROPHAGES AS THE EXTRASKELETAL TARGET OF BISPHOSPHONATE ACTION IN CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Junankar, Simon; Shay, Gemma; Jurczyluk, Julie; Ali, Naveid; Down, Jenny; Pocock, Nicholas; Parker, Andrew; Nguyen, Akira; Sun, Shuting; Kashemirov, Boris; McKenna, Charles E.; Croucher, Peter I.; Swarbrick, Alexander; Weilbaecher, Katherine; Phan, Tri Giang; Rogers, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical trials have shown that bisphosphonate drugs improve breast cancer patient survival independent of their anti-resorptive effects on the skeleton. However, since bisphosphonates bind rapidly to bone mineral, the exact mechanisms of their anti-tumour action, particularly on cells outside of bone, remain unknown. Here we used real-time intravital two-photon microscopy to show extensive leakage of fluorescent bisphosphonate from the vasculature in 4T1 mouse mammary tumours, where it initially binds to areas of small, granular microcalcifications that are engulfed by tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs), but not tumour cells. Importantly, we also observed uptake of radiolabeled bisphosphonate in the primary breast tumour of a patient and showed the resected tumour to be infiltrated with TAMs and to contain similar granular microcalcifications. These data represent the first compelling in vivo evidence that bisphosphonates can target cells in tumours outside the skeleton and that their anti-tumour activity is likely to be mediated via TAMs. PMID:25312016

  18. Establishment of alternative potency test for botulinum toxin type A using compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in rats.

    PubMed

    Torii, Yasushi; Goto, Yoshitaka; Nakahira, Shinji; Ginnaga, Akihiro

    2014-11-01

    The biological activity of botulinum toxin type A has been evaluated using the mouse intraperitoneal (ip) LD50 test. This method requires a large number of mice to precisely determine toxin activity, and, as such, poses problems with regard to animal welfare. We previously developed a compound muscle action potential (CMAP) assay using rats as an alternative method to the mouse ip LD50 test. In this study, to evaluate this quantitative method of measuring toxin activity using CMAP, we assessed the parameters necessary for quantitative tests according to ICH Q2 (R1). This assay could be used to evaluate the activity of the toxin, even when inactive toxin was mixed with the sample. To reduce the number of animals needed, this assay was set to measure two samples per animal. Linearity was detected over a range of 0.1-12.8 U/mL, and the measurement range was set at 0.4-6.4 U/mL. The results for accuracy and precision showed low variability. The body weight was selected as a variable factor, but it showed no effect on the CMAP amplitude. In this study, potency tests using the rat CMAP assay of botulinum toxin type A demonstrated that it met the criteria for a quantitative analysis method.

  19. Alcohol breeds empty goal commitments.

    PubMed

    Sevincer, A Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    According to alcohol-myopia theory (C. M. Steele & R. A. Josephs, 1990), alcohol leads individuals to disproportionally focus on the most salient aspects of a situation and to ignore peripheral information. The authors hypothesized that alcohol leads individuals to strongly commit to their goals without considering information about the probability of goal attainment. In Study 1, participants named their most important interpersonal goal, indicated their expectations of successfully attaining it, and then consumed either alcohol or a placebo. In contrast to participants who consumed a placebo, intoxicated participants felt strongly committed to their goals despite low expectations of attaining them. In Study 2, goal-directed actions were measured over time. Once sober again, intoxicated participants with low expectations did not follow up on their strong commitments. Apparently, when prospects are bleak, alcohol produces empty goal commitments, as commitments are not based on individuals' expectations of attaining their goals and do not foster goal striving over time.

  20. Goal Certainty Modulates Infants' Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrichs, Ivanina; Elsner, Claudia; Elsner, Birgit; Wilkinson, Nick; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether 12-month-old infants rely on information about the certainty of goal selection in order to predict observed reaching actions. Infants' goal-directed gaze shifts were recorded as they observed action sequences in a multiple-goals design. We found that 12-month-old infants exhibited gaze shifts significantly earlier when…

  1. Goal Directedness and Decision Making in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenward, Ben; Folke, Sara; Holmberg, Jacob; Johansson, Alexandra; Gredeback, Gustaf

    2009-01-01

    The term "goal directed" conventionally refers to either of 2 separate process types--motor processes organizing action oriented toward physical targets and decision-making processes that select these targets by integrating desire for and knowledge of action outcomes. Even newborns are goal directed in the first sense, but the status of…

  2. EPA Corporate GHG Goal Evaluation Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Corporate GHG Goal Evaluation Model provides companies with a transparent and publicly available benchmarking resource to help evaluate and establish new or existing GHG goals that go beyond business as usual for their individual sectors.

  3. National Action Plan Vision for 2025: A Framework for Change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document establishes a goal of achieving all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025 and presents 10 implementation goals as a framework for advancing the Action Plan’s five key policy recommendations which has been endorsed by many organizations.

  4. The New Haven Department of Education Affirmative Action Plan 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Haven Public Schools, CT.

    The New Haven public schools affirmative action report contains statements of purpose, policy, and responsibility in conjunction with a plan of action to ensure that job applicants and employees receive fair consideration without regard to their race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. The goals and timetables established will rectify…

  5. 31 CFR 30.8 - Q-8: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Q-8: What actions are necessary for a... âclawbackâ provision requirement)? 30.8 Section 30.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.8 Q-8: What actions...

  6. National Action Plan: Priorities for Managing Freshwater Resources in a Changing Climate

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Action Plan is based on the latest science on climate risks to freshwater resources. The Plan establishes a national goal to have government agencies and citizens collaboratively manage freshwater resources in response to a changing climate.

  7. Vicarious goal satiation.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Kathleen C; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M; Chua, Sook Ning; Albarracín, Dolores

    2011-05-01

    A signature feature of self-regulation is that once a goal is satiated, it becomes deactivated, thereby allowing people to engage in new pursuits. The present experiments provide evidence for vicarious goal satiation, a novel phenomenon in which individuals experience "post-completion goal satiation" as a result of unwittingly taking on another person's goal pursuit and witnessing its completion. In Experiments 1 and 2, the observation of a goal being completed (vs. not completed) led to less striving by the observer on the same task. Given that an actor's strength of commitment affects goal contagion, we hypothesized that such commitment would be an important boundary condition for vicarious goal satiation. The results of Experiment 2 showed that observing stronger (vs. weaker) goal commitment lowered accessibility of goal-related words, but only when the goal being observed was completed. Implications of vicarious goal satiation for goal pursuit in everyday environments are discussed.

  8. Vicarious goal satiation

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Kathleen C.; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M.; Chua, Sook Ning; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    A signature feature of self-regulation is that once a goal is satiated, it becomes deactivated, thereby allowing people to engage in new pursuits. The present experiments provide evidence for vicarious goal satiation, a novel phenomenon in which individuals experience “post-completion goal satiation” as a result of unwittingly taking on another person's goal pursuit and witnessing its completion. In Experiments 1 and 2, the observation of a goal being completed (vs. not completed) led to less striving by the observer on the same task. Given that an actor's strength of commitment affects goal contagion, we hypothesized that such commitment would be an important boundary condition for vicarious goal satiation. The results of Experiment 2 showed that observing stronger (vs. weaker) goal commitment lowered accessibility of goal-related words, but only when the goal being observed was completed. Implications of vicarious goal satiation for goal pursuit in everyday environments are discussed. PMID:23606756

  9. Establishing maintenance performance indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, B.

    1994-10-01

    Maintenance Performance Indicators (PI) specify where the maintenance department is and which direction it is going allowing for a quick and accurate assessment of the performance of the Maintenance Management Program (MMP). Establishing PI`s for the maintenance department will allow a measure of productivity and a means of feedback for methods improvement. Effective performance of the maintenance department directly effects plant profitability. Improvements in the quality and productivity of the maintenance work force will significantly reduce maintenance costs. The level of performance attained by the maintenance work force is usually guessed at. Guessing will not identify areas needing improvement or help to initiate a corrective action. Maintenance PI`s are required for maintenance departments whose goal is to control maintenance costs while increasing productivity. The application of basic statistical methods will allow a maintenance department to know where they are and which direction they are going. The data presented in this paper is a representation of indicators used in industry as well as developed indicators to establish a complete maintenance performance indicator program. The methodology used in developing this program can be used as a way to manage a cost effective maintenance management program.

  10. Goals are not selfish.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, William; von Hippel, Frank A

    2014-04-01

    The metaphor of selfish goals is misguided. Organisms can be considered vessels that further the interests of their genes, but not vessels that further the interests of their goals. Although goals can act at cross-purposes to each other and to longevity, such trade-offs are predicted by evolutionary theory. The metaphor of selfish goals provides no purchase on this problem.

  11. Unconscious goals: specific or unspecific? The potential harm of the goal/gene analogy.

    PubMed

    Nanay, Bence

    2014-04-01

    Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) definition of goals is ambiguous between "specific goals" - the end-state of a token action I am about to perform - and "unspecific goals" - the end-state of an action-type (without specifying how this would be achieved). The analogy with selfish genes pushes the authors towards the former interpretation, but the latter would provide a more robust theoretical framework.

  12. 31 CFR 30.9 - Q-9: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.9 Q-9: What actions... compensation upon an involuntary termination of employment or voluntary termination of employment for good... terminated employment for good reason, Employee B would be entitled to a series of five equal annual...

  13. 31 CFR 30.9 - Q-9: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.9 Q-9: What actions... compensation upon an involuntary termination of employment or voluntary termination of employment for good... terminated employment for good reason, Employee B would be entitled to a series of five equal annual...

  14. 31 CFR 30.9 - Q-9: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.9 Q-9: What actions... compensation upon an involuntary termination of employment or voluntary termination of employment for good... terminated employment for good reason, Employee B would be entitled to a series of five equal annual...

  15. 31 CFR 30.9 - Q-9: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.9 Q-9: What actions... compensation upon an involuntary termination of employment or voluntary termination of employment for good... terminated employment for good reason, Employee B would be entitled to a series of five equal annual...

  16. 31 CFR 30.9 - Q-9: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.9 Q-9: What actions... compensation upon an involuntary termination of employment or voluntary termination of employment for good... terminated employment for good reason, Employee B would be entitled to a series of five equal annual...

  17. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.4 Q-4: What actions are... these SEO compensation plans do not encourage behavior focused on short-term results rather than long-term value creation, the risks posed by employee compensation plans and how these risks were...

  18. Comparative efficacy of the Colgate Actibrush battery-powered toothbrush vs Oral-B CrossAction toothbrush on established plaque and gingivitis: a 6-week clinical study.

    PubMed

    Nathoo, S; Rustogi, K N; Petrone, M E; DeVizio, W; Zhang, Y P; Volpe, A R; Proskin, H M

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this clinical program was to compare the efficacy of the Colgate Actibrush battery-powered toothbrush and the Oral-B CrossAction Toothbrush (full head, soft bristle) for the control of supragingival plaque and gingivitis. Two independent clinical studies were conducted: Study 1 (repeated 3 times) was a single-use, examiner-blind clinical study designed to measure the removal of plaque after 24 hours of no oral hygiene. Study 2 was a definitive 6-week, examiner-blind clinical study designed to determine plaque and gingivitis efficacy at 3 and 6 weeks. Sixty-one men and women, who had refrained from using oral hygiene procedures for 24 hours, were entered into the study and stratified into 2 balanced groups according to baseline (prebrushing) plaque and gingivitis scores. For Study 1, Modified Navy Plaque Index (Rustogi Refinement) scores were obtained prebrushing and after a 1-minute supervised brushing with the assigned toothbrush and a commercially available toothpaste. On 3 separate occasions, after 24 hours of no oral hygiene, the Colgate Actibrush battery-powered toothbrush removed significantly more plaque than did the CrossAction Toothbrush. For Study 2, subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily for 1 minute with the assigned toothbrush. Plaque Index scores and Löe-Silness Gingival Index scores were assessed after 3 and 6 weeks. At the 6-week examination, the group using the Colgate Actibrush battery-powered toothbrush exhibited a statistically significant reduction in both supragingival plaque and gingivitis, compared with the group that used the CrossAction Toothbrush. The results of these clinical studies support the conclusion that the Colgate Actibrush battery-powered toothbrush is clinically superior for the control of both supragingival plaque and gingivitis, as compared with the Oral-B CrossAction manual toothbrush.

  19. Goals Analysis Procedure Guidelines for Applying the Goals Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motley, Albert E., III

    2000-01-01

    One of the key elements to successful project management is the establishment of the "right set of requirements", requirements that reflect the true customer needs and are consistent with the strategic goals and objectives of the participating organizations. A viable set of requirements implies that each individual requirement is a necessary element in satisfying the stated goals and that the entire set of requirements, taken as a whole, is sufficient to satisfy the stated goals. Unfortunately, it is the author's experience that during project formulation phases' many of the Systems Engineering customers do not conduct a rigorous analysis of the goals and objectives that drive the system requirements. As a result, the Systems Engineer is often provided with requirements that are vague, incomplete, and internally inconsistent. To complicate matters, most systems development methodologies assume that the customer provides unambiguous, comprehensive and concise requirements. This paper describes the specific steps of a Goals Analysis process applied by Systems Engineers at the NASA Langley Research Center during the formulation of requirements for research projects. The objective of Goals Analysis is to identify and explore all of the influencing factors that ultimately drive the system's requirements.

  20. Action Research: Rethinking Lewin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)

  1. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary... excessive risk or manipulation of earnings)? (a) General rule. To comply with the standards established... ensure that these plans do not encourage the manipulation of reported earnings of the TARP recipient...

  2. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary... excessive risk or manipulation of earnings)? (a) General rule. To comply with the standards established... ensure that these plans do not encourage the manipulation of reported earnings of the TARP recipient...

  3. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary... excessive risk or manipulation of earnings)? (a) General rule. To comply with the standards established... ensure that these plans do not encourage the manipulation of reported earnings of the TARP recipient...

  4. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary... excessive risk or manipulation of earnings)? (a) General rule. To comply with the standards established... ensure that these plans do not encourage the manipulation of reported earnings of the TARP recipient...

  5. 34 CFR 300.157 - Performance goals and indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance goals and indicators. 300.157 Section 300... goals and indicators. The State must— (a) Have in effect established goals for the performance of... established performance indicators the State will use to assess progress toward achieving the goals...

  6. 34 CFR 300.157 - Performance goals and indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Performance goals and indicators. 300.157 Section 300... goals and indicators. The State must— (a) Have in effect established goals for the performance of... established performance indicators the State will use to assess progress toward achieving the goals...

  7. State Goals Overview

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation includes information on Best System of Emission Reduction (BSER), state flexibility and compliance options, examples of how to determine and calculate goals, on-the-way reductions, and a walk through of state goal derivation.

  8. The Goal Trumps the Means: Highlighting Goals is More Beneficial than Highlighting Means in Means-End Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2013-01-01

    Means-end actions are an early-emerging form of problem solving. These actions require initiating initial behaviors with a goal in mind. In this study, we explored the origins of 8-month-old infants' means-end action production using a cloth-pulling training paradigm. We examined whether highlighting the goal (toy) or the means (cloth) was more…

  9. A novel class of ethacrynic acid derivatives as promising drug-like potent generation of anticancer agents with established mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Mignani, Serge; El Brahmi, Nabil; El Kazzouli, Saïd; Eloy, Laure; Courilleau, Delphine; Caron, Joachim; Bousmina, Mosto M; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Cresteil, Thierry; Majoral, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-21

    The well-known diuretic Ethacrynic acid (EA, Edecrin), showing low anti-proliferative activities, was chemically modified at different positions. The new EA derivatives have been tested in vitro in anti-proliferative assays on both tumor KB (epidermal carcinoma) and leukemia HL60 (promyelocytic) cells suitable targets for anticancer activity. Reduction of the α-β double bond of EA completely abolished anti-cancer activities, whereas introduction of either 2-(4-substituted phenyl)ethanamine (series A) or 4-(4-substituted phenyl)piperazine (series B) moieties generated compounds showing moderate to strong anti-proliferative activities against human cancer cell lines. Several substitutions on the phenyl of these two moieties are tolerated. The mechanism of action of the EA derivatives prepared in this study is more complex than the inhibition of glutathione S-transferase π ascribed as unique effect to EA and might help to overcome tumor resistances.

  10. A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate that foreign assistance for child welfare should adhere to the goals of the United States Government Action Plan on Children in Adversity.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Inhofe, James M. [R-OK

    2013-06-27

    06/27/2013 Referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5506) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Developing and establishing the validity and reliability of the perceptions toward Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) questionnaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckel, Richard J.

    Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) are voluntary safety reporting programs developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to assist air carriers in discovering and fixing threats, errors and undesired aircraft states during normal flights that could result in a serious or fatal accident. These programs depend on voluntary participation of and reporting by air carrier pilots to be successful. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a measurement scale to measure U.S. air carrier pilots' perceived benefits and/or barriers to participating in ASAP and LOSA programs. Data from these surveys could be used to make changes to or correct pilot misperceptions of these programs to improve participation and the flow of data. ASAP and LOSA a priori models were developed based on previous research in aviation and healthcare. Sixty thousand ASAP and LOSA paper surveys were sent to 60,000 current U.S. air carrier pilots selected at random from an FAA database of pilot certificates. Two thousand usable ASAP and 1,970 usable LOSA surveys were returned and analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Analysis of the data using confirmatory actor analysis and model generation resulted in a five factor ASAP model (Ease of use, Value, Improve, Trust and Risk) and a five factor LOSA model (Value, Improve, Program Trust, Risk and Management Trust). ASAP and LOSA data were not normally distributed, so bootstrapping was used. While both final models exhibited acceptable fit with approximate fit indices, the exact fit hypothesis and the Bollen-Stine p value indicated possible model mis-specification for both ASAP and LOSA models.

  12. Motivation and goals of ERL 2005

    SciTech Connect

    S. Chattopadhyay

    2005-03-19

    Various types of ERL sources are introduced, the relevant beam physics and accelerator technology issues noted, innovative areas of development identified and current and future goals of ERL research and development established.

  13. Goal-Directed Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Marc F.; Troisi, Thomas J.; Pompilio, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of every school district is to help students succeed academically and personally. But does every district leverage its most valuable resource, its teachers, to meet that goal? At the Valley Stream Central High School District in Nassau County, New York, these authors know how important teacher commitment is to student success, so they…

  14. Goal Setting and Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Katie; Reivich, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The science behind the mechanisms and mediators that lead to successful goal accomplishment has been a focus of research since the 1970s. When an individual desires to make a change or accomplish an outcome, research shows that he or she will be more successful if he or she attends to a number of variables that are key in goal setting.…

  15. Goals of Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The reading teacher needs to choose students' reading goals carefully. This paper considers some of these possible goals, and states that, in the reading curriculum, the teacher needs to guide pupils to move upward on the cognitive level of objectives. The paper also states that pupils need to achieve well in the affective dimension of objectives,…

  16. Goals and Objectives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The five goals related to the Border 2020 program: reducing air pollution, access to clean and safe water, promoting clean waste management, emergency preparedness and response, compliance assurance.and environmental stewardship

  17. Superintendents in Classrooms: From Collegial Conversation to Collaborative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rallis, Sharon; Tedder, Jane; Lachman, Andrew; Elmore, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This article, presents a discussion about Connecticut Superintendents' Network. Established and facilitated by the Connecticut Center for School Change, a school reform organization, the Network is grounded in a theory of action concerning professional development for administrators. The Network's goals are: (1) to develop superintendents'…

  18. 41 CFR 60-2.16 - Placement goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of discrimination. (c) Where, pursuant to § 60-2.15, a contractor is required to establish a placement goal for a particular job group, the contractor must establish a percentage annual placement goal... job group. (d) The placement goal-setting process described above contemplates that contractors...

  19. 41 CFR 60-2.16 - Placement goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of discrimination. (c) Where, pursuant to § 60-2.15, a contractor is required to establish a placement goal for a particular job group, the contractor must establish a percentage annual placement goal... job group. (d) The placement goal-setting process described above contemplates that contractors...

  20. 41 CFR 60-2.16 - Placement goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of discrimination. (c) Where, pursuant to § 60-2.15, a contractor is required to establish a placement goal for a particular job group, the contractor must establish a percentage annual placement goal... job group. (d) The placement goal-setting process described above contemplates that contractors...

  1. 41 CFR 60-2.16 - Placement goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of discrimination. (c) Where, pursuant to § 60-2.15, a contractor is required to establish a placement goal for a particular job group, the contractor must establish a percentage annual placement goal... job group. (d) The placement goal-setting process described above contemplates that contractors...

  2. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-08

    The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988) attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish potential repository performance. These criteria or SCP thermal goals were developed from knowledge existing at the time and, as a reference case, emphasized performance for waste emplacement in a vertical borehole. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Additionally, other emplacement modes such as in-drift emplacement are being considered to accommodate larger waste packages. New concepts such as ``extended hot`` are also being considered as possible methods to achieve improved waste isolation. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. A Working Group was formed to reassess the SCP thermal goals to determine whether each goal was still valid, if there were goals that needed to be added, and what if any effort was needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with a particular goal. The objectives of the effort were to: (1) provide thermal goals that would support the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Systems Study; (2) help focus the planned testing and analysis efforts; and (3) acquire data that potentially could be used to initiate a change to the project technical baseline. Sixteen thermal goals were evaluated; fifteen were from various sections of the SCP; one goal was added, and another was split into two to include in-drift emplacement. The group`s findings and recommendations are presented.

  3. The influence of goals on movement kinematics during imitation.

    PubMed

    Wild, Kelly S; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jerrison, Andrew; Gowen, Emma

    2010-07-01

    This study took a quantitative approach to investigate movement kinematics during the imitation of goal-directed and non-goal directed movements. Motion tracking equipment was used to record the hand movements of 15 healthy participants during an imitation task involving aiming movements that varied in speed. We predicted that movement kinematics would be most similar to the observed movements in the non-goal condition, as a result of direct visuomotor mapping of the action, and least similar in the goal-directed condition because more importance would be given to the end goal. We also predicted that precues (prior information about the movement) would increase imitation accuracy in the non-goal condition by reducing cognitive demand, and that precues would reduce accuracy in the goal-directed condition, as less attention would be paid to the movement. Results showed that imitation was modulated by the speed of the observed action in the non-goal condition only. Contrary to predictions, precues did not improve imitation in the non-goal condition or improve imitation accuracy in the goal-directed condition. These results demonstrate that visuomotor mapping is favoured in non-goal imitation, regardless of prior information, and that accurate imitation of movement detail is compromised by the presence of goals. Such differences in movement kinematics indicate that different processes mediate the imitation of non-goal and goal-directed actions.

  4. 41 CFR 60-741.45 - Utilization goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Utilization goals. 60... REGARDING INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Affirmative Action Program § 60-741.45 Utilization goals. The utilization goal is not a rigid and inflexible quota which must be met, nor is it to be considered either...

  5. Science Goals to Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard SpaceFlight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545): This short course will present the science goals for a variety of types of imaging and spectral measurements, the thermal requirements that these goals impose on the instruments designed to obtain the measurements, and some of the types of trades that can be made among instrument subsystems to ensure the required performance is maintained. Examples of thermal system evolution from initial concept to final implementation will be given for several actual systems.

  6. The nucleus accumbens as a nexus between values and goals in goal-directed behavior: a review and a new hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Mannella, Francesco; Gurney, Kevin; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior is a fundamental means by which animals can flexibly solve the challenges posed by variable external and internal conditions. Recently, the processes and brain mechanisms underlying such behavior have been extensively studied from behavioral, neuroscientific and computational perspectives. This research has highlighted the processes underlying goal-directed behavior and associated brain systems including prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and, in particular therein, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). This paper focusses on one particular process at the core of goal-directed behavior: how motivational value is assigned to goals on the basis of internal states and environmental stimuli, and how this supports goal selection processes. Various biological and computational accounts have been given of this problem and of related multiple neural and behavior phenomena, but we still lack an integrated hypothesis on the generation and use of value for goal selection. This paper proposes an hypothesis that aims to solve this problem and is based on this key elements: (a) amygdala and hippocampus establish the motivational value of stimuli and goals; (b) prefrontal cortex encodes various types of action outcomes; (c) NAcc integrates different sources of value, representing them in terms of a common currency with the aid of dopamine, and thereby plays a major role in selecting action outcomes within prefrontal cortex. The “goals” pursued by the organism are the outcomes selected by these processes. The hypothesis is developed in the context of a critical review of relevant biological and computational literature which offer it support. The paper shows how the hypothesis has the potential to integrate existing interpretations of motivational value and goal selection. PMID:24167476

  7. Conation, Goal Accomplishment Style and Wholistic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atman, Kathryn S.; Romano, Patricia R.

    Conation is a domain of behavior or mental processes associated with goal directed action. Wholistic education stresses an integrated approach to an individual's learning process; thus, consideration of the integration of the four domains (cognitive, affective, psychomotor and conative) can find a receptive niche among educators who seek to…

  8. Children's Memory for Goal-Directed Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levorato, M. Chiara

    1991-01-01

    Investigates whether children's representations of the linguistic description of a goal-directed event was similar to their representation of the same event observed visually. Finds that mode of presentation did not affect the recall of most important actions, but that verbal description led to recall characterized by greater cohesion than visual…

  9. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    PubMed

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  10. RTT Goals Challenge Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Ambitious student-achievement targets turn up the heat, as winners of the $4 billion federal grant effort push to deliver. Winners of the $4 billion Race to the Top jackpot committed to grand goals in using the federal grants to raise student achievement, as measured by higher test scores, narrowed achievement gaps, and increased graduation and…

  11. Selfish goals serve more fundamental social and biological goals.

    PubMed

    Becker, D Vaughn; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2014-04-01

    Proximate selfish goals reflect the machinations of more fundamental goals such as self-protection and reproduction. Evolutionary life history theory allows us to make predictions about which goals are prioritized over others, which stimuli release which goals, and how the stages of cognitive processing are selectively influenced to better achieve the aims of those goals.

  12. The influence of goals on sense of control.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wen; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asama, Hajime

    2015-12-01

    We examined the influence of goals on sense of control relative to that experienced when taking action randomly. In the experimental task, participants controlled the direction of a moving dot by pressing the left and right keys at will without a specific goal (the control condition), directed the moving dot to a destination as often as possible (the strong goal condition), or kept the moving dot in the central area of the screen (the weak goal condition) for as long as possible. The results showed that the strong goal impaired the sense of control, but the weak goal did not exert an influence. We concluded that the goal-based expectation influenced sense of control, but the goal-directed action selection did not. Furthermore, we proposed a modified comparator model of the sense of control, offering a promising approach to integration of the predictive and postdictive processes involved in the sense of control.

  13. Planning for Conjunctive Goals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    infinitely many constants, and an action can in effect " gensym " one by referring to a variable in its postconditions that is not mentioned in its...codesignate with any constant, you can assign to each equivalence ~class (under the codesignation relation) a distinct " gensymmed " constant not previously...CRITERION 41 Proof: There are enough constants because only finitely many of the infinite set can be mentioned in a plan. Since the gensymmed constants are

  14. A Fast Goal Recognition Technique Based on Interaction Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    E-Martin, Yolanda; R-Moreno, Maria D.; Smith, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Goal Recognition is the task of inferring an actor's goals given some or all of the actor's observed actions. There is considerable interest in Goal Recognition for use in intelligent personal assistants, smart environments, intelligent tutoring systems, and monitoring user's needs. In much of this work, the actor's observed actions are compared against a generated library of plans. Recent work by Ramirez and Geffner makes use of AI planning to determine how closely a sequence of observed actions matches plans for each possible goal. For each goal, this is done by comparing the cost of a plan for that goal with the cost of a plan for that goal that includes the observed actions. This approach yields useful rankings, but is impractical for real-time goal recognition in large domains because of the computational expense of constructing plans for each possible goal. In this paper, we introduce an approach that propagates cost and interaction information in a plan graph, and uses this information to estimate goal probabilities. We show that this approach is much faster, but still yields high quality results.

  15. Understanding actors and object-goals in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Richard; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2010-04-15

    When another person takes 10 pounds from your hand, it matters if they are a shopkeeper or a robber. That is, the meaning of a simple, goal-directed action can vary depending on the identity of the actors involved. Research examining action understanding has identified an action observation network (AON) that encodes action features such as goals and kinematics. However, it is not yet known how or where the brain links actor identity to action goal. In the present paper, we used a repetition suppression paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural representation of actor identity within the context of object-directed actions. Participants watched video clips of two different actors with two different object-goals. Repeated presentation of the same actor suppressed the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in fusiform gyrus and occipitotemporal cortex. In contrast, repeated presentation of an action with the same object-goal suppressed the BOLD response throughout the AON. Our data reveal an extended brain network for understanding other people and their everyday actions that go beyond the traditional action observation network.

  16. Goal directed fluid therapy.

    PubMed

    Marik, Paul E; Desai, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    The cornerstone of treating patients with shock remains as it has for decades, intravenous fluids. Surprisingly, dosing intravenous fluid during resuscitation of shock remains largely empirical. Recent data suggests that early aggressive resuscitation of critically ill patients may limit and/or reverse tissue hypoxia, progression to organ failure and improve outcome. However, overzealous fluid resuscitation has been associated with increased complications, increased length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay and increased mortality. This review focuses on methods to assess fluid responsiveness and the application of these methods for goal directed fluid therapy in critically ill and peri-operative patients.

  17. Handbook for Ecology Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eber, Ronald

    This handbook has been compiled to aid concerned individuals and ecology groups more adequately define their goals, initiate good programs, and take effective action. It examines the ways a group of working individuals can become involved in action programs for ecological change. Part 1 deals with organization, preliminary organizing, structuring,…

  18. Joint attention, shared goals and social bonding

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Wouter; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2016-01-01

    There has recently been interest in the ways in which coordinated movements encourage coactors to feel social closer to one another, but this has generally overlooked the importance of necessary precursors to this joint action. Here we target two low-level behaviours involved in social coordination that may mediate a relationship between joint actions and social bonding, namely joint attention and shared goals. Participants engaged in a simple reaction time task whilst sitting next to a partner performing the same task. In a joint attention condition both participants attended to stimuli presented on the same half of a computer screen, while in a control condition they attended to opposite sides of the computer screen. Shared goals were manipulated by giving participants the instruction to keep below a threshold score for both individual response times and accuracy (individual goal), or their joint mean response time and accuracy (i.e. averaging their mean response time and accuracy with that of their partner: shared goal). Attending to the same side of the screen led to higher ratings on a composite social bonding index directed towards a partner, while shared goals did not cause any significant effects on partner ratings. Joint attention was sufficient to encourage social closeness with an interaction partner, which suggests that any activities which encourage attending to the same point in space could have some influence on how connected co-actors feel about one another. PMID:26256821

  19. Joint attention, shared goals, and social bonding.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Wouter; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-05-01

    There has recently been interest in the ways in which coordinated movements encourage coactors to feel socially closer to one another, but this has generally overlooked the importance of necessary precursors to this joint action. Here we target two low-level behaviours involved in social coordination that may mediate a relationship between joint actions and social bonding, namely joint attention and shared goals. Participants engaged in a simple reaction time task while sitting next to a partner performing the same task. In a joint attention condition, both participants attended to stimuli presented on the same half of a computer screen, while in a control condition, they attended to opposite sides of the computer screen. Shared goals were manipulated by giving participants the instruction to keep below a threshold score for both individual response times and accuracy (individual goal), or their joint mean response time and accuracy (i.e., averaging their mean response time and accuracy with that of their partner: shared goal). Attending to the same side of the screen led to higher ratings on a composite social bonding index directed towards a partner, while shared goals did not cause any effects on partner ratings. Joint attention was sufficient to encourage social closeness with an interaction partner, which suggests that any activities which encourage attending to the same point in space could have some influence on how connected coactors feel about one another.

  20. Some values guiding community research and action

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Stephen B.

    1991-01-01

    The dual purposes of applied research—contributing to understanding and improvement—are only partially served by method systems that encourage studying (with increasing precision) a narrow range of questions of modest societal importance. To optimize contributions to challenging societal problems, a field's cherished standards should be adapted to support more adventuresome forms of community research and action. This paper outlines 10 values for community research and action, based on insights from the fields of behavioral and community psychology. These values—reflect the goals and challenges of establishing collaborative relationships with research participants, determining research goals and methods, designing and disseminating interventions, communicating research findings, and advocating for community change. Critical challenges are outlined, and implications for the field and its clients are discussed. PMID:16795759

  1. Plans, goals, and language

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.F.; Litman, D.J.

    1986-07-01

    One of the most promising computational approaches to representing context in natural language systems has been based on work in general problem solving. In this approach, plans are used both to represent the domain of discourse as well as the communication process itself. Using a simplified framework for planning and action reasoning, we describe techniques that allow systems to handle many dialogues that are problematic for other systems, including the use of sentence fragments, indirect speech, helpful responses, the tracking of the topic of conversations both with and without interrupting subdialogues, and topic change.

  2. The Automated Will: Nonconscious Activation and Pursuit of Behavioral Goals

    PubMed Central

    Bargh, John A.; Lee-Chai, Annette; Barndollar, Kimberly; Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Trötschel, Roman

    2010-01-01

    It is proposed that goals can be activated outside of awareness and then operate nonconsciously to guide self-regulation effectively (J. A. Bargh, 1990). Five experiments are reported in which the goal either to perform well or to cooperate was activated, without the awareness of participants, through a priming manipulation. In Experiment 1 priming of the goal to perform well caused participants to perform comparatively better on an intellectual task. In Experiment 2 priming of the goal to cooperate caused participants to replenish a commonly held resource more readily. Experiment 3 used a dissociation paradigm to rule out perceptual-construal alternative explanations. Experiments 4 and 5 demonstrated that action guided by nonconsciously activated goals manifests two classic content-free features of the pursuit of consciously held goals. Nonconsciously activated goals effectively guide action, enabling adaptation to ongoing situational demands. PMID:11761304

  3. Establishing operations

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack

    1993-01-01

    The first two books on behavior analysis (Skinner, 1938; Keller & Schoenfeld, 1950) had chapter-length coverage of motivation. The next generation of texts also had chapters on the topic, but by the late 1960s it was no longer being given much treatment in the behavior-analytic literature. The present failure to deal with the topic leaves a gap in our understanding of operant functional relations. A partial solution is to reintroduce the concept of the establishing operation, defined as an environmental event, operation, or stimulus condition that affects an organism by momentarily altering (a) the reinforcing effectiveness of other events and (b) the frequency of occurrence of that part of the organism's repertoire relevant to those events as consequences. Discriminative and motivative variables can be distinguished as follows: The former are related to the differential availability of an effective form of reinforcement given a particular type of behavior; the latter are related to the differential reinforcing effectiveness of environmental events. An important distinction can also be made between unconditioned establishing operations (UEOs), such as food deprivation and painful stimulation, and conditioned establishing operations (CEOs) that depend on the learning history of the organism. One type of CEO is a stimulus that has simply been paired with a UEO and as a result may take on some of the motivative properties of that UEO. The warning stimulus in avoidance procedures is another important type of CEO referred to as reflexive because it establishes its own termination as a form of reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has accomplished such termination. Another CEO is closely related to the concept of conditional conditioned reinforcement and is referred to as a transitive CEO, because it establishes some other stimulus as a form of effective reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has produced that other stimulus. The multiple control of human

  4. National Biofuels Action Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Leading the Federal Interagency Biomass Research and Development Initiative October 2008 National Biofuels Action Plan Biomass Research and...REPORT DATE OCT 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE National Biofuels Action Plan 5a. CONTRACT...goal of the National Biofuels Action Plan is to maximize the environmental and economic benefi ts of biofuels use by advancing sustainable practices

  5. 38 CFR 1.894 - Annual goals and timetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Part-Time Career Employment Program § 1.894 Annual goals and timetables. An departmentwide plan for promoting part-time employment opportunities will be developed annually. This plan will establish annual goals and set interim and final deadlines for achieving these goals. This plan will...

  6. New FCC Goal in Ownership Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Josh

    By first describing the historical stance of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) toward ownership of broadcast facilities and then describing the FCC's most recent policy statements, this report compares the differing viewpoints and recognizes that the new value or goal that seems to have been established conflicts with the past emphasis…

  7. Diversity Education Goals: A Policy Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. colleges and universities have established student learning outcomes for diversity education in their general education programs. These education goals, frequently developed for assessment or other policy purposes, convey a range of possible purposes for diversity and multicultural learning. The manner in which these purposes are…

  8. Technical Basis for Also Using Health-Risk Assessment to Establish Contaminant Boundaries for Corrective Action Units (CAUs) of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J I; Tompson, A F

    2003-12-29

    This technical basis document serves two purposes. First, it provides a detailed discussion of the rationale and procedures suitable for deriving a risk-based contaminant boundary that will protect public health unambiguously, along with examples that are intended as illustrative only to facilitate understanding. Second, it explains the benefits of using such information as the framework for fostering risk communication to educate, inform, and enlighten, and importantly, to fully disclose the goals and structure of contaminant boundaries. To determine a contaminant boundary within a CAU, standards or criteria must be adopted that establish whether groundwater is safe or unsafe for public (and worker) use. For purposes of this discussion, drinking water consumption is considered the pathway of exposure. However, in practice, a realistic land-use scenario must be described and agreed upon before a prospective, realistic risk-based calculation is performed. Otherwise, it will not be clear whether consumption of drinking water is a even appropriate. For example, the future land use that is defined may not even permit access to the contaminated water (e.g., denial of use by law and stewardship; or a lack of accessibility), and in that situation there would be no exposure and no potential health consequences. Taking into consideration that consumption of the groundwater is feasible, the groundwater is deemed unsafe if it contains radionuclide contamination that exceeds the criteria that the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers in establishing regulatory standards for drinking water contaminants, including radionuclides generally (i.e., a target range for lifetime excess-cancer risk that is not to exceed 10{sup -4} [1/10,000] and ideally is less than 10{sup -6} [1/1,000,000]) (see EPA, 2000a). Thus, the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for substances in drinking water are considered to be health-protective and generally are derived on the basis

  9. 76 FR 80847 - Enforcement Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Compliance is a Goal of the Commission The proposed draft sets out voluntary compliance as a goal of the... into compliance before an enforcement action is taken by the Chair. Voluntary compliance is the goal of the Commission. This amendment sets forth how Commission staff and tribes may address potential...

  10. A role of goals for social inhibition of return?

    PubMed

    Janczyk, Markus; Welsh, Timothy N; Dolk, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    The social inhibition of return (sIOR) effect refers to the finding that response initiation times are longer if a movement is executed to a location where another person has responded to just before. Previous studies have examined the influence of the goal of the action on sIOR. In these studies, however, the movement endpoint and to-be-attained goal (e.g., touching/pressing a response key) were at the same spatial location. In the present two experiments, we disentangled movement endpoint and goal's identity and locations by means of introducing action effects that followed directly from a movement. Similar methods were previously shown powerful enough to clearly show the importance of action goals for other phenomena-a finding consistent with effect-based theories of action control, such as the ideomotor theory. The results of the present study revealed that sIOR was shaped by the movement endpoint location, not the goal's identity or location. That is, in both experiments, an sIOR effect was observed, but the magnitude of the sIOR effect was not modulated by repetitions/switches of goals or their locations. Thus, results indicate that goals play a negligible role in the emergence of the sIOR and, consequently, highlight the importance of action observation for the emergence of the sIOR effect.

  11. Pulling out the Intentional Structure of Action: The Relation between Action Processing and Action Production in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerville, Jessica A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2005-01-01

    Adults and children readily construct action representations organized with respect to an ultimate goal. These representations allow one to predict the consequences of action, interpret and describe actions, and categorize action sequences. In this paper, we explore the ontogeny of hierarchically organized action representations, and its relation…

  12. "Goals" Are Not an Integral Component of Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Jane; Bird, Geoffrey; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Several theories suggest that actions are coded for imitation in terms of mentalistic goals, or inferences about the actor's intentions, and that these goals solve the "correspondence problem" by allowing sensory input to be translated into matching motor output. We tested this intention reading hypothesis against general process accounts of…

  13. Career Goals, Preferences, and Support for Students in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Belva A.

    2013-01-01

    Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory has been adapted by Lent, Brown, and Hackett (1994) to form social cognitive career theory (SCCT). The theory posits three interlocking steps in academic and career development: interest, choice goal, and choice goal action. Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, barriers, and supports are hypothesized to…

  14. 77 FR 75361 - 2012-2014 Enterprise Housing Goals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... / Thursday, December 20, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1282 RIN 2590-AA49 2012-2014 Enterprise Housing Goals AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Final... new benchmark levels for the single-family housing goals for 2012, 2013 and 2014 that...

  15. Beyond SMART? A New Framework for Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Trevor; Tosey, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article extends currently reported theory and practice in the use of learning goals or targets with students in secondary and further education. Goal-setting and action-planning constructs are employed in personal development plans (PDPs) and personal learning plans (PLPs) and are advocated as practice within the English national policy…

  16. Evidence for a Unitary Goal Concept in 12-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Szilvia; Verschoor, Stephan; Coenen, Lot

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether infants can transfer their goal attribution between situations that contain different types of information about the goal. We found that 12-month-olds who had attributed a goal based on the causal efficacy of a means-end action generated expectations about the actor's action in another scenario in which the actor could…

  17. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  18. Teaching Goals-Plans-Action Theory through a Negotiation Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Evidence that K-12 schools had successfully integrated conflict resolution into curricula (Johnson & Johnson, 2004; Stevahn, 2004) includes students' resolution of personal conflicts and improved academic performances (Johnson, Johnson, Dudley, & Magnuson, 1995; Stevahn, Johnson, Johnson, Green, & Laginski, 1997; Stevahn, Johnson,…

  19. Educational Technology Goals, Progress, and Recommended Actions, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Technology in Education & Training.

    This report, an update of the National Coalition for Technology Education and Training's (NCTET) 1994 "National Information Infrastructure Requirements for Education and Training," is intended to serve as a guide for national and state policy makers and planners concerned with the role of technology in education. It begins with a review…

  20. Goal Characteristics and Personality Factors in a Management-by-Objectives Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Stephen J., Jr.; Tosi, Henry L.

    1970-01-01

    This study correlates different characteristics of goals established in a management-by- objectives program to criteria hypothesized to represent success of the program; results indicate that establishing clear and important goals produced favorable results, especially for certain types. (Author)

  1. Programming Tool-Use Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massen, Cristina; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    When humans plan to execute a tool-use action, they can only specify the bodily movement parameters by taking into account the external target or goal of the tool-use action and the target-movement mapping implemented by the tool. In this study, the authors used the movement precuing method to investigate how people prepare for actions made with…

  2. Chandrayaan-1: Science goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, N.

    2005-12-01

    be released to land on the Moon during the mission. Salient features of the mission are described here. The ensemble of instruments onboard Chandrayaan-1 should enable us to accomplish the science goals defined for this mission.

  3. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    PubMed

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  4. Personal Finance. Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document provides the common curriculum goals for the state of Oregon in personal finance, an area of study that relates basic economic concepts and practices to the financial concerns of consumers. These goals were designed to define what should be taught in all public school settings. The common curriculum goals in personal finance are…

  5. "Let's work together": what do infants understand about collaborative goals?

    PubMed

    Henderson, Annette M E; Woodward, Amanda L

    2011-10-01

    Collaboration is fundamental to our daily lives, yet little is known about how humans come to understand these activities. The present research was conducted to fill this void by using a novel visual habituation paradigm to investigate infants' understanding of the collaborative-goal structure of collaborative action. The findings of the three experiments reported here suggest that 14-month-old infants understand that the actions of collaborative partners are complementary and critical to the attainment of a common collaborative goal. Importantly, 14-month-olds do not interpret the actions of two individuals in terms of a collaborative goal when their actions are not causally related. The implications of our findings for theories of collaboration and folk psychology are discussed.

  6. On Having a Goal: Goals as Representations or Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ramnerö, Jonas; Törneke, Niklas

    The present article discusses the concepts of having a goal and of goal-directed behavior from a behavior-analytic perspective. In clinical psychology as well as in the study of human behavior at large, goals delineate an important area of investigation when it comes to health, well-being, and behavioral change. While concepts like goals and goal-directed behavior may be more frequently used outside the theoretical boundaries of behavior analysis, we argue that by incorporating recent behavior analytic research on verbal behavior, new and fruitful ways open up for approaching the phenomenon of having a goal. A behavior-analytic approach thereby may increase both precision in understanding and the potential for influencing essential aspects of human behavior. This analysis starts with the concept of rule-governed behavior and develops that analysis by using the concept of derived relational responding.

  7. From goal motivation to goal progress: the mediating role of coping in the Self-Concordance Model.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, Patrick; Carraro, Natasha; Miranda, Dave

    2012-01-01

    The present studies examined the mediating role of self-regulatory mechanisms in the relationship between goal motivation and goal progress in the Self-Concordance Model. First, a systematic review, using meta-analytical path analysis, supported the mediating role of effort and action planning in the positive association between autonomous goal motivation and goal progress. Second, results from two additional empirical studies, using structural equation modeling, lent credence to the mediating role of coping in the relationship between goal motivation and goal progress of university students. Autonomous goal motivation was positively associated with task-oriented coping, which predicted greater goal progress during midterm exams (Study 1, N=702) and at the end of the semester in a different sample (Study 2, N=167). Controlled goal motivation was associated with greater disengagement-oriented coping (Study 1 and Study 2) and lesser use of task-oriented coping (Study 2), which reduced goal progress. These results held up after controlling for perceived stress (Study 2). Our findings highlight the importance of coping in the "inception-to-attainment" goal process because autonomous goal motivation indirectly rather than directly predicts goal progress of university students through their usage of task-oriented coping.

  8. The effects of goal variation on adult physical activity behaviour.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dal-Hyun; Yun, Joonkoo; McNamee, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of varying levels of goals on increasing daily steps and the frequency of goal achievement among middle-aged adults. Ninety-six adults participated in a randomised control study. Participants were randomly assigned to five different step goal groups: (1) Easy (n = 19), (2) Medium (n = 19), (3) Difficult (n = 19), (4) Do-your-best (n = 19), and (5) No goal (n = 20) based on previous research. The participants wore a pedometer and were asked to reach a pre-established goal during the experimental period. In order to examine the effectiveness of the goal difficulty, (a) an average number of steps taken by different goal conditions and (b) the number of days meeting the assigned goal were tested. A one-way ANCOVA revealed significant step count differences among goal groups. Post hoc analyses indicated that the change in step count in both the Medium and Difficult goal groups was significantly greater than the remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference between the medium and difficult goal conditions. In addition, a one-way ANOVA indicated that there were no significant differences in the frequency of goal achievement among the Easy, Medium, and Difficult goal groups. Results suggest that when promoting physical activity through increasing step counts, researchers and clinicians should design goals that are specific and challenging.

  9. Goal-Prioritization for Teachers, Coaches, and Students: A Developmental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Matthew L.; Tapps, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide background on types of goals, a system for writing goals, and a framework for goal-prioritization that can be implemented in classroom and/or sport settings. Goal-setting is the process of developing a desired outcome to serve as the purpose of one's actions.

  10. Pre-Service Teachers' Goals and Future-Time Extension, Concerns, and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagger, Hazel; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Human goal-processes are conceptualised in an action-theoretic model of motivation, in line with discourse on self-directed teachers. Eighty-eight pre-service teachers reported ideographic professionally-related goals "and" concerns, future-time extension of the goals, and well-being (self-esteem and depression). Thirteen goal and fifteen concern…

  11. Political action committee for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Spurred by budget proposals that could severely reduce science funding (Eos, March 24, March 3, February 10), seven scientists currently serving as Congressional Science or State Department Fellows recently founded a political action committee (PAC) for scientists. The Science and Technology Political Action Committee (SCITEC-PAC) aims to make scientists more politically aware and better informed about potential legislative actions that affect research. It will also serve to ‘establish a political presence’ with respect to science, said Donald Stein, SCITEC-PAC's chairman.The organization is not a lobbying group, explained Stein, professor of neurology and psychology at Clark University and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. ‘Lobbyists seek to influence officials by presenting information to them,’ he said, ‘while a PAC tries to influence the outcome of elections through campaign contributions of money, time, and effort in behalf of candidates that share similar goals and aspirations.’ In other words, the PAC will be a vehicle for promoting candidates for federal office who advocate strong support for scientific research and training. In addition, the PAC will develop and study science policy and budget issues and will attempt to stimulate government and private sector interest in these issues.

  12. Dynamics of Social Interaction: Kinematic Analysis of a Joint Action.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Quentin; Galvan, Lucie; Nazir, Tatjana A; Paulignan, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal social interaction between humans requires accurate understanding of the others' actions. The cognitivist approach suggests that successful interaction depends on the creation of a shared representation of the task, where the pairing of perceptive and motor systems of partners allows inclusion of the other's goal into the overarching representation. Activity of the Mirror Neurons System (MNS) is thought to be a crucial mechanism linking two individuals during a joint action through action observation. The construction of a shared representation of an interaction (i.e., joint action) depends upon sensorimotor cognitive processes that modulate the ability to adapt in time and space. We attempted to detect individuals' behavioral/kinematic change resulting in a global amelioration of performance for both subjects when a common representation of the action is built using a repetitive joint action. We asked pairs of subjects to carry out a simple task where one puts a base in the middle of a table and the other places a parallelepiped fitting into the base, the crucial manipulation being that participants switched roles during the experiment. We aimed to show that a full comprehension of a joint action is not an automatic process. We found that, before switching the interactional role, the participant initially placing the base orientated it in a way that led to an uncomfortable action for participants placing the parallelepiped. However, after switching roles, the action's kinematics by the participant who places the base changed in order to facilitate the action of the other. More precisely, our data shows significant modulation of the base angle in order to ease the completion of the joint action, highlighting the fact that a shared knowledge of the complete action facilitates the generation of a common representation. This evidence suggests the ability to establish an efficient shared representation of a joint action benefits from physically taking our

  13. Iterative Goal Refinement for Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    present a goal lifecycle for BDI agents, provide operational semantics for their lifecycle, and demonstrate the lifecycle on a Mars rover scenario...208, 1–17. Harland, J., Morley, D., Thangarajah, J., & Yorke-Smith, N. (2014). An operational semantics for the goal life-cycle in BDI agents...executing, suspending, and aborting goals in BDI agent systems. In Declarative Agent Languages and Technologies VIII (pp. 1–21). Toronto, Canada: Springer

  14. Teachers' Goal Orientations: Effects on Classroom Goal Structures and Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hui; Hall, Nathan C.; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prior research has shown teachers' goal orientations to influence classroom goal structures (Retelsdorf "et al.," 2010, "Learning and Instruction, 20," 30) and to also impact their emotions (Schutz "et al.," 2007, "Emotion in Education," Academic Press, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). However,…

  15. 34 CFR 300.109 - Full educational opportunity goal (FEOG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Full educational opportunity goal (FEOG). 300.109... EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.109 Full educational... has established a goal of providing full educational opportunity to all children with...

  16. Goal!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the story of his son, Joshua Pauls. Josh is an energetic young man who learned at a very young age not to let anything stop him from achieving his dreams. Born with a birth defect known as bilateral bibia hemimelia, which means he was born without his tibia bone in both of his legs, Josh was only 10 months old…

  17. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  18. Goals and Personality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. L.; Ugarte, M. D.; Lumbreras, M. Victoria; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personality factors in the value allotted by adolescents to various groups of goals. For this purpose, the "Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional, CPS" (Situational Personality Questionnaire) and the "Cuestionario de Metas para Adolescentes, CMA" (Goals for…

  19. Goals in Teaching About Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klass, Dennis; Gordon, Audrey

    This guide provides a set of goals and guidelines for teachers who are introducing "death and dying" into the school curriculum. These goals are: (1) to provide factual information concerning legal, medical, and sociological practices; (2) to give insight into personal feelings and family dynamics when death occurs; (3) to provide consumer…

  20. Goal Making for English Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Henry B., Ed.

    Originally presented at a series of NCTE Spring Institutes on the topic "Behavioral Objectives/Humanistic Goals: Bridging the Gap," the papers in this monograph are divided into four sections. Sections one contains personal credos on the goals of English teaching: "McNamara's Band and the Educational Edsel" by Charles Weingartner; "English…

  1. Kindergarten Goals for the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawkey, Thomas D.; Silvern, Steven B.

    This paper presents an outline of kindergarten goals for the seventies along with specific suggestions for supporting classroom activities. The kindergarten goals are divided into four developmental areas: (1) Cognitive or Intellectual Development (with emphasis on concept development, or "content skills" and mastery or "process skills"); (2)…

  2. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    GOAL, is a test engineer oriented language designed to be used to standardize procedure terminology and as the test programming language to be used for ground checkout operations in a space vehicle launch environment. The material presented concerning GOAL includes: (1) a historical review, (2) development objectives and requirements, (3) language scope and format, and (4) language capabilities.

  3. National Wetlands Mitigation Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On December 26, 2002, EPA and the Corps of Engineers announced the release of a comprehensive, interagency National Wetlands Mitigation Action Plan to further achievement of the goal of no net loss of wetlands.

  4. CSC Tip Sheets: Action Checklists

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Action checklists motivate behavior change by providing a clear and concise list of activities that community members and organizations can use to reduce their carbon footprint and achieve other sustainability goals.

  5. Jump into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Cohen, Ann; Meyer, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Jump Into Action (JIA) is a school-based team-taught program to help fifth-grade students make healthy food choices and be more active. The JIA team (physical education teacher, classroom teacher, school nurse, and parent) work together to provide a supportive environment as students set goals to improve food choices and increase activity.…

  6. Dynamics of Social Interaction: Kinematic Analysis of a Joint Action

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Quentin; Galvan, Lucie; Nazir, Tatjana A.; Paulignan, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal social interaction between humans requires accurate understanding of the others’ actions. The cognitivist approach suggests that successful interaction depends on the creation of a shared representation of the task, where the pairing of perceptive and motor systems of partners allows inclusion of the other’s goal into the overarching representation. Activity of the Mirror Neurons System (MNS) is thought to be a crucial mechanism linking two individuals during a joint action through action observation. The construction of a shared representation of an interaction (i.e., joint action) depends upon sensorimotor cognitive processes that modulate the ability to adapt in time and space. We attempted to detect individuals’ behavioral/kinematic change resulting in a global amelioration of performance for both subjects when a common representation of the action is built using a repetitive joint action. We asked pairs of subjects to carry out a simple task where one puts a base in the middle of a table and the other places a parallelepiped fitting into the base, the crucial manipulation being that participants switched roles during the experiment. We aimed to show that a full comprehension of a joint action is not an automatic process. We found that, before switching the interactional role, the participant initially placing the base orientated it in a way that led to an uncomfortable action for participants placing the parallelepiped. However, after switching roles, the action’s kinematics by the participant who places the base changed in order to facilitate the action of the other. More precisely, our data shows significant modulation of the base angle in order to ease the completion of the joint action, highlighting the fact that a shared knowledge of the complete action facilitates the generation of a common representation. This evidence suggests the ability to establish an efficient shared representation of a joint action benefits from physically

  7. Career Goals in Young Adults: Personal Resources, Goal Appraisals, Attitudes, and Goal Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haratsis, Jessica M.; Hood, Michelle; Creed, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model based on the dual-process framework that assessed the relationships among personal resources, career goal appraisals, career attitudes, and career goal management, which have not been previously assessed together. The model (tested on a sample of 486 young adults: 74% female, M[subscript]age = 22 years) proposed that personal…

  8. Establishing a Presence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCandless, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    The basis for this successful collaboration was face-to-face communication. Though it was sometimes stressful being on the road so much, I really learned the importance of being present to work together and ask questions in person. Another measure of success was that in the midst of this project and traveling, my wife and I managed to start a family. My oldest boy got a real kick out of visiting Space Center Houston when he was two to learn all about the "face futtle" which goes way up in the sky. When practical, collocation and face-to-face communication on a project eliminate misunderstandings, establish relationships, make information more easily accessible, and promote a team atmosphere. Compromise is key to balancing both family and career goals. Knowing when to prioritize each is important to success in both aspects.

  9. From Movements to Actions: Two Mechanisms for Learning Action Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Wood, Justin N.

    2011-01-01

    When other individuals move, we interpret their movements as discrete, hierarchically-organized, goal-directed actions. However, the mechanisms that integrate visible movement features into actions are poorly understood. Here, we consider two sequence learning mechanisms--transitional probability-based (TP) and position-based encoding…

  10. Science Goal Monitor: Science Goal Driven Automation for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jung, John; Pell, Melissa; Matusow, David; Bailyn, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Infusion of automation technologies into NASA s future missions will be essential because of the need to: (1) effectively handle an exponentially increasing volume of scientific data, (2) successfully meet dynamic, opportunistic scientific goals and objectives, and (3) substantially reduce mission operations staff and costs. While much effort has gone into automating routine spacecraft operations to reduce human workload and hence costs, applying intelligent automation to the science side, i.e., science data acquisition, data analysis and reactions to that data analysis in a timely and still scientifically valid manner, has been relatively under-emphasized. In order to introduce science driven automation in missions, we must be able to: capture and interpret the science goals of observing programs, represent those goals in machine interpretable language; and allow spacecrafts onboard systems to autonomously react to the scientist's goals. In short, we must teach our platforms to dynamically understand, recognize, and react to the scientists goals. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a prototype software tool being developed to determine the best strategies for implementing science goal driven automation in missions. The tools being developed in SGM improve the ability to monitor and react to the changing status of scientific events. The SGM system enables scientists to specify what to look for and how to react in descriptive rather than technical terms. The system monitors streams of science data to identify occurrences of key events previously specified by the scientist. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the scientist s desired reactions. Through SGM, we will improve om understanding about the capabilities needed onboard for success, develop metrics to understand the potential increase in science returns, and develop an operational prototype so that the perceived risks associated

  11. Goal Congruence in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Lily; Neumann, Yoram

    1983-01-01

    A questionnaire administered to 150 undergraduates and 90 faculty members compared their relative levels of goal congruence with those of their university. Programs in medicine, social sciences, and engineering were studied. (JW)

  12. Progress toward goals in silicon sheet development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koliwad, K. M.; Leipold, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    One of the goals of the national photovoltaic program in the U.S. is the establishment of an industry producing photovoltaic material which can be sold at a price not exceeding $0.70/W by 1986. A key element concerning the achievement of this goal is the development and utilization of improved methods for producing silicon sheet. Specific technologies being investigated in this connection can be divided into two categories. Methods of one category are based on a utilization of sheet growth techniques including film-fed growth, dendritic web, and silicon-on-ceramic processes. The approaches used by methods of the second category involve ingot and wafering processes, including Czochralski growth, the heat exchanger method, multiblade procedures, and the use of a fixed abrasive multiwire. It is found that using $84/kg silicon, most sheet technologies would yield module prices in the $2.00/Wp to $3.00/Wp range.

  13. Modeling the Value of Strategic Actions in the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Thevarajah, Dhushan; Webb, Ryan; Ferrall, Christopher; Dorris, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    In learning models of strategic game play, an agent constructs a valuation (action value) over possible future choices as a function of past actions and rewards. Choices are then stochastic functions of these action values. Our goal is to uncover a neural signal that correlates with the action value posited by behavioral learning models. We measured activity from neurons in the superior colliculus (SC), a midbrain region involved in planning saccadic eye movements, while monkeys performed two saccade tasks. In the strategic task, monkeys competed against a computer in a saccade version of the mixed-strategy game ”matching-pennies”. In the instructed task, saccades were elicited through explicit instruction rather than free choices. In both tasks neuronal activity and behavior were shaped by past actions and rewards with more recent events exerting a larger influence. Further, SC activity predicted upcoming choices during the strategic task and upcoming reaction times during the instructed task. Finally, we found that neuronal activity in both tasks correlated with an established learning model, the Experience Weighted Attraction model of action valuation (Camerer and Ho, 1999). Collectively, our results provide evidence that action values hypothesized by learning models are represented in the motor planning regions of the brain in a manner that could be used to select strategic actions. PMID:20161807

  14. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  15. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  16. Action Understanding as Inverse Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Chris L.; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents' actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents' behavior based on the…

  17. Shared Goal Setting in Team-Based Geriatric Oncology.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Allison; Wallace, James; Canin, Beverly; Chow, Selina; Dale, William; Mohile, Supriya G; Hamel, Lauren M

    2016-11-01

    We present the case of a 92-year-old man, MH, who was given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. His primary care physician, surgeon, geriatric oncologist, and family members all played important roles in his care. MH's case is an example of a lack of explicit shared goal setting by the health care providers with the patient and family members and how that impeded care planning and health. This case demonstrates the importance of explicitly discussing and establishing shared goals in team-based cancer care delivery early on and throughout the care process, especially for older adults. Each individual member's goals should be understood as they fit within the overarching shared team goals. We emphasize that shared goal setting and alignment of individual goals is a dynamic process that must occur several times at critical decision points throughout a patient's care continuum. Providers and researchers can use this illustrative case to consider their own work and contemplate how shared goal setting can improve patient-centered care and health outcomes in various team-based care settings. Shared goal setting among team members has been demonstrated to improve outcomes in other contexts. However, we stress, that little investigation into the impact of shared goal setting on team-based cancer care delivery has been conducted. We list immediate research goals within team-based cancer care delivery that can provide a foundation for the understanding of the process and outcomes of shared goal setting.

  18. The Effects of Self Set or Externally Set Goals on Learning in an Uncertain Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring refers to online awareness and self-evaluation of one's goal-directed actions, while Control refers to the generation and selection of goal-directed actions (Osman, 2010a). The present study examines the extent to which external estimations of performance influence monitoring and control behaviors. To achieve this, a complex dynamic…

  19. Learning Goals of AACSB-Accredited Undergraduate Business Programs: Predictors of Conformity versus Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Kyle E.; Palmer, Timothy B.; Costigan, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Learning goals are central to assurance of learning. Yet little is known about what goals are used by business programs or how they are established. On the one hand, business schools are encouraged to develop their own unique learning goals. However, business schools also face pressures that would encourage conformity by adopting goals used by…

  20. Abstract structural representations of goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kachina; Ibara, Steven; Seymour, Amy; Cordova, Natalia; Botvinick, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Linguistic theory holds that the structure of a sentence can be described in abstract syntactic terms, independent of the specific words the sentence contains. Nonlinguistic behavior, including goal-directed action, is also theorized to have an underlying structural, or "syntactic," organization. We propose that purposive action sequences are represented cognitively in terms of a means-ends parse, which is a formal specification of how actions fit together to accomplish desired outcomes. To test this theory, we leveraged the phenomenon of structural priming in two experiments. As predicted, participants read sentences describing action sequences faster when these sentences were presented amid other sentences sharing the same parse. Results from a second experiment indicate that the underlying representations relevant to observed action sequences are not strictly tied to language processing. Our results suggest that the structure of goal-directed behavior may be represented abstractly, independently of specific actions and goals, just as linguistic syntax is thought to stand independent of other levels of representation.

  1. Goal-Directed Planning for Sensor Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R.; Dungan, J. L.; Khatib, L.; Votava, P.

    2007-12-01

    An Earth-observing sensor web is an organization of space, airborne, or in situ sensing devices for collecting measurements of the Earth's processes. Sensor web coordination involves formulating Earth science goals and transforming them into sensor web workflows, i.e., sequences of data acquisition and processing tasks that satisfy the specified goals. Automating parts of this process using recent advances in intelligent control software technology will offer improved sensor web effectiveness. Our approach to the coordination problem applies architectural concepts of workflow management systems by identifying two phases in workflow generation. In the first phase, users formulate high-level campaign goals that are automatically transformed into abstract workflow plans. An abstract workflow plan represents the organization of data acquisition and processing actions that fulfills the goals specified by the user, but leaves out details such as how requests for access to a data resource are formatted. Abstracting away these details improves the usability of sensor web resources by scientists. To implement the first phase, we utilize the Labeled Transition System Analyzer (LTSA), a model-checking software tool. LTSA contains a concise process-based language, FSP (Finite State Processes) for designing and modeling software programs. We will use LTSA and FSP to automate the process of building executable plans for accessing resources on a sensor web. FSP has the constructs for representing conditional dependencies, iterations, and parallel actions, all of which are common features in Earth science campaigns. The second phase of the process consists of the automatic transformation of an abstract plan into a concrete plan, i.e., a sequence of actions that can be autonomously executed on a sensor web. The transformation in phase two might require further decomposition of actions in the abstract plan into a sequence of lower-level data acquisition requests. It may also involve

  2. Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network Support for Elimination Goals, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Mick N; Rota, Paul A; Icenogle, Joseph P; Brown, Kevin E; Takeda, Makoto; Rey, Gloria J; Ben Mamou, Myriam C; Dosseh, Annick R G A; Byabamazima, Charles R; Ahmed, Hinda J; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Zhang, Yan; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Strebel, Peter M; Goodson, James L

    2016-05-06

    In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP)* with the objective to eliminate measles and rubella in five World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2020. In September 2013, countries in all six WHO regions had established measles elimination goals, and additional goals for elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome were established in three regions (1). Capacity for surveillance, including laboratory confirmation, is fundamental to monitoring and verifying elimination. The 2012-2020 Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan of the Measles and Rubella Initiative(†) calls for effective case-based surveillance with laboratory testing for case confirmation (2). In 2000, the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (GMRLN) was established to provide high quality laboratory support for surveillance (3). The GMRLN is the largest globally coordinated laboratory network, with 703 laboratories supporting surveillance in 191 countries. During 2010-2015, 742,187 serum specimens were tested, and 27,832 viral sequences were reported globally. Expansion of the capacity of the GMRLN will support measles and rubella elimination efforts as well as surveillance for other vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), including rotavirus, and for emerging pathogens of public health concern.

  3. Reaching the Goals. Goal 2: High School Completion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Programs for the Improvement of Practice.

    The second of the National Education Goals, adopted following a summit meeting held in 1989 between the U.S. President and 50 governors, states that, by the year 2000, the high school graduation rate will increase to at least 90%. This document, an abridged version of a report produced by a work group on school completion, is an examination of…

  4. Science Goal Monitor: science goal driven automation for NASA missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jung, John; Pell, Melissa; Matusow, David; Bailyn, Charles

    2004-09-01

    Infusion of automation technologies into NASA's future missions will be essential because of the need to: (1) effectively handle an exponentially increasing volume of scientific data, (2) successfully meet dynamic, opportunistic scientific goals and objectives, and (3) substantially reduce mission operations staff and costs. While much effort has gone into automating routine spacecraft operations to reduce human workload and hence costs, applying intelligent automation to the science side, i.e., science data acquisition, data analysis and reactions to that data analysis in a timely and still scientifically valid manner, has been relatively under-emphasized. In order to introduce science driven automation in missions, we must be able to: capture and interpret the science goals of observing programs, represent those goals in machine interpretable language; and allow spacecrafts' onboard systems to autonomously react to the scientist's goals. In short, we must teach our platforms to dynamically understand, recognize, and react to the scientists' goals. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a prototype software tool being developed to determine the best strategies for implementing science goal driven automation in missions. The tools being developed in SGM improve the ability to monitor and react to the changing status of scientific events. The SGM system enables scientists to specify what to look for and how to react in descriptive rather than technical terms. The system monitors streams of science data to identify occurrences of key events previously specified by the scientist. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the scientist's desired reactions. Through SGM, we will improve our understanding about the capabilities needed onboard for success, develop metrics to understand the potential increase in science returns, and develop an "operational" prototype so that the perceived risks

  5. Progress Toward National Aeronautics Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Carlo J.; Sehra, Arun K.

    1999-01-01

    NASA has made definitive progress towards achieving several bold U.S. goals in aeronautics related to air breathing engines. The advanced technologies developed towards these goals span applications from general aviation to large subsonic and supersonic aircraft. The proof of successful technology development is demonstrated through successful technology transfer to U.S. industry and projected fleet impact. Specific examples of progress are discussed that quantifies the achievement towards these goals. In addition, a more detailed vision for NASA aeronautics is defined and key strategic issues are explored which invite international and national debate and involvement especially in reduced environmental impact for subsonic and supersonic aircraft, dramatic new capabilities in general aviation engines, and reduced development cycle time and costs.

  6. Goal-based ultimatum game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2014-09-01

    This research investigates the human decision-making in ultimatum game in the context of neuroscience theories that give more insight into decision-making process by humans. Based on this approach, a new model of human decision-making has been developed by using Goal Programming approach. The satisficing and egalitarian philosophies on which weighted and Chebyshev Goal Programming (GP) rely; seem to offer an adequate and natural way for modeling human decision processes in at least the single-shot games of coordination. The simulation of ultimatum games gives the distribution of proposers' offer which shows some similarity with the distribution from the experiments with real subjects. The sensitivity analyses of this model are also presented. The solutions returned by the proposed GP approach aim to strike the right balance on several dimensions of conflicting goal that are set by players themselves.

  7. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  8. Goal Attribution to Inanimate Agents by 6.5-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csibra, Gergely

    2008-01-01

    Human infants' tendency to attribute goals to observed actions may help us to understand where people's obsession with goals originates from. While one-year-old infants liberally interpret the behaviour of many kinds of agents as goal-directed, a recent report [Kamewari, K., Kato, M., Kanda, T., Ishiguro, H., & Hiraki, K. (2005).…

  9. Seven-Month-Old Infants Selectively Reproduce the Goals of Animate but Not Inanimate Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahajan, Neha; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    We tested 7-month-old infants' sensitivity to others' goals in an imitation task, and assessed whether infants are as likely to imitate the goals of nonhuman agents as they are to imitate human goals. In the current studies, we used the paradigm developed by Hamlin et. al (in press) to test infants' responses to human actions versus closely…

  10. The Positive Impact of Personal Goal Setting on Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithson, Marla

    2012-01-01

    This action research is a quantitative study of personal goal setting and how it affects the academic performance of third grade students on weekly Math, Reading, and Language Arts assessments in a proactive effort to increase individual performance on standardized tests. The students' weekly performance was indicative of their expected…

  11. Goal Directed Model Inversion: A Study of Dynamic Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Raghavan, Bharathi; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Goal Directed Model Inversion (GDMI) is an algorithm designed to generalize supervised learning to the case where target outputs are not available to the learning system. The output of the learning system becomes the input to some external device or transformation, and only the output of this device or transformation can be compared to a desired target. The fundamental driving mechanism of GDMI is to learn from success. Given that a wrong outcome is achieved, one notes that the action that produced that outcome 0 "would have been right if the outcome had been the desired one." The algorithm then proceeds as follows: (1) store the action that produced the wrong outcome as a "target" (2) redefine the wrong outcome as a desired goal (3) submit the new desired goal to the system (4) compare the new action with the target action and modify the system by using a suitable algorithm for credit assignment (Back propagation in our example) (5) resubmit the original goal. Prior publications by our group in this area focused on demonstrating empirical results based on the inverse kinematic problem for a simulated robotic arm. In this paper we apply the inversion process to much simpler analytic functions in order to elucidate the dynamic behavior of the system and to determine the sensitivity of the learning process to various parameters. This understanding will be necessary for the acceptance of GDMI as a practical tool.

  12. 75 FR 81096 - Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Goals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1281 RIN 2590-AA16 Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Goals AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Section 1205 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of...

  13. General Processes, Rather than "Goals," Explain Imitation Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Geoffrey; Brindley, Rachel; Leighton, Jane; Heyes, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    The goal-directed theory of imitation (GOADI) states that copying of action outcomes (e.g., turning a light switch) takes priority over imitation of the means by which those outcomes are achieved (e.g., choice of effector or grip). The object [fewer than] effector [fewer than] grip error pattern in the pen-and-cups task provides strong support for…

  14. The Fallacies of Numerical Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Richard A.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the problems inherent in the federal government's statistical method of determining and enforcing goals for the hiring and composition of faculty of colleges and universities with federal contracts. Stress is on the need for revision of the program to correct flaws and eliminate red tape. (Editor/JT)

  15. Efficient goal-directed exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, Y.; Koenig, S.; Veloso, M.M.; Simmons, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    If a state space is not completely known in advance, then search algorithms have to explore it sufficiently to locate a goal state and a path leading to it, performing therefore what we call goal-directed exploration. Two paradigms of this process are pure exploration and heuristic-driven exploitation: the former approaches explore the state space using only knowledge of the physically visited portion of the domain, whereas the latter approaches totally rely on heuristic knowledge to guide the search towards goal states. Both approaches have disadvantages: the first one does not utilize available knowledge to cut down the search effort, and the second one relies too much on the knowledge, even if it is misleading. We have therefore developed a framework for goal-directed exploration, called VECA, that combines the advantages of both approaches by automatically switching from exploitation to exploration on parts of the state space where exploitation does not perform well. VECA provides better performance guarantees than previously studied heuristic-driven exploitation algorithms, and experimental evidence suggests that this guarantee does not deteriorate its average-case performance.

  16. Goals for a Changing University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anello, Michael; And Others

    Today's college executive is forced to deal with conflict that is built into the system because of the different goals, values, and priorities expressed by the constituent bodies both on and off the campus. How does a president, dean, or department head under pressure to change focus on new targets decide what targets to focus on? What kind of…

  17. We Have Goals. Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensimon, Estela Mara; Dowd, Alicia C.; Longanecker, David; Witham, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The nation is in an era of policy reform aimed at improving the productivity and effectiveness of higher education. Major philanthropies and policy groups have converged around variations of the ambitious college completion goals announced by President Obama at the beginning of his administration. But at the same time, many state governments,…

  18. Androgyny: A Goal for Counseling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1985-01-01

    Although psychological androgyny is a useful and attractive concept for many counselors, a review of the literature suggests that androgyny cannot now serve as a concrete goal for sex-role counseling. It may also pose its own problems for individuals. (Author)

  19. Health Education. Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This guide presents the common curriculm goals for health education developed by the Oregon State Department of Education. Four content strands--safe living, stressor/risk-taking management, physical fitness, and nutrition--are a synthesis of the traditional health education and health promotion objectives. Knowledge and skills objectives are…

  20. Before Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): why Nigeria failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

    PubMed

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000, which committed the nations of the world to a new global partnership, aimed at reducing extreme poverty and other time-bound targets, with a stated deadline of 2015. Fifteen years later, although significant progress has been made worldwide, Nigeria is lagging behind for a variety of reasons, including bureaucracy, poor resource management in the healthcare system, sequential healthcare worker industrial action, Boko Haram insurgency in the north of Nigeria and kidnappings in the south of Nigeria. The country needs to tackle these problems to be able to significantly advance with the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the 2030 target date.

  1. Before Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): why Nigeria failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

    PubMed Central

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000, which committed the nations of the world to a new global partnership, aimed at reducing extreme poverty and other time-bound targets, with a stated deadline of 2015. Fifteen years later, although significant progress has been made worldwide, Nigeria is lagging behind for a variety of reasons, including bureaucracy, poor resource management in the healthcare system, sequential healthcare worker industrial action, Boko Haram insurgency in the north of Nigeria and kidnappings in the south of Nigeria. The country needs to tackle these problems to be able to significantly advance with the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the 2030 target date. PMID:27795754

  2. Relative Contributions of Goal Representation and Kinematic Information to Self-Monitoring by Chimpanzees and Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Takaaki; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    It is important to monitor feedback related to the intended result of an action while executing that action. This monitoring process occurs hierarchically; that is, sensorimotor processing occurs at a lower level, and conceptual representation of action goals occurs at a higher level. Although the hierarchical nature of self-monitoring may derive…

  3. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  4. The Influence of Acceptance Goals on Relational Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Tyler, James M; Branch, Sara E

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether relational perceptions (social involvement, relational value, interaction experience) differ depending on interaction acceptance goals (establish, maintain, or repair). Results indicated that relational perceptions were more positive in the maintain condition compared to the establish condition, which in turn was more positive than the repair condition. The data also supported a moderated mediation model: the indirect effects of social involvement and relational value on the relationship between acceptance goals and participant's interaction experience were contingent on self-esteem. These findings identify boundary conditions that influence the impact of acceptance goals on how much people experience an interaction positively. The findings provide an integrated framework outlining the potential relationship between acceptance goals, relational perceptions, interaction experience, and self-esteem.

  5. Complementary actions.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person's movements, (ii) to predict another person's future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one's own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception-action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  6. Complementary actions

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person’s movements, (ii) to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions. PMID:25983717

  7. Neurocognitive mechanisms of action control: resisting the call of the Sirens.

    PubMed

    Richard Ridderinkhof, K; Forstmann, Birte U; Wylie, Scott A; Burle, Borís; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M

    2011-03-01

    An essential facet of adaptive and versatile behavior is the ability to prioritize actions in response to dynamically changing circumstances. The field of potential actions afforded by a situation is shaped by many factors, such as environmental demands, past experiences, and prepotent tendencies. Selection among action affordances can be driven by deliberate, intentional processes as a product of goal-directed behavior and by extraneous stimulus-action associations as established inherently or through learning. We first review the neurocognitive mechanisms putatively linked to these intention-driven and association-driven routes of action selection. Next, we review the neurocognitive mechanisms engaged to inhibit action affordances that are no longer relevant or that interfere with goal-directed action selection. Optimal action control is viewed as a dynamic interplay between selection and suppression mechanisms, which is achieved by an elaborate circuitry of interconnected cortical regions (most prominently the pre-supplementary motor area and the right inferior frontal cortex) and basal ganglia structures (most prominently the dorsal striatum and the subthalamic nucleus). WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 174-192 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.99 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  8. Consciousness, endogenous generation of goals and homeostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitolovsky, Lev E.

    2015-08-01

    Behaviour can be both unpredictable and goal directed, as animals act in correspondence with their motivation. Motivation arises when neurons in specific brain areas leave the state of homeostatic equilibrium and are injured. The basic goal of organisms and living cells is to maintain their life and their functional state is optimal if it does not lead to physiological damage. This can somehow be sensed by neurons and the occurrence of damage elicits homeostatic protection to recover excitability and the ability to produces spikes. It can be argued that the neuron's activity is guided on the scale of "damage-protection" and it behaves as an object possessing minimum awareness. The approach of death increases cellular efforts to operate. Thus, homeostasis may evidently produce both maintenance of life and will. The question is - how does homeostasis reach the optimum? We have no possibility of determining how the cell evaluates its own states, e.g. as "too little free energy" or in terms of "threat" to life. In any case, the approach of death increases cellular efforts to operate. For the outside observer, this is reminiscent of intentional action and a manifestation of will.

  9. Relations between Classroom Goal Structures and Students' Goal Orientations in Mathematics Classes: When Is a Mastery Goal Structure Adaptive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Federici, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test possible interactions between mastery and performance goal structures in mathematics classrooms when predicting students' goal orientations. More specifically, we tested if the degree of performance goal structure moderated the associations between mastery goal structure and students' goal orientations.…

  10. 75 FR 29947 - Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Goals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ...Section 1205 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (HERA) amended the Federal Home Loan Bank Act (Bank Act) by adding a new section 10C(a) that requires the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to establish housing goals with respect to the Federal Home Loan Banks' (Banks) purchase of mortgages, if any. Section 10C(b) provides that the Banks' housing goals are to be......

  11. Early Developments in Joint Action

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Celia A.

    2012-01-01

    Joint action, critical to human social interaction and communication, has garnered increasing scholarly attention in many areas of inquiry, yet its development remains little explored. This paper reviews research on the growth of joint action over the first 2 years of life to show how children become progressively more able to engage deliberately, autonomously, and flexibly in joint action with adults and peers. It is suggested that a key mechanism underlying the dramatic changes in joint action over the second year of life is the ability to reflect consciously on oneself and one’s behavior and volition and correspondingly, on the behavior, goals, and intentions of others. PMID:23087769

  12. Social Action As An Objective of Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charles K.

    This paper presents a rationale for making social action a major goal of elementary and secondary school social studies education. In addition, it describes social action models, suggests social action approaches appropriate for students at various grade levels, and reviews literature on social action by public school students. Social action is…

  13. A Closer Look at the Effects of Repeated Cocaine Exposure on Adaptive Decision-Making under Conditions That Promote Goal-Directed Control

    PubMed Central

    Halbout, Briac; Liu, Angela T.; Ostlund, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that compulsive drug seeking reflects an underlying dysregulation in adaptive behavior that favors habitual (automatic and inflexible) over goal-directed (deliberative and highly flexible) action selection. Rodent studies have established that repeated exposure to cocaine or amphetamine facilitates the development of habits, producing behavior that becomes unusually insensitive to a reduction in the value of its outcome. The current study more directly investigated the effects of cocaine pre-exposure on goal-directed learning and action selection using an approach that discourages habitual performance. After undergoing a 15-day series of cocaine (15 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline injections and a drug withdrawal period, rats were trained to perform two different lever-press actions for distinct reward options. During a subsequent outcome devaluation test, both cocaine- and saline-treated rats showed a robust bias in their choice between the two actions, preferring whichever action had been trained with the reward that retained its value. Thus, it appears that the tendency for repeated cocaine exposure to promote habit formation does not extend to a more complex behavioral scenario that encourages goal-directed control. To further explore this issue, we assessed how prior cocaine treatment would affect the rats’ ability to learn about a selective reduction in the predictive relationship between one of the two actions and its outcome, which is another fundamental feature of goal-directed behavior. Interestingly, we found that cocaine-treated rats showed enhanced, rather than diminished, sensitivity to this action–outcome contingency degradation manipulation. Given their mutual dependence on striatal dopamine signaling, we suggest that cocaine’s effects on habit formation and contingency learning may stem from a common adaptation in this neurochemical system. PMID:27047400

  14. 78 FR 67296 - Establishment of Class D Airspace; Mesquite, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class D Airspace; Mesquite, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class D... establish Class D airspace for Mesquite Metro Airport, Mesquite, TX (78 FR 48842) Docket No. FAA-2012-...

  15. 77 FR 45240 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quakertown, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quakertown, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace...

  16. 75 FR 65226 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC (75 FR 52654)...

  17. 77 FR 1012 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Inverness, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Inverness, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at...

  18. 76 FR 9220 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Martinsville, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Martinsville, IN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace for Martinsville,...

  19. 78 FR 18801 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Beeville, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Beeville, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace at Chase...

  20. 78 FR 61179 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Comanche, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Comanche, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... established for the airport in 2006, but the Class E airspace area to contain it was never...

  1. 77 FR 16669 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bellefonte, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bellefonte, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace 700 feet above...

  2. 76 FR 16530 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Creighton, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Creighton, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace for Creighton, NE,...

  3. 78 FR 48302 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wagner, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wagner, SD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace for the Wagner,...

  4. 78 FR 48300 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mahnomen, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mahnomen, MN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace...

  5. 77 FR 45241 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Apopka, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Apopka, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace...

  6. 78 FR 48301 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walker, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walker, MN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace for the Walker,...

  7. The interaction between dietary and life goals: using goal systems theory to explore healthy diet and life goals.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wright, Julie A; Migneault, Jeffrey P; Quintiliani, Lisa; Friedman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the types of life and dietary goals individuals report and how these goal domains interact as framed by goal systems theory. Methods: This work is a cross-sectional survey study. Measures included the incidence of common life and dietary goals and how these goals interact with and facilitate each other. Results: The results of a quantitative survey (n = 46 participants), which was informed by two focus groups (n = 17 participants), showed that participants are trying to achieve several different life (e.g. achieving financial success) and dietary goals (e.g. eating more fruits and vegetables, drinking more water, and losing weight) and that these two types of goals interact to both facilitate and conflict with each other. Having a life goal of exercising was significantly associated with healthy eating goals when compared with other life goals (p's < .05), suggesting these goals may be linked and help to facilitate one another. Being in the maintenance phase with the goal of healthy eating was associated with participants feeling like they were more successful in their other non-diet-related health goals (p < .05), suggesting maintenance of goals can facilitate success in achieving other goals. Conclusions: Life goals can have an impact on a person's ability to achieve and maintain dietary and other health goals. Health educators may help to facilitate long-term behavior change by examining a person's life goals as well as dietary goals.

  8. The interaction between dietary and life goals: using goal systems theory to explore healthy diet and life goals

    PubMed Central

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Wright, Julie A.; Migneault, Jeffrey P.; Quintiliani, Lisa; Friedman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the types of life and dietary goals individuals report and how these goal domains interact as framed by goal systems theory. Methods: This work is a cross-sectional survey study. Measures included the incidence of common life and dietary goals and how these goals interact with and facilitate each other. Results: The results of a quantitative survey (n = 46 participants), which was informed by two focus groups (n = 17 participants), showed that participants are trying to achieve several different life (e.g. achieving financial success) and dietary goals (e.g. eating more fruits and vegetables, drinking more water, and losing weight) and that these two types of goals interact to both facilitate and conflict with each other. Having a life goal of exercising was significantly associated with healthy eating goals when compared with other life goals (p's < .05), suggesting these goals may be linked and help to facilitate one another. Being in the maintenance phase with the goal of healthy eating was associated with participants feeling like they were more successful in their other non-diet-related health goals (p < .05), suggesting maintenance of goals can facilitate success in achieving other goals. Conclusions: Life goals can have an impact on a person's ability to achieve and maintain dietary and other health goals. Health educators may help to facilitate long-term behavior change by examining a person's life goals as well as dietary goals. PMID:25750817

  9. Adolescent Students' Multiple Goals in Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chi-hung

    Researchers in goal orientation studies have successfully demonstrated the distinct effects of two separate single learning goals, mastery and performance goal. To advance the understanding of learning goals, a new research direction should be geared towards exploring the notion of multiple goals. Recent work in the field has also called for the…

  10. Affirmative Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    In order to develop an affirmative action plan at Triton College, the college President appointed a committee made up of nine representatives from the various college constituencies, the majority of which were women and minorities, to determine the objectives to be achieved and how to implement them, and to establish appropriate review procedures.…

  11. Youth Engaged for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Margaret; Little, Priscilla

    2005-01-01

    This article examines how out-of-school time programs can promote youth involvement in civic action by focusing on four interrelated programmatic strategies: establishing organizational readiness that fosters engagement; promoting youth-adult partnerships; engaging youth as leaders and decision makers; and involving youth in research and…

  12. Preparing Teachers to Create a Mainstream Science Classroom Conducive to the Needs of English-Language Learners: A Feminist Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Gayle; Mast, Colette; Ehlers, Nancy; Franklin, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    A feminist action research team, which consisted of a science educator, an English-language learner (ELL) educator, a first-year science teacher, and a graduate assistant, set a goal to work together to explore the process a beginning teacher goes through to establish a classroom conducive to the needs of middle-level ELL learners. The guiding…

  13. Everyday robotic action: lessons from human action control

    PubMed Central

    de Kleijn, Roy; Kachergis, George; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations. PMID:24672474

  14. Everyday robotic action: lessons from human action control.

    PubMed

    de Kleijn, Roy; Kachergis, George; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations.

  15. Zeroing in on a new goal

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, K.A.

    1997-05-01

    A recent survey by Resource Services (Atlanta) showed that Georgia had a 32.6% recycling rate, which would catapult the state into the top 10 states in terms of recycling rates. Although these claims have since been disputed by certain environmental and recycling advocacy groups, arguably the state has taken important steps to increase its recycling levels. While recycling has become a growing presence in the home, at the curb, and in the office, another place where recycling has been thrust into the forefront is the Georgia state house in Atlanta. One state legislator in particular, Sen. Donzella James (D), has introduced a spate of recycling-related legislation that could change the face of solid waste management in Georgia. James introduced far-reaching legislation that would establish an ambitious goal of zero waste by the year 2020. The bill is in part a response to the state`s failure to meet a 25% waste diversion goal set in 1992. The bill mandates a graduated reduction in municipal solid waste, with a 25% diversion by 2002 and a 50% diversion by 2007, with total diversion by 2020.

  16. Long-term goals for solar thermal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document describes long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of $0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.

  17. Long-term goals for solar thermal technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. A.; Dirks, J. A.; Brown, D. R.

    1985-05-01

    Long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies are discussed. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of 0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.

  18. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings…

  19. The polio eradication campaign: time to shift the goal.

    PubMed

    Baron, Emmanuel; Magone, Claire

    2014-03-01

    The social rejection of the polio eradication campaign in endemic countries challenges an assumption underlying the goal itself: the full compliance of an entire population to a public health programme. The polio campaign, which has been an extraordinary public health enterprise, is at risk of becoming irremediably unpopular if the eradication goal is pursued at all costs. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) should not be driven by the fear of failure, because the greatest benefit of the polio campaign is that it has demonstrated how simple, community-wide actions can contribute to a dramatic decrease in the incidence of a disease.

  20. The minimalist grammar of action

    PubMed Central

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

  1. Technology assessment and citizen action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottur, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Citizen participation in the nation's total social, political, economic decisionmaking processes was studied. Impediments are discussed which prevent citizens from taking effective assessment action; these include finance, organization and motivation, and information. The proposal for establishing citizens assessment associations is considered along with implications of citizen assessment action.

  2. A Bayesian Developmental Approach to Robotic Goal-Based Imitation Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Michael Jae-Yoon; Friesen, Abram L.; Fox, Dieter; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Rao, Rajesh P. N.

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in robotics today is building robots that can learn new skills by observing humans and imitating human actions. We propose a new Bayesian approach to robotic learning by imitation inspired by the developmental hypothesis that children use self-experience to bootstrap the process of intention recognition and goal-based imitation. Our approach allows an autonomous agent to: (i) learn probabilistic models of actions through self-discovery and experience, (ii) utilize these learned models for inferring the goals of human actions, and (iii) perform goal-based imitation for robotic learning and human-robot collaboration. Such an approach allows a robot to leverage its increasing repertoire of learned behaviors to interpret increasingly complex human actions and use the inferred goals for imitation, even when the robot has very different actuators from humans. We demonstrate our approach using two different scenarios: (i) a simulated robot that learns human-like gaze following behavior, and (ii) a robot that learns to imitate human actions in a tabletop organization task. In both cases, the agent learns a probabilistic model of its own actions, and uses this model for goal inference and goal-based imitation. We also show that the robotic agent can use its probabilistic model to seek human assistance when it recognizes that its inferred actions are too uncertain, risky, or impossible to perform, thereby opening the door to human-robot collaboration. PMID:26536366

  3. A Bayesian Developmental Approach to Robotic Goal-Based Imitation Learning.

    PubMed

    Chung, Michael Jae-Yoon; Friesen, Abram L; Fox, Dieter; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Rao, Rajesh P N

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in robotics today is building robots that can learn new skills by observing humans and imitating human actions. We propose a new Bayesian approach to robotic learning by imitation inspired by the developmental hypothesis that children use self-experience to bootstrap the process of intention recognition and goal-based imitation. Our approach allows an autonomous agent to: (i) learn probabilistic models of actions through self-discovery and experience, (ii) utilize these learned models for inferring the goals of human actions, and (iii) perform goal-based imitation for robotic learning and human-robot collaboration. Such an approach allows a robot to leverage its increasing repertoire of learned behaviors to interpret increasingly complex human actions and use the inferred goals for imitation, even when the robot has very different actuators from humans. We demonstrate our approach using two different scenarios: (i) a simulated robot that learns human-like gaze following behavior, and (ii) a robot that learns to imitate human actions in a tabletop organization task. In both cases, the agent learns a probabilistic model of its own actions, and uses this model for goal inference and goal-based imitation. We also show that the robotic agent can use its probabilistic model to seek human assistance when it recognizes that its inferred actions are too uncertain, risky, or impossible to perform, thereby opening the door to human-robot collaboration.

  4. Goal Fluency, Pessimism and Disengagement in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Joanne M.; Moberly, Nicholas J.; O’Dea, Christian; Field, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of prominent theoretical models of goal motivation and its importance in daily life, research has rarely examined goal dysregulation processes in clinical depression. Here we aimed to investigate problematic aspects of goal regulation in clinically depressed adults, relative to controls. Depressed participants (n = 42) were recruited from two Improving Access to Psychological Therapy clinics in north-west England. Control participants (n = 51) were recruited from the same region. Participants generated personal approach goals (e.g., improve my marathon time) and avoidance goals (e.g., avoid getting upset over little things) and completed self-report measures of goal attainment likelihood and depressive symptoms. Participants also completed a measure of ease of disengagement from unattainable goals and re-engagement with new goals. Compared to controls, depressed participants reported fewer approach goals (but not more avoidance goals), rated their approach goal (rewarding) outcomes as less likely to happen and avoidance goal (threatening) outcomes as more likely to happen. Depressed participants also reported greater ease of disengagement from unattainable goals and more difficulty re-engaging with new goals than controls. Our findings extend current knowledge of the psychopathology of depression from a goal regulation perspective, suggesting that pessimism around goal pursuit accompanies fewer approach goal pursuits and a general tendency to disengage when difficulties are encountered. PMID:27902708

  5. Individualized Teacher Training for Mainstreaming Using a Computer Assisted Goal Setting Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Terry Lee

    The paper describes The Individualized Training Plans-Goal Setting Procedure (ITP) in which students training to be special education teachers interact with a computer in an individualized session to establish a prioritized set of training goals. The model is discussed, and four phases (relevance of each goal area, performance expectations and…

  6. Preparing the Principal to Drive the Goals of Education for All: A Conceptual Case Developmental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Disraeli M.

    2014-01-01

    The Education for All (EFA) goals, established for countries to improve educational performance, are most challenging for many developing countries. Notwithstanding the challenges, each country must implement suitable programme intervention in order to accomplish these goals. Goal 6 calls for the overall improvement of the education product, which…

  7. The Relationship between Goal Setting and Students' Experience of Academic Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Michael J.; Putwain, David W.; Caltabiano, Marie L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have established that higher test anxiety (TA) is related to achievement goals with an avoidance valence. However, comprehensive empirical examination of relations between the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals (self, task, and other-referenced goals along an approach-avoidance dimension) and test anxiety has yet…

  8. Update on the National Patient Safety Goals--changes for 2005.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Kathleen

    2005-02-01

    Each year sice 2003, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations has established National Patient Safety Goals for accredited health care organizations. The goals are developed to promote improvement in patient safety by helping health care organizations address specific safety concerns. This article discusses the current goals and highlights new information for 2005.

  9. The Goal Wheel: Adapting Navajo Philosophy and the Medicine Wheel to Work with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Holly; Bruce, Mary Alice; Stellern, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a group counseling model that is based on the indigenous medicine wheel as well as Navajo philosophy by which to help troubled adolescents restore harmony and balance in their lives, through establishing goals and sequential steps to accomplish these goals. The authors call this model the Goal Wheel. A…

  10. Setting goals for cognitive rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Robertson, I H

    1999-12-01

    Evidence for experience-dependent plasticity of the brain, including cell regeneration, means that rehabilitation can aim at reinstituting impaired cognitive function, as well as at training compensatory strategies for the lost function. New theoretical frameworks make predictions regarding the circumstances under which these two approaches should each be attempted. There has been progress over the past 6 years in designing effective rehabilitation strategies, with more of these having a strong theoretical basis in cognitive neuroscience. Basic cognitive science has generated counter-intuitive, but effective cognitive rehabilitation methods, showing that the goal of rehabilitation need not always be the most obvious one dictated by real life performance. Limb Activation Training for unilateral neglect is an example of a theoretically derived cognitive rehabilitation procedure that has now been clinically evaluated in clinical trials.

  11. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  12. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Request

    SciTech Connect

    L. Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  13. Habits, action sequences, and reinforcement learning

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquire and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions. PMID:22487034

  14. Habits, action sequences and reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W

    2012-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquired and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary, and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions.

  15. 75 FR 55891 - 2010-2011 Enterprise Housing Goals; Enterprise Book-entry Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... whether there should be housing goals established for mortgages secured by small multifamily properties..., and urged FHFA to also establish small multifamily housing goals. The commenters stated that the small... commenters, including both Enterprises, stated that reporting on small multifamily properties was...

  16. Diversity Education Goals in Higher Education: A Policy Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Stuart Glen

    2013-01-01

    Many colleges and universities have established student learning outcomes for diversity education as a part of their broad undergraduate education program. These education goals, developed for assessment purposes or other policies, reflect a range of possible diversity and multicultural learning purposes. The emphasis on some purposes, and the…

  17. Sexual Well-Being: A Goal for Young Blind Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Jan

    1983-01-01

    The article discusses developing sexuality and sexual awareness, with special reference to blind girls, and emphasizes the importance of establishing a sense of identity, individual and sexual, and structuring one's sexual growth by a conscious process of goal setting and achievement. (Author/CL)

  18. The Assembly on University Goals and Governance. A First Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston, MA.

    The Assembly on University Goals and Governance was established by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in September 1969 to explore, develop, and help implement alternative approaches for resolving certain of the issues affecting colleges and universities today. This report presents the 85 theses that were developed by the Assembly. The…

  19. A Fan Concept to Meet the 2017 Noise Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has established a goal of a 20 EPNdB reduction of aircraft noise by the year 2017. This paper proposes a fan concept for an engine that may meet this noise goal. The concept builds upon technology established during the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program which should show a 10 dB reduction potential. The new concept uses a two stage fan which allows low tip speed while still maintaining a reasonable total pressure rise across the two stages. The concept also incorporates many other noise reduction techniques in addition to low tip speed including a low number of exit guide vanes, swept and leaned guide vanes, a high subsonic Mach number inlet and syncrophased rotors to obtain active noise cancellation. The fan proposed in this paper is calculated to be able to achieve the 2017 noise goal.

  20. Rehabilitation Goals: Their Hierarchical and Multifaceted Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livneh, Hanoch

    1988-01-01

    Rehabilitation goals are analyzed from a hierarchical, multifaceted perspective, illustrating reduction of the ultimate goal of life adjustment to smaller goals. Addressed are: the contexts within which rehabilitation takes place, the activity levels defining human performance, and the functional levels achieved. A matrix of 12 sets of goals is…

  1. The conscious roots of selfless, unconscious goals.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Gordon B; Balcetis, Emily

    2014-04-01

    We counter Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) metaphoric description of the unconscious, selfish goal on three points. First, we argue, unconscious goals are rooted in conscious choices related to well-being. Second, unconscious goal pursuit occurs through early-stage orienting mechanisms that promote individuals' well-being. Third, unconscious goals work selflessly, resulting in their own demise.

  2. Guidelines for Movable Soccer Goal Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    This handbook presents guidelines for the installation, use, and storage of full-size or nearly full-size movable soccer goals to help prevent deaths and serious injuries from soccer goal tipover. The guide first reviews soccer goal injuries and deaths occurring in the United States and briefly examines the soccer rules associated with goals. It…

  3. Social Goals and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.

    2017-01-01

    Students have various social reasons for doing well in school (social-academic goals). However, most studies have focused on competence-oriented achievement goals with little attention paid to social-academic goals. This study aims to examine the role of social-academic goals in students' general well-being (Study 1) and socioemotional functioning…

  4. Taking credit for success: the phenomenology of control in a goal-directed task.

    PubMed

    Dewey, John A; Seiffert, Adriane E; Carr, Thomas H

    2010-03-01

    We studied how people determine when they are in control of objects. In a computer task, participants moved a virtual boat towards a goal using a joystick to investigate how subjective control is shaped by (1) correspondence between motor actions and the visual consequences of those actions, and (2) attainment of higher-level goals. In Experiment 1, random discrepancies from joystick input (noise) decreased judgments of control (JoCs), but discrepancies that brought the boat closer to the goal and increased success (the autopilot) increased JoCs. In Experiment 2, participants raced to the goal against a computer-controlled rival boat while varying levels of noise interfered with each boat. Participants reached the goal more often and rated their own control higher when the computer rival had good control. Subjective control over moving objects depends partly on consistency between motor actions and their effects, but is also modulated by perceived success and competition.

  5. Social Science, Equity and the Sustainable Development Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liverman, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals are underpinned by a committment to a world that is just, equitable, inclusive and environmentally sustainable and include goals of ending poverty and hunger; universal access to health, education, water, sanitation, energy and decent work; and reducing the risks and impacts of climate change, biodiversity loss, and marine, forest and land degradation. They seek to reduce inequality between and within countries and achieve gender equality. The SDGs build on the apparent success in meeting many of the Millenium Development Goals, including those of reducing poverty, hunger and debt and providing access to water. The science needed to achieve and monitor most of these goals is social science - an area of scholarship that is traditionally undervalued, underfunded, underepresented misunderstood and lacking in detailed data. This paper will provide an overview of the social science that is needed to support the Sustainable Development Goals, with a particular focus on the challenges of monitoring social data over time and within countries, the importance of research design, and of building capacity and credibility in the social sciences. As an example, the paper will discuss the social science that will be needed to achieve Goal 13: Take urgent actions to combat climate change and its impacts, and measuring targets such as strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity, and raising capacities of women, youth, and marginalized communities to manage and respond climate change.

  6. 24 CFR 25.9 - Notice of administrative action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... establish the mortgagee's receipt of the notice. (b) In actions for probation, suspension, or withdrawal... state the reasons for the action. In actions for probation, suspension, or withdrawal, the notice...

  7. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops.

  8. A RE-LOOK AT THE US NRC SAFETY GOALS

    SciTech Connect

    mubayi v.

    2013-09-22

    Since they were adopted in 1986, the US NRC’s Safety Goals have played a valuable role as a de facto risk acceptance criterion against which the predicted performance of a commercial nuclear power reactor can be evaluated and assessed. The current safety goals are cast in terms of risk metrics called quantitative health objectives (QHOs), limiting numerical values of the risks of the early and latent health effects of accidental releases of radioactivity to the offsite population. However, while demonstrating compliance with current safety goals has been an important step in assessing the acceptance of the risk posed by LWRs, new or somewhat different goals may be needed that go beyond the current early fatality and latent cancer fatality QHOs in assessing reactor risk. Natural phenomena such as hurricanes seem to be suitable candidates for establishing a background rate to derive a risk goal as their order of magnitude cost of damages is similar to those estimated in severe accident Level 3 PRAs done for nuclear power plants. This paper obtains a risk goal that could have a wider applicability, compared to the current QHOs, as a technology-neutral goal applicable to future reactors and multi-unit sites.

  9. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  10. Action perception predicts action performance.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system.

  11. A daily-life-oriented intervention to improve prospective memory and goal-directed behaviour in ageing: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Burkard, Christina; Rochat, Lucien; Blum, Anaëlle; Emmenegger, Joëlle; Juillerat Van der Linden, Anne-Claude; Van der Linden, Martial

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in the execution of goal-directed behaviours, and particularly their prospective memory component, can arise in ageing and have important consequences for autonomy. The first objective of this article is to present an intervention that trained older individuals who reported prospective memory or goal-directed behaviour problems to use "implementation intentions". This technique, which has been shown to improve different aspects of goal-directed behaviour enactment, consists of establishing a mental (verbal and/or visual) link between the action that must be performed and the situation in which it must be performed. Our programme proposes exercises of progressively increasing difficulty that are targeted at daily life situations. Our second objective was to test the programme in small groups of older adults. Preliminary data regarding the programme's feasibility and its initial efficacy show a significant improvement in the main outcome measure, a questionnaire assessing goal-directed behaviours in everyday life. The participants also reported being significantly less bothered by their difficulties, although there were no significant changes in quality of life, self-esteem, anxiety or depression. Two participants with different psychological profiles, who benefited differently from the intervention, are then presented in more detail.

  12. Fourth goal of perinatal medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ounsted, C; Roberts, J C; Gordon, M; Milligan, B

    1982-01-01

    Reduction in maternal mortality, infant mortality, and infant morbidity have been successively the goals of perinatal medicine. The fourth is to reduce bonding failure. In July 1978 a preventive service was started in the John Radcliffe Maternity Hospital. A twice-weekly round is made. Midwives refer families who cause them concern. In the first year the referral rate ws 20.5 per 1000 liveborn babies. The referred sample differed from the hospital population in terms of maternal psychiatric history, marital state and babies' admission to special care. The main reasons for referral were: doubt about parenting ability (27%), psychiatric history (15%), disturbed behaviour in hospital (14%), and diffuse social and medical problems (17%). Long-term care was needed for only 14% of families. At their first birthdays, six babies were placed away from their natural parents; the sample had had a slightly higher than expected admission rate to hospital; the distribution of weights did not differ from the expected; doctors and health visitors were still concerned about one-quarter of the families. Seven cases of screening failure were found among those not referred to our service, but only one was seriously abused. No child referred in the first year has been seriously neglected or abused. PMID:6802338

  13. Goal-based dictator game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Ibrahim, Adyda; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2014-12-01

    A considerable number of studies have been conducted to study fairness issues using two-player game. Dictator Game is one of the two-player games that receive much attention. In this paper, we develop an evolutionary approach to the Dictator Game by using Goal programming to build a model of human decision-making for cooperation. The model is formulated based on the theories of cognitive neuroscience that is capable in capturing a more realistic fairness concerns between players in the games. We show that fairness will evolve by taking into account players' aspirations and preferences explicitly in terms of profit and fairness concerns. The model is then simulated to investigate any possible effective strategy for people in economics to deal with fairness coalition. Parallels are drawn between the approach and concepts of human decision making from the field of cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The proposed model is also able to help decision makers to plan or enhance the effective strategies for business purposes.

  14. Atypical monitoring and responsiveness to goal-directed gaze in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Trembath, David; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-02-01

    We hypothesized that difficulty in understanding the goals of others' actions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) might be linked to a diminished attention and responsivity to relevant social cues. Using an eye-tracking paradigm, we investigated how 24 children with ASD and 24 matched children without ASD responded to the observation of uncompleted actions without a clear target (neutral condition) versus a condition in which the actor's gaze direction indicated the target of the actions (head-turning condition). Children without ASD significantly increased their attention to the actor's face and to the action's target in the head-turning condition compared to the neutral condition, while this was not the case in the ASD group. Overall, our findings suggest a diminished monitoring and responsivity to social cues signalling goal-directedness, which might impact on the ability to understand other's action goals in young children with ASD.

  15. Impaired goal-directed behavioural control in human impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, Lee; Chase, Henry W.; Baess, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Two dissociable learning processes underlie instrumental behaviour. Whereas goal-directed behaviour is controlled by knowledge of the consequences, habitual behaviour is elicited directly by antecedent Pavlovian stimuli without knowledge of the consequences. Predominance of habitual control is thought to underlie psychopathological conditions associated with corticostriatal abnormalities, such as impulsivity and drug dependence. To explore this claim, smokers were assessed for nicotine dependence, impulsivity, and capacity for goal-directed control over instrumental performance in an outcome devaluation procedure. Reduced goal-directed control was selectively associated with the Motor Impulsivity factor of Barrett's Impulsivity Scale (BIS), which reflects propensity for action without thought. These data support the claim that human impulsivity is marked by impaired use of causal knowledge to make adaptive decisions. The predominance of habit learning may play a role in psychopathological conditions that are associated with trait impulsivity. PMID:21077008

  16. Great apes infer others' goals based on context.

    PubMed

    Buttelmann, David; Schütte, Sebastian; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-11-01

    In previous studies claiming to demonstrate that great apes understand the goals of others, the apes could potentially have been using subtle behavioral cues present during the test to succeed. In the current studies, we ruled out the use of such cues by making the behavior of the experimenter identical in the test phase of both the experimental and control conditions; the only difference was the preceding "context." In the first study, apes interpreted a human's ambiguous action as having the underlying goal of opening a box, or not, based on that human's previous actions with similar boxes. In the second study, chimpanzees learned that when a human stood up she was going to go get food for them, but when a novel, unexpected event happened, they changed their expectation-presumably based on their understanding that this new event led the human to change her goal. These studies suggest that great apes do not need concurrent behavioral cues to infer others' goals, but can do so from a variety of different types of cues-even cues displaced in time.

  17. Semigroup Actions of Expanding Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Maria; Rodrigues, Fagner B.; Varandas, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    We consider semigroups of Ruelle-expanding maps, parameterized by random walks on the free semigroup, with the aim of examining their complexity and exploring the relation between intrinsic properties of the semigroup action and the thermodynamic formalism of the associated skew-product. In particular, we clarify the connection between the topological entropy of the semigroup action and the growth rate of the periodic points, establish the main properties of the dynamical zeta function of the semigroup action and relate these notions to recent research on annealed and quenched thermodynamic formalism. Meanwhile, we examine how the choice of the random walk in the semigroup unsettles the ergodic properties of the action.

  18. The unconscious will: how the pursuit of goals operates outside of conscious awareness.

    PubMed

    Custers, Ruud; Aarts, Henk

    2010-07-02

    People often act in order to realize desired outcomes, or goals. Although behavioral science recognizes that people can skillfully pursue goals without consciously attending to their behavior once these goals are set, conscious will is considered to be the starting point of goal pursuit. Indeed, when we decide to work hard on a task, it feels as if that conscious decision is the first and foremost cause of our behavior. That is, we are likely to say, if asked, that the decision to act produced the actions themselves. Recent discoveries, however, challenge this causal status of conscious will. They demonstrate that under some conditions, actions are initiated even though we are unconscious of the goals to be attained or their motivating effect on our behavior. Here we analyze how goal pursuit can possibly operate unconsciously.

  19. Comparative study of goal contents and goal characteristics between medical and business students

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soowon; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jun-Young; Shin, Jongho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Medical and business are one of the most popular majors among students, and both fields require intensive training to reach certain level of expertise. During the development of professionalism, goal can become a crucial role in psychological impetus. The purpose of this study is to compare goal contents, goal characteristics, and effect of goal characteristics on student’s major satisfaction between medical and business. Methods: A total of 193 undergraduate students (97 medical students, 96 business students) answered survey questions including goal contents, goal characteristics (goal autonomy, goal attainability, social value of goal) and satisfaction on their majors. Qualitative analysis of goal contents and quantitative analysis of goal characteristics, and their effects on student major satisfaction were performed. Results: Goal content analysis showed percentage of social concern goal was higher in medical students (25.8%) than business students (6.3%), whereas percentage of wealth goal was higher business students (24.0%) than medical students (3.1%). Among goal characteristics, goal attainability and social value of goal were higher in medical students than business students. In both groups, social value of goal was significantly predict major satisfaction. Conclusion: Goal contents and goal characteristics are different between medical and business students. Curriculum and educational interventions that concerning students’ goal and developing programs to enhance students’ social value of goal is necessary. PMID:26838564

  20. Scientific goals of SCHOOLS & QUAKES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückl, Ewald; Köberl, Christian; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mertl, Stefan; Rafeiner-Magor, Walter; Stark, Angelika; Stickler, Gerald; Weber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In many countries around the world seismometers are used in schools to broaden the knowledge in seismology in a vivid way and to take part in the observation of the current worldwide seismic activity. SCHOOLS & QUAKES is a project within the Sparkling Science program (http://www.sparklingscience.at), which not only pursues the given educational goals but also integrates scholars in seismological research permitting their own contributions. Research within SCHOOLS & QUAKES concentrates on the seismic activity of the Mürz Valley - Semmering - Vienna Basin transfer fault system in Austria because of its relatively high earthquake hazard and risk. The detection of low magnitude local earthquakes (magnitude ≤ 2), precise location of hypocenters, determination of the focal mechanisms, and correlation of hypocenters with active geological structures are the main scientific goals in this project. Furthermore, the long term build-up of tectonic stress, slip deficit and aseismic slip, and the maximum credible earthquake in this area are issues to be addressed. The scientific efforts of SCHOOLS & QUAKES build on the work of the Seismological Service of Austria at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG), and benefit from the findings on the lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps gained by the CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002 projects. Regional Vp and Vs-models were derived from this data covering the SCHOOLS & QUAKES target area. Within the ALPAACT project (Seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) the seismic network of the target area was densified by 7 broadband und 2 short period stations. Relocations based on a 3D-velocity model and the densified seismic network yielded substantially higher spatial resolution of seismically active structures. A new method based on waveform stacking (GRA, 16, EGU2014-5722) allowed for focal mechanism solutions of low magnitude (Ml ~2.5) events. Data from 22 GNSS stations have been

  1. Get a taste of your goals: promoting motive-goal congruence through affect-focus goal fantasy.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Brandstätter, Veronika

    2009-10-01

    Studies show that motive-goal congruence is an important predictor of well-being (Baumann, Kaschel, & Kuhl, 2005; Brunstein, Schultheiss, & Grässmann, 1998). However, little is known about the factors that promote congruence between implicit motives and goals. Relying on McClelland's (1985) concept of implicit motives and the theory of fantasy realization (Oettingen, 1999), we postulated that goal fantasies focusing on motive-specific affective incentives promote motive-congruent goal setting. This hypothesis was tested in 3 experimental studies. In Study 1 (n=46) and Study 2 (n=48), participants were asked to select goals in a hypothetical scenario. In Study 3 (n=179), they rated their commitment to personal goals for their actual life situation. The results of all 3 studies supported our hypothesis that participants who focus on motive-specific affective incentives in their goal fantasies set their goals in line with their corresponding implicit motive dispositions.

  2. Goal-directed learning of features and forward models.

    PubMed

    Saeb, Sohrab; Weber, Cornelius; Triesch, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    The brain is able to perform actions based on an adequate internal representation of the world, where task-irrelevant features are ignored and incomplete sensory data are estimated. Traditionally, it is assumed that such abstract state representations are obtained purely from the statistics of sensory input for example by unsupervised learning methods. However, more recent findings suggest an influence of the dopaminergic system, which can be modeled by a reinforcement learning approach. Standard reinforcement learning algorithms act on a single layer network connecting the state space to the action space. Here, we involve in a feature detection stage and a memory layer, which together, construct the state space for a learning agent. The memory layer consists of the state activation at the previous time step as well as the previously chosen action. We present a temporal difference based learning rule for training the weights from these additional inputs to the state layer. As a result, the performance of the network is maintained both, in the presence of task-irrelevant features, and at randomly occurring time steps during which the input is invisible. Interestingly, a goal-directed forward model emerges from the memory weights, which only covers the state-action pairs that are relevant to the task. The model presents a link between reinforcement learning, feature detection and forward models and may help to explain how reward systems recruit cortical circuits for goal-directed feature detection and prediction.

  3. Student Expectations, University Goals: Looking for Alignment in General Education Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    This action research dissertation explores the alignment of university goals, faculty practice, and student expectations for general education natural science courses as a first step to understanding how best to restructure the program to ensure that students are learning in alignment with university stated goals for this aspect of their…

  4. Emotion, Intent and Voluntary Movement in Children with Autism. an Example: The Goal Directed Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longuet, Sophie; Ferrel-Chapus, Carole; Oreve, Marie-Joelle; Chamot, Jean-Marc; Vernazza-Martin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of intentionality on goal directed locomotion in healthy and autistic children. Closely linked with emotions and motivation, it is directly connected with movement planning. Is planning only preserved when the goal of the action appears motivating for healthy and autistic children? Is movement programming similar…

  5. 3RS action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Solid Waste Interim Steering Committee (SWISC) process is to develop a long-term waste management system for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), to be in place by 1996, which is environmentally, socially, economically and technically sound. This background report is being released to the public and member Regional Councils to facilitate input to the SWISC planning process. The report documents current reduction, reuse and recycling initiatives in the GTA, identifies opportunities for coordination and collaboration among the GTA communities, and develops an action plan for improving the effectiveness of the reduction, reuse and recycling efforts within the GTA.

  6. Habits as action sequences: hierarchical action control and changes in outcome value

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Lingawi, Nura W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed action involves making high-level choices that are implemented using previously acquired action sequences to attain desired goals. Such a hierarchical schema is necessary for goal-directed actions to be scalable to real-life situations, but results in decision-making that is less flexible than when action sequences are unfolded and the decision-maker deliberates step-by-step over the outcome of each individual action. In particular, from this perspective, the offline revaluation of any outcomes that fall within action sequence boundaries will be invisible to the high-level planner resulting in decisions that are insensitive to such changes. Here, within the context of a two-stage decision-making task, we demonstrate that this property can explain the emergence of habits. Next, we show how this hierarchical account explains the insensitivity of over-trained actions to changes in outcome value. Finally, we provide new data that show that, under extended extinction conditions, habitual behaviour can revert to goal-directed control, presumably as a consequence of decomposing action sequences into single actions. This hierarchical view suggests that the development of action sequences and the insensitivity of actions to changes in outcome value are essentially two sides of the same coin, explaining why these two aspects of automatic behaviour involve a shared neural structure. PMID:25267824

  7. A Metadata Action Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The data management problem comprises data processing and data tracking. Data processing is the creation of new data based on existing data sources. Data tracking consists of storing metadata descriptions of available data. This paper addresses the data management problem by casting it as an AI planning problem. Actions are data-processing commands, plans are dataflow programs and goals are metadata descriptions of desired data products. Data manipulation is simply plan generation and execution, and a key component of data tracking is inferring the effects of an observed plan. We introduce a new action language for data management domains, called ADILM. We discuss the connection between data processing and information integration and show how a language for the latter must be modified to support the former. The paper also discusses information gathering within a data-processing framework, and show how ADILM metadata expressions are a generalization of Local Completeness.

  8. 76 FR 80232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oneonta, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Airspace; Oneonta, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E Airspace at Oneonta, AL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... establish Class E airspace at Oneonta, AL (76 FR 58728) Docket No. FAA-2011-0744. Interested parties...

  9. 78 FR 18802 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tecumseh, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tecumseh, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Tecumseh,...

  10. Three-Month-Old infants Attribute Goals to a Non-Human Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan

    2011-01-01

    The present research examined whether 3-month-old infants, the youngest found so far to engage in goal-related reasoning about human agents, would also act as if they attribute goals to a novel non-human agent, a self-propelled box. In two experiments, the infants seemed to have interpreted the box's actions as goal-directed after seeing the box…

  11. Prevention of chronic diseases: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, Robert; Ebrahim, Shah; Reddy, Srinath; Voûte, Janet; Leeder, Steve

    2007-12-22

    Chronic (non-communicable) diseases--principally cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes--are leading causes of death and disability but are surprisingly neglected elements of the global-health agenda. They are underappreciated as development issues and underestimated as diseases with profound economic effects. Achievement of the global goal for prevention and control of chronic diseases would avert 36 million deaths by 2015 and would have major economic benefits. The main challenge for achievement of the global goal is to show that it can be reached in a cost-effective manner with existing interventions. This series of papers in The Lancet provides evidence that this goal is not only possible but also realistic with a small set of interventions directed towards whole populations and individuals who are at high risk. The total yearly cost of the interventions in 23 low-income and middle-income countries is about US$5.8 billion (as of 2005). In this final paper in the Series we call for a serious and sustained worldwide effort to prevent and control chronic diseases in the context of a general strengthening of health systems. Urgent action is needed by WHO, the World Bank, regional banks and development agencies, foundations, national governments, civil society, non-governmental organisations, the private sector including the pharmaceutical industry, and academics. We have established the Chronic Disease Action Group to encourage, support, and monitor action on the implementation of evidence-based efforts to promote global, regional, and national action to prevent and control chronic diseases.

  12. Alarm effectiveness no longer a national patient safety goal for hospitals: ECRI questions wisdom of JCAHO change.

    PubMed

    2004-11-01

    For 2005, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) is no longer including alarm safety among its National Patient Safety Goals. JCAHO states that it has taken this action to keep the list of 2005 goals manageable. ECRI believes that removing the goal sends the wrong message to hospitals.

  13. Achievement Goals and Student Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Kaplan; Maehr

    1999-10-01

    This study is concerned with the role that achievement goals may play in facilitating the psychological well-being of students. Specifically, we build on "goal theory" analysis of adaptive behavior in examining the relationship between task and ego goals, perceptions of school emphases on task and ego goals, and indices of well-being and disruptive behavior. Generally, task goals and perception of the school as emphasizing task goals were related to positive psychological well-being, and ego goals and perceiving the school as emphasizing ego goals were related to negative psychological well-being. This pattern was found for both African American and Euro-American students. However, path analyses pointed to possible different processes as operating for the African Americans and the Euro-Americans in the sample. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. Achievement goals and interpersonal behavior: how mastery and performance goals shape information exchange.

    PubMed

    Poortvliet, P Marijn; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W; Van de Vliert, Evert

    2007-10-01

    The present research examines the impact of achievement goals on task-related information exchange. Studies 1 and 2 reveal that relative to those with mastery goals or no goal, individuals pursuing performance goals were less open in their information giving to exchange partners. Study 2 further clarifies this effect of achievement goals by showing that performance goals generate an exploitation orientation toward information exchange. Furthermore, relative to individuals with mastery goals or no goal, people pursuing performance goals enhanced their task performance by utilizing more high-quality information obtained from their exchange partner (Study 1) and protected their task performance by more rigorously disregarding received low-quality information (Study 2).

  15. Goal Structures: The Role of Teachers' Achievement Goals and Theories of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Cassady, Jerrell

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how teachers' achievement goals for teaching and implicit theories of their students' intelligence are associated with the goal structures that they create in their classrooms. Teachers ("N" = 209) reported their achievement goals for teaching (mastery, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals),…

  16. Stability and Change in Social Goals as Related to Goal Structures and Engagement in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madjar, Nir

    2017-01-01

    The current studies explored (a) the extended external validity of social-goal-orientation framework; (b) the mediating role of social goals between classroom goal structures and students' engagement; and (c) whether changes in social goals can be explained by classroom goal structures and engagement. Study 1 was cross-sectional (N = 317), and…

  17. Establishing a Center to Support Faculty Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Laura; Kozleski, Elizabeth; Muth, Rodney; Rhodes, Lynn K.; White, Kim Kennedy

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the establishment in fall 2002 of a School of Education Research Center designed to support faculty in increasing productivity and quality in research. Details are provided about center goals, services, staffing, space, resources, and logistics during the first year of operation. In addition, data are shared about faculty…

  18. Applications of Goal Programming to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusseldorp, Ralph A.; And Others

    This paper discusses goal programming, a computer-based operations research technique that is basically a modification and extension of linear programming. The authors first discuss the similarities and differences between goal programming and linear programming, then describe the limitations of goal programming and its possible applications for…

  19. Goals of Universal Basic and Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Joel E.

    2006-01-01

    This essay discusses educational goals for universal basic and secondary education. It suggests some of the difficulties that may explain the great diversity of educational goals. The purposes of this essay are to (1) stimulate attention to educational goals on the part of individuals, families, educational professionals, community leaders in…

  20. Multiple Goal Orientations and Foreign Language Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Ravinder; Roy, Laura; Kaewkuekool, Sittichai; Ploisawaschai, Suthee

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examines Thai college students' motivational goals for learning the English language. Thai student volunteers (N = 1387) from two types of educational institutions participated in this survey study which combined measures of goal orientations based on two different goal constructs and motivation models. Results of two-step…

  1. JCAHO'S National Patient Safety Goals 2006.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Kathleen

    2006-02-01

    The Joint Commission of Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations released their first set of National Patient Safety Goals in 2002, which became effective in January 2003. This original set of goals is reviewed and a new set published every year. This article provides a review of the 2006 National Patient Safety Goals with an emphasis on perioperative/perianesthesia implications.

  2. The Language Factor in Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamgbose, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    Although development goals are usually set as targets that must be achieved in a development process, experience with development goals in Africa has tended to underscore underperformance either in terms of a shortfall in the targets attained or in terms of inadequate pursuit of specific goals. To illustrate this syndrome, the African Union's New…

  3. Adaptation of teams in response to unforeseen change: effects of goal difficulty and team composition in terms of cognitive ability and goal orientation.

    PubMed

    LePine, Jeffery A

    2005-11-01

    Halfway through a 3-hour experiment in which 64 3-person teams needed to make a series of decisions, a communications channel began to deteriorate, and teams needed to adapt their system of roles in order to perform effectively. Consistent with previous research, team composition with respect to members' cognitive ability was positively associated with adaptation. Adaptation was also influenced by interactions of team goal difficulty and team composition with respect to team members' goal orientation. Teams with difficult goals and staffed with high-performance orientation members were especially unlikely to adapt. Teams with difficult goals and staffed with high-learning orientation members were especially likely to adapt. Supplemental analyses provided insight into the observed effects in that the difficulty of team goals and members' goal orientation predicted interpersonal, transition, and action processes, all of which predicted team adaptation.

  4. Team Spirit: Teachers Work Together to Establish and Achieve Key Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troen, Vivian; Boles, Katherine C.

    2010-01-01

    Common experience, along with a vast collection of research, demonstrates that schools can expect a range of benefits to accrue when teachers work together. Teacher teaming can reduce teacher isolation, increase collegiality, facilitate the sharing of resources and ideas, and capitalize on teacher's individual and shared strengths. And most…

  5. Managing Technology in Our Schools: Establishing Goals and Creating a Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Schools are at a point for change, about to incorporate technology as never before in the nation's classrooms. For this to happen, the input of savvy business managers is required. This book is for those who will not only be responsible for managing and financing technology budgets, but for providing the leadership to govern. The book reflects on…

  6. Electronic Health Records: VA and DOD Need to Establish Goals and Metrics for Their Interoperability Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-27

    largest health care systems, serving millions of veterans and active duty members and their beneficiaries. For almost two decades the departments have...Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2014 for compliance with national standards, certify that all health care data in their systems complied...to measure the effectiveness of interoperability efforts in terms of improving health care services for patients served by both departments. IPO

  7. Task structure complexity and goal neglect in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gareth; Anderson, Mike

    2014-04-01

    Goal neglect is a failure to enact task requirements despite being able to accurately report them. In this study, we introduce a new child-appropriate experimental paradigm to measure goal neglect in children between 7 and 11 years of age and test the hypothesis that the complexity of an action plan, not real-time trial demands, increases goal neglect. A total of 66 children (Mage=9.50 years) were administered a Feature Match task. Half of the children were given four rules for matching, and half were given three rules for matching. After practice, the four-rules group was told to ignore the additional rule, and both groups completed an identical three-rules task. The results showed that the extra rule increased goal neglect and its correlation with fluid intelligence. Although intermittent trial errors were correlated with fluid intelligence for both groups, only in the four-rules group were systematic rule failures (i.e., goal neglect) correlated with fluid intelligence. Task performance improved with chronological age; however, when controlling for the influence of fluid intelligence, the relationship between age and task performance was effectively removed. This suggests that a child's current level of fluid intelligence (and not age) determines task performance. We suggest that the relationship among goal neglect, complex task instructions, and fluid intelligence is linked to the mental preparation for future events, that is, mentally compiling verbal instructions into a set of activated goal representations in working memory that represent what is to be done and under what circumstances.

  8. Foederatio Europea Orthodontica FEO: its history, its aims and commitments, its achievements, its future goals.

    PubMed

    Dahan, José

    2006-01-01

    Created in 1996, the Foederatio Europea Orthodontica or European Federation of Orthodontics represents, today, 15 associations counting almost ten thousands European colleagues. Committed to establish and develop good relationships between the national scientific orthodontic societies of the European Continent and to pursue a common goal to communicate and share an up-to-date orthodontic information, it has undertaken, with a minimal budget (one Euro/orthodontist as annual fee), several actions including a valuable and user friendly internet site (www.Feoonline.com) - an annual award for the best scientific paper published in Europe - a list of excellent speakers ready to communicate, an objective support for the national association which is selected for hosting the general assembly and a newsletter on the web that will be soon published in national journals of the FEO members. Thanks to devoted professionals that have actively contribute in the founding and the management of the federation, FEO is now grown up and ready to plan and finalize, with the specially created think tank, new common actions and some exciting steps for the future. It is time for those that have been reluctant in the past, to join the group and be part of its further development.

  9. Early prediction of student goals and affect in narrative-centered learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunyoung

    Recent years have seen a growing recognition of the role of goal and affect recognition in intelligent tutoring systems. Goal recognition is the task of inferring users' goals from a sequence of observations of their actions. Because of the uncertainty inherent in every facet of human computer interaction, goal recognition is challenging, particularly in contexts in which users can perform many actions in any order, as is the case with intelligent tutoring systems. Affect recognition is the task of identifying the emotional state of a user from a variety of physical cues, which are produced in response to affective changes in the individual. Accurately recognizing student goals and affect states could contribute to more effective and motivating interactions in intelligent tutoring systems. By exploiting knowledge of student goals and affect states, intelligent tutoring systems can dynamically modify their behavior to better support individual students. To create effective interactions in intelligent tutoring systems, goal and affect recognition models should satisfy two key requirements. First, because incorrectly predicted goals and affect states could significantly diminish the effectiveness of interactive systems, goal and affect recognition models should provide accurate predictions of user goals and affect states. When observations of users' activities become available, recognizers should make accurate early" predictions. Second, goal and affect recognition models should be highly efficient so they can operate in real time. To address key issues, we present an inductive approach to recognizing student goals and affect states in intelligent tutoring systems by learning goals and affect recognition models. Our work focuses on goal and affect recognition in an important new class of intelligent tutoring systems, narrative-centered learning environments. We report the results of empirical studies of induced recognition models from observations of students

  10. To get the grasp: seven-month-olds encode and selectively reproduce goal-directed grasping.

    PubMed

    Thoermer, Claudia; Woodward, Amanda; Sodian, Beate; Perst, Hannah; Kristen, Susanne

    2013-10-01

    Infants need to analyze human behavior in terms of goal-directed actions in order to form expectations about agents' rationality. There is converging evidence for goal encoding during the first year of life from looking time as well as social learning paradigms using imitation procedures. However, conceptual interpretations of these abilities are challenged by low-level motor resonance accounts that propose task-specific lower level sensorimotor associations underlying looking time tasks rather than abstract conceptual knowledge. To test the differential predictions derived from the two accounts, we investigated within-child consistency of performance on different, but conceptually related, tasks requiring goal encoding. This study presented seven-month-old infants with a looking time task and an imitation task, both testing their ability to encode an action goal based on a reaching action, as well as a working memory task to control for the influence of general cognitive capacity. Results showed inter task convergence to be independent of working memory: infants who spent more time looking at goal change events in the looking time task were more likely to selectively reproduce the goal in the imitation task when the model had performed an intentional grasping action rather than a back-of-hand object contact. These findings support the view that low-level motor resonance mechanisms are not sufficient to explain the capacities of action understanding in infants.

  11. Responses to irrational actions in action observation and mentalising networks of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Lauren E; Mullett, Timothy L; Ropar, Danielle; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2014-12-01

    By observing other people, we can often infer goals and motivations behind their actions. This study examines the role of the action observation network (AON) and the mentalising network (MZN) in the perception of rational and irrational actions. Past studies in this area report mixed results, so the present paper uses new stimuli which precisely control motion path, the social form of the actor and the rationality of the action. A cluster in medial prefrontal cortex and a large cluster in the right inferior parietal lobule extending to the temporoparietal junction distinguished observation of irrational from rational actions. Activity within the temporoparietal region also correlated on a trial-by-trial basis with each participant's judgement of action rationality. These findings demonstrate that observation of another person performing an irrational action engages both action observation and mentalising networks. Our results advance current theories of action comprehension and the roles of action observation and mentalising networks in this process.

  12. Goal Attribution toward Non-Human Objects during Infancy Predicts Imaginary Companion Status during Preschool Years.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Todo, Naoya; Okumura, Yuko; Shinohara, Ikuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that there is a significant relationship between children's mentalizing skills and creation of an imaginary companion (IC). Theorists have proposed that interaction with an IC may improve mentalizing skills, but it is also possible that children's mentalizing skills affect their creation of an IC. In this longitudinal study, we examined whether goal attribution in infants younger than 1 years old (Time 1) predicted their creation of ICs at 48 months old (Time 2). At Time 1, infants' goal attribution was measured in an action prediction experiment, where infants anticipated three types of action goals: (1) another person's goal-directed action (GH condition); (2) another person's non-goal-directed (BH condition); and (3) a mechanical claw's goal-directed action (MC condition). At Time 2, parents completed questionnaires assessing whether their children had ICs. The path analyses using Bayesian estimation revealed that infants' anticipation in the MC condition, but not in the GH and BH conditions, predicted their later IC status. These results indicate that infants' goal attributions to non-human agents may be a strong predictor of their later IC creation. Early mentalizing skills toward non-human objects may provide children with a basis for their engagement in imaginative play.

  13. Goal Attribution toward Non-Human Objects during Infancy Predicts Imaginary Companion Status during Preschool Years

    PubMed Central

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Todo, Naoya; Okumura, Yuko; Shinohara, Ikuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that there is a significant relationship between children's mentalizing skills and creation of an imaginary companion (IC). Theorists have proposed that interaction with an IC may improve mentalizing skills, but it is also possible that children's mentalizing skills affect their creation of an IC. In this longitudinal study, we examined whether goal attribution in infants younger than 1 years old (Time 1) predicted their creation of ICs at 48 months old (Time 2). At Time 1, infants' goal attribution was measured in an action prediction experiment, where infants anticipated three types of action goals: (1) another person's goal-directed action (GH condition); (2) another person's non-goal-directed (BH condition); and (3) a mechanical claw's goal-directed action (MC condition). At Time 2, parents completed questionnaires assessing whether their children had ICs. The path analyses using Bayesian estimation revealed that infants' anticipation in the MC condition, but not in the GH and BH conditions, predicted their later IC status. These results indicate that infants' goal attributions to non-human agents may be a strong predictor of their later IC creation. Early mentalizing skills toward non-human objects may provide children with a basis for their engagement in imaginative play. PMID:26941682

  14. Approaching the Bad and Avoiding the Good: Lateral Prefrontal Cortical Asymmetry Distinguishes between Action and Valence

    PubMed Central

    Berkman, Elliot T.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Goal pursuit in humans sometimes involves approaching unpleasant and avoiding pleasant stimuli, such as when a dieter chooses to eat vegetables (although he does not like them) instead of doughnuts (which he greatly prefers). Previous neuroscience investigations have established a left–right prefrontal asymmetry between approaching pleasant and avoiding unpleasant stimuli, but these investigations typically do not untangle the roles of action motivation (approach vs. avoidance) and stimulus valence (pleasant vs. unpleasant) in this asymmetry. Additionally, studies on asymmetry have been conducted almost exclusively using electroencephalography and have been difficult to replicate using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The present fMRI study uses a novel goal pursuit task that separates action motivation from stimulus valence and a region-of-interest analysis approach to address these limitations. Results suggest that prefrontal asymmetry is associated with action motivation and not with stimulus valence. Specifically, there was increased left (vs. right) activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during approach (vs. avoidance) actions regardless of the stimulus valence, but no such effect was observed for pleasant compared to unpleasant stimuli. This asymmetry effect during approach–avoidance action motivations occurred in the dorsolateral but not orbito-frontal aspects of prefrontal cortex. Also, individual differences in approach–avoidance motivation moderated the effect such that increasing trait approach motivation was associated with greater left-sided asymmetry during approach actions (regardless of the stimulus valence). Together, these results support the notion that prefrontal asymmetry is associated with action motivation regardless of stimulus valence and, as such, might be linked with goal pursuit processes more broadly. PMID:19642879

  15. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  16. Goal-Directed Decision Making with Spiking Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Máté

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neuroscientific data on reward-based decision making point to a fundamental distinction between habitual and goal-directed action selection. The formation of habits, which requires simple updating of cached values, has been studied in great detail, and the reward prediction error theory of dopamine function has enjoyed prominent success in accounting for its neural bases. In contrast, the neural circuit mechanisms of goal-directed decision making, requiring extended iterative computations to estimate values online, are still unknown. Here we present a spiking neural network that provably solves the difficult online value estimation problem underlying goal-directed decision making in a near-optimal way and reproduces behavioral as well as neurophysiological experimental data on tasks ranging from simple binary choice to sequential decision making. Our model uses local plasticity rules to learn the synaptic weights of a simple neural network to achieve optimal performance and solves one-step decision-making tasks, commonly considered in neuroeconomics, as well as more challenging sequential decision-making tasks within 1 s. These decision times, and their parametric dependence on task parameters, as well as the final choice probabilities match behavioral data, whereas the evolution of neural activities in the network closely mimics neural responses recorded in frontal cortices during the execution of such tasks. Our theory provides a principled framework to understand the neural underpinning of goal-directed decision making and makes novel predictions for sequential decision-making tasks with multiple rewards. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed actions requiring prospective planning pervade decision making, but their circuit-level mechanisms remain elusive. We show how a model circuit of biologically realistic spiking neurons can solve this computationally challenging problem in a novel way. The synaptic weights of our network can be learned using

  17. The Protestant Establishment Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzell, E. Digby

    1976-01-01

    The author's book, "The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America", is highly critical of the WASP (White-Anglo-Saxon-Protestant) establishment and proposed the development and need for some sort of upper-class ruling-group. Here is a re-evaluation of his book, now thirteen years old, by the author. (Author/RK)

  18. The GOAL-to-HAL/S translator specification. [for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanten, S. F.; Flanders, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    The specification sets forth a technical framework within which to deal with the transfer of specific GOAL features to HAL/S. Key technical features of the translator are described which communicate with the data bank, handle repeat statements, and deal with software interrupts. GOAL programs, databank information, and GOAL system subroutines are integrated into one GOAL in HAL/S. This output is fully compatible HAL/S source ready for insertion into the HAL/S compiler. The Translator uses a PASS1 to establish all the global data needed for the HAL/S output program. Individual GOAL statements are translated in PASS2. The specification document makes extensive use of flowcharts to specify exactly how each variation of each GOAL statement is to be translated. The specification also deals with definitions and assumptions, executive support structure and implementation. An appendix, entitled GOAL-to-HAL Mapping, provides examples of translated GOAL statements.

  19. NASA establishes office of exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a new Office of Exploration that will coordinate agency activities that would “expand the human presence beyond Earth,” particularly to the moon and Mars.Sally K. Ride is serving as the office's acting assistant administrator until mid August. Ride, the first U.S. woman in space, has been in charge of a NASA study to determine a possible new major space goal for the United States. Her study group recently identified four major areas for concentrated examination as possible initiatives for a new national space objective: intensive study of Earth systems for better understanding of how to protect Earth's environment,a stepped-up robotic program to explore the planets, moons, and other solar system bodies,the establishment of a scientific base and a permanent human presence on the moon, andintensive exploration of Mars by robot, followed by human exploration of the planet.

  20. Infants Prospectively Control Reaching Based on the Difficulty of Future Actions: To What Extent Can Infants' Multiple-Step Actions Be Explained by Fitts' Law?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottwald, Janna M.; De Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora; Lindskog, Marcus; Nyström, Pär; L. Ekberg, Therese; von Hofsten, Claes; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2017-01-01

    Prospective motor control, a key element of action planning, is the ability to adjust one's actions with respect to task demands and action goals in an anticipatory manner. The current study investigates whether 14-month-olds can prospectively control their reaching actions based on the difficulty of the subsequent action. We used a reach-to-place…

  1. Put Your Imperfections behind You: Temporal Landmarks Spur Goal Initiation When They Signal New Beginnings

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hengchen; Milkman, Katherine L.; Riis, Jason

    2016-01-01

    People often fail to muster the motivation needed to initiate goal pursuit. Across five laboratory experiments, we explore when people naturally experience enhanced motivation to take actions that facilitate goal pursuit and why certain days are more likely to spur goal initiation than others. We provide causal evidence that emphasizing a temporal landmark marking the beginning of a new time period increases people’s intentions to initiate goal pursuit. In addition, we propose and show that people’s strengthened motivation to begin pursuing their aspirations following such temporal landmarks originates in part from the psychological disassociation these landmarks induce from a person’s past, imperfect self. PMID:26546079

  2. Tactile perception during action observation.

    PubMed

    Vastano, Roberta; Inuggi, Alberto; Vargas, Claudia D; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Jacono, Marco; Pozzo, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    It has been suggested that tactile perception becomes less acute during movement to optimize motor control and to prevent an overload of afferent information generated during action. This empirical phenomenon, known as "tactile gating effect," has been associated with mechanisms of sensory feedback prediction. However, less attention has been given to the tactile attenuation effect during the observation of an action. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how the observation of a goal-directed action influences tactile perception as during overt action. In a first experiment, we recorded vocal reaction times (RTs) of participants to tactile stimulations during the observation of a reach-to-grasp action. The stimulations were delivered on different body parts that could be either congruent or incongruent with the observed effector (the right hand and the right leg, respectively). The tactile stimulation was contrasted with a no body-related stimulation (an auditory beep). We found increased RTs for tactile congruent stimuli compared to both tactile incongruent and auditory stimuli. This effect was reported only during the observation of the reaching phase, whereas RTs were not modulated during the grasping phase. A tactile two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task was then conducted in order to quantify the changes in tactile sensitivity during the observation of the same goal-directed actions. In agreement with the first experiment, the tactile perceived intensity was reduced only during the reaching phase. These results suggest that tactile processing during action observation relies on a process similar to that occurring during action execution.

  3. Transforming the advanced lab: Part I - Learning goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwickl, Benjamin; Finkelstein, Noah; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2012-02-01

    Within the physics education research community relatively little attention has been given to laboratory courses, especially at the upper-division undergraduate level. As part of transforming our senior-level Optics and Modern Physics Lab at the University of Colorado Boulder we are developing learning goals, revising curricula, and creating assessments. In this paper, we report on the establishment of our learning goals and a surrounding framework that have emerged from discussions with a wide variety of faculty, from a review of the literature on labs, and from identifying the goals of existing lab courses. Our goals go beyond those of specific physics content and apparatus, allowing instructors to personalize them to their contexts. We report on four broad themes and associated learning goals: Modeling (math-physics-data connection, statistical error analysis, systematic error, modeling of engineered "black boxes"), Design (of experiments, apparatus, programs, troubleshooting), Communication, and Technical Lab Skills (computer-aided data analysis, LabVIEW, test and measurement equipment).

  4. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do. PMID:27667859

  5. Conscious Action/Zombie Action.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co-conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do.

  6. Hippocampal theta sequences reflect current goals.

    PubMed

    Wikenheiser, Andrew M; Redish, A David

    2015-02-01

    Hippocampal information processing is discretized by oscillations, and the ensemble activity of place cells is organized into temporal sequences bounded by theta cycles. Theta sequences represent time-compressed trajectories through space. Their forward-directed nature makes them an intuitive candidate mechanism for planning future trajectories, but their connection to goal-directed behavior remains unclear. As rats performed a value-guided decision-making task, the extent to which theta sequences projected ahead of the animal's current location varied on a moment-by-moment basis depending on the rat's goals. Look-ahead extended farther on journeys to distant goals than on journeys to more proximal goals and was predictive of the animal's destination. On arrival at goals, however, look-ahead was similar regardless of where the animal began its journey from. Together, these results provide evidence that hippocampal theta sequences contain information related to goals or intentions, pointing toward a potential spatial basis for planning.

  7. The Effect of Goal-Line Presentation and Goal Selection on First-Grader Subtraction Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Hansen, Brooke; Rowland, Julie E.; Schutte, Greg; Williams, Joey

    2014-01-01

    Math proficiency is related to math calculation fluency. Explicit timing provides repeated practice for math fluency. It is enhanced through goal setting, graphic feedback, and rewards. Self-selected goals have potential to increase performance for math fluency. This study compared the effect of goal lines, and researcher goals versus…

  8. Do Performance Goals Promote Learning? A Pattern Analysis of Singapore Students' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Paris, Scott G.; Hogan, David; Luo, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how achievement goals are combined to affect students' learning. We used a multiple goals perspective, based on mastery (i.e., mastery approach) and performance (including both approach and avoidance components) goals, to examine the achievement goal patterns of 1697 Singapore Secondary 3 students in their math study. Four…

  9. Predicting Singapore Students' Achievement Goals in Their English Study: Self-Construal and Classroom Goal Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Hogan, David; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of self-construal and classroom goal structure in predicting Singapore secondary students' achievement goals in their English study. Students from 104 classes were administered surveys of achievement goals, classroom goal structure, English self-concept, and self-construal. The results of two-level hierarchical linear…

  10. Goal Engagement and Goal Attainment in Adolescents with and without Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The present longitudinal study analyzed the effects of domain-specific goal engagement on the attainment of four developmental goals in 133 adolescents with visual impairment and in 449 sighted peers. Goal engagement predicted stronger progress in goal attainment with regard to getting access to a peer group, career choice and development of…

  11. Classroom Goal Structures, Social Achievement Goals, and Adjustment in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Wang, Cen

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the mediating role of social achievement goals in the relation between classroom goal structures and academic engagement and social adjustment among 373 middle school students (52.8% female). Students' perceptions of classroom goal structures were measured in Fall; social achievement goals and academic and social…

  12. Characterizing a sustainability transition: Goals, targets, trends, and driving forces

    PubMed Central

    Parris, Thomas M.; Kates, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    Sustainable development exhibits broad political appeal but has proven difficult to define in precise terms. Recent scholarship has focused on the nature of a sustainability transition, described by the National Research Council as meeting the needs of a stabilizing future world population while reducing hunger and poverty and maintaining the planet's life-support systems. We identify a small set of goals, quantitative targets, and associated indicators that further characterize a sustainability transition by drawing on the consensus embodied in internationally negotiated agreements and plans of action. To illustrate opportunities for accelerating progress, we then examine current scholarship on the processes that influence attainment of four such goals: reducing hunger, promoting literacy, stabilizing greenhouse-gas concentrations, and maintaining fresh-water availability. We find that such analysis can often reveal “levers of change,” forces that both control the rate of positive change and are subject to policy intervention. PMID:12819346

  13. Characterizing a sustainability transition: goals, targets, trends, and driving forces.

    PubMed

    Parris, Thomas M; Kates, Robert W

    2003-07-08

    Sustainable development exhibits broad political appeal but has proven difficult to define in precise terms. Recent scholarship has focused on the nature of a sustainability transition, described by the National Research Council as meeting the needs of a stabilizing future world population while reducing hunger and poverty and maintaining the planet's life-support systems. We identify a small set of goals, quantitative targets, and associated indicators that further characterize a sustainability transition by drawing on the consensus embodied in internationally negotiated agreements and plans of action. To illustrate opportunities for accelerating progress, we then examine current scholarship on the processes that influence attainment of four such goals: reducing hunger, promoting literacy, stabilizing greenhouse-gas concentrations, and maintaining fresh-water availability. We find that such analysis can often reveal "levers of change," forces that both control the rate of positive change and are subject to policy intervention.

  14. A Goal-Directed Bayesian Framework for Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Rigoli, Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Dolan, Raymond; Friston, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Categorization is a fundamental ability for efficient behavioral control. It allows organisms to remember the correct responses to categorical cues and not for every stimulus encountered (hence eluding computational cost or complexity), and to generalize appropriate responses to novel stimuli dependant on category assignment. Assuming the brain performs Bayesian inference, based on a generative model of the external world and future goals, we propose a computational model of categorization in which important properties emerge. These properties comprise the ability to infer latent causes of sensory experience, a hierarchical organization of latent causes, and an explicit inclusion of context and action representations. Crucially, these aspects derive from considering the environmental statistics that are relevant to achieve goals, and from the fundamental Bayesian principle that any generative model should be preferred over alternative models based on an accuracy-complexity trade-off. Our account is a step toward elucidating computational principles of categorization and its role within the Bayesian brain hypothesis. PMID:28382008

  15. 75 FR 16333 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quitman, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... scope of that authority as it establishes Class E airspace at Quitman, GA. Lists of Subjects in 14 CFR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Quitman, GA AGENCY... action establishes Class E Airspace at Quitman, GA, to accommodate Standard Instrument...

  16. 76 FR 39259 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick, ME AGENCY... establishes Class E airspace at Brunswick Executive Airport, Brunswick, ME. DATES: The effective date is moved...), establishes Class E airspace at Brunswick Executive Airport, Brunswick, ME. This action will move up...

  17. Advancing Achievement Goal Theory: Using Goal Structures and Goal Orientations to Predict Students' Motivation, Cognition, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how different components of achievement goal theory were related to each other and to students' motivation, cognitive engagement, and achievement in mathematics. Junior high school students (N=525) completed a self-report survey that assessed their perceived classroom goal structures; personal goal…

  18. [Humanitarian action threatened by standardization].

    PubMed

    Mamou, J

    2002-01-01

    The author analyses the new international context in which humanitarian action is being undertaken. He raises the problem caused by the diverging objectives of impartial, neutral humanitarianism and politically motivated actions that implement strategies of prevention and conflict resolution. He reviews the criticism that humanitarian has come under in recent years and that has resulted in establishment of codes of conduct. However he points out the threat that the concepts of control and "jurisdiction" over humanitarian action represent and analyzes discrepancies between minimal standards and universal principles. The article concludes with a presentation of an alternative solution based on the "Quality" platform being developed by several French NGOs.

  19. Trichotomous goals of elementary school students learning English as a foreign language: a structural equation model.

    PubMed

    He, Tung-Hsien; Chang, Shan-Mao; Chen, Shu-Hui Eileen; Gou, Wen Johnny

    2012-02-01

    This study applied structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to define the relations among trichotomous goals (mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals), self-efficacy, use of metacognitive self-regulation strategies, positive belief in seeking help, and help-avoidance behavior. Elementary school students (N = 105), who were learning English as a foreign language, were surveyed using five self-report scales. The structural equation model showed that self-efficacy led to the adoption of mastery goals but discouraged the adoption of performance-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals. Furthermore, mastery goals increased the use of metacognitive self-regulation strategies, whereas performance-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals reduced their use. Mastery goals encouraged positive belief in help-seeking, but performance-avoidance goals decreased such belief. Finally, performance-avoidance goals directly led to help-avoidance behavior, whereas positive belief assumed a critical role in reducing help-avoidance. The established structural equation model illuminated the potential causal relations among these variables for the young learners in this study.

  20. Concurrent glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity shifts instrumental behavior from goal-directed to habitual control.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver; Wolf, Oliver T

    2010-06-16

    Stress modulates instrumental action in favor of habitual stimulus-response processes that are insensitive to changes in outcome value and at the expense of goal-directed action-outcome processes. The neuroendocrine mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that concurrent glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity bias instrumental behavior toward habitual performance. To this end, healthy men and women received hydrocortisone, the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine or both orally before they were trained in two instrumental actions leading to two distinct food outcomes. After training, one of the outcomes was devalued by inviting participants to eat that food to satiety. A subsequent extinction test revealed whether instrumental performance was goal-directed or habitual. Participants that received hydrocortisone or yohimbine alone decreased responding to the devalued action in the extinction test, i.e., they behaved goal-directed. The combined administration of hydrocortisone and yohimbine, however, rendered participants' behavior insensitive to changes in the value of the goal (i.e., habitual). These findings demonstrate that the concerted action of glucocorticoids and noradrenergic activity shifts instrumental behavior from goal-directed to habitual control.

  1. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  2. 75 FR 35766 - Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and Solicitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... International Trade Administration Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory.... ACTION: Notice of establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and... establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (the Committee) by the...

  3. Associative theories of goal-directed behaviour: a case for animal-human translational models.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Sanne; Dickinson, Anthony

    2009-07-01

    Associative accounts of goal-directed action, developed in the fields of human ideomotor action and that of animal learning, can capture cognitive belief-desire psychology of human decision-making. Whereas outcome-response accounts can account for the fact that the thought of a goal can call to mind the action that has previously procured this goal, response-outcome accounts capture decision-making processes that start out with the consideration of possible response alternatives followed only in the second instance by evaluation of their consequences. We argue that while the outcome-response mechanism plays a crucial role in response priming effects, the response-outcome mechanism is particularly important for action selection on the basis of current needs and desires. We therefore develop an integrative account that encapsulates these two routes of action selection within the framework of the associative-cybernetic model. This model has the additional benefit of providing mechanisms for the incentive modulation of goal-directed action and for the development of behavioural autonomy, and therefore provides a promising account of the multi-faceted process of animal as well as human instrumental decision-making.

  4. Investigation the Relationship between Goal Orientation and Parenting Styles among Sample of Jordanian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahasneh, Ahmad M.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between goal orientation and parenting styles. Participants of the study completed 650 goal orientation and parenting styles questionnaires. Means, standard deviations, regression and correlation analysis were used for data in establishing the dependence of the two variables. Results…

  5. An Investigation of the Goals for an Environmental Science Course: Teacher and Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation uses an ethnographic case study approach to explore the benefits and challenges of including a variety of goals within a high school Environmental Science curriculum. The study focuses on environmental education (EE) goals established by the Belgrade Charter (1975), including developing students' environmental awareness and…

  6. Link Data to Learning Goals: Common District Assessments Connect Teaching Effectiveness to Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psencik, Kay; Baldwin, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, district leaders of Douglas County Public Schools, Douglasville, Georgia, launched an ambitious initiative to ensure that teachers set goals that focus on increasing their effectiveness and show student growth. To achieve this goal, the district leadership team focused on common district assessments to establish common learning…

  7. A Procedure for Socially Valid Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Howell, Amber; Carpenter, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting poses a significant challenge for service providers in both clinical and educational settings. With today's call for services that contribute to meaningful changes in children, there is an increased need for goal-setting procedures that are socially valid. This article presents such a procedure and illustrates its use through a case…

  8. Goal Pursuit in Youth with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Emma; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents frequently experience chronic pain that can disrupt their usual activities and lead to poor physical and emotional functioning. The fear avoidance model of pain with an emphasis on the maladaptive behaviors that lead to activity avoidance has guided research and clinical practice. However, this model does not take into consideration variability in responses to pain, in particular the active pursuit of goals despite pain. This review aims to introduce a novel conceptualization of children’s activity engagement versus avoidance using the framework of goal pursuit. We propose a new model of Goal Pursuit in Pediatric Chronic Pain, which proposes that the child’s experience of pain is modified by child factors (e.g., goal salience, motivation/energy, pain-related anxiety/fear, and self-efficacy) and parent factors (e.g., parent expectations for pain, protectiveness behaviors, and parent anxiety), which lead to specific goal pursuit behaviors. Goal pursuit is framed as engagement or avoidance of valued goals when in pain. Next, we recommend that research in youth with chronic pain should be reframed to account for the pursuit of valued goals within the context of pain and suggest directions for future research. PMID:27879686

  9. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Instrumental Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2008-01-01

    The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers…

  10. Goals for Curriculum Development in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; And Others

    This paper lists goals for curriculum development in environmental education prepared in response to objectives proposed at the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education in 1977. The goals are presented in four levels. In level one, the ecological foundation level, nine conceptual components are presented including…

  11. A 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, a 3 x 2 model of achievement goals is proposed and tested. The model is rooted in the definition and valence components of competence, and encompasses 6 goal constructs: task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, and other-avoidance. The results from 2 studies provided strong support for…

  12. 28 CFR 544.32 - Goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Goals. 544.32 Section 544.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.32 Goals. The Warden is to ensure, to the extent possible, that leisure activities...

  13. 28 CFR 544.32 - Goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goals. 544.32 Section 544.32 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.32 Goals. The Warden is to ensure, to the extent possible, that leisure activities...

  14. Fashioning a selfish self amid selfish goals.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Roy F; Winegard, Bo M

    2014-04-01

    The selfish goal, at some point in evolution, gave rise to a selfish self. In humans, this selfish self might exert influence over goals, deciding upon which to execute and which to inhibit. This, in fact, may be one of the chief functions of the self.

  15. Managing Multiple Goals in Real Learning Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding students' multiple goals in real learning contexts is an emerging area of importance for educators and researchers investigating student motivation in classrooms. This qualitative study conducted over an academic year investigates the multiple goals articulated by seven 11-year-old students and explores relationships between goals…

  16. Child Care in 1976: Goals and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provence, Sally

    Goals for future child care services are discussed in this address. It is stressed that social service agencies should consider the family as a unit in providing flexible child care services. Other goals include: (1) tailoring child care programs to parent development as well as child development, (2) insuring that child care workers are motivated…

  17. Online Goals Before There Was Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that digital resources and telecommunications give librarians the best chance in decades to reexamine and achieve many of their fundamental goals. Discusses the goals of providing the right information in appropriate formats, keeping the intellectual record, providing personalized information services, and serving as educators, and cites…

  18. Infants Attribute to Agents Goals and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Choi, You-jung

    2012-01-01

    This commentary article is to be published alongside: Hernik, M., & Southgate, V. (2012). What do infants know about agents' goals? The authors see this issue consisting of two closely related questions. First, what is an agent to infants? Second, how do infants attribute goals to agents? Hernik and Southgage (H&S) focused on the second question.…

  19. A Measure of Teachers' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Christodoulidis, Triantafyllos

    2007-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the construct validity of a measure of teachers' achievement goals. The first study involved 143 teachers. Factor analysis of responses to the measure revealed three factors assessing mastery, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals. In the second study, a nationally representative sample of…

  20. An Approach to Goal-Statement Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, John R.; Robinson, Donald W.

    1969-01-01

    "The results of this study support the proposition that the application of environmental assessment techniques based on CUES items provides information which can help evaluate the formal goals of an institution in terms of the degree to which the institutional environment is facilitative of those goals. (Author)