Science.gov

Sample records for action goals established

  1. Infants Generate Goal-Based Action Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Erin N.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the actions of others is critical to smooth social interactions. Prior work suggests that both understanding and anticipation of goal-directed actions appears early in development. In this study, on-line goal prediction was tested explicitly using an adaptation of Woodward's (1998) paradigm for an eye-tracking task. Twenty 11-month-olds…

  2. Establishing national health goals and standards.

    PubMed Central

    Zwick, D I

    1983-01-01

    Four statements of national health goals and standards were proclaimed from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services during the 1970s. Two were based on statutory mandates--the National Guidelines for Health Planning and the Model Standards for Community Preventive Health Services. Two were the results of administrative initiatives--the Forward Plans for Health and the complementary publications "Healthy People" and "Promoting Health/Preventing Disease". These efforts present a variety of approaches and experiences and can provide direction and lessons for future endeavors along these lines. The four issuances include guidance on national priorities, resource standards, and accessibility to care. They also offer goals and objectives for local services and health status. They address a multiplicity of issues, ranging from hospital bed supply and recommended uses of specialized medical equipment to infant mortality and proposed reductions in death and disability. Almost all urge further actions to prevent illness and promote health. The development of statements of national health goals and standards has been advocated by some experts and questioned by others. Advocates believe that these materials can help clarify purposes and priorities for health programs, resulting in more effective and efficient uses of resources and greater accountability. Critics are particularly concerned about deleterious impacts on creativity and local initiatives. Among the major lessons identifiable from these undertakings is the importance of committed leadership, broad-based consultation, and reliable data. Implementation inevitably encounters the complexities of the health system and depends upon available resources. In influencing the agenda of deliberation and debate, the symbolic value of these statements may often be more significant than the specific details. The continuing interest in these approaches suggests that future efforts along these lines are likely. PMID:6414027

  3. Infants Attribute Goals Even to Biomechanically Impossible Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southgate, Victoria; Johnson, Mark H.; Csibra, Gergely

    2008-01-01

    Human infants readily interpret the actions of others in terms of goals, but the origins of this important cognitive skill are keenly debated. We tested whether infants recognize others' actions as goal-directed on the basis of their experience with carrying out and observing goal-directed actions, or whether their perception of a goal-directed…

  4. A guide for establishing restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Anne M.; Larson, Diane L.; DalSoglio, Julie A.; Harris, James A.; Labus, Paul; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Skarbis, Krisin E.

    2015-01-01

    As natural resources become increasingly limited, the value of restoring contaminated sites, both terrestrial and aquatic, becomes increasingly apparent. Traditionally, goals for remediation have been set before any consideration of goals for ecological restoration. The goals for remediation have focused on removing or limiting contamination whereas restoration goals have targeted the ultimate end use. Here, we present a framework for developing a comprehensive set of achievable goals for ecological restoration of contaminated sites to be used in concert with determining goals for remediation. This framework was developed during a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and Society of Ecological Restoration (SER) cosponsored workshop that brought together experts from multiple countries. Although most members were from North America, this framework is designed for use internationally. We discuss the integration of establishing goals for both contaminant remediation and overall restoration, and the need to include both the restoration of ecological and socio-cultural-economic value in the context of contaminated sites. Although recognizing that in some countries there may be regulatory issues associated with contaminants and clean up, landscape setting and social drivers can inform the restoration goals. We provide a decision tree support tool to guide the establishment of restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems. The overall intent of this decision tree is to provide a framework for goal setting and to identify outcomes achievable given the contamination present at a site.

  5. Teaching Students to Attain Annual Transition Goals Using the Take Action Goal Attainment Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jodie D.; Martin, James E.; Osmani, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    This study used the Take Action goal attainment lesson package and assistive technology to teach nine high school students with mild to moderate disabilities to attain annual transition goals. The Take Action lessons increased students' goal attainment knowledge, and this knowledge generalized to improved Plan Organizers, and slightly…

  6. A framework for establishing restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Anne M; Larson, Diane L; DalSoglio, Julie A; Harris, James A; Labus, Paul; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Skrabis, Kristin E

    2016-04-01

    As natural resources become increasingly limited, the value of restoring contaminated sites, both terrestrial and aquatic, becomes increasingly apparent. Traditionally, goals for remediation have been set before any consideration of goals for ecological restoration. The goals for remediation have focused on removing or limiting contamination whereas restoration goals have targeted the ultimate end use. Here, we present a framework for developing a comprehensive set of achievable goals for ecological restoration of contaminated sites to be used in concert with determining goals for remediation. This framework was developed during a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and Society of Ecological Restoration (SER) cosponsored workshop that brought together experts from multiple countries. Although most members were from North America, this framework is designed for use internationally. We discuss the integration of establishing goals for both contaminant remediation and overall restoration, and the need to include both the restoration of ecological and socio-cultural-economic value in the context of contaminated sites. Although recognizing that in some countries there may be regulatory issues associated with contaminants and clean up, landscape setting and social drivers can inform the restoration goals. We provide a decision tree support tool to guide the establishment of restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems. The overall intent of this decision tree is to provide a framework for goal setting and to identify outcomes achievable given the contamination present at a site. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:264-272. 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). PMID:26339869

  7. Movement or Goal: Goal Salience and Verbal Cues Affect Preschoolers' Imitation of Action Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsner, Birgit; Pfeifer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The impact of goal salience and verbal cues given by the model on 3- to 5-year-olds' reproduction of action components (movement or goal) was investigated in an imitation choice task. Preschoolers watched an experimenter moving a puppet up or down a ramp, terminating at one of two target objects. The target objects were either differently colored…

  8. Infants Recognize Similar Goals across Dissimilar Actions Involving Object Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olofson, Eric L.; Baldwin, Dare

    2011-01-01

    We investigated infants' ability to recognize the similarity between observed and implied goals when actions differed in surface-level motion details. In two experiments, 10- to 12-month-olds were habituated to an actor manipulating an object and then shown test actions in which the actor contacted the object with a novel hand configuration that…

  9. The Construction of Career through Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard A.; Valach, Ladislav

    2004-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that occupational career is constructed through a system of intentional, goal-directed processes in the form of actions and projects as well as other careers, such as the family career and relationship careers. A contextual action theory of career is proposed as an approach that reflects a constructionist stance and…

  10. Do Domestic Dogs Understand Human Actions as Goal-Directed?

    PubMed Central

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Ceretta, Maria; Prato-Previde, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of other’s actions as goal-directed is considered a fundamental ability underlying cognitive and social development in human infants. A number of studies using the habituation-dishabituation paradigm have shown that the ability to discern intentional relations, in terms of goal-directedness of an action towards an object, appears around 5 months of age. The question of whether non-human species can perceive other’s actions as goal-directed has been more controversial, however there is mounting evidence that at least some primates species do. Recently domestic dogs have been shown to be particularly sensitive to human communicative cues and more so in cooperative and intentional contexts. Furthermore, they have been shown to imitate selectively. Taken together these results suggest that dogs may perceive others' actions as goal-directed, however no study has investigated this issue directly. In the current study, adopting an infant habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we investigated whether dogs attribute intentions to an animate (a human) but not an inanimate (a black box) agent interacting with an object. Following an habituation phase in which the agent interacted always with one of two objects, two sets of 3 trials were presented: new side trials (in which the agent interacted with the same object as in the habituation trial but placed in a novel location) and new goal trials (in which the agent interacted with the other object placed in the old location). Dogs showed a similar pattern of response to that shown in infants, looking longer in the new goal than new side trials when they saw the human agent interact with the object. No such difference emerging with the inanimate agent (the black box). Results provide the first evidence that a non-primate species can perceive another individual’s actions as goal-directed. We discuss results in terms of the prevailing mentalisitic and non-mentalistic hypotheses regarding goal-attribution. PMID

  11. Connecting Goals and Actions during Reading: The Role of Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrantia, Josetxu; Múñez, David; Tarín, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate information that is separated within a text, such as connecting a character's action to a goal stated earlier in the text, is a critical factor in narrative comprehension. In the present study, we analyze the ability of 9- and 11-year olds to integrate such information. In addition, we examined the effect of…

  12. Sustainable Development Goals for Monitoring Action to Improve Global Health.

    PubMed

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2016-01-01

    Women and children compose the largest segment of the more than 1 billion people worldwide who are unable to access needed health care services. To address this and other global health issues, the United Nations brought together world leaders to address growing health inequities, first by establishing the Millennium Development Goals in 2000 and more recently establishing Sustainable Development Goals, which are an intergovernmental set of 17 goals consisting of 169 targets with 304 indicators to measure compliance; they were designed to be applicable to all countries. Goal number 3, "Good Health and Well-Being: Ensure Heathy Lives and Promote Well-Being for All at All Ages," includes targets to improve the health of women and newborns. PMID:27520607

  13. Goal anticipation during action observation is influenced by synonymous action capabilities, a puzzling developmental study.

    PubMed

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Kochukhova, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Eighteen- and 25-month-old human toddlers' ability to manually solve a puzzle and their ability to anticipate the goal during observation of similar actions were investigated. Results demonstrate that goal anticipation during action observation is dependent on manual ability, both on a group level (only 25-month-olds solved the manual task and anticipated the goal during observation) and individually within the older age group (r (xy) = 0.53). These findings suggests a connection between manual ability and the ability to anticipate the goal of others' actions in toddlers, in accordance with the direct matching hypothesis. PMID:20041233

  14. Gaze Following Is Modulated by Expectations Regarding Others’ Action Goals

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Osorio, Jairo; Müller, Hermann J.; Wiese, Eva; Wykowska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Humans attend to social cues in order to understand and predict others’ behavior. Facial expressions and gaze direction provide valuable information to infer others’ mental states and intentions. The present study examined the mechanism of gaze following in the context of participants’ expectations about successive action steps of an observed actor. We embedded a gaze-cueing manipulation within an action scenario consisting of a sequence of naturalistic photographs. Gaze-induced orienting of attention (gaze following) was analyzed with respect to whether the gaze behavior of the observed actor was in line or not with the action-related expectations of participants (i.e., whether the actor gazed at an object that was congruent or incongruent with an overarching action goal). In Experiment 1, participants followed the gaze of the observed agent, though the gaze-cueing effect was larger when the actor looked at an action-congruent object relative to an incongruent object. Experiment 2 examined whether the pattern of effects observed in Experiment 1 was due to covert, rather than overt, attentional orienting, by requiring participants to maintain eye fixation throughout the sequence of critical photographs (corroborated by monitoring eye movements). The essential pattern of results of Experiment 1 was replicated, with the gaze-cueing effect being completely eliminated when the observed agent gazed at an action-incongruent object. Thus, our findings show that covert gaze following can be modulated by expectations that humans hold regarding successive steps of the action performed by an observed agent. PMID:26606534

  15. Goal or movement? Action representation within the primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Andrea; Bucchioni, Giulia; Castiello, Umberto; Becchio, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Although facilitation of the cortico-spinal system during action observation is widely accepted, it remains controversial whether this facilitation reflects a replica of the observed movements or the goal of the observed motor acts. In the present transcranial magnetic stimulation study, we recorded motor evoked potentials from two hand muscles (first dorsal interosseous and abductor digiti minimi) while 22 healthy participants observed a hand reaching towards and grasping a bottle. To test for alternative coding levels (goal vs. movement), three relevant aspects were systematically manipulated: the type of observed movement (precision grip or whole hand grasping), situational context (bottle positioned in front of or behind a wall-like barrier), and processing stage (transcranial magnetic stimulation pulse delivered at the onset of the movement or at the moment of contact between the fingers and the object). At movement onset, motor evoked potential responses reflected the program necessary to achieve the action goal within the situational context. During movement observation, however, the type of observed movement was taken into account and a transition towards a movement-related modulation was observed. These results suggest that, rather than being exclusive alternatives, goal coding and movement coding may relate to different processing stages. PMID:23961848

  16. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishing affirmative action plans. 1608.4 Section 1608... AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.4 Establishing affirmative action plans. An affirmative action plan or program under this section shall...

  17. Actions, Action Sequences and Habits: Evidence That Goal-Directed and Habitual Action Control Are Hierarchically Organized

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral evidence suggests that instrumental conditioning is governed by two forms of action control: a goal-directed and a habit learning process. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) has been argued to underlie the goal-directed process; however, the way in which it interacts with habits and the structure of the habitual process has remained unclear. According to a flat architecture, the habitual process corresponds to model-free RL, and its interaction with the goal-directed process is coordinated by an external arbitration mechanism. Alternatively, the interaction between these systems has recently been argued to be hierarchical, such that the formation of action sequences underlies habit learning and a goal-directed process selects between goal-directed actions and habitual sequences of actions to reach the goal. Here we used a two-stage decision-making task to test predictions from these accounts. The hierarchical account predicts that, because they are tied to each other as an action sequence, selecting a habitual action in the first stage will be followed by a habitual action in the second stage, whereas the flat account predicts that the statuses of the first and second stage actions are independent of each other. We found, based on subjects' choices and reaction times, that human subjects combined single actions to build action sequences and that the formation of such action sequences was sufficient to explain habitual actions. Furthermore, based on Bayesian model comparison, a family of hierarchical RL models, assuming a hierarchical interaction between habit and goal-directed processes, provided a better fit of the subjects' behavior than a family of flat models. Although these findings do not rule out all possible model-free accounts of instrumental conditioning, they do show such accounts are not necessary to explain habitual actions and provide a new basis for understanding how goal-directed and habitual action control interact. PMID:24339762

  18. Educational Goals Inventory. Establishing Goals for Older Adult Educational Programs. A Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bella; Ventura-Merkel, Catherine

    This guidebook describes the nature and use of an Educational Goals Inventory (EGI) and the interpretation of the collected data. It is designed for use with a self-scoring process, the EGI Software Computer Package. Chapter I contains an overview of educational programming for older adults and a description of the Non-Traditional Educational…

  19. 49 CFR 26.49 - How are overall goals established for transit vehicle manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How are overall goals established for transit... PROGRAMS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting § 26.49 How are overall goals established for transit... transit vehicle manufacturer, as a condition of being authorized to bid or propose on FTA-assisted...

  20. 49 CFR 26.49 - How are overall goals established for transit vehicle manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How are overall goals established for transit... PROGRAMS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting § 26.49 How are overall goals established for transit... transit vehicle manufacturer, as a condition of being authorized to bid or propose on FTA-assisted...

  1. 49 CFR 26.49 - How are overall goals established for transit vehicle manufacturers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... goal is calculated. (b) If you are a transit vehicle manufacturer, you must establish and submit for FTA's approval an annual overall percentage goal. In setting your overall goal, you should be guided... this goal is the amount of FTA financial assistance included in transit vehicle contracts you...

  2. SADC establishes a regional action plan.

    PubMed

    Klouda, T

    1997-02-01

    The regional meeting held on AIDS strategy in Lilongwe, Malawi, in December, 1996, made important advances. The 12 countries of the SADC (Southern Africa Development Community) joined the European Union to institute a regional action plan for the reduction of susceptibility of people to HIV because of social, cultural, and environmental factors; the vulnerability of people with HIV infection to social and other difficulties; and the vulnerability of institutions because of the foregoing impacts. At the conference the issues explored were employment, mining, medical drugs, education, and tourism. An employment charter was seen as crucial for the success of AIDS and workplace activities. Facilitation of travel across borders was important for the reduction of susceptibility to HIV infection. Enhancement of regional policies for essential drugs was vital for drugs for the treatment of AIDS. The clarification of the regional role was critical for regional support of national action (strengthening technical and institutional capacities) and for regional joint action such as studies on research, harmonization of data collection on HIV/AIDS; organization of training; development of information and education on HIV/AIDS; facilitation of manufacturing of drugs and condoms; and the development of a regional information and education program about HIV/AIDS. The conference also clarified HIV/AIDS programs in relation to other health and socioeconomic problems. PMID:12292055

  3. Is automatic imitation based on goal coding or movement coding? A comparison of goal-directed and goal-less actions.

    PubMed

    Chiavarino, Claudia; Bugiani, Stefano; Grandi, Elisa; Colle, Livia

    2013-01-01

    A key issue for research on automatic imitation is whether it occurs primarily at the level of movements, that is, by automatically activating a representation of the movement/effector involved in the execution of the observed action, or at the level of goals, that is, by triggering a representation of the action goal, irrespective of how the motor act is physically instantiated. The present study presents two experiments aimed at investigating the contribution of movement coding and goal coding to automatic imitation, by assessing participants' performance in a spatial compatibility task where the observed stimuli were goal-directed and goal-less actions, which have been demonstrated to elicit, respectively, goal and movement coding. We found a significant automatic imitation effect both when the stimuli were goal-less actions and when they were actions directed toward a goal. However, the effect was stronger for the goal-less actions, even after controlling for saliency effects. These results suggest that goal coding contributes to automatic imitation, but to a lesser degree compared to movement coding. The implications of these results for theory and research on automatic imitation are discussed. PMID:23422654

  4. Accomplishing the Goals of Affirmative Action--with or without Affirmative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Might it be possible to achieve some or all of the goals of affirmative action through an approach based on an entirely different definition of the problem? This article says "yes." Its logic rests not upon an approach that creates informal quotas for identified groups, but instead on one aimed at discovering merit in people who are members of…

  5. Labels Facilitate Infants' Comparison of Action Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the actions of others depends on the insight that these actions are structured by intentional relations. In a number of conceptual domains, comparison with familiar instances has been shown to support children's and adults' ability to discern the relational structure of novel instances. Recent evidence suggests that this…

  6. Climbing the goal ladder: how upcoming actions increase level of aspiration.

    PubMed

    Koo, Minjung; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2010-07-01

    Pursuing a series of progressive (e.g., professional) goals that form a goal ladder often leads to a trade-off between moving up to a more advanced level and repeating the same goal level. This article investigates how monitoring one's current goal in terms of remaining actions versus completed actions influences the desire to move up the goal ladder. The authors propose that a focus on remaining (vs. completed) actions increases the motivation to move up to a more advanced level, whereas the focus on completed (vs. remaining) actions increases the satisfaction derived from the present level. They find support for these predictions across several goal ladders, ranging from academic and professional ladders to simple, experimental tasks. They further find that individuals strategically attend to information about remaining (vs. completed) actions to prepare to move up the goal ladder. PMID:20565182

  7. Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David A.; Phillips, Prudence

    1985-01-01

    Presents two discussions which focus on the rationale for and goals of teaching electrochemistry at high school and college levels. The first is "Electrochemistry" by Ronald Perkins and the second is "Goals in Teaching Electrochemistry" by J. T. Maloy. (JN)

  8. Dysregulation in level of goal and action identification across psychological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Goals, events, and actions can be mentally represented within a hierarchical framework that ranges from more abstract to more concrete levels of identification. A more abstract level of identification involves general, superordinate, and decontextualized mental representations that convey the meaning of goals, events, and actions, “why” an action is performed, and its purpose, ends, and consequences. A more concrete level of identification involves specific and subordinate mental representations that include contextual details of goals, events, and actions, and the specific “how” details of an action. This review considers three lines of evidence for considering that dysregulation of level of goal/action identification may be a transdiagnostic process. First, there is evidence that different levels of identification have distinct functional consequences and that in non-clinical samples level of goal/action identification appears to be regulated in a flexible and adaptive way to match the level of goal/action identification to circumstances. Second, there is evidence that level of goal/action identification causally influences symptoms and processes involved in psychological disorders, including emotional response, repetitive thought, impulsivity, problem solving and procrastination. Third, there is evidence that the level of goal/action identification is biased and/or dysregulated in certain psychological disorders, with a bias towards more abstract identification for negative events in depression, GAD, PTSD, and social anxiety. PMID:20579789

  9. Dysregulation in level of goal and action identification across psychological disorders.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Edward

    2011-03-01

    Goals, events, and actions can be mentally represented within a hierarchical framework that ranges from more abstract to more concrete levels of identification. A more abstract level of identification involves general, superordinate, and decontextualized mental representations that convey the meaning of goals, events, and actions, "why" an action is performed, and its purpose, ends, and consequences. A more concrete level of identification involves specific and subordinate mental representations that include contextual details of goals, events, and actions, and the specific "how" details of an action. This review considers three lines of evidence for considering that dysregulation of level of goal/action identification may be a transdiagnostic process. First, there is evidence that different levels of identification have distinct functional consequences and that in non-clinical samples level of goal/action identification appears to be regulated in a flexible and adaptive way to match the level of goal/action identification to circumstances. Second, there is evidence that level of goal/action identification causally influences symptoms and processes involved in psychological disorders, including emotional response, repetitive thought, impulsivity, problem solving and procrastination. Third, there is evidence that the level of goal/action identification is biased and/or dysregulated in certain psychological disorders, with a bias towards more abstract identification for negative events in depression, GAD, PTSD, and social anxiety. PMID:20579789

  10. Action Goals for the Seventies. An Agenda for Illinois Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Springfield.

    Six regional Illinois public hearings, involving Illinois educators, students, parents, and community organizations, were held during the summer of 1971, and resulted in a wealth of information and testimony about Illinois education. Subsequently, a draft document specifying priority goals for state education was compiled and circulated to…

  11. Social cues to joint actions: the role of shared goals

    PubMed Central

    Sacheli, Lucia M.; Aglioti, Salvatore M.; Candidi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    In daily life, we do not just move independently from how others move. Rather, the way we move conveys information about our cognitive and affective attitudes toward our conspecifics. However, the implicit social substrate of our movements is not easy to capture and isolate given the complexity of human interactive behaviors. In this perspective article we discuss the crucial conditions for exploring the impact of “interpersonal” cognitive/emotional dimensions on the motor behavior of individuals interacting in realistic contexts. We argue that testing interactions requires one to build up naturalistic and yet controlled scenarios where participants reciprocally adapt their movements in order to achieve an overarching “shared goal.” We suggest that a shared goal is what singles out real interactions from situations where two or more individuals contingently but independently act next to each other, and that “interpersonal” socio-emotional dimensions might fail to affect co-agents’ behaviors if real interactions are not at place. We report the results of a novel joint-grasping task suitable for exploring how individual sub-goals (i.e., correctly grasping an object) relate to, and depend from, the representation of “shared goals.” PMID:26283986

  12. Perceiving Goals and Actions in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalla, Tiziana; Labruyère, Nelly; Georgieff, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the ability to parse familiar sequences of action into meaningful events in young individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), as compared to young individuals with typical development (TD) and young individuals with moderate mental retardation or learning disabilities (MLDs). While viewing two…

  13. Infants' Perception of Goal-Directed Actions on Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Tanja; Hauf, Petra; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2007-01-01

    Imitation studies and object search studies show that infants have difficulties using action information presented on video to guide their own behaviour. The present study investigated whether infants also have problems interpreting information shown on video relative to real live information. It was examined whether 6-month-olds interpret an…

  14. Action Type and Goal Type Modulate Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts in 14-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gredeback, Gustaf; Stasiewicz, Dorota; Falck-Ytter, Terje; von Hofsten, Claes; Rosander, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Ten- and 14-month-old infants' gaze was recorded as the infants observed videos of different hand actions directed toward multiple goals. Infants observed an actor who (a) reached for objects and displaced them, (b) reached for objects and placed them inside containers, or (c) moved his fisted hand. Fourteen-month-olds, but not 10-month-olds,…

  15. Objects Mediate Goal Integration in Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex during Action Observation.

    PubMed

    Hrkać, Mari; Wurm, Moritz F; Kühn, Anne B; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2015-01-01

    Actions performed by others are mostly not observed in isolation, but embedded in sequences of actions tied together by an overarching goal. Therefore, preceding actions can modulate the observer's expectations in relation to the currently perceived action. Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in particular, is suggested to subserve the integration of episodic as well as semantic information and memory, including action scripts. The present fMRI study investigated if activation in IFG varies with the effort to integrate expected and observed action, even when not required by the task. During an fMRI session, participants were instructed to attend to short videos of single actions and to deliver a judgment about the actor's current goal. We manipulated the strength of goal expectation induced by the preceding action, implementing the parameter "goal-relatedness" between the preceding and the currently observed action. Moreover, since objects point to the probability of certain actions, we also manipulated whether the current and the preceding action shared at least one object or not. We found an interaction between the two factors goal-relatedness and shared object: IFG activation increased the weaker the goal-relatedness between the preceding and the current action was, but only when they shared at least one object. Here, integration of successive action steps was triggered by the re-appearing (shared) object but hampered by a weak goal-relatedness between the actually observed manipulation. These findings foster the recently emerging view that IFG is enhanced by goal-related conflicts during action observation. PMID:26218102

  16. Institutional implications of establishing safety goals for nuclear power plants. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Hooper, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to anticipate and address institutional problems that may arise from the adoption of NRC's proposed Policy Statement on Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants. The report emphasizes one particular category of institutional problems: the possible use of safety goals as a basis for legal challenges to NRC actions, and the resolution of such challenges by the courts. Three types of legal issues are identified and analyzed. These are, first, general legal issues such as access to the legal system, burden of proof, and standard of proof. Second is the particular formulation of goals. Involved here are such questions as sustainable rationale, definitions, avoided issues, vagueness of time and space details, and degree of conservatism. Implementation brings up the third set of issues which include interpretation and application, linkage to probabilistic risk assessment, consequences as compared to events, and the use of results.

  17. The sound of you and me: Novices represent shared goals in joint action.

    PubMed

    Loehr, Janeen D; Vesper, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    People performing joint actions coordinate their individual actions with each other to achieve a shared goal. The current study investigated the mental representations that are formed when people learn a new skill as part of a joint action. In a musical transfer-of-learning paradigm, piano novices first learned to perform simple melodies in the joint action context of coordinating with an accompanist to produce musical duets. Participants then performed their previously learned actions with two types of auditory feedback: while hearing either their individual action goal (the melody) or the shared action goal (the duet). As predicted, participants made more performance errors in the individual goal condition than in the shared goal condition. Further experimental manipulations indicated that this difference was not due to different coordination requirements in the two conditions or perceptual dissimilarities between learning and test. Together, these findings indicate that people form representations of shared goals in contexts that promote minimal representations, such as when learning a new action together with another person. PMID:26073040

  18. The Neural Representation of Goal-Directed Actions and Outcomes in the Ventral Striatum's Olfactory Tubercle

    PubMed Central

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    2016-01-01

    The ventral striatum is critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. The many cellular, afferent, and efferent similarities between the ventral striatum's nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle (OT) suggests the distributed involvement of neurons within the ventral striatopallidal complex in motivated behaviors. Although the nucleus accumbens has an established role in representing goal-directed actions and their outcomes, it is not known whether this function is localized within the nucleus accumbens or distributed also within the OT. Answering such a fundamental question will expand our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying motivated behaviors. Here we address whether the OT encodes natural reinforcers and serves as a substrate for motivational information processing. In recordings from mice engaged in a novel water-motivated instrumental task, we report that OT neurons modulate their firing rate during initiation and progression of the instrumental licking behavior, with some activity being internally generated and preceding the first lick. We further found that as motivational drive decreases throughout a session, the activity of OT neurons is enhanced earlier relative to the behavioral action. Additionally, OT neurons discriminate the types and magnitudes of fluid reinforcers. Together, these data suggest that the processing of reward information and the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors is a global principle of the ventral striatum and have important implications for understanding the neural systems subserving addiction and mood disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed behaviors are widespread among animals and underlie complex behaviors ranging from food intake, social behavior, and even pathological conditions, such as gambling and drug addiction. The ventral striatum is a neural system critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. Here we

  19. Promoting Self-Determination: Using Take Action To Teach Goal Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Sue Lyn; Martin, James E.; Marshall, Laura Huber; Sale, R. Paul

    2000-01-01

    The program "Take Action" was used to teach six adolescents with mild to moderate mental retardation the skills they needed to attain their daily Individualized Education Program goals. Results indicate all students learned to attain their own daily goals and maintained these skills following withdrawal of teacher instruction. (Contains…

  20. Action Goal Selection and Motor Planning Can Be Dissociated by Tool Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Therese; Schicke, Tobias; Roder, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of eye or hand movements enhances visual perception at the upcoming movement end position. The spatial location of this influence of action on perception could be determined either by goal selection or by motor planning. We employed a tool use task to dissociate these two alternatives. The instructed goal location was a visual…

  1. Target- and Effect-Directed Actions towards Temporal Goals: Similar Mechanisms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Andrea M.; Rieger, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The goal of an action can consist of generating a change in the environment (to produce an effect) or changing one's own situation in the environment (to move to a physical target). To investigate whether the mechanisms of effect-directed and target-directed action control are similar, participants performed continuous reversal movements. They…

  2. Infants' Perception of Goal-Directed Actions: Development through Cue-Based Bootstrapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Szilvia; Leslie, Alan M.

    2007-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that sensitivity to goal-directed actions emerges during the first year of life. However, controversy still surrounds the question of how this sensitivity emerges and develops. One set of views emphasizes the role of observing behavioral cues, while another emphasizes the role of experience with producing own action. In a…

  3. In Lumbar Fusion Patients, How Does Establishing a Comfort Function Goal Preoperatively Impact Postoperative Pain Scores?

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Winnie; Wagner, Elizabeth; Dumas, Bonnie P; Handley, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this feasibility study was to determine the impact of establishing a comfort function goal preoperatively on postoperative pain scores and opiate requirements in lumbar fusion patients. A comfort function goal is defined as the pain score identified by the patient describing the level of pain tolerance to participate in healing activities such as deep breathing, ambulation and participation in activities of daily living. The design was prospective, nonrandomized, intervention group (n = 30) compared with retrospective chart review as control group (n = 30). Sample included patients scheduled for routine lumbar fusion in an urban southeastern hospital. The study intervention established a comfort function goal during a routine preoperative patient education class. No significant difference in pain score or opiate requirement was found for these data. However, a fundamental clinical question arose surrounding opiate requirements and dosing management. In our hospital, the norm for postoperative pain management is to categorize pain scores as mild (1-3), moderate (4-6), and severe (7-10) pain. Physician orders commonly use this differential to order opiate dose ranges. In this sample, the mean pain score for the intervention group at home is 5.8 and the mean comfort function goal is 4.9. Based on normative categories of pain scores, if a patient's baseline of tolerable pain is 4.9, this has potential impact on clinician responses to managing pain, as 4.9-5.8 is, for this patient, perhaps a mild range of pain, not moderate. If a patient reports a pain score of 7, and their norm is 5.8, the delta is only 1.2. Does this imply that the patient is experiencing mild or severe pain? Does the nurse deliver a dose of pain medication that is in the mild or severe dose range? PMID:26293197

  4. The establishment of an attachment research network in Latin America: goals, accomplishments, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Causadias, José M; Sroufe, L Alan; Herreros, Francisca

    2011-03-01

    In the face of a pressing need for expanded attachment research programs and attachment informed interventions in Latin America, a research network was established: Red Iberoamericana de Apego: RIA (Iberian-American Attachment Network). The purpose of RIA is to promote human development and well being, informed by attachment theory, centering on research, and with implications for public policies, education, and intervention. We report the proceedings of the second meeting of RIA held in Panama City, Panama, in February 2010. As part of this meeting, RIA sponsored the first Latin-American attachment conference. Proceedings of the conference are described, as are future goals of this new organization. PMID:21390910

  5. Dissociable effects of salience on attention and goal-directed action.

    PubMed

    Moher, Jeff; Anderson, Brian A; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    Everyday behavior frequently involves encounters with multiple objects that compete for selection. For example, driving a car requires constant shifts of attention between oncoming traffic, rearview mirrors, and traffic signs and signals, among other objects. Behavioral goals often drive this selection process [1, 2]; however, they are not the sole determinant of selection. Physically salient objects, such as flashing, brightly colored hazard signs, or objects that are salient by virtue of learned associations with reward, such as pictures of food on a billboard, often capture attention regardless of the individual's goals [3-6]. It is typically thought that strongly salient distractor objects capture more attention and are more disruptive than weakly salient distractors [7, 8]. Counterintuitively, though, we found that this is true for perception, but not for goal-directed action. In a visually guided reaching task [9-11], we required participants to reach to a shape-defined target while trying to ignore salient distractors. We observed that strongly salient distractors produced less disruption in goal-directed action than weakly salient distractors. Thus, a strongly salient distractor triggers suppression during goal-directed action, resulting in enhanced efficiency and accuracy of target selection relative to when weakly salient distractors are present. In contrast, in a task requiring no goal-directed action, we found greater attentional interference from strongly salient distractors. Thus, while highly salient stimuli interfere strongly with perceptual processing, increased physical salience or associated value attenuates action-related interference. PMID:26190076

  6. Age-related differences in task goal processing strategies during action cascading.

    PubMed

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Gohil, Krutika; Beste, Christian

    2016-06-01

    We are often faced with situations requiring the execution of a coordinated cascade of different actions to achieve a goal, but we can apply different strategies to do so. Until now, these different action cascading strategies have, however, not been examined with respect to possible effects of aging. We tackled this question in a systems neurophysiological study using EEG and source localization in healthy older adults and employing mathematical constraints to determine the strategy applied. The results suggest that older adults seem to apply a less efficient strategy when cascading different actions. Compared to younger adults, older adults seem to struggle to hierarchically organize their actions, which leads to an inefficient and more parallel processing of different task goals. On a systems level, the observed deficit is most likely due to an altered processing of task goals at the response selection level (P3 ERP) and related to changes of neural processes in the temporo-parietal junction. PMID:26025200

  7. Action-value comparisons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex control choice between goal-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Richard W.; Dezfouli, Amir; Griffiths, Kristi R.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that choice between different actions reflects the difference between their action values yet little direct evidence confirming this assumption has been reported. Here we assess whether the brain calculates the absolute difference between action values or their relative advantage, that is, the probability that one action is better than the other alternatives. We use a two-armed bandit task during functional magnetic resonance imaging and modelled responses to determine both the size of the difference between action values (D) and the probability that one action value is better (P). The results show haemodynamic signals corresponding to P in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) together with evidence that these signals modulate motor cortex activity in an action-specific manner. We find no significant activity related to D. These findings demonstrate that a distinct neuronal population mediates action-value comparisons, and reveals how these comparisons are implemented to mediate value-based decision-making. PMID:25055179

  8. One step ahead: The perceived kinematics of others' actions are biased toward expected goals.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Matthew; Nicholson, Toby; Simpson, William A; Ellis, Rob; Bach, Patric

    2016-01-01

    Action observation is often conceptualized in a bottom-up manner, where sensory information activates conceptual (or motor) representations. In contrast, here we show that expectations about an actor's goal have a top-down predictive effect on action perception, biasing it toward these goals. In 3 experiments, participants observed hands reach for or withdraw from objects and judged whether a probe stimulus corresponded to the hand's final position. Before action onset, participants generated action expectations on the basis of either object types (safe or painful, Experiments 1 and 2) or abstract color cues (Experiment 3). Participants more readily mistook probes displaced in a predicted position (relative to unpredicted positions) for the hand's final position, and this predictive bias was larger when the movement and expectation were aligned. These effects were evident for low-level movement and high-level goal expectancies. Expectations bias action observation toward the predicted goals. These results challenge current bottom-up views and support recent predictive models of action observation. PMID:26595838

  9. Translational studies of goal-directed action as a framework for classifying deficits across psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kristi R.; Morris, Richard W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to learn contingencies between actions and outcomes in a dynamic environment is critical for flexible, adaptive behavior. Goal-directed actions adapt to changes in action-outcome contingencies as well as to changes in the reward-value of the outcome. When networks involved in reward processing and contingency learning are maladaptive, this fundamental ability can be lost, with detrimental consequences for decision-making. Impaired decision-making is a core feature in a number of psychiatric disorders, ranging from depression to schizophrenia. The argument can be developed, therefore, that seemingly disparate symptoms across psychiatric disorders can be explained by dysfunction within common decision-making circuitry. From this perspective, gaining a better understanding of the neural processes involved in goal-directed action, will allow a comparison of deficits observed across traditional diagnostic boundaries within a unified theoretical framework. This review describes the key processes and neural circuits involved in goal-directed decision-making using evidence from animal studies and human neuroimaging. Select studies are discussed to outline what we currently know about causal judgments regarding actions and their consequences, action-related reward evaluation, and, most importantly, how these processes are integrated in goal-directed learning and performance. Finally, we look at how adaptive decision-making is impaired across a range of psychiatric disorders and how deepening our understanding of this circuitry may offer insights into phenotypes and more targeted interventions. PMID:24904322

  10. Six-and-a-Half-Month-Old Children Positively Attribute Goals to Human Action and to Humanoid-Robot Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamewari, K.; Kato, M.; Kanda, T.; Ishiguro, H.; Hiraki, K.

    2005-01-01

    Recent infant studies indicate that goal attribution (understanding of goal-directed action) is present very early in infancy. We examined whether 6.5-month-olds attribute goals to agents and whether infants change the interpretation of goal-directed action according to the kind of agent. We conducted three experiments using the visual habituation…

  11. Increasing and Decreasing Motor and Cognitive Output: A Model of General Action and Inaction Goals

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M.; Noguchi, Kenji; McCulloch, Kathleen C.; Li, Hong; Leeper, Joshua; Brown, Rick D.; Earl, Allison; Hart, William P.

    2013-01-01

    General action and inaction goals can influence the amount of motor or cognitive output irrespective of the type of behavior in question, with the same stimuli producing trivial and important motor and cognitive manifestations normally viewed as parts of different systems. A series of experiments examined the effects of instilling general action and inaction goals using word primes, such as “action” and “rest.” The first 5 experiments showed that the same stimuli influenced motor output, such as doodling on a piece of paper and eating, as well as cognitive output, such as recall and problem solving. The last 2 experiments supported the prediction that these diverse effects can result from the instigation of general action and inaction goals. Specifically, these last 2 studies confirmed that participants were motivated to achieve active or inactive states and that attaining them decreased the effects of the primes on behavior. PMID:18729691

  12. How to Build an Intentional Android: Infants' Imitation of a Robot's Goal-Directed Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itakura, Shoji; Ishida, Hiraku; Kanda, Takayuki; Shimada, Yohko; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether young children are able to imitate a robot's goal-directed actions. Children (24-35 months old) viewed videos showing a robot attempting to manipulate an object (e.g., putting beads inside a cup) but failing to achieve its goal (e.g., beads fell outside the cup). In 1 video, the robot made eye contact with a human…

  13. Regulation of androgen action during establishment of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Douglas A; Simitsidellis, Ioannis; Saunders, Philippa T K

    2016-07-01

    During the establishment of pregnancy, the ovarian-derived hormones progesterone and oestradiol regulate remodelling of the endometrium to promote an environment that is able to support and maintain a successful pregnancy. Decidualisation is characterised by differentiation of endometrial stromal cells that secrete growth factors and cytokines that regulate vascular remodelling and immune cell influx. This differentiation process is critical for reproduction, and inadequate decidualisation is implicated in the aetiology of pregnancy disorders such as foetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. In contrast to progesterone and oestradiol, the role of androgens in regulating endometrial function is poorly understood. Androgen receptors are expressed in the endometrium, and androgens are reported to regulate both the transcriptome and the secretome of endometrial stromal cells. In androgen-target tissues, circulating precursors are activated to mediate local effects, and recent studies report that steroid concentrations detected in endometrial tissue are distinct to those detected in the peripheral circulation. New evidence suggests that decidualisation results in dynamic changes in the expression of androgen biosynthetic enzymes, highlighting a role for pre-receptor regulation of androgen action during the establishment of pregnancy. These results suggest that such enzymes could be future therapeutic targets for the treatment of infertility associated with endometrial dysfunction. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that androgens play a beneficial role in regulating the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Future studies should be focussed on investigating the safety and efficacy of androgen supplementation with the potential for utilisation of novel therapeutics, such as selective androgen receptor modulators, to improve reproductive outcomes in women. PMID:27067639

  14. Age, Action Orientation, and Self-Regulation during the Pursuit of a Dieting Goal.

    PubMed

    Hennecke, Marie; Freund, Alexandra M

    2016-03-01

    Two studies tested the hypotheses that (1) action orientation (vs. state orientation) is positively correlated with age across adulthood and (2) action orientation aids the self-regulation of one's feelings, thoughts, and behavior during the pursuit of a dieting goal. Hypotheses were partly confirmed. In Study 1, N = 126 overweight women (age: 19-77 years) intended to lose weight by means of a low-calorie diet. In Study 2, N = 322 adults (age: 18-82 years) reported on their action orientation to replicate the association of age and action orientation found in Study 1. Study 2 corroborated only the expected positive association of age and decision-related action orientation. In Study 1, decision-related action orientation predicted higher affective well-being during the diet as well as less self-reported deviations from the diet; failure-related action orientation predicted lower levels of rumination in response to dieting failures. Action orientation partially mediated the negative effects of age on deviations and rumination (see Hennecke & Freund, ). Weight loss was not predicted by action orientation. We discuss action orientation as one factor of increased motivational competence in older adulthood. PMID:26711052

  15. Developing and Establishing Local School District Goals. Volume 2 in the PERM Handbook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Research, Planning, and Evaluation.

    To help Connecticut school districts both develop goals and involve the community in the process--phase 1 of the planning, evaluation, and resource management (PERM) model--this handbook discusses goal-setting processes and models. An introduction notes the state's educational goals, outlines the PERM model, and describes the role of goals in…

  16. Academic Misconduct: A Goals-Plans-Action Approach to Peer Confrontation and Whistle-Blowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henningsen, Mary Lynn Miller; Valde, Kathleen S.; Denbow, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Academic misconduct is a serious, pervasive, communication phenomenon on college campuses. In this study, the goals-plans-action model (Dillard, 1990) was used as a theoretical framework to investigate peer confrontation of cheating and whistle-blowing to a course instructor. In an experiment, participants were asked to respond to measures of…

  17. Infant Eye-Tracking in the Context of Goal-Directed Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbetta, Daniela; Guan, Yu; Williams, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two methods that we applied to our research to record infant gaze in the context of goal-oriented actions using different eye-tracking devices: head-mounted and remote eye-tracking. For each type of eye-tracking system, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, describe the particular experimental setups we used to study…

  18. Similar Mechanisms of Movement Control in Target- and Effect-Directed Actions toward Spatial Goals?

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Andrea M.; Rieger, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that actions conducted toward temporal targets and temporal effects are controlled in a similar way. To investigate whether these findings also apply to spatially restricted movements we analyzed movement kinematics of continuous reversal movements toward given spatial targets and toward self-produced spatial effects in two experiments. In Experiment 1 target- and effect-directed movements were investigated in three different goal constellations. A spatial target/effect was always presented/produced on one movement side, on the other side either (a) no target/effect, (b) the same target/effect, or (c) a more difficult target/effect was presented/produced. Results showed that both target-directed and effect-directed movements have a typical spatial kinematic pattern and that both can be equally well described by linear functions as suggested by Fitts’ Law. However, effect-directed movements have longer movement times. In Experiment 2 participants performed target-directed movements to the one side and effect-directed movements to the other side of a reversal movement. More pronounced spatial kinematics were observed in effect-directed than in target-directed movements. Together, the results suggest that actions conducted toward spatial targets and spatial effects are controlled in a similar manner. Gradual differences in the kinematic patterns may arise because effects are cognitively more demanding. They may therefore be represented less accurately than targets. However, there was no indication of qualitative differences in the cognitive representations of effects and targets. This strengthens our assumption that both targets and effects play a comparable role in action control: they can both be viewed as goals of an action. Thus, ideomotor theories of action control should incorporate action targets as goals similar to action effects. PMID:23230426

  19. Linking Sensory Factors to Participation: Establishing Intervention Goals With Parents for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Roseann C; Cohn, Ellen S; Burke, Janice; Dumont, Rachel; Miller, Amy; Mailloux, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    Parents often focus on independence in activities of daily living and social participation when setting goals for their children with autism spectrum disorders. Occupational therapy practitioners use clinical reasoning to translate these goals to define occupation-based outcomes. This article describes an exploratory analysis of 160 parent-identified goals for children with autism. We identified sensory integrative factors hypothesized to influence each goal and then categorized the goals using the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Most goals were at the ICF participation and activity levels. Activities of daily living were the most common area of occupation identified, followed by social participation and play. Sensory reactivity and somatopraxis were the most frequently occurring sensory integrative factors. The value of addressing parent goals using a systematic reasoning process to identify factors affecting participation and the importance of measuring participation outcomes are discussed. PMID:26356657

  20. Exploring the neural correlates of goal-directed action and intention understanding.

    PubMed

    Carter, Elizabeth J; Hodgins, Jessica K; Rakison, David H

    2011-01-15

    Because we are a cooperative species, understanding the goals and intentions of others is critical for human survival. In this fMRI study, participants viewed reaching behaviors in which one of four animated characters moved a hand towards one of two objects and either (a) picked up the object, (b) missed the object, or (c) changed his path halfway to lift the other object. The characters included a human, a humanoid robot, stacked boxes with an arm, and a mechanical claw. The first three moved in an identical, human-like biological pattern. Right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) activity increased when the human or humanoid robot shifted goals or missed the target relative to obtaining the original goal. This suggests that the pSTS was engaged differentially for figures that appeared more human-like rather than for all human-like motion. Medial frontal areas that are part of a protagonist-monitoring network with the right pSTS (e.g., Mason and Just, 2006) were most engaged for the human character, followed by the robot character. The current data suggest that goal-directed action and intention understanding require this network and it is used similarly for the two processes. Moreover, it is modulated by character identity rather than only the presence of biological motion. We discuss the implications for behavioral theories of goal-directed action and intention understanding. PMID:20832476

  1. Should I stay or should I go? Conceptual underpinnings of goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    All actions, even the simplest like moving an arm to grasp a pen, are associated with energy costs. Thus all mobile organisms possess the ability to evaluate resources and select those behaviors that are most likely to lead to the greatest accrual of valuable items (reward) in the near or, especially in the case of humans, distant future. The evaluation process is performed at all possible stages of the series of decisions that lead to the building of a goal-directed action or to its suppression. This is because all animals have a limited amount of energy and resources; to survive and be able to reproduce they have to minimize the costs and maximize the outcomes of their actions. These computations are at the root of behavioral flexibility. Two executive functions play a major role in generating flexible behaviors: (i) the ability to predict future outcomes of goal-directed actions; and (ii) the ability to cancel them when they are unlikely to accomplish valuable results. These two processes operate continuously during the entire course of a movement: during its genesis, its planning and even its execution, so that the motor output can be modulated or suppressed at any time before its execution. In this review, functional interactions of the extended neural network subserving generation and inhibition of goal-directed movements will be outlined, leading to the intriguing hypothesis that the performance of actions and their suppression are not specified by independent sets of brain regions. Rather, it will be proposed that acting and stopping are functions emerging from specific interactions between largely overlapping brain regions, whose activity is intimately linked (directly or indirectly) to the evaluations of pros and cons of an action. Such mechanism would allow the brain to perform as a highly efficient and flexible system, as different functions could be computed exploiting the same components operating in different configurations. PMID:25404898

  2. Should I stay or should I go? Conceptual underpinnings of goal-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    All actions, even the simplest like moving an arm to grasp a pen, are associated with energy costs. Thus all mobile organisms possess the ability to evaluate resources and select those behaviors that are most likely to lead to the greatest accrual of valuable items (reward) in the near or, especially in the case of humans, distant future. The evaluation process is performed at all possible stages of the series of decisions that lead to the building of a goal-directed action or to its suppression. This is because all animals have a limited amount of energy and resources; to survive and be able to reproduce they have to minimize the costs and maximize the outcomes of their actions. These computations are at the root of behavioral flexibility. Two executive functions play a major role in generating flexible behaviors: (i) the ability to predict future outcomes of goal-directed actions; and (ii) the ability to cancel them when they are unlikely to accomplish valuable results. These two processes operate continuously during the entire course of a movement: during its genesis, its planning and even its execution, so that the motor output can be modulated or suppressed at any time before its execution. In this review, functional interactions of the extended neural network subserving generation and inhibition of goal-directed movements will be outlined, leading to the intriguing hypothesis that the performance of actions and their suppression are not specified by independent sets of brain regions. Rather, it will be proposed that acting and stopping are functions emerging from specific interactions between largely overlapping brain regions, whose activity is intimately linked (directly or indirectly) to the evaluations of pros and cons of an action. Such mechanism would allow the brain to perform as a highly efficient and flexible system, as different functions could be computed exploiting the same components operating in different configurations. PMID:25404898

  3. Great apes generate goal-based action predictions: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Kano, Fumihiro; Call, Josep

    2014-09-01

    To examine great apes' on-line prediction of other individuals' actions, we used an eye-tracking technique and an experimental paradigm previously used to test human infants. Twenty-two great apes, including bonobos, chimpanzees, and orangutans, were familiarized to movie clips of a human hand reaching to grasp one of two objects. Then the objects' locations were swapped, and in the test event, the hand made an incomplete reach between the objects. In a control condition, a mechanical claw performed the same actions. The apes predictively looked at the familiarized goal object rather than the familiarized location when viewing the hand action in the test event. However, they made no prediction when viewing the claw action. These results are similar to those reported previously for human infants, and predictive looking did not differ among the three species of great apes. Thus, great apes make on-line goal-based predictions about the actions of other individuals; this skill is not unique to humans but is shared more widely among primates. PMID:25022278

  4. Evaluation of behavior change goal-setting action plan on oral health activity and status.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Lindsay M; Yoon, Richard K; Chinn, Courtney H; Chussid, Steven

    2011-11-01

    This experimental study determined if a "report card-like" oral health action plan was effective in improving oral health behaviors in a sample of 69 patients, ages 1 to 6 years. Participants were divided randomly into control and intervention groups. Data collected included dmft, plaque score, Streptococcus mutans levels and oral health behaviors. Participants in the intervention group received an oral health action plan that included: 1. child's current caries-risk status; 2. identification issues of concern; and 3. one "goal" to improve on for the next visit. All participants returned after two months for follow-up examination and data collection. PMID:22338818

  5. Dopaminergic modulation of positive expectations for goal-directed action: evidence from Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wolpe, Noham; Nombela, Cristina; Rowe, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) impairs the control of movement and cognition, including the planning of action and its consequences. This provides the opportunity to study the dopaminergic influences on the perception and awareness of action. Here we examined the perception of the outcome of a goal-directed action made by medicated patients with PD. A visuomotor task probed the integration of sensorimotor signals with the positive expectations of outcomes (Self priors), which in healthy adults bias perception toward success in proportion to trait optimism. We tested the hypotheses that (i) the priors on the perception of the consequences of one’s own actions differ between patients and age- and sex-matched controls, and (ii) that these priors are modulated by the levodopa dose equivalent (LDEs) in patients. There was no overall difference between patients and controls in the perceptual priors used. However, the precision of patient priors was inversely related to their LDE. Patients with high LDE showed more accurate priors, representing predictions that were closer to the true distribution of performance. Such accuracy has previously been demonstrated when observing the actions of others, suggesting abnormal awareness of action in these patients. These results confirm a link between dopamine and the positive expectation of the outcome of one’s own actions, and may have implications for the management of PD. PMID:26500582

  6. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... three elements: a reasonable self analysis; a reasonable basis for concluding action is appropriate; and reasonable action. (a) Reasonable self analysis. The objective of a self analysis is to determine whether... analysis. The employer may utilize techniques used in order to comply with Executive Order 11246,...

  7. Amalgamation of Future Time Orientation, Epistemological Beliefs, Achievement Goals and Study Strategies: Empirical Evidence Established

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently research evidence emphasizes two main lines of inquiry, namely the relations between future time perspective (FTP), achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance) and study processing strategies, and the relations between epistemological beliefs, achievement goals and study processing strategies.…

  8. Guam Public School System District Action Plan: Goals and Objectives, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guam Public School System, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Guam Education Policy Board initially adopted the Guam Public School System District Action Plan in May 2003. The DAP established the direction and details for improving academic performance in reading, math, and language arts by using the provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act as a framework. The adopted DAP was also used as a basis for…

  9. The Feeling of Action Tendencies: On the Emotional Regulation of Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review the nature of the functional and causal relationship between neurophysiologically/psychologically generated states of emotional feeling and action tendencies and extrapolate a novel perspective. Emotion theory, over the past century and beyond, has tended to regard feeling and action tendency as independent phenomena: attempts to outline the functional and causal relationship that exists between them have been framed therein. Classically, such relationships have been viewed as unidirectional, but an argument for bidirectionality rooted in a dynamic systems perspective has gained strength in recent years whereby the feeling–action tendency relationship is viewed as a composite whole. On the basis of our review of somatic–visceral theories of feelings, we argue that feelings are grounded upon neural-dynamic representations (elevated and stable activation patterns) of action tendency. Such representations amount to predictions updated by cognitive and bodily feedback. Specifically, we view emotional feelings as minimalist predictions of the action tendency (what the agent is physiologically and cognitively primed to do) in a given situation. The essence of this point is captured by our exposition of action tendency prediction–feedback loops which we consider, above all, in the context of emotion regulation, and in particular, of emotional regulation of goal-directed behavior. The perspective outlined may be of use to emotion theorists, computational modelers, and roboticists. PMID:22207854

  10. Development of goal-directed action selection guided by intrinsic motivations: an experiment with children.

    PubMed

    Taffoni, Fabrizio; Tamilia, Eleonora; Focaroli, Valentina; Formica, Domenico; Ricci, Luca; Di Pino, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Keller, Flavio

    2014-07-01

    Action selection is extremely important, particularly when the accomplishment of competitive tasks may require access to limited motor resources. The spontaneous exploration of the world plays a fundamental role in the development of this capacity, providing subjects with an increasingly diverse set of opportunities to acquire, practice and refine the understanding of action-outcome connection. The computational modeling literature proposed a number of specific mechanisms for autonomous agents to discover and target interesting outcomes: intrinsic motivations hold a central importance among those mechanisms. Unfortunately, the study of the acquisition of action-outcome relation was mostly carried out with experiments involving extrinsic tasks, either based on rewards or on predefined task goals. This work presents a new experimental paradigm to study the effect of intrinsic motivation on action-outcome relation learning and action selection during free exploration of the world. Three- and four-year-old children were observed during the free exploration of a new toy: half of them were allowed to develop the knowledge concerning its functioning; the other half were not allowed to learn anything. The knowledge acquired during the free exploration of the toy was subsequently assessed and compared. PMID:24691755

  11. Encoding the Goal of an Object-Directed but Uncompleted Reaching Action in 6- and 9-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daum, Moritz M.; Prinz, Wolfgang; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2008-01-01

    Infants start to interpret completed human actions as goal-directed in the second half of the first year of life. In a series of three studies, the understanding of a goal-directed but uncompleted action was investigated in 6- and 9-month-old infants using a preferential looking paradigm. Infants saw the video of an actor's reaching movement…

  12. Being in two minds: the neural basis of experiencing action crises in personal long-term goals.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Marcel; Baur, Volker; Brandstätter, Veronika; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Although the successful pursuit of long-term goals constitutes an essential prerequisite to personal development, health, and well-being, little research has been devoted to the understanding of its underlying neural processes. A critical phase in the pursuit of long-term goals is defined as an action crisis, conceptualized as the intra-psychic conflict between further goal pursuit and disengagement from the goal. In the present research, we applied an interdisciplinary (cognitive and neural) approach to the analysis of processes underlying the experience of an action crisis. In Study 1, a longitudinal field study, action crises in personal goals gave rise to an increased and unbiased (re)evaluation of the costs and benefits (i.e., rewards) of the goal. Study 2 was a magnetic resonance imaging study examining resting-state functional connectivity. The extent of experienced action crises was associated with enhanced fronto-accumbal connectivity signifying increased reward-related impact on prefrontal action control. Action crises, furthermore, mediated the relationship between a dispositional measure of effective goal pursuit (action orientation) and fronto-accumbal connectivity. The converging and complementary results from two methodologically different approaches advance the understanding of the neurobiology of personal long-term goals, especially with respect to the role of rewards in the context of goal-related conflicts. PMID:24985970

  13. National Adult Literacy Congress: Leadership in Action (4th, Washington, D.C., September 17-20, 1993). Goals and Action Plans. Source Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's County Memorial Library System, Hyattsville, MD.

    This publication presents the National Adult Literacy Goals and Action Plans developed at the Fourth National Adult Literacy Congress. The goals and action plans are intended for use in national, state, and local initiatives to support adult students as they become part of the solution to the illiteracy problem in the United States. A list of the…

  14. Collaborating with Parents to Establish Behavioral Goals in Child-Centered Play Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Phyllis B.; Ceballos, Peggy L.; Penn, Saundra L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide specific guidelines for child-centered play therapists to set behavioral outcome goals to effectively work with families and to meet the demands for accountability in the managed care environment. The child-centered play therapy orientation is the most widely practiced approach among play therapists who…

  15. Establishing Goals and Maintaining Coherence in Multiparty Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Martin; Noyes, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Communicating via text-only computer-mediated communication (CMC) channels is associated with a number of issues that would impair users in achieving dialogue coherence and goals. It has been suggested that humans have devised novel adaptive strategies to deal with those issues. However, it could be that humans rely on "classic" coherence devices…

  16. The Extrastriate Body Area Computes Desired Goal States during Action Planning.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Marius; Verhagen, Lennart; de Lange, Floris P; Toni, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    How do object perception and action interact at a neural level? Here we test the hypothesis that perceptual features, processed by the ventral visuoperceptual stream, are used as priors by the dorsal visuomotor stream to specify goal-directed grasping actions. We present three main findings, which were obtained by combining time-resolved transcranial magnetic stimulation and kinematic tracking of grasp-and-rotate object manipulations, in a group of healthy human participants (N = 22). First, the extrastriate body area (EBA), in the ventral stream, provides an initial structure to motor plans, based on current and desired states of a grasped object and of the grasping hand. Second, the contributions of EBA are earlier in time than those of a caudal intraparietal region known to specify the action plan. Third, the contributions of EBA are particularly important when desired and current object configurations differ, and multiple courses of actions are possible. These findings specify the temporal and functional characteristics for a mechanism that integrates perceptual processing with motor planning. PMID:27066535

  17. The Extrastriate Body Area Computes Desired Goal States during Action Planning123

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract How do object perception and action interact at a neural level? Here we test the hypothesis that perceptual features, processed by the ventral visuoperceptual stream, are used as priors by the dorsal visuomotor stream to specify goal-directed grasping actions. We present three main findings, which were obtained by combining time-resolved transcranial magnetic stimulation and kinematic tracking of grasp-and-rotate object manipulations, in a group of healthy human participants (N = 22). First, the extrastriate body area (EBA), in the ventral stream, provides an initial structure to motor plans, based on current and desired states of a grasped object and of the grasping hand. Second, the contributions of EBA are earlier in time than those of a caudal intraparietal region known to specify the action plan. Third, the contributions of EBA are particularly important when desired and current object configurations differ, and multiple courses of actions are possible. These findings specify the temporal and functional characteristics for a mechanism that integrates perceptual processing with motor planning. PMID:27066535

  18. Conceptual response distance and intervening keys distinguish action goals in the Stroop color-identification task.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Proctor, Robert W

    2014-10-01

    In previous studies, a physical response-distance effect was found in the two-choice Stroop color-identification task, with the Stroop effect being larger when the two response keys were physically close together than when they were far apart. In the present study, we found a conceptual response-distance effect, with the Stroop effect being larger when the response keys were conceptually close (labeled as "5" and "6") than when they were conceptually far (labeled as "1" and "9"). Moreover, a response-distance effect due to pure physical distance was not evident; rather, the effect was found only when additional keys were placed between the two far response keys. These results are in agreement with a view that response keys are coded as action goals, with farther conceptual distance and additional keys helping distinguish the action goals. The results are difficult to reconcile with accounts that place emphasis on the physical separation of the effectors or their inanimate extensions. PMID:24578092

  19. Effects of goal- and task-oriented motivation in the guilty action test.

    PubMed

    Elaad, Eitan

    2013-04-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of the Guilty Action Test in detecting critical information from goal-oriented and task-oriented informed innocent examinees. A mock crime procedure was employed and informed innocent participants were either motivated to prove innocence (goal-oriented motivation) or to prove innocence by being cooperative on the test (task-oriented motivation). Half of the participants in each motivation condition were promised course credit reward for successful completion of their mission to prove innocence or to be cooperative (high incentive level). The other half were promised no reward (low incentive level). A fifth group of uninformed innocent participants served for control purposes. Electrodemal, respiration, and cardiovascular measures were used to indicate the motivation effects. Results showed that the combination of goal-oriented instructions and an incentive for success contributed to enhanced responses to the crime-related information. The combination of task-oriented instructions and an incentive for success attenuated these responses. Skin conductance responses were most sensitive to these effects. Theoretical and practical aspects of the results were discussed. PMID:23458884

  20. International energy cooperation: The mismatch between IEA policy actions and policy goals: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    This analysis discusses the link, if any, between IEA policy actions and stated goals of the Program. Understanding the reasons for success or failure of IEA actions identifies which policies achieve real gains from international energy cooperation, and which are counterproductive. Section I is an overview of the structural framework of the IEA. Section II describes the institutional and organizational background, including the policy mechanisms, of the IEA. Section III looks at specific policy actions undertaken by the agency, particularly during the Iranian revolution and at the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq War. The economic consequences of oil sharing are examined in section IV, which simulates a world oil supply disruption affecting IEA member countries differentially. Section V analyzes import controls, focusing on coordination problems and possible OPEC pricing responses, and examines the actual record of general petroleum consumption restraints in 1980. Oil stockpiling is analyzed both as a general economic phenomenon and an object of IEA coordination in section VI, which also offers an econometric analysis of actual experience in the 1970s and 1980s. Section VII considers a number of less formal assessments of IEA policies, including self-evaluations by the IEA itself.

  1. Visual control of braking in goal-directed action and sport.

    PubMed

    Bardy, B G; Warren, W H

    1997-12-01

    Reaching a moving object, avoiding an obstacle, or controlling a rotation are common requirements of experts in sport and goal-directed action. Since the original analysis of optic flow, a large number of studies have addressed the problem of perception and control of braking. In this paper, the perception-action strategies described for deceleration control are reviewed; driving, docking, landing, somersaulting, running and reaching are analysed. The role played by 'tau dot', the first temporal derivative of tau, is shown to be critical. However, the so-called constant tau-dot strategy proposed to explain how we regulate our deceleration in such circumstances is critically examined and rejected. New directions in the problem of braking control are proposed that emphasize: (1) the advantage of tau-dot over other kinematic variables; (2) the task specificity of tau-dot; (3) the need to consider tau-dot as a control variable; and (4) the role played by the controller dynamics in the perception-action loop. Several directions for future research are suggested. PMID:9486438

  2. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action. 1009.8 Section 1009.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL GENERAL STATEMENTS OF POLICY OR INTERPRETATION § 1009.8 Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action. (a) This document states the...

  3. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action. 1009.8 Section 1009.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL GENERAL STATEMENTS OF POLICY OR INTERPRETATION § 1009.8 Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action. (a) This document states the...

  4. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action. 1009.8 Section 1009.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL GENERAL STATEMENTS OF POLICY OR INTERPRETATION § 1009.8 Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action. (a) This document states the...

  5. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action. 1009.8 Section 1009.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL GENERAL STATEMENTS OF POLICY OR INTERPRETATION § 1009.8 Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action. (a) This document states the...

  6. 27 CFR 19.913 - Action on applications to establish small plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action on applications to establish small plants. 19.913 Section 19.913 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Fuel Use Permits § 19.913 Action on applications to establish small plants. (a) Receipt by...

  7. 37 CFR 3.73 - Establishing right of assignee to take action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... assignee to take action. 3.73 Section 3.73 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... by Assignee § 3.73 Establishing right of assignee to take action. (a) The inventor is presumed to be..., unless there is an assignment. (b)(1) In order to request or take action in a patent or trademark...

  8. Action observers implicitly expect actors to act goal-coherently, even if they do not: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hrkać, Mari; Wurm, Moritz F; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2014-05-01

    Actions observed in everyday life normally consist of one person performing sequences of goal-directed actions. The present fMRI study tested the hypotheses that observers are influenced by the actor's identity, even when this information is task-irrelevant, and that this information shapes their expectation on subsequent actions of the same actor. Participants watched short video clips of action steps that either pertained to a common action with an overarching goal or not, and were performed by either one or by varying actors (2 × 2 design). Independent of goal coherence, actor coherence elicited activation in dorsolateral and ventromedial frontal cortex, together pointing to a spontaneous attempt to integrate all actions performed by one actor. Interestingly, watching an actor performing unrelated actions elicited additional activation in left inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting a search in semantic memory in an attempt to construct an overarching goal that can reconcile the disparate action steps with a coherent intention. Post-experimental surveys indicate that these processes occur mostly unconsciously. Findings strongly suggest a spontaneous expectation bias toward actor-related episodes in action observers, and hence to the immense impact of actor information on action observation. PMID:23983202

  9. Predicting Physical Activity Outcomes During Episodes of Academic Goal Conflict: The Differential Role of Action Planning and Coping Planning.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Natasha; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The moderating role of academic goal conflict in the relations between action planning (AP) and coping planning (CP) with physical activity was tested using samples of university students concurrently pursuing an academic and a physical activity goal. In Study 1 (N = 317), AP was found to positively relate to physical activity goal progress at low, but not at high, levels of goal conflict. CP trended toward being positively related to goal progress at high, but not at low levels of goal conflict. Study 2 (N = 97), using a 1-week daily diary design and measures of self-reported physical activity behavior and goal progress, showed that daily AP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced lower, but not higher, levels of goal conflict relative to their average. Conversely, CP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced higher, but not lower, levels of goal conflict. PMID:26174696

  10. A 1% Solution: Establishing and Reaching Enrollment Goals in Geoscience Departments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, D. D.

    2005-12-01

    Because of the small number of recent graduates, the Department of Geology and Geography at Georgia Southern University was placed on the list of programs to be monitored by the University System of Georgia's Board of Regents in August 1998. With only 23 majors at the time, the need to grow the program was obvious to everyone. Facing the reality that the survival of the Department was at stake, the faculty made enhancing enrollments its highest priority. After consulting a variety of published information and talking to faculty from the incredibly successful Department of Geology and Geography at Northwest Missouri State University, the faculty adopted a goal of having the combined number of geology and geography majors in the department equal 1% of the university's undergraduate enrollment, which then stood at 12,400. The most important move toward the goal occurred when the Department began actively recruiting majors from all introductory geology and geography courses. Recruiting took a variety of forms that ranged from suggesting that students doing well in a course consider majoring in the field to formal presentations on geology and geography as careers. Since the Spring 2001 semester, recruiting talks have been given in every introductory level geography and geology class by a member of the faculty other than the course's instructor. The presentations emphasize how geology and geography promote the development of important marketable skills (e.g., critical thinking, problem solving, writing, public speaking, cultural awareness) and technical expertise (especially GIS) that are essential in obtaining employment and in career advancement. The presentations occur during the week preceding the Thanksgiving holidays, so students will have the opportunity to discuss this important choice with their parents. This schedule also gives students time to make their decision before registration for the spring semester. Soon after the recruitment efforts started the number

  11. Causative role of left aIPS in coding shared goals during human–avatar complementary joint actions

    PubMed Central

    Sacheli, Lucia M.; Candidi, Matteo; Era, Vanessa; Aglioti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    Successful motor interactions require agents to anticipate what a partner is doing in order to predictively adjust their own movements. Although the neural underpinnings of the ability to predict others' action goals have been well explored during passive action observation, no study has yet clarified any critical neural substrate supporting interpersonal coordination during active, non-imitative (complementary) interactions. Here, we combine non-invasive inhibitory brain stimulation (continuous Theta Burst Stimulation) with a novel human–avatar interaction task to investigate a causal role for higher-order motor cortical regions in supporting the ability to predict and adapt to others' actions. We demonstrate that inhibition of left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), but not ventral premotor cortex, selectively impaired individuals' performance during complementary interactions. Thus, in addition to coding observed and executed action goals, aIPS is crucial in coding ‘shared goals', that is, integrating predictions about one's and others' complementary actions. PMID:26154706

  12. 78 FR 68020 - Evaluation of Established Plant Pests for Action at Ports of Entry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Evaluation of Established Plant Pests for Action at Ports of Entry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising... the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). Pursuant to the PPA,...

  13. Goal Disengagement in Emerging Adulthood: The Adaptive Potential of Action Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandstätter, Veronika; Herrmann, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In emerging adulthood, being committed to and making progress on important personal goals constitutes a source of identity and well-being. Goal striving, however, does not always go without problems. Even though highly committed to a goal, individuals may experience recurring setbacks and, consequently, increasing doubts about the goal that might…

  14. I see what you say: Prior knowledge of other's goals automatically biases the perception of their actions.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Matthew; Nicholson, Toby; Ellis, Rob; Bach, Patric

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether top-down expectations about an actor's intentions affect action perception in a representational momentum (RM) paradigm. Participants heard an actor declare an intention to either take or leave an object and then saw him either reach for or withdraw from it, such that action and intention were either congruent or incongruent. Observers generally misperceived the hand's disappearance point further along the trajectory than it actually was, in line with the idea that action perception incorporates predictions of the action's future course. Importantly, this RM effect was larger for actions congruent with the actor's goals than for incongruent actions. These results demonstrate that action prediction integrates both current motion and top-down knowledge about the actor's intention. They support recent theories that emphasise the role of prior expectancies and prediction errors in social (and non-social) cognitive processing. PMID:26484497

  15. Enactment versus Observation: Item-Specific and Relational Processing in Goal-Directed Action Sequences (and Lists of Single Actions)

    PubMed Central

    Schult, Janette; von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C.

    2014-01-01

    What are the memory-related consequences of learning actions (such as “apply the patch”) by enactment during study, as compared to action observation? Theories converge in postulating that enactment encoding increases item-specific processing, but not the processing of relational information. Typically, in the laboratory enactment encoding is studied for lists of unrelated single actions in which one action execution has no overarching purpose or relation with other actions. In contrast, real-life actions are usually carried out with the intention to achieve such a purpose. When actions are embedded in action sequences, relational information provides efficient retrieval cues. We contrasted memory for single actions with memory for action sequences in three experiments. We found more reliance on relational processing for action-sequences than single actions. To what degree can this relational information be used after enactment versus after the observation of an actor? We found indicators of superior relational processing after observation than enactment in ordered pair recall (Experiment 1A) and in emerging subjective organization of repeated recall protocols (recall runs 2–3, Experiment 2). An indicator of superior item-specific processing after enactment compared to observation was recognition (Experiment 1B, Experiment 2). Similar net recall suggests that observation can be as good a learning strategy as enactment. We discuss possible reasons why these findings only partly converge with previous research and theorizing. PMID:24927279

  16. Encoding the goal of an object-directed but uncompleted reaching action in 6- and 9-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Daum, Moritz M; Prinz, Wolfgang; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2008-07-01

    Infants start to interpret completed human actions as goal-directed in the second half of the first year of life. In a series of three studies, the understanding of a goal-directed but uncompleted action was investigated in 6- and 9-month-old infants using a preferential looking paradigm. Infants saw the video of an actor's reaching movement towards one of two objects. This reaching movement was only presented until the hand passed the midpoint between the starting position and the position of the target object. Subsequently, two final states of the reaching movement were presented simultaneously. In the plausible final state, the hand grasped the object to which the reaching movement was geared; in the implausible final state, the hand grasped the other object. In Studies 1 and 3, infants watched the actor from an allocentric perspective, and in Studies 2 and 3 from an egocentric perspective. Results indicate a discrimination of the two final states if the scene was presented from an allocentric perspective: both 6- and 9-month-olds looked longer at the implausible final state. This was not the case if infants saw the action from an egocentric perspective. The presented findings show that using this paradigm, 6-month-olds are already able to infer the goal of an uncompleted action without seeing the achievement of the goal itself. However, they encoded the goal of the reaching action only when it was presented from an allocentric perspective but not from an egocentric perspective. PMID:18576968

  17. Setting Your Development Goals: Start with Your Values. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternbergh, Bill; Weitzel, Sloan R.

    This guidebook is about changing the way people think about setting goals; it is about identifying goals that are important and meaningful. Creating those kinds of goals means taking stock of personal values--what one believes and how one can act to carry out those beliefs--in five key areas of life: career, self, family, community, and spirit.…

  18. Is the organisation of goal-directed action modality specific? A common temporal structure.

    PubMed

    Weiss, P H; Jeannerod, M; Paulignan, Y; Freund, H J

    2000-01-01

    With the help of kinematic analysis, the temporal organization of the complex daily activity 'drinking from a bottle with a glass' was described in detail. The analysis focused on the sequential action structure, the prehensile acts, and the bimanual coordination as well as on the effect of different instruction modalities on these parameters to explore the underlying representation for this complex action. Movements of the two arms were recorded in three-dimensional space with the help of an optoelectronic device in 12 normal subjects under four conditions: (1) action pantomime after verbal instruction; (2) action imitation after observation of the action performed by the experimenter without the objects; (3) action pantomime while seeing, but not touching the objects; and finally (4) action execution with objects. Despite high execution variability, the temporal structure of the action could be precisely described by the relative duration and peak velocity of action segments, by the MGA-object size-correlation, and by linear regression analysis between the onsets of functionally related action segments. A similar structure of the action as characterized by these kinematic parameters was retained across different instruction modalities. Only when the action was executed with the objects, the interval between the movement onsets of either hand and the peak velocity of the manipulative acts were reduced, while no change was observed across the other three instruction modalities. This stability of the temporal structure suggests the existence of a level in the representation of an action where all the modalities converge. PMID:10838148

  19. The neural basis of integrating pre- and post-response information for goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Frimmel, Steffi; Wolfensteller, Uta; Mohr, Holger; Ruge, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental prerequisite for goal-directed action is to encode the contingencies between responses (R) producing specific outcomes (O) in specific stimulus conditions (S). The present study aimed to characterize the functional neuroanatomy of different associational sub-components of such S-R-O contingencies during the first few trials of exposure. We devised a novel paradigm that was suited to distinguish BOLD activation patterns related to S-R, R-O, and the full S-R-O contingency. Different from previous studies our experimental design ensured that stimulus-related processes and outcome-related processes were maximally comparable, as both were learned incidentally and lacked intrinsic incentive value, and different from trial-and-error learning situations, outcomes did not serve a special role as performance feedback. We observed contingency-related dissociations between SMA, lateral OFC, and large parts of the reward system including central OFC, anterior striatum and midbrain areas. While the lateral OFC was involved in processing differential outcomes irrespective of a predictive stimulus context, the SMA was specifically engaged when differential outcomes could be predicted by the stimulus. By contrast, the activation pattern of reward system areas suggested that these regions serve a role in integrating non-incentive differential outcome information and incentive common outcome information. Together, these results support the notion that striatal and orbitofrontal regions are involved in outcome-related processes beyond trial-and-error S-R learning, that is, when outcomes are non-incentive and do not serve as reinforcing feedback that drives learning. Furthermore, our results clarify the role of the SMA in outcome-related processes thereby supporting current versions of ideomotor theory. PMID:26522619

  20. Understanding Human Original Actions Directed at Real-World Goals: The Role of the Lateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sitnikova, Tatiana; Rosen, Bruce R.; Lord, Louis-David; West, W. Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive, original actions, which can succeed in multiple contextual situations, require understanding of what is relevant to a goal. Recognizing what is relevant may also help in predicting kinematics of observed, original actions. During action observation, comparisons between sensory input and expected action kinematics have been argued critical to accurate goal inference. Experimental studies with laboratory tasks, both in humans and nonhuman primates, demonstrated that the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) can learn, hierarchically organize, and use goal-relevant information. To determine whether this LPFC capacity is generalizable to real-world cognition, we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in the human brain during comprehension of original and usual object-directed actions embedded in video-depictions of real-life behaviors. We hypothesized that LPFC will contribute to forming goal-relevant representations necessary for kinematic predictions of original actions. Additionally, resting-state fMRI was employed to examine functional connectivity between the brain regions delineated in the video fMRI experiment. According to behavioral data, original videos could be understood by identifying elements relevant to real-life goals at different levels of abstraction. Patterns of enhanced activity in four regions in the left LPFC, evoked by original, relative to usual, video scenes, were consistent with previous neuroimaging findings on representing abstract and concrete stimuli dimensions relevant to laboratory goals. In the anterior left LPFC, the activity increased selectively when representations of broad classes of objects and actions, which could achieve the perceived overall behavioral goal, were likely to bias kinematic predictions of original actions. In contrast, in the more posterior regions, the activity increased even when concrete properties of the target object were more likely to bias the kinematic prediction. Functional

  1. Dynamics of self-regulation: How (un)accomplished goal actions affect motivation.

    PubMed

    Koo, Minjung; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2008-02-01

    Two factors increase the motivation to adhere to a goal: goal commitment and lack of goal progress. When people ask about commitment, focusing on what they have accomplished (to date) signals to them high commitment and increases motivation. Conversely, when commitment is certain and people ask about goal progress, focusing on what they have yet to accomplish (to go) signals to them lack of progress and increases motivation. Accordingly, 4 studies show that emphasizing to-date information increases goal adherence when commitment is uncertain--that is, when participants study for a relatively unimportant exam, consume luxuries, fulfill a desire, and make first-time contributions to a charity. Conversely, emphasizing to-go information increases goal adherence when commitment is certain--that is, when participants study for an important exam, consume necessities, fulfill a need, and make repeated contributions to a charity. PMID:18211171

  2. The rocky road from attitudes to behaviors: Charting the goal systemic course of actions.

    PubMed

    Kruglanski, Arie W; Jasko, Katarzyna; Chernikova, Marina; Milyavsky, Maxim; Babush, Maxim; Baldner, Conrad; Pierro, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The issue of attitude-behavior relations is revisited in light of recent work on motivation and the psychology of goals. It is suggested that for object-attitudes to drive a specific behavior, a chain of contingencies must be realized: Liking must be transmuted into wanting, wanting must evolve into a goal, the goal must be momentarily dominant, and the specific behavior must be chosen as means of goal pursuit. Our model thus specifies a set of mediating processes that transpire between attitudes and behavior. Prior theories of attitude-behavior relations are examined from the present perspective, and its conceptual and empirical implications are noted. PMID:26192134

  3. Exam Preparation: The Influence of Action Control, Procrastination and Examination Experience on Students' Goal Intention and Implementation Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In the framework of the intention-behavior-gap analysis in relation to exam preparation I examined whether intention--subdivided into goal and implementation intention--is influenced directly by the determinants action control, procrastination and examination experience which is consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior and…

  4. The sequential encoding of competing action goals involves dynamic restructuring of motor plans in working memory.

    PubMed

    Gallivan, Jason P; Bowman, Natasha A R; Chapman, Craig S; Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2016-06-01

    Recent neural and behavioral findings provide support for the influential idea that in situations in which multiple action options are presented simultaneously, we prepare action plans for each competing option before deciding between and executing one of those plans. However, in natural, everyday environments, our available action options frequently change from one moment to the next, and there is often uncertainty as to whether additional options will become available before having to select a particular course of action. Here, with the use of a target-directed reaching task, we show that in this situation, the brain specifies a competing action for each new, sequentially presented potential target and that recently formed action plans can be revisited and updated so as to conform with separate, more newly developed, plans. These findings indicate that the brain forms labile motor plans for sequentially arising target options that can be flexibly restructured to accommodate new motor plans. PMID:27030738

  5. Australia's leading public health body delays action on the revision of the public health goal for blood lead exposures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Winder, Chris; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2014-09-01

    Globally, childhood blood lead levels have fallen precipitously in developed countries since the 1970s following action by international bodies such as the WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. These reductions have been affected by the activities of national agencies such as the US EPA and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the establishment of air lead and blood lead standards, the introduction of legislation to remove lead from petrol, paint and consumer products and tighter restrictions on lead emissions. The outcome of recent major international reviews of research into the effects of low-level lead exposures (e.g. by WHO, USA health and environmental agencies, German and Canadian health bodies) has resulted in recommendations to reduce and eliminate lead exposures. By contrast, Australian policy responses to the incontrovertible evidence that adverse neurocognitive and behavioural effects that occur at levels well below the current national goal of 10μg/dL have stalled. The delayed response by Australia occurs at a time when blood lead levels in two of Australia's three primary lead mining and smelting cities: Port Pirie, South Australia and Broken Hill, New South Wales, are rising. In the third city, Mount Isa, Queensland, there is still no systematic, annual testing of childhood blood lead values. This is despite the fact that Mount Isa has the highest lead (and other toxic metals such as cadmium and arsenic) emissions to the environment (120tonnes of lead in 2011/12) from any single point source in Australia. It is clear that both state and national policy approaches to the ongoing risks of lead exposure need to be revised urgently and in line with contemporary international standards. Recommended changes should include a new lower blood lead intervention level of no more than 5μg/dL, with a national goal for all children under 5years of age to have a blood lead level of below 1μg/dL by 2020. In order to

  6. The Attribution of Attention: 9-Month-Olds' Interpretation of Gaze as Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan C.; Ok, Su-Jeong; Luo, Yuyan

    2007-01-01

    The current study distinguishes between attributions of goal-directed perception (i.e. attention) and non-goal-directed perception to examine 9-month-olds' interpretation of others' head and eye turns. In a looking time task, 9-month-olds encoded the relationship between an actor's head and eye turns and a target object if the head and eye turns…

  7. Facilitating Engagement in New Career Goals: The Moderating Effects of Personal Resources and Career Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praskova, Anna; Creed, Peter A.; Hood, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Goal engagement in young adults is variable. We recruited university students to test whether general personal characteristics (educational ability, core self-evaluations, and well-being; study 1, N = 195) and career adaptive variables (career confidence, exploration, and planning; study 2, N = 152) facilitated career goal engagement. Goal…

  8. Is Agency Skin Deep? Surface Attributes Influence Infants' Sensitivity to Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guajardo, Jose J.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies investigated the role of surface attributes in infants' identification of agents, using a habituation paradigm designed to tap infants' interpretation of grasping as goal directed (Woodward, 1998). When they viewed a bare human hand grasping objects, 7- and 12-month-old infants focused on the relation between the hand and its goal.…

  9. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD...

  10. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE...

  11. Grand Junction remedial action program. Analysis of currently approved and proposed procedures for establishing eligibility for remedial action. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    This analysis of the Grand Junction Remedial Action Program has been undertaken at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE) in response to proposals submitted by the Colorado Department of Health (CHD). In essence those proposals are for approval by DOE of alternative procedures for establishing the eligibility of structures for remedial action. Regardless of the preeminence accorded the RPISU method in the regulation, it is appropriate to question the assumption that this method gives better estimates of average long-term exposure than other potential methods of evaluation. The objectives here are to (1) review the reliability of the methods of measurement authorized by 10 CFR 12, i.e. the RPISU 6 sample method for determining RDC and the presumptive tests based on the indoor net average gamma exposure rate; (2) evaluate the reliability of the alternative measurement methods proposed by the CDH for determining eligibility for remedial action; and (3) recommend for DOE approval specific methods and applicable procedures that may be used to determine eligibility for remedial action with at least the same reliability as presently achieved with the RPISU 6 sample method.

  12. Action Goals of the Utah State Board of Education, Commencing in 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Following consideration of many reports on the status of public education, the Utah State Board of Education announces its commitment to the reform of the content, processes, and standards of public education in Utah. The board sets as its primary goals the attainment of excellence in education and the improvement of productivity. The reform will…

  13. Six- and 9-Month-Old Infants Discriminate between Goals Despite Similar Action Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Heidi L.; Stavropoulos, Jennifer; Nienhuis, Tom; Legerstee, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Behne, Carpenter, Call, and Tomasello (2005) showed that 9- to 18-month-olds, but not 6-month-olds, differentiated between people who were unwilling and unable to share toys. As the outcome of the two tasks is the same (i.e., the toy is not shared), the infants must respond to the different goals of the actor. However, visual habituation paradigms…

  14. Toward a National Program for Library and Information Services: Goals for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, Washington, DC. National Program for Library and Information Services.

    The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) presents its goals and plans for a national program of library and information services with the intention of satisfying the nation's information needs to the greatest extent possible. The basic needs and rationale for a national program are stated, and a survey is made of the…

  15. Automatic Imitation of Biomechanically Possible and Impossible Actions: Effects of Priming Movements versus Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Matthew R.; Kosobud, Adam; Bertenthal, Bennett I.

    2008-01-01

    Recent behavioral, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological research suggests a common representational code mediating the observation and execution of actions; yet, the nature of this representational code is not well understood. The authors address this question by investigating (a) whether this observation-execution matching system (or mirror…

  16. Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees numerous sites on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other locations in the State of Nevada that have been impacted by activities related to the development and testing of nuclear devices and by other activities. NNSA/NSO is responsible for protecting members of the public, including site workers, from harmful exposure to both chemical and radiological contaminants at these sites as they remediate these sites. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) is the primary state agency responsible for protection of human health and the environment with respect to chemical and radiological wastes. In 1996 the DOE, U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada entered into an agreement known as the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Appendix VI to the FFACO describes the strategy employed to plan, implement, and complete environmental corrective action activities at NTS and other locations in the state of Nevada. One of the categories of corrective action units (CAUs) is Industrial Sites, which consists of approximately 1,150 locations that may require some level of investigation and corrective action. To evaluate the need for the extent of corrective action at a particular site, NNSA/NSO assesses the potential impacts to receptors by comparing measurements of contaminant concentrations to risk-based (chemical) and dose-based (radionuclide) standards (action levels). Preliminary action levels (PALs) are established as part of the data quality objective (DQO) process, and are presented in one or more FFACO documents generated as part of the corrective action process. This document formally defines and clarifies the NDEP-approved process NNSA/NSO Industrial Sites Project uses to fulfill the requirements of the FFACO and state regulations. This process establishes final action levels (FALs) based on the risk

  17. Factors Related to Establishing a Comfort Care Goal in Nursing Home Patients with Dementia: A Cohort Study among Family and Professional Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    van Soest-Poortvliet, Mirjam C.; de Vet, Henrica C.W.; Hertogh, Cees M.P.M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Deliens, Luc H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Many people with dementia die in long-term care settings. These patients may benefit from a palliative care goal, focused on comfort. Admission may be a good time to revisit or develop care plans. Objective: To describe care goals in nursing home patients with dementia and factors associated with establishing a comfort care goal. Design: We used generalized estimating equation regression analyses for baseline analyses and multinomial logistic regression analyses for longitudinal analyses. Setting: Prospective data collection in 28 Dutch facilities, mostly nursing homes (2007–2010; Dutch End of Life in Dementia study, DEOLD). Results: Eight weeks after admission (baseline), 56.7% of 326 patients had a comfort care goal. At death, 89.5% had a comfort care goal. Adjusted for illness severity, patients with a baseline comfort care goal were more likely to have a religious affiliation, to be less competent to make decisions, and to have a short survival prediction. Their families were less likely to prefer life-prolongation and more likely to be satisfied with family–physician communication. Compared with patients with a comfort care goal established later during their stay, patients with a baseline comfort care goal also more frequently had a more highly educated family member. Conclusions: Initially, over half of the patients had a care goal focused on comfort, increasing to the large majority of the patients at death. Optimizing patient–family–physician communication upon admission may support the early establishing of a comfort care goal. Patient condition and family views play a role, and physicians should be aware that religious affiliation and education may also affect the (timing of) setting a comfort care goal. PMID:25226515

  18. Perceptions of Intentionality for Goal-Related Action: Behavioral Description Matters

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Andrew E.; Reeder, Glenn D.; James, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of intentionality critically guide everyday social interactions, though the literature provides diverging portraits of how such judgments are made. One view suggests that people have an "intentionality bias," predisposing them toward labeling behaviors as intentional. A second view focuses on a more complex pattern of reasoning whereby judgments of intentionality are shaped by information about social context and mental states. Drawing on the theory of action-identification, we attempt to integrate these two perspectives. We propose that people parse intentionality into two categories: judgments about concrete, low-level behaviors and judgments about relatively more abstract, high-level behaviors. Evidence from five studies supports this distinction. Low-level behaviors were perceived as intentional regardless of mental state information, supporting the “intentionality bias” view. In contrast, judgments about the intentionality of high-level behaviors varied depending on social context and mental states, supporting the systematic view of intentionality. PMID:25781315

  19. Motor planning of goal-directed action is tuned by the emotional valence of the stimulus: a kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Esteves, P O; Oliveira, L A S; Nogueira-Campos, A A; Saunier, G; Pozzo, T; Oliveira, J M; Rodrigues, E C; Volchan, E; Vargas, C D

    2016-01-01

    The basic underpinnings of homeostatic behavior include interacting with positive items and avoiding negative ones. As the planning aspects of goal-directed actions can be inferred from their movement features, we investigated the kinematics of interacting with emotion-laden stimuli. Participants were instructed to grasp emotion-laden stimuli and bring them toward their bodies while the kinematics of their wrist movement was measured. The results showed that the time to peak velocity increased for bringing pleasant stimuli towards the body compared to unpleasant and neutral ones, suggesting higher easiness in undertaking the task with pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, bringing unpleasant stimuli towards the body increased movement time in comparison with both pleasant and neutral ones while the time to peak velocity for unpleasant stimuli was the same as for that of neutral stimuli. There was no change in the trajectory length among emotional categories. We conclude that during the "reach-to-grasp" and "bring-to-the-body" movements, the valence of the stimuli affects the temporal but not the spatial kinematic features of motion. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that the kinematic features of a goal-directed action are tuned by the emotional valence of the stimuli. PMID:27364868

  20. Motor planning of goal-directed action is tuned by the emotional valence of the stimulus: a kinematic study

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, P. O.; Oliveira, L. A. S.; Nogueira-Campos, A. A.; Saunier, G.; Pozzo, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Rodrigues, E. C.; Volchan, E.; Vargas, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    The basic underpinnings of homeostatic behavior include interacting with positive items and avoiding negative ones. As the planning aspects of goal-directed actions can be inferred from their movement features, we investigated the kinematics of interacting with emotion-laden stimuli. Participants were instructed to grasp emotion-laden stimuli and bring them toward their bodies while the kinematics of their wrist movement was measured. The results showed that the time to peak velocity increased for bringing pleasant stimuli towards the body compared to unpleasant and neutral ones, suggesting higher easiness in undertaking the task with pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, bringing unpleasant stimuli towards the body increased movement time in comparison with both pleasant and neutral ones while the time to peak velocity for unpleasant stimuli was the same as for that of neutral stimuli. There was no change in the trajectory length among emotional categories. We conclude that during the “reach-to-grasp” and “bring-to-the-body” movements, the valence of the stimuli affects the temporal but not the spatial kinematic features of motion. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that the kinematic features of a goal-directed action are tuned by the emotional valence of the stimuli. PMID:27364868

  1. 77 FR 3373 - Establishing Visa and Foreign Visitor Processing Goals and the Task Force On Travel and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... other person. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, January 19, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-1568 Filed 1-23-12; 8... Goals and the Task Force On Travel and Competitiveness By the authority vested in me as President by the... and travel promotion in order to create jobs and spur economic growth in the United States,...

  2. Stakeholder involvement in establishing a milk quality sub-index in dairy cow breeding goals: a Delphi approach.

    PubMed

    Henchion, M; McCarthy, M; Resconi, V C; Berry, D P; McParland, S

    2016-05-01

    The relative weighting on traits within breeding goals are generally determined by bio-economic models or profit functions. While such methods have generally delivered profitability gains to producers, and are being expanded to consider non-market values, current approaches generally do not consider the numerous and diverse stakeholders that affect, or are affected, by such tools. Based on principles of respondent anonymity, iteration, controlled feedback and statistical aggregation of feedback, a Delphi study was undertaken to gauge stakeholder opinion of the importance of detailed milk quality traits within an overall dairy breeding goal for profit, with the aim of assessing its suitability as a complementary, participatory approach to defining breeding goals. The questionnaires used over two survey rounds asked stakeholders: (a) their opinion on incorporating an explicit sub-index for milk quality into a national breeding goal; (b) the importance they would assign to a pre-determined list of milk quality traits and (c) the (relative) weighting they would give such a milk quality sub-index. Results from the survey highlighted a good degree of consensus among stakeholders on the issues raised. Similarly, revelation of the underlying assumptions and knowledge used by stakeholders to make their judgements illustrated their ability to consider a range of perspectives when evaluating traits, and to reconsider their answers based on the responses and rationales given by others, which demonstrated social learning. Finally, while the relative importance assigned by stakeholders in the Delphi survey (4% to 10%) and the results of calculations based on selection index theory of the relative emphasis that should be placed on milk quality to halt any deterioration (16%) are broadly in line, the difference indicates the benefit of considering more than one approach to determining breeding goals. This study thus illustrates the role of the Delphi technique, as a complementary

  3. Scale Matters: An Action Plan for Realizing Sector-Wide"Zero-Energy" Performance Goals in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Stephen; Selkowitz, Stephen; Granderson, Jessica; Haves, Philip; Mathew, Paul; Harris, Jeff

    2008-06-16

    It is widely accepted that if the United States is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it must aggressively address energy end use in the building sector. While there have been some notable but modest successes with mandatory and voluntary programs, there have also been puzzling failures to achieve expected savings. Collectively, these programs have not yet reached the majority of the building stock, nor have they yet routinely produced very large savings in individual buildings. Several trends that have the potential to change this are noteworthy: (1) the growing market interest in 'green buildings' and 'sustainable design', (2) the major professional societies (e.g. AIA, ASHRAE) have more aggressively adopted significant improvements in energy efficiency as strategic goals, e.g. targeting 'zero energy', carbon-neutral buildings by 2030. While this vision is widely accepted as desirable, unless there are significant changes to the way buildings are routinely designed, delivered and operated, zero energy buildings will remain a niche phenomenon rather than a sector-wide reality. Toward that end, a public/private coalition including the Alliance to Save Energy, LBNL, AIA, ASHRAE, USGBC and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) are developing an 'action plan' for moving the U.S. commercial building sector towards zero energy performance. It addresses regional action in a national framework; integrated deployment, demonstration and R&D threads; and would focus on measurable, visible performance indicators. This paper outlines this action plan, focusing on the challenge, the key themes, and the strategies and actions leading to substantial reductions in GHG emissions by 2030.

  4. The TACO approach to establishing risk-based corrective action objectives for a former industrial facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, J.L.; Nienkerk, M.M.

    1999-07-01

    Illinois' Tiered Approach to Corrective Action Objectives (35 Ill Adm Code Part 742) regulations have been used to evaluate site-specific remediation objectives for a site contaminated with methylene chloride. Remediation objectives evaluated through this approach have provided the opportunity to implement a technically feasible cleanup of the site. Site-specific soil cleanup objectives of 24 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) for the unsaturated soils and 2,000 mg/kg for the underlying saturated soils were established. These cleanup objectives were based on the use of a city ordinance prohibiting well installation and groundwater use within one-half mile of the site and did not require the use of an engineered barrier which would have to be maintained throughout the life of the facility. Without the city ordinance and risk-based cleanup objectives, the cleanup objective would have been 0.02 mg/kg, making remediation of the site technically and economically infeasible.

  5. The Allocation of Attention to Learning of Goal-Directed Actions: A Cognitive Neuroscience Framework Focusing on the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Franz, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper builds on the idea that attention is largely in service of our actions. A framework and model which captures the allocation of attention for learning of goal-directed actions is proposed and developed. This framework highlights an evolutionary model based on the notion that rudimentary functions of the basal ganglia have become embedded into increasingly higher levels of networks which all contribute to adaptive learning. Supporting the proposed model, background literature is presented alongside key evidence based on experimental studies in the so-called “split-brain” (surgically divided cerebral hemispheres), and selected evidence from related areas of research. Although overlap with other existing findings and models is acknowledged, the proposed framework is an original synthesis of cognitive experimental findings with supporting evidence of a neural system and a carefully formulated model of attention. It is the hope that this new synthesis will be informative in fields of cognition and other fields of brain sciences and will lead to new avenues for experimentation across domains. PMID:23267335

  6. Leveraging the Zachman framework implementation using action - research methodology - a case study: aligning the enterprise architecture and the business goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Juan Manuel; Romero, David; Espadas, Javier; Molina, Arturo

    2013-02-01

    With the emergence of new enterprise models, such as technology-based enterprises, and the large quantity of information generated through technological advances, the Zachman framework continues to represent a modelling tool of great utility and value to construct an enterprise architecture (EA) that can integrate and align the IT infrastructure and business goals. Nevertheless, implementing an EA requires an important effort within an enterprise. Small technology-based enterprises and start-ups can take advantage of EAs and frameworks but, because these enterprises have limited resources to allocate for this task, an enterprise framework implementation is not feasible in most cases. This article proposes a new methodology based on action-research for the implementation of the business, system and technology models of the Zachman framework to assist and facilitate its implementation. Following the explanation of cycles of the proposed methodology, a case study is presented to illustrate the results of implementing the Zachman framework in a technology-based enterprise: PyME CREATIVA, using action-research approach.

  7. Student-Faculty Interactions about Disappointing Grades: Application of the Goals-Plans-Actions Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henningsen, Mary Lynn Miller; Valde, Kathleen S.; Russell, Gregory A.; Russell, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    The goals-plans-actions model and the theory of planned behavior were used to predict what lead to students having a conversation about a disappointing grade with a faculty member. Participants (N = 130) completed two surveys. In the first survey, participants completed measures of primary and secondary goals, planning, decision to engage,…

  8. 36 CFR Exhibit B to Part 906 - Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan B Exhibit B to Part 906 Parks, Forests, and Public.... B Exhibit B to Part 906—Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action... office of the State Employment Service (or union hiring hall when union labor is required). (6)...

  9. 36 CFR Exhibit B to Part 906 - Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan B Exhibit B to Part 906 Parks, Forests, and Public.... B Exhibit B to Part 906—Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action... office of the State Employment Service (or union hiring hall when union labor is required). (6)...

  10. 36 CFR Exhibit B to Part 906 - Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan B Exhibit B to Part 906 Parks, Forests, and Public.... B Exhibit B to Part 906—Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action... office of the State Employment Service (or union hiring hall when union labor is required). (6)...

  11. 36 CFR Exhibit B to Part 906 - Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan B Exhibit B to Part 906 Parks, Forests, and Public.... B Exhibit B to Part 906—Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action... office of the State Employment Service (or union hiring hall when union labor is required). (6)...

  12. 36 CFR Exhibit B to Part 906 - Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan B Exhibit B to Part 906 Parks, Forests, and Public.... B Exhibit B to Part 906—Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action... office of the State Employment Service (or union hiring hall when union labor is required). (6)...

  13. The role of mycorrhization helper bacteria in the establishment and action of ectomycorrhizae associations

    PubMed Central

    Rigamonte, Tatiana Alves; Pylro, Victor Satler; Duarte, Gabriela Frois

    2010-01-01

    More than 95 % short roots of most terrestrial plants are colonized by mycorrhizal fungi as soon as they emerge in the upper soil profiles. The establishment of mycorrhizal association involves profound morphological and physiological changes in root and fungus. It is affected by other rhizospheric microorganisms, specifically by the bacteria. Bacteria may have developed mechanisms of selective interaction with surrounding microorganisms, with neutral or positive effects on mycorrhizal associations, but negative effect on root pathogens in general. Because of the beneficial effect of bacteria on mycorrhizae, the concept of Mycorrhization Helper Bacteria (MHB) was created. Five main actions of MHB on mycorrhizae were proposed: in the receptivity of root to the mycobiont, in root-fungus recognition, in fungal growth, in the modification of rhizospheric soil and in the germination of fungal propagules. MHB appear to develop a gradation of specificity for the mycobiont, but little or no specificity for the host plant in symbiosis. One of the main groups of MHB is the fluorescent Pseudomonas, well represented in diversity and cell density studies of mycorrhizal associations. This review covers the activity of MHB in the establishment of ectomycorrhizae, taking as model the effects of Pseudomonas sp. described in scientific literature. PMID:24031563

  14. The Time for Doing is Not the Time for Change: Effects of General Action and Inaction Goals on Attitude Retrieval and Attitude Change

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; Handley, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    Implicit in many informal and formal principles of psychological change is the understudied assumption that change requires either an active approach or an inactive approach. This issue was systematically investigated by comparing the effects of general action goals and general inaction goals on attitude change. As prior attitudes facilitate preparation for an upcoming persuasive message, general action goals were hypothesized to facilitate conscious retrieval of prior attitudes and therefore hinder attitude change to a greater extent than general inaction goals. Experiment 1 demonstrated that action primes (e.g., “go,” “energy”) yielded faster attitude report than inaction primes (e.g., “rest,” “still”) among participants who were forewarned of an upcoming persuasive message. Experiment 2 showed that the faster attitude report identified in Experiment 1 was localized on attitudes towards a message topic participants were prepared to receive. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 showed that, compared to inaction primes, action primes produced less attitude change and less argument scrutiny in response to a counterattitudinal message on a previously forewarned topic. Experiment 6 confirmed that the effects of the primes on attitude change were due to differential attitude retrieval. That is, when attitude expression was induced immediately after the primes, action and inaction goals produced similar amounts of attitude change. In contrast, when no attitude expression was induced after the prime, action goals produced less attitude change than inaction goals. Finally, Experiment 7 validated the assumption that these goal effects can be reduced or reversed when the goals have already been satisfied by an intervening task. PMID:21639651

  15. Dynamics of the Establishment of Systemic Potyvirus Infection: Independent yet Cumulative Action of Primary Infection Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lafforgue, Guillaume; Tromas, Nicolas; Elena, Santiago F.

    2012-01-01

    In the clinic, farm, or field, for many viruses there is a high prevalence of mixed-genotype infections, indicating that multiple virions have initiated infection and that there can be multiple sites of primary infection within the same host. The dynamic process by which multiple primary infection sites interact with each other and the host is poorly understood, undoubtedly due to its high complexity. In this study, we attempted to unravel the basic interactions underlying this process using a plant RNA virus, as removing the inoculated leaf can instantly and rigorously eliminate all primary infection sites. Effective population size in the inoculated leaf and time of removal of the inoculated leaf were varied in experiments, and it was found that both factors positively influenced if the plant became systemically infected and what proportion of cells in the systemic tissue were infected, as measured by flow cytometry. Fitting of probabilistic models of infection to our data demonstrated that a null model in which the action of each focus is independent of the presence of other foci was better supported than a dependent-action model. The cumulative effect of independently acting foci therefore determined when plants became infected and how many individual cells were infected. There was no evidence for interference between primary infection sites, which is surprising given the planar structure of leaves. By showing that a simple null model is supported, we experimentally confirmed—to our knowledge for the first time—the minimal components that dictate interactions of a conspecific virus population establishing systemic infection. PMID:22993154

  16. Stimulus- and goal-driven control of eye movements: action videogame players are faster but not better.

    PubMed

    Heimler, Benedetta; Pavani, Francesco; Donk, Mieke; van Zoest, Wieske

    2014-11-01

    Action videogame players (AVGPs) have been shown to outperform nongamers (NVGPs) in covert visual attention tasks. These advantages have been attributed to improved top-down control in this population. The time course of visual selection, which permits researchers to highlight when top-down strategies start to control performance, has rarely been investigated in AVGPs. Here, we addressed specifically this issue through an oculomotor additional-singleton paradigm. Participants were instructed to make a saccadic eye movement to a unique orientation singleton. The target was presented among homogeneous nontargets and one additional orientation singleton that was more, equally, or less salient than the target. Saliency was manipulated in the color dimension. Our results showed similar patterns of performance for both AVGPs and NVGPs: Fast-initiated saccades were saliency-driven, whereas later-initiated saccades were more goal-driven. However, although AVGPs were faster than NVGPs, they were also less accurate. Importantly, a multinomial model applied to the data revealed comparable underlying saliency-driven and goal-driven functions for the two groups. Taken together, the observed differences in performance are compatible with the presence of a lower decision bound for releasing saccades in AVGPs than in NVGPs, in the context of comparable temporal interplay between the underlying attentional mechanisms. In sum, the present findings show that in both AVGPs and NVGPs, the implementation of top-down control in visual selection takes time to come about, and they argue against the idea of a general enhancement of top-down control in AVGPs. PMID:25073611

  17. SURFACES PRELIMINARY REMEDIATION GOALS FOR RADIONUCLIDES (SPRG)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Internet based Calculational tool for establishing 10(-6) cancer risk based Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for radioactively contaminated outside hard surfaces (e.g., streets, sidewalks, slabs, and outside of buildings) for CERCLA remedial response actions.

  18. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 509.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  19. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 109.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  20. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 509.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  1. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 109.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  2. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 509.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  3. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 109.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  4. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 509.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  5. Differential effects of systemic cholinergic receptor blockade on Pavlovian incentive motivation and goal-directed action selection.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Sean B; Kosheleff, Alisa R; Maidment, Nigel T

    2014-05-01

    Reward-seeking actions can be guided by external cues that signal reward availability. For instance, when confronted with a stimulus that signals sugar, rats will prefer an action that produces sugar over a second action that produces grain pellets. Action selection is also sensitive to changes in the incentive value of potential rewards. Thus, rats that have been prefed a large meal of sucrose will prefer a grain-seeking action to a sucrose-seeking action. The current study investigated the dependence of these different aspects of action selection on cholinergic transmission. Hungry rats were given differential training with two unique stimulus-outcome (S1-O1 and S2-O2) and action-outcome (A1-O1 and A2-O2) contingencies during separate training phases. Rats were then given a series of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer tests, an assay of cue-triggered responding. Before each test, rats were injected with scopolamine (0, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, or mecamylamine (0, 0.75, or 2.25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Although the reward-paired cues were capable of biasing action selection when rats were tested off-drug, both anticholinergic treatments were effective in disrupting this effect. During a subsequent round of outcome devaluation testing-used to assess the sensitivity of action selection to a change in reward value--we found no effect of either scopolamine or mecamylamine. These results reveal that cholinergic signaling at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors mediates action selection based on Pavlovian reward expectations, but is not critical for flexibly selecting actions using current reward values. PMID:24370780

  6. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.4 Establishment of tolerances... may be established in subpart D of this part to identify a food containing a naturally...

  7. The QUIPPED Project: Exploring Relevance and Rigor of Action Research Using Established Principles and Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Christine; Paterson, Margo; Medves, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the last in a series of three manuscripts published in the TQR journal over the past few years. This work is part of a larger program of research that has been carried out by a team of researchers detailing various aspects of a three year action research project carried out from 2005 and 2008. This particular paper addresses issues…

  8. Using Goal- and Grip-Related Information for Understanding the Correctness of Other’s Actions: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    van Elk, Michiel; Bousardt, Roel; Bekkering, Harold; van Schie, Hein T.

    2012-01-01

    Detecting errors in other’s actions is of pivotal importance for joint action, competitive behavior and observational learning. Although many studies have focused on the neural mechanisms involved in detecting low-level errors, relatively little is known about error-detection in everyday situations. The present study aimed to identify the functional and neural mechanisms whereby we understand the correctness of other’s actions involving well-known objects (e.g. pouring coffee in a cup). Participants observed action sequences in which the correctness of the object grasped and the grip applied to a pair of objects were independently manipulated. Observation of object violations (e.g. grasping the empty cup instead of the coffee pot) resulted in a stronger P3-effect than observation of grip errors (e.g. grasping the coffee pot at the upper part instead of the handle), likely reflecting a reorienting response, directing attention to the relevant location. Following the P3-effect, a parietal slow wave positivity was observed that persisted for grip-errors, likely reflecting the detection of an incorrect hand-object interaction. These findings provide new insight in the functional significance of the neurophysiological markers associated with the observation of incorrect actions and suggest that the P3-effect and the subsequent parietal slow wave positivity may reflect the detection of errors at different levels in the action hierarchy. Thereby this study elucidates the cognitive processes that support the detection of action violations in the selection of objects and grips. PMID:22606261

  9. Object visibility alters the relative contribution of ventral visual stream and mirror neuron system to goal anticipation during action observation.

    PubMed

    Thioux, Marc; Keysers, Christian

    2015-01-15

    We used fMRI to study the effect of hiding the target of a grasping action on the cerebral activity of an observer whose task was to anticipate the size of the object being grasped. Activity in the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS) was higher when the target was concealed from the view of the observer and anticipating the size of the object being grasped requested paying attention to the hand kinematics. In contrast, activity in ventral visual areas outside the pMNS increased when the target was fully visible, and the performance improved in this condition. A repetition suppression analysis demonstrated that in full view, the size of the object being grasped by the actor was encoded in the ventral visual stream. Dynamic causal modeling showed that monitoring a grasping action increased the coupling between the parietal and ventral premotor nodes of the pMNS. The modulation of the functional connectivity between these nodes was correlated with the subject's capability to detect the size of hidden objects. In full view, synaptic activity increased within the ventral visual stream, and the connectivity with the pMNS was diminished. The re-enactment of observed actions in the pMNS is crucial when interpreting others' actions requires paying attention to the body kinematics. However, when the context permits, visual-spatial information processing may complement pMNS computations for improved action anticipation accuracy. PMID:25462688

  10. Object visibility alters the relative contribution of ventral visual stream and mirror neuron system to goal anticipation during action observation

    PubMed Central

    Thioux, Marc; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We used fMRI to study the effect of hiding the target of a grasping action on the cerebral activity of an observer whose task was to anticipate the size of the object being grasped. Activity in the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS) was higher when the target was concealed from the view of the observer and anticipating the size of the object being grasped requested paying attention to the hand kinematics. In contrast, activity in ventral visual areas outside the pMNS increased when the target was fully visible, and the performance improved in this condition. A repetition suppression analysis demonstrated that in full view, the size of the object being grasped by the actor was encoded in the ventral visual stream. Dynamic causal modelling showed that monitoring a grasping action increased the coupling between the parietal and ventral premotor nodes of the pMNS. The modulation of the functional connectivity between these nodes was correlated with the subject’s capability to detect the size of hidden objects. In full view, synaptic activity increased within the ventral visual stream, and the connectivity with the pMNS was diminished. The re-enactment of observed actions in the pMNS is crucial when interpreting others’ actions requires paying attention to the body kinematics. However, when the context permits, visual-spatial information processing may complement pMNS computations for improved action anticipation accuracy. PMID:25462688

  11. SOVEREIGN: An autonomous neural system for incrementally learning planned action sequences to navigate towards a rewarded goal.

    PubMed

    Gnadt, William; Grossberg, Stephen

    2008-06-01

    How do reactive and planned behaviors interact in real time? How are sequences of such behaviors released at appropriate times during autonomous navigation to realize valued goals? Controllers for both animals and mobile robots, or animats, need reactive mechanisms for exploration, and learned plans to reach goal objects once an environment becomes familiar. The SOVEREIGN (Self-Organizing, Vision, Expectation, Recognition, Emotion, Intelligent, Goal-oriented Navigation) animat model embodies these capabilities, and is tested in a 3D virtual reality environment. SOVEREIGN includes several interacting subsystems which model complementary properties of cortical What and Where processing streams and which clarify similarities between mechanisms for navigation and arm movement control. As the animat explores an environment, visual inputs are processed by networks that are sensitive to visual form and motion in the What and Where streams, respectively. Position-invariant and size-invariant recognition categories are learned by real-time incremental learning in the What stream. Estimates of target position relative to the animat are computed in the Where stream, and can activate approach movements toward the target. Motion cues from animat locomotion can elicit head-orienting movements to bring a new target into view. Approach and orienting movements are alternately performed during animat navigation. Cumulative estimates of each movement are derived from interacting proprioceptive and visual cues. Movement sequences are stored within a motor working memory. Sequences of visual categories are stored in a sensory working memory. These working memories trigger learning of sensory and motor sequence categories, or plans, which together control planned movements. Predictively effective chunk combinations are selectively enhanced via reinforcement learning when the animat is rewarded. Selected planning chunks effect a gradual transition from variable reactive exploratory

  12. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: State Action to Establish SHOP Marketplaces.

    PubMed

    Dash, Sarah J; Lucia, Kevin W; Thomas, Amy

    2014-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act seeks to help small employers offer coverage by reforming the small-group market and establishing Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) marketplaces. Seventeen states and the District of Columbia chose to operate their own SHOP marketplaces in 2014, with the federal government operating the SHOP marketplace in 33 states. This brief examines state decisions to enhance the value of SHOP marketplaces for small employers and finds that most have set predictable participation and eligibility requirements and will offer a competitive choice of insurers and plans. States also are seeking to facilitate small employers' shopping experience through online tools and access to personalized assistance. While not all SHOP marketplaces are yet functioning as intended, their establishment offers an opportunity to identify successful strategies for improving the affordability and accessibility of coverage for small employers. PMID:26259258

  13. [Successor establishment in familiy business as field of action in health promotion].

    PubMed

    Hetzel, C; Holzer, M

    2014-10-01

    Successor establishment in familiy business may lead to interpersonal and intrapsychological conflicts and is mostly a transition to retirement. This may have a negative impact on the senior's health. The "Sozialversicherung für Landwirtschaft, Forsten und Gartenbau (SVLFG)" reacts with an intervention of several days duration. Evaluation aim is measuring participants changes in specific activities and confidence on successor establishment and retirement indicating mental health stabilisation. The method comprises a panel of intervention group (I, n=61) and comparison group (V, n=28) randomly selected, structurally similar and parallelised to point of transfer. Retirement activities significantly rise in I (p=0.001, Cohen's d=0.48) and are steady in V (p=0.54) after one year. Level of confidence is equal in both groups and steady but strongly indicating response shift in I. Intervention activates targeted activities and improves confidence at least qualitatively in a field that has hardly been researched. PMID:25001902

  14. Organization of goal-directed action at a high level of motor skill: the case of stone knapping in India.

    PubMed

    Biryukova, E V; Bril, B

    2008-07-01

    We analyzed the relationship between goal achievement and execution variability in craftsmen who have acquired the highest "ultimate" skills of stone knapping. The goal of a knapping movement is defined as the vector of the final velocity of a hammer, crucial for detaching a flake and, consequently, for the shape of the final product. The execution of the movement is defined by the kinematic pattern of the arm (i.e., by the coordination between the joint angles corresponding to the seven arm degrees of freedom). The results show that (a) the direction of final velocity is very stable for all craftsmen, whereas the amount of kinetic energy transmitted to the stone was craftsman specific and (b) the kinematic pattern of the arm was strongly individual and was a reliable sign of the level of skill--the highest level was characterized by the highest flexibility of movement kinematics. We stress the importance of conducting the experiment in natural conditions for better understanding of the relationship among the purpose (the final shape of the stone), the goal, and the execution of the movement. PMID:18698105

  15. A novel strategy for dissecting goal-directed action and arousal components of motivated behavior with a progressive hold-down task.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Matthew R; Jensen, Greg; Taylor, Kathleen; Mezias, Chris; Williamson, Cait; Silver, Rae; Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D

    2015-06-01

    Motivation serves 2 important functions: It guides actions to be goal-directed, and it provides the energy and vigor required to perform the work necessary to meet those goals. Dissociating these 2 processes with existing behavioral assays has been a challenge. In this article, we report a novel experimental strategy to distinguish the 2 processes in mice. First, we characterize a novel motivation assay in which animals must hold down a lever for progressively longer intervals to earn each subsequent reward; we call this the progressive hold-down (PHD) task. We find that performance on the PHD task is sensitive to both food deprivation level and reward value. Next, we use a dose of methamphetamine (METH) 1.0 mg/kg, to evaluate behavior in both the progressive ratio (PR) and PHD tasks. Treatment with METH leads to more persistent lever pressing for food rewards in the PR. In the PHD task, we found that METH increased arousal, which leads to numerous bouts of hyperactive responding but neither increases nor impairs goal-directed action. The results demonstrate that these tools enable a more precise understanding of the underlying processes being altered in manipulations that alter motivated behavior. PMID:26030428

  16. Counterfactual Processing of Economic Action-Outcome Alternatives in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Further Evidence of Impaired Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, Claire M.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Kaser, Muzaffer; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Sule, Akeem; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Cardinal, Rudolf N.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of automatic, uncontrollable behaviors and obsessive rumination. There is evidence that OCD patients have difficulties performing goal-directed actions, instead exhibiting repetitive stimulus-response habit behaviors. This might result from the excessive formation of stimulus-response habit associations or from an impairment in the ability to use outcome value to guide behavior. We investigated the latter by examining counterfactual decision making, which is the ability to use comparisons of prospective action-outcome scenarios to guide economic choice. Methods We tested decision making (forward counterfactual) and affective responses (backward counterfactual) in 20 OCD patients and 20 matched healthy control subjects using an economic choice paradigm that previously revealed attenuation of both the experience and avoidance of counterfactual emotion in schizophrenia patients and patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Results The use of counterfactual comparison to guide decision making was diminished in OCD patients, who relied primarily on expected value. Unlike the apathetic affective responses previously shown to accompany this decision style, OCD patients reported increased emotional responsivity to the outcomes of their choices and to the counterfactual comparisons that typify regret and relief. Conclusions Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients exhibit a pattern of decision making consistent with a disruption in goal-directed forward modeling, basing decisions instead on the temporally present (and more rational) calculation of expected value. In contrast to this style of decision making, emotional responses in OCD were more extreme and reactive than control subjects. These results are in line with an account of disrupted goal-directed cognitive control in OCD. PMID:23452663

  17. 31 CFR 30.8 - Q-8: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Q-8: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established under section 111(b)(3)(B) of EESA (the... the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.8 Q-8: What actions...

  18. Learning-Related Translocation of δ-Opioid Receptors on Ventral Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons Mediates Choice between Goal-Directed Actions

    PubMed Central

    Bertran-Gonzalez, Jesus; Laurent, Vincent; Chieng, Billy C.; Christie, MacDonald J.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of animals to extract predictive information from the environment to inform their future actions is a critical component of decision-making. This phenomenon is studied in the laboratory using the pavlovian–instrumental transfer protocol in which a stimulus predicting a specific pavlovian outcome biases choice toward those actions earning the predicted outcome. It is well established that this transfer effect is mediated by corticolimbic afferents on the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc-S), and recent evidence suggests that δ-opioid receptors (DORs) play an essential role in this effect. In DOR-eGFP knock-in mice, we show a persistent, learning-related plasticity in the translocation of DORs to the somatic plasma membrane of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) in the NAc-S during the encoding of the specific stimulus–outcome associations essential for pavlovian–instrumental transfer. We found that increased membrane DOR expression reflected both stimulus-based predictions of reward and the degree to which these stimuli biased choice during the pavlovian–instrumental transfer test. Furthermore, this plasticity altered the firing pattern of CINs increasing the variance of action potential activity, an effect that was exaggerated by DOR stimulation. The relationship between the induction of membrane DOR expression in CINs and both pavlovian conditioning and pavlovian–instrumental transfer provides a highly specific function for DOR-related modulation in the NAc-S, and it is consistent with an emerging role for striatal CIN activity in the processing of predictive information. Therefore, our results reveal evidence of a long-term, experience-dependent plasticity in opioid receptor expression on striatal modulatory interneurons critical for the cognitive control of action. PMID:24107940

  19. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  20. One Route to Success in Reading History: The Goal Frame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Mary Jane

    1987-01-01

    Identifies the "goal frame" as a method of text analysis which calls upon students to establish a purpose for reading. Provides an example in which students read a passage about Alexander the Great to determine his goals, plans, actions, and results. Concludes that this approach allows students to develop better comprehension and organizational…

  1. 77 FR 34263 - 2012-2014 Enterprise Housing Goals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... September 14, 2010.\\2\\ \\1\\ See 12 U.S.C. 4561 et seq. \\2\\ See 75 FR 55892. The housing goals established by...; ] FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1282 RIN 2590-AA49 2012-2014 Enterprise Housing Goals AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Federal Housing Finance Agency...

  2. From muscles synergies and individual goals to interpersonal synergies and shared goals: Mirror neurons and interpersonal action hierarchies. Comment on "Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by D'Ausilio et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candidi, Matteo; Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-03-01

    D'Ausilio et al. [28] must be praised for bringing attention to the important question of how human Mirror Neurons (MNs) may contribute to action perception, prediction and understanding [1] and for linking their role with the granularity of the motor system as conceptualized in the domain of action control theories. Although we think that the Authors are right in saying that the granularity of the motor system constrains the granularity of the MN system, we speculate that the contribution of MNs to action perception, prediction and understanding is also constrained by the connections between MNs and other cortical and subcortical regions, and by the identity of MNs, i.e. whether they are interneurons or pyramidal cells [2]. In other words, the functional contribution of MS depends on whether they are connected to sensory, emotional and cognitive networks for the service of action perception, prediction and understanding.

  3. To eat or not to eat? Kinematics and muscle activity of reach-to-grasp movements are influenced by the action goal, but observers do not detect these differences.

    PubMed

    Naish, Katherine R; Reader, Arran T; Houston-Price, Carmel; Bremner, Andrew J; Holmes, Nicholas P

    2013-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the mirror neuron system responds to the goals of actions, even when the end of the movement is hidden from view. To investigate whether this predictive ability might be based on the detection of early differences between actions with different outcomes, we used electromyography (EMG) and motion tracking to assess whether two actions with different goals (grasp to eat and grasp to place) differed from each other in their initial reaching phases. In a second experiment, we then tested whether observers could detect early differences and predict the outcome of these movements, based on seeing only part of the actions. Experiment 1 revealed early kinematic differences between the two movements, with grasp-to-eat movements characterised by an earlier peak acceleration, and different grasp position, compared to grasp-to-place movements. There were also significant differences in forearm muscle activity in the reaching phase of the two actions. The behavioural data arising from Experiments 2a and 2b indicated that observers are not able to predict whether an object is going to be brought to the mouth or placed until after the grasp has been completed. This suggests that the early kinematic differences are either not visible to observers, or that they are not used to predict the end-goals of actions. These data are discussed in the context of the mirror neuron system. PMID:23247469

  4. Establishing a Goals-Based Assessment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tendy, Susan M.; Hall, Kellie Green

    2012-01-01

    Many physical educators are aware of the impact the tightening fiscal climate has on physical education programs at all levels. Shrinking resources have generated a need to protect and promote the quality of physical education programs in this country. Additionally, administrators need to be proactive when attempting to target physical education…

  5. Implementing on-Campus Microteaching to Elicit Preservice Teachers' Reflection on Teaching Actions: Fresh Perspective on an Established Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amobi, Funmi A.; Irwin, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    This article calls for renewed emphasis on the use of on-campus microteaching to facilitate simultaneously preservice teachers' performance of effective teaching skills and their capability to reflect meaningfully on their emergent teaching actions. In making a case for greater focus on the implementation of microteaching in preservice teacher…

  6. Goals, dilemmas and assumptions in infant feeding education and support. Applying theory of constraints thinking tools to develop new priorities for action.

    PubMed

    Trickey, Heather; Newburn, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Three important infant feeding support problems are addressed: (1) mothers who use formula milk can feel undersupported and judged; (2) mothers can feel underprepared for problems with breastfeeding; and (3) many mothers who might benefit from breastfeeding support do not access help. Theory of constraints (TOC) is used to examine these problems in relation to ante-natal education and post-natal support. TOC suggests that long-standing unresolved problems or 'undesirable effects' in any system (in this case a system to provide education and support) are caused by conflicts, or dilemmas, within the system, which might not be explicitly acknowledged. Potential solutions are missed by failure to question assumptions which, when interrogated, often turn out to be invalid. Three core dilemmas relating to the three problems are identified, articulated and explored using TOC methodology. These are whether to: (1) promote feeding choice or to promote breastfeeding; (2) present breastfeeding positively, as straightforward and rewarding, or focus on preparing mothers for problems; and (3) offer support proactively or ensure that mothers themselves initiate requests for support. Assumptions are identified and interrogated, leading to clarified priorities for action relating to each problem. These are (1) shift the focus from initial decision-making towards support for mothers throughout their feeding journeys, enabling and protecting decisions to breastfeed as one aspect of ongoing support; (2) to promote the concept of an early-weeks investment and adjustment period during which breastfeeding is established; and (3) to develop more proactive mother-centred models of support for all forms of infant feeding. PMID:22712475

  7. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  8. The Selfish Goal

    PubMed Central

    Bargh, John A.; Green, Michelle; Fitzsimons, Gráinne

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis that consciously intended goal pursuits have unintended consequences for social judgment and behavior. From evolutionary theory (Dawkins 1976/2006) and empirical evidence of a nonconscious mode of goal pursuit (Bargh, 2005) we derive the hypothesis that most human goal pursuits are open-ended in nature: Once active, goals will operate on goal-relevant content in the environment, even if that content is not the intended focus of the conscious goal. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that goals to evaluate a job applicant for either a waiter or crime reporter position also shape impressions of incidental bystanders in the situation, such that the bystander is later liked or disliked not on his own merits, but on how well his behavior matches the criteria consciously applied in evaluating the job applicant. Experiment 3 finds that a goal to help a specific target person spills over to influence actions toward incidental bystanders, but only while active. Implications of these findings for goal pursuit in everyday life are discussed. PMID:19081795

  9. The Wingless morphogen gradient is established by the cooperative action of Frizzled and Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan receptors.

    PubMed

    Baeg, Gyeong-Hun; Selva, Erica M; Goodman, Robyn M; Dasgupta, Ramanuj; Perrimon, Norbert

    2004-12-01

    We have examined the respective contribution of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans (HSPGs) and Frizzled (Fz) proteins in the establishment of the Wingless (Wg) morphogen gradient. From the analysis of mutant clones of sulfateless/N-deacetylase-sulphotransferase in the wing imaginal disc, we find that lack of Heparan Sulfate (HS) causes a dramatic reduction of both extracellular and intracellular Wg in receiving cells. Our studies, together with others [Kirkpatrick, C.A., Dimitroff, B.D., Rawson, J.M., Selleck, S.B., 2004. Spatial regulation of Wingless morphogen distribution and signalling by Dally-like protein. Dev. Cell (in press)], reveals that the Glypican molecule Dally-like Protein (Dlp) is associated with both negative and positive roles in Wg short- and long-range signaling, respectively. In addition, analyses of the two Fz proteins indicate that the Fz and DFz2 receptors, in addition to transducing the signal, modulate the slope of the Wg gradient by regulating the amount of extracellular Wg. Taken together, our analysis illustrates how the coordinated activities of HSPGs and Fz/DFz2 shape the Wg morphogen gradient. PMID:15531366

  10. Intentional Action and Action Slips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Heinz; Beckmann, Jurgen

    1990-01-01

    An explanation of action slips is offered that examines controlled actions in the context of an intentional behavior theory. Actions are considered guided by mentally represented intentions, subdivided into goal intentions and contingent instrumental intentions. Action slips are categorized according to problem areas in the enactment of goal…

  11. An Affirmative Action Plan Response to Office of Civil Rights Enforcement Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ned A., Jr.

    The affirmative action concept developed out of case law as the courts decided passive attempts at desegregating schools failed to achieve results and out of civil rights legislation as administrative agencies adopted the court-established standards. A major challenge of affirmative action plans is to prevent court-approved goals from becoming…

  12. Theme: Achieving 2020 Goal 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue focuses on the Reinventing Agricultural Education 2020 Project's goal of partnerships and strategic alliances, which serves as a catalyst to ensure that the other goals are accomplished and sustained. Eleven articles discuss establishing partnerships at local, state, and national levels and balancing old alliances with new connections.…

  13. Newborns' Preference for Goal-Directed Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craighero, Laila; Leo, Irene; Umilta, Carlo; Simion, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The central role of sensory-motor representations in cognitive functions is almost universally accepted. However, determining the link between motor execution and its sensory counterpart and when, during ontogenesis, this link originates are still under investigation. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether at birth this link is…

  14. Frontostriatal Mechanisms in Instruction-Based Learning as a Hallmark of Flexible Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wolfensteller, Uta; Ruge, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    The present review intends to provide a neuroscientific perspective on the flexible (here: almost instantaneous) adoption of novel goal-directed behaviors. The overarching goal is to sketch the emerging framework for examining instruction-based learning and how this can be related to more established research approaches to instrumental learning and goal-directed action. We particularly focus on the contribution of frontal and striatal brain regions drawing on studies in both, animals and humans, but with an emphasize put on human neuroimaging studies. In section one, we review and integrate a selection of previous studies that are suited to generally delineate the neural underpinnings of goal-directed action as opposed to more stimulus-based (i.e., habitual) action. Building on that the second section focuses more directly on the flexibility to rapidly implement novel behavioral rules as a hallmark of goal-directed action with a special emphasis on instructed rules. In essence, the current neuroscientific evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex and associative striatum are able to selectively and transiently code the currently relevant relationship between stimuli, actions, and the effects of these actions in both, instruction-based learning as well as in trial-and-error learning. The premotor cortex in turn seems to form more durable associations between stimuli and actions or stimuli, actions and effects (but not incentive values) thus representing the available action possibilities. Together, the central message of the present review is that instruction-based learning should be understood as a prime example of goal-directed action, necessitating a closer interlacing with basic mechanisms of goal-directed action on a more general level. PMID:22701445

  15. 31 CFR 30.8 - Q-8: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Q-8: What actions are necessary for a... âclawbackâ provision requirement)? 30.8 Section 30.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.8 Q-8: What actions...

  16. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Q-4: What actions are necessary for a... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.4 Q-4: What actions...

  17. 41 CFR 60-2.16 - Placement goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS Purpose and Contents of Affirmative Action Programs § 60-2.16 Placement goals. (a... good faith effort to make all aspects of the entire affirmative action program work. Placement goals... merit selection principles. Affirmative action programs prescribed by the regulations in this part...

  18. 41 CFR 60-2.16 - Placement goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS Purpose and Contents of Affirmative Action Programs § 60-2.16 Placement goals. (a... good faith effort to make all aspects of the entire affirmative action program work. Placement goals... merit selection principles. Affirmative action programs prescribed by the regulations in this part...

  19. 41 CFR 60-2.16 - Placement goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS Purpose and Contents of Affirmative Action Programs § 60-2.16 Placement goals. (a... good faith effort to make all aspects of the entire affirmative action program work. Placement goals... merit selection principles. Affirmative action programs prescribed by the regulations in this part...

  20. 41 CFR 60-2.16 - Placement goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS Purpose and Contents of Affirmative Action Programs § 60-2.16 Placement goals. (a... good faith effort to make all aspects of the entire affirmative action program work. Placement goals... merit selection principles. Affirmative action programs prescribed by the regulations in this part...

  1. 41 CFR 60-2.16 - Placement goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS Purpose and Contents of Affirmative Action Programs § 60-2.16 Placement goals. (a... good faith effort to make all aspects of the entire affirmative action program work. Placement goals... merit selection principles. Affirmative action programs prescribed by the regulations in this part...

  2. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Q-4: What actions are necessary for a... excessive risk or manipulation of earnings)? (a) General rule. To comply with the standards...

  3. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Q-4: What actions are necessary for a... excessive risk or manipulation of earnings)? (a) General rule. To comply with the standards...

  4. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Q-4: What actions are necessary for a... excessive risk or manipulation of earnings)? (a) General rule. To comply with the standards...

  5. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Q-4: What actions are necessary for a... excessive risk or manipulation of earnings)? (a) General rule. To comply with the standards...

  6. Goals Analysis Procedure Guidelines for Applying the Goals Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motley, Albert E., III

    2000-01-01

    One of the key elements to successful project management is the establishment of the "right set of requirements", requirements that reflect the true customer needs and are consistent with the strategic goals and objectives of the participating organizations. A viable set of requirements implies that each individual requirement is a necessary element in satisfying the stated goals and that the entire set of requirements, taken as a whole, is sufficient to satisfy the stated goals. Unfortunately, it is the author's experience that during project formulation phases' many of the Systems Engineering customers do not conduct a rigorous analysis of the goals and objectives that drive the system requirements. As a result, the Systems Engineer is often provided with requirements that are vague, incomplete, and internally inconsistent. To complicate matters, most systems development methodologies assume that the customer provides unambiguous, comprehensive and concise requirements. This paper describes the specific steps of a Goals Analysis process applied by Systems Engineers at the NASA Langley Research Center during the formulation of requirements for research projects. The objective of Goals Analysis is to identify and explore all of the influencing factors that ultimately drive the system's requirements.

  7. Infants Show Stability of Goal-Directed Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakkalou, Elena; Ellis-Davies, Kate; Fowler, Nia C.; Hilbrink, Elma E.; Gattis, Merideth

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that infants selectively reproduce observed actions and have argued that this selectivity reflects understanding of intentions and goals, or goal-directed imitation. We reasoned that if selective imitation of goal-directed actions reflects understanding of intentions, infants should demonstrate stability across…

  8. A novel class of ethacrynic acid derivatives as promising drug-like potent generation of anticancer agents with established mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Mignani, Serge; El Brahmi, Nabil; El Kazzouli, Saïd; Eloy, Laure; Courilleau, Delphine; Caron, Joachim; Bousmina, Mosto M; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Cresteil, Thierry; Majoral, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-21

    The well-known diuretic Ethacrynic acid (EA, Edecrin), showing low anti-proliferative activities, was chemically modified at different positions. The new EA derivatives have been tested in vitro in anti-proliferative assays on both tumor KB (epidermal carcinoma) and leukemia HL60 (promyelocytic) cells suitable targets for anticancer activity. Reduction of the α-β double bond of EA completely abolished anti-cancer activities, whereas introduction of either 2-(4-substituted phenyl)ethanamine (series A) or 4-(4-substituted phenyl)piperazine (series B) moieties generated compounds showing moderate to strong anti-proliferative activities against human cancer cell lines. Several substitutions on the phenyl of these two moieties are tolerated. The mechanism of action of the EA derivatives prepared in this study is more complex than the inhibition of glutathione S-transferase π ascribed as unique effect to EA and might help to overcome tumor resistances. PMID:27448922

  9. Effective Goal-Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Setting organizational or program objectives is seen as requiring three steps (brainstorming goals for the year, prioritizing them, and visualizing them as smaller, discrete tasks) and six principles (making goals group-specific, setting deadlines, being realistic and explicit, writing down goals, defining measurable steps, and creating…

  10. The Goal Trumps the Means: Highlighting Goals is More Beneficial than Highlighting Means in Means-End Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2013-01-01

    Means-end actions are an early-emerging form of problem solving. These actions require initiating initial behaviors with a goal in mind. In this study, we explored the origins of 8-month-old infants' means-end action production using a cloth-pulling training paradigm. We examined whether highlighting the goal (toy) or the means (cloth) was more…

  11. Developing and establishing the validity and reliability of the perceptions toward Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) questionnaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckel, Richard J.

    Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) are voluntary safety reporting programs developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to assist air carriers in discovering and fixing threats, errors and undesired aircraft states during normal flights that could result in a serious or fatal accident. These programs depend on voluntary participation of and reporting by air carrier pilots to be successful. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a measurement scale to measure U.S. air carrier pilots' perceived benefits and/or barriers to participating in ASAP and LOSA programs. Data from these surveys could be used to make changes to or correct pilot misperceptions of these programs to improve participation and the flow of data. ASAP and LOSA a priori models were developed based on previous research in aviation and healthcare. Sixty thousand ASAP and LOSA paper surveys were sent to 60,000 current U.S. air carrier pilots selected at random from an FAA database of pilot certificates. Two thousand usable ASAP and 1,970 usable LOSA surveys were returned and analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Analysis of the data using confirmatory actor analysis and model generation resulted in a five factor ASAP model (Ease of use, Value, Improve, Trust and Risk) and a five factor LOSA model (Value, Improve, Program Trust, Risk and Management Trust). ASAP and LOSA data were not normally distributed, so bootstrapping was used. While both final models exhibited acceptable fit with approximate fit indices, the exact fit hypothesis and the Bollen-Stine p value indicated possible model mis-specification for both ASAP and LOSA models.

  12. A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate that foreign assistance for child welfare should adhere to the goals of the United States Government Action Plan on Children in Adversity.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Inhofe, James M. [R-OK

    2013-06-27

    06/27/2013 Referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5506) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Motivation and goals of ERL 2005

    SciTech Connect

    S. Chattopadhyay

    2005-03-19

    Various types of ERL sources are introduced, the relevant beam physics and accelerator technology issues noted, innovative areas of development identified and current and future goals of ERL research and development established.

  14. Can Goals Motivate Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Alexandra; Kober, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This is the third in a series of six papers by the Center on Education Policy exploring issues related to students' motivation to learn. This paper examines various programs that use test performance or postsecondary attendance as motivational goals and the effects of these goals on students. How do policies surrounding assessments and college…

  15. THE GOALS OF INTEGRATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HANDLIN, OSCAR

    THE LACK OF CLEARLY DEFINED GOALS WITHIN THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT IS IMPEDING ITS TACTICS AND MOMENTUM. THE STATED GOAL OF INTEGRATION ACTUALLY HAS TWO ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATIONS--FULL LEGAL EQUALITY AND RACIAL BALANCE. THE NEWER STRESS ON RACIAL BALANCE RESTS ON THE FALLACIOUS ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE NEGRO'S SITUATION IS UNIQUE BECAUSE OF SLAVERY…

  16. Addressees of Performance Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Dresel, Markus; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2008-01-01

    As performance goals aim to both procure acknowledgment of one's abilities and to avoid revealing a lack of one's abilities, the authors hypothesized that students hold specific performance goals for different addressees and that there are specific correlational patterns with other motivational constructs. They analyzed a data set of 2,675 pupils…

  17. Goal Setting and Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Katie; Reivich, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The science behind the mechanisms and mediators that lead to successful goal accomplishment has been a focus of research since the 1970s. When an individual desires to make a change or accomplish an outcome, research shows that he or she will be more successful if he or she attends to a number of variables that are key in goal setting.…

  18. Goal-Directed Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Marc F.; Troisi, Thomas J.; Pompilio, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of every school district is to help students succeed academically and personally. But does every district leverage its most valuable resource, its teachers, to meet that goal? At the Valley Stream Central High School District in Nassau County, New York, these authors know how important teacher commitment is to student success, so they…

  19. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Saterlie, S.F.; Garza, J.C. de la

    1994-12-31

    Because performance standards are not established for the Yucca Mountain Site (the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards have been remanded), it is necessary to define surrogate or derived criteria to evaluate performance. The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) in 1988 attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish repository performance. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. This paper reports on a two month effort undertaken to reevaluate the SCP thermal goals using an expert Working Group. Fifteen thermal goals identified in various sections of the SCP were evaluated by the Working Group. It was recommended that two goals be deleted: (1) to keep borehole wall temperature < 275 degrees C and keep the mid-drift temperature < 100 degrees C. It was also recommended that one goal be added to establish a thermal loading that would not degrade the Upper Paintbrush Tuff Formation (Lowermost Tiva Canyon; Yucca Mountain; Pah Canyon; and Uppermost Topopah Spring Members) (Vitric nonwelded) (PTn) barrier. Two other thermal goals and a process statement were reworded to afford compatibility with any emplacement mode, not just the vertical borehole. A recommendation was made to increase the conservatism of a goal to limit potential impact on the surface environment by limiting temperature rise to < 2 degrees C rather than < 6 degrees C. This revised set of goals was used in the Thermal Loading Systems Study.

  20. Interrelationships among Employee Participation, Individual Differences, Goal Difficulty, Goal Acceptance, Goal Instrumentality, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukl, Gary A.; Latham, Gary P.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed is a model for goal setting, which is based on Locke's theory that difficult but clear and specific goals, if accepted, will result in higher performance than easy goals, nonspecific goals, or no goals at all. (Author/RK)

  1. Establishment of "Green Schools" Is an Important Medium in Primary and Secondary School Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhenya, Song

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the establishment of the "green schools"campaign as an important medium in primary and secondary school environmental education. The author emphasizes the effect that can be brought about by the "green schools" campaign, which are as follows: (1) stresses action for a common goal, as well as the operability and extensive…

  2. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-08

    The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988) attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish potential repository performance. These criteria or SCP thermal goals were developed from knowledge existing at the time and, as a reference case, emphasized performance for waste emplacement in a vertical borehole. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Additionally, other emplacement modes such as in-drift emplacement are being considered to accommodate larger waste packages. New concepts such as ``extended hot`` are also being considered as possible methods to achieve improved waste isolation. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. A Working Group was formed to reassess the SCP thermal goals to determine whether each goal was still valid, if there were goals that needed to be added, and what if any effort was needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with a particular goal. The objectives of the effort were to: (1) provide thermal goals that would support the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Systems Study; (2) help focus the planned testing and analysis efforts; and (3) acquire data that potentially could be used to initiate a change to the project technical baseline. Sixteen thermal goals were evaluated; fifteen were from various sections of the SCP; one goal was added, and another was split into two to include in-drift emplacement. The group`s findings and recommendations are presented.

  3. Superintendents in Classrooms: From Collegial Conversation to Collaborative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rallis, Sharon; Tedder, Jane; Lachman, Andrew; Elmore, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This article, presents a discussion about Connecticut Superintendents' Network. Established and facilitated by the Connecticut Center for School Change, a school reform organization, the Network is grounded in a theory of action concerning professional development for administrators. The Network's goals are: (1) to develop superintendents'…

  4. Science Goals to Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard SpaceFlight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545): This short course will present the science goals for a variety of types of imaging and spectral measurements, the thermal requirements that these goals impose on the instruments designed to obtain the measurements, and some of the types of trades that can be made among instrument subsystems to ensure the required performance is maintained. Examples of thermal system evolution from initial concept to final implementation will be given for several actual systems.

  5. Goal desires moderate intention-behaviour relations.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, Andrew; Perugini, Marco; Hurling, Robert

    2008-03-01

    Models such as the Extended Model of Goal-Directed Behaviour and the Theory of Planned Behaviour imply that the impact of one's goals on behaviour is mediated by more proximal determinants. We hypothesize that goals can have a broader and more dynamic impact on behaviour and, specifically, that goal desires can moderate the effect of intentions on behaviour. Four studies addressed this issue by examining the direct and moderated effects of goal desires on behaviour. All of the studies required participants to complete baseline measures and then a follow-up indicator of behaviour. In Study 1 (N=119) that focused on fruit intake, Study 2 (N=123) and Study 3 (N=96) concerned with drinking alcohol and Study 4 (N=109) regarding snack consumption, behavioural intentions were more reliably related to behaviour when goal desires were strong. The results of Study 3 suggested that goal desire stability increases the likelihood of this moderator effect emerging and Study 4 revealed that this effect was not suppressed by intention stability. The findings suggest that goals and behavioural intentions can operate simultaneously and jointly influence action, a view that contradicts predictions that the effects of goals are fully mediated by more proximal behavioural determinants. PMID:17594757

  6. RTT Goals Challenge Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Ambitious student-achievement targets turn up the heat, as winners of the $4 billion federal grant effort push to deliver. Winners of the $4 billion Race to the Top jackpot committed to grand goals in using the federal grants to raise student achievement, as measured by higher test scores, narrowed achievement gaps, and increased graduation and…

  7. Exploring Goals. Career Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    Materials contained in this career guidance unit are designed to enable senior high school students to relate their abilities scores from the Developed Abilities Performance (DAP) instrument to actual vocational areas and Long Range [occupational] Goals (LRG) for later indepth study. The length of the unit is six 55-minute periods. Instructional…

  8. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    PubMed

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth. PMID:26273896

  9. Reaching Your Fitness Goals

    MedlinePlus

    Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Reaching Your Fitness Goals You’ll begin to see results in ... longer, and more easily. As you increase your fitness level, you also might find that you need ...

  10. Mathematics: Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document defines what are considered to be the essentials in a strong mathematics program for the state of Oregon for grades K-12. The common curriculum goals are organized into nine content strands: (1) number and numeration; (2) appropriate computational skills; (3) problem solving; (4) geometry and visualization skills; (5) measurement;…

  11. Conation, Goal Accomplishment Style and Wholistic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atman, Kathryn S.; Romano, Patricia R.

    Conation is a domain of behavior or mental processes associated with goal directed action. Wholistic education stresses an integrated approach to an individual's learning process; thus, consideration of the integration of the four domains (cognitive, affective, psychomotor and conative) can find a receptive niche among educators who seek to…

  12. The nucleus accumbens as a nexus between values and goals in goal-directed behavior: a review and a new hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Mannella, Francesco; Gurney, Kevin; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior is a fundamental means by which animals can flexibly solve the challenges posed by variable external and internal conditions. Recently, the processes and brain mechanisms underlying such behavior have been extensively studied from behavioral, neuroscientific and computational perspectives. This research has highlighted the processes underlying goal-directed behavior and associated brain systems including prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and, in particular therein, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). This paper focusses on one particular process at the core of goal-directed behavior: how motivational value is assigned to goals on the basis of internal states and environmental stimuli, and how this supports goal selection processes. Various biological and computational accounts have been given of this problem and of related multiple neural and behavior phenomena, but we still lack an integrated hypothesis on the generation and use of value for goal selection. This paper proposes an hypothesis that aims to solve this problem and is based on this key elements: (a) amygdala and hippocampus establish the motivational value of stimuli and goals; (b) prefrontal cortex encodes various types of action outcomes; (c) NAcc integrates different sources of value, representing them in terms of a common currency with the aid of dopamine, and thereby plays a major role in selecting action outcomes within prefrontal cortex. The “goals” pursued by the organism are the outcomes selected by these processes. The hypothesis is developed in the context of a critical review of relevant biological and computational literature which offer it support. The paper shows how the hypothesis has the potential to integrate existing interpretations of motivational value and goal selection. PMID:24167476

  13. Establishing operations

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack

    1993-01-01

    The first two books on behavior analysis (Skinner, 1938; Keller & Schoenfeld, 1950) had chapter-length coverage of motivation. The next generation of texts also had chapters on the topic, but by the late 1960s it was no longer being given much treatment in the behavior-analytic literature. The present failure to deal with the topic leaves a gap in our understanding of operant functional relations. A partial solution is to reintroduce the concept of the establishing operation, defined as an environmental event, operation, or stimulus condition that affects an organism by momentarily altering (a) the reinforcing effectiveness of other events and (b) the frequency of occurrence of that part of the organism's repertoire relevant to those events as consequences. Discriminative and motivative variables can be distinguished as follows: The former are related to the differential availability of an effective form of reinforcement given a particular type of behavior; the latter are related to the differential reinforcing effectiveness of environmental events. An important distinction can also be made between unconditioned establishing operations (UEOs), such as food deprivation and painful stimulation, and conditioned establishing operations (CEOs) that depend on the learning history of the organism. One type of CEO is a stimulus that has simply been paired with a UEO and as a result may take on some of the motivative properties of that UEO. The warning stimulus in avoidance procedures is another important type of CEO referred to as reflexive because it establishes its own termination as a form of reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has accomplished such termination. Another CEO is closely related to the concept of conditional conditioned reinforcement and is referred to as a transitive CEO, because it establishes some other stimulus as a form of effective reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has produced that other stimulus. The multiple control of human

  14. Self-Image Goals and Compassionate Goals: Costs and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Jennifer; Olivier, Marc-Andre; Nuer, Noah

    2010-01-01

    Two types of interpersonal goals—self-image goals and compassionate goals—reflect distinct motivational perspectives on the relationship between the self and others—egosystem and ecosystem perspectives, respectively. Research on the associations of self-image goals and compassionate goals with students’ experiences in their first semester of college is described. Chronic self-image goals and compassionate goals predict changes in learning and achievement goals, self-regulation and goal progress, social support and friendships, emotions, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Self-image goals have costs for belonging, and compassionate goals have benefits for belonging. PMID:21218194

  15. The Role of Goal Attainment Expectancies in Achievement Goal Pursuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Hulleman, Chris S.

    2013-01-01

    The current studies introduce the goal attainment expectancy construct to achievement goal theory. Three studies, 2 in college classrooms and the other using a novel math task in the laboratory, converged on the same finding. For mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals alike, the harder the goal appeared to attain, the less likely…

  16. Does monitoring goal progress promote goal attainment? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Harkin, Benjamin; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Prestwich, Andrew; Conner, Mark; Kellar, Ian; Benn, Yael; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-02-01

    Control theory and other frameworks for understanding self-regulation suggest that monitoring goal progress is a crucial process that intervenes between setting and attaining a goal, and helps to ensure that goals are translated into action. However, the impact of progress monitoring interventions on rates of behavioral performance and goal attainment has yet to be quantified. A systematic literature search identified 138 studies (N = 19,951) that randomly allocated participants to an intervention designed to promote monitoring of goal progress versus a control condition. All studies reported the effects of the treatment on (a) the frequency of progress monitoring and (b) subsequent goal attainment. A random effects model revealed that, on average, interventions were successful at increasing the frequency of monitoring goal progress (d+ = 1.98, 95% CI [1.71, 2.24]) and promoted goal attainment (d+ = 0.40, 95% CI [0.32, 0.48]). Furthermore, changes in the frequency of progress monitoring mediated the effect of the interventions on goal attainment. Moderation tests revealed that progress monitoring had larger effects on goal attainment when the outcomes were reported or made public, and when the information was physically recorded. Taken together, the findings suggest that monitoring goal progress is an effective self-regulation strategy, and that interventions that increase the frequency of progress monitoring are likely to promote behavior change. PMID:26479070

  17. The interplay between goal intentions and implementation intentions.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, Paschal; Webb, Thomas L; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2005-01-01

    Two studies tested whether action control by implementation intentions is sensitive to the activation and strength of participants' underlying goal intentions. In Study 1, participants formed implementation intentions (or did not) and their goal intentions were measured. Findings revealed a significant interaction between implementation intentions and the strength of respective goal intentions. Implementation intentions benefited the rate of goal attainment when participants had strong goal intentions but not when goal intentions were weak. Study 2 activated either a task-relevant or a neutral goal outside of participants' conscious awareness and found that implementation intentions affected performance only when the relevant goal had been activated. These findings indicate that the rate of goal attainment engendered by implementation intentions takes account of the state (strength, activation) of people's superordinate goal intentions. PMID:15574664

  18. Affirmative Action's Contradictory Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Madeline E.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses affirmative action's success at creating a more equal workplace. Explores some potential psychological costs of this policy--costs that paradoxically may undermine its objectives--and their implications for achieving the goal of workplace equality. (GR)

  19. GMUGLE: A goal lattice constructor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Kenneth J.

    2001-08-01

    Goal lattices are a method for ordering the goals of a system and associating with each goal the value of performing that goal in terms of how much it contributes to the accomplishment of the topmost goal of a system. This paper presents a progress report on the development of a web-based implementation of the George Mason University Goal Lattice Engine (GMUGLE). GMUGLE allows a user to interactively create goal lattices, add/delete goals, and specify their ordering relations through a web-based interface. The database portion automatically computes the GLB and LUB of pairs of goals which have been entered to form them into a lattice. Yet to be implemented is the code to input goal values, automatically apportion the values among included goals, and accrue value among the included goals.

  20. A Fast Goal Recognition Technique Based on Interaction Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    E-Martin, Yolanda; R-Moreno, Maria D.; Smith, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Goal Recognition is the task of inferring an actor's goals given some or all of the actor's observed actions. There is considerable interest in Goal Recognition for use in intelligent personal assistants, smart environments, intelligent tutoring systems, and monitoring user's needs. In much of this work, the actor's observed actions are compared against a generated library of plans. Recent work by Ramirez and Geffner makes use of AI planning to determine how closely a sequence of observed actions matches plans for each possible goal. For each goal, this is done by comparing the cost of a plan for that goal with the cost of a plan for that goal that includes the observed actions. This approach yields useful rankings, but is impractical for real-time goal recognition in large domains because of the computational expense of constructing plans for each possible goal. In this paper, we introduce an approach that propagates cost and interaction information in a plan graph, and uses this information to estimate goal probabilities. We show that this approach is much faster, but still yields high quality results.

  1. Joint attention, shared goals and social bonding

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Wouter; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2016-01-01

    There has recently been interest in the ways in which coordinated movements encourage coactors to feel social closer to one another, but this has generally overlooked the importance of necessary precursors to this joint action. Here we target two low-level behaviours involved in social coordination that may mediate a relationship between joint actions and social bonding, namely joint attention and shared goals. Participants engaged in a simple reaction time task whilst sitting next to a partner performing the same task. In a joint attention condition both participants attended to stimuli presented on the same half of a computer screen, while in a control condition they attended to opposite sides of the computer screen. Shared goals were manipulated by giving participants the instruction to keep below a threshold score for both individual response times and accuracy (individual goal), or their joint mean response time and accuracy (i.e. averaging their mean response time and accuracy with that of their partner: shared goal). Attending to the same side of the screen led to higher ratings on a composite social bonding index directed towards a partner, while shared goals did not cause any significant effects on partner ratings. Joint attention was sufficient to encourage social closeness with an interaction partner, which suggests that any activities which encourage attending to the same point in space could have some influence on how connected co-actors feel about one another. PMID:26256821

  2. CBM with Goal Setting: Impacting Students' Understanding of Reading Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Kristine D.

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study investigated if goal setting with curriculum-based measurement (CBM) was effective in increasing student awareness of goal knowledge and if students could set realistic daily reading goals. Nineteen 6th and 7th grade students with learning disabilities participated in a goal setting treatment group or a control group. During the…

  3. Habitual control of goal selection in humans

    PubMed Central

    Cushman, Fiery; Morris, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Humans choose actions based on both habit and planning. Habitual control is computationally frugal but adapts slowly to novel circumstances, whereas planning is computationally expensive but can adapt swiftly. Current research emphasizes the competition between habits and plans for behavioral control, yet many complex tasks instead favor their integration. We consider a hierarchical architecture that exploits the computational efficiency of habitual control to select goals while preserving the flexibility of planning to achieve those goals. We formalize this mechanism in a reinforcement learning setting, illustrate its costs and benefits, and experimentally demonstrate its spontaneous application in a sequential decision-making task. PMID:26460050

  4. The Automated Will: Nonconscious Activation and Pursuit of Behavioral Goals

    PubMed Central

    Bargh, John A.; Lee-Chai, Annette; Barndollar, Kimberly; Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Trötschel, Roman

    2010-01-01

    It is proposed that goals can be activated outside of awareness and then operate nonconsciously to guide self-regulation effectively (J. A. Bargh, 1990). Five experiments are reported in which the goal either to perform well or to cooperate was activated, without the awareness of participants, through a priming manipulation. In Experiment 1 priming of the goal to perform well caused participants to perform comparatively better on an intellectual task. In Experiment 2 priming of the goal to cooperate caused participants to replenish a commonly held resource more readily. Experiment 3 used a dissociation paradigm to rule out perceptual-construal alternative explanations. Experiments 4 and 5 demonstrated that action guided by nonconsciously activated goals manifests two classic content-free features of the pursuit of consciously held goals. Nonconsciously activated goals effectively guide action, enabling adaptation to ongoing situational demands. PMID:11761304

  5. Handbook for Ecology Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eber, Ronald

    This handbook has been compiled to aid concerned individuals and ecology groups more adequately define their goals, initiate good programs, and take effective action. It examines the ways a group of working individuals can become involved in action programs for ecological change. Part 1 deals with organization, preliminary organizing, structuring,…

  6. 34 CFR 300.157 - Performance goals and indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Performance goals and indicators. 300.157 Section 300... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Additional Eligibility Requirements § 300.157 Performance goals and indicators. The State must— (a) Have in effect established goals for the performance...

  7. Diversity Education Goals: A Policy Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. colleges and universities have established student learning outcomes for diversity education in their general education programs. These education goals, frequently developed for assessment or other policy purposes, convey a range of possible purposes for diversity and multicultural learning. The manner in which these purposes are…

  8. New FCC Goal in Ownership Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Josh

    By first describing the historical stance of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) toward ownership of broadcast facilities and then describing the FCC's most recent policy statements, this report compares the differing viewpoints and recognizes that the new value or goal that seems to have been established conflicts with the past emphasis…

  9. [Is Grail's goal feasible?].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    A newly established company called Grail and spun out from Illumina promises to develop a "liquid biopsy" test suitable for asymptomatic cancer detection and general screening. While the necessary sensitivity may be attainable through ultra-deep sequencing of plasma DNA, it seems unlikely that the extremely high specificity needed to avoid false positives can be reached. This would defeat the purpose of the test, as it has been realized recently that insufficiently specific tests (prostate specific antigen levels for prostate cancer, and possibly frequent mammography for breast cancer) cause harms that outweigh their benefits. PMID:27137701

  10. Some values guiding community research and action

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Stephen B.

    1991-01-01

    The dual purposes of applied research—contributing to understanding and improvement—are only partially served by method systems that encourage studying (with increasing precision) a narrow range of questions of modest societal importance. To optimize contributions to challenging societal problems, a field's cherished standards should be adapted to support more adventuresome forms of community research and action. This paper outlines 10 values for community research and action, based on insights from the fields of behavioral and community psychology. These values—reflect the goals and challenges of establishing collaborative relationships with research participants, determining research goals and methods, designing and disseminating interventions, communicating research findings, and advocating for community change. Critical challenges are outlined, and implications for the field and its clients are discussed. PMID:16795759

  11. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  12. Technical Basis for Also Using Health-Risk Assessment to Establish Contaminant Boundaries for Corrective Action Units (CAUs) of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J I; Tompson, A F

    2003-12-29

    This technical basis document serves two purposes. First, it provides a detailed discussion of the rationale and procedures suitable for deriving a risk-based contaminant boundary that will protect public health unambiguously, along with examples that are intended as illustrative only to facilitate understanding. Second, it explains the benefits of using such information as the framework for fostering risk communication to educate, inform, and enlighten, and importantly, to fully disclose the goals and structure of contaminant boundaries. To determine a contaminant boundary within a CAU, standards or criteria must be adopted that establish whether groundwater is safe or unsafe for public (and worker) use. For purposes of this discussion, drinking water consumption is considered the pathway of exposure. However, in practice, a realistic land-use scenario must be described and agreed upon before a prospective, realistic risk-based calculation is performed. Otherwise, it will not be clear whether consumption of drinking water is a even appropriate. For example, the future land use that is defined may not even permit access to the contaminated water (e.g., denial of use by law and stewardship; or a lack of accessibility), and in that situation there would be no exposure and no potential health consequences. Taking into consideration that consumption of the groundwater is feasible, the groundwater is deemed unsafe if it contains radionuclide contamination that exceeds the criteria that the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers in establishing regulatory standards for drinking water contaminants, including radionuclides generally (i.e., a target range for lifetime excess-cancer risk that is not to exceed 10{sup -4} [1/10,000] and ideally is less than 10{sup -6} [1/1,000,000]) (see EPA, 2000a). Thus, the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for substances in drinking water are considered to be health-protective and generally are derived on the basis

  13. The Evaluation of Goal and Goal-Free Training Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Carl; Roffe, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Goal-based training has specific, predetermined objectives, whereas goal-free training involves implementation of innovations whose outcomes cannot be predicted. Evaluation of goal-free training must consider clients' requirements, the effectiveness of the initiative, and application of feedback. (SK)

  14. Goal Contents and Goal Contexts: Experiments with Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ze; Hu, Xiao Yong; Guo, Yong Yu

    2013-01-01

    Using samples of Chinese middle school students, the 2 experimental studies presented here examined the effects of goal content and goal context on test performance, free-choice engagement, and test anxiety within the framework of self-determination theory. Students' learning goals were induced as intrinsic or extrinsic with the learning…

  15. Self-Regulation through Goal Setting. ERIC/CASS Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunk, Dale H.

    Self-regulation, the systematic effort to direct thoughts, feelings, and actions towards the attainment of one's goals, is receiving importance in the psychological and educational literatures. Goals are involved across the different phases of self-regulation, first as forethought, then in performance control, and finally in self-regulation. This…

  16. Career Goals, Preferences, and Support for Students in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Belva A.

    2013-01-01

    Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory has been adapted by Lent, Brown, and Hackett (1994) to form social cognitive career theory (SCCT). The theory posits three interlocking steps in academic and career development: interest, choice goal, and choice goal action. Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, barriers, and supports are hypothesized to…

  17. 77 FR 75361 - 2012-2014 Enterprise Housing Goals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... housing goals for 2012 through 2014, published on November 13, 2012, at 77 FR 67535, included a table on... levels in the columns for all three years. The newly formatted table is displayed below. Correction In FR... RIN 2590-AA49 2012-2014 Enterprise Housing Goals AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION:...

  18. "Goals" Are Not an Integral Component of Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Jane; Bird, Geoffrey; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Several theories suggest that actions are coded for imitation in terms of mentalistic goals, or inferences about the actor's intentions, and that these goals solve the "correspondence problem" by allowing sensory input to be translated into matching motor output. We tested this intention reading hypothesis against general process accounts of…

  19. Beyond SMART? A New Framework for Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Trevor; Tosey, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article extends currently reported theory and practice in the use of learning goals or targets with students in secondary and further education. Goal-setting and action-planning constructs are employed in personal development plans (PDPs) and personal learning plans (PLPs) and are advocated as practice within the English national policy…

  20. National Strategy for Suicide Prevention: Goals and Objectives for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Morton M., Ed.

    This guide is designed to be a catalyst for social change, and to transform attitudes, policies, and services concerned with suicide prevention to reflect current knowledge. It involves a comprehensive and integrated approach to reducing the loss and suffering from suicide and suicidal behaviors in the United States. Representing the combined work…

  1. Teaching Goals-Plans-Action Theory through a Negotiation Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Evidence that K-12 schools had successfully integrated conflict resolution into curricula (Johnson & Johnson, 2004; Stevahn, 2004) includes students' resolution of personal conflicts and improved academic performances (Johnson, Johnson, Dudley, & Magnuson, 1995; Stevahn, Johnson, Johnson, Green, & Laginski, 1997; Stevahn, Johnson,…

  2. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  3. Educational Technology Goals, Progress, and Recommended Actions, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Technology in Education & Training.

    This report, an update of the National Coalition for Technology Education and Training's (NCTET) 1994 "National Information Infrastructure Requirements for Education and Training," is intended to serve as a guide for national and state policy makers and planners concerned with the role of technology in education. It begins with a review of recent…

  4. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    PubMed

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals. PMID:12733420

  5. Goal Characteristics and Personality Factors in a Management-by-Objectives Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Stephen J., Jr.; Tosi, Henry L.

    1970-01-01

    This study correlates different characteristics of goals established in a management-by- objectives program to criteria hypothesized to represent success of the program; results indicate that establishing clear and important goals produced favorable results, especially for certain types. (Author)

  6. Evidence for a Unitary Goal Concept in 12-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Szilvia; Verschoor, Stephan; Coenen, Lot

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether infants can transfer their goal attribution between situations that contain different types of information about the goal. We found that 12-month-olds who had attributed a goal based on the causal efficacy of a means-end action generated expectations about the actor's action in another scenario in which the actor could…

  7. The Arts and Education: Partners in Achieving Our National Education Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC.

    This action guide reflects the discussions and recommendations of the Goals 2000 Education Action Planning Process. The booklet includes a summary checklist of critical actions that must be taken by those working at the national, state, and local levels to advance the arts in the Goals 2000 education improvement process. The sections of the…

  8. Effectively Using IEP Goal Banks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Ellen; McCall, Renee; Aiello, Rocco; Lieberman, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    For students with disabilities, annual goals are the nuts and bolts of the everyday program outlined in their individualized education program (IEP). According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004, a present level of performance with measurable annual goals must be outlined in a student's IEP. Goals should…

  9. The effects of goal variation on adult physical activity behaviour.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dal-Hyun; Yun, Joonkoo; McNamee, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of varying levels of goals on increasing daily steps and the frequency of goal achievement among middle-aged adults. Ninety-six adults participated in a randomised control study. Participants were randomly assigned to five different step goal groups: (1) Easy (n = 19), (2) Medium (n = 19), (3) Difficult (n = 19), (4) Do-your-best (n = 19), and (5) No goal (n = 20) based on previous research. The participants wore a pedometer and were asked to reach a pre-established goal during the experimental period. In order to examine the effectiveness of the goal difficulty, (a) an average number of steps taken by different goal conditions and (b) the number of days meeting the assigned goal were tested. A one-way ANCOVA revealed significant step count differences among goal groups. Post hoc analyses indicated that the change in step count in both the Medium and Difficult goal groups was significantly greater than the remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference between the medium and difficult goal conditions. In addition, a one-way ANOVA indicated that there were no significant differences in the frequency of goal achievement among the Easy, Medium, and Difficult goal groups. Results suggest that when promoting physical activity through increasing step counts, researchers and clinicians should design goals that are specific and challenging. PMID:26860430

  10. Achieving the Goals. Goal 4: Teacher Education and Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Goal 4 of the National Education Goals envisions that teachers will have access to programs for the continued improvement of their professional skills. This book examines what federal agencies are doing to enhance teacher preparation, presents information on career-long development, and offers program descriptions and contact names. The first…

  11. Goal-Prioritization for Teachers, Coaches, and Students: A Developmental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Matthew L.; Tapps, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide background on types of goals, a system for writing goals, and a framework for goal-prioritization that can be implemented in classroom and/or sport settings. Goal-setting is the process of developing a desired outcome to serve as the purpose of one's actions.

  12. Establishing a Presence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCandless, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    The basis for this successful collaboration was face-to-face communication. Though it was sometimes stressful being on the road so much, I really learned the importance of being present to work together and ask questions in person. Another measure of success was that in the midst of this project and traveling, my wife and I managed to start a family. My oldest boy got a real kick out of visiting Space Center Houston when he was two to learn all about the "face futtle" which goes way up in the sky. When practical, collocation and face-to-face communication on a project eliminate misunderstandings, establish relationships, make information more easily accessible, and promote a team atmosphere. Compromise is key to balancing both family and career goals. Knowing when to prioritize each is important to success in both aspects.

  13. Political action committee for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Spurred by budget proposals that could severely reduce science funding (Eos, March 24, March 3, February 10), seven scientists currently serving as Congressional Science or State Department Fellows recently founded a political action committee (PAC) for scientists. The Science and Technology Political Action Committee (SCITEC-PAC) aims to make scientists more politically aware and better informed about potential legislative actions that affect research. It will also serve to ‘establish a political presence’ with respect to science, said Donald Stein, SCITEC-PAC's chairman.The organization is not a lobbying group, explained Stein, professor of neurology and psychology at Clark University and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. ‘Lobbyists seek to influence officials by presenting information to them,’ he said, ‘while a PAC tries to influence the outcome of elections through campaign contributions of money, time, and effort in behalf of candidates that share similar goals and aspirations.’ In other words, the PAC will be a vehicle for promoting candidates for federal office who advocate strong support for scientific research and training. In addition, the PAC will develop and study science policy and budget issues and will attempt to stimulate government and private sector interest in these issues.

  14. Goal!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the story of his son, Joshua Pauls. Josh is an energetic young man who learned at a very young age not to let anything stop him from achieving his dreams. Born with a birth defect known as bilateral bibia hemimelia, which means he was born without his tibia bone in both of his legs, Josh was only 10 months old…

  15. Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David A., Ed.; Phillips, Prudence, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are two brief articles related to teaching the history of chemistry in college chemistry, "Utilizing a Historical Perspective in the Teaching of Chemistry" (Joseph W. Kamsar), and "History of Chemistry" (George B. Kauffman). (RH)

  16. MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT. VOLUME I. SUPPLEMENT A

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report supplements Volume I (PB-276 919) of the two-volume 1977 EPA report that introduced a methodology to establish Multimedia Environmental Goals (MEGs) for chemical pollutants. It summarizes the original methodology and introduces minor improvements. Improvements include ...

  17. What about Those Dietary Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, S. Jane

    1980-01-01

    This elaboration of the Dietary Goals for the United States, set by the U.S. Senate and Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs in 1977, details all seven dietary goals and includes a discussion of possible risk factors associated with certain chronic diseases. (JN)

  18. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  19. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    GOAL, is a test engineer oriented language designed to be used to standardize procedure terminology and as the test programming language to be used for ground checkout operations in a space vehicle launch environment. The material presented concerning GOAL includes: (1) a historical review, (2) development objectives and requirements, (3) language scope and format, and (4) language capabilities.

  20. Goals and Personality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. L.; Ugarte, M. D.; Lumbreras, M. Victoria; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personality factors in the value allotted by adolescents to various groups of goals. For this purpose, the "Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional, CPS" (Situational Personality Questionnaire) and the "Cuestionario de Metas para Adolescentes, CMA" (Goals for Adolescents Questionnaire)…

  1. Conceptual models to guide best practices in organization and development of State Action Coalitions.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Mary E; Lazure, Linda; Morris, Kathy J; Valerio, Marilyn; Morris, Rosanna

    2013-01-01

    The RWJF/AARP National Campaign for Action established a goal of establishing Action Coalitions in every state by 2012. Last year, a small Steering Committee formed in Nebraska and used two conceptual models to guide the organization and development of its Action Coalition. The purpose of this article is to present the Internal Coalition Outcome Hierarchy (ICOH) model that guided development of partnership and coalition building. The second model, Determining Program Feasibility, provided a framework for data collection and analysis to identify the opportunities and challenges for strategic program planning to accomplish identified key priorities for Nebraska. A discussion of the models' applications is included and offered as best practices for others seeking to form partnership/coalitions and establish action plans and priorities. PMID:22921306

  2. 41 CFR 60-4.6 - Goals and timetables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Director, from time to time, shall issue goals and timetables for minority and female utilization which..., in the Notice required by 41 CFR 60-4.2. Covered construction contractors performing construction... shall apply the minority and female goals established for the geographical area where the work is...

  3. Curriculum Reform in Contemporary China: Seven Goals and Six Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Fuquan

    2004-01-01

    Curriculum developers and scholars in China are facing a set of inter-related issues around the goals and the strategies of curriculum reform. This paper argues that there are, as in every process of curriculum development, seven goals to be addressed within China's curriculum reform: (1) the establishment of a new curriculum philosophy or ideal;…

  4. Requirements as Goals and Commitments Too

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Amit K.; Mylopoulos, John; Dalpiaz, Fabiano; Giorgini, Paolo; Singh, Munindar P.

    In traditional software engineering research and practice, requirements are classified either as functional or non-functional. Functional requirements consist of all functions the system-to-be ought to support, and have been modeled in terms of box-and-arrow diagrams in the spirit of SADT. Non-functional requirements include desired software qualities for the system-to-be and have been described either in natural language or in terms of metrics. This orthodoxy was challenged in the mid-90 s by a host of proposals that had a common theme: all requirements are initially stakeholder goals and ought to be elicited, modeled and analyzed as such. Through systematic processes, these goals can be refined into specifications of functions the system-to-be needs to deliver, while actions assigned to external actors need to be executed. This view is dominating Requirements Engineering (RE) research and is beginning to have an impact on RE practice. We propose a next step along this line of research, by adopting the concept of conditional commitment as companion concept to that of goal. Goals are intentional entities that capture the needs and wants of stakeholders. Commitments, on the other hand, are social concepts that define the willingness and capability of an actor A to fulfill a predicate ϕ for the benefit of actor B, provided B (in return) fulfills predicate ψ for the benefit of actor A. In our conceptualization, goals are mapped to collections of commitments rather than functions, qualities, or actor assignments. We motivate the importance of the concept of commitment for RE through examples and discussion. We also contrast our proposal with state-of-the-art requirements modeling and analysis frameworks, such as KAOS, MAP, i * and Tropos.

  5. Goal Statements and Goal-Directed Behavior: A Relational Frame Account of Goal Setting in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hora, Denis; Maglieri, Kristen A.

    2006-01-01

    Goal setting has consistently been shown to increase performance under specific conditions. These goal setting effects have previously been explored from both a cognitive perspective and in terms of traditional behavioral concepts. We highlight limitations of these approaches and propose a novel account based on Relational Frame Theory. This…

  6. Career Goals in Young Adults: Personal Resources, Goal Appraisals, Attitudes, and Goal Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haratsis, Jessica M.; Hood, Michelle; Creed, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model based on the dual-process framework that assessed the relationships among personal resources, career goal appraisals, career attitudes, and career goal management, which have not been previously assessed together. The model (tested on a sample of 486 young adults: 74% female, M[subscript]age = 22 years) proposed that personal…

  7. Social constraints from an observer's perspective: Coordinated actions make an agent's position more predictable.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Xu, Haokui; Ding, Xiaowei; Liang, Junying; Shui, Rende; Shen, Mowei

    2016-06-01

    Action prediction, a crucial ability to support social activities, is sensitive to the individual goals of expected actions. This article reports a novel finding that the predictions of observed actions for a temporarily invisible agent are influenced, and even enhanced, when this agent has a joint/collective goal to implement coordinated actions with others (i.e., with coordination information). Specifically, we manipulated the coordination information by presenting two chasers and one common target to perform coordinated or individual chases, and subjects were required to predict the expected action (i.e., position) for one chaser after it became momentarily invisible. To control for possible low-level physical properties, we also established some intense paired controls for each type of chase, such as backward replay (Experiment 1), making the chasing target invisible (Experiment 2) and a direct manipulation of the goal-directedness of one chaser's movements to disrupt coordination information (Experiment 3). The results show that the prediction error for invisible chasers depends on whether the second chaser is coordinated with the first, and this effect vanishes when the chasers behaves with exactly the same motions, but without coordination information between them; furthermore, this influence results in enhancing the performance of action prediction. These findings extend the influential factors of action prediction to the level of observed coordination information, implying that the functional characteristic of mutual constraints of coordinated actions can be utilized by vision. PMID:26922896

  8. Science Goal Monitor: Science Goal Driven Automation for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jung, John; Pell, Melissa; Matusow, David; Bailyn, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Infusion of automation technologies into NASA s future missions will be essential because of the need to: (1) effectively handle an exponentially increasing volume of scientific data, (2) successfully meet dynamic, opportunistic scientific goals and objectives, and (3) substantially reduce mission operations staff and costs. While much effort has gone into automating routine spacecraft operations to reduce human workload and hence costs, applying intelligent automation to the science side, i.e., science data acquisition, data analysis and reactions to that data analysis in a timely and still scientifically valid manner, has been relatively under-emphasized. In order to introduce science driven automation in missions, we must be able to: capture and interpret the science goals of observing programs, represent those goals in machine interpretable language; and allow spacecrafts onboard systems to autonomously react to the scientist's goals. In short, we must teach our platforms to dynamically understand, recognize, and react to the scientists goals. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a prototype software tool being developed to determine the best strategies for implementing science goal driven automation in missions. The tools being developed in SGM improve the ability to monitor and react to the changing status of scientific events. The SGM system enables scientists to specify what to look for and how to react in descriptive rather than technical terms. The system monitors streams of science data to identify occurrences of key events previously specified by the scientist. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the scientist s desired reactions. Through SGM, we will improve om understanding about the capabilities needed onboard for success, develop metrics to understand the potential increase in science returns, and develop an operational prototype so that the perceived risks associated

  9. Jump into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Cohen, Ann; Meyer, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Jump Into Action (JIA) is a school-based team-taught program to help fifth-grade students make healthy food choices and be more active. The JIA team (physical education teacher, classroom teacher, school nurse, and parent) work together to provide a supportive environment as students set goals to improve food choices and increase activity.…

  10. Affirmative Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    As mandated by law, this 1983 revision describes the Oklahoma State Department of Education's Affirmative Action Plan and analyzes the employment patterns of the department's work force for that year in light of equal employment opportunity goals. Following a brief policy statement, the development, dissemination, and implementation of the plan…

  11. Improving Teaching with Collaborative Action Research: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Once you've established a professional learning community (PLC), you need to get this ASCD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) action tool to ensure that your PLC stays focused on addressing teaching methods and student learning problems. This ASCD action tool explains how your PLC can use collaborative action research to…

  12. The neural basis of monitoring goal progress

    PubMed Central

    Benn, Yael; Webb, Thomas L.; Chang, Betty P. I.; Sun, Yu-Hsuan; Wilkinson, Iain D.; Farrow, Tom F. D.

    2014-01-01

    The neural basis of progress monitoring has received relatively little attention compared to other sub-processes that are involved in goal directed behavior such as motor control and response inhibition. Studies of error-monitoring have identified the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as a structure that is sensitive to conflict detection, and triggers corrective action. However, monitoring goal progress involves monitoring correct as well as erroneous events over a period of time. In the present research, 20 healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) while playing a game that involved monitoring progress toward either a numerical or a visuo-spatial target. The findings confirmed the role of the dACC in detecting situations in which the current state may conflict with the desired state, but also revealed activations in the frontal and parietal regions, pointing to the involvement of processes such as attention and working memory (WM) in monitoring progress over time. In addition, activation of the cuneus was associated with monitoring progress toward a specific target presented in the visual modality. This is the first time that activation in this region has been linked to higher-order processing of goal-relevant information, rather than low-level anticipation of visual stimuli. Taken together, these findings identify the neural substrates involved in monitoring progress over time, and how these extend beyond activations observed in conflict and error monitoring. PMID:25309380

  13. The neural basis of monitoring goal progress.

    PubMed

    Benn, Yael; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Sun, Yu-Hsuan; Wilkinson, Iain D; Farrow, Tom F D

    2014-01-01

    The neural basis of progress monitoring has received relatively little attention compared to other sub-processes that are involved in goal directed behavior such as motor control and response inhibition. Studies of error-monitoring have identified the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as a structure that is sensitive to conflict detection, and triggers corrective action. However, monitoring goal progress involves monitoring correct as well as erroneous events over a period of time. In the present research, 20 healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) while playing a game that involved monitoring progress toward either a numerical or a visuo-spatial target. The findings confirmed the role of the dACC in detecting situations in which the current state may conflict with the desired state, but also revealed activations in the frontal and parietal regions, pointing to the involvement of processes such as attention and working memory (WM) in monitoring progress over time. In addition, activation of the cuneus was associated with monitoring progress toward a specific target presented in the visual modality. This is the first time that activation in this region has been linked to higher-order processing of goal-relevant information, rather than low-level anticipation of visual stimuli. Taken together, these findings identify the neural substrates involved in monitoring progress over time, and how these extend beyond activations observed in conflict and error monitoring. PMID:25309380

  14. 77 FR 67535 - 2012-2014 Enterprise Housing Goals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... addition, ] programs established in the wake of the financial crisis have affected refinancings. The Home... Recovery Act of 2008 (HERA), provides for the establishment, monitoring and enforcement of housing goals...\\ See 75 FR 55892 (September 14, 2010). Section 1332(a) of the Safety and Soundness Act requires FHFA...

  15. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase I) Remedial Action Report

    SciTech Connect

    L. Davison

    2007-07-31

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase I sites at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The 10 sites addressed in this report were defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for these 10 sites have been accomplished and are hereafter considered No Action or No Further Action sites.

  16. Evidence for a distributed hierarchy of action representation in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Grafton, Scott T.; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.

    2007-01-01

    Complex human behavior is organized around temporally distal outcomes. Behavioral studies based on tasks such as normal prehension, multi-step object use and imitation establish the existence of relative hierarchies of motor control. The retrieval errors in apraxia also support the notion of a hierarchical model for representing action in the brain. In this review, three functional brain imaging studies of action observation using the method of repetition suppression are used to identify a putative neural architecture that supports action understanding at the level of kinematics, object centered goals and ultimately, motor outcomes. These results, based on observation, may match a similar functional anatomic hierarchy for action planning and execution. If this is true, then the findings support a functional anatomic model that is distributed across a set of interconnected brain areas that are differentially recruited for different aspects of goal oriented behavior, rather than a homogeneous mirror neuron system for organizing and understanding all behavior. PMID:17706312

  17. From Movements to Actions: Two Mechanisms for Learning Action Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Wood, Justin N.

    2011-01-01

    When other individuals move, we interpret their movements as discrete, hierarchically-organized, goal-directed actions. However, the mechanisms that integrate visible movement features into actions are poorly understood. Here, we consider two sequence learning mechanisms--transitional probability-based (TP) and position-based encoding…

  18. Will Any Doll Do? 12-Month-Olds' Reasoning about Goal Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaepen, Elizabet; Spelke, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Infants as young as 5 months of age view familiar actions such as reaching as goal-directed (Woodward, 1998), but how do they construe the goal of an actor's reach? Six experiments investigated whether 12-month-old infants represent reaching actions as directed to a particular individual object, to a narrowly defined object category (e.g., an…

  19. The Effects of Self Set or Externally Set Goals on Learning in an Uncertain Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring refers to online awareness and self-evaluation of one's goal-directed actions, while Control refers to the generation and selection of goal-directed actions (Osman, 2010a). The present study examines the extent to which external estimations of performance influence monitoring and control behaviors. To achieve this, a complex dynamic…

  20. Goal-Directed Planning for Sensor Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R.; Dungan, J. L.; Khatib, L.; Votava, P.

    2007-12-01

    An Earth-observing sensor web is an organization of space, airborne, or in situ sensing devices for collecting measurements of the Earth's processes. Sensor web coordination involves formulating Earth science goals and transforming them into sensor web workflows, i.e., sequences of data acquisition and processing tasks that satisfy the specified goals. Automating parts of this process using recent advances in intelligent control software technology will offer improved sensor web effectiveness. Our approach to the coordination problem applies architectural concepts of workflow management systems by identifying two phases in workflow generation. In the first phase, users formulate high-level campaign goals that are automatically transformed into abstract workflow plans. An abstract workflow plan represents the organization of data acquisition and processing actions that fulfills the goals specified by the user, but leaves out details such as how requests for access to a data resource are formatted. Abstracting away these details improves the usability of sensor web resources by scientists. To implement the first phase, we utilize the Labeled Transition System Analyzer (LTSA), a model-checking software tool. LTSA contains a concise process-based language, FSP (Finite State Processes) for designing and modeling software programs. We will use LTSA and FSP to automate the process of building executable plans for accessing resources on a sensor web. FSP has the constructs for representing conditional dependencies, iterations, and parallel actions, all of which are common features in Earth science campaigns. The second phase of the process consists of the automatic transformation of an abstract plan into a concrete plan, i.e., a sequence of actions that can be autonomously executed on a sensor web. The transformation in phase two might require further decomposition of actions in the abstract plan into a sequence of lower-level data acquisition requests. It may also involve

  1. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  2. Reading Education: Student Terminal Goals, Program Goals, and Behavioral Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    This pamphlet of behavioral objectives for teachers of elementary school reading instruction was compiled by the Mesa Public School System, Mesa, Arizona. Terminal goals are stated behaviorally for prereading and readiness skills, which include comprehension, interests in letters and books, visual perception, and psychomotor awareness. Terminal…

  3. Science Goal Monitor: science goal driven automation for NASA missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jung, John; Pell, Melissa; Matusow, David; Bailyn, Charles

    2004-09-01

    Infusion of automation technologies into NASA's future missions will be essential because of the need to: (1) effectively handle an exponentially increasing volume of scientific data, (2) successfully meet dynamic, opportunistic scientific goals and objectives, and (3) substantially reduce mission operations staff and costs. While much effort has gone into automating routine spacecraft operations to reduce human workload and hence costs, applying intelligent automation to the science side, i.e., science data acquisition, data analysis and reactions to that data analysis in a timely and still scientifically valid manner, has been relatively under-emphasized. In order to introduce science driven automation in missions, we must be able to: capture and interpret the science goals of observing programs, represent those goals in machine interpretable language; and allow spacecrafts' onboard systems to autonomously react to the scientist's goals. In short, we must teach our platforms to dynamically understand, recognize, and react to the scientists' goals. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a prototype software tool being developed to determine the best strategies for implementing science goal driven automation in missions. The tools being developed in SGM improve the ability to monitor and react to the changing status of scientific events. The SGM system enables scientists to specify what to look for and how to react in descriptive rather than technical terms. The system monitors streams of science data to identify occurrences of key events previously specified by the scientist. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the scientist's desired reactions. Through SGM, we will improve our understanding about the capabilities needed onboard for success, develop metrics to understand the potential increase in science returns, and develop an "operational" prototype so that the perceived risks

  4. Conflict and Consensus Among Parents About Goals for High School Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Peggy J.; Joniak, Andrew J.

    This report examines parents' goals for secondary education through an interview according to the range and content of his/her goals and needs, the hierarchical structure of the categories of these goals, and the priorities he/she established among the goal categories. Three separate studies (N=19; N=20; N=81) were conducted in order to refine and…

  5. A Model Process for Institutional Goals-Setting. A Module of the Needs Assessment Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Maxwell C.; And Others

    A goals-setting model for the community/junior college that would interface with the community needs assessment model was developed, using as the survey instrument the Institutional Goals Inventory (I.G.I.) developed by the Educational Testing Service. The nine steps in the model are: Establish Committee on College Goals and Identify Goals Project…

  6. Learning Goals of AACSB-Accredited Undergraduate Business Programs: Predictors of Conformity versus Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Kyle E.; Palmer, Timothy B.; Costigan, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Learning goals are central to assurance of learning. Yet little is known about what goals are used by business programs or how they are established. On the one hand, business schools are encouraged to develop their own unique learning goals. However, business schools also face pressures that would encourage conformity by adopting goals used by…

  7. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  8. Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network Support for Elimination Goals, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Mick N; Rota, Paul A; Icenogle, Joseph P; Brown, Kevin E; Takeda, Makoto; Rey, Gloria J; Ben Mamou, Myriam C; Dosseh, Annick R G A; Byabamazima, Charles R; Ahmed, Hinda J; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Zhang, Yan; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Strebel, Peter M; Goodson, James L

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP)* with the objective to eliminate measles and rubella in five World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2020. In September 2013, countries in all six WHO regions had established measles elimination goals, and additional goals for elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome were established in three regions (1). Capacity for surveillance, including laboratory confirmation, is fundamental to monitoring and verifying elimination. The 2012-2020 Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan of the Measles and Rubella Initiative(†) calls for effective case-based surveillance with laboratory testing for case confirmation (2). In 2000, the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (GMRLN) was established to provide high quality laboratory support for surveillance (3). The GMRLN is the largest globally coordinated laboratory network, with 703 laboratories supporting surveillance in 191 countries. During 2010-2015, 742,187 serum specimens were tested, and 27,832 viral sequences were reported globally. Expansion of the capacity of the GMRLN will support measles and rubella elimination efforts as well as surveillance for other vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), including rotavirus, and for emerging pathogens of public health concern. PMID:27148917

  9. Progress Toward National Aeronautics Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Carlo J.; Sehra, Arun K.

    1999-01-01

    NASA has made definitive progress towards achieving several bold U.S. goals in aeronautics related to air breathing engines. The advanced technologies developed towards these goals span applications from general aviation to large subsonic and supersonic aircraft. The proof of successful technology development is demonstrated through successful technology transfer to U.S. industry and projected fleet impact. Specific examples of progress are discussed that quantifies the achievement towards these goals. In addition, a more detailed vision for NASA aeronautics is defined and key strategic issues are explored which invite international and national debate and involvement especially in reduced environmental impact for subsonic and supersonic aircraft, dramatic new capabilities in general aviation engines, and reduced development cycle time and costs.

  10. Action Understanding as Inverse Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Chris L.; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents' actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents' behavior based on the…

  11. A Closer Look at the Effects of Repeated Cocaine Exposure on Adaptive Decision-Making under Conditions That Promote Goal-Directed Control.

    PubMed

    Halbout, Briac; Liu, Angela T; Ostlund, Sean B

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that compulsive drug seeking reflects an underlying dysregulation in adaptive behavior that favors habitual (automatic and inflexible) over goal-directed (deliberative and highly flexible) action selection. Rodent studies have established that repeated exposure to cocaine or amphetamine facilitates the development of habits, producing behavior that becomes unusually insensitive to a reduction in the value of its outcome. The current study more directly investigated the effects of cocaine pre-exposure on goal-directed learning and action selection using an approach that discourages habitual performance. After undergoing a 15-day series of cocaine (15 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline injections and a drug withdrawal period, rats were trained to perform two different lever-press actions for distinct reward options. During a subsequent outcome devaluation test, both cocaine- and saline-treated rats showed a robust bias in their choice between the two actions, preferring whichever action had been trained with the reward that retained its value. Thus, it appears that the tendency for repeated cocaine exposure to promote habit formation does not extend to a more complex behavioral scenario that encourages goal-directed control. To further explore this issue, we assessed how prior cocaine treatment would affect the rats' ability to learn about a selective reduction in the predictive relationship between one of the two actions and its outcome, which is another fundamental feature of goal-directed behavior. Interestingly, we found that cocaine-treated rats showed enhanced, rather than diminished, sensitivity to this action-outcome contingency degradation manipulation. Given their mutual dependence on striatal dopamine signaling, we suggest that cocaine's effects on habit formation and contingency learning may stem from a common adaptation in this neurochemical system. PMID:27047400

  12. Federal Financing and University Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, John F.

    Universities that base their priorities on the availability of government funds rather than on carefully designed institutional goals and realistic calculations of their resources often overextend their financial resources. Since participation in federal programs requires a commitment of institutional funds, the reduction or curtailment of federal…

  13. Organizational Constraints and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putney, Frederick B.; Wotman, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    Management modeling techniques are applied to setting operational and capital goals using cost analysis techniques in this case study at the Columbia University School of Dental and Oral Surgery. The model was created as a planning tool used in developing a financially feasible operating plan and a 100 percent physical renewal plan. (LBH)

  14. Cost goals for biofuels technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Flaim, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Federally funded energy research seeks to demonstrate that alternative fuels can be produced and then to induce private sector involvement by showing that they can be produced profitably. Prices for fossil fuels may be used as cost goals for biofuels to determine when profitability may be achieved. Achieving equality with fossil fuel prices drives out the highest-cost sources of supply and enables initial market penetration; as costs decrease, biofuels can potentially gain a greater market share. However, achieving competitive costs is not a sufficient condition for success unless prices of conventional substitutes are expected to rise. Cost goals are used for research planning purposes, as a common denominator to allow comparisons among many biofuels options. Application of standard investment criteria to biofuels R and D would require that benefits from their use pay back research costs. These benefits must be discounted because they are realized in the future. Furthermore, realization of future savings is uncertain, so risks must be accounted for. Research may be justified if the expected value of the discounted benefits is greater than the discounted cost of the research. Cost goals satisfying this condition might be substantially lower than projected fuel prices. This paper examines recent fossil fuel price projections and discusses the challenges biofuels research faces just to produce competitive products. In light of the difficult goals, researchers should adopt a strategy targeting major technological breakthroughs rather than incremental improvements. Production of ethanol from wood is used as an example of this strategy. 35 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. 78 FR 65555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... the establishment of Class E en route airspace. Class E airspace designations are published...

  16. 78 FR 41838 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colt, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colt, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E airspace... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace for the Colt,...

  17. 75 FR 65226 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC (75 FR 52654) Docket... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  18. Goal Attribution to Inanimate Agents by 6.5-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csibra, Gergely

    2008-01-01

    Human infants' tendency to attribute goals to observed actions may help us to understand where people's obsession with goals originates from. While one-year-old infants liberally interpret the behaviour of many kinds of agents as goal-directed, a recent report [Kamewari, K., Kato, M., Kanda, T., Ishiguro, H., & Hiraki, K. (2005).…

  19. From Goals to Results: Improving Education "System" Accountability. Challenge to Lead Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report concludes the first series of reports on the "Challenge to Lead" goals. It includes an action agenda, "From Goals to Results ... Making It Happen," that can help states make progress toward their goals. This report also summarizes the conclusions and recommendations from the earlier. The first 11 reports chronicle a remarkable record…

  20. Seven-Month-Old Infants Selectively Reproduce the Goals of Animate but Not Inanimate Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahajan, Neha; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    We tested 7-month-old infants' sensitivity to others' goals in an imitation task, and assessed whether infants are as likely to imitate the goals of nonhuman agents as they are to imitate human goals. In the current studies, we used the paradigm developed by Hamlin et. al (in press) to test infants' responses to human actions versus closely…

  1. General Processes, Rather than "Goals," Explain Imitation Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Geoffrey; Brindley, Rachel; Leighton, Jane; Heyes, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    The goal-directed theory of imitation (GOADI) states that copying of action outcomes (e.g., turning a light switch) takes priority over imitation of the means by which those outcomes are achieved (e.g., choice of effector or grip). The object [fewer than] effector [fewer than] grip error pattern in the pen-and-cups task provides strong support for…

  2. Diagnosing Goal-Attribution: Commentary on Hernik and Southgate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlmeier, Valerie A.; Robson, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary article is to be published alongside: Hernik, M., & Southgate, V. (2012). Do 9-month-old infants construe the direct reach and grasp of a single object, sitting alone on a table, as a goal-directed action? Based on their current findings and a previous study, Hernik and Southgate (this issue) make the rather surprising suggestion…

  3. Goal Directed Model Inversion: A Study of Dynamic Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Raghavan, Bharathi; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Goal Directed Model Inversion (GDMI) is an algorithm designed to generalize supervised learning to the case where target outputs are not available to the learning system. The output of the learning system becomes the input to some external device or transformation, and only the output of this device or transformation can be compared to a desired target. The fundamental driving mechanism of GDMI is to learn from success. Given that a wrong outcome is achieved, one notes that the action that produced that outcome 0 "would have been right if the outcome had been the desired one." The algorithm then proceeds as follows: (1) store the action that produced the wrong outcome as a "target" (2) redefine the wrong outcome as a desired goal (3) submit the new desired goal to the system (4) compare the new action with the target action and modify the system by using a suitable algorithm for credit assignment (Back propagation in our example) (5) resubmit the original goal. Prior publications by our group in this area focused on demonstrating empirical results based on the inverse kinematic problem for a simulated robotic arm. In this paper we apply the inversion process to much simpler analytic functions in order to elucidate the dynamic behavior of the system and to determine the sensitivity of the learning process to various parameters. This understanding will be necessary for the acceptance of GDMI as a practical tool.

  4. "Let's Work Together": What Do Infants Understand about Collaborative Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Annette M. E.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2011-01-01

    Collaboration is fundamental to our daily lives, yet little is known about how humans come to understand these activities. The present research was conducted to fill this void by using a novel visual habituation paradigm to investigate infants' understanding of the collaborative-goal structure of collaborative action. The findings of the three…

  5. The Positive Impact of Personal Goal Setting on Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithson, Marla

    2012-01-01

    This action research is a quantitative study of personal goal setting and how it affects the academic performance of third grade students on weekly Math, Reading, and Language Arts assessments in a proactive effort to increase individual performance on standardized tests. The students' weekly performance was indicative of their expected…

  6. The role of uncertainty regarding the results of screening immunoassays in blood establishments.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard; de Sousa, Gracinda

    2015-04-01

    The risk of uncertain results in infectious agents' tests is recognized in blood establishments, being particularly evident during the blood donor selection. The current risk-based approaches require risk assessment and "risk-based thinking". Accordingly, the blood establishment should consider the effect of uncertainty in all the technical decisions taken in a screening laboratory. Since the post-transfusion safety is one of the blood establishments' goals, the risk of post-transfusion infection should be evaluated and actions taken to decrease the chance of blood donations validation use false negative results. This article reviews and discusses the sources of uncertainty of infectious agents' reported results in blood establishments. It describes a set of sources of uncertainty that should be considered in screening immunoassay's decisions. The infectious agents' uncertainty concern is critical for reporting reliable results. PMID:25754470

  7. Primacy of Information about Means Selection over Outcome Selection in Goal Attribution by Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschoor, Stephan; Biro, Szilvia

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that, when observing an action, infants can rely on either outcome selection information (i.e., actions that express a choice between potential outcomes) or means selection information (i.e., actions that are causally efficient toward the outcome) in their goal attribution. However, no research has investigated the relationship…

  8. Relative Contributions of Goal Representation and Kinematic Information to Self-Monitoring by Chimpanzees and Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Takaaki; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    It is important to monitor feedback related to the intended result of an action while executing that action. This monitoring process occurs hierarchically; that is, sensorimotor processing occurs at a lower level, and conceptual representation of action goals occurs at a higher level. Although the hierarchical nature of self-monitoring may derive…

  9. Consciousness, endogenous generation of goals and homeostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitolovsky, Lev E.

    2015-08-01

    Behaviour can be both unpredictable and goal directed, as animals act in correspondence with their motivation. Motivation arises when neurons in specific brain areas leave the state of homeostatic equilibrium and are injured. The basic goal of organisms and living cells is to maintain their life and their functional state is optimal if it does not lead to physiological damage. This can somehow be sensed by neurons and the occurrence of damage elicits homeostatic protection to recover excitability and the ability to produces spikes. It can be argued that the neuron's activity is guided on the scale of "damage-protection" and it behaves as an object possessing minimum awareness. The approach of death increases cellular efforts to operate. Thus, homeostasis may evidently produce both maintenance of life and will. The question is - how does homeostasis reach the optimum? We have no possibility of determining how the cell evaluates its own states, e.g. as "too little free energy" or in terms of "threat" to life. In any case, the approach of death increases cellular efforts to operate. For the outside observer, this is reminiscent of intentional action and a manifestation of will.

  10. Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Jesse; Allen, Rodney F.

    This booklet, a general guide to citizen eco-action, discusses a plan of action on community environmental problems. It offers factors to be considered in any community eco-action situation, but it is not a rigid set of rules. An overview identifies seven key ideas of environmental issues, including the universal participation of all humans in the…

  11. Changing Physician Behavior With Implementation Intentions: Closing the Gap Between Intentions and Actions.

    PubMed

    Saddawi-Konefka, Daniel; Schumacher, Daniel J; Baker, Keith H; Charnin, Jonathan E; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    In medical education, even well-intentioned learners struggle to change their practice. This intention-action gap is a well-described phenomenon. Strong commitment to changing behaviors is important, but by itself it is only a modest predictor of goal attainment.Implementation intentions are an extensively studied strategy from cognitive psychology that have been shown to close the intention-action gap and increase goal attainment across myriad domains. Implementation intentions are "if-then" plans that specify an anticipated future situation and a planned response-"If I encounter situation X, then I will respond with action Y." They differ from simple goals, which specify only a desired behavior or outcome-"I intend to perform action Z." Despite this subtle difference, they have shown substantial effectiveness over goals alone in increasing goal attainment.In this article, the authors first describe implementation intentions, review the substantial body of evidence demonstrating their effectiveness, and explain the underlying psychological mechanisms. They then illustrate the connections between implementation intentions and established learning theory. The final section focuses on forming effective implementation intentions in medical education. The authors provide concrete examples across the continuum of learners (from medical students to attending physicians) and competencies, and make recommendations for when and how to employ implementation intentions. PMID:27008360

  12. Relations between Classroom Goal Structures and Students' Goal Orientations in Mathematics Classes: When Is a Mastery Goal Structure Adaptive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Federici, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test possible interactions between mastery and performance goal structures in mathematics classrooms when predicting students' goal orientations. More specifically, we tested if the degree of performance goal structure moderated the associations between mastery goal structure and students' goal orientations.…

  13. Nine-Months-Old Infants Do Not Need to Know What the Agent Prefers in Order to Reason about Its Goals: On the Role of Preference and Persistence in Infants' Goal-Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernik, Mikolaj; Southgate, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Human infants readily interpret others' actions as goal-directed and their understanding of previous goals shapes their expectations about an agent's future goal-directed behavior in a changed situation. According to a recent proposal (Luo & Baillargeon, 2005), infants' goal-attributions are not sufficient to support such expectations if the…

  14. The interaction between dietary and life goals: using goal systems theory to explore healthy diet and life goals

    PubMed Central

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Wright, Julie A.; Migneault, Jeffrey P.; Quintiliani, Lisa; Friedman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the types of life and dietary goals individuals report and how these goal domains interact as framed by goal systems theory. Methods: This work is a cross-sectional survey study. Measures included the incidence of common life and dietary goals and how these goals interact with and facilitate each other. Results: The results of a quantitative survey (n = 46 participants), which was informed by two focus groups (n = 17 participants), showed that participants are trying to achieve several different life (e.g. achieving financial success) and dietary goals (e.g. eating more fruits and vegetables, drinking more water, and losing weight) and that these two types of goals interact to both facilitate and conflict with each other. Having a life goal of exercising was significantly associated with healthy eating goals when compared with other life goals (p's < .05), suggesting these goals may be linked and help to facilitate one another. Being in the maintenance phase with the goal of healthy eating was associated with participants feeling like they were more successful in their other non-diet-related health goals (p < .05), suggesting maintenance of goals can facilitate success in achieving other goals. Conclusions: Life goals can have an impact on a person's ability to achieve and maintain dietary and other health goals. Health educators may help to facilitate long-term behavior change by examining a person's life goals as well as dietary goals. PMID:25750817

  15. A Closer Look at the Effects of Repeated Cocaine Exposure on Adaptive Decision-Making under Conditions That Promote Goal-Directed Control

    PubMed Central

    Halbout, Briac; Liu, Angela T.; Ostlund, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that compulsive drug seeking reflects an underlying dysregulation in adaptive behavior that favors habitual (automatic and inflexible) over goal-directed (deliberative and highly flexible) action selection. Rodent studies have established that repeated exposure to cocaine or amphetamine facilitates the development of habits, producing behavior that becomes unusually insensitive to a reduction in the value of its outcome. The current study more directly investigated the effects of cocaine pre-exposure on goal-directed learning and action selection using an approach that discourages habitual performance. After undergoing a 15-day series of cocaine (15 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline injections and a drug withdrawal period, rats were trained to perform two different lever-press actions for distinct reward options. During a subsequent outcome devaluation test, both cocaine- and saline-treated rats showed a robust bias in their choice between the two actions, preferring whichever action had been trained with the reward that retained its value. Thus, it appears that the tendency for repeated cocaine exposure to promote habit formation does not extend to a more complex behavioral scenario that encourages goal-directed control. To further explore this issue, we assessed how prior cocaine treatment would affect the rats’ ability to learn about a selective reduction in the predictive relationship between one of the two actions and its outcome, which is another fundamental feature of goal-directed behavior. Interestingly, we found that cocaine-treated rats showed enhanced, rather than diminished, sensitivity to this action–outcome contingency degradation manipulation. Given their mutual dependence on striatal dopamine signaling, we suggest that cocaine’s effects on habit formation and contingency learning may stem from a common adaptation in this neurochemical system. PMID:27047400

  16. Therapeutic Effectiveness of Setting and Monitoring Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Russell R.

    1978-01-01

    Evaluated therapeutic effectiveness of setting goals in behavioral terms while monitoring subject's progress in attaining these goals. Greater beneficial changes in patient attainment of goals were effected using a structured patient-therapist collaboration on weekly goals. Results indicate the goal attainment model with periodic monitoring is…

  17. Self-Beliefs and Student Goal Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Caroline J.; Derrer-Rendall, Nicola M.

    2011-01-01

    Two preliminary studies are presented investigating the self-beliefs that may affect goal achievement in a student population. In Study 1, goal achievement on an abstract task, where goals are externally set by others, is considered in relation to students' levels of optimism. In Study 2, goal achievement on academic performance, where goals are…

  18. Social Action As An Objective of Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charles K.

    This paper presents a rationale for making social action a major goal of elementary and secondary school social studies education. In addition, it describes social action models, suggests social action approaches appropriate for students at various grade levels, and reviews literature on social action by public school students. Social action is…

  19. Socially oriented achievement goals of Chinese university students in Singapore: structure and relationships with achievement motives, goals and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weining C; Wong, Kaishi

    2008-10-01

    Contemporary literature on culture, self, and motivations (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) suggests that in collectivistic cultures, individual achievement is interdependent of one's social others. We proposed that this cultural characteristic could be exemplified in the achievement goal orientation and tested the notion with university students in a collectivistic community-Singapore. A socially oriented achievement goal construct was developed by taking into consideration the significant social others in the students' lives. A measuring instrument was established with a sample of Singaporean Chinese university students (N = 196; 144 females and 52 males); its relationships to achievement motives, goals, and consequences were examined. Although the socially oriented achievement goal items were originally constructed from four categories of social others, confirmatory factor analysis suggested a unifactor structure. Results showed that the socially oriented goal was related positively with students' performance goal, mastery goal, and competitive motive; it bore no relationship to mastery motive, work ethic, and interest in learning; and it predicted negatively future engagement. After the effects of mastery and performance goals were controlled for, the socially oriented goal did not predict test anxiety. PMID:22022792

  20. The Mirror Neuron System and Action Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buccino, Giovanni; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Riggio, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Mirror neurons, first described in the rostral part of monkey ventral premotor cortex (area F5), discharge both when the animal performs a goal-directed hand action and when it observes another individual performing the same or a similar action. More recently, in the same area mirror neurons responding to the observation of mouth actions have been…

  1. Affirmative Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    In order to develop an affirmative action plan at Triton College, the college President appointed a committee made up of nine representatives from the various college constituencies, the majority of which were women and minorities, to determine the objectives to be achieved and how to implement them, and to establish appropriate review procedures.…

  2. Literacy Education Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clymer, Carol

    The Literacy Education Action (LEA) program was established in the fall of 1985 under the initiative of the president of the El Paso Community College (Texas). During 1985 and 1986, LEA concentrated on developing its own literacy tutoring program, including recruiting and training volunteers and community members with reading skills below the…

  3. Sentencing goals, causal attributions, ideology, and personality.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J S; Perkowitz, W T; Lurigio, A J; Weaver, F M

    1987-01-01

    Disparity in sentencing of criminals has been related to a variety of individual difference variables. We propose a framework establishing resonances or coherent patterns among sentencing goals, causal attributions, ideology, and personality. Two studies are described, one with law and criminology students, the other with probation officers. Relations among the different types of variables reveal two resonances among both students and officers. One comprises various conservative and moralistic elements: a tough, punitive stance toward crime; belief in individual causality for crime; high scores on authoritarianism, dogmatism, and internal locus of control; lower moral stage; and political conservatism. The second comprises various liberal elements: rehabilitation, belief in economic and other external determinants of crime, higher moral stage, and belief in the powers and responsibilities of government to correct social problems. Implications of these results are discussed for individual differences in sentencing, attribution theory, and attempts to reduce disparity. PMID:3820064

  4. Preparing Teachers to Create a Mainstream Science Classroom Conducive to the Needs of English-Language Learners: A Feminist Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Gayle; Mast, Colette; Ehlers, Nancy; Franklin, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    A feminist action research team, which consisted of a science educator, an English-language learner (ELL) educator, a first-year science teacher, and a graduate assistant, set a goal to work together to explore the process a beginning teacher goes through to establish a classroom conducive to the needs of middle-level ELL learners. The guiding…

  5. Long-term goals for solar thermal technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. A.; Dirks, J. A.; Brown, D. R.

    1985-05-01

    Long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies are discussed. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of 0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.

  6. Long-term goals for solar thermal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document describes long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of $0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.

  7. A Claw is Like My Hand: Comparison Supports Goal Analysis in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the intentional relations in others' actions is critical to human social life. Origins of this knowledge exist in the first year and are a function of both acting as an intentional agent and observing movement cues in actions. We explore a new mechanism we believe plays an important role in infants' understanding of new actions: comparison. We examine how the opportunity to compare a familiar action with a novel, tool use action helps 7- and 10-month-old infants extract and imitate the goal of a tool use action. Infants given the chance to compare their own reach for a toy with an experimenter's reach using a claw later imitated the goal of an experimenter's tool use action. Infants who engaged with the claw, were familiarized with the claw's causal properties, or learned the associations between claw and toys (but did not align their reaches with the claw's) did not imitate. Further, active participation in the familiar action to be compared was more beneficial than observing a familiar and novel action aligned for 10-month-olds. Infants' ability to extract the goal-relation of a novel action through comparison with a familiar action could have a broad impact on the development of action knowledge and social learning more generally. PMID:22099543

  8. Goal directed behavior and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, Giuseppe Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Goal directed behavior is explained by two approaches: the first, which can be named as cybertetic (behavior is wieved as homeostatic and reflexive), and second, as cognitive approach, a learned response, (skills developed by whaching the behavior of another individual). The aim of the paper is to present a noninvasive method described as an interaction of human beings with environment, recording the electrical activity of the brain from the human scalp. Obtained results are in agreement of psychological theories that place at determined levels of age the acquisition of the capacities of abstract thinking and with the functional neuroanatomic studies according to which biological maturation is necessary for learning processes to develop. An acquired level of learning is in close relationship with the maturation level of the cerebral structures. PMID:27442417

  9. Risk segmentation: goal or problem?

    PubMed

    Feldman, R; Dowd, B

    2000-07-01

    This paper traces the evolution of economists' views about risk segmentation in health insurance markets. Originally seen as a desirable goal, risk segmentation has come to be viewed as leading to abnormal profits, wasted resources, and inefficient limitations on coverage and services. We suggest that risk segmentation may be efficient if one takes an ex post view (i.e., after consumers' risks are known). From this perspective, managed care may be a much better method for achieving risk segmentation than limitations on coverage. The most serious objection to risk segmentation is the ex ante concern that it undermines long-term insurance contracts that would protect consumers against changes in lifetime risk. PMID:11010237

  10. Advanced Parkinson's disease effect on goal-directed and habitual processes involved in visuomotor associative learning

    PubMed Central

    Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Benatru, Isabelle; Brovelli, Andrea; Klinger, Hélène; Thobois, Stéphane; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Boussaoud, Driss; Meunier, Martine

    2013-01-01

    The present behavioral study re-addresses the question of habit learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients were early onset, non-demented, dopa-responsive, candidates for surgical treatment, similar to those we found earlier as suffering greater dopamine depletion in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. The task was the same conditional associative learning task as that used previously in monkeys and healthy humans to unveil the striatum involvement in habit learning. Sixteen patients and 20 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects learned sets of 3 visuo-motor associations between complex patterns and joystick displacements during two testing sessions separated by a few hours. We distinguished errors preceding vs. following the first correct response to compare patients' performance during the earliest phase of learning dominated by goal-directed actions with that observed later on, when responses start to become habitual. The disease significantly retarded both learning phases, especially in patients under 60 years of age. However, only the late phase deficit was disease severity-dependent and persisted on the second testing session. These findings provide the first corroboration in Parkinson patients of two ideas well-established in the animal literature. The first is the idea that associating visual stimuli to motor acts is a form of habit learning that engages the striatum. It is confirmed here by the global impairment in visuo-motor learning induced by PD. The second idea is that goal-directed behaviors are predominantly caudate-dependent whereas habitual responses are primarily putamen-dependent. At the advanced PD stages tested here, dopamine depletion is greater in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. Accordingly, the late phase of learning corresponding to the emergence of habitual responses was more vulnerable to the disease than the early phase dominated by goal-directed actions. PMID:23386815

  11. Analysing lecturer practice: the role of orientations and goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, John; Stewart, Sepideh; Thomas, Mike

    2011-10-01

    This article continues a fairly recent trend of research examining the teaching practice of university mathematics lecturers. A lecturer's pedagogical practices in a course in linear algebra were discussed via a supportive community of inquiry. We use Schoenfeld's framework describing the relationship of resources, orientations and goals to decision-making to analyse this practice. The lecturer's overarching goal of assisting students to see the 'big picture' and the methods he employed to do so, arising from his beliefs, values and preferences are described. An example of this approach in action is presented along with possible pedagogical implications.

  12. Planning in time - Windows and durations for activities and goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vere, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    The present general purpose automated planner/scheduler generates parallel plans aimed at the achievement of goals having imposed time constraints, with both durations and start time windows being specifiable for sets of goal conditions. Deterministic durations of such parallel plan activities as actions, events triggered by circumstances, inferences, and scheduled events entirely outside the actor's control, are explicitly modeled and may be any computable function of the activity variables. The final plan network resembles a PERT chart. Examples are given from the traditional 'blocksworld', and from a realistic 'Spaceworld' in which an autonomous spacecraft photographs objects in deep space and transmits the information to earth.

  13. Everyday robotic action: lessons from human action control

    PubMed Central

    de Kleijn, Roy; Kachergis, George; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations. PMID:24672474

  14. A Bayesian Developmental Approach to Robotic Goal-Based Imitation Learning.

    PubMed

    Chung, Michael Jae-Yoon; Friesen, Abram L; Fox, Dieter; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Rao, Rajesh P N

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in robotics today is building robots that can learn new skills by observing humans and imitating human actions. We propose a new Bayesian approach to robotic learning by imitation inspired by the developmental hypothesis that children use self-experience to bootstrap the process of intention recognition and goal-based imitation. Our approach allows an autonomous agent to: (i) learn probabilistic models of actions through self-discovery and experience, (ii) utilize these learned models for inferring the goals of human actions, and (iii) perform goal-based imitation for robotic learning and human-robot collaboration. Such an approach allows a robot to leverage its increasing repertoire of learned behaviors to interpret increasingly complex human actions and use the inferred goals for imitation, even when the robot has very different actuators from humans. We demonstrate our approach using two different scenarios: (i) a simulated robot that learns human-like gaze following behavior, and (ii) a robot that learns to imitate human actions in a tabletop organization task. In both cases, the agent learns a probabilistic model of its own actions, and uses this model for goal inference and goal-based imitation. We also show that the robotic agent can use its probabilistic model to seek human assistance when it recognizes that its inferred actions are too uncertain, risky, or impossible to perform, thereby opening the door to human-robot collaboration. PMID:26536366

  15. A Bayesian Developmental Approach to Robotic Goal-Based Imitation Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Michael Jae-Yoon; Friesen, Abram L.; Fox, Dieter; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Rao, Rajesh P. N.

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in robotics today is building robots that can learn new skills by observing humans and imitating human actions. We propose a new Bayesian approach to robotic learning by imitation inspired by the developmental hypothesis that children use self-experience to bootstrap the process of intention recognition and goal-based imitation. Our approach allows an autonomous agent to: (i) learn probabilistic models of actions through self-discovery and experience, (ii) utilize these learned models for inferring the goals of human actions, and (iii) perform goal-based imitation for robotic learning and human-robot collaboration. Such an approach allows a robot to leverage its increasing repertoire of learned behaviors to interpret increasingly complex human actions and use the inferred goals for imitation, even when the robot has very different actuators from humans. We demonstrate our approach using two different scenarios: (i) a simulated robot that learns human-like gaze following behavior, and (ii) a robot that learns to imitate human actions in a tabletop organization task. In both cases, the agent learns a probabilistic model of its own actions, and uses this model for goal inference and goal-based imitation. We also show that the robotic agent can use its probabilistic model to seek human assistance when it recognizes that its inferred actions are too uncertain, risky, or impossible to perform, thereby opening the door to human-robot collaboration. PMID:26536366

  16. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  17. Using the 2 x 2 Framework of Achievement Goals to Predict Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul; Larkin, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has established how achievement emotions are related to the trichotomous model of achievement goals, and how they predict academic performance. In our study we examine relations using an additional, mastery-avoidance goal, and whether outcome-focused emotions are predicted by mastery as well as performance goals. Results showed that…

  18. The Relationship between Goal Setting and Students' Experience of Academic Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Michael J.; Putwain, David W.; Caltabiano, Marie L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have established that higher test anxiety (TA) is related to achievement goals with an avoidance valence. However, comprehensive empirical examination of relations between the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals (self, task, and other-referenced goals along an approach-avoidance dimension) and test anxiety has yet…

  19. The Goal Wheel: Adapting Navajo Philosophy and the Medicine Wheel to Work with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Holly; Bruce, Mary Alice; Stellern, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a group counseling model that is based on the indigenous medicine wheel as well as Navajo philosophy by which to help troubled adolescents restore harmony and balance in their lives, through establishing goals and sequential steps to accomplish these goals. The authors call this model the Goal Wheel. A…

  20. Preparing the Principal to Drive the Goals of Education for All: A Conceptual Case Developmental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Disraeli M.

    2014-01-01

    The Education for All (EFA) goals, established for countries to improve educational performance, are most challenging for many developing countries. Notwithstanding the challenges, each country must implement suitable programme intervention in order to accomplish these goals. Goal 6 calls for the overall improvement of the education product, which…

  1. 15 CFR 921.1 - Mission, goals and general provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS General § 921.1 Mission, goals... establishment and management, through Federal-state cooperation, of a national system (National Estuarine...-term protection of National Estuarine Research Reserve resources; (2) Address coastal management...

  2. Diversity Education Goals in Higher Education: A Policy Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Stuart Glen

    2013-01-01

    Many colleges and universities have established student learning outcomes for diversity education as a part of their broad undergraduate education program. These education goals, developed for assessment purposes or other policies, reflect a range of possible diversity and multicultural learning purposes. The emphasis on some purposes, and the…

  3. Perceived Achievement Goal Structure and College Student Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies examined associations between college students' help seeking and perceptions of their classes' achievement goal structure. Study 1 established that students' help seeking (N = 883 in 6 chemistry classes) could be parsimoniously described by distinct approach (intentions to seek autonomous help from teachers) and avoidance patterns…

  4. Technology assessment and citizen action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottur, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Citizen participation in the nation's total social, political, economic decisionmaking processes was studied. Impediments are discussed which prevent citizens from taking effective assessment action; these include finance, organization and motivation, and information. The proposal for establishing citizens assessment associations is considered along with implications of citizen assessment action.

  5. Citizen groups and environmental goals

    SciTech Connect

    Froehlich, D.S.

    1981-03-01

    Citizen organizations can help engineers to set environmental objectives. Public opinion and responses to important issues can be obtained more effectively by working through existing organizations that through presently used public-participation mechanisms. The citizen organization should be treated as a consultant to ensure that the information gathered is properly collected, timely and reflective of a group's membership. The group should have a work program, specific tasks, and should be paid. The tasks that a group is asked to perform could include writing articles, holding meetings, and establishing suggested environmental objectives. 3 references.

  6. The minimalist grammar of action

    PubMed Central

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

  7. Willed action and its impairments.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, M

    1998-09-01

    Actions are goal-directed behaviours that usually involve movem ent. There is evidence that intentional self-generated actions (willed actions) are controlled differently from routine, stereotyped actions that are externally triggered by environmental stimuli. We review evidence from investigations using positron emission tomography (PET), recordings of movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and conclude that willed actions are controlled by a network of frontal cortical (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, anterior cingulate) and subcortical (thalamus and basal ganglia) areas. We also consider evidence suggesting that some of the cognitive and motor deficits of patients with frontal lesions, Parkinson's disease, or schizophrenia as well as apathy and abulia and rarer phenomena such as primary obsessional slowness can be considered as reflecting im pairment of willed actions. We propose that the concept of a willed action system based on the frontostriatal circuits provides a useful framework for integrating the cognitive, motor, and motivational deficits found in these disorders. Problems remaining to be resolved include: identification of the component processes of willed actions; the specific and differential role played by each of the frontal cortical and subcortical areas in the control of willed actions; the specific mechanisms of impairm ent of willed actions in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and frontal damage; and the precise role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the willed action system. PMID:22448836

  8. Differential Valuations of Elementary Educational Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.

    Based upon a comprehensive approach to educational goal selection, a national sampling of elementary school principals, teachers, and parents was compared over various demographic variables in terms of their goal priorities. The data consisted of the rating of 106 goals by each person sampled in the study. In addition to the goal ratings, each…

  9. Promoting Physical Activity through Goal Setting Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are used to setting specific goals for students within a given unit. Here, the author emphasizes that they should also encourage students to set their own goals. Goal setting engages students in the learning process and allows them to develop the skills that support an active lifestyle. The author presents goal setting…

  10. Rehabilitation Goals: Their Hierarchical and Multifaceted Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livneh, Hanoch

    1988-01-01

    Rehabilitation goals are analyzed from a hierarchical, multifaceted perspective, illustrating reduction of the ultimate goal of life adjustment to smaller goals. Addressed are: the contexts within which rehabilitation takes place, the activity levels defining human performance, and the functional levels achieved. A matrix of 12 sets of goals is…

  11. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  12. 77 FR 44120 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  13. 76 FR 16530 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Creighton, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Creighton, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  14. 78 FR 33967 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Captiva, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Captiva, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  15. 78 FR 41839 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Presidio, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ..., 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. ] Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Presidio, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  16. 78 FR 65554 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E...

  17. 76 FR 43822 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hearne, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hearne, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  18. 76 FR 9220 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Martinsville, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Martinsville, IN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  19. 78 FR 41837 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Parkston, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Parkston, SD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  20. 77 FR 68067 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Coaldale, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Coaldale, NV AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  1. 76 FR 80232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oneonta, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oneonta, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  2. 76 FR 43821 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Ranger, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Ranger, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  3. Goal attribution to inanimate agents by 6.5-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Csibra, Gergely

    2008-05-01

    Human infants' tendency to attribute goals to observed actions may help us to understand where people's obsession with goals originates from. While one-year-old infants liberally interpret the behaviour of many kinds of agents as goal-directed, a recent report [Kamewari, K., Kato, M., Kanda, T., Ishiguro, H., & Hiraki, K. (2005). Six-and-a-half-month-old children positively attribute goals to human action and to humanoid-robot motion. Cognitive Development, 20, 303-320] suggested that younger infants restrict goal attribution to humans and human-like creatures. The present experiment tested whether 6.5-month-old infants would be willing to attribute a goal to a moving inanimate box if it slightly varied its goal approach within the range of the available efficient actions. The results were positive, demonstrating that featural identification of agents is not a necessary precondition of goal attribution in young infants and that the single most important behavioural cue for identifying a goal-directed agent is variability of behaviour. This result supports the view that the bias to give teleological interpretation to actions is not entirely derived from infants' experience. PMID:17869235

  4. A 2 X 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Elliot, A J; McGregor, H A

    2001-03-01

    A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework comprising mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals was proposed and tested in 3 studies. Factor analytic results supported the independence of the 4 achievement goal constructs. The goals were examined with respect to several important antecedents (e.g., motive dispositions, implicit theories, socialization histories) and consequences (e.g., anticipatory test anxiety, exam performance, health center visits), with particular attention allocated to the new mastery-avoidance goal construct. The results revealed distinct empirical profiles for each of the achievement goals; the pattern for mastery-avoidance goals was, as anticipated, more negative than that for mastery-approach goals and more positive than that for performance-avoidance goals. Implications of the present work for future theoretical development in the achievement goal literature are discussed. PMID:11300582

  5. 46 CFR 287.6 - Establishment of fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the establishment and maintenance of the fund in conformity with the action of the Administration. If... satisfactory in form and substance to the Administration to conform to the action of the Administration as set...) Constructive action not recognized. Constructive deposits, substitutions or withdrawals will not be...

  6. 46 CFR 287.6 - Establishment of fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the establishment and maintenance of the fund in conformity with the action of the Administration. If... satisfactory in form and substance to the Administration to conform to the action of the Administration as set...) Constructive action not recognized. Constructive deposits, substitutions or withdrawals will not be...

  7. 46 CFR 287.6 - Establishment of fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the establishment and maintenance of the fund in conformity with the action of the Administration. If... satisfactory in form and substance to the Administration to conform to the action of the Administration as set...) Constructive action not recognized. Constructive deposits, substitutions or withdrawals will not be...

  8. Goal-based dictator game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Ibrahim, Adyda; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2014-12-01

    A considerable number of studies have been conducted to study fairness issues using two-player game. Dictator Game is one of the two-player games that receive much attention. In this paper, we develop an evolutionary approach to the Dictator Game by using Goal programming to build a model of human decision-making for cooperation. The model is formulated based on the theories of cognitive neuroscience that is capable in capturing a more realistic fairness concerns between players in the games. We show that fairness will evolve by taking into account players' aspirations and preferences explicitly in terms of profit and fairness concerns. The model is then simulated to investigate any possible effective strategy for people in economics to deal with fairness coalition. Parallels are drawn between the approach and concepts of human decision making from the field of cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The proposed model is also able to help decision makers to plan or enhance the effective strategies for business purposes.

  9. Fourth goal of perinatal medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ounsted, C; Roberts, J C; Gordon, M; Milligan, B

    1982-01-01

    Reduction in maternal mortality, infant mortality, and infant morbidity have been successively the goals of perinatal medicine. The fourth is to reduce bonding failure. In July 1978 a preventive service was started in the John Radcliffe Maternity Hospital. A twice-weekly round is made. Midwives refer families who cause them concern. In the first year the referral rate ws 20.5 per 1000 liveborn babies. The referred sample differed from the hospital population in terms of maternal psychiatric history, marital state and babies' admission to special care. The main reasons for referral were: doubt about parenting ability (27%), psychiatric history (15%), disturbed behaviour in hospital (14%), and diffuse social and medical problems (17%). Long-term care was needed for only 14% of families. At their first birthdays, six babies were placed away from their natural parents; the sample had had a slightly higher than expected admission rate to hospital; the distribution of weights did not differ from the expected; doctors and health visitors were still concerned about one-quarter of the families. Seven cases of screening failure were found among those not referred to our service, but only one was seriously abused. No child referred in the first year has been seriously neglected or abused. PMID:6802338

  10. 76 FR 2700 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal 2 Performance Report AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day notice...

  11. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Request

    SciTech Connect

    L. Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  12. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  13. Social Science, Equity and the Sustainable Development Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liverman, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals are underpinned by a committment to a world that is just, equitable, inclusive and environmentally sustainable and include goals of ending poverty and hunger; universal access to health, education, water, sanitation, energy and decent work; and reducing the risks and impacts of climate change, biodiversity loss, and marine, forest and land degradation. They seek to reduce inequality between and within countries and achieve gender equality. The SDGs build on the apparent success in meeting many of the Millenium Development Goals, including those of reducing poverty, hunger and debt and providing access to water. The science needed to achieve and monitor most of these goals is social science - an area of scholarship that is traditionally undervalued, underfunded, underepresented misunderstood and lacking in detailed data. This paper will provide an overview of the social science that is needed to support the Sustainable Development Goals, with a particular focus on the challenges of monitoring social data over time and within countries, the importance of research design, and of building capacity and credibility in the social sciences. As an example, the paper will discuss the social science that will be needed to achieve Goal 13: Take urgent actions to combat climate change and its impacts, and measuring targets such as strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity, and raising capacities of women, youth, and marginalized communities to manage and respond climate change.

  14. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amended, and its implementing regulations, including 41 CFR part 60-2 (known as Revised Order 4), or... Power Co., 401 U.S. 424 (1971). (b) Reasonable basis. If the self analysis shows that one or...

  15. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amended, and its implementing regulations, including 41 CFR part 60-2 (known as Revised Order 4), or... be tailored to solve the problems which were identified in the self analysis, see § 1608.4(a),...

  16. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... amended, and its implementing regulations, including 41 CFR part 60-2 (known as Revised Order 4), or... be tailored to solve the problems which were identified in the self analysis, see § 1608.4(a),...

  17. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops. PMID:24154954

  18. A RE-LOOK AT THE US NRC SAFETY GOALS

    SciTech Connect

    mubayi v.

    2013-09-22

    Since they were adopted in 1986, the US NRC’s Safety Goals have played a valuable role as a de facto risk acceptance criterion against which the predicted performance of a commercial nuclear power reactor can be evaluated and assessed. The current safety goals are cast in terms of risk metrics called quantitative health objectives (QHOs), limiting numerical values of the risks of the early and latent health effects of accidental releases of radioactivity to the offsite population. However, while demonstrating compliance with current safety goals has been an important step in assessing the acceptance of the risk posed by LWRs, new or somewhat different goals may be needed that go beyond the current early fatality and latent cancer fatality QHOs in assessing reactor risk. Natural phenomena such as hurricanes seem to be suitable candidates for establishing a background rate to derive a risk goal as their order of magnitude cost of damages is similar to those estimated in severe accident Level 3 PRAs done for nuclear power plants. This paper obtains a risk goal that could have a wider applicability, compared to the current QHOs, as a technology-neutral goal applicable to future reactors and multi-unit sites.

  19. Scientific goals of SCHOOLS & QUAKES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückl, Ewald; Köberl, Christian; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mertl, Stefan; Rafeiner-Magor, Walter; Stark, Angelika; Stickler, Gerald; Weber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In many countries around the world seismometers are used in schools to broaden the knowledge in seismology in a vivid way and to take part in the observation of the current worldwide seismic activity. SCHOOLS & QUAKES is a project within the Sparkling Science program (http://www.sparklingscience.at), which not only pursues the given educational goals but also integrates scholars in seismological research permitting their own contributions. Research within SCHOOLS & QUAKES concentrates on the seismic activity of the Mürz Valley - Semmering - Vienna Basin transfer fault system in Austria because of its relatively high earthquake hazard and risk. The detection of low magnitude local earthquakes (magnitude ≤ 2), precise location of hypocenters, determination of the focal mechanisms, and correlation of hypocenters with active geological structures are the main scientific goals in this project. Furthermore, the long term build-up of tectonic stress, slip deficit and aseismic slip, and the maximum credible earthquake in this area are issues to be addressed. The scientific efforts of SCHOOLS & QUAKES build on the work of the Seismological Service of Austria at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG), and benefit from the findings on the lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps gained by the CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002 projects. Regional Vp and Vs-models were derived from this data covering the SCHOOLS & QUAKES target area. Within the ALPAACT project (Seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) the seismic network of the target area was densified by 7 broadband und 2 short period stations. Relocations based on a 3D-velocity model and the densified seismic network yielded substantially higher spatial resolution of seismically active structures. A new method based on waveform stacking (GRA, 16, EGU2014-5722) allowed for focal mechanism solutions of low magnitude (Ml ~2.5) events. Data from 22 GNSS stations have been

  20. Impaired goal-directed behavioural control in human impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, Lee; Chase, Henry W.; Baess, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Two dissociable learning processes underlie instrumental behaviour. Whereas goal-directed behaviour is controlled by knowledge of the consequences, habitual behaviour is elicited directly by antecedent Pavlovian stimuli without knowledge of the consequences. Predominance of habitual control is thought to underlie psychopathological conditions associated with corticostriatal abnormalities, such as impulsivity and drug dependence. To explore this claim, smokers were assessed for nicotine dependence, impulsivity, and capacity for goal-directed control over instrumental performance in an outcome devaluation procedure. Reduced goal-directed control was selectively associated with the Motor Impulsivity factor of Barrett's Impulsivity Scale (BIS), which reflects propensity for action without thought. These data support the claim that human impulsivity is marked by impaired use of causal knowledge to make adaptive decisions. The predominance of habit learning may play a role in psychopathological conditions that are associated with trait impulsivity. PMID:21077008

  1. A daily-life-oriented intervention to improve prospective memory and goal-directed behaviour in ageing: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Burkard, Christina; Rochat, Lucien; Blum, Anaëlle; Emmenegger, Joëlle; Juillerat Van der Linden, Anne-Claude; Van der Linden, Martial

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in the execution of goal-directed behaviours, and particularly their prospective memory component, can arise in ageing and have important consequences for autonomy. The first objective of this article is to present an intervention that trained older individuals who reported prospective memory or goal-directed behaviour problems to use "implementation intentions". This technique, which has been shown to improve different aspects of goal-directed behaviour enactment, consists of establishing a mental (verbal and/or visual) link between the action that must be performed and the situation in which it must be performed. Our programme proposes exercises of progressively increasing difficulty that are targeted at daily life situations. Our second objective was to test the programme in small groups of older adults. Preliminary data regarding the programme's feasibility and its initial efficacy show a significant improvement in the main outcome measure, a questionnaire assessing goal-directed behaviours in everyday life. The participants also reported being significantly less bothered by their difficulties, although there were no significant changes in quality of life, self-esteem, anxiety or depression. Two participants with different psychological profiles, who benefited differently from the intervention, are then presented in more detail. PMID:24559524

  2. Managing Technology in Our Schools: Establishing Goals and Creating a Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Schools are at a point for change, about to incorporate technology as never before in the nation's classrooms. For this to happen, the input of savvy business managers is required. This book is for those who will not only be responsible for managing and financing technology budgets, but for providing the leadership to govern. The book reflects on…

  3. Establishing the Goals of a Science Fair Based on Sound Research Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slisz, Jill

    Science fairs are held in many elementary, junior high, and high schools. Typically they are thought of as a competitive event where students display science projects. Publications occasionally print accounts of successful science fairs, but these articles are usually based on opinions rather than on research. The purpose of this study is to…

  4. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  5. Comparative study of goal contents and goal characteristics between medical and business students

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soowon; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jun-Young; Shin, Jongho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Medical and business are one of the most popular majors among students, and both fields require intensive training to reach certain level of expertise. During the development of professionalism, goal can become a crucial role in psychological impetus. The purpose of this study is to compare goal contents, goal characteristics, and effect of goal characteristics on student’s major satisfaction between medical and business. Methods: A total of 193 undergraduate students (97 medical students, 96 business students) answered survey questions including goal contents, goal characteristics (goal autonomy, goal attainability, social value of goal) and satisfaction on their majors. Qualitative analysis of goal contents and quantitative analysis of goal characteristics, and their effects on student major satisfaction were performed. Results: Goal content analysis showed percentage of social concern goal was higher in medical students (25.8%) than business students (6.3%), whereas percentage of wealth goal was higher business students (24.0%) than medical students (3.1%). Among goal characteristics, goal attainability and social value of goal were higher in medical students than business students. In both groups, social value of goal was significantly predict major satisfaction. Conclusion: Goal contents and goal characteristics are different between medical and business students. Curriculum and educational interventions that concerning students’ goal and developing programs to enhance students’ social value of goal is necessary. PMID:26838564

  6. Career goals in the high risk adolescent.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Charlene; Woods, Charles; Barkin, Shari L

    2006-10-01

    Possessing a career goal might serve as a protective factor for an adolescent's healthy development. This could be especially important in adolescents who engage in high risk behaviors. The relationship between high risk adolescents' future career goals and selected predictor variables were examined. Almost half (49%) the students indicated a career goal. Students who reported a job were 5.1-fold more likely to have listed a future career goal. Females, those aged 18 years, and those whose mothers were employed were twice as likely to have a career goal. Considerations for fostering career goals for high risk students are warranted. PMID:16968962

  7. WHO expectation and industry goals.

    PubMed

    Vandersmissen, W

    2001-02-01

    It is expected the world's vaccine market will show a robust growth over the next few years, yet this growth will predominantly come from introduction of new vaccines in industrialised countries. Economic market forces will increasingly direct vaccine sales and vaccine development towards the needs of markets with effective purchasing power. Yet the scientific and technological progress that drives the development of such innovative vaccines holds the promise of applicability for vaccines that are highly desirable for developing countries. Corrective measures that take into account economic and industrial reality must be considered to span the widening gap between richer and poorer countries in terms of availability and general use of current and recent vaccines. Such measures must help developing countries to get access to future vaccines for diseases that predominantly or exclusively affect them, but for which the poor economic prospects do not provide a basis for the vaccine industry to undertake costly research and development programmes. Recent initiatives such as GAVI, including the establishment of a reliable, guaranteed purchase fund, could provide a solution to the problem. PMID:11166883

  8. The Protestant Establishment Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzell, E. Digby

    1976-01-01

    The author's book, "The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America", is highly critical of the WASP (White-Anglo-Saxon-Protestant) establishment and proposed the development and need for some sort of upper-class ruling-group. Here is a re-evaluation of his book, now thirteen years old, by the author. (Author/RK)

  9. Emotion, Intent and Voluntary Movement in Children with Autism. an Example: The Goal Directed Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longuet, Sophie; Ferrel-Chapus, Carole; Oreve, Marie-Joelle; Chamot, Jean-Marc; Vernazza-Martin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of intentionality on goal directed locomotion in healthy and autistic children. Closely linked with emotions and motivation, it is directly connected with movement planning. Is planning only preserved when the goal of the action appears motivating for healthy and autistic children? Is movement programming similar…

  10. Research Review: Goals, Intentions and Mental States--Challenges for Theories of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to understand the goals and intentions behind other people's actions is central to many social interactions. Given the profound social difficulties seen in autism, we might expect goal understanding to be impaired in these individuals. Two influential theories, the "broken mirror" theory and the mentalising theory, can both predict…

  11. Student Expectations, University Goals: Looking for Alignment in General Education Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    This action research dissertation explores the alignment of university goals, faculty practice, and student expectations for general education natural science courses as a first step to understanding how best to restructure the program to ensure that students are learning in alignment with university stated goals for this aspect of their…

  12. Three-Month-Old infants Attribute Goals to a Non-Human Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan

    2011-01-01

    The present research examined whether 3-month-old infants, the youngest found so far to engage in goal-related reasoning about human agents, would also act as if they attribute goals to a novel non-human agent, a self-propelled box. In two experiments, the infants seemed to have interpreted the box's actions as goal-directed after seeing the box…

  13. 29 CFR 30.4 - Affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... these regulations, sponsors are expected to make appropriate adjustments in goal levels. See 29 CFR 30.8... affirmative action plan. (b) Definition of affirmative action. Affirmative action is not mere passive... affirmative action plan must also include adequate provision for outreach and positive recruitment that...

  14. The neural substrates of action identification

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Megan N.; Wegner, Daniel M.; Reid, Marguerite E.; Yu, Henry H.; Blair, R. J. R.

    2010-01-01

    Mentalization is the process by which an observer views a target as possessing higher cognitive faculties such as goals, intentions and desires. Mentalization can be assessed using action identification paradigms, in which observers choose mentalistic (goals-focused) or mechanistic (action-focused) descriptions of targets’ actions. Neural structures that play key roles in inferring goals and intentions from others’ observed or imagined actions include temporo-parietal junction, ventral premotor cortex and extrastriate body area. We hypothesized that these regions play a role in action identification as well. Data collected using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) confirmed our predictions that activity in ventral premotor cortex and middle temporal gyrus near the extrastriate body area varies both as a function of the valence of the target and the extent to which actions are identified as goal-directed. In addition, the inferior parietal lobule is preferentially engaged when participants identify the actions of mentalized targets. Functional connectivity analyses suggest support from other regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala, during mentalization. We found correlations between action identification and Autism Quotient scores, suggesting that understanding the neural correlates of action identification may enhance our understanding of the underpinnings of essential social cognitive processes. PMID:20150343

  15. Central California Action Associates, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sortor, Maia, Comp.

    The overall goal of the Central California Action Associates Inc. (CCAA) program is to provide basic education and pre-vocational training so that migrant and seasonal adult farm workers will be able to upgrade their economic and social lives. Without increased educational attainment, the San Joaquin Valley farm workers face a grim future because…

  16. Program Goals and Subject Matter Taxonomies for Course Goals, K-12. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tri-County Goal Development Project, Portland, OR.

    This collection of program goals and subject matter taxonomies was produced by the Tri-County (Oregon) Goal Development Project in response to requests that the project make available in one volume those sections of the course goal collections that are most useful for broad-based planning and decision-making. Program goals and course goals differ…

  17. Economic costs of achieving current conservation goals in the future as climate changes.

    PubMed

    Shaw, M Rebecca; Klausmeyer, Kirk; Cameron, D Richard; Mackenzie, Jason; Roehrdanz, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Conservation of biologically diverse regions has thus far been accomplished largely through the establishment and maintenance of protected areas. Climate change is expected to shift climate space of many species outside existing reserve boundaries. We used climate-envelope models to examine shifts in climate space of 11 species that are representative of the Mount Hamilton Project area (MHPA) (California, U.S.A.), which includes areas within Alameda, Santa Clara, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Merced, and San Benito counties and is in the state's Central Coast ecoregion. We used Marxan site-selection software to determine the minimum area required as climate changes to achieve a baseline conservation goal equal to 80% of existing climate space for all species in the MHPA through 2050 and 2100. Additionally, we assessed the costs associated with use of existing conservation strategies (land acquisition and management actions such as species translocation, monitoring, and captive breeding) necessary to meet current species-conservation goals as climate changes. Meeting conservation goals as climate changes through 2050 required an additional 256,000 ha (332%) of protected area, primarily to the south and west of the MHPA. Through 2050 the total cost of land acquisition and management was estimated at US$1.67-1.79 billion, or 139-149% of the cost of achieving the same conservation goals with no climate change. To maintain 80% of climate space through 2100 required nearly 380,000 additional hectares that would cost $2.46-2.62 billion, or 209-219% of the cost of achieving the same conservation goals with no climate change. Furthermore, maintaining 80% of existing climate space within California for 27% of the focal species was not possible by 2100 because climate space for these species did not exist in the state. The high costs of conserving species as the climate changes-that we found in an assessment of one conservation project-highlights the need for tools that will aid

  18. 33 CFR 385.38 - Interim goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section. (c) Principles for developing interim goals. (1) RECOVER, using best available science and... available science. These goals may be modified, based on best available science and the adaptive assessment...) Improvement in native plant and animal abundance. (3) In developing the interim goals based upon water...

  19. 33 CFR 385.38 - Interim goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section. (c) Principles for developing interim goals. (1) RECOVER, using best available science and... available science. These goals may be modified, based on best available science and the adaptive assessment...) Improvement in native plant and animal abundance. (3) In developing the interim goals based upon water...

  20. Multiple Goal Orientations and Foreign Language Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Ravinder; Roy, Laura; Kaewkuekool, Sittichai; Ploisawaschai, Suthee

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examines Thai college students' motivational goals for learning the English language. Thai student volunteers (N = 1387) from two types of educational institutions participated in this survey study which combined measures of goal orientations based on two different goal constructs and motivation models. Results of two-step…

  1. Applications of Goal Programming to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusseldorp, Ralph A.; And Others

    This paper discusses goal programming, a computer-based operations research technique that is basically a modification and extension of linear programming. The authors first discuss the similarities and differences between goal programming and linear programming, then describe the limitations of goal programming and its possible applications for…

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS--A SYSTEMS APPROACH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OHM, ROBERT E.

    CONTEMPORARY SYSTEMS THEORISTS HAVE PROVIDED A HELPFUL VIEW OF THE WAY GOAL-STRUCTURE MAY SHAPE ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR IN EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS. THE "TRADITIONALIST" VIEW ASSIGNED ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS THE FUNCTIONS OF FORECASTING AND PLANNING. THE "EMERGING MODEL" VIEWED GOALS AS UNDEFINED ELEMENTS REQUIRING LITTLE SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT IN A…

  3. Examining the Stability of Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Edwards, Ordene

    2009-01-01

    We examined stability and change in students' achievement goal orientations over varying tasks. Two naturalistic longitudinal studies were conducted in undergraduate courses. Students completed self-reports designed to measure their achievement goals. Achievement goals were measured four times: prior to two assignments and two exams. Four…

  4. Goals of Universal Basic and Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Joel E.

    2006-01-01

    This essay discusses educational goals for universal basic and secondary education. It suggests some of the difficulties that may explain the great diversity of educational goals. The purposes of this essay are to (1) stimulate attention to educational goals on the part of individuals, families, educational professionals, community leaders in…

  5. The Common Goals of Michigan Education, Tentative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    The common goals of Michigan education are grouped into four areas. The goals in the first area, citizenship and morality, deal with morality, citizenship and social responsibility, and rights and responsibilities of students. The goals in the second area, democracy and equal opportunity, deal with equality of educational opportunity, education of…

  6. The Language Factor in Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamgbose, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    Although development goals are usually set as targets that must be achieved in a development process, experience with development goals in Africa has tended to underscore underperformance either in terms of a shortfall in the targets attained or in terms of inadequate pursuit of specific goals. To illustrate this syndrome, the African Union's…

  7. Parental Goals and Talk with Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Casillas, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Myriad studies support a relation between parental beliefs and behaviours. This study adds to the literature by focusing on the specific relationship between parental goals and their communication with toddlers. Do parents with different goals talk about different topics with their children? Parents' goals for their 30-month olds were gathered…

  8. Habits as action sequences: hierarchical action control and changes in outcome value

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Lingawi, Nura W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed action involves making high-level choices that are implemented using previously acquired action sequences to attain desired goals. Such a hierarchical schema is necessary for goal-directed actions to be scalable to real-life situations, but results in decision-making that is less flexible than when action sequences are unfolded and the decision-maker deliberates step-by-step over the outcome of each individual action. In particular, from this perspective, the offline revaluation of any outcomes that fall within action sequence boundaries will be invisible to the high-level planner resulting in decisions that are insensitive to such changes. Here, within the context of a two-stage decision-making task, we demonstrate that this property can explain the emergence of habits. Next, we show how this hierarchical account explains the insensitivity of over-trained actions to changes in outcome value. Finally, we provide new data that show that, under extended extinction conditions, habitual behaviour can revert to goal-directed control, presumably as a consequence of decomposing action sequences into single actions. This hierarchical view suggests that the development of action sequences and the insensitivity of actions to changes in outcome value are essentially two sides of the same coin, explaining why these two aspects of automatic behaviour involve a shared neural structure. PMID:25267824

  9. Academic resilience in education: the role of achievement goal orientations

    PubMed Central

    JOWKAR, BAHRAM; KOJURI, JAVAD; KOHOULAT, NAEIMEH; HAYAT, ALI ASGHAR

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the past 2 decades, research findings established achievement goal theory as a powerful framework for conceptualizing difference in the quality of student's engagement, persistence on task, and academic resilience. So the present study examined the relationship between achievement goal orientations and academic resilience. Method: Participants were 606 students (307 girls and 297 boys) selected from Shiraz high schools. They completed the Achievement Goals Questionnaire and Youth development Module Scale (RYDM). To analyze the data, the relationships between variables were examined, using Pearson product–moment correlations. Also simulanteous multiple regression was performed to investigate the prediction of academic resilience by achievement goal orientations. To examine the reliability and the validity of measures Cronbach alpha coefficient and factor analysis method were applied, respectively. Results: Simultaneous multiple regression of achievement goal orientations on academic resilience showed that "mastery-approach" was a significant positive predictor of the "home care/high" and "peer care" subscales. Also, "performance-approach" was a significant, positive predictor of "home care/high", and "school/community meaningful" was predicted by "performance-avoidance" positively. Conclusion: According to the findings, it seems that achievement goal orientation has a critical role in students’ academic achievement. Implications of the results are discussed in more details.  PMID:25512916

  10. A Metadata Action Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The data management problem comprises data processing and data tracking. Data processing is the creation of new data based on existing data sources. Data tracking consists of storing metadata descriptions of available data. This paper addresses the data management problem by casting it as an AI planning problem. Actions are data-processing commands, plans are dataflow programs and goals are metadata descriptions of desired data products. Data manipulation is simply plan generation and execution, and a key component of data tracking is inferring the effects of an observed plan. We introduce a new action language for data management domains, called ADILM. We discuss the connection between data processing and information integration and show how a language for the latter must be modified to support the former. The paper also discusses information gathering within a data-processing framework, and show how ADILM metadata expressions are a generalization of Local Completeness.

  11. Collective-Goal Ascription Increases Cooperation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Sørensen, Jesper; Nielbo, Kristoffer L.; Andersen, Marc; Lienard, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Background Cooperation is necessary in many types of human joint activity and relations. Evidence suggests that cooperation has direct and indirect benefits for the cooperators. Given how beneficial cooperation is overall, it seems relevant to investigate the various ways of enhancing individuals' willingness to invest in cooperative endeavors. We studied whether ascription of a transparent collective goal in a joint action promotes cooperation in a group. Methods A total of 48 participants were assigned in teams of 4 individuals to either a “transparent goal-ascription” or an “opaque goal-ascription” condition. After the manipulation, the participants played an anonymous public goods game with another member of their team. We measured the willingness of participants to cooperate and their expectations about the other player's contribution. Results Between subjects analyses showed that transparent goal ascription impacts participants' likelihood to cooperate with each other in the future, thereby greatly increasing the benefits from social interactions. Further analysis showed that this could be explained with a change in expectations about the partner's behavior and by an emotional alignment of the participants. Conclusion The study found that a transparent goal ascription is associated with an increase of cooperation. We propose several high-level mechanisms that could explain the observed effect: general affect modulation, trust, expectation and perception of collective efficacy. PMID:23705011

  12. 3RS action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Solid Waste Interim Steering Committee (SWISC) process is to develop a long-term waste management system for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), to be in place by 1996, which is environmentally, socially, economically and technically sound. This background report is being released to the public and member Regional Councils to facilitate input to the SWISC planning process. The report documents current reduction, reuse and recycling initiatives in the GTA, identifies opportunities for coordination and collaboration among the GTA communities, and develops an action plan for improving the effectiveness of the reduction, reuse and recycling efforts within the GTA.

  13. Action, human.

    PubMed

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term "human action" designates the intentional and deliberate movement that is proper and exclusive to mankind. Human action is a unified structure: knowledge, intention or volition, deliberation, decision or choice of means and execution. The integration between these dimensions appears as a task that demands strength of will to achieve the synthesis of self-possession and self-control that enables full personal realisation. Recently, the debate about the dynamism of human action has been enriched by the contribution of neurosciences. Thanks to techniques of neuroimaging, neurosciences have expanded the field of investigation to the nature of volition, to the role of the brain in decision-making processes and to the notion of freedom and responsibility. PMID:20393686

  14. Using ILI pigs to establish pipeline corrosion rates -- Case histories

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.H.

    1999-07-01

    Corrosion is a major concern for the oil and gas industry. Pipelines are subject to internal and external agents that can cause corrosion affecting their safety, integrity, and profitability. Corrosion causes metal losses that may hamper the supply of energy and could lead to substantial damage to the ecology. Restoring pipelines to safe operating condition is the main goal of in-line inspection (ILI) using state-of-the-art Smart Pigs. These tools travel through the full length of pipelines gathering detailed information that is used for the assessment of both the internal and the external surfaces of the line. Ultrasound ILI tools perform direct measurements of the remaining wall thickness of the pipe. The analysis of an ultrasound ILI run determines the residual strength of the pipeline at the time of the inspection. On the other hand, the comparison of successive ultrasound runs establishes patterns of individual defect growth. Under this light the interpretation of the data leads to an assessment of the dynamics of the corrosion phenomena occurring in pipelines. Case histories are presented in this paper in order to illustrate how ultrasound ILI data are being used today to establish courses of action in corrective, preventive, and predictive maintenance of pipelines.

  15. The Relative Influence of Goal and Kinematics on Corticospinal Excitability Depends on the Information Provided to the Observer.

    PubMed

    Mc Cabe, Sofía I; Villalta, Jorge Ignacio; Saunier, Ghislain; Grafton, Scott T; Della-Maggiore, Valeria

    2015-08-01

    Viewing a person perform an action activates the observer's motor system. Whether this phenomenon reflects the action's kinematics or its final goal remains a matter of debate. One alternative to this apparent controversy is that the relative influence of goal and kinematics depends on the information available to the observer. Here, we addressed this possibility. For this purpose, we measured corticospinal excitability (CSE) while subjects viewed 3 different grasping actions with 2 goals: a large and a small object. Actions were directed to the large object, the small object, or corrected online in which case the goal switched during the movement. We first determined the kinematics and dynamics of the 3 actions during execution. This information was used in 2 other experiments to measure CSE while observers viewed videos of the same actions. CSE was recorded prior to movement onset and at 3 time points during the observed action. To discern between goal and kinematics, information about the goal was manipulated across experiments. We found that the goal influenced CSE only when its identity was known before movement onset. In contrast, a kinematic modulation of CSE was observed whether or not information regarding the goal was provided. PMID:24591524

  16. 10 CFR 71.133 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corrective action. 71.133 Section 71.133 Energy NUCLEAR....133 Corrective action. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish... determined and corrective action taken to preclude repetition. The identification of the...

  17. Self-Regulatory Responses to Unattainable Goals: The Role of Goal Motives

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Laura C.; Sedikides, Constantine; Smith, Alison L.; Duda, Joan L.

    2014-01-01

    Does motivation for goal pursuit predict how individuals will respond when confronted with unattainable goals? Two studies examined the role of autonomous and controlled motives when pursuing an unattainable goal without (Study 1) or with (Study 2) the opportunity to reengage in alternative goal pursuit. Autonomous motives positively predicted the cognitive ease of reengagement with an alternative goal when the current goal was perceived as unattainable, especially when participants realized goal unattainability relatively early during goal striving. Autonomous motives, however, were negative predictors of cognitive ease of disengagement from an unattainable goal. When faced with failure, autonomously motivated individuals are better off realizing early the goal unattainability. Otherwise, they will find it difficult to disengage cognitively from the pursued goal (despite reengaging cognitively in an alternative goal), possibly due to interfering rumination. PMID:25104918

  18. 21 CFR 299.4 - Established names for drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Established names for drugs. 299.4 Section 299.4...: GENERAL DRUGS; OFFICIAL NAMES AND ESTABLISHED NAMES General Provisions § 299.4 Established names for drugs... name for any drug if he determines that such action is necessary or desirable in the interest...

  19. Parental goals and talk with toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Casillas, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Myriad studies support a relation between parental beliefs and behaviors. This study adds to the literature by focusing on the specific relationship between parental goals and their communication with toddlers. Do parents with different goals talk about different topics with their children? Parents’ goals for their 30-month-olds were gathered using semi-structured interviews with 47 primary caregivers, whereas the topics of conversations that took place during interactions were investigated via coding videotapes of observations in the home. Parents’ short- and long-term goals spanned several areas including educational, social-emotional, developmental and pragmatic goals. Parental utterances most frequently focused on pragmatic issues, followed by play and academic topics. Parents who mentioned long-term educational goals devoted more of their talk to academic topics and less to pragmatic topics, controlling for socio-economic status. Thus, parental goals differ and these differences relate to the conversations parents engage in with their children. PMID:22003316

  20. Early prediction of student goals and affect in narrative-centered learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunyoung

    Recent years have seen a growing recognition of the role of goal and affect recognition in intelligent tutoring systems. Goal recognition is the task of inferring users' goals from a sequence of observations of their actions. Because of the uncertainty inherent in every facet of human computer interaction, goal recognition is challenging, particularly in contexts in which users can perform many actions in any order, as is the case with intelligent tutoring systems. Affect recognition is the task of identifying the emotional state of a user from a variety of physical cues, which are produced in response to affective changes in the individual. Accurately recognizing student goals and affect states could contribute to more effective and motivating interactions in intelligent tutoring systems. By exploiting knowledge of student goals and affect states, intelligent tutoring systems can dynamically modify their behavior to better support individual students. To create effective interactions in intelligent tutoring systems, goal and affect recognition models should satisfy two key requirements. First, because incorrectly predicted goals and affect states could significantly diminish the effectiveness of interactive systems, goal and affect recognition models should provide accurate predictions of user goals and affect states. When observations of users' activities become available, recognizers should make accurate early" predictions. Second, goal and affect recognition models should be highly efficient so they can operate in real time. To address key issues, we present an inductive approach to recognizing student goals and affect states in intelligent tutoring systems by learning goals and affect recognition models. Our work focuses on goal and affect recognition in an important new class of intelligent tutoring systems, narrative-centered learning environments. We report the results of empirical studies of induced recognition models from observations of students

  1. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  2. Motor System Activation Predicts Goal Imitation in 7-Month-Old Infants.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Courtney A; Cannon, Erin N; Fox, Nathan A; Thorpe, Samuel G; Ferrari, Pier F; Woodward, Amanda L

    2016-05-01

    The current study harnessed the variability in infants' neural and behavioral responses as a novel method for evaluating the potential relations between motor system activation and social behavior. We used electroencephalography (EEG) to record neural activity as 7-month-old infants observed and responded to the actions of an experimenter. To determine whether motor system activation predicted subsequent imitation behavior, we assessed event-related desynchronization (ERD) at central sites during action observation as a function of subsequent behavior. Greater mu desynchronization over central sites was observed when infants subsequently reproduced the experimenter's goal than when they did not reproduce the goal and instead selected the nongoal object. We also found that mu desynchronization during action execution predicted the infants' later propensity to reproduce the experimenter's goal-directed behavior. These results provide the first evidence that motor system activation predicts the imitation of other individuals' goals during infancy. PMID:27071750

  3. Goal Attribution toward Non-Human Objects during Infancy Predicts Imaginary Companion Status during Preschool Years

    PubMed Central

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Todo, Naoya; Okumura, Yuko; Shinohara, Ikuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that there is a significant relationship between children's mentalizing skills and creation of an imaginary companion (IC). Theorists have proposed that interaction with an IC may improve mentalizing skills, but it is also possible that children's mentalizing skills affect their creation of an IC. In this longitudinal study, we examined whether goal attribution in infants younger than 1 years old (Time 1) predicted their creation of ICs at 48 months old (Time 2). At Time 1, infants' goal attribution was measured in an action prediction experiment, where infants anticipated three types of action goals: (1) another person's goal-directed action (GH condition); (2) another person's non-goal-directed (BH condition); and (3) a mechanical claw's goal-directed action (MC condition). At Time 2, parents completed questionnaires assessing whether their children had ICs. The path analyses using Bayesian estimation revealed that infants' anticipation in the MC condition, but not in the GH and BH conditions, predicted their later IC status. These results indicate that infants' goal attributions to non-human agents may be a strong predictor of their later IC creation. Early mentalizing skills toward non-human objects may provide children with a basis for their engagement in imaginative play. PMID:26941682

  4. Goal-Directed Decision Making with Spiking Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Máté

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neuroscientific data on reward-based decision making point to a fundamental distinction between habitual and goal-directed action selection. The formation of habits, which requires simple updating of cached values, has been studied in great detail, and the reward prediction error theory of dopamine function has enjoyed prominent success in accounting for its neural bases. In contrast, the neural circuit mechanisms of goal-directed decision making, requiring extended iterative computations to estimate values online, are still unknown. Here we present a spiking neural network that provably solves the difficult online value estimation problem underlying goal-directed decision making in a near-optimal way and reproduces behavioral as well as neurophysiological experimental data on tasks ranging from simple binary choice to sequential decision making. Our model uses local plasticity rules to learn the synaptic weights of a simple neural network to achieve optimal performance and solves one-step decision-making tasks, commonly considered in neuroeconomics, as well as more challenging sequential decision-making tasks within 1 s. These decision times, and their parametric dependence on task parameters, as well as the final choice probabilities match behavioral data, whereas the evolution of neural activities in the network closely mimics neural responses recorded in frontal cortices during the execution of such tasks. Our theory provides a principled framework to understand the neural underpinning of goal-directed decision making and makes novel predictions for sequential decision-making tasks with multiple rewards. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed actions requiring prospective planning pervade decision making, but their circuit-level mechanisms remain elusive. We show how a model circuit of biologically realistic spiking neurons can solve this computationally challenging problem in a novel way. The synaptic weights of our network can be learned using

  5. 75 FR 35766 - Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and Solicitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... International Trade Administration Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory.... ACTION: Notice of establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and... establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (the Committee) by the...

  6. Goal attributions and instrumental helping at 14 and 24 months of age.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Kathryn; Spelke, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    Infants reason about goals and helping as early as 3 months of age, but toddlers fail to help others appropriately until well into the second year. Five experiments explored the reasons for this discrepancy. First, we verified that 14-month-old toddlers encode the goal of an actor's reaching action, in a situation in which a social agent selectively reaches for one of two objects. Then, four further experiments presented toddlers with a social agent who manifested her goal in this manner when the two objects were accessible, and then requested help in obtaining her goal object when the two objects were out of reach. In all the experiments, toddlers responded to the actor's request for help by handing her an out-of-reach object, showing that they understood that a prosocial action was called for and were motivated to perform it. When the two objects had moved out of the social agent's sight so that she could not indicate the goal object directly, 24-month-old children used her prior goal-directed action to select the appropriate goal object, but 14-month-old toddlers did not. The 14-month-olds toddlers helped appropriately only when no attribution of enduring goals was necessary, because the social agent could see the out-of-reach object and both looked at and reached toward it while making her request. These findings suggest striking limits to 14-month-old toddlers' understanding of helping. PMID:26022496

  7. The GOAL-to-HAL/S translator specification. [for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanten, S. F.; Flanders, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    The specification sets forth a technical framework within which to deal with the transfer of specific GOAL features to HAL/S. Key technical features of the translator are described which communicate with the data bank, handle repeat statements, and deal with software interrupts. GOAL programs, databank information, and GOAL system subroutines are integrated into one GOAL in HAL/S. This output is fully compatible HAL/S source ready for insertion into the HAL/S compiler. The Translator uses a PASS1 to establish all the global data needed for the HAL/S output program. Individual GOAL statements are translated in PASS2. The specification document makes extensive use of flowcharts to specify exactly how each variation of each GOAL statement is to be translated. The specification also deals with definitions and assumptions, executive support structure and implementation. An appendix, entitled GOAL-to-HAL Mapping, provides examples of translated GOAL statements.

  8. Preschoolers' comprehension of goal structure in narratives.

    PubMed

    Wenner, Jennifer A

    2004-03-01

    Preschool children's understanding and use of goals were studied in two experiments. Children heard stories in the presence of pictures or props. The stories were varied by goal success occurring early or late in the story, with late goal success resulting in more causal connections in the narrative. The results showed that children recalled goals spontaneously and that their recall benefited from goal structure of the stories. Pictures benefited the children when the stories were short. Enactment of the props versus static displays of the props did not enhance recall in the second experiment. Preschool children thus demonstrated ability to infer and use goal and causal information in stories for both picture and object support. PMID:15250184

  9. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  10. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  11. Establishing American Colleges Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the growing involvement of U.S. two-year colleges in establishing programs abroad to enable foreign students to complete one or two years of college-level work in their home country before transferring to U.S. universities. Highlights the activities of several community colleges in the Pacific Rim. Identifies conditions basic to future…

  12. Establishing and Managing Switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Care should be taken in selecting switchgrass varieties, using only those specifically adapted to the region of interest. Good establishment practices include using high quality seed, an appropriate seeding rate, a well-prepared seedbed, cultipacking after planting, and both pre- and post-emergence...

  13. Androgen action.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ralf; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Androgens are important for male sex development and physiology. Their actions are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor. The activity of the AR is controlled at multiple stages due to ligand binding and induced structural changes assisted by the foldosome, compartmentalization, recruitment of coregulators, posttranslational modifications and chromatin remodeling, leading to subsequent transcription of androgen-responsive target genes. Beside these short-term androgen actions, there is phenomenological and experimental evidence of long-term androgen programming in mammals and in the human during sensitive programming time windows, both pre- and postnatally. At the molecular level, research into androgen insensitivity syndrome has unmasked androgen programming at the transcriptome level, in genital fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at the epigenome level. Androgens are crucial for male sex development and physiology during embryogenesis, at puberty and in adult life. Testosterone and its more potent metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, which is converted from testosterone within the target cell by 5α-reductase II, are the main androgens involved in male sex differentiation. Androgen action is mediated by a single AR. The AR belongs to the nuclear receptor 3 group C, composed of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2), progesterone receptor (NR3C3) and AR (NR3C4), and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. PMID:25247642

  14. Advancing Achievement Goal Theory: Using Goal Structures and Goal Orientations to Predict Students' Motivation, Cognition, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how different components of achievement goal theory were related to each other and to students' motivation, cognitive engagement, and achievement in mathematics. Junior high school students (N=525) completed a self-report survey that assessed their perceived classroom goal structures; personal goal…

  15. Put Your Imperfections Behind You: Temporal Landmarks Spur Goal Initiation When They Signal New Beginnings.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hengchen; Milkman, Katherine L; Riis, Jason

    2015-12-01

    People often fail to muster the motivation needed to initiate goal pursuit. Across five laboratory experiments, we explored occasions when people naturally experience enhanced motivation to take actions that facilitate goal pursuit and why certain dates are more likely to spur goal initiation than others. We present causal evidence that emphasizing a temporal landmark denoting the beginning of a new time period increases people's intentions to initiate goal pursuit. In addition, we propose and show that people's strengthened motivation to begin pursuing their aspirations following such temporal landmarks originates in part from the psychological disassociation these landmarks induce from a person's past, imperfect self. PMID:26546079

  16. Goal Engagement and Goal Attainment in Adolescents with and without Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The present longitudinal study analyzed the effects of domain-specific goal engagement on the attainment of four developmental goals in 133 adolescents with visual impairment and in 449 sighted peers. Goal engagement predicted stronger progress in goal attainment with regard to getting access to a peer group, career choice and development of…

  17. Classroom Goal Structures, Social Achievement Goals, and Adjustment in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Wang, Cen

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the mediating role of social achievement goals in the relation between classroom goal structures and academic engagement and social adjustment among 373 middle school students (52.8% female). Students' perceptions of classroom goal structures were measured in Fall; social achievement goals and academic and social…

  18. Do Performance Goals Promote Learning? A Pattern Analysis of Singapore Students' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Paris, Scott G.; Hogan, David; Luo, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how achievement goals are combined to affect students' learning. We used a multiple goals perspective, based on mastery (i.e., mastery approach) and performance (including both approach and avoidance components) goals, to examine the achievement goal patterns of 1697 Singapore Secondary 3 students in their math study. Four…

  19. Goal Self-Concordance Moderates the Relationship between Achievement Goals and Indicators of Academic Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreau, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the good or bad outcomes associated with mastery- and performance-approach achievement goals depend on the extent to which these goals are pursued for self-concordant reasons. A sample of 220 undergraduate students completed measures of achievement goals, goal self-concordance, academic satisfaction, and academic…

  20. Goal Structures: The Role of Teachers' Achievement Goals and Theories of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Cassady, Jerrell

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how teachers' achievement goals for teaching and implicit theories of their students' intelligence are associated with the goal structures that they create in their classrooms. Teachers ("N" = 209) reported their achievement goals for teaching (mastery, performance-approach goals, and…

  1. The Effect of Goal-Line Presentation and Goal Selection on First-Grader Subtraction Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Hansen, Brooke; Rowland, Julie E.; Schutte, Greg; Williams, Joey

    2014-01-01

    Math proficiency is related to math calculation fluency. Explicit timing provides repeated practice for math fluency. It is enhanced through goal setting, graphic feedback, and rewards. Self-selected goals have potential to increase performance for math fluency. This study compared the effect of goal lines, and researcher goals versus…

  2. Achievement Goal Pursuit: Are Different Goals Activated and More Beneficial in Different Types of Academic Situations?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Kenneth E.; Finney, Sara J.; Davis, Susan L.; Owens, Kara M.

    This study was intended to evaluate whether a recently proposed 2 x 2 achievement goal model could be replicated, and it aimed to evaluate whether students were more advantaged by pursuing one type of goal or a combination of goals. The achievement goals and graded performance of 1,213 undergraduates were studied at 3 time points during a semester…

  3. Maryland Reaches for the Goals: A Report on Maryland's Progress toward National Education Goals 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This document reports on Maryland's progress as of 1995 toward the eight National Education Goals. The document lists the National Education Goals; describes state progress made toward each goal; describes programs that address each goal; and presents statistics on enrollment, public school funding, teacher salaries, attendance, special programs,…

  4. Characterizing a sustainability transition: Goals, targets, trends, and driving forces

    PubMed Central

    Parris, Thomas M.; Kates, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    Sustainable development exhibits broad political appeal but has proven difficult to define in precise terms. Recent scholarship has focused on the nature of a sustainability transition, described by the National Research Council as meeting the needs of a stabilizing future world population while reducing hunger and poverty and maintaining the planet's life-support systems. We identify a small set of goals, quantitative targets, and associated indicators that further characterize a sustainability transition by drawing on the consensus embodied in internationally negotiated agreements and plans of action. To illustrate opportunities for accelerating progress, we then examine current scholarship on the processes that influence attainment of four such goals: reducing hunger, promoting literacy, stabilizing greenhouse-gas concentrations, and maintaining fresh-water availability. We find that such analysis can often reveal “levers of change,” forces that both control the rate of positive change and are subject to policy intervention. PMID:12819346

  5. Habitual and goal-directed factors in (everyday) object handling.

    PubMed

    Herbort, Oliver; Butz, Martin V

    2011-09-01

    A habitual and a goal-directed system contribute to action selection in the human CNS. We examined to which extent both systems interact when selecting grasps for handling everyday objects. In Experiment 1, an upright or inverted cup had to be rotated or moved. To-be-rotated upright cups were more frequently grasped with a thumb-up grasp, which is habitually used to hold an upright cup, than inverted cups, which are not associated with a specific grasp. Additionally, grasp selection depended on the overarching goal of the movement sequence (rotation vs. transport) according to the end-state comfort principle. This shows that the habitual system and the goal-directed system both contribute to grasp selection. Experiment 2 revealed that this object-orientation-dependent grasp selection was present for movements of the dominant- and non-dominant hand. In Experiment 3, different everyday objects had to be moved or rotated. Only if different orientations of an object were associated with different habitual grasps, the grasp selection depended on the object orientation. Additionally, grasp selection was affected by the horizontal direction of the forthcoming movement. In sum, the experiments provide evidence that the interaction between the habitual and the goal-directed system determines grasp selection for the interaction with every-day objects. PMID:21748333

  6. Hierarchical Encoding of Behavior: Translating Perception into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hard, Bridgette Martin; Lozano, Sandra C.; Tversky, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    People encode goal-directed behaviors, such as assembling an object, by segmenting them into discrete actions, organized as goal-subgoal hierarchies. Does hierarchical encoding contribute to observational learning? Participants in 3 experiments segmented an object assembly task into coarse and fine units of action and later performed it…

  7. Manipulating Establishing Operations to Verify and Establish Stimulus Control during Mand Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Anibal, Jr.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Dozier, Claudia L.; Borrero, John C.; Rapp, John T.; Bourret, Jason C.; Gadaire, Dana

    2007-01-01

    Acquisition of verbal behavior is a major goal of interventions for children with developmental disabilities. We evaluated the effectiveness of manipulation of an establishing operation for functional discriminated mands. Four individuals with developmental disabilities participated in a training procedure designed to teach two separate mands for…

  8. Tactile perception during action observation.

    PubMed

    Vastano, Roberta; Inuggi, Alberto; Vargas, Claudia D; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Jacono, Marco; Pozzo, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    It has been suggested that tactile perception becomes less acute during movement to optimize motor control and to prevent an overload of afferent information generated during action. This empirical phenomenon, known as "tactile gating effect," has been associated with mechanisms of sensory feedback prediction. However, less attention has been given to the tactile attenuation effect during the observation of an action. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how the observation of a goal-directed action influences tactile perception as during overt action. In a first experiment, we recorded vocal reaction times (RTs) of participants to tactile stimulations during the observation of a reach-to-grasp action. The stimulations were delivered on different body parts that could be either congruent or incongruent with the observed effector (the right hand and the right leg, respectively). The tactile stimulation was contrasted with a no body-related stimulation (an auditory beep). We found increased RTs for tactile congruent stimuli compared to both tactile incongruent and auditory stimuli. This effect was reported only during the observation of the reaching phase, whereas RTs were not modulated during the grasping phase. A tactile two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task was then conducted in order to quantify the changes in tactile sensitivity during the observation of the same goal-directed actions. In agreement with the first experiment, the tactile perceived intensity was reduced only during the reaching phase. These results suggest that tactile processing during action observation relies on a process similar to that occurring during action execution. PMID:27161552

  9. Quantum entanglement establishment between two strangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tzonelih; Lin, Tzu-Han; Kao, Shih-Hung

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the first quantum entanglement establishment scheme for strangers who neither pre-share any secret nor have any authenticated classical channel between them. The proposed protocol requires only the help of two almost dishonest third parties (TPs) to achieve the goal. The security analyses indicate that the proposed protocol is secure against not only an external eavesdropper's attack, but also the TP's attack.

  10. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

  11. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  12. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  13. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  14. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  15. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  16. A 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, a 3 x 2 model of achievement goals is proposed and tested. The model is rooted in the definition and valence components of competence, and encompasses 6 goal constructs: task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, and other-avoidance. The results from 2 studies provided strong support for…

  17. Managing Multiple Goals in Real Learning Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding students' multiple goals in real learning contexts is an emerging area of importance for educators and researchers investigating student motivation in classrooms. This qualitative study conducted over an academic year investigates the multiple goals articulated by seven 11-year-old students and explores relationships between goals…

  18. Striving for Excellence: The National Education Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACCESS ERIC, Rockville, MD.

    This compilation of ERIC Digests describes issues, highlights exemplary programs and promising practices, and explains research results that can assist educators in achieving the far-reaching national education goals adopted by the President and the governors in 1990. The two lead digests are "An Overview of the Six National Education Goals" and…

  19. Course Goals in Computer Education, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allenbrand, Bob, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be used in conjunction with a school district's educational goals and focusing on what is to be learned rather than the methodology to be used, the program and course goals presented here are intended as guidelines for planning and evaluating elementary and secondary school curricula in computer education. Of four possible levels of…

  20. Child Care in 1976: Goals and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provence, Sally

    Goals for future child care services are discussed in this address. It is stressed that social service agencies should consider the family as a unit in providing flexible child care services. Other goals include: (1) tailoring child care programs to parent development as well as child development, (2) insuring that child care workers are motivated…

  1. Building Technologies Program Vision, Mission, and Goals

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Vision, Mission, and Goals of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) focus on short term energy efficiency outcomes such as improved economic environment, enhanced comfort, and affordability that collectively benefit our nation. Long-term goals focus on helping secure our nation's energy independence.

  2. Goals for Curriculum Development in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; And Others

    This paper lists goals for curriculum development in environmental education prepared in response to objectives proposed at the Tbilisi Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education in 1977. The goals are presented in four levels. In level one, the ecological foundation level, nine conceptual components are presented including…

  3. Middle Level Students' Goal Orientations and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Emmanuel; Atta, George

    2015-01-01

    The study used a phenomenological lens to explore middle level classroom goal perceptions and classroom experiences that were pivotal in motivating students to achieve their learning goals. A total of 46 participants (31 students and 15 teachers) from two middle schools in a Midwestern city participated in focus group discussions and one-on-one…

  4. An Approach to Goal-Statement Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, John R.; Robinson, Donald W.

    1969-01-01

    "The results of this study support the proposition that the application of environmental assessment techniques based on CUES items provides information which can help evaluate the formal goals of an institution in terms of the degree to which the institutional environment is facilitative of those goals. (Author)

  5. Type A Performance Standards and Goal Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Clay H.

    Achievement striving is a central dimension of the Type A behavior pattern. To investigate the relationship between Type A behavior pattern, personal performance goals, and goal achievement on two general information tests, 126 undergraduates participated in a two-phase study. First, behavior patterns were assessed using the Framingham Type A…

  6. 28 CFR 544.81 - Program goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program goals. 544.81 Section 544.81 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Education, Training and Leisure-Time Program Standards § 544.81 Program goals. The Warden shall ensure that an inmate with the need, capacity,...

  7. Goal Setting with Couples in Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ross M.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests goal development as an effective way to set the stage for change with couples in groups. It helps to clarify issues, opens channels of communication, change behaviors in desired directions, and evaluate that change. Spouses, group members, and counselors can benefit from goal-setting. (Author/BEF)

  8. A Procedure for Socially Valid Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Howell, Amber; Carpenter, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting poses a significant challenge for service providers in both clinical and educational settings. With today's call for services that contribute to meaningful changes in children, there is an increased need for goal-setting procedures that are socially valid. This article presents such a procedure and illustrates its use through a case…

  9. 7 CFR 3550.151 - Servicing goals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing goals. 3550.151 Section 3550.151 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing § 3550.151 Servicing goals. This subpart sets forth the Rural Housing...

  10. Online Goals Before There Was Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that digital resources and telecommunications give librarians the best chance in decades to reexamine and achieve many of their fundamental goals. Discusses the goals of providing the right information in appropriate formats, keeping the intellectual record, providing personalized information services, and serving as educators, and cites…

  11. Rural Development: Goals, Dynamics, Crises and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehlik, Paul J.

    The continuing transition of rural development from its old to present day form is discussed, treating varied perceptions of its goals and the continuing resolution of approaches through legislation and appropriations. Some of the goals are community development, human resources development, natural resources preservation, and a more equitable…

  12. It's not the goal ... it's the journey.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, C

    1994-10-01

    His first real odyssey began 18 years ago in Alaska. The goal was Ecuador. He got as far as the Panama Canal. Traveling man John Glaser, now vice president of Information Systems at Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital, learned long ago that the actual goal sometimes matters less than what happens along the way. PMID:10161109

  13. Infants Attribute to Agents Goals and Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Choi, You-jung

    2012-01-01

    This commentary article is to be published alongside: Hernik, M., & Southgate, V. (2012). What do infants know about agents' goals? The authors see this issue consisting of two closely related questions. First, what is an agent to infants? Second, how do infants attribute goals to agents? Hernik and Southgage (H&S) focused on the second question.…

  14. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Instrumental Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2008-01-01

    The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers…

  15. Consumer Buying Goals and Communication Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

    Four hundred eight female users of cosmetics in Madison, Wisconsin, responded to questionnaires which sought to discover correlations among the goal of the purchaser and the type and source of information sought in the buying decision. Two goals were identified: rational (cost, functional benefits of product, or possible undesirable consequences…

  16. GOAL-to-HAL translation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanders, J. H.; Helmers, C. T.; Stanten, S. F.

    1973-01-01

    This report deals with the feasibility, problems, solutions, and mapping of a GOAL language to HAL language translator. Ground Operations Aerospace Language, or GOAL, is a test-oriented higher order language developed by the John F. Kennedy Space Center to be used in checkout and launch of the space shuttle. HAL is a structured higher order language developed by the Johnson Space Center to be used in writing the flight software for the onboard shuttle computers. Since the onboard computers will extensively support ground checkout of the space shuttle, and since these computers and the software development facilities on the ground use the HAL language as baseline, the translation of GOAL to HAL becomes significant. The issue of feasibility was examined and it was found that a GOAL to HAL translator is feasible. Special problems are identified and solutions proposed. Finally, examples of translation are provided for each category of complete GOAL statement.

  17. Constellation Stretch Goals: Review of Industry Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, John

    2006-01-01

    Many good ideas received based on industry experience: a) Shuttle operations; b) Commercial aircraft production; c) NASA's historical way of doing business; d) Military and commercial programs. Aerospace performed preliminary analysis: a) Potential savings; b) Cost of implementation; c) Performance or other impact/penalties; d) Roadblocks; e) Unintended consequences; f) Bottom line. Significant work ahead for a "Stretch Goal"to become a good, documented requirement: 1) As a group, the relative "value" of goals are uneven; 2) Focused analysis on each goal is required: a) Need to ensure that a new requirement produces the desired consequence; b) It is not certain that some goals will not create problems elsewhere. 3) Individual implementation path needs to be studied: a) Best place to insert requirement (what level, which document); b) Appropriate wording for the requirement. Many goals reflect "best practices" based on lessons learned and may have value beyond near-term CxP requirements process.

  18. The developmental cognitive neuroscience of action: semantics, motor resonance and social processing.

    PubMed

    Ní Choisdealbha, Áine; Reid, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    The widespread use of EEG methods and the introduction of new brain imaging methods such as near-infrared spectroscopy have made cognitive neuroscience research with infants more feasible, resulting in an explosion of new findings. Among the long-established study of the neural correlates of face and speech perception in infancy, there has been an abundance of recent research on infant perception and production of action and concomitant neurocognitive development. In this review, three significant strands of developmental action research are discussed. The first strand focuses on the relationship of diverse social cognitive processes, including the perception of goals and animacy, and the development of precursors to theory of mind, to action perception. The second investigates the role of motor resonance and mirror systems in early action development. The third strand focuses on the extraction of meaning from action by infants and discusses how semantic processing of action emerges early in life. Although these strands of research are pursued separately, many of the findings from each strand inform all three theoretical frameworks. This review will evaluate the evidence for a synthesised account of infant action development. PMID:24710665

  19. 49 CFR 26.51 - What means do recipients use to meet overall goals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... program to develop and improve immediate and long-term business management, record keeping, and financial... variety of kinds of work, handle increasingly significant projects, and achieve eventual self-sufficiency... establish contract goals to meet any portion of your overall goal you do not project being able to...

  20. 49 CFR 26.51 - What means do recipients use to meet overall goals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... program to develop and improve immediate and long-term business management, record keeping, and financial... variety of kinds of work, handle increasingly significant projects, and achieve eventual self-sufficiency... establish contract goals to meet any portion of your overall goal you do not project being able to...

  1. 49 CFR 26.51 - What means do recipients use to meet overall goals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... program to develop and improve immediate and long-term business management, record keeping, and financial... variety of kinds of work, handle increasingly significant projects, and achieve eventual self-sufficiency... establish contract goals to meet any portion of your overall goal you do not project being able to...

  2. An Investigation of the Goals for an Environmental Science Course: Teacher and Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation uses an ethnographic case study approach to explore the benefits and challenges of including a variety of goals within a high school Environmental Science curriculum. The study focuses on environmental education (EE) goals established by the Belgrade Charter (1975), including developing students' environmental awareness and…

  3. Link Data to Learning Goals: Common District Assessments Connect Teaching Effectiveness to Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psencik, Kay; Baldwin, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, district leaders of Douglas County Public Schools, Douglasville, Georgia, launched an ambitious initiative to ensure that teachers set goals that focus on increasing their effectiveness and show student growth. To achieve this goal, the district leadership team focused on common district assessments to establish common learning…

  4. An evaluation strategy for conservation goals of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Hamel, P.B.; Cooper, R.J.; Woodrey, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    The population goals and habitat objectives established by the Mississippi Alluvial Valley Migratory Bird Initiative are based on several unverified assumptions. We have developed an evaluation strategy that identifies research needed to verify these assumptions. We also have outlined a monitoring strategy designed to track progress toward achieving habitat objectives and population goals.

  5. Investigation the Relationship between Goal Orientation and Parenting Styles among Sample of Jordanian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahasneh, Ahmad M.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between goal orientation and parenting styles. Participants of the study completed 650 goal orientation and parenting styles questionnaires. Means, standard deviations, regression and correlation analysis were used for data in establishing the dependence of the two variables. Results…

  6. Partnership for Excellence Goals. A Review by the Office of Planning, Research, and Grants Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Joaquin Delta Coll., Stockton, CA.

    This document displays information that tracks the success at San Joaquin Delta College (California) in assisting the California Community Colleges to meet established Partnership for Excellence goals. Each of the goals is displayed along with a chart that compares the performance of Delta College with the average of a comparison group of colleges…

  7. Patient-relevant treatment goals in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Blome, Christine; Gosau, Ramona; Radtke, Marc A; Reich, Kristian; Rustenbach, Stephan J; Spehr, Christina; Thaçi, Diamant; Augustin, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Patient-oriented care requires therapeutic decisions to agree with the patients' treatment needs and goals. This study addressed the following questions: What is important to psoriasis patients starting systemic treatment? How stable are these preferences within the first year of treatment? Are treatment goals associated with age, gender, or treatment success? The importance of treatment goals was assessed for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the German Psoriasis Registry (PsoBest) at baseline (onset of a systemic treatment; n = 3066) and at a 1-year follow-up (n = 1444) using the Patient Benefit Index (PBI). Treatment success was measured with PBI global score and Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis pursued a wide range of different goals. The most general treatment goals were rated most relevant, including skin healing and quick skin improvement (94.8/94.5 % "quite" or "very" important), confidence in the therapy (93.0 %), control over the disease (92.3 %), and a clear diagnosis and therapy (89.6 %). Further important goals related to not being in fear of the disease getting worse (84.8 %), reduction in itching (83.9 %), burning (70.6 %), and pain (60.6 %) as well as attaining a normal everyday life (78.4 %) and low treatment burden (64.2-77.9 %). Goals were mostly not associated with sex and gender. Goal importance slightly increased with treatment success. In a substantial proportion of patients (30.3-54.7 %) goal importance changed within 1 year after onset of systemic treatment. We conclude that treatment goal importance should be assessed in clinical practice on a regular basis. PMID:26688112

  8. Evolutionary programming for goal-driven dynamic planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, James M.; Guest, Clark C.; Ross, David O.

    2002-03-01

    Many complex artificial intelligence (IA) problems are goal- driven in nature and the opportunity exists to realize the benefits of a goal-oriented solution. In many cases, such as in command and control, a goal-oriented approach may be the only option. One of many appropriate applications for such an approach is War Gaming. War Gaming is an important tool for command and control because it provides a set of alternative courses of actions so that military leaders can contemplate their next move in the battlefield. For instance, when making decisions that save lives, it is necessary to completely understand the consequences of a given order. A goal-oriented approach provides a slowly evolving tractably reasoned solution that inherently follows one of the principles of war: namely concentration on the objective. Future decision-making will depend not only on the battlefield, but also on a virtual world where military leaders can wage wars and determine their options by playing computer war games much like the real world. The problem with these games is that the built-in AI does not learn nor adapt and many times cheats, because the intelligent player has access to all the information, while the user has access to limited information provided on a display. These games are written for the purpose of entertainment and actions are calculated a priori and off-line, and are made prior or during their development. With these games getting more sophisticated in structure and less domain specific in scope, there needs to be a more general intelligent player that can adapt and learn in case the battlefield situations or the rules of engagement change. One such war game that might be considered is Risk. Risk incorporates the principles of war, is a top-down scalable model, and provides a good application for testing a variety of goal- oriented AI approaches. By integrating a goal-oriented hybrid approach, one can develop a program that plays the Risk game effectively and move

  9. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  10. Fraser River action plan: Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This report reviews the Fraser River Action Plan, intended to foster a co-operative approach to restoring the environmental health of the Fraser watershed. Topics covered include the Plan`s ecosystem approach; the development of a new model of governance, with the goal of creating a body that would take responsibility for the well-being of the watershed; challenges and accomplishments of Plan programs; and future actions now that the Plan has ended. Completed and future programs are briefly reviewed in such areas as aquatic science, pollution, habitat, agriculture and the environment, and effects of forest practices.

  11. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  12. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  13. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  14. Culture Influences Action Understanding in Infancy: Prediction of Actions Performed With Chopsticks and Spoons in Chinese and Swedish Infants.

    PubMed

    Green, Dorota; Li, Qi; Lockman, Jeffrey J; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2016-05-01

    The cultural specificity of action prediction was assessed in 8-month-old Chinese and Swedish infants. Infants were presented with an actor eating with a spoon or chopsticks. Predictive goal-directed gaze shifts were examined using eye tracking. The results demonstrate that Chinese infants only predict the goal of eating actions performed with chopsticks, whereas Swedish infants exclusively predict the goal of eating actions performed with a spoon. Infants in neither culture predicted the goal of object manipulation actions (e.g., picking up food) performed with a spoon or chopsticks. The results support the view that multiple processes (both visual/cultural learning and motor-based direct matching processes) facilitate goal prediction during observation of other peoples' actions early in infancy. PMID:27189401

  15. Implicit agency in observed actions: evidence for N1 suppression of tones caused by self-made and observed actions.

    PubMed

    Poonian, Simandeep K; McFadyen, Jessica; Ogden, Jessica; Cunnington, Ross

    2015-04-01

    Every day we make attributions about how our actions and the actions of others cause consequences in the world around us. It is unknown whether we use the same implicit process in attributing causality when observing others' actions as we do when making our own. The aim of this research was to investigate the neural processes involved in the implicit sense of agency we form between actions and effects, for both our own actions and when watching others' actions. Using an interval estimation paradigm to elicit intentional binding in self-made and observed actions, we measured the EEG responses indicative of anticipatory processes before an action and the ERPs in response to the sensory consequence. We replicated our previous findings that we form a sense of implicit agency over our own and others' actions. Crucially, EEG results showed that tones caused by either self-made or observed actions both resulted in suppression of the N1 component of the sensory ERP, with no difference in suppression between consequences caused by observed actions compared with self-made actions. Furthermore, this N1 suppression was greatest for tones caused by observed goal-directed actions rather than non-action or non-goal-related visual events. This suggests that top-down processes act upon the neural responses to sensory events caused by goal-directed actions in the same way for events caused by the self or those made by other agents. PMID:25321488

  16. Conscious processing and the process goal paradox.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Richard; Hardy, Lew

    2010-06-01

    The three experiments reported here examined the process goal paradox, which has emerged from the literature on goal setting and conscious processing. We predicted that skilled but anxious performers who adopted a global movement focus using holistic process goals would outperform those who used part-oriented process goals. In line with the conscious processing hypothesis, we also predicted that performers using part process goals would experience performance impairment in test compared with baseline conditions. In all three experiments, participants performed motor tasks in baseline and test conditions. Cognitive state anxiety increased in all of the test conditions. The results confirmed our first prediction; however, we failed to find unequivocal evidence to support our second prediction. The consistent pattern of the results lends support to the suggestion that, for skilled athletes who perform under competitive pressure, using a holistic process goal that focuses attention on global aspects of a motor skill is a more effective attentional focus strategy than using a part process goal. PMID:20587818

  17. Goals and Social Comparisons Promote Walking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Gretchen B; Colby, Helen; Convery, Kimberly; Coups, Elliot J

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of a pedometer intervention was affected by manipulating the goals given to participants and by providing social comparison feedback about how participants' performance compared with others. In study 1 (n= 148), university staff members received a low, medium, or high walking goal (10%, 50%, or 100% increase over baseline walking). Participants walked 1358 more steps per day (95% confidence interval [CI], 729, 1985), when receiving a high goal than when receiving a medium goal, but a medium goal did not increase walking relative to a low goal (554 more steps; 95% CI, -71,1179). In study 2 (n= 64), participants received individual feedback only or individual plus social comparison feedback. Participants walked 1120 more steps per day (95% CI, 538, 1703) when receiving social comparison feedback than when receiving only individual feedback. Goals and the performance of others act as reference points and influence the effect that pedometer feedback has on walking behavior, illustrating the applicability of the principles of behavioral economics and social psychology to the design of health behavior interventions. PMID:26139447

  18. Resonance of cortico-cortical connections of the motor system with the observation of goal directed grasping movements.

    PubMed

    Koch, Giacomo; Versace, Viviana; Bonnì, Sonia; Lupo, Federica; Lo Gerfo, Emanuele; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2010-10-01

    Goal directed movements require the activation of parietal, premotor and primary motor areas. In monkeys, neurons of these areas become active also during the observation of movements performed by others, especially for coding the goal of the action (mirror system). Using bifocal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy subjects, we tested whether the observation of goal directed reach to grasp actions may lead to specific changes in the short-latency connections linking key areas of the mirror system, such as the anterior intraparietal cortex (AIP) and the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), with the primary motor cortex (M1). We found that AIP-M1 and PMv-M1 cortico-cortical interactions were specifically activated when observing successful reaching to grasp goal directed actions, in which the hand posture was congruent with the goal of the action performed by the actor. On the other hand they were not modified when the same goal directed actions were performed wrongly with an inappropriate grasping posture. A similar profile of excitability was observed when testing specific intracortical facilitatory circuits in M1 (I(2)-waves), known to reflect the activity in cortico-cortical pathways transmitting information from PMv. We conclude that the simple observation of others' goal directed actions is able to induce specific neurophysiological changes in some cortico-cortical circuits of the human motor system. PMID:20691198

  19. The Effects of Pain Intensity on Goal Schemas and Goal Pursuit: A Daily Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Karoly, Paul; Okun, Morris A.; Enders, Craig; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although the adverse effects of chronic pain on work productivity and daily life pursuits are clear, the within-person dynamics of pain, goal cognition, and engagement in work-related and lifestyle goals remain uncharted. This study investigated the impact of pain intensity (assessed on three occasions each day) and goal-related schematic thinking (ratings of importance, planning, and goal pursuit opportunities, assessed only in the morning) on afternoon and evening work and lifestyle goal pursuit. Methods A community sample of working adults with chronic pain (N =131) were screened and interviewed about their work and lifestyle goals and completed a 21-day telephonic diary. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to estimate within-person and between-person effects. Results At the within-person level, morning pain intensity was inversely related to schematic cognition concerning work and lifestyle goals, whereas, at the between-person level, morning pain intensity varied positively with schematic thinking about work goals as well with afternoon life-style goal pursuit. At both the between- and within- analytic levels, morning goal schemas were positively associated with the pursuit of each type of goal in the afternoon and again in the evening. Moreover, positive carry-over effects of morning goal schemas on next day afternoon goal pursuit were observed. Conclusions Whereas morning pain intensity exhibited inconsistent effects across analytic levels, morning goal-related schematic thinking consistently predicted goal pursuit across analytic levels, type of goal, and time of day. These findings have implications for treatment and prevention of pain’s potentially deleterious effects on workplace and lifestyle goals. PMID:25180547

  20. LIGA Micromachining: Infrastructure Establishment

    SciTech Connect

    Alfredo M. Morales; Barry V. Hess; Dale R. Boehme; Jill M. Hruby; John S. Krafcik; Robert H. Nilson; Stewart K. Griffiths; William D. Bonivert

    1999-02-01

    LIGA is a micromachining technology that uses high energy x-rays from a synchrotron to create patterns with small lateral dimensions in a deep, non-conducting polymeric resist. Typical dimensions for LIGA parts are microns to tens of microns in lateral size, and hundreds of microns to millimeters in depth. Once the resist is patterned, metal is electrodeposited in the features to create metal microparts, or to create a metal mold for subsequent replication. The acronym LIGA comes from the German words for lithography, electroforming, and molding, and the technology has been under worldwide development for more than a decade. over the last five years, a full-service capability to produce metal microparts using the LIGA process has been established at Sandia national Laboratories, California. This report describes the accomplishments made during the past two years in infrastructure establishment funded by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''LIGA Micromachining.'' Specific topics include photoresist processing for LIGA mask making, x-ray scanning equipment, plating bath instrumentation, plating uniformity, and software architecture.