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Sample records for action ii child

  1. Child Care. The Philip Morris Companies Inc. Family Survey II. [Full Report and Booklet.] A Survey of Public Concerns about the State of Children, Existing Child-Care Systems, and the Need for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris (Louis) and Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    A survey of public concerns about the state of children, child care systems, and the need for political action was conducted with a sample of 2,009 parents with young children and 2,041 without young children. Findings indicated that most Americans believe children in the U.S. are neglected and that the situation has grown worse. Americans are…

  2. Child wellness and social inclusion: values for action.

    PubMed

    Prilleltensky, Isaac

    2010-09-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) with children and youth is at the intersection of child wellness and social inclusion. Exclusion and marginalization detract from personal and collective health. Inclusion, on the contrary, contributes to wellness. Hence, we should study inclusion and exclusion in the overall context of child wellness. This special issue offers a wealth of methodologies and lessons for fostering inclusion of young people through PAR. In an effort to synthesize my concerns with child wellness, inclusion, and the scholarly work of this special issue, this paper will (a) articulate the values underpinning the philosophy of social inclusion and child wellness, (b) suggest roles and responsibilities for putting these values into action, and (c) integrate the contributions of this special issue into the emerging framework for social inclusion and child wellness.

  3. Every Child, Every Promise: Turning Failure into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Every Child, Every Promise: Turning Failure into Action" is the first national research that comprehensively measures the presence of the essential resources that correlate with success in both youth and adulthood. The report indicates that there is much work to do as a nation. It also shows how failure can be turned into action to improve the…

  4. Informing Parents about Child Care Subsidies. Child Care Action Campaign Issue Brief #10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Action Campaign, New York, NY.

    On December 11, 1997, the Child Care Action Campaign (CCAC) hosted an audioconference to explore the issue of how parents seeking to get off welfare can learn about subsidies available for child care in the transition from welfare to work. Presenters were Doug Baird, president of Associated Day Care Services in Boston, who discussed lessons of a…

  5. Child disaster mental health interventions, part II

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L.; Newman, Elana; Varma, Vandana; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Shaw, Jon A.; Chrisman, Allan K.; Nitiéma, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on the timing of child disaster mental health intervention delivery, the settings for intervention delivery, the expertise of providers, and therapeutic approaches. Studies have been conducted on interventions delivered during all phases of disaster management from pre event through many months post event. Many interventions were administered in schools which offer access to large numbers of children. Providers included mental health professionals and school personnel. Studies described individual and group interventions, some with parent involvement. The next generation of interventions and studies should be based on an empirical analysis of a number of key areas. PMID:26295009

  6. A State Call to Action: Working To End Child Abuse and Neglect in Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts KIDS COUNT, Boston.

    Although Massachusetts ranks in the top 10 percent among states on several key indicators of child well-being, the state's growing incidence of child maltreatment is stark and confounding. This report launches a state call to action aimed at ending child maltreatment through revising and strengthening systems to protect children, providing support…

  7. Psychological Action and Structure in "Richard II."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toole, William B., III

    1978-01-01

    Explores the theme that the suffering arising from Richard II's loss of power, a power that consisted more of appearance than of intrinsic worth, led him to spiritual growth and the development of real value as a person. (MB)

  8. Innovative Approaches to Preventing Child Abuse: Volunteers in Action. Prevention Focus Working Paper 015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, Chicago, IL.

    Collected in this working paper are summary descriptions of 17 innovative community action programs designed to prevent child abuse. These programs were developed by individuals, community groups, hospitals, and/or state chapters of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, as well as by other groups and organizations. Located in…

  9. Moving Forward: Southern States Take Action To Improve Access to Quality, Affordable Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.

    The Southern Regional Initiative on Child Care (established by the Southern Institute on Children and Families) is guided by the Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care including representatives from 16 southern states and the District of Columbia. The initial charge from the Task Force was to develop a southern regional action plan to improve…

  10. Poverty and child health in the UK: using evidence for action.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Sophie; Anwar, Elspeth; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-08-01

    There are currently high levels of child poverty in the UK, and for the first time in almost two decades child poverty has started to rise in absolute terms. Child poverty is associated with a wide range of health-damaging impacts, negative educational outcomes and adverse long-term social and psychological outcomes. The poor health associated with child poverty limits children's potential and development, leading to poor health and life chances in adulthood. This article outlines some key definitions with regard to child poverty, reviews the links between child poverty and a range of health, developmental, behavioural and social outcomes for children, describes gaps in the evidence base and provides an overview of current policies relevant to child poverty in the UK. Finally, the article outlines how child health professionals can take action by (1) supporting policies to reduce child poverty, (2) providing services that reduce the health consequences of child poverty and (3) measuring and understanding the problem and assessing the impact of action.

  11. Poverty and child health in the UK: using evidence for action

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Sophie; Anwar, Elspeth; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-01-01

    There are currently high levels of child poverty in the UK, and for the first time in almost two decades child poverty has started to rise in absolute terms. Child poverty is associated with a wide range of health-damaging impacts, negative educational outcomes and adverse long-term social and psychological outcomes. The poor health associated with child poverty limits children's potential and development, leading to poor health and life chances in adulthood. This article outlines some key definitions with regard to child poverty, reviews the links between child poverty and a range of health, developmental, behavioural and social outcomes for children, describes gaps in the evidence base and provides an overview of current policies relevant to child poverty in the UK. Finally, the article outlines how child health professionals can take action by (1) supporting policies to reduce child poverty, (2) providing services that reduce the health consequences of child poverty and (3) measuring and understanding the problem and assessing the impact of action. PMID:26857824

  12. Mode of action of lipid II-targeting lantibiotics.

    PubMed

    Bauer, R; Dicks, L M T

    2005-05-25

    The antimicrobial action of bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria is based on interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane of sensitive bacteria. Models based on studies with artificial membrane systems propose that nisin forms wedge-like poration complexes in the membrane by electrostatic interaction between the positively charged C terminus of the peptide and anionic membrane phospholipids. Nisin can also permeabilise membranes via a targeted mechanism by using lipid II, the bactoprenol-bound precursor of the bacterial cell wall, as a docking molecule. Another consequence of binding with lipid II is the inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Mersacidine and actagardine also form a complex with lipid II, but binding only blocks the incorporation of lipid II into peptidoglycan, resulting in slow cell lysis rather than pore formation. Both peptides share a conserved sequence motif with plantaricin C and pediocin PD-1, which is most probably involved in the binding of these bacteriocins to lipid II. Although pediocin PD-1 and plantaricin C may inhibit peptidoglycan biosynthesis, pore formation is rather due to electrostatic interaction between the positively charged unbridged N-terminus and anionic phospholipids in the cytoplasmic membrane of sensitive cells. In the light of increased antibiotic resistance, this review focuses on the mode of action of lantibiotics that involve lipid II, possible candidates for the development of new-generation novel antibiotic drugs.

  13. A Call for Action on the Child Abuse Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Vivian Gunn; Taneja-Jaisinghani, Vijay

    1976-01-01

    In order to reduce the incidence of child abuse and neglect, communities must implement comprehensive programs that include identification of the problem, prevention, rehabilitation, education, and research. As professional home economists, we must demonstrate our concern, involvement, and commitment to the remediation and prevention of child…

  14. The Inculturation of Holy Child Education: Actions Not Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Lorna M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the educational philosophy of the Society of the Holy Child Jesus and its impact upon the women of Nigeria and Ghana. This religious instruction allowed them to attain a liberated means of self-expression and leadership faithful to their cultural heritage as African women and their formation as Christians. (MJP)

  15. THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD--A PROGRAM FOR ACTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SINGER, LEON; AND OTHERS

    A LARGE NUMBER OF NEW JERSEY PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPILS ARE AFFECTED BY ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS WHICH LIMIT THEIR ASPIRATIONS AND THEIR ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE PROCESS OF EDUCATION. THREE FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD ARE THAT HIS FAMILY IS ECONOMICALLY POOR, HIS HOME LIFE PROVIDES LITTLE IF ANY STIMULATION TO HIS INTELLECTUAL GROWTH, AND HE AND…

  16. Central cardiovascular actions of angiotensin II in trout.

    PubMed

    Le Mével, Jean-Claude; Lancien, Frédéric; Mimassi, Nagi

    2008-05-15

    In mammals, a large body of evidence supports the existence of a brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) acting independently or synergistically with the endocrine RAS to maintain diverse physiological functions, notably cardiovascular homeostasis. The RAS is of ancient origin and although most components of the RAS are present within the brain of teleost fishes, little is known regarding the central physiological actions of the RAS in these vertebrates. The present review encompasses the most relevant functional data for a role of the brain RAS in cardiovascular regulations in our experimental animal model, the unanesthetized trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. This paper mainly focuses on the central effect of angiotensin II (ANG II) on heart rate, blood pressure, heart rate variability and cardiac baroreflex, after intracerebroventricular injection or local microinjection of the peptide within the dorsal vagal motor nucleus. The probable implications of the parasympathetic nervous system in ANG II-evoked changes in the cardiac responses are also discussed.

  17. 20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... parent. 228.50 Section 228.50 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity component is an additional amount payable to a widow(er), disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving...

  18. 20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., or parent. 228.50 Section 228.50 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity component is an additional amount payable to a widow(er), disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving...

  19. 20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... parent. 228.50 Section 228.50 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity component is an additional amount payable to a widow(er), disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving...

  20. 20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., or parent. 228.50 Section 228.50 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity component is an additional amount payable to a widow(er), disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving...

  1. 20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or parent. 228.50 Section 228.50 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity component is an additional amount payable to a widow(er), disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving...

  2. Exceptional Child I: Building Understanding [and] Exceptional Child II: Focusing on Nurturing & Learning. The Developing Child. [Videotapes].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magna Systems, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL.

    These two videotape recordings and accompanying workbook provide information on the developmental stages of childhood, influences on child development, and identifying children with disabilities. The videos, "Exceptional Child 1: Building Understanding," (27 minutes) and "Exceptional Child 2: Focusing on Nurturing & Learning," (28 minutes) address…

  3. Child Care: Volume II. Vocational Home Economics Education. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ann; Kates, Donna

    Intended for use in a four-semester occupational child care program for 11th- or 12th-grade and adult students, this curriculum guide provides instructional materials covering basic information and skills for operating a child care center or a family day care home. It includes 4 sections and 23 instructional units. Each unit of instruction…

  4. State Actions to Control Fetal Abuse: Ramifications for Child Welfare Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews recent case law and state statutes for dealing with a pregnant woman's actions which negatively affect her infant. Explains how statutes and case law are applied in civil law to remove a child from the mother at birth and in criminal law to punish a mother while pregnant. (MM)

  5. State Formation of the Child Care Sector: Family Demand and Policy Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce; Loeb, Susanna; Strath, Annelie; Carrol, Bidemi Abioseh

    2004-01-01

    This article identifies the extent to which fiscal and regulatory action by state governments shapes the formation of sectors--in this case, including the local availability, organizational formalization, and quality of teachers in child care centers nationwide. These state-level effects are compared to the local effects of family demand and…

  6. Asking for Action or Information? Crosslinguistic Comparison of Interrogative Functions in Early Child Cantonese and Mandarin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hui; Wong, Eileen Chin Mei; Tse, Shek Kam; Leung, Shing On; Ye, Qianling

    2015-01-01

    Request for information (RfI) is believed to be the universally dominant function of young children's questioning, whereas request for action (RfA) has been reported to be the leading interrogative form used in early child Cantonese. The possibility of crosslinguistic variability prompts further research and comparison with additional languages.…

  7. Employer Tax Credits for Child Care: Asset or Liability? Child Care Action Campaign. CCAC Special Report No. 1: State Financing Alternatives Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euben, Donna; Reisman, Barbara

    In its evaluation of the effectiveness of employer tax credits (ETCs), the Child Care Action Campaign (CCAC) examined quantitative data and conducted extensive interviews with over 100 public officials, corporate leaders, financial analysts, and child care advocates in the 13 states with established ETC policies. CCAC also interviewed individuals…

  8. Southern Regional Action Plan To Improve the Quality of Early Care and Education. Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.

    This booklet presents the action plan developed by the Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care for improving the quality of early care and education (ECE) in southern states. Also included in the booklet are tables that represent data collected from 16 participating states and the District of Columbia on state child care quality standards and…

  9. Play in the Sandpit: A University and a Child-Care Center Collaborate in Facilitated-Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Olga; French-Lee, Stacey; Bulunuz, Nermin; Bulunuz, Mizrap

    2010-01-01

    Sand play commonly occupies children at preschools, child-development centers, and school and park playgrounds. The authors review the research on sand play and present a small study on outdoor sand play conducted at a university-based, child-development center using a method they call "facilitated-action research." This study had four…

  10. Action Plan To Improve Access to Child Care Assistance for Low-Income Families in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.

    The report details an action plan developed by the Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care, comprised of appointees from 16 southern states including Oklahoma and the mayor of the District of Columbia, with additional appointees from the other agencies. The charge to the task force was to develop a plan to improve access to child care…

  11. Angiotensin II induces differential insulin action in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Surapongchai, Juthamard; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon

    2017-03-01

    Angiotensin II (ANGII) is reportedly involved in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The present investigation evaluated the effects of two ANGII doses on the phenotypic characteristics of insulin resistance syndrome and insulin action and signaling in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with either saline (SHAM) or ANGII at a commonly used pressor dose (100 ng/kg/min; ANGII-100) or a higher pressor dose (500 ng/kg/min; ANGII-500) via osmotic minipumps for 14 days. We demonstrated that ANGII-100-infused rats exhibited the phenotypic features of non-obese insulin resistance syndrome, including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance of glucose uptake in the soleus muscle, whereas ANGII-500-treated rats exhibited diabetes-like symptoms, such as post-prandial hyperglycemia, impaired insulin secretion and hypertriglyceridemia. At the cellular level, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the soleus muscle of the ANGII-100 group was 33% lower (P < 0.05) than that in the SHAM group and was associated with increased insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Ser(307) and decreased Akt Ser(473) and AS160 Thr(642) phosphorylation and GLUT-4 expression. However, ANGII-500 infusion did not induce skeletal muscle insulin resistance or impair insulin signaling elements as initially anticipated. Moreover, we found that insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the ANGII-500 group was accompanied by the enhanced expression of ACE2 and MasR proteins, which are the key elements in the non-classical pathway of the renin-angiotensin system. Collectively, this study demonstrates for the first time that chronic infusion with these two pressor doses of ANGII induced differential metabolic responses at both the systemic and skeletal muscle levels.

  12. Further Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fledderus, Martine; Oude Voshaar, Martijn A. H.; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2012-01-01

    The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) is a self-report measure designed to assess experiential avoidance as conceptualized in acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The current study is the first to evaluate the psychometric properties of the AAQ-II in a large sample of adults (N = 376) with mild to moderate levels of depression…

  13. Intracrine action of angiotensin II in the intact ventricle of the failing heart: angiotensin II changes cardiac excitability from within

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The influence of intracellular injection of angiotensin II (Ang II) on electrical properties of single right ventricular fibers from the failing heart of cardiomyopathic hamsters (TO2) was investigated in the intact ventricle of 8-month-old animals. Intracellular injection was performed using pressure pulses (40–70 psi) for short periods of time (20 ms) while recoding the action potential simultaneously from the same fiber. The results indicated that intracellular Ang II caused a hyperpolarization of 7.7 mV ± 4.3 mV (n = 39) (4 animals) (P < 0.05) followed by a small fall in membrane potential. The action potential duration was significantly increased at 50% and at 90% repolarization, and the refractoriness was significantly enhanced. The effect of intracellular Ang II on action potential duration was related to the inhibition of potassium conductance through PKC activation because Bis-1 (360 nM), a selective PKC inhibitor, abolished the effect of the peptide. Injections performed in different fibers of the same ventricle showed a variable effect of Ang II on action potential duration and generated spontaneous rhythmicity. The effect of intracellular Ang II on action potential duration and cardiac refractoriness remains for more than 1 h after interruption of the intracellular injection of the peptide. PMID:21744071

  14. Stage II Remedial Action Plan Deer Lake AOC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Michigan Department of Environmental Quality reports on actions taken that have resulted in the removal of two beneficial use impairments. Outlines plans to remove remaining BUI and to delist the Area Of Concern.

  15. 7 CFR 1940.318 - Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Completing environmental assessments for Class II... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.318 Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions. (a) The first step for...

  16. 7 CFR 1940.318 - Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Completing environmental assessments for Class II... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.318 Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions. (a) The first step for...

  17. 7 CFR 1940.318 - Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Completing environmental assessments for Class II... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.318 Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions. (a) The first step for...

  18. Southern Regional Initiative on Child Care: Action Plan To Improve Access to Child Care Assistance for Low-Income Families. Survey Results on the Status of State Implementation Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.

    This report presents findings of a survey study examining the efforts of southern states and the District of Columbia to implement the goals and action steps of the Action Plan to Improve Access to Child Care Assistance for Low-Income Families in the South. Surveys were sent to the members of the Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care,…

  19. Parents, Peers, and Pot--II: Parents in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manatt, Marsha

    This book traces the progress of the parent movement for drug-free youth, and describes a set of varied approaches to drug problems. Chapter 1 focuses on the actions of the city of Atlanta, Georgia in confronting drug problems and shows how that initial parent activism contained the seeds of the current national movement. Chapter 2 documents the…

  20. Ethical Research Practices: Collaborative Action Research, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This is part II of a case study involving a large federally funded technology grant program implemented across several central Texas school districts and was followed by the researcher-participant at the university level as well as one of the campus sites. Many ethical research questions were raised during this study such as the use of participant…

  1. Molecular determinants on the insect sodium channel for the specific action of type II pyrethroid insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Du Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Luo Ningguang; Liu Zhiqi; Lee, Jung-Eun; Khambay, Bhupinder; Dong Ke

    2009-01-15

    Pyrethroid insecticides are classified as type I or type II based on their distinct symptomology and effects on sodium channel gating. Structurally, type II pyrethroids possess an {alpha}-cyano group at the phenylbenzyl alcohol position, which is lacking in type I pyrethroids. Both type I and type II pyrethroids inhibit deactivation consequently prolonging the opening of sodium channels. However, type II pyrethroids inhibit the deactivation of sodium channels to a greater extent than type I pyrethroids inducing much slower decaying of tail currents upon repolarization. The molecular basis of a type II-specific action, however, is not known. Here we report the identification of a residue G{sup 1111} and two positively charged lysines immediately downstream of G{sup 1111} in the intracellular linker connecting domains II and III of the cockroach sodium channel that are specifically involved in the action of type II pyrethroids, but not in the action of type I pyrethroids. Deletion of G{sup 1111}, a consequence of alternative splicing, reduced the sodium channel sensitivity to type II pyrethroids, but had no effect on channel sensitivity to type I pyrethroids. Interestingly, charge neutralization or charge reversal of two positively charged lysines (Ks) downstream of G{sup 1111} had a similar effect. These results provide the molecular insight into the type II-specific interaction of pyrethroids with the sodium channel at the molecular level.

  2. Parent-child relationship disorders. Part II. The vulnerable child syndrome and its relation to parental overprotection.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Shonkoff, J P; Metz, W P; Edelbrock, C

    1995-08-01

    Parents who are excessively concerned about their child's health are often characterized as being overprotective. We hypothesized that parental overprotection is independent of parental perception of child vulnerability to illness or injury despite their presumed interchangeability. A community-based sample of 892 parents (92% white, 84% married, 88% middle-upper socioeconomic status, 90% mothers) completed a three-part protocol (clinical background data, the Child Vulnerability Scale, and the Parent Protection Scale). Correlates of high parental perception of child vulnerability included a medical condition in the child, a history of life-threatening illness or injury, and the child being seen for a sick visit. Correlates of high parental overprotection included younger age of child and parent. Only 20% of those parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective.

  3. Action with Acceleration II: Euclidean Hamiltonian and Jordan Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2013-10-01

    The Euclidean action with acceleration has been analyzed in Ref. 1, and referred to henceforth as Paper I, for its Hamiltonian and path integral. In this paper, the state space of the Hamiltonian is analyzed for the case when it is pseudo-Hermitian (equivalent to a Hermitian Hamiltonian), as well as the case when it is inequivalent. The propagator is computed using both creation and destruction operators as well as the path integral. A state space calculation of the propagator shows the crucial role played by the dual state vectors that yields a result impossible to obtain from a Hermitian Hamiltonian. When it is not pseudo-Hermitian, the Hamiltonian is shown to be a direct sum of Jordan blocks.

  4. 30 CFR 57.22235 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22235 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0 percent in...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22232 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-B, II-A, II-B, IV, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-B, II-A, II-B...-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22232 Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-B, II-A, II-B, IV, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22235 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22235 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0 percent in...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22232 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-B, II-A, II-B, IV, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-B, II-A, II-B...-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22232 Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-B, II-A, II-B, IV, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches...

  8. Evaluation: What Does It Mean for Your Child? Alliance Action Information Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation is a process that helps parents and schools determine whether a child has a disability. Under IDEA a "child with a disability" is one who qualifies for special education and related services. A child cannot receive special education without an evaluation. Evaluation is completed in all areas of suspected disability. The…

  9. A public health approach to preventing child abuse in low- and middle-income countries: a call for action.

    PubMed

    Skeen, Sarah; Tomlinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Violence against children is prevalent across all countries and cultures, with the burden of child injury and violence heaviest in low- and middle-income (LAMI) settings. There are several types of program to prevent child abuse, with family-based approaches to prevention being the most comprehensively researched and successful interventions in high-income settings. In LAMI countries, however, there is very little research evidence for the prevention of child abuse. We conducted a systematic search of relevant databases for studies published between 1995 and 2011 and the search revealed only one relevant study. There is thus a need for research into child maltreatment prevention in LAMI settings, taking account of local resources and contexts. In the light of the lack of evidence, we focus on two case studies that document the use of home visiting by community health workers perinatally to improve maternal and child outcomes. We propose four areas for action moving forward, including increased investment in early intervention and prevention programs, development of a research agenda that prioritizes prevention research, integration of implementation research into efforts to scale up interventions, and improving systematically collected information on child maltreatment.

  10. Finding the voice of clinical experience: participatory action research with registered nurses in developing a child critical care nursing curriculum.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Minette; Britton, Margretta; Clow, Sheila E

    2005-04-01

    The voice of clinical nurses is important to find and hear in the design of curricula. A participative action research project proposed to add this voice to the design of a new Critical Care Child Nursing programme at the University of Cape Town (UCT). Nurses' experiences of nursing critically ill children and their perceived learning needs in this context, were the central focus of the study. Participants were registered nurses working in the paediatric intensive care unit at the Red Cross Children's Hospital (a specialist hospital), which offers secondary and tertiary care in the Cape Town region and beyond. Data were gathered in five focussed group discussions. Findings indicate that the Critical Care Child Nurse needs not only a specialised knowledge base and acutely developed assessment skills, but also astute interpersonal skills. The nurse's professional identity and integration into the multidisciplinary team need exploring. Together with the development of interpersonal skills, the nurse needs to engage the child and family.

  11. SHAPING OF ACTION POTENTIALS BY TYPE I AND TYPE II BK CHANNELS

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, David B.; Wang, Bin; Brenner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The BK channel is a Ca2+ and voltage-gated conductance responsible for shaping action potential waveforms in many types of neurons. Type II BK channels are differentiated from type I channels by their pharmacology and slow gating kinetics. The β4 accessory subunit confers type II properties on BK α subunits. Empirically derived properties of BK channels, with and without the β4 accessory subunit, were obtained using a heterologous expression system under physiological ionic conditions. These data were then used to study how BK channels alone (type I) and with the accessory β4 subunit (type II) modulate action potential properties in biophysical neuron models. Overall, the models support the hypothesis that it is the slower kinetics provided by the β4 subunit that endows the BK channel with type II properties, which leads to broadening of action potentials and, secondarily, to greater recruitment of SK channels reducing neuronal excitability. Two regions of parameter space distinguished type II and type I effects; one where the range of BK-activating Ca2+ was high (>20 µM) and the other where BK-activating Ca2+ was low (~0.4–1.2 µM). The latter required an elevated BK channel density, possibly beyond a likely physiological range. BK-mediated sharpening of the spike waveform associated with the lack of the β4 subunit was sensitive to the properties of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels due to electrogenic effects on spike duration. We also found that depending on Ca2+ dynamics, type II BK channels may have the ability to contribute to the medium AHP, a property not generally ascribed to BK channels, influencing the frequency-current relationship. Finally, we show how the broadening of action potentials conferred by type II BK channels can also indirectly increase the recruitment of SK-type channels decreasing the excitability of the neuron. PMID:21723921

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit H to Subpart G of... - Environmental Assessment for Class II Actions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... preparer an understanding of a standard range of impacts, environmental factors, and issues which may be... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Environmental Assessment for Class II Actions H... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL...

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit H to Subpart G of... - Environmental Assessment for Class II Actions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... preparer an understanding of a standard range of impacts, environmental factors, and issues which may be... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental Assessment for Class II Actions H... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL...

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit H to Subpart G of... - Environmental Assessment for Class II Actions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... preparer an understanding of a standard range of impacts, environmental factors, and issues which may be... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental Assessment for Class II Actions H... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL...

  15. Psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune mechanisms of action of yoga in type II diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Khandelwal, Bidita; Sherpa, Namgyal T.

    2015-01-01

    Yoga has been found to benefit all the components of health viz. physical, mental, social and spiritual well being by incorporating a wide variety of practices. Pathophysiology of Type II DM and co-morbidities in Type II DM has been correlated with stress mechanisms. Stress suppresses body's immune system and neuro-humoral actions thereby aff ecting normal psychological state. It would not be wrong to state that correlation of diabetes with stress, anxiety and other psychological factors are bidirectional and lead to difficulty in understanding the interrelated mechanisms. Type II DM cannot be understood in isolation with psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression, neuro-endocrine and immunological factors. There is no review which tries to understand these mechanisms exclusively. The present literature review aims to understand interrelated Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine and Immunological mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Published literature concerning mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II DM emphasizing psycho-neuro-endocrine or immunological relations was retrieved from Pubmed using key words yoga, Type II diabetes mellitus, psychological, neural, endocrine, immune and mechanism of action. Those studies which explained the psycho-neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of action of yoga were included and rest were excluded. Although primary aim of this study is to explain these mechanisms in Type II DM, some studies in non-diabetic population which had a similar pathway of stress mechanism was included because many insightful studies were available in that area. Search was conducted using terms yoga OR yogic AND diabetes OR diabetic IN title OR abstract for English articles. Of the 89 articles, we excluded non-English articles (22), editorials (20) and letters to editor (10). 37 studies were considered for this review. The postulated mechanism of action of yoga is through parasympathetic activation and the associated anti

  16. Psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune mechanisms of action of yoga in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Khandelwal, Bidita; Sherpa, Namgyal T

    2015-01-01

    Yoga has been found to benefit all the components of health viz. physical, mental, social and spiritual well being by incorporating a wide variety of practices. Pathophysiology of Type II DM and co-morbidities in Type II DM has been correlated with stress mechanisms. Stress suppresses body's immune system and neuro-humoral actions thereby aff ecting normal psychological state. It would not be wrong to state that correlation of diabetes with stress, anxiety and other psychological factors are bidirectional and lead to difficulty in understanding the interrelated mechanisms. Type II DM cannot be understood in isolation with psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression, neuro-endocrine and immunological factors. There is no review which tries to understand these mechanisms exclusively. The present literature review aims to understand interrelated Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine and Immunological mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Published literature concerning mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II DM emphasizing psycho-neuro-endocrine or immunological relations was retrieved from Pubmed using key words yoga, Type II diabetes mellitus, psychological, neural, endocrine, immune and mechanism of action. Those studies which explained the psycho-neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of action of yoga were included and rest were excluded. Although primary aim of this study is to explain these mechanisms in Type II DM, some studies in non-diabetic population which had a similar pathway of stress mechanism was included because many insightful studies were available in that area. Search was conducted using terms yoga OR yogic AND diabetes OR diabetic IN title OR abstract for English articles. Of the 89 articles, we excluded non-English articles (22), editorials (20) and letters to editor (10). 37 studies were considered for this review. The postulated mechanism of action of yoga is through parasympathetic activation and the associated anti

  17. Improving Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Education for Medical Students: An Inter-Organizational Collaborative Action Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Geraldine S.; Stock, Saundra; Briscoe, Gregory W.; Beck, Gary L.; Horton, Rita; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liu, Howard Y.; Rutter, Ashley Partner; Sexson, Sandra; Schlozman, Steven C.; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A new Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Medical Education (CAPME) Task Force, sponsored by the Association for Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP), has created an inter-organizational partnership between child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) educators and medical student educators in psychiatry. This paper…

  18. National Trends: Enhancing Education through Technology--No Child Left Behind, Title II D--Year Three in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Cheryl; Wainer, Andrew; Haning, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    The State Educational Technology Directors Association is pleased to release its third annual Trends Report on educational technology. In addition to reporting trends on the third round (FY 04) of the No Child Left Behind, Title II, Part D, Enhancing Education Through Technology (EETT) program, the 2006 report also includes general state policy…

  19. The Daily Curriculum Guide, Year II, Weeks 21-34. A Preschool Program for the Spanish-Speaking Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Daily lesson plans for weeks 21 through 34 are provided in this guide, the third and last in the Year II sequence of the Daily Curriculum Guide preschool program for the Spanish-speaking child. The program is based on a language maintenance model in which Spanish is used as a means to develop basic concepts, skills and attitudes. Written in both…

  20. Cellular localization of iron(II) polypyridyl complexes determines their anticancer action mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Luo, Zuandi; Zhao, Zhennan; Xie, Lina; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng

    2015-12-01

    Elucidation of relationship among cellular uptake, localization and biological activities of metal complexes could make great breakthrough in the understanding of their action mechanisms and provide useful information for rational design of metal-based anticancer drugs. Iron(II) complexes have emerged as potential anticancer drug candidates with application potential in cancer imaging and therapy. Herein, a series of iron(II) polypyridyl complexes with different lipophilicity were rationally designed, synthesized and identified as potent anticancer agents. The relationship between the cellular localization and molecular action mechanisms of the complexes was also elucidated. The results showed that, the increase in planarity of the Fe(II) polypyridyl complexes enhanced their lipophilicity and cellular uptake, leading to improved anticancer efficacy. The hydrophilic Fe(II) complex entered cancer cells through transferring receptor (TfR)-mediated endocytosis, and translocated to cell nucleus, where they induced S phase cell cycle arrest through triggering DNA damage-mediated p53 pathway. Interestingly, the hydrophobic Fe(II) complexes displayed higher anticancer efficacy than the hydrophilic ones, but shared the same uptake pathway (TfR-mediated endocytosis) in cancer cells. They accumulated and localized in cell cytoplasm, and induced G0/G1 cells cycle arrest through regulation of AKT pathway and activation of downstream effector proteins. These results support that the cellular localization of Fe(II) complexes regulated by their lipophilicity could affect the anticancer efficacy and action mechanisms. Taken together, this study may enhance our understanding on the rational design of the next-generation anticancer metal complexes.

  1. F-35 Lightning II Program Quality Assurance and Corrective Action Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-11

    Lockheed Martin, Fort Worth, Texas, for conformity to the contractually required Aerospace Standard (AS)9100, “Quality Management Systems...September 30, 2013, to determine whether the actions taken were appropriate. Findings The F-35 Program generally conformed to requirements and...Office of Inspector General (OIG) conducted an evaluation of the F-35 Lightning II Program (F-35 Program) for conformity to the contractually required

  2. No Child Left Behind: A Legislative Catalyst for Superintendent Action to Eliminate Test-Score Gaps?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Whitney H.

    2008-01-01

    Proponents of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) hail it as vital legislation that supports a civil rights agenda because of explicit recognition that achievement gaps are unacceptable. One way to make sense of NCLB's impact on school divisions and to understand whether NCLB recognizes the complexity of why minority and low-socioeconomic-background…

  3. Measuring avoidance of pain: validation of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II-pain version.

    PubMed

    Reneman, Michiel F; Kleen, Marco; Trompetter, Hester R; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R; Köke, Albère; van Baalen, Bianca; Schreurs, Karlein M G

    2014-06-01

    Psychometric research on widely used questionnaires aimed at measuring experiential avoidance of chronic pain has led to inconclusive results. To test the structural validity, internal consistency, and construct validity of a recently developed short questionnaire: the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II-pain version (AAQ-II-P). Cross-sectional validation study among 388 adult patients with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain admitted for multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation in four tertiary rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands. Cronbach's α was calculated to analyze internal consistency. Principal component analysis was performed to analyze factor structure. Construct validity was analyzed by examining the association between acceptance of pain and measures of psychological flexibility (two scales and sum), pain catastrophizing (three scales and sum), and mental and physical functioning. Interpretation was based on a-priori defined hypotheses. The compound of the seven items of the AAQ-II-P shows a Cronbach's α of 0.87. The single component explained 56.2% of the total variance. Correlations ranged from r=-0.21 to 0.73. Two of the predefined hypotheses were rejected and seven were not rejected. The AAQ-II-P measures a single component and has good internal consistency, and construct validity is not rejected. Thus, the construct validity of the AAQ-II-P sum scores as indicator of experiential avoidance of pain was supported.

  4. Local actions of angiotensin II: quantitative in vitro autoradiographic localization of angiotensin II receptor binding and angiotensin converting enzyme in target tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, S.Y.; Allen, A.M.; Adam, W.R.; Mendelsohn, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the local actions of angiotensin II (ANG II) we have determined the distribution of a component of the effector system for the peptide, the ANG II receptor, and that of an enzyme-catalysing ANG II formation, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), by in vitro autoradiography in several target tissues. The superagonist ANG II analog, /sup 125/I(Sar1)ANG II, or the antagonist analog, /sup 125/I(Sar1,Ile8)ANG II, were used as specific radioligands for ANG II receptors. A derivative of the specific ACE inhibitor, lysinopril, called /sup 125/I-351A, was used to label ACE in tissues. In the adrenal, a high density of ANG II receptors occurs in the glomerulosa zone of the cortex and in the medulla. ACE is also localized in these two zones, indicating that local production of ANG II may occur close to its sites of action in the zona glomerulosa and adrenal medulla. In the kidney, a high density of ANG II receptors is associated with glomeruli in the cortex and also with vasa recta bundles in the inner stripe of the outer medulla. ACE is found in very high concentration in deep proximal convoluted tubules of the cortex, while much lower concentrations of the enzyme occur in the vascular endothelium throughout the kidney. In the central nervous system three classes of relationships between ANG II receptors and ACE are observed: In the circumventricular organs, including the subfornical organ and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, a high concentration of both components occurs. Since these structures have a deficient blood-brain barrier, local conversion of circulating angiotensin I (ANG I) to ANG II may contribute to the action of ANG II at these sites.

  5. The impact of social action funds on child health in a conflict affected country: evidence from Angola.

    PubMed

    Djimeu, Eric W

    2014-04-01

    Although recent evidence shows significant and long-lasting detrimental effects of armed conflict on child health, there is lack of studies rigorously assessing the effectiveness of different social and economic development interventions aiming to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this study assesses the impact of health projects and water, sanitation, and waste management interventions financed by the Angola Social Action Fund (ASAF) from 1994 to 2001 on child health. I use data from Inquérito aos Agregados Familiares sobre Despesas e Receitas 2000/2001(IDR 2001), a household survey on expenditures and incomes conducted between February 2000 and February 2001 in Angola. IDR 2001 uses a stratified sampling design in which 12 households were surveyed in a random fashion in each aldeia (village) in rural areas and bairro (neighborhood) in urban areas. Using propensity score matching, a fixed effects model, and propensity-based weighted regression, I find that ASAF leads to a statistically significant increase of the height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) by 0.335 standard deviations of children less than 5 years. This finding is robust to different implementations of the propensity score model specification and when conducting the sensitivity analysis of hidden bias. The main result that emerges from an analysis of heterogeneous effects shows that ASAF has no impact on children living in war displaced households. Despite many challenges faced by conflict affected countries, social funds which are one the key instruments of the World Bank used to promote development at the local level can be used to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. For children living in war displaced households, specific interventions should be designed to mitigate the impact of armed conflict.

  6. Domestic violence and immigration status among Latina mothers in the child welfare system: findings from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being II (NSCAW II).

    PubMed

    Ogbonnaya, Ijeoma Nwabuzor; Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Kohl, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    Many children involved with the child welfare system witness parental domestic violence. The association between children's domestic violence exposure and child welfare involvement may be influenced by certain socio-cultural factors; however, minimal research has examined this relationship. The current study compares domestic violence experiences and case outcomes among Latinas who are legal immigrants (n=39), unauthorized immigrants (n=77), naturalized citizens (n=30), and US-born citizen mothers (n=383) reported for child maltreatment. This analysis used data from the second round of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Mothers were asked about whether they experienced domestic violence during the past year. In addition, data were collected to assess if (a) domestic violence was the primary abuse type reported and, if so, (b) the maltreatment allegation was substantiated. Results show that naturalized citizens, legal residents, and unauthorized immigrants did not differ from US-born citizens in self-reports of domestic violence; approximately 33% of mothers reported experiences of domestic violence within the past year. Yet, unauthorized immigrants were 3.76 times more likely than US-born citizens to have cases with allegations of domestic violence as the primary abuse type. Despite higher rates of alleged domestic violence, unauthorized citizens were not more likely than US-born citizens to have these cases substantiated for domestic violence (F(2.26, 153.99)=0.709, p=.510). Findings highlight that domestic violence is not accurately accounted for in families with unauthorized immigrant mothers. We recommend child welfare workers are trained to properly assess and fulfill the needs of immigrant families, particularly as it relates to domestic violence.

  7. Central actions of angiotensin II on spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in the trout Onc orhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Lancien, Frédéric; Le Mével, Jean-Claude

    2007-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the central action of native angiotensin II (ANG II) on the spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in unanesthetized trout. The animals were equipped with two subcutaneous electrocardiographic (ECG) electrodes, a dorsal aorta catheter and an intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula which was inserted within the third ventricle of the brain. The ECG and the systolic blood pressure (SBP) signals were recorded during a pre-injection period of 5 min and during five post-injection periods of 5 min. All injections were made at the fifth minute of the test. The time-series were processed with a sequence technique in order to detect the sequences of three or more consecutive increases in the SBP pulse, or three or more decreases in the SBP pulse correlated respectively with one delay beat increase of the RR interval of the ECG signal or shortening of this interval. The slope of the average regression line between the SBP and the RR intervals for each type of sequence was taken as a measure of the spontaneous BRS. Compared with pre-injection values, the ICV injection of vehicle (0.5 microl) had no effect on heart rate (HR), SBP, the total number of positive or negative sequences or on the spontaneous BRS during the post-injection periods. By contrast, ANG II at doses of 5 and 50 pmol increased HR but only 50 pmol ANG II elevated SBP. For all doses, ANG II depressed the spontaneous BRS, but the peptide had no effect upon the number of each baroreflex sequences. Intra-arterial injections of atropine dramatically reduced the number of positive and negative baroreflex sequences and decreased the sensitivity of the few remaining sequences, suggesting that the autonomic control of the cardiac BRS was solely due to vagal parasympathetic control. In atropinized trout the ICV injection of 5 pmol ANG II had no effect upon HR, SBP and the baroreflex parameters. This study determines for the first time the spontaneous BRS in a non

  8. Topoisomerase I and II inhibitors: chemical structure, mechanisms of action and role in cancer chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezhenkova, L. G.; Tsvetkov, V. B.; Shtil, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The review summarizes and analyzes recent published data on topoisomerase I and II inhibitors as potential antitumour agents. Functions and the mechanism of action of topoisomerases are considered. The molecular mechanism of interactions between low-molecular-weight compounds and these proteins is discussed. Topoisomerase inhibitors belonging to different classes of chemical compounds are systematically covered. Assays for the inhibition of topoisomerases and the possibilities of using the computer-aided modelling for the rational design of novel drugs for cancer chemotherapy are presented. The bibliography includes 127 references.

  9. What does the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II) really measure?

    PubMed

    Wolgast, Martin

    2014-11-01

    The present study seeks to investigate the extent to which the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II) is successful in discriminating between experiential avoidance/psychological flexibility on the one hand and the supposed outcomes in terms of psychological well-being of having this trait on the other. This was done using exploratory factor analysis on an item pool containing the AAQ-II items, and items designed for the present study to measure distress and acceptance/non-acceptance, to see what factors are identified and on which factor(s) the AAQ-II items had the highest factor loadings. Interestingly, the analysis found the items of the AAQ-II to be more strongly related to items designed to measure distress than items designed to measure acceptance/nonacceptance with minimal references to functional outcomes. The results of the study are interpreted and discussed in relation to the widespread use of the AAQ in both clinical and scientific contexts and given the centrality of the measure in empirically validating the ACT model of psychopathology and treatment.

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II for Chinese College Students and Elite Chinese Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chun-Qing; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Si, Gangyan; Liu, Jing Dong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) across two samples of Chinese college students (n = 183 and n = 366) and a sample of elite Chinese athletes (n = 330). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the existence of a…

  11. A Child's Brain. Part II. The Human Brain: How Every Single Cell is Organized for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1982-01-01

    The second in a series of three articles concerning children's brain development focuses on the organization of the brain. Aspects of the brain's vertical, neocortex, and temporal organization are discussed and references for further reading are provided. (CJ)

  12. Phase II Report. Volume II: Program Study Report. Evaluation of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lynell

    This volume, part of a series of Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP) evaluation reports, is devoted to the program study component of the CFRP evaluation. The purpose of this component is to develop the most comprehensive picture possible of the operation of the 11 CFRP's located across the country, in order to provide a backdrop against…

  13. Freeing the Child: Using Action Research on Visual Learning Strategies To Develop Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Laura; Nugent, Peg

    Teacher action research using both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to examine impacts of using visual learning strategies on five preschool children (ages 3-5) with autism in a self-contained classroom. During the six weeks of the study, pictures representing nine learning areas and specific developmental…

  14. Ending preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025. Development of the integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Shamim; Aboubaker, Samira; MacLean, Rachel; Fontaine, Olivier; Mantel, Carsten; Goodman, Tracey; Young, Mark; Henderson, Peggy; Cherian, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Despite the existence of low-cost and effective interventions for childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea, these conditions remain two of the leading killers of young children. Based on feedback from health professionals in countries with high child mortality, in 2009, WHO and Unicef began conceptualising an integrated approach for pneumonia and diarrhoea control. As part of this initiative, WHO and Unicef, with support from other partners, conducted a series of five workshops to facilitate the inclusion of coordinated actions for pneumonia and diarrhoea into the national health plans of 36 countries with high child mortality. This paper presents the findings from workshop and post-workshop follow-up activities and discusses the contribution of these findings to the development of the integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea, which outlines the necessary actions for elimination of preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025. Though this goal is ambitious, it is attainable through concerted efforts. By applying the lessons learned thus far and continuing to build upon them, and by leveraging existing political will and momentum for child survival, national governments and their supporting partners can ensure that preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea are eventually eliminated.

  15. Antidiuretic action of angiotensin II in the river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis: evidence for endocrine control of kidney function in cyclostomes.

    PubMed

    Cobb, C S; Brown, J A; Rankin, J C

    2010-10-01

    Intravenous infusion of angiotensin II ([Asn¹ Val⁵]-Ang II) at 10⁻⁹ mol min⁻¹ kg⁻¹ body mass produced a significant antidiuresis in river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis, captured during upstream migration and maintained in fresh water. Although the renin-angiotensin hormonal system (RAS) is now recognized in jawless fishes, until this study, the role of homologous Ang II in L. fluviatilis kidney function had not been examined. This study provides the first evidence for an antidiuretic action of Ang II in cyclostomes and, in evolutionary terms, suggests a renal function for the RAS in early vertebrates.

  16. 25 CFR 23.35 - Deadline for Central Office action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deadline for Central Office action. 23.35 Section 23.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Grants to Off-Reservation Indian Organizations for Title II Indian Child and Family Service Programs §...

  17. 25 CFR 23.35 - Deadline for Central Office action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deadline for Central Office action. 23.35 Section 23.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Grants to Off-Reservation Indian Organizations for Title II Indian Child and Family Service Programs §...

  18. 25 CFR 23.35 - Deadline for Central Office action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deadline for Central Office action. 23.35 Section 23.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Grants to Off-Reservation Indian Organizations for Title II Indian Child and Family Service Programs §...

  19. 25 CFR 23.35 - Deadline for Central Office action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deadline for Central Office action. 23.35 Section 23.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Grants to Off-Reservation Indian Organizations for Title II Indian Child and Family Service Programs §...

  20. 25 CFR 23.35 - Deadline for Central Office action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Deadline for Central Office action. 23.35 Section 23.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Grants to Off-Reservation Indian Organizations for Title II Indian Child and Family Service Programs §...

  1. Action Potentials and Ion Conductances in Wild-type and CALHM1-knockout Type II Taste Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhongming; Saung, Wint Thu; Foskett, J Kevin

    2017-02-15

    Taste bud type II cells fire action potentials in response to tastants, triggering non-vesicular ATP release to gustatory neurons via voltage-gated CALHM1-associated ion channels. Whereas CALHM1 regulates mouse cortical neuron excitability, its roles in regulating type II cell excitability are unknown. Here, we compared membrane conductances and action potentials in single identified TRPM5-GFP-expressing circumvallate papillae type II cells acutely isolated from wild-type (WT) and Calhm1-knockout (KO) mice. The activation kinetics of large voltage-gated outward currents were accelerated in cells from Calhm1-KO mice, and their associated non-selective tail currents, previously shown to be highly correlated with ATP release, were completely absent in Calhm1-KO cells, suggesting that CALHM1 contributes to all of these currents. Calhm1 deletion did not significantly alter resting membrane potential or input resistance, the amplitudes and kinetics of Na(+) currents either estimated from action potentials or recorded from steady-state voltage-pulses, or action potential threshold, overshoot peak, after-hyperpolarization and firing frequency. However, Calhm1-deletion reduced the half-widths of action potentials and accelerated the deactivation kinetics of transient outward currents, suggesting that the CALHM1-associated conductance becomes activated during the repolarization phase of action potentials.

  2. Child Abuse and Neglect: Social Service Reader I [and] Reader II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Bernadette, Ed.

    Intended to provide new caseworkers with an introduction to child abuse and neglect, the two part document presents information from a multidisciplinary perspective. Twenty-three articles in the first book and seven in the second are included on the social worker's role, assessment and counseling of abusive and neglecting parents, the impact of…

  3. The burden of disaster: part II. applying interventions across the child's social ecology.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Jacobs, Anne K; Noffsinger, Mary A; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H

    2012-01-01

    This second of two articles describes the application of disaster mental health interventions within the context of the childs social ecology consisting of the Micro-, Meso-, Exo-, and Macrosystems. Microsystem interventions involving parents, siblings, and close friends include family preparedness planning andpractice, psychoeducation, role modeling, emotional support, and redirection. Mesosystem interventions provided by schools and faith-based organizations include safety and support, assessment, referral, and counseling. Exosystem interventions include those provided through community-based mental health programs, healthcare organizations, the workplace, the media, local volunteer disaster organizations, and other local organizations. Efforts to build community resilience to disasters are likely to have influence through the Exosystem. The Macrosystem - including the laws, history, cultural and subcultural characteristics, and economic and social conditions that underlie the other systems - affects the child indirectly through public policies and disaster programs and services that become available in the child's Exosystem in the aftermath of a disaster The social ecology paradigm, described more fully in a companion article (Noffsinger Pfefferbaum, Pfefferbaum, Sherrieb, & Norris,2012), emphasizes relationships among systems and can guide the development and delivery of services embedded in naturally-occurring structures in the child's environment.

  4. Child Development Curriculum Guide, Volume II: For Secondary Vocational Home Economics Programs. Bulletin 1664.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is the second volume of the Louisiana curriculum guide for teaching a one-semester course in child and adolescent development in grades 10-12. This volume presents basic information regarding the development of children from infancy through school age, including prenatal development. Many lessons of the volume's five major units also…

  5. Training Child Care Workers in Denmark: II. Training Family Helpers and Family Day Care Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Wagner, Marsden G.

    This report describes the training of two kinds of paraprofessionals in child care in Denmark: the family helper who has considerable educational background, and the family day care mother for whom there are no educational prerequisites. The funding, the training, and the curriculum design of the paraprofessional programs are discussed. There is…

  6. Evaluation of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP). Phase II Report. Volume I: Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauta, Marrit; And Others

    This volume, third in a series evaluating the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP), provides an overview of the evaluation, documents the first 6 months of the study, and examines initial program impact on families. Chapter 1 briefly summarizes the design of the CFRP evaluation and addresses the issues of sample selection and attrition, data…

  7. Report of Baseline Data: Evaluation of the Child and Family Resource Program. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affholter, Dennis; And Others

    This volume reports the baseline (1978) data to be used in the 6-year longitudinal evaluation of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP). The CFRP, funded in 11 sites across the country as a Head Start demonstration program, is intended to develop models for providing services to low-income families with children from birth to eight years.…

  8. Phase II Executive Summary. Evaluation of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauta, Marrit J.; And Others

    This report presents preliminary findings based on the first full year of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP) evaluation, begun in the fall of 1978. The analyses described in this report are intended to provide answers to four major questions: (1) What is the nature of the CFRP and how do programs vary from site to site? (2) To what…

  9. Shaping of action potentials by type I and type II large-conductance Ca²+-activated K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, D B; Wang, B; Brenner, R

    2011-09-29

    The BK channel is a Ca(2+) and voltage-gated conductance responsible for shaping action potential waveforms in many types of neurons. Type II BK channels are differentiated from type I channels by their pharmacology and slow gating kinetics. The β4 accessory subunit confers type II properties on BK α subunits. Empirically derived properties of BK channels, with and without the β4 accessory subunit, were obtained using a heterologous expression system under physiological ionic conditions. These data were then used to study how BK channels alone (type I) and with the accessory β4 subunit (type II) modulate action potential properties in biophysical neuron models. Overall, the models support the hypothesis that it is the slower kinetics provided by the β4 subunit that endows the BK channel with type II properties, which leads to broadening of action potentials and, secondarily, to greater recruitment of SK channels reducing neuronal excitability. Two regions of parameter space distinguished type II and type I effects; one where the range of BK-activating Ca(2+) was high (>20 μM) and the other where BK-activating Ca(2+) was low (∼0.4-1.2 μM). The latter required an elevated BK channel density, possibly beyond a likely physiological range. BK-mediated sharpening of the spike waveform associated with the lack of the β4 subunit was sensitive to the properties of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels due to electrogenic effects on spike duration. We also found that depending on Ca(2+) dynamics, type II BK channels may have the ability to contribute to the medium AHP, a property not generally ascribed to BK channels, influencing the frequency-current relationship. Finally, we show how the broadening of action potentials conferred by type II BK channels can also indirectly increase the recruitment of SK-type channels decreasing the excitability of the neuron.

  10. Role of lipid II and membrane thickness in the mechanism of action of the lantibiotic bovicin HC5.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Aline Dias; Breukink, Eefjan; Mantovani, Hilário Cuquetto

    2011-11-01

    Lantibiotics are antimicrobial peptides produced by Gram-positive bacteria, nisin being the most well-known member. Nisin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis and forms pores at sensitive membranes upon interaction with lipid II, the essential bacterial cell wall precursor. Bovicin HC5, a bacteriocin produced by Streptococcus bovis HC5, has the putative N-terminal lipid II binding motif, and we investigated the mode of action of bovicin HC5 using both living bacteria and model membranes, with special emphasis on the role of lipid II. Bovicin HC5 showed activity against Staphylococcus cohnii and Staphylococcus warneri, but bovicin HC5 hardly interfered with the membrane potential of S. cohnii. In model membranes, bovicin HC5 was not able to cause carboxyfluorescein release or proton influx from DOPC vesicles containing lipid II. Bovicin HC5 blocked lipid II-dependent pore formation activity of nisin, and a high-affinity interaction with lipid II was observed (apparent binding constant [K(a)] = 3.1 × 10(6) M(-1)), with a 1:1 stoichiometry. In DOPC vesicles containing lipid II, bovicin HC5 was able to assemble with lipid II into a prepore-like structure. Furthermore, we observed pore formation activity of bovicin HC5, which was stimulated by the presence of lipid II, in thin membranes. Moreover, bovicin HC5 induced the segregation of lipid II into domains in giant model membrane vesicles. In conclusion, bovicin HC5 has a primary mode of action similar to that of nisin, but some differences regarding the pore-forming capacity were demonstrated.

  11. Child Care Indicators, 1998. Part I: Preliminary Figures [and] Part II: County Aggregates, Working Poor Families, Child Care Workforce. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce; Kipnis, Fran; Siegel, Patricia

    Rising maternal employment, welfare reform, and increased preschool enrollment contribute to accelerating family demand for child care in California, and federal and state governments have responded by doubling support for child care and preschool programs between 1996 and 1999. However, there is little information available on how child care…

  12. Psychosocial stress inhibits amplitude of gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulses independent of cortisol action on the type II glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Breen, Kellie M; Oakley, Amy E; Tilbrook, Alan J; Karsch, Fred J

    2009-02-01

    Our laboratory has developed a paradigm of psychosocial stress (sequential layering of isolation, blindfold, and predator cues) that robustly elevates cortisol secretion and decreases LH pulse amplitude in ovariectomized ewes. This decrease in LH pulse amplitude is due, at least in part, to a reduction in pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, caused by cortisol acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The first experiment of the current study aimed to determine whether this layered psychosocial stress also inhibits pulsatile GnRH release into pituitary portal blood. The stress paradigm significantly reduced GnRH pulse amplitude compared with nonstressed ovariectomized ewes. The second experiment tested if this stress-induced decrease in GnRH pulse amplitude is mediated by cortisol action on the type II GR. Ovariectomized ewes were allocated to three groups: nonstress control, stress, and stress plus the type II GR antagonist RU486. The layered psychosocial stress paradigm decreased GnRH and LH pulse amplitude compared with nonstress controls. Importantly, the stress also lowered GnRH pulse amplitude to a comparable extent in ewes in which cortisol action via the type II GR was antagonized. Therefore, we conclude that psychosocial stress reduces the amplitude of GnRH pulses independent of cortisol action on the type II GR. The present findings, combined with our recent observations, suggest that the mechanisms by which psychosocial stress inhibits reproductive neuroendocrine activity at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels are fundamentally different.

  13. Phase II Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    DeNovio, Nicole M.; Bryant, Nathan; King, Chrissi B.; Bhark, Eric; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Pickens, John F.; Farnham, Irene; Brooks, Keely M.; Reimus, Paul; Aly, Alaa

    2005-04-01

    This report documents pertinent transport data and data analyses as part of the Phase II Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) for Frenchman Flat (FF) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98. The purpose of this data compilation and related analyses is to provide the primary reference to support parameterization of the Phase II FF CAU transport model.

  14. Phase II Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    John McCord

    2004-12-01

    This report documents pertinent hydrologic data and data analyses as part of the Phase II Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) for Frenchman Flat (FF) Corrective Action Unit (CAU): CAU 98. The purpose of this data compilation and related analyses is to provide the primary reference to support the development of the Phase II FF CAU groundwater flow model.

  15. What if Your Child IS the One Showing Bullying Behavior? PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets. PHP-c109

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACER Center, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The word "bullying" often conjures up an image of a schoolyard scene, with a big, intimidating student towering over a small, cowering child. However, that's just one of the many faces of children who bully. Another face of someone who bullies might be that of one's own child. Surprised? Many parents are. Often they have no idea that…

  16. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as policy and strategy for social work action in child welfare in the United States.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, James L

    2012-01-01

    The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international agreements. An earlier analysis for understanding the CRC is reviewed and replaced with one that uses a policy analysis model. This new model provides a basis for uniform child welfare policy and strategy throughout the nation. Although NASW has been supportive, it has not actively studied the consequences of implementation of the CRC, nor has it incorporated the CRC into its policy statements as a fundamental tenet. This article recommends that the NASW use the CRC as a basis for all child welfare policy statements and reference the CRS in future articles on child welfare issues. It also urges social workers to become politically active on behalf of the CRC to achieve ratification. Finally, it recommends a national committee to not only coordinate efforts toward ratification, but also oversee implementation of the CRC once it is ratified.

  17. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Policy and Strategy for Social Work Action in Child Welfare in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherrer, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international…

  18. Through My Eyes: A Child's View of World War II. Appropriate for Grades 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Margaret

    This activity book is designed for grades 5-8 to look at America at home during World War II. The work examines the efforts of the men, women, and children who supported and supplied one of the greatest mobilizations of people and material that the world has ever witnessed. The activities were planned to compliment the exhibit of the same name,…

  19. Child labour in Egypt. II. Impact of work environment on health.

    PubMed

    Noweir, M B; Osman, H A; Abbas, F I; Abou-Taleb, A M; Mansour, T A

    1993-01-01

    The studied population (1000 children and young workers and 250 controls) were interviewed for health complaints and subjected to extensive medical investigations. Health problems are more encountered among the workers than in the controls, which has been attributed to the impact of work on health and to the low socioeconomic background that compels the children to work, which may constitute a potential health problem from the start. The significant health problems include: a) Respiratory system complaints, attacks of cough, chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma and reduction in FEV1.0/FVC; b) cardiovascular abnormalities including palpitations, sinus tachycardia, anemia, vertigo and syncope; c) gastrointestinal abnormalities including dyspepsia and parasitic infestations; d) neuropsychiatric complaints; and e) other health problems including urinary tract infections, backache, visual impairment, repair of hernia and nocturnal enuresis. The study has been concluded by recommending the use of primary health care approach to child labour, emphasizing the importance of pre-employment and periodical medical examinations for protecting this vulnerable group from work hazards, and expanding the efforts of family planning to reduce family size.

  20. [50 years ago: documentation of the Bernburg "euthanasia" action program (II)].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W

    1991-05-01

    The history of the "euthanasia" action programme began at Bernburg in 1940 and finished in 1943. It passed under regional peculiarities. In this second part of the report the organisational details of criminal actions were analysed and additionally the development of the physicians who took part in.

  1. A Study in Child Care (Case Study from Volume II-A): "They Understand." Day Care Programs Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Brigid

    This day care center, operated by Syracuse University and serving 100 children (birth to 3-year-old), admits only one child per family. The child must be the first or second child in a family where both parents have high school education or less and earn less than $5,000 per year. The program philosophy maintains that quality day care must carry…

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 413: Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick; Burmeister, Mark; Gallo, Patricia

    2016-04-21

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 413 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 130 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and approximately 40 miles southeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CAU 413 site consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the conduct of the Clean Slate II (CSII) storage–transportation test conducted on May 31, 1963. CAU 413 includes one corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-02CS (Pu Contaminated Soil). The known releases at CAU 413 are the result of the atmospheric deposition of contamination from the 1963 CSII test. The CSII test was a non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a reinforced concrete bunker covered with 2 feet of soil. This test dispersed radionuclides, primarily plutonium, on the ground surface. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 413 will be evaluated based on information collected from a corrective action investigation (CAI). The investigation is based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 17, 2015, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; the U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 413. The CAI will include radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, collection and analyses of soil samples, and assessment of investigation results. The collection of soil samples will be accomplished using both probabilistic and judgmental sampling approaches. To facilitate site investigation and the evaluation of DQO decisions, the releases at CAU 413 have been divided into seven study groups.

  3. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II presenting with short stature in a child.

    PubMed

    Hazan, Filiz; Korkmaz, Hüseyin A; Yararbaş, Kanay; Wuyts, Wim; Tükün, Ajlan

    2016-12-01

    Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II (TRPSII) (synonym: Langer-Giedon syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant contiguous gene syndrome, resulting from a microdeletion encompassing the EXT1 and the TRPS1 gene at 8q24 (MIM#150230). This syndrome combines the clinical features of two autosomal dominant disorders, trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type I (MIM#190350) and hereditary multiple osteochondromas type I (MIM # 133700). TRPSII is characterized by sparse scalp hair, a long nose with a bulbous tip, long flat philtrum, cone-shaped epiphyses of the phalanges, retarded bone age in infancy and multiple cartilaginous osteochondromas. We report a Turkish patient who had the clinical features and skeletal signs of TRPSII in whom a 13.8Mb deletion in 8q23.1- 8q24.13 was detected.

  4. An alternative bactericidal mechanism of action for lantibiotic peptides that target lipid II.

    PubMed

    Hasper, Hester E; Kramer, Naomi E; Smith, James L; Hillman, J D; Zachariah, Cherian; Kuipers, Oscar P; de Kruijff, Ben; Breukink, Eefjan

    2006-09-15

    Lantibiotics are polycyclic peptides containing unusual amino acids, which have binding specificity for bacterial cells, targeting the bacterial cell wall component lipid II to form pores and thereby lyse the cells. Yet several members of these lipid II-targeted lantibiotics are too short to be able to span the lipid bilayer and cannot form pores, but somehow they maintain their antibacterial efficacy. We describe an alternative mechanism by which members of the lantibiotic family kill Gram-positive bacteria by removing lipid II from the cell division site (or septum) and thus block cell wall synthesis.

  5. Insight into invertebrate defensin mechanism of action: oyster defensins inhibit peptidoglycan biosynthesis by binding to lipid II.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Paulina; Wilmes, Miriam; Pugnière, Martine; Aumelas, André; Bachère, Evelyne; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Schneider, Tanja; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine

    2010-09-17

    Three oyster defensin variants (Cg-Defh1, Cg-Defh2, and Cg-Defm) were produced as recombinant peptides and characterized in terms of activities and mechanism of action. In agreement with their spectrum of activity almost specifically directed against Gram-positive bacteria, oyster defensins were shown here to be specific inhibitors of a bacterial biosynthesis pathway rather than mere membrane-active agents. Indeed, at lethal concentrations, the three defensins did not compromise Staphylococcus aureus membrane integrity but inhibited the cell wall biosynthesis as indicated by the accumulation of the UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-pentapeptide cell wall precursor. In addition, a combination of antagonization assays, thin layer chromatography, and surface plasmon resonance measurements showed that oyster defensins bind almost irreversibly to the lipid II peptidoglycan precursor, thereby inhibiting the cell wall biosynthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed analysis of the mechanism of action of antibacterial defensins produced by invertebrates. Interestingly, the three defensins, which were chosen as representative of the oyster defensin molecular diversity, bound differentially to lipid II. This correlated with their differential antibacterial activities. From our experimental data and the analysis of oyster defensin sequence diversity, we propose that oyster defensin activity results from selective forces that have conserved residues involved in lipid II binding and diversified residues at the surface of oyster defensins that could improve electrostatic interactions with the bacterial membranes.

  6. 7 CFR 1940.318 - Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... action or its indirect impacts; soil erosion and sedimentation plans to control runoff during land... difference will be addressed in the manner specified in § 1940.316 of this subpart. (k) When there is no...

  7. The role of IL-6 in the physiologic versus hypertensive blood pressure actions of angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Manhiani, M Marlina; Seth, Dale M; Banes-Berceli, Amy K L; Satou, Ryosuke; Navar, L Gabriel; Brands, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is a critical physiologic regulator of volume homeostasis and mean arterial pressure (MAP), yet it also is known to induce immune mechanisms that contribute to hypertension. This study determined the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the physiologic effect of AngII to maintain normal MAP during low-salt (LS) intake, and whether hypertension induced by plasma AngII concentrations measured during LS diet required IL-6. IL-6 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were placed on LS diet for 7 days, and MAP was measured 19 h/day with telemetry. MAP was not affected by LS in either group, averaging 101 ± 4 and 100 ± 4 mmHg in WT and KO mice, respectively, over the last 3 days. Seven days of ACEI decreased MAP ∼25 mmHg in both groups. In other KO and WT mice, AngII was infused at 200 ng/kg per minute to approximate plasma AngII levels during LS. Surgical reduction of kidney mass and high-salt diet were used to amplify the blood pressure effect. The increase in MAP after 7 days was not different, averaging 20 ± 5 and 22 ± 6 mmHg in WT and KO mice, respectively. Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer of activated transcription (STAT3) phosphorylation were not affected by LS, but were increased by AngII infusion at 200 and 800 ng/kg per minute. These data suggest that physiologic levels of AngII do not activate or require IL-6 to affect blood pressure significantly, whether AngII is maintaining blood pressure on LS diet or causing blood pressure to increase. JAK2/STAT3 activation, however, is tightly associated with AngII hypertension, even when caused by physiologic levels of AngII. PMID:26486161

  8. Protective actions of estrogen on angiotensin II-induced hypertension: role of central nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Xue, Baojian; Singh, Minati; Guo, Fang; Hay, Meredith; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2009-11-01

    The present study tested the hypotheses that 1) nitric oxide (NO) is involved in attenuated responses to ANG II in female mice, and 2) there is differential expression of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in the subfornical organ (SFO) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in response to systemic infusions of ANG II in males vs. females. Aortic blood pressure (BP) was measured in conscious mice with telemetry implants. N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 100 microg x kg(.-1)day(-1)), an inhibitor of NOS, was administrated into the lateral cerebral ventricle for 14 days before and during ANG II pump implantation. Central infusion of l-NAME augmented the pressor effects of systemic ANG II in females (Delta21.5 + or - 2.2 vs. Delta9.2 + or - 1.5 mmHg) but not in males (Delta29.4 + or - 2.5 vs. Delta30.1 + or - 2.5 mmHg). Central administration of N(5)-(1-imino-3-butenyl)-l-ornithine (l-VNIO), a selective nNOS inhibitor, also significantly potentiated the increase in BP induced by ANG II in females (Delta17.5 + or - 3.2 vs. Delta9.2 + or - 1.5 mmHg). In gonadectomized mice, central l-NAME infusion did not affect the pressor response to ANG II in either males or females. Ganglionic blockade after ANG II infusion resulted in a greater reduction in BP in central l-NAME- or l-VNIO-treated females compared with control females. Western blot analysis of nNOS protein expression indicated that levels were approximately 12-fold higher in both the SFO and PVN of intact females compared with those in intact males. Seven days of ANG II treatment resulted in a further increase in nNOS protein expression only in intact females (PVN, to approximately 51-fold). Immunohistochemical studies revealed colocalization of nNOS and estrogen receptors in the SFO and PVN. These results suggest that NO attenuates the increase in BP induced by ANG II through reduced sympathetic outflow in females and that increased nNOS protein expression associated with the presence of female sex hormones plays a

  9. 30 CFR 57.22238 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22238 Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22231 - Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22231 Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 0.25 percent in...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22231 - Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22231 Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 0.25 percent in...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22238 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22238 Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the...

  13. Creating action plans in a serious video game increases and maintains child fruit-vegetable intake: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Child fruit and vegetable intake is below recommended levels, increasing risk for chronic disease. Interventions to influence fruit and vegetable intake among youth have had mixed effects. Innovative, theory-driven interventions are needed. Goal setting, enhanced by implementation intentions (i.e., ...

  14. Amplified pathogenic actions of angiotensin II in cysteine-rich LIM-only protein 4-negative mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Straubinger, Julia; Boldt, Karsten; Kuret, Anna; Deng, Lisa; Krattenmacher, Diana; Bork, Nadja; Desch, Matthias; Feil, Robert; Feil, Susanne; Nemer, Mona; Ueffing, Marius; Ruth, Peter; Just, Steffen; Lukowski, Robert

    2017-04-01

    LIM domain proteins have been identified as essential modulators of cardiac biology and pathology; however, it is unclear which role the cysteine-rich LIM-only protein (CRP)4 plays in these processes. In studying CRP4 mutant mice, we found that their hearts developed normally, but lack of CRP4 exaggerated multiple parameters of the cardiac stress response to the neurohormone angiotensin II (Ang II). Aiming to dissect the molecular details, we found a link between CRP4 and the cardioprotective cGMP pathway, as well as a multiprotein complex comprising well-known hypertrophy-associated factors. Significant enrichment of the cysteine-rich intestinal protein (CRIP)1 in murine hearts lacking CRP4, as well as severe cardiac defects and premature death of CRIP1 and CRP4 morphant zebrafish embryos, further support the notion that depleting CRP4 is incompatible with a proper cardiac development and function. Together, amplified Ang II signaling identified CRP4 as a novel antiremodeling factor regulated, at least to some extent, by cardiac cGMP.-Straubinger, J., Boldt, K., Kuret, A., Deng, L., Krattenmacher, D., Bork, N., Desch, M., Feil, R., Feil, S., Nemer, M., Ueffing, M., Ruth, P., Just, S., Lukowski, R. Amplified pathogenic actions of angiotensin II in cysteine-rich LIM-only protein 4 negative mouse hearts.

  15. Consequences of postnatal vascular smooth muscle EGFR deletion on acute angiotensin II action.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Barbara; Hünerberg, Mirja; Rabe, Sindy; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Bethmann, Daniel; Heise, Christian; Sibilia, Maria; Offermanns, Stefan; Gekle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Epi dermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is activated by its canonical ligands and transactivated by various vasoactive substances, e.g. angiotensin II (Ang II). Vascular EGFR has been proposed to be involved in vascular tissue homoeostasis and remodelling. Thus, most studies have focused on its role during long-term vascular changes whereas the relevance for acute regulation of vascular function in vivo and ex vivo is insufficiently understood. To investigate the postnatal role of VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) EGFR in vivo and ex vivo, we generated a mouse model with cell-specific and inducible deletion of VSMC EGFR and studied the effect on basal blood pressure, acute pressure response to, among others, Ang II in vivo as well as ex vivo, cardiovascular tissue homoeostasis and vessel morphometry in male mice. In knockout (KO) animals, systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures were reduced compared with wild-type (WT). Furthermore, Ang II-induced pressure load was lower in KO animals, as was Ang II-induced force development and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in aortic rings from KO animals. By contrast, we observed no difference in force development during application of serotonin, KCl, endothelin-1 or endothelin-1-induced pressure load in KO animals. In addition, nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation was not affected. Heart weight (HW) increase and up-regulation of aortic and cardiac expression of Ccl2 (chemoattractant protein-2) and serpinE1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1) during the transition from 4- to 10-months of age were prevented by VSMC EGFR KO. We conclude that VSMC EGFR is involved in basal blood pressure homoeostasis and acute pressure response to Ang II, and thereby contributes to maturation-related remodelling.

  16. Ace: Action-Communication-Expression. IMPACT II: Houston's Teacher-to-Teacher Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Margie

    The Action-Communication-Expression program, an extension of a speech communication class in a Houston (Texas) high school, involves visual and concrete communication, such as photography, script writing, and filmmaking. Students in two speech classes work in small groups of four or five, independently of the teacher, after receiving initial…

  17. Kinematic Constraints Associated with the Acquisition of Overarm Throwing Part II: Upper Extremity Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the differences within 11 specific kinematic variables and an outcome measure (ball velocity) associated with component developmental levels of humerus and forearm action (Roberton & Halverson, 1984), and (b) if the differences in kinematic variables were significantly associated with the differences…

  18. 7 CFR 1940.318 - Completing environmental assessments for Class II actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... through the provision of financial assistance or the review and approval of a necessary plan or permit... joint or lead impact statement will be prepared. If the other Agency does not believe a significant... financial assistance as special conditions or in the implementation requirements when the action does...

  19. Mother-Child Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joseph Chilton

    1994-01-01

    Examines the nature of mother-child bonding from the prenatal stage through early infancy, discussing how the mother's actions, even before birth, stimulate her child's senses. Explains the crucial role that physical contact, breastfeeding, and visual stimuli have on mother-child bonding in human and animal newborns. (MDM)

  20. Phase II -- Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA): Safety and health action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, K.

    1994-09-01

    To establish guidelines for the implementation and administration of an injury and illness prevention program for PVUSA and to assign specific responsibilities for the execution of the program. To provide a basic Safety and Health Action Plan (hereinafter referred to as Plan) that assists management, supervision, and project personnel in the recognition, evaluation, and control of hazardous activities and/or conditions within their respective areas of responsibility.

  1. Partially massless higher-spin theory II: one-loop effective actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brust, Christopher; Hinterbichler, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    We continue our study of a generalization of the D-dimensional linearized Vasiliev higher-spin equations to include a tower of partially massless (PM) fields. We compute one-loop effective actions by evaluating zeta functions for both the "minimal" and "non-minimal" parity-even versions of the theory. Specifically, we compute the log-divergent part of the effective action in odd-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D = 7 through 19 (dual to the a-type conformal anomaly of the dual boundary theory), and the finite part of the effective action in even-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D = 4 through 8 (dual to the free energy on a sphere of the dual boundary theory). We pay special attention to the case D = 4, where module mixings occur in the dual field theory and subtlety arises in the one-loop computation. The results provide evidence that the theory is UV complete and one-loop exact, and we conjecture and provide evidence for a map between the inverse Newton's constant of the partially massless higher-spin theory and the number of colors in the dual CFT.

  2. Phase II Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg Ruskuaff

    2010-01-01

    This document, the Phase II Frenchman Flat transport report, presents the results of radionuclide transport simulations that incorporate groundwater radionuclide transport model statistical and structural uncertainty, and lead to forecasts of the contaminant boundary (CB) for a set of representative models from an ensemble of possible models. This work, as described in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) strategy (FFACO, 1996; amended 2010), forms an essential part of the technical basis for subsequent negotiation of the compliance boundary of the Frenchman Flat corrective action unit (CAU) by Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). Underground nuclear testing via deep vertical shafts was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from 1951 until 1992. The Frenchman Flat area, the subject of this report, was used for seven years, with 10 underground nuclear tests being conducted. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NNSA/NSO initiated the UGTA Project to assess and evaluate the effects of underground nuclear tests on groundwater at the NTS and vicinity through the FFACO (1996, amended 2010). The processes that will be used to complete UGTA corrective actions are described in the “Corrective Action Strategy” in the FFACO Appendix VI, Revision No. 2 (February 20, 2008).

  3. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Midco II, IN. (First remedial action), June 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-30

    The MIDCO II site is a seven-acre storage and disposal facility in Gary, Indiana. The surrounding area is predominantly used for industrial purposes, and includes 34 other potential hazardous-waste sites. The underlying aquifer is highly susceptible to contamination from surface sources because of the high water table; however, in the vicinity of the site, the aquifer is used primarily for non-drinking-water purposes. The same operator as at another Superfund site, MIDCO I, began waste operations, including drum storage at MIDCO II during the summer of 1976. Following a major fire at the MIDCO I site in January 1977, MIDCO transferred the operations from the MIDCO I site to the MIDCO II site. Operations included temporarily storing bulk liquid and drum wastes; neutralizing acids and caustics; and disposing of wastes by dumping wastes into onsite pits, which allowed wastes to percolate into the ground water. The resulting PCB-contaminated soil pile was removed and disposed of in an offsite hazardous waste landfill in early 1986, and most of the cyanide-contaminated pile was also removed. Removal activities ended in January 1986. The primary contaminants of concern currently affecting the soil, sediment, and ground water are VOCs including benzene, toluene, TCE, and xylenes; other organics including PCBs; and metals including arsenic, chromium, and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  4. Endocrine actions of pesticides measured in the Flemish environment and health studies (FLEHS I and II).

    PubMed

    Croes, K; Den Hond, E; Bruckers, L; Govarts, E; Schoeters, G; Covaci, A; Loots, I; Morrens, B; Nelen, V; Sioen, I; Van Larebeke, N; Baeyens, W

    2015-10-01

    Within the Flemish Environment and Health studies (FLEHS I, 2002-2006, and FLEHS II, 2007-2012), pesticide exposure, hormone levels and degree of sexual maturation were measured in 14-15-year-old adolescents residing in Flanders (Belgium). In FLEHS II, geometric mean concentrations (with 95 % confidence interval (CI)) of 307 (277-341) and 36.5 ng L(-1) (34.0-39.2) were found for p,p'-dichlorophenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). These values were respectively 26 and 60 % lower than levels in FLEHS I, 5 years earlier. Metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) and of para-dichlorobenzene were measured for the first time in FLEHS II, yielding concentrations of 11.4, 3.27 and 1.57 μg L(-1) for the sum of dimethyl- and diethyl phosphate metabolites and 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), respectively. Data on internal exposure of HCB showed a positive correlation with sexual maturation, testosterone and the aromatase index for boys and with free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (both boys and girls). For both p,p'-DDE and HCB, a negative association with sexual development in girls was found. The OPP metabolites were negatively associated with sex hormone levels in the blood of boys and with sexual maturation (both boys and girls). The pesticide metabolite 2,5-DCP was negatively correlated with free T4, while a positive association with TSH was reported (boys and girls). These results show that even exposure to relatively low concentrations of pesticides can have significant influences on hormone levels and the degree of sexual maturation in 14-15-year-old adolescents.

  5. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  6. Four MPS Schools Taking Corrective Action under No Child Left Behind Act. Research Brief. Volume 92, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Four schools in the Milwaukee Public School (MPS) district now have appeared on the state's list of schools needing improvement for four years in a row. After four years on the list, schools are required under federal law to take corrective action, which could include restructuring the internal organization of the school, replacing staff,…

  7. Building Communities of Support around a Child with Special Education Needs: The Effects of Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Over a period of a year, formal and informal interactions among members of the community around a four-year-old girl with special education needs were focused through participatory action research (PAR). The team included parents, kindergarten teachers, an education support worker, speech-language therapist, early intervention teacher and…

  8. Cities in the developing world: agenda for action following Habitat II.

    PubMed

    Annez, P; Friendly, A

    1996-12-01

    This article discusses the issue of priorities in development in urban centers of developing countries. Urbanization is advancing rapidly in the developing world. There are needs for adequate infrastructure, environmental protection, and fiscal reform. Development can result in a reduction in poverty, if properly conducted. By the turn of the century, 8 of the world's 10 megacities will be located in developing countries. There are already the megacities of Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Bombay, Calcutta, and Shanghai. By 2015 there will be 27 megacities, and urban population in developing countries will amount to over 4 billion. By 2020, 50% of total population in developing countries and 80% of total population in Latin America will be urban, of which 25% will live in poverty. Economic progress is at risk if cities cannot develop effective roads and transportation systems, public transportation, communications, sanitation services, and adequate shelters. The City Summit was held in June 1996 in Istanbul. The World Bank announced priorities for funding of urban health initiatives for reducing lead and particulate emissions, for providing sanitation and clean water to slum areas, and for securing sustainable, business-like city finances. The World Bank, the City Summit's Global Plan of Action, and Parliamentarians for Global Action support the reduction of lead emissions from gasoline and air. Cost-effective approaches include refitting public transportation vehicles with cleaner-burning engines or engines relying on natural gas, reducing emissions from industrial and power plants, and shifting domestic fuel sources from coal to natural gas. The World Bank in Slovenia and Beijing is financially supporting this household conversion. Reductions in soot and dust levels reduce public health costs, lost work time due to illness, and mortality. The cost to the poor for basic services is too high. Decentralization, community involvement, and cost sharing are viable options.

  9. The quantitation of buffering action II. Applications of the formal & general approach

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Bernhard M

    2005-01-01

    Background The paradigm of "buffering" originated in acid-base physiology, but was subsequently extended to other fields and is now used for a wide and diverse set of phenomena. In the preceding article, we have presented a formal and general approach to the quantitation of buffering action. Here, we use that buffering concept for a systematic treatment of selected classical and other buffering phenomena. Results H+ buffering by weak acids and "self-buffering" in pure water represent "conservative buffered systems" whose analysis reveals buffering properties that contrast in important aspects from classical textbook descriptions. The buffering of organ perfusion in the face of variable perfusion pressure (also termed "autoregulation") can be treated in terms of "non-conservative buffered systems", the general form of the concept. For the analysis of cytoplasmic Ca++ concentration transients (also termed "muffling"), we develop a related unit that is able to faithfully reflect the time-dependent quantitative aspect of buffering during the pre-steady state period. Steady-state buffering is shown to represent the limiting case of time-dependent muffling, namely for infinitely long time intervals and infinitely small perturbations. Finally, our buffering concept provides a stringent definition of "buffering" on the level of systems and control theory, resulting in four absolute ratio scales for control performance that are suited to measure disturbance rejection and setpoint tracking, and both their static and dynamic aspects. Conclusion Our concept of buffering provides a powerful mathematical tool for the quantitation of buffering action in all its appearances. PMID:15771784

  10. [Hypoglycemic action of different doses of nopal (Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Frati-Munari, A C; Del Valle-Martínez, L M; Ariza-Andraca, C R; Islas-Andrade, S; Chávez-Negrete, A

    1989-01-01

    To assess the relationship between the doses of O. streptacantha Lem. and its acute hypoglycemic action in diabetics, eight patients with type II diabetes mellitus were studied. Four test were performed to each patient with the intake of: (a) 400 ml of water, (b) 100 g (c) 300 g and (d) 500 g of broiled stems of O. streptacantha Lem. Serum glucose was measured at 0, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. Maximal decrease of serum glucose was noticed at 180 minutes, with a mean of 2.3, 10, 30.1 and 46.7 mg/dl less than basal value with 0, 100, 300 and 500 g respectively (P = NS, less than 0.05, less than 0.001 and less than 0.001 respectively). A significant direct correlation (r = 0.690, P less than 0.001) was noticed between the doses and the hypoglycemic effect.

  11. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone II (GnRH II) mediates the anorexigenic actions of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ki Sung; Shimizu, Kanako; Azuma, Morio; Ui, Yuhta; Nakamura, Kouta; Uchiyama, Minoru; Matsuda, Kouhei

    2011-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone II (GnRH II), which plays a crucial role in the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates, markedly reduces food intake in goldfish. However, the neurochemical pathways involved in the anorexigenic action of GnRH II and its interaction with other neuropeptides have not yet been identified. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and CRH-related peptides play a major role in feeding control as potent anorexigenic neuropeptides in goldfish. However, our previous study has indicated that the GnRH II-induced anorexigenic action is not blocked by treatment with melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and CRH receptor antagonists. Therefore, in the present study, we further examined whether the anorexigenic effects of α-MSH and CRH in goldfish could be mediated through the GnRH receptor neuronal pathway. ICV injection of the MC4R agonist, melanotan II (80 pmol/g body weight; BW), significantly reduced food intake, and its anorexigenic effect was suppressed by ICV pre-administration of the GnRH type I receptor antagonist, antide (100 pmol/gBW). The CRH-induced (50 pmol/gBW) anorexigenic action was also blocked by treatment with antide. ICV injection of CRH (50 pmol/gBW) induced a significant increase of the GnRH II mRNA level in the hypothalamus, while ICV injection of melanotan II (80 pmol/gBW) had no effect on the level of GnRH II mRNA. These results indicate that, in goldfish, the anorexigenic actions of α-MSH and CRH are mediated through the GnRH type I receptor-signaling pathway, and that the GnRH II system regulates feeding behavior.

  12. Decreased insulin sensitivity during dietary sodium restriction is not mediated by effects of angiotensin II on insulin action.

    PubMed

    Perry, Colin G; Palmer, Tim; Cleland, Steven J; Morton, Ian J; Salt, Ian P; Petrie, John R; Gould, Gwyn W; Connell, John M C

    2003-08-01

    We have previously reported that modest dietary sodium restriction, as advocated in management guidelines for diabetes, may reduce insulin sensitivity. It has since been suggested that this effect may be mediated via cross-talk between insulin and angiotensin II (AII)-stimulated intracellular second messengers. In order to assess the effect of 5 days of modest sodium restriction (to <80 mmol/day target sodium intake) on insulin sensitivity, 15 healthy males underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp study. One phase was supplemented with sodium tablets and the other with matched placebo. Insulin sensitivity (M) was reduced during dietary sodium restriction [median M value, 10.2 mg/kg per min (interquartile range 9.50-13.85) versus 12.8 mg/kg per min (interquartile range 9.60-14.30), P <0.05]. To elucidate potential mechanisms that may explain this observation, we investigated the effect of AII on insulin action in isolated adipocytes obtained from healthy females. No effect of AII on insulin-mediated glucose transport or suppression of lipolysis was observed. In conclusion, despite the observation that dietary sodium restriction was associated with a median 15% reduction in insulin sensitivity, we found no evidence of a direct effect of AII on insulin action in human adipocytes.

  13. Action of AT1 receptor antagonists on angiotensin II-induced tone in human isolated subcutaneous resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Garcha, R S; Sever, P S; Hughes, A D

    1999-08-01

    1. Human isolated subcutaneous arteries were studied under isometric conditions in a myograph. 2. Addition of angiotensin II (AII) induced a concentration-dependent increase in tone in isolated arteries. The active metabolite of candesartan (CV 11974), losartan and the active metabolite of losartan, E-3174 antagonized AII-induced tone in a non-competitive manner, but the AT2 selective antagonist, PD123319, was without effect on responses to AII. The effects of candesartan, losartan and E-3174 were analysed using a classical model of non-competitive antagonism and a two-state receptor model. 3. Mechanical removal of the endothelium; pre-incubation with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME); pre-incubation with indomethacin, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor; or pre-incubation with BQ 485, an endothelin antagonist; had no significant effect on contractions induced by AII. 4. Our results suggest AII contracts human isolated resistance arteries by an action on AT1 receptors and does not involve release of endothelial factors. Use of a two-state receptor model successfully described the action of the AT1 antagonists without sacrificing assumptions regarding the competitive nature of binding of these antagonists.

  14. Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

  15. Theory including future not excluded: Formulation of complex action theory II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Keiichi; Nielsen, Holger Bech

    2013-02-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time TB and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition, we show that the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large TB - t and large t - TA corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - TA. Hence, the CAT with future explicitly present in the formalism and influencing in principle the past is not excluded phenomenologically, because the effects are argued to be very small in the present era. Furthermore, we explicitly derive the Hamiltonian for the future state via a path integral, and confirm that it is given by the Hermitian conjugate of the Hamiltonian for the past state.

  16. Analogue of Melanotan II (MTII): A Novel Melanotropin with Superpotent Action on Frog Skin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liqian; Yu, Zhiqiang; Meng, Dan; Zheng, Fang; Ong, Yong S; Miao, Peng; Lee, Su S; Wen, Longping

    2015-01-01

    An α-MSH peptide analogue, named MTII (Ac-Nle-c[Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Lys]- NH2), is one of the most important ligands of melanotropic receptors but are relatively nonselective. In order to improve the melanotropic activities of the well-characterized MTII analogues, we report here a new analogue by modifying the core structure as well as the size of the cyclic region of MTII peptide. The analogue peptide, Ac-Nle-c[Asp-His-D-Phe-Lys-Trp-Gly-Lys]-OH (F Peptide), in which we replaced Arg at position 8 with Lys and added a Gly to position 10 of the MTII peptide sequence, was synthesized and used as a new melanotropic hormone in controlling rapid color changes in frogs by its actions on mobilizing pigment granule movements within chromatophores. The in vivo responses of chromatophores to MTII and the related analogue F Peptide were studied in frogs. The results show that the F Peptide was a superpotent agonist with similar melanotropic activity to the MTII peptide according to MTII peptide by in vivo studies. The analogue also exhibited ultraprolonged melanotropic activity. The F peptide can be useful in the study of numerous physiological processes, particularly when superpotent and prolonged melanotropic activity is desired.

  17. 1999 Annual Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Correction - Action Report (Volumes I, II, and III)

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    2000-06-14

    This Corrective Action Report (CAR) for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is being prepared to comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit Number SC1 890 008 989, dated October 31, 1999. This CAR compiles and presents all groundwater sampling and monitoring activities that are conducted at the MWMF. As set forth in previous agreements with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), all groundwater associated with the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) (comprised of the MWMF, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, and Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground) will be addressed under this RCRA Permit. This CAR is the first to be written for the MWMF and presents monitoring activities and results as an outcome of Interim Status and limited Permitted Status activities. All 1999 groundwater monitoring activities were conducted while the MWMF was operated during Interim Status. Changes to the groundwater monitoring program were made upon receipt of the RCRA Permit, where feasible. During 1999, 152 single-screened and six multi-screened groundwater monitoring wells at the BGC monitored groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer as required by the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR), settlement agreements 87-52-SW and 91-51-SW, and RCRA Permit SC1 890 008 989. However, overall compliance with the recently issued RCRA Permit could not be implemented until the year 2000 due to the effective date of the RCRA Permit and scheduling of groundwater monitoring activities. Changes have been made to the groundwater monitoring network to meet Permit requirements for all 2000 sampling events.

  18. From thought to action: young parents' reasons for participation in parenting support groups at child welfare centers.

    PubMed

    Hjelte, Jan; Sjöberg, Magdalena; Westerberg, Kristina; Hyvönen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    In this article the focus is on young parents' engagement process in relation to participation in parenting support groups carried out at child welfare centers. This qualitative study focuses not only on young parents' reasons for participating or not participating in parenting support groups during different phases in their engagement process, but also on examining the circumstances that may contribute to such changes. The results show that these reasons can be divided into four categories: the staff, other participants, the social network, and practical circumstances. It also appears that these reasons change between different phases of their engagement process. Primarily three different circumstances contributed to variation in parents' reasons: difficulty in predicting the value of participation, increased closeness in relationships with staff and other parents, and the specific life phase in which young parents find themselves. The results have important implications for policy makers and practitioners in their work in formulating and updating parenting support; they also indicate what may be important to focus on in the recruitment of young parents, and also what may be crucial in regard to them completing their engagement in parent support groups.

  19. Effect of des-aspartate-angiotensin I on the actions of angiotensin II in the isolated renal and mesenteric vasculature of hypertensive and STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Dharmani, M; Mustafa, M R; Achike, F I; Sim, M K

    2005-07-15

    The present study investigated the action of des-aspartate-angiotensin I (DAA-I) on the pressor action of angiotensin II in the renal and mesenteric vasculature of WKY, SHR and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Angiotensin II-induced a dose-dependent pressor response in the renal vasculature. Compared to the WKY, the pressor response was enhanced in the SHR and reduced in the STZ-induced diabetic rat. DAA-I attenuated the angiotensin II pressor action in renal vasculature of WKY and SHR. The attenuation was observed for DAA-I concentration as low as 10(-18) M and was more prominent in SHR. However, the ability of DAA-I to reduce angiotensin II response was lost in the STZ-induced diabetic kidney. Instead, enhancement of angiotensin II pressor response was seen at the lower doses of the octapeptide. The effect of DAA-I was not inhibited by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist, and indomethacin, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor in both WKY and SHR, indicating that its action was not mediated by angiotensin AT2 receptor and prostaglandins. The pressor responses to angiotensin II in mesenteric vascular bed were also dose-dependent but smaller in magnitude compared to the renal vasculature. The responses were significantly smaller in SHR but no significant difference was observed between STZ-induced diabetic and WKY rat. Similarly, PD123319 and indomethacin had no effect on the action of DAA-I. The findings reiterate a regulatory role for DAA-I in vascular bed of the kidney and mesentery. By being active at circulating level, DAA-I subserves a physiological role. This function appears to be present in animals with diseased state of hypertension and diabetes. It is likely that DAA-I functions are modified to accommodate the ongoing vascular remodeling.

  20. Lasing action and extraordinary reduction in long radiative lifetime of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots using circular photonic crystal nanocavity

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Kung-Shu; Chang, Shu-Wei; Hung, Wei-Chun; Chang, Chih-Chi; Lin, Wei-Hsun; Lin, Shih-Yen; Shih, Min-Hsiung; Lee, Po-Tsung; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2015-08-31

    We demonstrated the lasing action and remarkable reduction in long radiative lifetimes of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots using a circular photonic-crystal nano-cavity with high Purcell factors. The associated enhancement in carrier recombination was surprisingly high and could even surpass type-I counterparts in similar conditions. These phenomena reveal that the type-II sample exhibited extremely low nonradiative recombination so that weak radiative transitions were more dominant than expected. The results indicate that type-II nanostructures may be advantageous for applications which require controllable radiative transitions but low nonradiative depletions.

  1. Attributions and Behaviours of Parents Abused as Children: A Mediational Analysis of the Intergenerational Continuity of Child Maltreatment (Part II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Louise; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; Browne, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study extends previous research (Dixon, Browne, & Hamilton-Giachritsis, 2004) by exploring the mediational properties of parenting styles and their relation to risk factors in the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment. Families with newborns where at least one of the parents was physically and/or sexually abused as a child…

  2. International Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology II: Integration and Applications of Dimensional Findings from 44 Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Begovac, Ivan; Chahed, Myriam; Drugli, May Britt; Emerich, Deisy Ribas; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Haider, Mariam; Hansson, Kjell; Hewitt, Nohelia; Jaimes, Stefanny; Larsson, Bo; Maggiolini, Alfio; Markovic, Jasminka; Mitrovic, Dragan; Moreira, Paulo; Oliveira, Joao Tiago; Olsson, Martin; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Petot, Djaouida; Pisa, Cecilia; Pomalima, Rolando; da Rocha; Marina Monzani; Rudan, Vlasta; Sekulic, Slobodan; Shahini, Mimoza; de Mattos Silvares, Edwiges Ferreira; Szirovicza, Lajos; Valverde, Jose; Vera, Luis Anderssen; Villa, Maria Clara; Viola, Laura; Woo, Bernadine S. C.; Zhang, Eugene Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To build on Achenbach, Rescorla, and Ivanova (2012) by (a) reporting new international findings for parent, teacher, and self-ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report, and Teacher's Report Form; (b) testing the fit of syndrome models to new data from 17 societies, including previously underrepresented regions; (c)…

  3. Understanding Pregnancy: Unit 7. Parent Education Workbook for Mainstreamed Students. Part II: Child Care. Contemporary Parenting Choices. Module 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Home Economics Education.

    The 2-part student workbook for mainstreamed learning and mentally disabled high school students contains 12 units intended to provide supplementary instruction in the Contemporary Parenting Choices Curriculum in the home economics class. This unit, the first in the Child Care part of the workbook, focuses on understanding pregnancy and includes…

  4. The medial preoptic nucleus as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic actions of melanotan II in male rats.

    PubMed

    Monge-Roffarello, Boris; Labbe, Sebastien M; Lenglos, Christophe; Caron, Alexandre; Lanfray, Damien; Samson, Pierre; Richard, Denis

    2014-07-15

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic effects of the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analog melanotan II (MTII). We also assessed the involvement of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) by investigating the effects of the MPO infusion of MTII in rats with DMH lesions produced by kainic acid. Infusion of MTII in the MPO led to increases in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) temperature and iBAT uptake of 14C-bromopalmitate. Both increases were blocked by DMH lesions. iBAT temperature increase (area under curve) and 14C-bromopalmitate uptake emerged as two correlated variables (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). DMH lesions also blocked MTII-induced expression of mRNAs coding for proteins involved in 1) thermogenesis [type II iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (Pgc1α)], 2) lipolysis [hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl)], and 3) lipogenesis [diacylglycerol-O-acyltransferase 2 (Dgat2), fatty acid synthase (Fas)], in iBAT of rats killed 1 h after MPO infusion of MTII. MTII also stimulated expression of genes in iWAT but only in rats with DMH lesions. These genes included glucose transporter member 4 (Glut4), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3 (Gpat3), Dgat1, Dgat2, triglyceride lipase (Atgl), Hsl, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1β (Cpt1β). Altogether, the present results reveal the MPO as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic actions of MTII. They also contribute to establish the MPO-DMH duet as a significant target for melanocortins to modulate energy homeostasis.

  5. The Predicted Proteomic Network Associated with the Antiarthritic Action of Qingfu Guanjieshu in Collagen-II-Induced Arthritis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting Yu; Zhou, Hua; Wong, Yuen Fan; Wu, Pui Kei; Hsiao, Wen-Luan Wendy; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han; Liu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Qingfu Guanjieshu (QFGJS) is an herbal preparation for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Previous studies revealed that QFGJS significantly inhibited experimental arthritis and acute inflammation, accompanied by reduction of proinflammatory cytokines and elevation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. This study aims to identify the targeted proteins and predict the proteomic network associated with the drug action of QFGJS by using 2D gel and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS techniques. Thirty female Wistar rats were evenly grouped as normal and vehicle- and QFGJS-treated CIA rats. The antiarthritic effect of QFGJS was examined with a 19-day treatment course, and the knee synovial tissues of animals from each group were obtained for 2D gel and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS analysis. Results showed that QFGJS significantly ameliorated collagen II-induced arthritis when administrated at 2.8 g/kg body weight for 19 days. 2D gel image analysis revealed 89 differentially expressed proteins in the synovial tissues among the normal and vehicle- and QFGJS-treated CIA rats from over 1000 proteins of which 63 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS analysis, and 32 proteins were included for classification of functions using Gene Ontology (GO) method. Finally, 14 proteins were analyzed using bioinformatics, and a predicted proteomic network related to the anti-arthritic effect of QFGJS was established, and Pgk1 plays a central role. PMID:23781264

  6. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shanklin

    2006-06-01

    This Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for defining the remedial design requirements, preparing the design documentation, and defining the remedial actions for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the design developed to support the remediation and disposal activities selected in the Final Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision.

  7. GREAT II Fleeting Survey for the Commercial Transportation Work Group of the Great River Environmental Action Team (GREAT II) Rock Island District Corps of Engineers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    34State" means a State of the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa . and the D)istrict of Columbia. (11...II-S OF I. .’.;!. (See Cummings v. Chicago, 188 U. S., 410.) PERMIT -: Rock Island District U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers. Rock Island, Illinois

  8. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    MedlinePlus

    ... so that you (as well as your child's teachers, relatives, and caregivers) can respond as needed, even in stressful situations. previous continue Putting the Plan to Good Use Your child's action plan will be most ...

  9. Phase II Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Wurtz

    2009-07-01

    This Phase II CAIP describes new work needed to potentially reduce uncertainty and achieve increased confidence in modeling results. This work includes data collection and data analysis to refine model assumptions, improve conceptual models of flow and transport in a complex hydrogeologic setting, and reduce parametric and structural uncertainty. The work was prioritized based on the potential to reduce model uncertainty and achieve an acceptable level of confidence in the model predictions for flow and transport, leading to model acceptance by NDEP and completion of the Phase II CAI stage of the UGTA strategy.

  10. Differential Relationships between WISC-IV and WIAT-II Scales: An Evaluation of Potentially Moderating Child Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konold, Timothy R.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable debate exists regarding the accuracy of intelligence tests with members of different groups. This study investigated differential predictive validity of the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition". Participants from the WISC-IV--WIAT-II standardization linking sample (N = 550) ranged in age from 6 through…

  11. The Literacy Early Action Project (LEAP): Exploring Factors Underpinning Progress with Literacy for a Child in His First Year of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiler, Anthony; Logan, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    In this article, Anthony Feiler, senior lecturer in the Graduate School of Education at the University of Bristol, and Elaine Logan, lecturer in early years education at the City of Bristol College, present a case study of a child who made strong progress with literacy during his first year at school. The child and his family participated in the…

  12. Reproductive traits following a parent-child separation trauma during childhood: a natural experiment during World War II.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Forsén, Tom; Eriksson, Johan G

    2008-01-01

    Given the ethical limitations of exposing children to experimentally manipulated adverse experiences, evidence of the effects of childhood traumas on subsequent life history are based mostly on women's retrospective reports and animal studies. Only a few prospective studies have assessed the life-long consequences of childhood trauma. We asked whether a traumatic separation from both parents during childhood is associated with reproductive and marital traits later in life, measured by age of onset of menarche, timing of menopause, period of fertile years, age at first childbirth, birth spacing, number of children, and history of divorce. We studied members of the 1934-1944 Helsinki Birth Cohort, including 396 former war evacuees from varying socioeconomic backgrounds, who were sent unaccompanied by their parents to temporary foster families in Sweden and Denmark, and 503 participants who had no separation experiences. Data on separation experiences, number of children, and divorces experienced came from national registers, and the remaining data from a survey among the participants aged 61.6 years (SD = 2.9). Former evacuees had earlier menarche, earlier first childbirth (men), more children by late adulthood (women), and shorter interbirth intervals (men), than the non-separated. A traumatic experience in childhood is associated with significant alterations in reproductive and marital traits, which characterize both women and men. The implications are relevant to the 9.2 million child refugees living throughout the world today.

  13. A negative charge in transmembrane segment 1 of domain II of the cockroach sodium channel is critical for channel gating and action of pyrethroid insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Du Yuzhe; Song Weizhong; Groome, James R.; Nomura, Yoshiko; Luo Ningguang; Dong Ke

    2010-08-15

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary target of pyrethroids, an important class of synthetic insecticides. Pyrethroids bind to a distinct receptor site on sodium channels and prolong the open state by inhibiting channel deactivation and inactivation. Recent studies have begun to reveal sodium channel residues important for pyrethroid binding. However, how pyrethroid binding leads to inhibition of sodium channel deactivation and inactivation remains elusive. In this study, we show that a negatively charged aspartic acid residue at position 802 (D802) located in the extracellular end of transmembrane segment 1 of domain II (IIS1) is critical for both the action of pyrethroids and the voltage dependence of channel activation. Charge-reversing or -neutralizing substitutions (K, G, or A) of D802 shifted the voltage dependence of activation in the depolarizing direction and reduced channel sensitivity to deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide. The charge-reversing mutation D802K also accelerated open-state deactivation, which may have counteracted the inhibition of sodium channel deactivation by deltamethrin. In contrast, the D802G substitution slowed open-state deactivation, suggesting an additional mechanism for neutralizing the action of deltamethrin. Importantly, Schild analysis showed that D802 is not involved in pyrethroid binding. Thus, we have identified a sodium channel residue that is critical for regulating the action of pyrethroids on the sodium channel without affecting the receptor site of pyrethroids.

  14. Complementary actions.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person's movements, (ii) to predict another person's future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one's own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception-action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  15. Complementary actions

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person’s movements, (ii) to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions. PMID:25983717

  16. What Have We Learned about Preventing Child Abuse? An Overview of the "Community and Minority Group Action to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect" Program. Prevention Focus Working Paper No. 009.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ellen

    Results from the evaluation of 11 demonstration programs designed to prevent child abuse are summarized in this working paper. The programs were of three types: perinatal programs; community-wide education, information, and referral projects; and culturally relevant parent education efforts. The four perinatal programs focused on extended…

  17. Unmasking the Action of Phosphinous Acid Ligands in Nitrile Hydration Reactions Catalyzed by Arene-Ruthenium(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Tomás-Mendivil, Eder; Cadierno, Victorio; Menéndez, María I; López, Ramón

    2015-11-16

    The catalytic hydration of benzonitrile and acetonitrile has been studied by employing different arene-ruthenium(II) complexes with phosphinous (PR2OH) and phosphorous acid (P(OR)2OH) ligands as catalysts. Marked differences in activity were found, depending on the nature of both the P-donor and η(6)-coordinated arene ligand. Faster transformations were always observed with the phosphinous acids. DFT computations unveiled the intriguing mechanism of acetonitrile hydration catalyzed by these arene-ruthenium(II) complexes. The process starts with attack on the nitrile carbon atom of the hydroxyl group of the P-donor ligand instead of on a solvent water molecule, as previously suggested. The experimental results presented herein for acetonitrile and benzonitrile hydration catalyzed by different arene-ruthenium(II) complexes could be rationalized in terms of such a mechanism.

  18. Navy Child Care, 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    34 1. Reenlistment or Retention Intentions and Career Satisfaction --------------------------- 34 2. Number ( Present ...about how best to support those families arise. One family support system is the base child-care center. Does the Navy’s present child-care system...problems and experiences of Navy active-duty women. The results of this survey are presented in Chapter II. The second survey was of primary Navy

  19. Actions Speak Louder Than Words: The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child and U.S. Pediatric Bioethicists.

    PubMed

    Lang, Kellie R; Lew, Cheryl D

    2016-01-01

    In exploring the relationship between "child rights" and "pediatric bioethics" and how these disciplines might provide mutual support in advancing the health and wellness of children around the world, our article responds to the questions of whether the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) could be of any benefit in the United States, the only country that has not yet ratified this international treaty, and whether the CRC has any value for addressing clinical pediatric bioethics' questions. We describe the considerable influence that the United States had in developing significant components of the CRC, and we argue that the CRC may be useful for U.S. pediatric bioethicists as a tool to advance children's health policy. We note that ratification of the CRC does not equate with compliance or success. Lastly, we identify a distinction between the use of the term "best interests" by child rights advocates and its use by clinical pediatric bioethicists.

  20. Anticancer Activity and Modes of Action of (arene) ruthenium(II) Complexes Coordinated to C-, N-, and O-ligands.

    PubMed

    Biersack, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    An overview of anticancer active (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes coordinated to period 2 element-based ligand systems, i.e., carbon-, nitrogen-, and oxygen-coordinated ligands, is provided in this mini-review. A bridge is forged from the large group of anticancer active ruthenium compounds with monodentate and chelating nitrogen ligands via complexes of O,O-chelating ligands to organometallic ruthenium derivatives coordinated to carbon. (Arene)ruthenium(II) complexes with reduced side-effects and enhanced efficacy against cancer are highlighted. Pertinent literature is covered up to 2014.

  1. Child Care Is Good Business: An Agenda for Fort Wayne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Leuven, Patricia O'Brien

    Background information and recommendations related to the support of child care services in Fort Wayne, Indiana is presented in six chapters. Chapter I discusses the feminization of the workforce and demographic data bearing on the need for child care, the child care workforce, and child care arrangements. Chapter II reviews child care services in…

  2. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  3. Integrating the Agents of Bioterrorism into the General Biology Curriculum: II. Mode of Action of the Biological Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommerville, Jeffrey C.

    2003-01-01

    Integrates bioterrorism into the science curriculum and explains actions against serious agents such as anthrax, plague, smallpox, botulinum toxin, and ricin toxin. Uses the learning cycle as the instructional tool which is student-centered and has three phases that include exploring, explaining, and extending. (Contains 24 references.) (YDS)

  4. Mechanism of transport of IFT particles in C. elegans cilia by the concerted action of kinesin-II and OSM-3 motors.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoyu; Ou, Guangshuo; Civelekoglu-Scholey, Gul; Blacque, Oliver E; Endres, Nicholas F; Tao, Li; Mogilner, Alex; Leroux, Michel R; Vale, Ronald D; Scholey, Jonathan M

    2006-09-25

    The assembly and function of cilia on Caenorhabditis elegans neurons depends on the action of two kinesin-2 motors, heterotrimeric kinesin-II and homodimeric OSM-3-kinesin, which cooperate to move the same intraflagellar transport (IFT) particles along microtubule (MT) doublets. Using competitive in vitro MT gliding assays, we show that purified kinesin-II and OSM-3 cooperate to generate movement similar to that seen along the cilium in the absence of any additional regulatory factors. Quantitative modeling suggests that this could reflect an alternating action mechanism, in which the motors take turns to move along MTs, or a mechanical competition, in which the motors function in a concerted fashion to move along MTs with the slow motor exerting drag on the fast motor and vice versa. In vivo transport assays performed in Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) protein and IFT motor mutants favor a mechanical competition model for motor coordination in which the IFT motors exert a BBS protein-dependent tension on IFT particles, which controls the IFT pathway that builds the cilium foundation.

  5. Enjoy and Achieve: Finding Opportunities to Action the "Every Child Matters" Framework to Provide Opportunities for Children and Adults to Work Collaboratively on an Outdoor Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Emma

    2009-01-01

    "Every Child Matters" (ECM), an agenda for agencies working with children, was introduced following the tragic death of Victoria Climbie in 2001. Lord Laming produced a report that proposed a new way of working for all professionals working with children. In June 2003, under a Labour government, the first Children's minister was appointed and the…

  6. Linking Home-Based Child Care and State-Funded Preschool: The Community Connections Preschool Program (Illinois Action for Children). Evaluation Phase 1-Implementation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole; Anderson, Rachel; Zaslow, Martha; Chrisler, Alison; Banghart, Patti; Kreader, J. Lee

    2011-01-01

    The Community Connections preschool program (herein referred to as Community Connections) was developed to help prepare children in home-based child care for success in school and in life. It has three goals: (1) to make state prekindergarten classroom experiences available to children in home-based care, (2) to extend classroom learning…

  7. The Foundations of Communication: A Theoretical Approach to Imitation, Intermodality and Suggestion in the Child's Early Communicative Actions. Research Bulletin, Vol. XII:III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmlund, Carin

    A newborn child can identify impressions by means of the sense organs with the help of "non-visible" sensory impressions such as tactile and kinesthetic. A communication arises early between different modalities and muscle activities, which make possible an early synchronization, and identity between the infant and its surroundings.…

  8. Transcription factors that influence RNA polymerases I and II: To what extent is mechanism of action conserved?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinfeng; Najmi, Saman M; Schneider, David A

    2017-02-01

    In eukaryotic cells, nuclear RNA synthesis is accomplished by at least three unique, multisubunit RNA polymerases. The roles of these enzymes are generally partitioned into the synthesis of the three major classes of RNA: rRNA, mRNA, and tRNA for RNA polymerases I, II, and III respectively. Consistent with their unique cellular roles, each enzyme has a complement of specialized transcription factors and enzymatic properties. However, not all transcription factors have evolved to affect only one eukaryotic RNA polymerase. In fact, many factors have been shown to influence the activities of multiple nuclear RNA polymerases. This review focuses on a subset of these factors, specifically addressing the mechanisms by which these proteins influence RNA polymerases I and II.

  9. Partner orbits and action differences on compact factors of the hyperbolic plane. II: Higher-order encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Minh Hien

    2016-01-01

    Physicists have argued that periodic orbit bunching leads to universal spectral fluctuations for chaotic quantum systems. To establish a more detailed mathematical understanding of this fact, it is first necessary to look more closely at the classical side of the problem and determine orbit pairs consisting of orbits which have similar actions. We specialize to the geodesic flow on compact factors of the hyperbolic plane as a classical chaotic system. The companion paper (Huynh and Kunze, 2015) proved the existence of a unique periodic partner orbit for a given periodic orbit with a small-angle self-crossing in configuration space that is a 2-encounter and derived an estimate for the action difference of the orbit pair. In this paper, we provide an inductive argument to deal with higher-order encounters: we prove that a given periodic orbit including an L-parallel encounter has (L - 1) ! - 1 partner orbits; we construct partner orbits and give estimates for the action differences between orbit pairs.

  10. Action of angiotensin II, 5-hydroxytryptamine and adenosine triphosphate on ionic currents in single ear artery cells of the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Hughes, A D; Bolton, T B

    1995-10-01

    1. Angiotensin II, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) evoked a transient inward current in isolated single car artery cells of rabbit held at -60 mV by whole cell voltage clamp in physiological saline using a KCL-containing pipette solution. Under these conditions agonist did not activate a calcium-dependent potassium current. 2. Responses to each agonist were transient and desensitized rapidly. Inward current at -60 mV holding potential was not abolished by blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels or by buffering intracellular calcium with BAPTA, a calcium chelator, or following depletion of intracellular calcium stores with ryanodine. 3. The shape of the current-voltage relationships and the reversal potentials of the current induced by angiotensin II, 5-HT and ATP were similar under a variety of ionic conditions. Agonist-induced current was unaffected by replacing intracellular chloride with citrate ions or by replacing intracellular sodium with caesium or extracellular sodium with barium or calcium. Replacement of extracellular sodium with Tris shifted the reversal potential in all cases by around 30 mV negatively. 4. These data suggest that angiotensin II, 5-HT and ATP activate similar cationic conductances which are relatively non-selective allowing mono- and divalent cations to cross the smooth muscle cell membrane. These channels may allow the influx of calcium under physiological conditions.

  11. Cutaneous manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Kos, Liborka; Shwayder, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Dermatologists and child abuse are not frequently associated in the minds of most physicians. Yet the most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous. This article reviews cutaneous manifestations of physical abuse, including bruises, lacerations, abrasions, human bites, and burns. It also discusses ways that dermatologists can differentiate abusive injuries from accidental ones as well as from the many dermatologic conditions that can mimic child abuse. Finally, we review what actions the dermatologist should take when suspecting abuse in a patient.

  12. Nutritional Needs of the Child with a Handicap or Chronic Illness. Manual II: Clinical Nutrition. Presentations from a National Interdisciplinary Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekvall, Shirley M.; Wheby, Elizabeth A.

    The following papers were presented at a symposium on clinical nutrition for the child who is chronically ill or handicapped: (1) "Food Allergy"; (2) "Anemia and the Chronically Ill or Handicapped Child"; (3) "Nutrition and Neurotransmitters--Clinical Implications"; (4) "The Importance of Lipid Type in the Diet after Burn Injury"; (5) "Advances of…

  13. A Pilot Study for Gainful Employment in Home Economics. Final Report. Volume II, A Suggested Curriculum Guide for Preparing Child Care Workers for Entry Level Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozine, June; And Others

    Curriculum guidelines for teacher use in organizing and teaching a course to prepare 11th and 12th grade students for entry level child care occupations were developed as part of a pilot study which is reported in VT 006 870. Major emphasis of the program included orientation to the world of work, types of child care services, duties of the child…

  14. Indicators of Children's Well-Being: Conference Papers. Child Health, Education, and Economic Security. Volume II. Special Report Series. Special Report Number 60b.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Inst. for Research on Poverty.

    This volume groups papers discussing indicators of children's well-being into three areas: child health, education, and economic security. Papers concerning child health include: (1) "Prenatal and Infant Health Indicators" (Paula Lantz and Melissa Partin); (2) "Health Indicators for Preschool Children (Ages 1-4)" (Barbara L.…

  15. Child Abuse Intervention: Prescriptive Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchter, Arnold

    Written from a criminal justice perspective, the report on child abuse intervention provides a model system that emphasizes prompt medical treatment for the child and due process for both parents and children. The authors recommend that court action take the form of a civil proceeding whenever possible. Part I provides a framework for the…

  16. A Moral (Normative) Framework for the Judgment of Actions and Decisions in the Construction Industry and Engineering: Part II.

    PubMed

    Alkhatib, Omar J

    2016-12-02

    The construction industry is typically characterized as a fragmented, multi-organizational setting in which members from different technical backgrounds and moral values join together to develop a particular business or project. The most challenging obstacle in the construction process is to achieve a successful practice and to identify and apply an ethical framework to manage the behavior of involved specialists and contractors and to ensure the quality of all completed construction activities. The framework should reflect a common moral ground for myriad people involved in this process to survive and compete ethically in today's turbulent construction market. This study establishes a framework for moral judgment of behavior and actions conducted in the construction process. The moral framework provides the basis of judging actions as "moral" or "immoral" based on three levels of moral accountability: personal, professional, and social. The social aspect of the proposed framework is developed primarily from the essential attributes of normative business decision-making models identified in the literature review and subsequently incorporates additional attributes related to professional and personal moral values. The normative decision-making models reviewed are based primarily on social attributes as related to moral theories (e.g., utilitarianism, duty, rights, virtue, etc.). The professional and moral attributes are established by identifying a set of common moral values recognized by professionals in the construction industry and required to prevent common construction breaches. The moral framework presented here is the complementary part of the ethical framework developed in Part I of this article and is based primarily on the personal behavior or the moral aspect of professional responsibility. The framework can be implemented as a form of preventive personal ethics, which would help avoid ethical dilemmas and moral implications in the first place

  17. Action spectra of photosystems II and I and quantum yield of photosynthesis in leaves in State 1.

    PubMed

    Laisk, Agu; Oja, Vello; Eichelmann, Hillar; Dall'Osto, Luca

    2014-02-01

    The spectral global quantum yield (YII, electrons/photons absorbed) of photosystem II (PSII) was measured in sunflower leaves in State 1 using monochromatic light. The global quantum yield of PSI (YI) was measured using low-intensity monochromatic light flashes and the associated transmittance change at 810nm. The 810-nm signal change was calibrated based on the number of electrons generated by PSII during the flash (4·O2 evolution) which arrived at the PSI donor side after a delay of 2ms. The intrinsic quantum yield of PSI (yI, electrons per photon absorbed by PSI) was measured at 712nm, where photon absorption by PSII was small. The results were used to resolve the individual spectra of the excitation partitioning coefficients between PSI (aI) and PSII (aII) in leaves. For comparison, pigment-protein complexes for PSII and PSI were isolated, separated by sucrose density ultracentrifugation, and their optical density was measured. A good correlation was obtained for the spectral excitation partitioning coefficients measured by these different methods. The intrinsic yield of PSI was high (yI=0.88), but it absorbed only about 1/3 of quanta; consequently, about 2/3 of quanta were absorbed by PSII, but processed with the low intrinsic yield yII=0.63. In PSII, the quantum yield of charge separation was 0.89 as detected by variable fluorescence Fv/Fm, but 29% of separated charges recombined (Laisk A, Eichelmann H and Oja V, Photosynth. Res. 113, 145-155). At wavelengths less than 580nm about 30% of excitation is absorbed by pigments poorly connected to either photosystem, most likely carotenoids bound in pigment-protein complexes.

  18. Induced mutagenesis of plasmid and chromosomal genes inserted into the plasmid DNA. II. Mutagenic action of chemical factors

    SciTech Connect

    Esipova, V.V.; Vedunova, S.L.; Kriviskii, A.S.

    1986-02-01

    Following the study of the mutagenic action of UV and ..gamma..-radiation on plasmid DNA in vitro, they investigated the induction of mutations under the influence of chemical mutagens on the same DNA of plasmid RSF2124, determining the synthesis of colicine E1 and resistance to ampicillin. The inactivating action of the mutagen was assessed from the yield of transformants resistant to the antibiotic and the mutagenic effect from the loss by colonies of transformants that were capable of releasing colicine into the external medium. In these experiments they mainly used chemical compounds whose mutagenic effect if well known in other systems (transforming and transfecting DNA, microbial viruses). As a result all mutagens tested for their activity were divided into four groups: first group, those exceeding the level of mutagenesis by more than 100-fold above the spontaneous background (hydroxylamine, O-methylhydroxylamine); second group, those exceeding it by a factor of 10 (UV radiation (lambda = 254 nm), W-mutagenesis, ionizing radiation, nitrous acid, mitomycin C); third group, those exceeding it by a factor of <10 (indirect UV mutagenesis, nitrous acid, ..beta..-chloroethyldiethylamine hydrochloride, nitrosoguanidine); fourth group, no mutagenic effect (acridine orange, ethyl methane sulfonate, sodium azide, 0-..beta..-diethylaminoethylhydroxylamine).

  19. Formation of inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate during angiotensin II action in bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Balla, T.; Guillemette, G.; Baukal, A.J.; Catt, K.J.

    1987-10-14

    Angiotensin II stimulates the formation of several inositol polyphosphates in cultured bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells prelabelled with (/sup 3/H) inositol. Analysis by high performance anion exchange chromatography of the inositol-phosphate compounds revealed the existence of two additional inositol tetrakisphosphate (InsP4) isomers in proximity to Ins-1,3,4,5-P4, the known phosphorylation product of Ins-1,4,5-trisphosphate and precursor of Ins-1,3,4-trisphosphate. Both of these new compounds showed a slow increase after stimulation with angiotensin II. The structure of one of these new InsP4 isomers, which is a phosphorylation product of Ins-1,3,4-P3, was deduced by its resistance to periodate oxidation to be Ins-1,3,4,6-P4. The existence of multiple cycles of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reactions for the processing of Ins-1,4,5-P4 may represent a new aspect of the inositol-lipid related signalling mechanism in agonist-activated target cells.

  20. Action potential propagation through embryonic dorsal root ganglion cells in culture. II. Decrease of conduction reliability during repetitive stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lüscher, C; Streit, J; Lipp, P; Lüscher, H R

    1994-08-01

    1. The reliability of the propagation of action potentials (AP) through dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells in embryonic slice cultures was investigated during repetitive stimulation at 1-20 Hz. Membrane potentials of DRG cells were recorded intracellularly while the axons were stimulated by an extracellular electrode. 2. In analogy to the double-pulse experiments reported previously, either one or two types of propagation failures were recorded during repetitive stimulation, depending on the cell morphology. In contrast to the double-pulse experiments, the failures appeared at longer interpulse intervals and usually only after several tens of stimuli with reliable propagation. 3. In the period with reliable propagation before the failures, a decrease in the conduction velocity and in the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP), an increase in the total membrane conductance, and the disappearance of the action potential "shoulder" were observed. 4. The reliability of conduction during repetitive stimulation was improved by lowering the extracellular calcium concentration or by replacing the extracellular calcium by strontium. The reliability of conduction decreased by the application of cadmium, a calcium channel blocker, 4-amino pyridine, a fast potassium channel blocker, or apamin or muscarine, the blockers of calcium-dependent potassium channels. The reliability of conduction was not effected by blocking the sodium potassium pump with ouabain or by replacing extracellular sodium with lithium. 5. In the period with reliable propagation cadmium, apamin, and muscarine reduced the amplitude of the AHP. The shoulder of the action potential was more pronounced and not sensitive to repetitive stimulation when extracellular calcium was replaced by strontium. It disappeared when cadmium was applied. 6. In DRG somata changes of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration were monitored by measuring the fluorescence of the Ca2+ indicator Fluo-3 with a laser-scanning confocal

  1. Teacher-Child Relationships as Dynamic Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Erin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine factors associated with the quality of the teacher-child relationship from first through fifth grade using data from phases I, II and III of the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a prospective study of 1364 children from birth…

  2. Benzodiazepine agonist and inverse agonist actions on GABAA receptor-operated chloride channels. II. Chronic effects of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, K.J.; Harris, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Mice were made tolerant to and dependent on ethanol by administration of a liquid diet. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-dependent uptake of 36Cl- by mouse cortical microsacs was used to study the actions of benzodiazepine (BZ) agonists and inverse agonists. Chronic exposure to ethanol attenuated the ability of a BZ agonist, flunitrazepam, to augment muscimol-stimulated uptake of 36Cl- and enhanced the actions of BZ inverse agonists, Ro15-4513 (ethyl-8-azido-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo(1,4)-benzodiazepine - 3-carboxylate) and DMCM (methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate), to inhibit GABAA receptor-operated chloride channels. Augmentation of chloride flux by pentobarbital was not reduced by chronic ethanol exposure. Attenuation of flunitrazepam efficacy was transient and returned to control levels within 6 to 24 hr after withdrawal from ethanol, but increased sensitivity to Ro15-4513 was observed as long as 8 days after withdrawal. Chronic exposure to ethanol did not alter (3H)SR 95531 (2-(3'-carbethoxy-2'propyl)-3-amino-6-p-methoxyphenylpyridazinium bromide) binding to low-affinity GABAA receptors or muscimol stimulation of chloride flux; and did not alter (3H)Ro15-4513 or (3H)flunitrazepam binding to central BZ receptors or allosteric modulation of this binding by muscimol (i.e., muscimol-shift). These results suggest that chronic exposure to ethanol reduces coupling between BZ agonist sites and the chloride channel, and may be responsible for the development of cross-tolerance between ethanol and BZ agonists. In contrast, coupling between BZ inverse agonist sites and the chloride channel is increased.

  3. Intracellular distribution and mechanisms of actions of photosensitizer Zinc(II)-phthalocyanine solubilized in Cremophor EL against human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jingwei; Dai, Yongchao; Zhao, Wenna; Xie, Jingjing; Xue, Jinping; Ye, Jianhui; Jia, Lee

    2013-03-01

    Zinc(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) is a metal photosensitizer. In the present study, we formulated the poorly-soluble ZnPc in Cremophor EL solution to enhance its solubility and determined its intracellular distribution and mechanisms of action on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. ZnPc uptake by the cells reached a plateau by 8h. ZnPc primarily located in mitochondria, lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum. The concentration-growth inhibition curves of ZnPc on the cell lines were pharmacodynamically enhanced by 10-50 folds by irradiation. Once irradiated, ZnPc produced significant amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, arrested cell cycle mainly at G2/M stage, and decreased membrane potential (ΔΨm) of HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the present study first elucidated cellular and molecular mechanisms of ZnPc on HepG2 cells.

  4. Eplerenone inhibits the intracrine and extracellular actions of angiotensin II on the inward calcium current in the failing heart. On the presence of an intracrine renin angiotensin aldosterone system

    PubMed Central

    De Mello, Walmor C.; Gerena, Yamil

    2009-01-01

    The influence of chronic administration of eplerenone on the intracrine as well as on the extracellular action of angiotensin II (Ang II) on L-type inward calcium current was investigated in the failing heart of cardiomyopathic hamsters (TO-2).For this, eplerenone (200 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to 2 month-old cardiomyopathic hamsters for a period of 3 months. Measurements of the peak inward calcium current (ICa) was performed in single cells under voltage clamp using the whole cell configuration. The results indicated that eplerenone suppressed the intracrine action of Ang II (10−8 M) on peak ICa density. Moreover, the intracellular dialysis of the peptide did not change the time course of ICa inactivation in animals treated chronically with eplerenone. The extracellular administration of Ang II (10−8 M) incremented the peak ICa density by only 20±8% (n=30) compared with 38±4% (n=35) (P<0.05) obtained in age-matched cardiomyopathic hamsters not exposed to eplerenone. Interestingly, the inhibitory of eplerenone (10− 7 M) on the intracrine action of Ang II was also found, in vitro, but required an incubation period of, at least, 24 h. The inhibitory action of eplerenone on the intracellular action of Ang II was partially reversed by exposing the eplerenone-treated cells to aldosterone (10 nM) for a period of 24 h what supports the view that: a) the mineralocorticoid receptor(MR) was involved in the modulation of the intracrine action of the peptide; b) the effect of eplerenone on the intracrine as well as on the extracellular action of Ang II was related ,in part, to a decreased expression of membrane-bound and intracellular AT1 receptors. In conclusion: a) eplerenone inhibits the intracrine action of Ang II on inward calcium current and reduces drastically the effect of extracellular Ang II on ICa; b) aldosterone is able to revert the effect of eplerenone; c) the mineralocorticoid receptor is an essential component of the intracrine renin

  5. Phase II Groundwater Flow Model of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    John McCord

    2006-05-01

    The Phase II Frenchman Flat groundwater flow model is a key element in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) corrective action strategy for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Frenchman Flat corrective action unit (CAU). The objective of this integrated process is to provide an estimate of the vertical and horizontal extent of contaminant migration for each CAU to predict contaminant boundaries. A contaminant boundary is the model-predicted perimeter that defines the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from underground testing above background conditions exceeding the ''Safe Drinking Water Act'' (SDWA) standards. The contaminant boundary will be composed of both a perimeter boundary and a lower hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) boundary. The computer model will predict the location of this boundary within 1,000 years and must do so at a 95 percent level of confidence. Additional results showing contaminant concentrations and the location of the contaminant boundary at selected times will also be presented. These times may include the verification period, the end of the five-year proof-of-concept period, as well as other times that are of specific interest. This report documents the development and implementation of the groundwater flow model for the Frenchman Flat CAU. Specific objectives of the Phase II Frenchman Flat flow model are to: (1) Incorporate pertinent information and lessons learned from the Phase I Frenchman Flat CAU models. (2) Develop a three-dimensional (3-D), mathematical flow model that incorporates the important physical features of the flow system and honors CAU-specific data and information. (3) Simulate the steady-state groundwater flow system to determine the direction and magnitude of groundwater fluxes based on calibration to Frenchman Flat hydrogeologic data. (4) Quantify the uncertainty in the direction and magnitude of groundwater flow due to uncertainty in parameter values and alternative component

  6. The Magnetic Sensitivity of the Mg ii k Line to the Joint Action of Hanle, Zeeman, and Magneto-optical Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsina Ballester, E.; Belluzzi, L.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2016-11-01

    We highlight the main results of a radiative transfer investigation on the magnetic sensitivity of the solar Mg ii k resonance line at 2795.5 Å, accounting for the joint action of the Hanle and Zeeman effects as well as partial frequency redistribution phenomena. We confirm that at the line center, the linear polarization signals produced by scattering processes are measurable, and that they are sensitive, via the Hanle effect, to magnetic fields with strengths between 5 and 50 G, approximately. We also show that the Zeeman effect produces conspicuous circular polarization signals, especially for longitudinal fields stronger than 50 G, which can be used to estimate the magnetization of the solar chromosphere via the familiar magnetograph formula. The most novel result is that magneto-optical effects produce, in the wings of the line, a decrease of the Q/I scattering polarization pattern and the appearance of U/I signals (i.e., a rotation of the plane of linear polarization). This sensitivity of the Q/I and U/I wing signals to both weak (∼5 G) and stronger magnetic fields expands the scientific interest of the Mg ii k line for probing the chromosphere in quiet and active regions of the Sun.

  7. Copper(II)-Bis(Thiosemicarbazonato) Complexes as Antibacterial Agents: Insights into Their Mode of Action and Potential as Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Goytia, Maira M.; Donnelly, Paul S.; Shafer, William M.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of lipophilic copper (Cu)-containing complexes to combat bacterial infections. In this work, we showed that Cu complexes with bis(thiosemicarbazone) ligands [Cu(btsc)] exert antibacterial activity against a range of medically significant pathogens. Previous work using Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed that Cu(btsc) complexes may act as inhibitors of respiratory dehydrogenases in the electron transport chain. We now show that these complexes are also toxic against pathogens that lack a respiratory chain. Respiration in Escherichia coli was slightly affected by Cu(btsc) complexes, but our results indicate that, in this model bacterium, the complexes act primarily as agents that deliver toxic Cu ions efficiently into the cytoplasm. Although the chemistry of Cu(btsc) complexes may dictate their mechanism of action, their efficacy depends heavily on bacterial physiology. This is linked to the ability of the target bacterium to tolerate Cu and, additionally, the susceptibility of the respiratory chain to direct inhibition by Cu(btsc) complexes. The physiology of N. gonorrhoeae, including multidrug-resistant strains, makes it highly susceptible to damage by Cu ions and Cu(btsc) complexes, highlighting the potential of Cu(btsc) complexes (and Cu-based therapeutics) as a promising treatment against this important bacterial pathogen. PMID:26239980

  8. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: II. Multiple pyrokinins exert similar effects in the lobster stomatogastric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Patsy S; Kurland, Sienna C; Qu, Xuan; Parker, Brett O; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A; Williams, Alex H; Ysasi, Alexandra B; Christie, Andrew E

    2015-09-01

    Many neuropeptides are members of peptide families, with multiple structurally similar isoforms frequently found even within a single species. This raises the question of whether the individual peptides serve common or distinct functions. In the accompanying paper, we found high isoform specificity in the responses of the lobster (Homarus americanus) cardiac neuromuscular system to members of the pyrokinin peptide family: only one of five crustacean isoforms showed any bioactivity in the cardiac system. Because previous studies in other species had found little isoform specificity in pyrokinin actions, we examined the effects of the same five crustacean pyrokinins on the lobster stomatogastric nervous system (STNS). In contrast to our findings in the cardiac system, the effects of the five pyrokinin isoforms on the STNS were indistinguishable: they all activated or enhanced the gastric mill motor pattern, but did not alter the pyloric pattern. These results, in combination with those from the cardiac ganglion, suggest that members of a peptide family in the same species can be both isoform specific and highly promiscuous in their modulatory capacity. The mechanisms that underlie these differences in specificity have not yet been elucidated; one possible explanation, which has yet to be tested, is the presence and differential distribution of multiple receptors for members of this peptide family.

  9. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: II. Multiple pyrokinins exert similar effects in the lobster stomatogastric nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Patsy S.; Kurland, Sienna C.; Qu, Xuan; Parker, Brett O.; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A.; Williams, Alex H.; Ysasi, Alexandra B.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many neuropeptides are members of peptide families, with multiple structurally similar isoforms frequently found even within a single species. This raises the question of whether the individual peptides serve common or distinct functions. In the accompanying paper, we found high isoform specificity in the responses of the lobster (Homarus americanus) cardiac neuromuscular system to members of the pyrokinin peptide family: only one of five crustacean isoforms showed any bioactivity in the cardiac system. Because previous studies in other species had found little isoform specificity in pyrokinin actions, we examined the effects of the same five crustacean pyrokinins on the lobster stomatogastric nervous system (STNS). In contrast to our findings in the cardiac system, the effects of the five pyrokinin isoforms on the STNS were indistinguishable: they all activated or enhanced the gastric mill motor pattern, but did not alter the pyloric pattern. These results, in combination with those from the cardiac ganglion, suggest that members of a peptide family in the same species can be both isoform specific and highly promiscuous in their modulatory capacity. The mechanisms that underlie these differences in specificity have not yet been elucidated; one possible explanation, which has yet to be tested, is the presence and differential distribution of multiple receptors for members of this peptide family. PMID:26206359

  10. ESCRT-III activation by parallel action of ESCRT-I/II and ESCRT-0/Bro1 during MVB biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaogeng; Buchkovich, Nicholas J; Henne, W Mike; Banjade, Sudeep; Kim, Yun Jung; Emr, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) pathway facilitates multiple fundamental membrane remodeling events. Previously, we determined X-ray crystal structures of ESCRT-III subunit Snf7, the yeast CHMP4 ortholog, in its active and polymeric state (Tang et al., 2015). However, how ESCRT-III activation is coordinated by the upstream ESCRT components at endosomes remains unclear. Here, we provide a molecular explanation for the functional divergence of structurally similar ESCRT-III subunits. We characterize novel mutations in ESCRT-III Snf7 that trigger activation, and identify a novel role of Bro1, the yeast ALIX ortholog, in Snf7 assembly. We show that upstream ESCRTs regulate Snf7 activation at both its N-terminal core domain and the C-terminus α6 helix through two parallel ubiquitin-dependent pathways: the ESCRT-I-ESCRT-II-Vps20 pathway and the ESCRT-0-Bro1 pathway. We therefore provide an enhanced understanding for the activation of the spatially unique ESCRT-III-mediated membrane remodeling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15507.001 PMID:27074665

  11. ESCRT-III activation by parallel action of ESCRT-I/II and ESCRT-0/Bro1 during MVB biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shaogeng; Buchkovich, Nicholas J; Henne, W Mike; Banjade, Sudeep; Kim, Yun Jung; Emr, Scott D

    2016-04-13

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) pathway facilitates multiple fundamental membrane remodeling events. Previously, we determined X-ray crystal structures of ESCRT-III subunit Snf7, the yeast CHMP4 ortholog, in its active and polymeric state (Tang et al., 2015). However, how ESCRT-III activation is coordinated by the upstream ESCRT components at endosomes remains unclear. Here, we provide a molecular explanation for the functional divergence of structurally similar ESCRT-III subunits. We characterize novel mutations in ESCRT-III Snf7 that trigger activation, and identify a novel role of Bro1, the yeast ALIX ortholog, in Snf7 assembly. We show that upstream ESCRTs regulate Snf7 activation at both its N-terminal core domain and the C-terminus α6 helix through two parallel ubiquitin-dependent pathways: the ESCRT-I-ESCRT-II-Vps20 pathway and the ESCRT-0-Bro1 pathway. We therefore provide an enhanced understanding for the activation of the spatially unique ESCRT-III-mediated membrane remodeling.

  12. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Volume II of the programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) is a comment and response document; it is the collection of the comments received on the draft PElS. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) response to each comment is provided after each comment. If the comment resulted in a change to the PElS, the affected section number of the PElS is provided in the response. Comments 1 through 259 were received at public hearings. The name of the hearing at which the comment was received is listed after each comment. Comments were recorded on flip charts and by notetakers. DOE representatives were present to hear the comments and respond to them. The DOE's written response is provided after each comment. Comments 260 through 576 were received in writing at the hearings, and from various federal, tribal, and state agencies and from individuals during the public comment period. Copies of the written comments follow the comments and responses.

  13. Vestibular perception and action employ qualitatively different mechanisms. II. VOR and perceptual responses during combined Tilt&Translation.

    PubMed

    Merfeld, Daniel M; Park, Sukyung; Gianna-Poulin, Claire; Black, F Owen; Wood, Scott

    2005-07-01

    To compare and contrast the neural mechanisms that contribute to vestibular perception and action, we measured vestibuloocular reflexes (VOR) and perceptions of tilt and translation. We took advantage of the well-known ambiguity that the otolith organs respond to both linear acceleration and tilt with respect to gravity and investigated the mechanisms by which this ambiguity is resolved. A new motion paradigm that combined roll tilt with inter-aural translation ("Tilt&Translation") was used; subjects were sinusoidally (0.8 Hz) roll tilted but with their ears above or below the rotation axis. This paradigm provided sinusoidal roll canal cues that were the same across trials while providing otolith cues that varied linearly with ear position relative to the earth-horizontal rotation axis. We found that perceived tilt and translation depended on canal cues, with substantial roll tilt and inter-aural translation perceptions reported even when the otolith organs measured no inter-aural force. These findings match internal model predictions that rotational cues from the canals influence the neural processing of otolith cues. We also found horizontal translational VORs that varied linearly with radius; a minimal response was measured when the otolith organs transduced little or no inter-aural force. Hence, the horizontal translational VOR was dependent on otolith cues but independent of canal cues. These findings match predictions that translational VORs are elicited by simple filtering of otolith signals. We conclude that internal models govern human perception of tilt and translation at 0.8 Hz and that high-pass filtering governs the human translational VOR at this same frequency.

  14. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children™ study. Multimedia & Tools Videos, podcasts and widgets. Child Development: What's New Article: Differences in health care, family, ... and share it with the child’s doctor. More Child Development Basics Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting ...

  15. Phase II Documentation Overview of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Ruskauff

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject to assess and evaluate radiologic groundwater contamination resulting from underground nuclear testing at the NTS. These activities are overseen by the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended March 2010). For Frenchman Flat, the UGTA Subproject addresses media contaminated by the underground nuclear tests, which is limited to geologic formations within the saturated zone or 100 meters (m) or less above the water table. Transport in groundwater is judged to be the primary mechanism of migration for the subsurface contamination away from the Frenchman Flat underground nuclear tests. The intent of the UGTA Subproject is to assess the risk to the public from the groundwater contamination produced as a result of nuclear testing. The primary method used to assess this risk is the development of models of flow and contaminant transport to forecast the extent of potentially contaminated groundwater for the next 1,000 years, establish restrictions to groundwater usage, and implement a monitoring program to verify protectiveness. For the UGTA Subproject, contaminated groundwater is that which exceeds the radiological standards of the Safe Drinking Water Act (CFR, 2009) the State of Nevada’s groundwater quality standard to protect human health and the environment. Contaminant forecasts are expected to be uncertain, and groundwater monitoring will be used in combination with land-use control to build confidence in model results and reduce risk to the public. Modeling forecasts of contaminant transport will provide the basis for negotiating a compliance boundary for the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). This compliance boundary represents a regulatory-based distinction between groundwater contaminated or not contaminated by underground testing. Transport modeling simulations

  16. "International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography has two overall aims: (i) to strengthen international criminalisation and (ii) to provide welfare protection for child victims. This article reviews the context of the Protocol including the work of the Special…

  17. Ferrocene and (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes of the natural anticancer naphthoquinone plumbagin with enhanced efficacy against resistant cancer cells and a genuine mode of action.

    PubMed

    Spoerlein-Guettler, Cornelia; Mahal, Katharina; Schobert, Rainer; Biersack, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    A series of ferrocene and (arene)ruthenium(II) complexes attached to the naturally occurring anticancer naphthoquinones plumbagin and juglone was tested for efficacy against various cancer cell lines and for alterations in the mode of action. The plumbagin ferrocene and (p-cymene)Ru(II) conjugates 1c and 2a overcame the multi-drug drug resistance of KB-V1/Vbl cervix carcinoma cells and showed IC50 (72 h) values around 1 μM in growth inhibition assays using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). They were further investigated for their influence on the cell cycle of KB-V1/Vbl and HCT-116 colon carcinoma cells, on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the latter cell line, for their substrate character for the P-glycoprotein drug eflux pump via the calcein-AM efflux assays, and for DNA affinity by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The derivatives 1c and 2a increased the number of dead cancer cells (sub-G0/G1 fraction) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ROS levels were significantly increased upon treatment with 1c and 2a. These compounds also showed a greater affinity to linear DNA than plumbagin. While plumbagin did not affect calcein-AM transport by P-glycoprotein the derivatives 1c and 2a exhibited a 50% or 80% inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-mediated calcein-AM efflux relative to the clinically established sensitizer verapamil.

  18. Insights into anticancer activity and mechanism of action of a ruthenium(II) complex in human esophageal squamous carcinoma EC109 cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liubin; Lv, Gaochao; Qiu, Ling; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Li; Yu, Huixin; Zou, Meifen; Lin, Jianguo

    2016-09-05

    A ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(p-cymene)(NHC)Cl2] (NHC=1,3-bis(4-(tert-butyl)benzylimidazol-2-ylidene), referred to as L-4, has been designed and synthesized recently in order to look for new anticancer drugs with high efficacy and low side effects. The anticancer activity and mechanism of action of L-4 in human esophageal squamous carcinoma EC109 cells were systematically investigated. The results revealed that L-4 exerted strong inhibitory effect on the proliferation of EC109 cells, and it arrested EC109 cells at G2/M phase, accompanied with the up-regulation of p53 and p21 and the down-regulation of cyclin D1. The results also showed that the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis of EC109 can be induced by L-4 via inhibiting the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), decreasing the ratio of glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species. The mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of EC109 induced by L-4 was also observed from the increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, overload of Ca(2+), disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), redistribution of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-3/-9. However, the effects of L-4 on the cell viability, GR activity, GSH/GSSG ratio, reactive oxygen species level, mitochondria dysfunction and apoptosis induction were remarkably attenuated by adding the reactive oxygen species scavenger, NAC. Therefore, it was concluded that L-4 can inhibit the proliferation of EC109 cells via blocking cell cycle progression and inducing reactive oxygen species-dependent and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These findings suggested that the ruthenium(II) complex might be a potential effective chemotherapeutic agent for human esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC) and worthy of further investigation.

  19. An Assessment Inventory for the Day Care Child. Volume II: Field Evaluation and Preliminary Findings. Center for Human Services Development, Report No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Elizabeth P.

    This is the second of a two volume report of a Day Care Inventory. The author presents an evaluation of the Inventory and make recommendations for changes, deletions and additions so that more satisfactory measures will be available for use in the study of the impact of day care on child development. The evaluations are based upon the findings…

  20. From Forge to Fast Food: A History of Child Labor in New York State. Volume II: Civil War to the Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Richard B.; And Others

    This volume of essays and activities is written for use in the eighth grade course "United States and New York State History." The volume follows the chronology from the Civil War to the present, emphasizing child labor during those years. The essays are intended for teachers but can be mastered by many students. The activities focus on…

  1. [Evaluation of the National Program of Integrated and Referential Actions (PAIR) to confront the child and adolescents sexual violence, in Feira de Santana, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Carvalho, Rosely Cabral; de Santana, Marcos Antonio Oliveira; da Silva, Luciano Macêdo Santos; da Silva, Mariana Rocha

    2010-03-01

    In Brazil, sexual violence against children and adolescents is a challenge for the public policies of prevention and intervention. The objective of this article is to present the evaluation of PAIR actions implemented in Feira de Santana city, on political and institutional integration, strength and performance of the Network Care for the violence victims in the period of 2003-2006. It was used a descriptive study with primary data based on interviews with professionals from the Institutions of care (38), Municipal Committee of PAIR (11) and key community informants (78), using quantitative and qualitative analysis. The evaluation of the PAIR capabilities, as the political and institutional integration was deemed appropriate, highlighting the support of state, federal and municipal managers. The processes of training were considered strategic to the individual professional performance with the Network (attitudes, participation). The results of the three segments of the community suggest the need of a social Network integration (Rights and Guardianship Councils), programs of assistance and protection, the work with the media (qualified training and information), involvement of managers and technicians and the continuity of actions, as strategies to face the sexual violence in Feira de Santana.

  2. 77 FR 17004 - Child Nutrition Programs-Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs--Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces the Department's annual adjustments..., School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA,...

  3. 78 FR 17628 - Child Nutrition Programs; Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs; Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This Notice announces the Department's annual adjustments..., School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA,...

  4. 76 FR 16724 - Child Nutrition Programs-Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs--Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces the Department's..., Supervisory Program Analyst, School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition...

  5. Disconnected Actions: An Asynchronous Extension to a Nested Atomic Action System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    action " Effects: Returns an aid for a local sub action as the Parent’s5 child " (Enumerated with Step) return(rep$ addh (Parent,adievel$ tg:SUBACTION...previously by the same action " Effects: Returns an aid for a concurrent-set action as a child of Parent return(rep$ addh (Parent,aid-level${ tg :CONC...given previously by the same action % Effects: Returns an aid for a nested top action as a child of Parent retur.n(rep$ addh (Parent,aidileve${tg:TOP

  6. Treatment of the Poisoned Child

    PubMed Central

    Reid, David H. S.

    1970-01-01

    Syrup of ipecac has measurable advantages over gastric lavage in evacuating the stomach of children with accidental poisoning, in terms of safety, effectiveness, and rapidity of action. The average period for action with ipecac is likely to be about 17 minutes, or 82 minutes, depending on whether the child is treated at home or in hospital. In contrast, the mean delay to completion of gastric lavage is estimated at 126 minutes, and this procedure has little place in the treatment of the child with poisoning. PMID:4393311

  7. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  8. Disobedient Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... of growing up and testing adult guidelines and expectations. It is one way for children to learn ... At times, it is due to unreasonable parental expectations. Or it might be related to the child's ...

  9. [Child abuse].

    PubMed

    V Essen, H; Schlickewei, W; Dietz, H-G

    2005-02-01

    Child abuse is most often diagnosed by an emergency doctor on call who sometimes "feels" more than knows what he is confronted with. He should nevertheless always take a medical history and make a physical and radiological examination. X-ray imaging and an ophthalmologic retinal examination are the most important diagnostic steps. Typical findings are multiple and/or dorsal rib fractures, complex skull fractures, physeal fractures, all fractures within the first 12 months, multiple fractures in different localisations and stages of healing, all injuries with uncommon distributions, all patterned bruises, immersion burns, intramural hematoma and every unexplained loss of consciousness. The first step towards victim protection is always the removal of the abused child from its caregivers by admitting it to hospital, as 95% of all cases of reported child abuse take place within the child's family.

  10. [Child labour].

    PubMed

    Marsella, L T; Savastano, L; Saracino, V; Del Vecchio, R

    2005-01-01

    The authors emphasize the violation of children's and adolescents' rights as a result of the exploitation of child labour. Besides the legal aspect, they pointed out the medical features related to the delicate growing process of the child in the phases of development and adaptation of the main organs to hard work. Currently the problem is being supervised by those states that recognize the right for minors to be protected against any kind of physical, mental, spiritual and moral risk.

  11. Care Groups II: A Summary of the Child Survival Outcomes Achieved Using Volunteer Community Health Workers in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Melanie; Davis, Thomas; Borger, Sarah; Weiss, Jennifer; DeCoster, Mary; Ricca, Jim; Ernst, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The Care Group approach, described in detail in a companion paper in this journal, uses volunteers to convey health promotion messages to their neighbors. This article summarizes the available evidence on the effectiveness of the Care Group approach, drawing on articles published in the peer-reviewed literature as well as data from unpublished but publicly available project evaluations and summary analyses of these evaluations. When implemented by strong international NGOs with adequate funding, Care Groups have been remarkably effective in increasing population coverage of key child survival interventions. There is strong evidence that Care Groups can reduce childhood undernutrition and reduce the prevalence of diarrhea. Finally, evidence from multiple sources, comprising independent assessments of mortality impact, vital events collected by Care Group Volunteers themselves, and analyses using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST), that Care Groups are effective in reducing under-5 mortality. For example, the average decline in under-5 mortality, estimated using LiST, among 8 Care Group projects was 32%. In comparison, among 12 non-Care Group child survival projects, the under-5 mortality declined, on average, by an estimated 11%. Care Group projects cost in the range of US$3–$8 per beneficiary per year. The cost per life saved is in the range of $441–$3,773, and the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted is in the range of $15–$126. The Care Group approach, when implemented as described, appears to be highly cost-effective based on internationally accepted criteria. Care Groups represent an important and promising innovative, low-cost approach to increasing the coverage of key child survival interventions in high-mortality, resource-constrained settings. Next steps include further specifying the adjustments needed in government health systems to successfully incorporate the Care Group approach, testing the feasibility of these adjustments and of the

  12. Action of the anti-tumoral zinc(II)phthalocyanine in solution or encapsulated into nanoparticles of poly-ɛ-caprolactone internalized by peritoneal macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Abe, Amanda Santos Franco; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; Teixeira Lima Castelo Branco, Morgana; de Brito Gitirana, Lycia

    2016-09-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as drug delivery systems (DDS) exhibiting high cell penetration power. As an antitumor photosensitizer, zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was applied in photodynamic therapy (PDT) since its phototoxic activity promotes death of tumor cells in the presence of laser light. Since drugs do not interact only with tumor cells in living organisms, this study aimed to analyze the action of ZnPc-loaded in nanoparticles (ZnPc-NPs) and in solution (free ZnPc) using peritoneal macrophages as a model of non-neoplastic cells that inhabit the tumoral stroma. NPs were produced by emulsion and evaporation of solvent and characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Assays as 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, light microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy were performed to evaluate the drug effects in the presence or absence of laser light applied in PDT. NPs exhibited dimensions between 290 and 350 nm and rounded shape. Empty NP did not affect cell viability, showing that these nanocarriers are biocompatible DDS. Free ZnPc was randomly distributed in the cytoplasm, while ZnPc-NP was preferably located near the nucleus. At 5 μg ml-1, free ZnPc caused greater loss of cell viability in the absence of laser when compared to ZnPc-NPs, in the presence or absence of irradiation. In contrast, free ZnPc and ZnPc-NPs (0.5 μg ml-1) promoted cell death to the same extent in cells treated with laser light or not. This demonstrates that the performance of this drug is dose dependent in its free form, but not in its nanoencapsulated form. Cells irradiated with laser (100 mW) and treated with free ZnPc or with ZnPc-NPs showed morphological changes. These observations show that both free ZnPc and ZnPc-NPs irradiated with laser light cause cell damage in peritoneal macrophages.

  13. Developing Communication with the Autistic Child Through Music Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxill, Edith Hillman

    The author's use of music therapy is illustrated in her account of therapy sessions with two autistic children. Music is seen to be particularly useful with the autistic child because it can make use of the child's rhythmic stereotypical actions to increase the child's self awareness. Techniques such as reflection (mimicking, through song and…

  14. 76 FR 1440 - Notice of Revised Child Outcomes Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ..., renamed The Head Start Child Development and Learning Framework: Promoting Positive Outcomes in Early... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Notice of Revised Child Outcomes Framework AGENCY: Office of Head Start (OHS), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Revised Child Outcomes Framework....

  15. State Developments in Child Care and Early Education, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Helen; Poersch, Nicole Oxendine

    This report provides highlights and updates regarding state actions on child care and early education issues during 1999. It is intended to serve as a supplement to "State Child Care and Early Education Development: Highlights and Updates for 1998" and "State Developments in Child Care and Early Education 1997." The information…

  16. Innocent Victims: NCJW Manual on Child Abuse and Neglect Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Jewish Women, New York, NY.

    The manual was written by the National Council of Jewish Women to provide guidelines for volunteer legislative action and community service for individuals in the area of child abuse and neglect. After an overview which details some of the causes of child abuse, information on child abuse and neglect legislation in each state is presented.…

  17. Building Child Friendly Cities in the MENA Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nour, Osman El Hassan N.

    2013-01-01

    The notion of Child Friendly Cities (CFCs) was first developed during the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II), held in Istanbul in 1996. The concept is based on four general principles of the United Nations "Convention on the rights of the child": (1) fair treatment of every child, regardless of ethnicity,…

  18. Community Nutrition Action for Child Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This publication is designed for use by managers of community-based nutrition programs. The training modules included in this manual were produced and field-tested by the Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) as a special project providing focused technical assistance and project support to CEDPA training graduates. CEDPA…

  19. Phase II Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 2 with ROTC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Marutzky, Sam

    2009-07-01

    This Phase II CAIP describes new work needed to potentially reduce uncertainty and achieve increased confidence in modeling results. This work includes data collection and data analysis to refine model assumptions, improve conceptual models of flow and transport in a complex hydrogeologic setting, and reduce parametric and structural uncertainty. The work was prioritized based on the potential to reduce model uncertainty and achieve an acceptable level of confidence in the model predictions for flow and transport, leading to model acceptance by NDEP and completion of the Phase II CAI stage of the UGTA strategy.

  20. Child protection and adult depression: evaluating the long-term consequences of evacuating children to foster care during World War II.

    PubMed

    Santavirta, Nina; Santavirta, Torsten

    2014-03-01

    This paper combined data collected from war time government records with survey data including background characteristics, such as factors that affected eligibility, to examine the adult depression outcomes of individuals who were evacuated from Finland to temporary foster care in Sweden during World War II. Using war time government records and survey data for a random sample of 723 exposed individuals and 1321 matched unexposed individuals, the authors conducted least squares adjusted means comparison to examine the association between evacuation and adult depression (Beck Depression Inventory). The random sample was representative for the whole population of evacuees who returned to their biological families after World War II. The authors found no statistically significant difference in depressive symptoms during late adulthood between the two groups; for example, the exposed group had a 0.41 percentage points lower average Beck Depression Inventory score than the unexposed group (p = 0.907). This study provides no support for family disruption during early childhood because of the onset of sudden shocks elevating depressive symptoms during late adulthood.

  1. My Child Is Stealing

    MedlinePlus

    ... a habit with your child or teen, consider speaking with a doctor or therapist to get to ... Can Be Done About a Child Who Steals? Teaching Your Child Self-Control Disciplining Your Child Childhood ...

  2. Office of Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Early Head Start-Child Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child Care supports low-income working families through child care financial assistance and ...

  3. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Child Sexual Abuse Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Child Sexual Abuse What is child sexual abuse? Child sexual abuse ...

  4. 20 CFR 725.219 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; (3) The child attains age 18; and (i) Is not a student (as defined in § 725.209(b)) during any part of the month in which the child attains age 18; and (ii) Is not under a disability (as defined in § 725.209(a)(2)(ii)) at that time; (4) If the child's entitlement beyond age 18 is based on his or...

  5. 20 CFR 725.219 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; (3) The child attains age 18; and (i) Is not a student (as defined in § 725.209(b)) during any part of the month in which the child attains age 18; and (ii) Is not under a disability (as defined in § 725.209(a)(2)(ii)) at that time; (4) If the child's entitlement beyond age 18 is based on his or...

  6. 20 CFR 725.219 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; (3) The child attains age 18; and (i) Is not a student (as defined in § 725.209(b)) during any part of the month in which the child attains age 18; and (ii) Is not under a disability (as defined in § 725.209(a)(2)(ii)) at that time; (4) If the child's entitlement beyond age 18 is based on his or...

  7. 20 CFR 725.219 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; (3) The child attains age 18; and (i) Is not a student (as defined in § 725.209(b)) during any part of the month in which the child attains age 18; and (ii) Is not under a disability (as defined in § 725.209(a)(2)(ii)) at that time; (4) If the child's entitlement beyond age 18 is based on his or...

  8. Effect of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 treatment on short-term linear growth in a child with Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II and hepatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Acquafredda, Angelo; D'Aniello, Mariangela; Soldano, Lucia; Marzano, Flaviana; Ventura, Annamaria; Cavallo, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a boy affected by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, facial dysmorphisms and postnecrotic cirrhosis, diagnosed at birth as having Seckel syndrome, and subsequently confirmed as Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) on the basis of clinical and radiological features of skeletal dysplasia. At our observation (6 years 7 months) he presented height -10.3 standard deviation score (SDS), weight -22.1 SDS, head circumference -8 SDS, delayed bone age of 4 years with respect to chronological age. In consideration of the low levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as well as of hepatic insufficiency, we started the treatment with recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF-1) at the dose of 0.04 mg/kg in 2 doses/day, with an increase of 0.04 mg/kg after 1 week until the maximum dose of 0.12 mg/kg. We observed an early response to rhIGF-1 treatment, with a shift of height velocity from 1.8 cm/year (-4.6 SDS) at 4 cm/year (-1.9 SDS), and an increase in bone age of 1.5 years during the first 6 months. rhIGF-1 treatment does not seem to be able to replace the physiological action of IGF-1 in patients with MOPD II and hepatic insufficiency, however, it seems to preserve the typical growth pattern of MOPD II patients, avoiding a further widening of the growth deficiency in these subjects.

  9. Project CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Helen F.; And Others

    This document described Project CHILD, a program of educational change and curriculum development for disadvantaged prekindergarten and kindergarten children. The historical part of this report indicates that the project began in 1966 with a small-scale study of teacher behavior and children's responses in a few classrooms in a Harlem school…

  10. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... same sex. Peer approval becomes very important. Your child may try new behaviors to be part of "the group." This can also be the time that parents or teachers recognize learning disabilities or ... can get worse as time goes on, so it is important to get help early.

  11. 76 FR 67104 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION... money penalty regulations to incorporate into the regulations the processes the Department follows when determining both whether to assess a child labor civil money penalty and the amount of that penalty. In...

  12. Review of Child Development Research. Volume 3: Child Development and Social Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Bettye M., Ed.; Ricciuti, Henry N., Ed.

    The concern of this work is the influence of child development research on social policy. Papers were chosen because they illustrate that there should be a symbiotic relationship between social action on one hand and child development research and its underlying theory on the other. (Author/CS)

  13. Quality Child Care in Virginia. Critical Issues in Child Care. White Paper 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne Clark; Baratka, Talley V.; Wood, Lisa

    This paper on child care is one of four to be published by the Action Alliance for Virginia's Children. The papers are based on the most comprehensive data available on child care in Virginia, recent scholarly research from both social science and neuroscience, and the best judgment of leading professionals in the fields of education and child…

  14. Functional characterization and anti-cancer action of the clinical phase II cardiac Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitor istaroxime: in vitro and in vivo properties and cross talk with the membrane androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Alevizopoulos, Konstantinos; Dimas, Konstantinos; Papadopoulou, Natalia; Schmidt, Eva-Maria; Tsapara, Anna; Alkahtani, Saad; Honisch, Sabina; Prousis, Kyriakos C.; Alarifi, Saud; Calogeropoulou, Theodora

    2016-01-01

    Sodium potassium pump (Na+/K+ ATPase) is a validated pharmacological target for the treatment of various cardiac conditions. Recent published data with Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitors suggest a potent anti-cancer action of these agents in multiple indications. In the present study, we focus on istaroxime, a Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitor that has shown favorable safety and efficacy properties in cardiac phase II clinical trials. Our experiments in 22 cancer cell lines and in prostate tumors in vivo proved the strong anti-cancer action of this compound. Istaroxime induced apoptosis, affected the key proliferative and apoptotic mediators c-Myc and caspase-3 and modified actin cystoskeleton dynamics and RhoA activity in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, istaroxime was capable of binding to mAR, a membrane receptor mediating rapid, non-genomic actions of steroids in prostate and other cells. These results support a multi-level action of Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitors in cancer cells and collectively validate istaroxime as a strong re-purposing candidate for further cancer drug development. PMID:27027435

  15. Remedial actions at the former Vitro Rare Metals plant site, Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    This report provides a summary of the conceptual design and other information necessary to understand the proposed remedial action at the expanded Canonsburg, Pennsylvania site. This design constitutes the current approach to stabilizing the radioactively contaminated materials in place in a manner that would fully protect the public health and environment. This summary is intended to provide sufficient detail for the reader to understand the proposed remedial action and the anticipated environmental impacts. The site conceptual design has been developed using available data. In some cases, elements of the design have not been developed fully and will be made final during the detailed design process.

  16. National Evaluation of Community Action Programs, Report No. 2. The Culture of CAP. CAP Impact on Institutions. Phase I vs. Phase II. ...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, W. C.; And Others

    An extension of an earlier study, this report begins by discussing attitude and behavior profiles of persons affiliated with the Community Action Program (CAP). Education, age, income, and other survey data on the poor and their leaders are analyzed to determine the possible impact of the CAP experience on their attitudes. Using reports from…

  17. Action Agenda: Quality Care for African American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Black Child Development Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    This action agenda focuses on quality child care for the Seattle (Washington) King County area. Poverty rates are high in King County, and quality child care is vital to breaking the cycle of poverty that traps many African-American families. A needs assessment in King County identified many areas for the improvement of child-care services. These…

  18. 25 CFR 11.608 - Final decree; disposition of property; maintenance; child support; custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; disposition of property; maintenance; child support; custody. (a) A decree of dissolution of marriage or of... to a child under 18 years of age shall be a proper person to bring an action under this section...

  19. 45 CFR 261.56 - What happens if a parent cannot obtain needed child care?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the State may not reduce or terminate assistance based on... reasonable distance from the home or work site is unavailable; (ii) Informal child care by a relative...

  20. Reversible shuttle action upon dehydration and rehydration processes in cationic coordinatively-bonded (4,4) square-grid nets threaded by supramolecular bonded anions, {[Cu(II)(4,4'-bpy)2(H2O)][Cu(II)(2-pySO3)3](NO3)}·H2O.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi-Min; Yin, Zheng; He, Kun-Huan; Zeng, Ming-Hua; Kurmoo, Mohamedally

    2011-03-21

    {[Cu(II)(4,4'-bpy)(2)(H(2)O)][Cu(II)(2-pySO(3))(3)](NO(3))}·H(2)O, obtained serendipitously by the reaction of the constituents in water, consists of parallel coordinatively bonded cationic (4,4) corrugated square-grids polymer of {[Cu(II)(4,4'-bpy)(2)(H(2)O)](2+)}(n) threaded by π-π and H-bonded supramolecular chains of [Cu(II)(2-pySO(3))(3)](-) through the open squares. A single-crystal to single-crystal transformation takes place upon removal of the noncoordinated water by controlled heating. The resulting structure exhibits a rearrangement of the coordination of the copper atoms in the grids, where the Cu-H(2)O bond is elongated from 2.250(3) to 2.628(3) Å while the Cu-NO(3) is shortened from 3.122(3) to 2.796(1) Å. This process is reversible as demonstrated by the single crystal structure after rehydration with corresponding bond distances of 2.224(3) and 3.152(3) Å. Such a cooperative effect may be associated with the Jahn-Teller distortion of the copper(II) ion accompanying the shuttle action of the hydrogen-bonded water and nitrate moiety.

  1. NHV and child public health.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Lennart

    2015-08-01

    One of the main interests of the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) in both education and research was child public health, i.e. an area based on the broad World Health Organisation (WHO) health ideology and on public health methods, while concentrating on the special needs and characteristics of children. The fields of study and action, training, research and service, had the ultimate task to consider the health of children in their full social, economic and political context. Regular courses on child public health were offered as part of the general program in Public Health from 1979 until the closing down of the school, named: Social Paediatrics; Child Health; Child Public Health; and finally, Measuring Children's Health - A Public Health Perspective. Numerous national, Nordic and international conferences were held, and several textbooks were written and edited. A major research project, NordChild, was initiated as a cross-sectional postal study of a random sample of children aged 2-17 years from the five Nordic countries, performed in 1984, 1996 and 2011. So far, 10 doctoral theses and more than 130 other publications from the studies have been produced. Furthermore, the Nordic Network on Research of Refugee Children was created, and a special interest has been devoted to indicators for children's health, both internationally, nationally and locally, which has been demonstrated in major EU projects as well as locally in Sweden and Greenland.

  2. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  3. Child Care Aware

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aware of America Symposium 2016 Looking for child care? Need resources for your child care business? There are more than 500 local Child Care Resource & Referral (CCR&R) agencies across the United ...

  4. Ileostomy and your child

    MedlinePlus

    ... embarrassment. You may see some changes in your child's behavior at first. Sometimes teenagers have a harder time ... You being open and natural will help your child's behavior stay positive. Help your child learn how to ...

  5. Rio San Jose Action Memo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum requests approval for a time-critical removal action at the II residential properties that compose the Rio San Jose Radiation Site located in Laguna, Mesita, Paraje, and Seama, Pueblo of Laguna located in Cibola County, New Mexico.

  6. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  7. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics.

  8. No Child Left Behind Act: Education Actions Could Improve the Targeting of School Improvement Funds to Schools Most in Need of Assistance. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-08-380

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2008-01-01

    Under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA), the federal government provides millions of dollars annually to assist schools that have not met state academic goals. In the 2006-2007 school year, over 10,000 such schools were identified for improvement. NCLBA requires states to set aside 4 percent of their Title I funds to pay for school improvement…

  9. Photodynamic Action Mechanism Mediated by Zinc(II) 2,9,16,23-Tetrakis[4-(N-methylpyridyloxy)]phthalocyanine in Candida albicans Cells.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, María Albana; Alvarez, María Gabriela; Durantini, Edgardo N

    2015-01-01

    The photoreaction type I/type II pathways mediated by zinc(II) 2,9,16,23-tetrakis[4-(N-methylpyridyloxy)]phthalocyanine (ZnPPc(4+) ) was studied in Candida albicans cells. This photosensitizer was strongly bound to C. albicans cells at short times. After 30 min irradiation, 5 μM ZnPPc(4+) produced ~5 log decrease in cell viability. Different probes were used to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell suspensions (~10(6) CFU mL(-1) ). Singlet molecular oxygen, O2 ((1) Δg ), was observed by the reaction with 9,10-dimethylanthracene (DMA) and tetrasodium 2,2-(anthracene-9,10-diyl)bis(methylmalonate) (ABMM), whereas the nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) method was used to sense superoxide anion radical (O2·-). Moreover, the effects produced by an anoxic atmosphere and cell suspensions in D2 O, as well as the addition of sodium azide and mannitol as ROS trapping were evaluated in the PDI of C. albicans. These investigation indicates that O2 ((1) Δg ) is generated in the cells, although a minor extension other radical species can also be involved in the PDI of C. albicans mediated by ZnPPc(4+) .

  10. Chemical synthesis of methyl 6'-alpha-maltosyl-alpha-maltotrioside and its use for investigation of the action of starch synthase II.

    PubMed

    Damager, Iben; Olsen, Carl Erik; Blennow, Andreas; Denyer, Kay; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik

    2003-01-20

    The branched pentasaccharide methyl 6'-alpha-maltosyl-alpha-maltotrioside was chemically synthesised and investigated as a primer for particulate starch synthase II (SSII) using starch granules prepared from the low-amylose pea mutant lam as the enzyme source. For chemical synthesis, the trichloroacetimidate activation method was used to synthesise methyl O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->4)-O-(2,3,6-tri-O-benzyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->6)-O-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-O-(2,3-di-O-benzyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->4)-2,3,6-tri-O-benzyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, which was then debenzylated to provide the desired branched pentasaccharide methyl 6'-alpha-maltosyl-alpha-maltotrioside as documented by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Using a large excess of the maltoside, the pentasaccharide was tested as a substrate for starch synthase II (SSII). Both of the non-reducing ends of methyl 6'-alpha-maltosyl-alpha-maltotrioside were extended equally resulting in two hexasaccharide products in nearly equal amounts. Thus, SSII catalyses an equimolar and non-processive elongation reaction of this substrate. Accordingly, the presence of the alpha-1,6 linkages does not dictate a specific structure of the pentasaccharide in which only one of the two non-reducing ends are available for extension.

  11. A Baseline Evaluation Procedure for Federal Standards on the Prevention, Identification and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect. Volume I: Development, Field Testing and Recommended Procedure. Volume II: State of Washington Field Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaberg, James R.; And Others

    The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect funded a project to develop and field-test an evaluation procedure that could be used by interested states or communities to determine the extent of congruity between (1) their provisions for responding to the problems of child abuse and neglect, and (2) provisions prescribed in the Federal Standards…

  12. Mechanism of the uricosuric action of E3040, a drug used to treat inflammatory bowel disease II: study using DBA/2N mice.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Kotaki, H; Furitsu, H; Sawada, Y; Iga, T

    1999-07-01

    In the initial phase of clinical studies, it was shown that E3040, a new type of anti-inflammatory drug, reduced plasma uric acid levels. The present study describes a comparison of the excretion of uric acid in the proximal tubules of the kidney after administration of E3040 and its conjugates, sulphate and glucuronide, with that of other general uricosuric agents in DBA/2N mice. The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the mechanism for the uricosuric action of E3040. It was found that E3040 increased the excretion rate of uric acid in a dose-dependent manner, and the excretion rates following 10 and 50 mg/kg doses were significantly greater than that of the control group. The paradoxical effect observed with probenecid was not seen in the E3040 dose-response curve for the uric acid excretion rate. Neither E3040-sulphate nor E3040-glucuronide increased the excretion rate of uric acid significantly, even at a high dose, such as 200 mg/kg. In the pyrazinoic acid suppression test, the uric acid excretion rate after concomitant administration of E3040 and pyrazinoic acid was significantly higher than that after administration of pyrazinoic acid alone, and the rate after concomitant administration was 30% of the level after administration of E3040 alone. The change in the excretion rate of uric acid after concomitant administration of E3040 and pyrazinoic acid was similar to that of AA193, a selective inhibitor of the presecretory reabsorption of uric acid. From these results, it appears that E3040 may exert its uricosuric action by reducing the presecretory reabsorption of uric acid rather than increasing its secretion.

  13. Mechanisms of Action and Reduced Cardiotoxicity of Pixantrone; a Topoisomerase II Targeting Agent with Cellular Selectivity for the Topoisomerase IIα Isoform

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xing; Patel, Daywin; Kanagasabai, Ragu; Karmahapatra, Soumendrakrishna; Yalowich, Jack C.

    2016-01-01

    Pixantrone is a new noncardiotoxic aza-anthracenedione anticancer drug structurally related to anthracyclines and anthracenediones, such as doxorubicin and mitoxantrone. Pixantrone is approved in the European Union for the treatment of relapsed or refractory aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This study was undertaken to investigate both the mechanism(s) of its anticancer activity and its relative lack of cardiotoxicity. Pixantrone targeted DNA topoisomerase IIα as evidenced by its ability to inhibit kinetoplast DNA decatenation; to produce linear double-strand DNA in a pBR322 DNA cleavage assay; to produce DNA double-strand breaks in a cellular phospho-histone γH2AX assay; to form covalent topoisomerase II-DNA complexes in a cellular immunodetection of complex of enzyme-to-DNA assay; and to display cross-resistance in etoposide-resistant K562 cells. Pixantrone produced semiquinone free radicals in an enzymatic reducing system, although not in a cellular system, most likely due to low cellular uptake. Pixantrone was 10- to 12-fold less damaging to neonatal rat myocytes than doxorubicin or mitoxantrone, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase release. Three factors potentially contribute to the reduced cardiotoxicity of pixantrone. First, its lack of binding to iron(III) makes it unable to induce iron-based oxidative stress. Second, its low cellular uptake may limit its ability to produce semiquinone free radicals and redox cycle. Finally, because the β isoform of topoisomerase II predominates in postmitotic cardiomyocytes, and pixantrone is demonstrated in this study to be selective for topoisomerase IIα in stabilizing enzyme–DNA covalent complexes, the attenuated cardiotoxicity of this agent may also be due to its selectivity for targeting topoisomerase IIα over topoisomerase IIβ. PMID:26660439

  14. The generalized anomeric effect in the 1,3-thiazolidines: Evidence for both sulphur and nitrogen as electron donors. Crystal structures of various N-acylthiazolidines including mercury(II) complexes. Possible relevance to penicillin action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekhar, Sosale; Chopra, Deepak; Gopalaiah, Kovuru; Guru Row, Tayur N.

    2007-06-01

    Evidence for the generalized anomeric effect (GAE) in the N-acyl-1,3-thiazolidines, an important structural motif in the penicillins, was sought in the crystal structures of N-(4-nitrobenzoyl)-1,3-thiazolidine and its (2:1) complex with mercuric chloride, N-acetyl-2-phenyl-1,3-thiazolidine, and the (2:1) complex of N-benzoyl-1,3-thiazolidine with mercuric bromide. An inverse relationship was generally observed between the C2- N and C2- S bond lengths of the thiazolidine ring, supporting the existence of the GAE. (Maximal bond length changes were ˜0.04 Å for C2- N3, S1- C2, and ˜0.08 Å for N3- C6.) Comparison with N-acylpyrrolidines and tetrahydrothiophenes indicates that both the nitrogen-to-sulphur and sulphur-to-nitrogen GAE's operate simultaneously in the 1,3-thiazolidines, the former being dominant. (This is analogous to the normal and exo-anomeric effects in pyranoses, and also leads to an interesting application of Baldwin's rules.) The nitrogen-to-sulphur GAE is generally enhanced in the mercury(II) complexes (presumably via coordination at the sulphur); a 'competition' between the GAE and the amide resonance of the N-acyl moiety is apparent. There is evidence for a 'push-pull' charge transfer between the thiazolidine moieties in the mercury(II) complexes, and for a 'back-donation' of charge from the bromine atoms to the thiazolidine moieties in the HgBr 2 complex. (The sulphur atom appears to be sp 2 hybridised in the mercury(II) complexes, possibly for stereoelectronic reasons.) These results are apparently relevant to the mode of action of the penicillins.

  15. Cellular toxicity induced by the photorelease of a caged bioactive molecule: design of a potential dual-action Ru(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Sgambellone, Mark A; David, Amanda; Garner, Robert N; Dunbar, Kim R; Turro, Claudia

    2013-07-31

    The series [Ru(tpy)(CH3CN)3](2+) (1), cis-[Ru(tpy)(CH3CN)2Cl](+) (2), and [Ru(tpy)(5CNU)3](2+) (3), where tpy = 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine and 5CNU = 5-cyanouracil, was synthesized, and their photochemical properties were investigated for use as potential photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents. When irradiated with visible light, 1-3 exhibit efficient exchange of the axial CH3CN or 5CNU ligand with H2O solvent molecules. Complexes 1-3 also exhibit photoinitiated binding to DNA when irradiated with λirr ≥ 395 nm light, and DNA binding can be accessed for 2 with λirr > 645 nm, well within the PDT window. Since 3 binds DNA and simultaneously releases biologically active 5CNU, it has the potential to be a dual-action therapeutic agent. Indeed, 3 is cytotoxic upon irradiation with visible light, whereas 1 is not under similar experimental conditions. The lack of toxicity imparted by 1 is explained by the exchange of only one CH3CN ligand in the complex under the irradiation conditions used for the cellular studies. Strategies are being sought to increase the quantum yields of ligand exchange and the cellular penetration of these compounds.

  16. Inhibition of P-TEFb (CDK9/Cyclin T) kinase and RNA polymerase II transcription by the coordinated actions of HEXIM1 and 7SK snRNA.

    PubMed

    Yik, Jasper H N; Chen, Ruichuan; Nishimura, Rieko; Jennings, Jennifer L; Link, Andrew J; Zhou, Qiang

    2003-10-01

    The positive transcriptional elongation factor b (P-TEFb), consisting of CDK9 and cyclin T, stimulates transcription by phosphorylating RNA polymerase II. It becomes inactivated when associated with the abundant 7SK snRNA. Here, we show that the 7SK binding alone was not sufficient to inhibit P-TEFb. P-TEFb was inhibited by the HEXIM1 protein in a process that specifically required 7SK for mediating the HEXIM1:P-TEFb interaction. This allowed HEXIM1 to inhibit transcription both in vivo and in vitro. P-TEFb dissociated from HEXIM1 and 7SK in cells undergoing stress response, increasing the level of active P-TEFb for stress-induced transcription. P-TEFb was the predominant HEXIM1-associated protein factor, and thus likely to be the principal target of inhibition coordinated by HEXIM1 and 7SK. Since HEXIM1 expression is induced in cells treated with hexamethylene bisacetamide, a potent inducer of cell differentiation, targeting the general transcription factor P-TEFb by HEXIM1/7SK may contribute to the global control of cell growth and differentiation.

  17. Electrochemiluminescence of an electrocatalytic action of etimicin on Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) immobilized in Nafion modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yafeng; Zhang, Jintao

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection of etimicin at Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)(3) (2+)]-Nafion modified carbon paste electrodes was developed. The immobilized Ru(bpy)(3) (2+) shows good electrochemical and photochemical activities. Electrochemical and electrochemiluminescence characterizations of the modified carbon electrodes were made by means of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy. The modified electrode showed an electrocatalytic response to the oxidation of etimicin, producing a sensitized ECL signal. The ECL sensor showed a linear response to etimicin in the range of 8.0-160.0 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 6.7 ng mL(-1). This method for etimicin determination possessed good sensitivity and reproducibility with a coefficient of variation of 5.1% (n = 7) at 100 ng mL(-1). The ECL sensor showed good selectivity and long-term stability. Its surface could be renewed quickly and reproducibly by a simple polish step.

  18. Responding to the challenge of untreatable gonorrhea: ETX0914, a first-in-class agent with a distinct mechanism-of-action against bacterial Type II topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Basarab, Gregory S; Kern, Gunther H; McNulty, John; Mueller, John P; Lawrence, Kenneth; Vishwanathan, Karthick; Alm, Richard A; Barvian, Kevin; Doig, Peter; Galullo, Vincent; Gardner, Humphrey; Gowravaram, Madhusudhan; Huband, Michael; Kimzey, Amy; Morningstar, Marshall; Kutschke, Amy; Lahiri, Sushmita D; Perros, Manos; Singh, Renu; Schuck, Virna J A; Tommasi, Ruben; Walkup, Grant; Newman, Joseph V

    2015-07-14

    With the diminishing effectiveness of current antibacterial therapies, it is critically important to discover agents that operate by a mechanism that circumvents existing resistance. ETX0914, the first of a new class of antibacterial agent targeted for the treatment of gonorrhea, operates by a novel mode-of-inhibition against bacterial type II topoisomerases. Incorporating an oxazolidinone on the scaffold mitigated toxicological issues often seen with topoisomerase inhibitors. Organisms resistant to other topoisomerase inhibitors were not cross-resistant with ETX0914 nor were spontaneous resistant mutants to ETX0914 cross-resistant with other topoisomerase inhibitor classes, including the widely used fluoroquinolone class. Preclinical evaluation of ETX0914 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics showed distribution into vascular tissues and efficacy in a murine Staphylococcus aureus infection model that served as a surrogate for predicting efficacious exposures for the treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. A wide safety margin to the efficacious exposure in toxicological evaluations supported progression to Phase 1. Dosing ETX0914 in human volunteers showed sufficient exposure and minimal adverse effects to expect a highly efficacious anti-gonorrhea therapy.

  19. Responding to the challenge of untreatable gonorrhea: ETX0914, a first-in-class agent with a distinct mechanism-of-action against bacterial Type II topoisomerases

    PubMed Central

    Basarab, Gregory S.; Kern, Gunther H.; McNulty, John; Mueller, John P.; Lawrence, Kenneth; Vishwanathan, Karthick; Alm, Richard A.; Barvian, Kevin; Doig, Peter; Galullo, Vincent; Gardner, Humphrey; Gowravaram, Madhusudhan; Huband, Michael; Kimzey, Amy; Morningstar, Marshall; Kutschke, Amy; Lahiri, Sushmita D.; Perros, Manos; Singh, Renu; Schuck, Virna J. A.; Tommasi, Ruben; Walkup, Grant; Newman, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    With the diminishing effectiveness of current antibacterial therapies, it is critically important to discover agents that operate by a mechanism that circumvents existing resistance. ETX0914, the first of a new class of antibacterial agent targeted for the treatment of gonorrhea, operates by a novel mode-of-inhibition against bacterial type II topoisomerases. Incorporating an oxazolidinone on the scaffold mitigated toxicological issues often seen with topoisomerase inhibitors. Organisms resistant to other topoisomerase inhibitors were not cross-resistant with ETX0914 nor were spontaneous resistant mutants to ETX0914 cross-resistant with other topoisomerase inhibitor classes, including the widely used fluoroquinolone class. Preclinical evaluation of ETX0914 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics showed distribution into vascular tissues and efficacy in a murine Staphylococcus aureus infection model that served as a surrogate for predicting efficacious exposures for the treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. A wide safety margin to the efficacious exposure in toxicological evaluations supported progression to Phase 1. Dosing ETX0914 in human volunteers showed sufficient exposure and minimal adverse effects to expect a highly efficacious anti-gonorrhea therapy. PMID:26168713

  20. A mechanistic model for enzymatic saccharification of cellulose using continuous distribution kinetics II: cooperative enzyme action, solution kinetics, and product inhibition.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Andrew J; Stickel, Jonathan J; Lischeske, James J

    2012-03-01

    The projected cost for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass continues to be a barrier for the commercial production of liquid transportation fuels from renewable feedstocks. Predictive models for the kinetics of the enzymatic reactions will enable an improved understanding of current limitations, such as the slow-down of the overall conversion rate, and may point the way for more efficient utilization of the enzymes in order to achieve higher conversion yields. A mechanistically based kinetic model for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was recently reported in Griggs et al. (2011) (Part I). In this article (Part II), the enzyme system is expanded to include solution-phase kinetics, particularly cellobiose-to-glucose conversion by β-glucosidase (βG), and novel adsorption and product inhibition schemes have been incorporated, based on current structural knowledge of the component enzymes. Model results show cases of cooperative and non-cooperative hydrolysis for an enzyme system consisting of EG(I) and CBH(I). The model is used to explore various potential rate-limiting phenomena, such as substrate accessibility, product inhibition, sterically hindered enzyme adsorption, and the molecular weight of the cellulose substrate.

  1. Mechanism of Action of the Novel Nickel(II) Complex in Simultaneous Reactivation of the Apoptotic Signaling Networks Against Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Samie, Nima; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Muniandy, Sekaran; Marlina, Anita; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Abdullah, Norbani B.; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Aziddin, Raja E. R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of a novel nickel(II) complex (NTC) against WiDr and HT-29 human colon cancer cells by determining the IC50 using the standard MTT assay. The NTC displayed a strong suppressive effect on colon cancer cells with an IC50 value of 6.07 ± 0.22 μM and 6.26 ± 0.13 μM against WiDr and HT-29 respectively, after 24 h of treatment. Substantial reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria directed the induction of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by the NTC. Activation of this pathway was further evidenced by significant activation of caspase 3/7 and 9. The NTC was also shown to activate the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis via activation of caspase-8 which is linked to the suppression of NF-κB translocation to the nucleus. Cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase was confirmed by flow cytometry and up-regulation of glutathione reductase expression was quantified by qPCR. Results of the current work indicates that NTC possess a potent cancer cell abolishing activity by simultaneous induction of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines. PMID:26858642

  2. The child dream and the child transference.

    PubMed

    De Francisco, D

    1986-01-01

    This paper explores the symbolic meaning of dreams in which children appear with special attention to the way children in dreams symbolize the self, particularly the dependent and developing self. It is suggested that patients' growth in analysis can be monitored by observing what happens to the children in their dreams. This paper also explores the vicissitudes of the child transference, in which the patient treats the analyst as a child. An analysis is described in which the child dream and the child transference played an important role in elucidating the patient's neurotic behaviors. The author contends that the child dream and the child transference are common and clinically useful phenomena, especially important in the analysis of dependency conflicts. An additional thesis of this paper is that the child transference is most likely to be found in instances where a patient played a parental role with one of their parents during childhood.

  3. Child Support Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2001 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of…

  4. Child Support Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 1999 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and…

  5. Child Support Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2000 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of…

  6. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  7. Child Support Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the twelve issues of "Child Support Report" newsletter published during 1997. Monthly issues typically explore problems related to child support enforcement, report on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarize research related to child support. Editorials and information…

  8. A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate that foreign assistance for child welfare should adhere to the goals of the United States Government Action Plan on Children in Adversity.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Inhofe, James M. [R-OK

    2013-06-27

    06/27/2013 Referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5506) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. 75 FR 1792 - Maternal and Child Health Bureau

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Maternal and Child Health Bureau AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Non-competitive...

  10. Imitating the Autistic Child: Facilitating Communicative Gaze Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiegerman, Ellenmorris; Primavera, Louis H.

    1984-01-01

    Three kinds of adult-child interaction that differentially affected changes in gaze behavior of six autistic children (four to six years old) were investigated. The interaction procedure in which the experimenter imitated the autistic child's object and action performances resulted in the greatest change in the frequency and the duration of gaze…

  11. Pediatric Response to a Large-Scale Child Protection Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukefahr, James L.; Kellogg, Nancy D.; Anderst, James D.; Gavril, Amy R.; Wehner, Karl K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In a rural area of the US state of Texas, in April 2008, the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services (DFPS) responded to evidence of widespread child abuse in an isolated religious compound by removing 463 individuals into state custody. This mass child protection intervention is the largest such action that has ever occurred…

  12. The Handicapped Child's Right to an Education: A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Michael

    The handbook is intended to inform parents of handicapped children and other child advocates of the right to education laws in New Hampshire and to suggest actions to obtain appropriate public education. Chapters focus on the following topics: the importance of an education to the handicapped child; definitions of the physically, intellectually,…

  13. How to Be a Good Parent: Have a Good Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohar, Carol J.

    It is a common article of belief that each child is unique. Action based on this belief, though, is rare. Researchers have largely neglected the question of the causes of children's individual uniqueness. But, when difficulties and serious problems arise in the course of child rearing, causality is located in the dynamics of family functioning.…

  14. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  15. Research priorities on ending child marriage and supporting married girls.

    PubMed

    Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raj, Anita; Travers, Ellen; Sundaram, Lakshmi

    2015-09-03

    Over the past few years the issue of child marriage has received growing political and programmatic attention. In spite of some progress in a number of countries, global rates have not declined over the past decade. Knowledge gaps remain in understanding trends, drivers and approaches to ending child marriage, especially to understand what is needed to achieve results on a large scale. This commentary summarizes the outcomes of an Expert Group Meeting organized by World Health Organization to discuss research priorities on Ending Child Marriage and Supporting Married Girls. It presents research gaps and recommends priorities for research in five key areas; (i) prevalence and trends of child marriage; (ii) causes of child marriage (iii) consequences of child marriage; (iv) efforts to prevent child marriage; (v) efforts to support married girls.

  16. [Child maltreatment prevention: the pediatrician's role. Part 2. Prevention before it happens, when suspected and when abuse is confirmed].

    PubMed

    Mouesca, Juan P

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric actions that can prevent child abuse are described. Interdisciplinary work, training in communication skills, child development and family functions are recommended. Given the intense feelings generated by this subject, self-care strategies are suggested.

  17. By the Sweat & Toil of Children. Volume V: Efforts To Eliminate Child Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Maureen; Eugenio, Marcia M.; Hillmeyer, Jack; Hurlburt, Teresa; Ledan, Marie E.; Singh, Simrin; Willcutts, Keven; Woodson, Antonio

    This report reviews the child labor situation in 16 countries where child labor has been identified as a problem, and the level and types of action being undertaken to reduce child exploitation. The information is based on material gathered during field visits to Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, Nicaragua,…

  18. A First Look at State TANF Child Care Plans. CCAC Issue Brief, #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clhild Care Action Campaign Issue Brief, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The recent overhaul of the federal welfare system gives states new flexibility to set child care policies, develop child care programs, and fund new initiatives. The Child Care Action Campaign (CCAC) conducted an audioconference on July 31, 1997, to examine key elements of new state plans and to take a close look at how one state, Illinois, made…

  19. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  20. On hunger and child mortality in India.

    PubMed

    Gaiha, Raghav; Kulkarni, Vani S; Pandey, Manoj K; Imai, Katsushi S

    2012-01-01

    Despite accelerated growth there is pervasive hunger, child undernutrition and mortality in India. Our analysis focuses on their determinants. Raising living standards alone will not reduce hunger and undernutrition. Reduction of rural/urban disparities, income inequality, consumer price stabilization, and mothers’ literacy all have roles of varying importance in different nutrition indicators. Somewhat surprisingly, public distribution system (PDS) do not have a significant effect on any of them. Generally, child undernutrition and mortality rise with poverty. Our analysis confirms that media exposure triggers public action, and helps avert child undernutrition and mortality. Drastic reduction of economic inequality is in fact key to averting child mortality, conditional upon a drastic reordering of social and economic arrangements.

  1. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Thomas D; Dente, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    After the Supreme Court's ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant's right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children's evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child's vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities.

  2. Every Child. Volume 13, Number 2, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Alison, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The theme of this issue of "Every Child" is "Challenging Practice and Challenging Practices." It covers a range of issues challenging the images of a "traditional" children's service. Contents include an editorial by Alison Elliott, "Wise Vision, Workable Solutions and Early Childhood Action," a guest…

  3. "Schemas: A Way into a Child's World"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Cath

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores some of the learning of a young child from the age of 8-23 months and considers how identifying schemas or repeated patterns of actions can inform our pedagogic responses. Gabriella was observed using naturalistic observation methods, at home, at her grandparents' home, at parks and using early childhood services. Narrative…

  4. Polarity Analysis in Child Abuse Case Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Joe Brannan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The use of polarity analysis in child abuse case management provides a way to identify interdependent polar opposites, their positive and negative consequences, and actions to manage them over time, rather than compete for one right solution. An example of polarity analysis is presented with the two poles being parental autonomy and the agency as…

  5. Is Your Child's School Really Safe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, James

    2002-01-01

    Presents a brief quiz for parents to see if their child's school building is taking basic steps to ensure a safe learning environment (e.g., Is the building locked? Are strict guidelines in place when students participate in field trips? Is adult supervision always maintained on playgrounds?). Suggested action plans are included. A sidebar offers…

  6. Learning from Each Other: The Benefits of a Participatory Action Research Project on the Culture, Activities and Practices of the Adults Supporting a Young Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Robbie

    2008-01-01

    Participatory action research advocates for teachers, parents and others to engage in practical inquiry as part of their everyday work for the purpose of improvement. Findings from this project affirm that a collaborative community of researchers, one in which the participants can critically analyse and transform their own situations, can have a…

  7. A resolution recognizing the 10th anniversary of the International Labour Organization's unanimous adoption of Convention 182, "Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour".

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA

    2009-06-09

    06/09/2009 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S6390; text as passed Senate: CR S6390; text of measure as introduced: CR S6387) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Action Research: Its Origins and Early Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Stuart W.

    This paper contains informal remarks on action research in social psychology from its post World War II origins to its current status. Kurt Lewin first described action research in the 1946 article, "Action Research and Minority Problems," as a three-step process of program planning, program execution, and follow-up evaluation. Ronald Lippitt and…

  9. 38 CFR 14.618 - Collection action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection action. 14.618... Collection action. (a) In a case where the Regional Counsel determines that damage to or loss of Government..., suspend, or terminate collection action on any such claim as is authorized under § 2.6(e)(4)(ii) of...

  10. Considering Child Labour: Changing Terms, Issues and Actors at the International Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, William E.

    1999-01-01

    Draws on increased international debate and concern about child labor to provide an overview of important apparent trends. Issues addressed include diversity of thinking, variety of work situations, effects on children involved, and traditional modes of action against child labor. Notes that traditional actions are ineffective and that ending the…

  11. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings…

  12. Spleen removal - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity restrictions will depend on: The type of surgery (open or laparoscopic) Your child's age The reason for the operation Ask your doctor about specific activity instructions and ... other pain medicines to use at home if your child needs them.

  13. Cholesterol and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  14. FPG Child Development Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 'alternative facts,' science can reliably inform policy. Child development research advises that a sense of security provided ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ...

  15. Your Child's Growth

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... There's a Problem Some parents worry about their child's growth and development. So it can be reassuring to know that ...

  16. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn ... changed; or goes to sleep ) Movement and Physical Development moves in response to sights and sounds rooting ...

  17. Fussy or irritable child

    MedlinePlus

    ... home Irregular day-to-day schedule Using your parenting skills, you should be able to calm your child and make things better. Getting your child on a regular eating, sleeping, and daily schedule can also help.

  18. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be ... friends, neighbors or babysitters. About one-third of abusers are related to the child. Most abusers are ...

  19. Child Dental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  20. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  1. Surviving Your Child's Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The parent of a young child who required major open heart surgery shares his suggestions for coping with a young child's hospitalization including parent visitation, relating to the hospital staff, getting answers to questions, and utilizing available services. (DB)

  2. Child Behavior Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

  3. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  4. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  5. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  6. Child Study and Observation: Child Development 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna

    This syllabus outlines the structure, objectives, and lesson plans for Child Development 101, a twelve-week course on child study and observation offered at Chaffey Community College. A statement of the educational philosophy upon which the course was developed precedes a list of course objectives, competencies, and the grading system. The bulk of…

  7. The Limping Child

    PubMed Central

    Tredwell, Stephen J.

    1979-01-01

    The challenge of the limping child demands that the primary care physician identify those problems which are urgent, when neglect can harm the child, and to provide appropriate supportive care for those which are not. The approach to the limping child should consider the child's age, whether or not the limp is painful, and certain key physical findings. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7aFig. 7b PMID:21297725

  8. The Influence of Child Gender on the Prospective Relationships between Parenting and Child ADHD.

    PubMed

    Demmer, David H; Puccio, Francis; Stokes, Mark A; McGillivray, Jane A; Hooley, Merrilyn

    2017-03-02

    The aims of the current study were to (i) explore the potential bidirectional, prospective relationships between parenting and child ADHD, and (ii) explore whether these relationships differed on the basis of child gender. Data were obtained from waves 1 (children aged 4- to 5-years) to 5 (children aged 12- to 13-years) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Child (LSAC) dataset (child cohort). In order to examine dimensions of both mothers' and fathers' parenting, a subsample of nuclear families with mothers, fathers and children present at all waves was extracted (final sample = 1932; sons = 981, daughters = 951). Child ADHD measures included the hyperactive-impulsive subscale of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire for symptoms, and parent-report question for diagnosis. Mothers and fathers completed scales on dimensions of Angry, Warm and Consistent Parenting. A cross-lagged panel model demonstrated (i) higher child ADHD symptoms at wave 1 led to a global increase in less-than-optimal parenting at wave 2, and (ii) child ADHD symptoms and Angry Parenting shared a prospective, bi-directional relationship (whereby increases in one predicted increases in the other over time) during earlier years of development. Latent growth curve models demonstrated that increases in Angry Parenting across time were significantly predicted by increases in child ADHD symptoms. A logistic regression demonstrated that both mothers' and fathers' Angry Parenting at wave 1 significantly predicted an ADHD diagnosis in children at wave 3. No predictive relationships differed between child genders; thus, it appears these prospective pathways are similar for both sons and daughters.

  9. Child Care Services Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    A companion document to the curriculum guide for a secondary level child care services curriculum, this handbook contains a variety of administrative and program resources for the teacher: The vocational curriculum outline for child care services; a calendar of suggested public relations activities; procedures for building child care services…

  10. Child Care Design Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Anita Rui

    This book provides architects, interior designers, developers, and child-care professionals with detailed information on the planning and design of child care centers. Part 1 examines the current state of child care in the United States and offers an overall philosophical concert--the spirit of place--as the framework for all center design. Part 2…

  11. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn Print A A A en español El ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a parent's ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  12. Your Child's Checkups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3- ... 2-Year-Old Your Child's Checkups KidsHealth > ... en español Las revisiones médicas de su hijo From your child's birth to young adulthood, you'll be visiting the ...

  13. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  14. Child Care Bulletin, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Marilyn, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document is comprised of six issues of the Child Care Bulletin, a bimonthly publication of the National Child Care Information Center. The January-February issue focuses on involving communities in child care planning. Topics discussed in this issue include: community mobilization strategies, assessing needs and establishing goals, and…

  15. A Study in Child Care (Case Study from Volume II-B): "...While [They Took] Care of Our Children, Theirs Weren't Being Cared For." Day Care Programs Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Kristine

    The Mecklenburg County Department of Social Services in Charlotte, North Carolina, operates nine child development day care centers and 5 day homes which provide care for 257 Black and Anglo children, 2- to 5-years-old, primarily from low-income homes. The centers are located in churches, schools, and facilities in low income housing projects. The…

  16. Suspected child abuse: communicating with a child and her mother.

    PubMed

    Reid, Bernadette; Long, Ann

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore and examine how the value judgments of the health professionals involved affected the interaction between themselves and a mother with her injured child who presented at an accident and emergency department. The interaction is depicted by means of a classroom role-play in which the "actors" are nurses. Analysis of the interaction demonstrates clearly how the perspectives of health professionals may be enshrouded by a miasma of suspicion. Indeed, by focusing on the actions of the mother rather than the needs of the child, suspicion gained momentum and finally entered the public domain. Encouraging health professionals to listen to what the child has to say goes some way to challenging the suspicion of abuse. Nonetheless, in the role-play analyzed, the mounting suspicion so antagonized the mother that an angry confrontation with the doctor ensued, the doctor being forced to make an embarrassing apology. Yet the interaction is so irredeemably prejudiced that it remains impossible either to confirm or reject the suspicion of abuse. Analysis of the interaction attempted to unravel some of the knots in which we, as health professionals, unfailingly tie ourselves when communicating with patients-knots of suspicion, labeling, conflict, embarrassment, and power that fail to anchor the humanity of "self" or others.

  17. [Child health and chemical safety].

    PubMed

    Morita, Takeshi; Ishimitsu, Susumu; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    Recently concern over the hazards posed by chemicals to children has become more active. Many chemicals have been introduced into the market within the past several decades. These chemicals are used widely in consumer products and dispersed in the environment. Children are at risk of exposure to such chemicals. Scientific understanding has also improved about the vulnerability of children to chemical hazards. As children represent the future of our societies, protecting their health is an important issue. Thus, many actions are being undertaken by international organizations, e.g., the World Health Organization and the United Nations, and regulatory bodies in Japan, the US and the EU, based on the probable vulnerability of infants and children to chemicals. In this paper, these efforts and state measures are summarized, the characteristics of children at risk assessed, and the list of chemicals concerning child health as well as future actions in Japan are presented.

  18. Fathers' child feeding practices: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Khandpur, Neha; Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Davison, Kirsten K

    2014-07-01

    Despite their expanding role in child rearing, fathers are underrepresented in child feeding research. To address this knowledge gap and encourage father-focused research, this review compiles child feeding research that has included fathers and (i) documents characteristics of studies assessing fathers' feeding practices including study design, setting, recruitment strategies, participant characteristics, theoretical models utilized and measures of child feeding, (ii) outlines general patterns in fathers' feeding practices along with similarities and differences in mothers' and fathers' feeding practices, (iii) summarizes evidence on child and parent correlates of fathers' feeding practices and (iv) generates future research recommendations. A literature review of relevant articles published up to February 2014 was conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they: (i) included fathers, or primary male caregivers, of children 2-18 years of age, (ii) measured fathers' child feeding practices or perceived role in child feeding through objective (e.g., meal observations) or subjective (i.e., fathers' self-report) methods, (iii) analyzed and presented data on fathers separately from mothers and (iv) were published in a peer reviewed journal in the English language. Twenty studies met eligibility criteria. Few studies included an operational definition of "father". Samples were generally small and focused on white, well-educated fathers, cohabiting with the child's mother. Most studies utilized self-report measures of child feeding practices that have not been validated specifically for use with fathers. Pressuring children to eat was a common feeding strategy adopted by fathers. Some differences were noted in mothers' and fathers' feeding practices; fathers were generally less likely to monitor children's food intake and to limit access to food compared with mothers. Child adiposity and a range of child and parent characteristics were associated with fathers

  19. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  20. Action perception predicts action performance.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system.

  1. Offering Hope, Not Despair: Eradicating Child Labour without Putting Child Workers on the Streets. Briefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Vision UK, Milton Keynes (England).

    Addressed to British companies doing business overseas, this briefing paper offers recommendations on practical steps to combat exploitative child labor while explaining why action without the provision of alternative incomes could drive children into higher risk areas of the informal economy. The paper explains that if sufficient resources are…

  2. Child spacing and birth order: effect on intellectual ability in two-child families.

    PubMed

    Belmont, L; Stein, Z; Zybert, P

    1978-12-01

    The effect on intellectual ability of the spacing of the birth of siblings was studied in two series of young men from two-child families: (i) 535 pairs of brothers and (ii) 1511 unrelated firstborn and secondborn. Birth-order effect and level of ability were not influenced by length of interval between firstborn and secondborn.

  3. 34 CFR 303.321 - Evaluation of the child and assessment of the child and family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that, subject to obtaining parental consent in accordance with § 303.420(a)(2), each child under the... family in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section. (ii) Qualified personnel must use informed... must ensure that informed clinical opinion may be used as an independent basis to establish a...

  4. 34 CFR 303.321 - Evaluation of the child and assessment of the child and family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that, subject to obtaining parental consent in accordance with § 303.420(a)(2), each child under the... family in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section. (ii) Qualified personnel must use informed... must ensure that informed clinical opinion may be used as an independent basis to establish a...

  5. 34 CFR 303.321 - Evaluation of the child and assessment of the child and family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that, subject to obtaining parental consent in accordance with § 303.420(a)(2), each child under the... family in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section. (ii) Qualified personnel must use informed... must ensure that informed clinical opinion may be used as an independent basis to establish a...

  6. Targeting HER2 aberrations as actionable drivers in lung cancers: phase II trial of the pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor dacomitinib in patients with HER2-mutant or amplified tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kris, M. G.; Camidge, D. R.; Giaccone, G.; Hida, T.; Li, B. T.; O'Connell, J.; Taylor, I.; Zhang, H.; Arcila, M. E.; Goldberg, Z.; Jänne, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background HER2 mutations and amplifications have been identified as oncogenic drivers in lung cancers. Dacomitinib, an irreversible inhibitor of HER2, EGFR (HER1), and HER4 tyrosine kinases, has demonstrated activity in cell-line models with HER2 exon 20 insertions or amplifications. Here, we studied dacomitinib in patients with HER2-mutant or amplified lung cancers. Patients and methods As a prespecified cohort of a phase II study, we included patients with stage IIIB/IV lung cancers with HER2 mutations or amplification. We gave oral dacomitinib at 30–45 mg daily in 28-day cycles. End points included partial response rate, overall survival, and toxicity. Results We enrolled 30 patients with HER2-mutant (n = 26, all in exon 20 including 25 insertions and 1 missense mutation) or HER2-amplified lung cancers (n = 4). Three of 26 patients with tumors harboring HER2 exon 20 mutations [12%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2% to 30%] had partial responses lasting 3+, 11, and 14 months. No partial responses occurred in four patients with tumors with HER2 amplifications. The median overall survival was 9 months from the start of dacomitinib (95% CI 7–21 months) for patients with HER2 mutations and ranged from 5 to 22 months with amplifications. Treatment-related toxicities included diarrhea (90%; grade 3/4: 20%/3%), dermatitis (73%; grade 3/4: 3%/0%), and fatigue (57%; grade 3/4: 3%/0%). One patient died on study likely due to an interaction of dacomitinib with mirtazapine. Conclusions Dacomitinib produced objective responses in patients with lung cancers with specific HER2 exon 20 insertions. This observation validates HER2 exon 20 insertions as actionable targets and justifies further study of HER2-targeted agents in specific HER2-driven lung cancers. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00818441. PMID:25899785

  7. It's a wonderful life: is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born?

    PubMed

    Perry, Ronen

    2007-11-01

    "It's a Wonderful Life," the title of Frank Capra's classic 1946 movie, seems to encapsulate a fundamental all-American conviction. Unsurprisingly, several courts and jurists have applied the movie-title maxim as the ultimate retort to one of the most intriguing questions in modern tort discourse: Is it possible to say that a severely disabled child has been harmed by the mere fact of being born? Wrongful life claimants answer in the affirmative, whereas Capra's aphorism makes a compelling counter-argument. In my opinion, the contrasting views represent equally legitimate subjective beliefs rather than objective truths, so neither may ever prevail. Without a satisfactory solution from conventional wisdom, the life-as-injury debate may be the Gordian knot of tort law. The purpose of this Article is to cut, rather than untie, the knot: Allow the child to recover without challenging or validating the deep-seated perception of life. Part I shows that hostility to liability in tort for wrongful life is almost universal, crossing lands and seas. Part II argues that this demurral is ultimately rooted in the absence of one of the central components of the cause of action. A tort action must fail because of the inability--both logical and practical--to establish "harm" under the traditional definition of this term. Part III opines that because the Gordian knot of tort law cannot be untied, it must be cut altogether. We must replace the traditional tort framework, which gives rise to an insoluble problem, with a more promising contractual framework inspired by the celebrated case of Hawkins v. McGee. In my view, the child may base an action on the claim that the defendant promised the parents that the child would be born without a certain defect and that the promise went unfulfilled. In formal terms, the child is an intended third party beneficiary of the contract between the parents and the consultant in which the latter warranted birth without a particular disability. The

  8. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  9. Fits, pyridoxine, and hyperprolinaemia type II.

    PubMed

    Walker, V; Mills, G A; Peters, S A; Merton, W L

    2000-03-01

    The rare inherited disorder hyperprolinaemia type II presents with fits in childhood, usually precipitated by infection. A diagnosis of hyperprolinaemia type II and vitamin B(6) deficiency was made in a well nourished child with fits. It is thought that pyridoxine deficiency was implicated in her fits and was the result of inactivation of the vitamin by the proline metabolite, pyrroline-5-carboxylate.

  10. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE

    PubMed Central

    LYON, THOMAS D.; DENTE, JULIA A.

    2014-01-01

    After the Supreme Court’s ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant’s right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children’s evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child’s vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities. PMID:25364063

  11. 45 CFR 303.15 - Agreements to use the Federal Parent Locator Service (PLS) in parental kidnapping and child...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Service (PLS) in parental kidnapping and child custody or visitation cases. 303.15 Section 303.15 Public... parental kidnapping and child custody or visitation cases. (a) Definitions. The following definitions apply... responsibilities require access in connection with child custody and parental kidnapping cases; (ii) Store...

  12. Family Policy: Recommendations for State Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romig, Candace L., Ed.

    This publication on family policy reviews federal and state policies and offers recommendations for state action. Initial discussion covers changes in the American family, demographics, and the economy. Issues of family maintenance considered include: family welfare policy and welfare reform; child abuse and neglect; alternatives to out-of-home…

  13. Child Care and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, David B.; And Others

    The booklet examines child care as a major resource for the prevention of child abuse, and is intended to bring child care and child abuse workers together. An introductory section on child abuse is followed by an update on the family, including historical perspectives and a case study illustrating cooperation of parents and day care staff. A…

  14. Beginning Child Care Fact Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, Pat

    These six fact sheets from Child Care Aware are designed to help parents ease their children's transition to child care. The first fact sheet, "Before Your Child's First Day," discusses tips such as: (1) "prepare your child"; (2) read and look at picture books about child care; and (3) "prepare yourself." The second fact sheet, "First Day Tips,"…

  15. Early Mother-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agostino, Micheline

    1986-01-01

    This journal issue presents an overview of mother-child interaction during the first year of the child's life. Contents of the first section, which concern the development of the mother-child relationship, focus on the concept of the maternal instinct, mother and child during intrauterine life, birth of the child, the postnatal period (including…

  16. Child Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William C., Ed.

    Previously published articles on child development and learning are collected in this textbook for college students. Topics include cognitive development, achievement behavior, and social development. (SBT)

  17. 34 CFR 200.42 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... action; and (ii) Any underlying staffing, curriculum, or other problems in the school; (2) Is designed to... curriculum, including the provision of appropriate professional development for all relevant staff, that—...

  18. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  19. Child safety from the perspective of essential needs

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Débora Falleiros; Henrique, Nayara Cristina Pereira; Pancieri, Letícia; Veríssimo, Maria de La Ó Ramallo; Tonete, Vera Lúcia Pamplona; Malone, Mary

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to characterize the maternal care for children under one year of age with a view to child health promotion at home. METHOD: exploratory study with qualitative data analysis, thematic mode, based on the conceptual framework of the essential needs of children, based on interviews recorded with 16 mothers. RESULTS: the analysis of the maternal narratives showed elements that facilitate the promotion of child safety: presence and involvement of the parents, constant surveillance for physical and emotional protection, experiences to stimulate child development, support networks for childcare at home; and inhibiting elements of child safety: limited perception of characteristics of child development and of children's singularities, overprotection and difficulties to set limits. CONCLUSION: the study enhances the understanding of home care in child health promotion, directing professional actions to guarantee ongoing nurturing relationships, protection, respect for individual differences, experiences appropriate to child development, limit setting and construction of stable and supportive social networks. In addition, the relevance of considering the maternal perspective in child health care is considered, as a strategy to apprehend aspects related to the attendance of the growth and development needs, particularly for child health promotion at home. PMID:25296144

  20. Child labor and environmental health: government obligations and human rights.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm.

  1. Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights

    PubMed Central

    Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

  2. Talking to Your Child's Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... help you monitor your child's health explain your child's growth and development and what you can expect diagnose and treat ...

  3. Loss of a child - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Child death - resources; Resources - loss of a child ... The following organizations are good resources for information on the loss of a child: The Compassionate Friends -- www.compassionatefriends.org Bereaved Parents of the USA -- www.bereavedparentsusa. ...

  4. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  5. Unintentional child neglect: literature review and observational study.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B

    2015-06-01

    Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78% of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow

  6. The Child Welfare Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  7. Child Wellness and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  8. Headstart for Every Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Annie L.

    An early learning kit provides a booklet of ten articles on educational head starts for children along with an activity packet for classroom use. The articles deal with: the crucial early school years; emotional preparation of the child; broadening a child's background; selecting toys and games; reading readiness; mathematical skills; learning to…

  9. Bullying and Your Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Christy D.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying happens every day in classrooms and on playgrounds all over the world. Parents, when faced with the fact that their child has become the target of a bully, experience a stream of emotions: anger, fear, the need to protect, and the realization that the child must go back to school or out to play and face the bully again the next day. Many…

  10. Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miljeteig, Per

    1999-01-01

    Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

  11. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  12. Building the Biocentric Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, David

    2002-01-01

    Advocates an environmentally congruent conception of child development and includes Montessori theory as part of a biocentric view where child development connects to the laws of nature. Explains orientations to the world informing development of a biocentric vision of childhood: mastery, immersion, and engagement. Discusses how mastery and…

  13. Every Child, Every Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.; Gabriel, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    We know more now than we ever did before about how to make every child a successful reader, write Allington and Gabriel in this research review. Yet, few students regularly receive the best reading instruction we know how to give. The authors present research supporting their recommendation that every child, every day, should (1) read something he…

  14. Protecting the Hoosier Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Presented are proceedings of a conference designed to provide a statewide forum for the exploration of the issues of child abuse and neglect, to maximize interdisciplinary communication as well as communication between the professional and lay communities of Indiana concerned with child protection, and to develop strategies for future coordinated…

  15. Child Development and Playgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    Four major issues are explored in this study of child development research and its implications for children's playgrounds: (1) theories and philosophies of play; (2) the historical evolution of playgrounds; (3) research on child development, play, and playgrounds; and (4) creating playgrounds that meet children's developmental needs. Discussion…

  16. Child Safety Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

    This document presents a set of child safety curriculum guidelines intended to help prevent child victimization and to promote safer living and learning environments for children and adolescents across America. These guidelines were developed to help educators, law enforcement personnel, and members of other youth-serving agencies teach children…

  17. Tutoring Your Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Joanne

    The parents' role as teacher is important to a child's learning process. Parents tutoring their children are advised to remain positive and patient, be aware of the child's feelings, keep the tutoring time short, select a quiet place away from distractions, use games and manipulative objects rather than more abstract experiences, etc. Informal…

  18. Child Care Resource Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Jeanne, Comp.; Pennington, Marnee, Comp.

    "Child Care Resource Materials" is an annotated bibliography of books, films, and filmstrips on various topics related to the education and development of young children. Categories include: learning activities for children; caring for children - infants through adolescents and children with special needs; parent-child relationships; day care -…

  19. Child Transportation Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  20. Child pornography: a hidden dimension of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Pierce, R L

    1984-01-01

    In the decade of the 70s, much was learned about abused and neglected children and their families. Public outcry demanded action at the state, regional and national level hoping that the effort would generate more effective methods of identification, intervention and treatment. Consequently, researchers and theoreticians initiated efforts that were aimed at providing a better understanding of why some parents abuse or neglect their children while others do not. In spite of all the energy and time, one form of child abuse continues to flourish relatively unnoticed--child pornography, or as it is more commonly known in the trade, "kiddie" or "chicken" porn. Because of the dearth of information about the subject, this paper addresses five key issues: Who are the children who become the young stars of pornographic films? How many children are estimated to be involved in this activity? What are the presumed effects of such involvement on children? Legal issues related to the control of the pornographic industry; and What is the challenge to social work and other helping professionals?

  1. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  2. Shaping America's Future II: Proceedings of the National Forum To Develop Collaborative Approaches to Providing Early Child Care and Transforming American Society (New York, New York, September 25, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Richard, Ed.

    Twenty of America's foremost leaders from business, education, and government met to develop a strategy for assisting the country's disadvantaged children and to send an action plan to President Bush for consideration at his education summit. The meeting's goal was to format active and practical models for the following basic ideas developed at an…

  3. A bill to allow funds under title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 to be used to provide training to school personnel regarding how to recognize child sexual abuse.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2012-05-14

    05/14/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3131) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. 49 CFR 385.705 - Expedited action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.705 Expedited action. (a) A non-North... involved in, through action or omission, a hazardous materials reportable incident, as described under 49... certain radioactive materials (Class 7). (ii) Any quantity of certain explosives (Class 1, Division 1.1,...

  5. 20 CFR 627.902 - Governor's actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governor's actions. 627.902 Section 627.902... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Transition Provisions § 627.902 Governor's actions. The...) Modify the Governor's coordination and special services plan in accordance with instructions issued...

  6. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do. PMID:27667859

  7. Conscious Action/Zombie Action.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co-conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do.

  8. Child Development Associate. Child Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    The purpose of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is to help the CDA intern understand the factors and principles which affect the total growth and development of children. Early sections of the module stipulate the module's competency-based objectives, define terms, and suggest procedures by which…

  9. Child Advocacy: Implications for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Brenda G.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the many diverse activities going on under the child advocacy label in order to determine if there was anything new or different about this phenomenon and to attempt some conceptual ordering of the field. Interviews were conducted with a number of people knowledgeable in children's service, and an attempt…

  10. Covariant action for type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2016-07-01

    Taking clues from the recent construction of the covariant action for type II and heterotic string field theories, we construct a manifestly Lorentz covariant action for type IIB supergravity, and discuss its gauge fixing maintaining manifest Lorentz invariance. The action contains a (non-gravitating) free 4-form field besides the usual fields of type IIB supergravity. This free field, being completely decoupled from the interacting sector, has no physical consequence.

  11. Clinical, imaging and pathological correlates of a hereditary deficit in verb and action processing.

    PubMed

    Bak, Thomas H; Yancopoulou, Despina; Nestor, Peter J; Xuereb, John H; Spillantini, Maria G; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hodges, John R

    2006-02-01

    Selective verb and noun deficits have been observed in a number of neurological conditions and their occurrence has been interpreted as evidence for different neural networks underlying the processing of specific word categories. We describe the first case of a familial occurrence of a selective deficit of verb processing. Father (Individual I) and son (Individual II) developed a movement disorder resembling progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and associated with dementia. A second child of Individual II remained symptom-free on consecutive examinations. The dissociation between the processing of nouns and verbs in Individuals I and II was confirmed with different methods, including a longitudinal assessment of naming, comprehension, picture and word association, as well as a lexical decision task. The difference remained stable on follow-up testing despite overall deterioration. It was associated with left-sided frontal hypometabolism on FDG-PET imaging (Individual II) and with ubiquitin-positive inclusions on post-mortem examination (Individual I). The association of a selective verb deficit with a familial movement disorder raises the question whether related genetic factors might influence both movements and their abstract conceptual representations in the form of action verbs. By demonstrating a link between pathology, genetics, imaging and abstract cognitive impairments this study advances our understanding of degenerative brain disease with implications for both neuroscience and clinical practice.

  12. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  13. Child maltreatment in India.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  14. 45 CFR 284.35 - What action will we take in response to the State's assessment and other information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STATE OR TERRITORY'S CHILD POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM § 284.35 What action will we... assessment along with other available information. If we determine that the increase in the child poverty... determine that the increase in the State's child poverty rate of five percent or more is the result of...

  15. 45 CFR 284.35 - What action will we take in response to the State's assessment and other information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STATE OR TERRITORY'S CHILD POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM § 284.35 What action will we... assessment along with other available information. If we determine that the increase in the child poverty... determine that the increase in the State's child poverty rate of five percent or more is the result of...

  16. 45 CFR 284.35 - What action will we take in response to the State's assessment and other information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...'S CHILD POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM § 284.35 What action will we take in response... other available information. If we determine that the increase in the child poverty rate of five percent... increase in the State's child poverty rate of five percent or more is the result of the TANF program(s)...

  17. 45 CFR 284.35 - What action will we take in response to the State's assessment and other information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STATE OR TERRITORY'S CHILD POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM § 284.35 What action will we... assessment along with other available information. If we determine that the increase in the child poverty... determine that the increase in the State's child poverty rate of five percent or more is the result of...

  18. 45 CFR 284.35 - What action will we take in response to the State's assessment and other information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...'S CHILD POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM § 284.35 What action will we take in response... other available information. If we determine that the increase in the child poverty rate of five percent... increase in the State's child poverty rate of five percent or more is the result of the TANF program(s)...

  19. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology.

  20. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders.

  1. ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming. Images p452-a PMID:2507011

  2. A Psychodynamic Child Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    Research showing psychodynamic child therapy to be less effective than other forms of child treatment have used outcome measures focusing on symptomatic and behavioral change rather than on psychodynamic processes. A child therapy assessment procedure than measures the psychological functioning of the child in a psychodynamically meaningful way is…

  3. Child Abuse Amendments of 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The booklet presents the report of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor regarding the 1983 Child Abuse Amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act of 1978. The Amendment expands the definition of child abuse to include abuse by…

  4. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  5. 16 CFR 312.6 - Right of parent to review personal information provided by a child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE § 312.6 Right of parent to... parent of that child, taking into account available technology; and (ii) Not be unduly burdensome to...

  6. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing anticipatory guidance and child maltreatment risk factor screening will be described. The modalities and strengths and weaknesses of community-based prevention programs will be discussed, and providers will be given tools to identify the effectiveness of available community-based programs. At a broader level, the article will describe ways that pediatricians can advocate at the local, state, and national level for policies and programs that support families and children. PMID:25242703

  7. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... C. §2256(8)) defines child pornography as any visual depiction, including any photograph, film, video, picture or ... sexually explicit conduct, where the: Production of the visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging ...

  8. Concussion - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000125.htm Concussion in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Your child was treated for a concussion . This is a mild brain injury that can ...

  9. Caffeine and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Caffeine and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Caffeine and ... 12-ounce (355-milliliter) can of soda. How Caffeine Affects Kids A stimulant that affects kids and ...

  10. Calcium and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... the nutrients needed, talk to your doctor about changing their diet or using vitamin supplements. continue Good ...

  11. Weaning Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... cup, or maybe even just a cuddle. Try changing your daily routine so that you're otherwise ...

  12. Toilet Teaching Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... when traveling, around the birth of a sibling , changing from the crib to the bed, moving to ...

  13. Child Safety Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... contacting the manufacturer, or by looking up safety complaints records on your child's safety seat at www. ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  14. Disciplining Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Give your child one warning (unless it is aggression). If it happens again, send her to the ... are less likely to be consistent. Spanking increases aggression and anger instead of teaching responsibility. Parents may ...

  15. Your Child's Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding ... wear glasses and contacts. Keep these tips in mind for kids who wear glasses: Let kids pick ...

  16. Toilet Training Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... sitting on the potty chair, you may begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep ... education, patient information, potty training, stool soiling, timing method, toilet training Family Health, Infants and Toddlers January ...

  17. Child Labour in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The question of child labor in Africa is complicated by the failures of the educational system, family relations, traditional forms of apprenticeship, proliferation of the informal economic sector, and continuing existence of a rural economy. Hazardous working conditions prevail. (SK)

  18. Dental care - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... hygiene. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent . 10th ed. St. ... Updated by: Michael Kapner, DDS, general and aesthetic dentistry, Norwalk Medical Center, Norwalk, CT. Review provided by ...

  19. Your Child's Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual loss and whiteness in the pupil. Infantile cataracts can occur in newborns. A cataract is a clouding of the eye's lens. Congenital ... a child more likely to develop retinoblastoma or cataracts, may require kids to have eye exams at ...

  20. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    MedlinePlus

    ... snacks. The child athlete, however, will have higher energy and fluid requirements. Kids and teens who are ... consume more food to keep up with increased energy demands. Most athletes will naturally eat the right ...

  1. Well-child visits

    MedlinePlus

    ... listening to heart, breath, and stomach sounds) Heart sounds Infantile reflexes and deep tendon reflexes as the child gets older Neonatal jaundice -- first few visits only Palpation Percussion Standard ophthalmic exam Temperature measurement (see also normal body temperature ) Immunization information: ...

  2. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... For all questions please contact the AACAP Communications & Marketing Coordinator, ext. 154. If you need immediate assistance, please dial 911. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. ... {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  3. Asthma - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  4. Scoliosis surgery - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... will use steel rods, hooks, screws, or other metal devices to straighten your child's spine and support ... will often be put in to replace them. Metal instruments, such as rods, screws, hooks, or wires ...

  5. A Child in Our Midst: A Study Course on Keeping Children Safe From Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvation Army. New York, NY.

    This Leader's Guide prepared for the Salvation Army's Home League aims at helping community groups (particularly those which are church related) recognize the symptoms of child abuse and determine their course of action in preventing such abuse. Six forms of child abuse are cited: physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional…

  6. Child Abuse and Neglect in Japan: Coin-Operated-Locker Babies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouno, Akihisa; Johnson, Charles F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews Japan's child abuse/neglect history, including the incidence of "coin-operated-locker babies," where murdered infants are hidden in railway and airport lockers, and actions taken to reduce this problem. The incidence of child abuse in Japan and the United States is compared, and social influences on the number of…

  7. School-Based Interventions with Child and Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Carol; Christenberry, Nola J.

    The harmful effects of sexual abuse on children are no longer debatable, yet adequate legal action and protective services often are not provided for child and adolescent victims. With the rate of confirmed child sexual abuse victims escalating to more than 350,000 cases per year, the role of schools in meeting the specific needs of these children…

  8. State Developments in Child Care, Early Education, and School-Age Care, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Helen; Behr, Andrea; Schulman, Karen

    This report provides highlights and updates regarding state actions on child care and early education issues during 2000. The information in the report was collected by means of written and telephone surveys with advocates or state child care administrators in each state. The final draft was reviewed for verification by advocates or a state child…

  9. 75 FR 41140 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Child Nutrition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Child Nutrition Database AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... industry to update and expand the Child Nutrition Database in support of the School Meals Initiative...

  10. 78 FR 31530 - Applications for New Awards; Child Care Access Means Parents in School Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Parents in School Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information: Child Care Access Means Parents in School (CCAMPIS) Program Notice inviting... parents in postsecondary education through provision of campus-based child care services. Priorities:...

  11. 75 FR 42453 - Office of Child Support Enforcement; Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Portal,'' System No. 09-80-0387. DATES: The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) invites... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Office of Child Support Enforcement; Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of Child Support Enforcement, ACF, HHS. ACTION: Notice...

  12. 16 CFR 312.6 - Right of parent to review personal information provided by a child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... parent of that child, taking into account available technology; and (ii) Not be unduly burdensome to the... information provided by a child. 312.6 Section 312.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE § 312.6 Right of parent...

  13. 16 CFR 312.6 - Right of parent to review personal information provided by a child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... parent of that child, taking into account available technology; and (ii) Not be unduly burdensome to the... information provided by a child. 312.6 Section 312.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE § 312.6 Right of parent...

  14. 16 CFR 312.6 - Right of parent to review personal information provided by a child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... parent of that child, taking into account available technology; and (ii) Not be unduly burdensome to the... information provided by a child. 312.6 Section 312.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE § 312.6 Right of parent...

  15. 16 CFR 312.6 - Right of parent to review personal information provided by a child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... parent of that child, taking into account available technology; and (ii) Not be unduly burdensome to the... information provided by a child. 312.6 Section 312.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE § 312.6 Right of parent...

  16. 49 CFR 571.225 - Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... van-type vehicles, vehicles manufactured to be sold exclusively to the U.S. Postal Service, shuttle..., other than Type I or Type II seat belts, that is involved in transferring loads generated by a child restraint system to the vehicle structure. Child restraint anchorage system means a vehicle system that...

  17. The Educator's Role in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The manual delineates the roles of the educator in child abuse and neglect identification, treatment, and prevention. Chapter I addresses the nature, extent, causes, and effects of child abuse and neglect. Chapter II explains why educators should be involved with discussion of legal and ethical issues relating to the problem. A third chapter…

  18. The Enough Abuse Campaign: building the movement to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Schober, Daniel J; Fawcett, Stephen B; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing a state-level infrastructure for child sexual abuse prevention, (b) assessing child sexual abuse perceptions and public opinion, (c) developing local infrastructures in three communities and implementing training programs focused on preventing perpetration of child sexual abuse, (d) facilitating changes in local communities to child-sexual-abuse-related systems, and (e) inviting Massachusetts residents to join an advocacy-based movement to prevent child sexual abuse. This case study concludes with future directions for the campaign and topics for future research related to child sexual abuse.

  19. Wormholes and Child Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guendelman, E. I.

    Evidence to the case that classical gravitation provides the clue to make sense out of quantum gravity is presented. The key observation is the existence in classical gravitation of child universe solutions or "almost" solutions, "almost" because of some singularity problems. The difficulties of these child universe solutions that are due to their generic singularity problems will be very likely be cured by quantum effects, just like for example "almost" instanton solutions are made relevant in gauge theories with the breaking of conformal invariance. Some well-motivated modifcations of general relativity where these singularity problems are absent even at the classical level are discussed. High energy density excitations, responsible for UV divergences in quantum field theories, including quantum gravity, are likely to be the source of child universes which carry them out of the original space-time. This decoupling could prevent these high UV excitations from having any influence on physical amplitudes. Child universe production could therefore be responsible for UV regularization in quantum field theories which take into account semiclassically gravitational effects. Child universe production in the last stages of black hole evaporation, the prediction of absence of trans-Planckian primordial perturbations, connection to the minimum length hypothesis, and in particular the connection to the maximal curvature hypothesis are discussed. Some discussion of superexcited states in the case these states such as Kaluza-Klein excitations are carried out. Finally, the possibility of obtaining "string like" effects from the wormholes associated with the child universes is discussed.

  20. Photobilirubin II.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, R; Buckley, D G; Hamzetash, D; Hawkes, G E; Ioannou, S; Stoll, M S

    1984-01-01

    An improved preparation of photobilirubin II in ammoniacal methanol is described. Evidence is presented which distinguishes between the two structures proposed earlier for photobilirubin II in favour of the cycloheptadienyl structure. Nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement measurements with bilirubin IX alpha and photobilirubin II in dimethyl sulphoxide are complicated by the occurrence of negative and zero effects. The partition coefficient of photobilirubin II between chloroform and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) is 0.67. PMID:6743241

  1. The Girl Child and the Family: An Action Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anandalakshmy, S., Comp.

    This report describes a nationwide study of female children and the family in rural India. The objectives of the study were to generate data on the situation of female children; to identify the major problems related to their status; to start a series of programs to help remedy those shortcomings; and to assist communities, and women in…

  2. Advancing Research to Action in Global Child Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Anna E; Collins, Pamela Y

    2015-10-01

    Most mental and substance use disorders begin during childhood and adolescence and are the leading cause of disability in this population. Prenatal and postnatal genetic, familial, social, and environmental exposures interact to influence risk for mental disorders and trajectories of cognitive development. Efforts to advance prevention and implement early interventions to reduce the burden of mental disorders require a global research workforce, intersectoral cooperation, attention to environmental contexts, and the development and testing of evidence-based interventions. The authors describe challenges and resources for building mental health research capacity that stands to influence children's mental health outcomes around the globe.

  3. What Child Analysis Can Teach Us about Psychoanalytic Technique.

    PubMed

    Ablon, Steven Luria

    2014-01-01

    Child analysis has much to teach us about analytic technique. Children have an innate, developmentally driven sense of analytic process. Children in analysis underscore the importance of an understanding and belief in the therapeutic action of play, the provisional aspects of play, and that not all play will be understood. Each analysis requires learning a new play signature that is constantly reorganized. Child analysis emphasizes the emergence and integration of dissociated states, the negotiation of self-other relationships, the importance of co-creation, and the child's awareness of the analyst's sensibility. Child analysis highlights the robust nature of transference and how working through and repairing is related to the initiation of coordinated patterns of high predictability in the context of deep attachments. I will illustrate these and other ideas in the description of the analysis of a nine-year-old boy.

  4. A Deaf Child in the Family: New Reasons to Hope?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Emily

    1992-01-01

    The mother of a child deafened by spinal meningitis in infancy discusses her emotional response to the diagnosis, including initial shock, guilt, and anger, followed by acceptance and constructive action. Early intervention services which center on family services and the importance of good communication between professionals and parents are…

  5. The Specter of Child Abuse in Realistic Fiction for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggett, Carolyn

    1985-01-01

    Following a brief introduction to the topic of child abuse (why children are abused, who are abused, who are abusers, what forms abuse takes, what sources of help are available), this essay examines 16 children's fiction books and comments on the action of the characters. Five references are included. (EJS)

  6. Promoting a Culture of Thinking in the Young Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Angela K.

    2008-01-01

    Conscious of the interplay between nature and nurture in determining a child's individuality and success in life, the author embarked a group of teachers in an action research project towards nurturing a culture of thinking in young children. Considering the positive effects of routines in early learning experiences, the research consisted in…

  7. Medical Problems. Child Health and Safety Series (Module IV).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides guidelines and information on the detection, treatment, and control of medical problems of children. Introductory materials focus on signs of illness which carepersons can recognize. Section II concentrates on insect, animal and human bites. Section III discusses skin…

  8. Histamine-releasing effect of a corticotrophin derivative. II. Mechanism of action of histamine release by C 44 680-Ba, compared with that of Cpd. 48/80, dextran and triton.

    PubMed

    Rüegg, M

    1979-06-01

    The mechanism of the histamine-liberating action of the synthetic polypeptide C 44 680-Ba, an alkyl-prolyl derivative of beta 1-19 corticotrophin, was investigated and compared with those of Compound 48/80, dextran, Melittin and Triton X-100. It was found that the release of histamine from rat peritoneal cells induced by the polypeptide is dependent on temperature, pH, calcium ions and energy-providing processes. In regard to these criteria, the mode of action of this histamine liberator resembles that of Compound 48/80 but is quite distinct from that of the unspecific substance Triton X-100.

  9. [Child labour: a social problem that we are committed to].

    PubMed

    Cutri, Adrián; Hammermüller, Erica; Zubieta, Ana; Müller Opet, Beatriz; Miguelez, Lilia

    2012-08-01

    Child labor is a complex problem that violates the fundamental rights of children and affects their psychophysical development. Child labor affects 215 million children in the world and 115 million perform activities defined as the "worst forms of child labor". Most child labor is in agriculture (60%), where the majority are unpaid family workers, compared to 26% in services and 7% in industry. Argentina has adopted the abolitionist position, promoting prevention and eradication within an inclusive public policy aimed to all children can exercise their rights. The Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría endorses this approach and proposes a course of action: the health team training, and dissemination of the risks of child labor and occupational teenager safety standards. As pediatricians we must be involved in defending children rights, and be able to detect any situation of child labor, and protect the health of children and adolescents. The joint interaction with family, community and other sectors of society will strengthen the network needed to implement child labor eradication policies.

  10. PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Charles H.

    1955-01-01

    Parents and doctors have an obligation to supply children with an emotional diet leading to their eventual maturity. This is as important to the child as is his physical guidance. The proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins of a child's emotional diet are: (1) the need for security; (2) the need to achieve social adaptability; (3) the need for success; and (4) the need for independence. In helping parents provide their children with these major guideposts along the road of character development toward maturity, physicians have a challenge and opportunity for real service to the humanities—a field of endeavor far behind science in human progress. PMID:14390004

  11. Nurturing a child's spirituality.

    PubMed

    Pfund, R

    2000-01-01

    Nurturing a child's spirituality should be an integral part of holistic care. The concept of spirituality is linked to the child's cognitive, social, psycho-sexual and moral development. Knowledge of childhood spirituality can help to support children coping with traumatic life-events. The expression of beliefs and feelings that encompass spirituality can be facilitated through literature and music and through other strategies. Educators need to empower professionals to have the awareness, emotional resources and skills to ensure that they can be spiritually supportive

  12. Jewish and non-Jewish World War II child and adolescent survivors at 60 years after war: effects of parental loss and age at exposure on well-being.

    PubMed

    Lis-Turlejska, Maja; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Plichta, Anna; Benight, Charles C

    2008-07-01

    The study investigated the effects of World War II (WWII) on psychological and social functioning of Jewish and non-Jewish survivors 60 years after the war. The authors hypothesized that the level of posttraumatic symptoms, depression, and social isolation of survivors who were at least 5 years old (but younger than 18) in the last year of WWII would be predicted by the extent of traumatic loss, (i.e., death of parent[s]) and age at the end of WWII. Data were collected from 211 individuals living in Poland, ages 66-80; 30% were Jewish Holocaust survivors. Current posttraumatic stress disorder was almost 2 times higher for Jewish (55.6%) than for non-Jewish survivors (30.9%), whereas no differences were found for depression and social isolation. Parental loss during the war predicted a global decrement of well-being (across measured outcome indices). For certain subgroups (e.g., Jewish survivors who had not lost their parents during WWII), war trauma may have less profound effects if most of the trauma exposure occurred during an earlier age (i.e., <5 years).

  13. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  14. Kindergarten Child Care Experiences and Child Achievement and Socioemotional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claessens, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Young children's experiences outside of both home and school are important for their development. As women have entered the labor force, child care has become an increasingly important context for child development. Child care experiences prior to school entry have been well-documented as important influences on children's academic and…

  15. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  16. Dateline Child Care: President Unveils Child Care Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Discusses such topics as President Bush's proposed low-income tax credits for child care; the Act for Better Child Care Services; the coming Americanization of child care in Great Britain; and state courts' upholding of church day care licensing exemptions. (BB)

  17. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  18. Concussion - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about concussion - child; Mild brain injury - what to ask your doctor - child ... school people I should tell about my child's concussion? Can my child stay for a full day? ...

  19. When to use the emergency room - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency department - child; Urgent care - child; ER - when to use ... How quickly does your child need care? If your child could die or be ... team come to you right away if you cannot wait, such as for: ...

  20. The day of surgery for your child

    MedlinePlus

    Same-day surgery - child; Ambulatory surgery - child; Surgical procedure - child ... The anesthesia and surgery team will talk with you and your child before surgery. You may meet with them at an appointment before ...

  1. Child Labor in America's History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  2. Birth of a Second Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... seemed so difficult with your first child — breastfeeding, changing diapers, handling illness — will seem like second nature ...

  3. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard to please, aggressiveness Trouble sleeping Vague physical complaints CHILD NEGLECT These are examples of child neglect: ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  4. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 9 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ... bye" starts pointing to objects Movement and Physical Development sits without support, pulls to stand, and walks ...

  5. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions: Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Select Free Subscriptions This survey is powered by SurveyGizmo's online survey software . Please take my survey now Children’s Bureau Child ...

  6. Parent and Child Living Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushaw, David R.

    1978-01-01

    Parent and child living centers offer a program to improve parenting skills with areas of learning including child growth and development, family management, home care and repair, and personal growth and development. (MM)

  7. Child maltreatment: every nurse's business.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline

    2015-03-18

    Every nurse has a responsibility for protecting children, even nurses who do not work directly with children. However, nurses may be reluctant to deal with child maltreatment issues because they do not want to get things wrong or make a situation worse. The aim of this article is to assist nurses in their child protection role. It describes the different types of child maltreatment, the risk factors and potential consequences. The nurse's role in recognising and responding to suspected child maltreatment is discussed.

  8. 29 CFR 575.6 - Procedure for action on an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WAIVER OF CHILD LABOR PROVISIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT OF 10 AND 11 YEAR OLD MINORS IN HAND... final civil money penalty is outstanding under section 16(e) of the Act for violation of the child labor... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedure for action on an application. 575.6 Section...

  9. 29 CFR 575.6 - Procedure for action on an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WAIVER OF CHILD LABOR PROVISIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT OF 10 AND 11 YEAR OLD MINORS IN HAND... final civil money penalty is outstanding under section 16(e) of the Act for violation of the child labor... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedure for action on an application. 575.6 Section...

  10. 29 CFR 575.6 - Procedure for action on an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WAIVER OF CHILD LABOR PROVISIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT OF 10 AND 11 YEAR OLD MINORS IN HAND... final civil money penalty is outstanding under section 16(e) of the Act for violation of the child labor... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedure for action on an application. 575.6 Section...

  11. 29 CFR 575.6 - Procedure for action on an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WAIVER OF CHILD LABOR PROVISIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT OF 10 AND 11 YEAR OLD MINORS IN HAND... final civil money penalty is outstanding under section 16(e) of the Act for violation of the child labor... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure for action on an application. 575.6 Section...

  12. 29 CFR 575.6 - Procedure for action on an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WAIVER OF CHILD LABOR PROVISIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT OF 10 AND 11 YEAR OLD MINORS IN HAND... final civil money penalty is outstanding under section 16(e) of the Act for violation of the child labor... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedure for action on an application. 575.6 Section...

  13. 45 CFR 284.45 - What are the contents and duration of the corrective action plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM § 284.45 What are the contents and duration of the... manner in which the State or Territory will reduce its child poverty rate; (2) A description of the... corrective action plan until it determines and notifies us that its child poverty rate, as determined...

  14. 45 CFR 284.45 - What are the contents and duration of the corrective action plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM § 284.45 What are the contents and duration of the... manner in which the State or Territory will reduce its child poverty rate; (2) A description of the... corrective action plan until it determines and notifies us that its child poverty rate, as determined...

  15. 45 CFR 284.45 - What are the contents and duration of the corrective action plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM § 284.45 What are the contents and duration of the... manner in which the State or Territory will reduce its child poverty rate; (2) A description of the... corrective action plan until it determines and notifies us that its child poverty rate, as determined...

  16. 45 CFR 284.45 - What are the contents and duration of the corrective action plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM § 284.45 What are the contents and duration of the... manner in which the State or Territory will reduce its child poverty rate; (2) A description of the... corrective action plan until it determines and notifies us that its child poverty rate, as determined...

  17. 45 CFR 284.45 - What are the contents and duration of the corrective action plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM § 284.45 What are the contents and duration of the... manner in which the State or Territory will reduce its child poverty rate; (2) A description of the... corrective action plan until it determines and notifies us that its child poverty rate, as determined...

  18. Social Structure and Child Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferriss, Abbott L.

    2006-01-01

    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  19. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 15 Months A A A Toddlers this age are learning ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 15 Months Delayed Speech or Language Development Nutrition Guide for ...

  20. What Works in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluger, Miriam P., Ed.; Alexander, Gina, Ed.; Curtis, Patrick A., Ed.

    Noting the importance of identifying the effectiveness of child welfare programs for future policy planning, this book examines features of successful programs. The book is presented in six sections: family preservation and family support services, child protective services, out-of-home care, adoption, child care, and adolescent services. Each…

  1. Early Child Care in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Alice; Komlosi, Sandor

    The theoretical conceptions of the child and the socialization processes involved in a socialist pedagogical theory are described in this monograph on early child care in Hungary. In emphasizing the partnership between family and state in the care of the young child, this book traces the central role played by government planning in the midst of…

  2. Child Care Health Connections, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Eva, Ed.; Zamani, Rahman, Ed.; Evinger, Sara, Ed.; Dailey, Lyn, Ed.; Sherman, Marsha, Ed.; Oku, Cheryl, Ed.; Kunitz, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the six 2002 issues of a bimonthly newsletter on children's health for California's child care professionals. The newsletter provides information on current and emerging health and safety issues relevant to child care providers and links the health, safety, and child care communities. Regular features include columns…

  3. Predictors of Child Caregiver Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Nancy Carnahan; Lowther, Malcolm

    This study examined the relationship between child caregiver commitment and the caregiver's personal characteristics and work experience, the characteristics of the job, and the quality of the child care center. Questionnaires that included several measurement instruments were sent to 381 full-time child caregivers in 94 centers. Caregiver…

  4. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 15 Months Print A A A en español ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 15 ... Speech or Language Development Nutrition Guide for Toddlers Safe Exploring for Toddlers ...

  5. The Only Child. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Karen

    Smaller families in general (including the one-child option) are becoming more popular. This ERIC Digest focuses on changing trends in family size, reasons for choosing to have only one child, differences between only children and those with siblings, and the advantages of being an only child. Changing family patterns, economic concerns, and new…

  6. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  7. The "Discovery" of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfohl, Stephen J.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys the history of social reaction to child abuse, discusses the cultural values promoting the protection of children, points out how much pediatric radiology benefited from its "discovery" of "the battered child syndrome" in the early sixties, and concludes that the labeling of child abusers as "sick" has shielded them from criminal…

  8. A Preventative Child Abuse Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Bette Unger; And Others

    This article describes the Child Development and Parenting Program (CDP), a preventative child abuse program that assists single women who are pregnant or have preschool children to cope constructively with the problems of single parenting. The short-term goals of the program, i.e., providing education in child development and parenting skills and…

  9. Fostering Mother-Child Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Lorraine

    1988-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the replication of the Mother Child Home Program by a Canadian child welfare agency in a rural setting to determine its effectiveness in fostering a positive emotional relationship between mother and child with families at risk of abuse and neglect. (BB)

  10. Child Care and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Unemployment has topped 7% nationally and economists predict it will approach 10% by 2010. Child care programs experience a trickle-down effect: when businesses cut back hours or lay people off, parents cut back child care hours or pull children from programs. "We're seeing more and more families lose their child care assistance and have nowhere…

  11. Campus Child Care News, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Marion F., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of the three 1998 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the National Coalition for Campus Child Care Centers (NCCCC) and providing a forum for news, research, and information concerning campus child care centers. The February issue contains stories on the White House Conference on Child Care, registration…

  12. Listening to Mothers II as a Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Grauer, Ann F

    2007-01-01

    The Listening to Mothers II report is not only a document; it is a tool that is accessible to childbirth educators. By becoming familiar with its contents, educators can use the information to help expectant parents think about options available to them and inspire them to use evidence-based information as they make choices for the birth of their child.

  13. Time Machines and the Principle of Self-Consistency as a Consequence of the Principle of Stationary Action (ii):. the Cauchy Problem for a Self-Interacting Relativistic Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlini, A.; Novikov, I. D.

    We consider the action principle to derive the classical, relativistic motion of a selfinteracting particle in a 4D Lorentzian spacetime containing a wormhole and which allows the existence of closed time-like curves. In particular, we study the case of a pointlike particle subject to a “hard-sphere” self-interaction potential and which can traverse the wormhole an arbitrary number of times, and show that the only possible trajectories for which the classical action is stationary are those which are globally self-consistent. Generically, the multiplicity of these trajectories (defined as the number of self-consistent solutions to the equations of motion beginning with given Cauchy data) is finite, and it becomes infinite if certain constraints on the same initial data are satisfied. This confirms the previous conclusions (for a nonrelativistic model) by Echeverria, Klinkhammer and Thorne that the Cauchy initial value problem in the presence of a wormhole “time machine” is classically “ill-posed” (far too many solutions). Our results further extend the recent claim by Novikov et al. that the “principle of self-consistency” is a natural consequence of the “principle of minimal action.”

  14. Nurturing the Whole Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Manya; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Ten articles considering ways in which to help in the development of the whole child address play, childhood fears, making children feel loved, how parents can help children learn, decision making, peer pressure, competition, sports, and reading materials for adolescents. (CB)

  15. The Migrant Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Manuel C.

    A migrant child is one who has moved with his family from one school district to another during the preceding 12 months so that a parent or other immediate family member might secure employment in agricultural or fishery activity. In California, the 92,000 migrants living in 48 of the state's 58 counties include Chicanos, Mexican Americans,…

  16. Measuring Child Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Elinor; Post, Brechtje; Astruc, Lluisa; Prieto, Pilar; Vanrell, Maria del Mar

    2012-01-01

    Interval-based rhythm metrics were applied to the speech of English, Catalan and Spanish 2, 4 and 6 year-olds, and compared with the (adult-directed) speech of their mothers. Results reveal that child speech does not fall into a well-defined rhythmic class: for all three languages, it is more "vocalic" (higher %V) than adult speech and…

  17. Prevent Child Abuse America

    MedlinePlus

    ... corner. Mentor Advocate Donate Parenting Tip of the Week – Know the Protective Factors Last week we wrote about recognizing warning signs of child ... Donate Our Latest Resources Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Knowing the Protective ...

  18. Literacy and Child Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Sandra Josephs

    Fourteen examples of "literacy events" in the reading development of one preschool-age boy are described by the boy's mother, a parent-researcher who conducted a case study of her son's interaction with his literate home environment. Field notes were kept in a household diary, and audiotapes were made of the child's storytelling and…

  19. Child Welfare Policy Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

  20. The Multiply Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, James M., Ed.; Anderson, Robert M., Ed.

    Articles presented in the area of the medical and educational challenge of the multiply handicapped child are an overview of the problem, the increasing challenge, congenital malformations, children whose mothers had rubella, prematurity and deafness, the epidemiology of reproductive casualty, and new education for old problems. Discussions of…

  1. The Gifted Dyslexic Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eide, Brock; Eide, Fernette

    2009-01-01

    A major reason why dyslexia is likely to be missed or mislabeled in an intellectually gifted child is the lack of a specific, clearly recognized definition to enable diagnosis of dyslexia. It's crucial that adults working with gifted students understand that average or even above reading comprehension does not by itself guarantee that a gifted…

  2. Understanding Fatal Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Ralph A.; Gaughan, Daniel C.

    1995-01-01

    Medical, social service, and coroner reports were reviewed for 14 cases of fatal child abuse and neglect identified at a children's hospital from 1988 to 1992. Median age was 6.5 months. Six families had prior protective service involvement (though four of these had involved a sibling). The cause of death in all cases was blunt impact head injury.…

  3. The Child Whisperer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Dane L.

    2012-01-01

    Unquestionably, Maria Montessori's insights into child development were both innate and learned, derived from her many years of working with children. Her work, practices, philosophy, and passion have staying power that, so far, spans a century and are a testament to her dedication and abilities. In this article, the author explains why he sees…

  4. No Child Left Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2003-01-01

    A court case involving a student classified as a child with a disability and her battle to be named valedictorian of her graduating class. Questions the district's determination that this gifted student needed special education and the grade inflation indicated by undue competition for the extra thousandth of a point GPA. (Contains 11 references.)…

  5. Who Is This Child?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    An Idaho education dean recounts a moving encounter with a fatherless first-grader while visiting his grandson in Eugene, Oregon. Envisioning a deadbeat dad and a burned-out mother, he pondered the statistical odds of this child graduating from college. However, the girl's warm welcome from her teacher helped revise his hopes about the little…

  6. Child Psychopathology, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Eric J.; Barkley, Russell A.

    This text integrates state-of-the-art theory and empirical research on a wide range of child and adolescent disorders. Featuring contributions from leading scholars and clinicians, the volume provides comprehensive coverage of the biological, psychological, and social-contextual determinants of childhood problems. Each chapter focuses on a…

  7. Child Study Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk County Public Schools, Bartow, FL.

    This manual from the Polk County Public Schools in Bartow, Florida, was developed for school personnel and parents to aid in their efforts to develop successful behavioral and academic interventions to enhance the educational outcomes for students. Section 1 describes the child study team which is comprised of an administrator, guidance counselor,…

  8. Feeding the Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary Ann Harvey, Ed.

    Presented are 35 brief papers on nutrition and handicapped children (particularly mentally retarded children) which were given at nutrition workshops at the Child Development Center of the University of Tennessee. Topics such as the following are examined: interdisciplinary approaches to nutrition services; the relationship of social work,…

  9. The Overscheduled Child?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Before all those extracurricular activities and community-service projects listed on college applications, there were play groups, library hours, Pop Warner football games, swimming lessons, ballet, drama, soccer. Not to mention preparation for high-stakes tests mandated by the No Child Left Behind law, or the mounting minutes, even hours, of…

  10. Your Child's Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be a sign of anxiety , depression , or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) . Nose Picking Nose picking appears to be ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Nosebleeds Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Teaching Your Child Self-Control Temper Tantrums How ...

  11. Child Care Center Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Health and Human Services, Lincoln.

    This guide enumerates regulations for anyone caring for four or more children, from families other than their own, for compensation and on a regular basis, in the state of Nebraska. The purpose of the regulations is to protect and promote the health and safety of children in child care facilities. The first section of the guide lists specific…

  12. Helping Your Overweight Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Currently, at least one child in five is overweight. Although children have fewer health problems from weight than adults, overweight children are at high risk for many health problems including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and stroke. Several factors are cited as to why children become overweight. Genetics, lack of exercise, and…

  13. Child Development Associate. Musicology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    One of a series of 18, this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module provides a guide to promoting acute hearing and sound discrimination in young children through both group and self-selected music activities. Upon completion of this module the trainee is expected to be able to provide daily music experiences; emphasize enjoyment of and…

  14. Rights of the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Claude, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This newsletter examines problems and rights of Romani children in East Central Europe, focusing on such topics as: the displaced childhoods of Romani children; snapshots of living conditions in various European countries; Roma child rights; Romani and non-Romani schools in Bulgaria; Romani children's rights to education in Central and Eastern…

  15. Child Lifestyles Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of parental attitudes, socio-economic status and gender in determining the predictors of child lifestyles. The study group consists of three hundred and fifty (350) eighth grade students studying in the province of Erzincan during the 2012-2013 academic year; the students are selected by…

  16. The Hyperactive Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Della Corte, Suzanne

    1987-01-01

    The newsletter's main article focuses on hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder. The causes of hyperactivity, which affects 3-5 percent of all children, are elusive but may include neurological immaturity, inherent genetic problems, or fetal exposure to harmful substances. Patterns of behavior that typify a hyperactive child include a short…

  17. Is Every Child Gifted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runco, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines inclusive views of giftedness. It maintains that productivity requirements should be left out of definitions of giftedness since such requirements assume a gifted child has the expressive skills to support insights and that products can be accurately evaluated. Most important, the insistence on productivity ignores children with potential…

  18. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  19. Child Indicators: Dental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewit, Eugene M.; Kerrebrock, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews measures of dental health in children and the evidence on child dental health. Although children's dental health has improved over the past two decades, many poor children do not receive necessary dental health services, and reasons for this failure are summarized. (SLD)

  20. Parent-child Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlich, A. C., Ed.

    This survey investigates 6 major questions: (1) do adolescents and their parents perceive youth as overindulged; (2) are parent-child communication channels open; (3) has understanding between parents and their children broken down; (4) do children identify with their parents; (5) has discipline been permissive; and (6) do adolescents reject the…