These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings…
Clarke, Jean; Thorpe, Richard; Anderson, Lisa; Gold, Jeff
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that action learning (AL) may provide a means of successfully developing small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: The literature around SME learning suggests a number of processes are important for SME learning which similarity, it is argued, are encompassed in AL. AL may…
Mumford, Alan, Ed.
This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and…
Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann
Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…
Marquardt, Michael J.
Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…
This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and…
National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.
This booklet on action-learning reflects an interest in preparing youth for the world of real experiences. Arranged in two major parts, the first offers information on the background and development of action-learning. Included in this section are the conclusions of the Panel on Youth of the President's Science Advisory Committee, the National…
Marquardt, Michael J.
Today's leaders perform the following roles: systems thinker, change agent, innovator, servant, polychronic coordinator, teacher-mentor, and visionary. The elements of action learning (real problems, teams, reflective inquiry, commitment to action, focus on learning) contribute to the development of these critical skills. (Author/SK)
Braun, Daniel A.; Mehring, Carsten; Wolpert, Daniel M.
‘Learning to learn’ phenomena have been widely investigated in cognition, perception and more recently also in action. During concept learning tasks, for example, it has been suggested that characteristic features are abstracted from a set of examples with the consequence that learning of similar tasks is facilitated—a process termed ‘learning to learn’. From a computational point of view such an extraction of invariants can be regarded as learning of an underlying structure. Here we review the evidence for structure learning as a ‘learning to learn’ mechanism, especially in sensorimotor control where the motor system has to adapt to variable environments. We review studies demonstrating that common features of variable environments are extracted during sensorimotor learning and exploited for efficient adaptation in novel tasks. We conclude that structure learning plays a fundamental role in skill learning and may underlie the unsurpassed flexibility and adaptability of the motor system. PMID:19720086
Kozubska, Joanna; MacKenzie, Bob
Here, we argue that action learning (AL) has been evolving into different variations, whose respective advocates appear to concentrate on one of the several components inherent in Revans' formulation of AL as L = P + Q. They do this--sometimes inappropriately--to the virtual or relative exclusion of other aspects, and this has consequences for the…
Leonard, H. Skipton
Clients and practitioners alike are often confused about the ultimate purpose of action learning (AL). Because of the title of the method, many believe the primary goal of AL is to generate learning. This article clarifies the relationship between action, learning, and solutions. It also provides historical evidence to support the conclusion that…
This account of practice charts one organisation development practitioner's experience of the influence of action learning (AL) at various points in his career, from the early 1970s to the present day. It explores the impact of AL upon his practice over the years, chronicling various episodes which had strongest impact. It contrasts AL as it was…
Action learning (AL) is often viewed as a process that facilitates professional learning through the creation of a positive psychological climate [Marquardt, M. J. 2000. "Action Learning and Leadership." "The Learning Organisation" 7 (5): 233-240; Schein, E. H. 1979. "Personal Change Through Interpersonal…
Felix, Eversley; Keevill, Joan
This account tells the story of the development of an action learning culture in the BBC between 2002 and 2007. From its early beginnings as a sporadic, unsystematic intervention with a small number of leaders scattered throughout the organisation, action learning has now become embedded in our approach to the way we develop our leaders. In this…
Cotter, Teresa Ellen
The purpose of this case study was to explore how participants of a communications workshop, "Action Dialogue," perceived their ability to engage in dialogue was improved and enhanced. The study was based on the following assumptions: (1) dialogue skills can be learned and people are able to learn these skills; (2) context and emotion influence…
Action learning encourages individual reflection, insightful questioning and assumption breaking that result in changes in attitude and behaviour. This learning process provides the potential to explore and solve complex organizational problems such as the question of how to develop a future business strategy. Existing literature on the process of…
A small group of training professionals within the John Lewis Partnership set up an action learning group about 2 years ago. The main aim was to explore the technique for our own learning and development. The timing and lifespan of the group reflected the generally strategic and long-term nature of our projects. One of these was to introduce…
This article describes how action learning can be accompanied by a project to encourage shared learning about organisation culture, the external environment, political context and team dynamics, while allowing space for personal issues. It drives forward reflective practice and encourages sets to deliver a tangible pay-back to the organisation.…
This paper seeks to improve our understanding of the emotional and political dynamics that are generated (and too often avoided) in action learning. The idea at the centre of the paper is a distinction between "learning-in-action" and "learning inaction". The phrase "learning-in-action" represents the value of action…
This account of practice presents two cases of the application of Action Learning (AL) communication methodology as described by Marquardt [2004. "Optimising the power of action learning". Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing]. The teams were Czech and international top management teams. The AL methodology was used to improve…
This paper reports the historical foundation of Northeastern University's course, LDR 6100: Developing Your Leadership Capability, a partial literature review of action learning (AL) and virtual action learning (VAL), a course methodology of LDR 6100 requiring students to apply leadership perspectives using VAL as instructed by the author,…
West, Penny; Choueke, Richard
This paper examines the authors' experiences as action learning set facilitators within a public sector organisation undergoing change. Our objectives were to assist in the identification of internal and external drivers for change and to work with the set to explore how people's roles and responsibilities might be enhanced and developed in a…
This document contains three papers on action learning. "Action Learning: Case Studies of Most Valued Learning and Application" (Suzanne D. Butterfield) reports on a qualitative study in which longitudinal data was collected from document analysis and first-line consulting managers who had participated in action learning. The study…
Norman, Clare; Powell, Anne
This article aims to answer the questions: (1) How can action learning aid in strategic change?; (2) What are the benefits of using action learning as part of a broader learning intervention?; (3) What are the issues to consider when introducing action learning into a corporate environment?; and (4) How can you engage people in reflection as a…
Haith, Mark P.; Whittingham, Katrina A.
What is an action learning set (ALS)? An ALS is a regular, action focused peer discussion group, generally facilitated, to address work place issues. Methods of undertaking ALS: methods are flexible within a range of approaches according to the group's developing needs. Benefits of ALS: builds trust, professional development, enables action,…
Dewar, Belinda; Sharp, Cathy
This article discusses the use of action learning as a structured and deliberate learning process to support practitioners to implement change in an action research project. It discusses both action learning and action research before describing the context of the study. The article then goes on to discuss how the process of action learning…
McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas
This paper applies an action research (AR) design and action learning (AL) approach to network capability development in an entrepreneurial context. Recent research suggests that networks are a viable strategy for the entrepreneurial firm to overcome the liabilities associated with newness and smallness. However, a gap emerges as few, if any,…
Glassner, Amnon; Eran-Zoran, Yael
The study presents a new pedagogical idea and practice for educational practitioners. The practice was developed as a workshop of MA program in order to change and expand the meaning of education for the wellbeing of the community. The "place-based learning" workshop combined action learning (AL) with project-based learning (PBL). The…
The trend to imbue action learning with an explicit conception of criticality appears to be gathering momentum. The idea of critical action learning (CAL) foregrounds the connection between power, emotion and organizing. How this triumvirate of forces relate to each other fundamentally shapes the scope for learning. Theoretical and empirical…
This paper considers the shared characteristics between action learning (AL) and the research methodology constructivist grounded theory (CGT). Mirroring Edmonstone's [2011. "Action Learning and Organisation Development: Overlapping Fields of Practice." "Action Learning: Research and Practice" 8 (2): 93-102] article, which…
This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…
Endress, Ansgar D.; Wood, Justin N.
When other individuals move, we interpret their movements as discrete, hierarchically-organized, goal-directed actions. However, the mechanisms that integrate visible movement features into actions are poorly understood. Here, we consider two sequence learning mechanisms--transitional probability-based (TP) and position-based encoding…
Lustig, Patricia; Rai, Deep Ranjani
This article describes an example of how action learning was used as a framework for an organisational intervention to fundamentally change the organisational culture over a period of time. It also identifies our learning over that period of time and what worked well (and not so well) in an International Non-Governmental Organisation in Nepal.
Webster, Richard S.
This paper defines and explains action learning and suggests some ideas and resources for putting action learning into practice. The paper is organized in eight sections of about one page each. The sections cover the following topics: (1) what action learning is; (2) how action learning works; (3) action learning and training--key differences; (4)…
The University for Applied Management is a semi-virtual institution widely using blended learning as an integrated approach of face-to-face instruction and e-learning. Virtual action learning is offered in all bachelor and master programmes. The module is transfer orientated and aims at encouraging reflection and supporting students to develop a…
Nalborczyk, Sarah; Sandelands, Luke
This account examines the action learning process adopted by Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., embedded in the organization through the in-company Emerald Academy. In case study format, the paper emphasizes that in order to align learning with organizational objectives joined up thinking and practice is needed beyond the learning and development…
The case for the notion of action learning research has been posed and explored in several publications over the past few years. There is no tradition within action learning of understanding it as an approach to research. Within some academic circles, there has been a focus on the "action turn," the development of the notion of actionable…
Gold, Jeff; Anderson, Lisa; Clarke, Jean; Thorpe, Richard
This paper considers the work of the Russian social philosopher and cultural theorist, Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin as a source of understanding for those involved in action learning. Drawing upon data gathered over two years during the evaluation of 20 action learning sets in the north of England, we will seek to work with the ideas of Bakhtin to…
Pedler, Mike; Hauser, Bernhard; Caulat, Ghislaine
This paper brings together the reflections of the authors on their shared and individual experiences of virtual action learning. Whilst many conclusions are shared, there are also some points of difference in practices.
ABSTRACT This paper reports the historical foundation of Northeastern University’s course, LDR 6100: Developing Your Leadership Capability, a partial literature review of action learning (AL) and virtual action learning (VAL), a course methodology of LDR 6100 requiring students to apply leadership perspectives using VAL as instructed by the author, questionnaire and survey results of students who evaluated the effectiveness of their application of leadership theories using VAL and insights believed to have been gained by the author administering VAL. Findings indicate most students thought applying leadership perspectives using AL was better than considering leadership perspectives not using AL. In addition as implemented in LDR 6100, more students evaluated VAL positively than did those who assessed VAL negatively.
Service learning is an academic discipline that provides students with "hands-on" opportunities for developing skills in real-world, community-based projects that serve and benefit community members. This dissertation reflects an action-oriented process for improving the quality of the Service Learning Program at City University of…
Berglund, Anders; Eckerdal, Anna; Pears, Arnold; East, Philip; Kinnunen, Paivi; Malmi, Lauri; McCartney, Robert; Mostrom, Jan-Erik; Murphy, Laurie; Ratcliffe, Mark; Schulte, Carsten; Simon, Beth; Stamouli, Ioanna; Thomas, Lynda
This phenomenographic study opens the classroom door to investigate teachers' experiences of students learning difficult computing topics. Three distinct themes are identified and analysed. "Why" do students succeed or fail to learn these concepts? "What" actions do teachers perceive will ameliorate the difficulties facing…
Mullen, Carol A.
This account concerns the renewal of established professional organizations though action learning. In order to revitalize one national organization, an executive group of leaders committed to co-leading and co-learning through a friendly, computer-supported governance structure. Manifestations of our work together were an accelerated…
Battisti, Bryce Thomas
This is a case study of the use of Action Learning (AL) theory to teach and confer degrees in Permaculture and other forms of sustainability at the newly formed Gaia University International (GUI). In Chapter Two I argue that GUI, as an institution of higher learning, is organized to provide support for learning. The goal of the university structure is to provide students, called Associates, with a vehicle for accumulation of credit towards a bachelor's degree. This organizational structure is necessary, but insufficient for AL because Associates need more than an organization to provide and coordinate their degree programs. In other words, just because the network of university structures are organized in ways that make AL possible and convenient, it does not necessarily follow that Action Learning will occur for any individual Associate. The support structures within GUI's degrees are discussed in Chapter Three. To a greater or lesser degree GUI provides support for personal learning among Associates as advisors and advisees with the goal of helping Associates complete and document the outcomes of world-change projects. The support structures are necessary, but not sufficient for AL because the personal learning process occurring for each Associate requires transformative reflection. Additionally, because Associates' attrition rate is very high, many Associates do not remain enrolled in GUI long enough to benefit from the support structures. At the simplest organizational level I discuss the reflection process conducted in the patterned interactions of assigned learning groups called Guilds (Chapter Four). These groups of Associates work to provide each other with the best possible environment for personal learning through reflection. As its Associates experience transformative reflection, GUI is able to help elevate the quality of world-change efforts in the Permaculture community. Provided the organizational and support structures are in place, this reflection
Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W.
It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquire and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions. PMID:22487034
Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W
It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquired and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary, and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions.
Pedler, Mike; Attwood, Margaret
This paper explores the contribution that action learning can make to the formation of social capital via experiences of action learning projects in NHS Pathology Services in the UK. The paper describes the development of action learning practice in recent years, reviews the notion of social capital and considers how action learning might…
Coghlan, David; Coughlan, Paul
The philosophical foundations of action learning research have not received a great deal of attention. In the context of action learning postgraduate and professional programmes in universities, articulation of a philosophy of action learning research seems timely and appropriate. This article explores a philosophy of action learning research,…
O'Neil, Judy A.; Lamm, Sharon L.
A team of learning coaches facilitated an action learning group in a public utility. The coaches' diversity raised interpersonal issues but added a wealth of perspectives and experience. Important components were team formation, a balance of program and individual needs, and group diversity. (SK)
Jones, Karen; Sambrook, Sally A.; Pittaway, Luke; Henley, Andrew; Norbury, Heather
This paper presents research with small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) owners who have participated in a leadership development programme. The primary focus of this paper is on learning transfer and factors affecting it, arguing that entrepreneurs must engage in "action" in order to "learn" and that under certain conditions…
This is an account of a programmer utilizing the application of action learning to the development of capacities of citizens. The Citizen Leadership for Democratic Governance is designed to equip citizens with the skills to get involved and handle the difficult tasks of governance in their communities in South Africa. After a history of apartheid…
Seddon, John; Caulkin, Simon
Systems thinking underpins "lean" management and is best understood through action-learning as the ideas are counter-intuitive. The Toyota Production System is just that--a system; the failure to appreciate that starting-place and the advocacy of "tools" leads many to fail to grasp what is, without doubt, a significant…
Pedler, Mike; Hsu, Shih-wei
This paper explores the idea of unlearning in Critical Action Learning (CAL) as applied to the wicked problems of organisations and societies. It draws on data and ideas developed during a research project conducted for "Skills for Care" by Pedler, Abbott, Brook and Burgoyne ("Skills for Care" 2014) and from experiences on…
Aronstein, Laurence W.; Olsen, Edward G.
By engaging students in community service projects, action learning uses resources of the real world to give students opportunities to participate in performing tasks and making decisions that confront societal problems. Such projects should be decided on after a study of the needs of the community. After a project is selected, all relevant…
This account of practice discusses the author's experience in facilitating a small group of managers in health care over lunchtime utilizing an action learning approach. This was part of a larger leadership development initiative which took place in the organization and the intention was to create a more intimate, informal and safe setting whereby…
Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Molle, Mary E
Nurse educators must continually improve their teaching skills through innovation. However, research about the process used by faculty members to transform their teaching methods is limited. This collaborative study uses classroom action research to describe, analyze, and address problems encountered in implementing cooperative learning in two undergraduate nursing courses. After four rounds of action and reflection, the following themes emerged: students did not understand the need for structured cooperative learning; classroom structure and seating arrangement influenced the effectiveness of activities; highly structured activities engaged the students; and short, targeted activities that involved novel content were most effective. These findings indicate that designing specific activities to prepare students for class is critical to cooperative learning.
Action learning (AL) has been called the "engine of the learning organisation". It has been demonstrated that it can help individuals adapt to, and be more effective in, the fast-changing world. This article reports on a one-day conference held at Henley Business School. The conference was jointly organised by Henley Business School and…
Boutin, Arnaud; Blandin, Yannick; Massen, Cristina; Heuer, Herbert; Badets, Arnaud
Many everyday skills are unconsciously learned through repetitions of the same behaviour by binding independent motor acts into unified sets of actions. However, our ability to be consciously aware of producing newly and highly trained motor skills raises the question of the role played by conscious awareness of action upon skill acquisition. In this study we strengthened conscious awareness of self-produced sequential finger movements by way of asking participants to judge their performance in terms of maximal fluency after each trial. Control conditions in which participants did not make any judgment or performance-unrelated judgments were also included. Findings indicate that conscious awareness of action, enhanced via subjective appraisal of motor efficiency, potentiates sensorimotor learning and skilful motor production in optimising the processing and sequencing of action units, as compared to the control groups. The current work lends support to the claim that the learning and skilful expression of sensorimotor behaviours might be grounded upon our ability to be consciously aware of our own motor capability and efficiency.
Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.
While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on ‘action video games’ produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. PMID:22440805
Green, C Shawn; Li, Renjie; Bavelier, Daphne
Action video games have been shown to enhance behavioral performance on a wide variety of perceptual tasks, from those that require effective allocation of attentional resources across the visual scene, to those that demand the successful identification of fleetingly presented stimuli. Importantly, these effects have not only been shown in expert action video game players, but a causative link has been established between action video game play and enhanced processing through training studies. Although an account based solely on attention fails to capture the variety of enhancements observed after action game playing, a number of models of perceptual learning are consistent with the observed results, with behavioral modeling favoring the hypothesis that avid video game players are better able to form templates for, or extract the relevant statistics of, the task at hand. This may suggest that the neural site of learning is in areas where information is integrated and actions are selected; yet changes in low-level sensory areas cannot be ruled out.
Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Medina, Roseclea Duarte
The diffusion of the use of the learning virtual environments presents a great potential for the development of an application which meet the necessities in the education area. In view of the importance of a more dynamic application and that can adapt itself continuously to the students' necessities, the "U-ALS" (Ubiquitous Adapted Learning…
Reese, Debbie Denise; Tabachnick, Barbara G.; Kosko, Robert E.
Valid, accessible, reusable methods for instructional video game design and embedded assessment can provide actionable information enhancing individual and collective achievement. Cyberlearning through game-based, metaphor-enhanced learning objects (CyGaMEs) design and embedded assessment quantify player behavior to study knowledge discovery and…
Sobel, David M.; Sommerville, Jessica A.
Shown commensurate actions and information by an adult, preschoolers' causal learning was influenced by the pedagogical context in which these actions occurred. Four-year-olds who were provided with a reason for an experimenter's action relevant to learning causal structure showed more accurate causal learning than children exposed to the same…
Park, Sunyoung; Kang, Ingu; Valencic, Taryn R.; Cho, Yonjoo
The purpose of this study was to examine the contexts in which action learning has been used and provide implications for the design of action learning programmes. We performed a content analysis of 127 articles (case studies and case reports included) published in "Action Learning: Research and Practice" between 2004 and 2012. In this…
Bong, Hyeon-Cheol; Cho, Yonjoo
Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to explore how the two groups of action learning experts (Korean and non-Korean experts) define success of action learning to see whether there are any cultural differences. To this end, the authors conducted a total of 44 interviews with action learning experts around the world. Research questions guiding…
Abbott, Christine; Mayes, Cathy
Following on from the article "Building Capacity in Social Care: An Evaluation of a National Programme of Action Learning Facilitator Development" (Abbott, C., L. Burtney, and C. Wall. 2013. "Action Learning: Research & Practice" 10 (2): 168--177), this article describes how action learning is being introduced in Cornwall…
Cho, Yonjoo; Bong, Hyeon-Cheol
Despite considerable commitment to the application of action learning as leadership and organization development by a large number of Korean organizations, few identified empirical studies of action learning practices have been reported. The purpose of this study was to conduct case studies of South Korean action learning practices to examine…
The purpose of this paper is to argue that the perspective of "critical realism" has considerable potential for moving forward the theory and practice of action learning. The paper addresses three questions: (1) Does action learning emphasise the individual or the collective? (2) Can action learning be thought of as critical, but should it also be…
Whalen, Andrew; Cownden, Daniel; Laland, Kevin
Previous empirical work on animal social learning has found that many species lack the ability to learn entire action sequences solely through reliance on social information. Conversely, acquiring action sequences through asocial learning can be difficult due to the large number of potential sequences arising from even a small number of base actions. In spite of this, several studies report that some primates use action sequences in the wild. We investigate how social information can be integrated with asocial learning to facilitate the learning of action sequences. We formalize this problem by examining how learners using temporal difference learning, a widely applicable model of reinforcement learning, can combine social cues with their own experiences to acquire action sequences. The learning problem is modeled as a Markov decision process. The learning of nettle processing by mountain gorillas serves as a focal example. Through simulations, we find that the social facilitation of component actions can combine with individual learning to facilitate the acquisition of action sequences. Our analysis illustrates that how even simple forms of social learning, combined with asocial learning, generate substantially faster learning of action sequences compared to asocial processes alone, and that the benefits of social information increase with the length of the action sequence and the number of base actions.
De Loo, Ivo
Purpose: To highlight the relevance of management control in action learning programs that aim to foster organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: Literature review plus case study. The latter consists of archival analysis and multiple interviews. Findings: When action learning programs are built around singular learning experiences,…
Brown, Barb; Dressler, Roswita; Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Jacobsen, Michele
In this article, action research is explored as a process for instructor reflection, professional learning and collaboration. The context for the professional learning was the teaching of graduate level education courses in which action research, in conjunction with a cohort-based, collaboratory approach to learning, was used to facilitate…
The article presents and illustrates the learning journey (LJ)--a new management development approach to inter-organisational learning based on observation, reflection and problem-solving. The LJ involves managers from different organisations and applies key concepts of action learning and systemic organisational development. Made up of…
Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.
Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)
Leo, Tara; Cowan, D'Ette
A Professional Learning Community (PLC) is a school where administrators and teachers continuously seek and share learning to increase their effectiveness for students and act on what they learn. PLCs are characterized by five dimensions: shared and supportive leadership, shared values and vision, collective learning and application of learning,…
By tradition the action learning community has encouraged an eclectic view of practice. This involves a number of different permutations around a kernel of nebulous ideas. However, the disadvantages of such an open philosophy have never been considered. In particular consumer protection against inauthentic action learning experiences has been…
This account describes action learning in a small to medium-size enterprise (SME) that operates as a local power utility on an established market that is currently going through a process of radical transformation. The task of the action learning set was to improve the flow of information to employees about the evolving framework in which the…
Whereas present theories of transformative learning tend to focus on the rational and reflective actor, in this article it is suggested that spontaneous action may play a decisive role in transformative learning too. In the spontaneity of action, novelty finds its way into life, gains momentum, is respected by others and reflected by the actor.…
The present article describes the use of action learning by a group of 30 franchisees to organise themselves and work through a period of upheaval and uncertainty when their parent company faced liquidation. Written from the perspective of one of the franchisees who found herself adopting action learning principles to facilitate the group, it…
Harris, Nicole S.
This case study examines the changes that occur with respect to reflective practices as a result of participating in an action learning group through the identification of aspects/activities of action learning that contribute to such changes and the impact these aspects/activities had on the program participants at a department of the federal…
Leonard, H. Skipton; Marquardt, Michael J.
For the past 50 years, organizations and individuals around the world have reported success in their use of action learning programs to solve problems, develop leaders, build teams and transform their corporate cultures. However, very little rigorous research has been conducted to determine the effectiveness of action learning. The authors…
Kurt Lewin's epigrammatic paradox is particularly true for action learning. Marquardt and Waddill (2004), and previously Yorks O'Neil and Marsick (1999) have approached the issue of the relationship between theory and action learning by looking at a variety of theories which they have placed in "schools". This provides an interesting analysis, but…
Walia, Surinder; Marks-Maran, Di
This article examines the use of action learning sets in a leadership module delivered by a university in south east England. An evaluation research study was undertaking using survey method to evaluate student engagement with action learning sets, and their value, impact and sustainability. Data were collected through a questionnaire with a mix of Likert-style and open-ended questions and qualitative and quantitative data analysis was undertaken. Findings show that engagement in the action learning sets was very high. Action learning sets also had a positive impact on the development of leadership knowledge and skills and are highly valued by participants. It is likely that they would be sustainable as the majority would recommend action learning to colleagues and would consider taking another module that used action learning sets. When compared to existing literature on action learning, this study offers new insights as there is little empirical literature on student engagement with action learning sets and even less on value and sustainability.
In this polemical essay, Professor Russ Vince argues that it is important to understand the contradictions that can be generated by action learning. This method is a powerful and effective approach to managers' learning that can underpin transformations of management practice. However, any method for learning, no matter how convinced we are of its…
Bleicher, Robert E.
The field of professional development is moving towards the notion of professional learning, highlighting the active learning role that teachers play in changing their knowledge bases, beliefs and practice. This article builds on this idea and argues for creating professional learning that is guided by a collaborative action research (CAR)…
Cao, Rui; Chuah, Kong Bieng; Chao, Yiu Chung; Kwong, Kar Fai; Law, Mo Yin
Purpose: This paper addresses the importance of a more proactive role of organizational learning (OL) facilitators, learning motivation reinforcer, through a two-part longitudinal study in a case company. The first part of this study aims to investigate and analyze some unexpected challenges in the project action learning-driven (PAL) OL…
What contributes to longevity in an action learning (AL) set? What holds it together over a long period? The article relates the chronology and reasons why a self-managed set has flourished when so many sets of voluntary membership peter out. Major attributes of successful longevity are the adherence to strong ground rules and disciplined…
Donovan, Paul Jeffrey
"Undiscussables" are topics associated with threat or embarrassment that are avoided by groups, where that avoidance is also not discussed. Their deleterious effect on executive groups has been a point of discussion for several decades. More recently critical action learning (AL) has brought a welcome focus to power relations within AL…
HolmesParker, Chris; Taylor, Mathew E.; Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian
Learning in multiagent systems can be slow because agents must learn both how to behave in a complex environment and how to account for the actions of other agents. The inability of an agent to distinguish between the true environmental dynamics and those caused by the stochastic exploratory actions of other agents creates noise in each agent's reward signal. This learning noise can have unforeseen and often undesirable effects on the resultant system performance. We define such noise as exploratory action noise, demonstrate the critical impact it can have on the learning process in multiagent settings, and introduce a reward structure to effectively remove such noise from each agent's reward signal. In particular, we introduce Coordinated Learning without Exploratory Action Noise (CLEAN) rewards and empirically demonstrate their benefits
Sobel, David M; Letourneau, Susan M
It is widely believed that exploration is a mechanism for young children's learning. The present investigation examines preschoolers' beliefs about how learning occurs. We asked 3- to 5-year-olds to articulate how characters in a set of stories learned about a new toy. Younger preschoolers were more likely to overemphasize the role of characters' actions in learning than older children were (Experiment 1, N = 53). Overall performance improved when the stories explicitly stated that characters were originally ignorant and clarified the characters' actions, but general developmental trends remained (Experiment 2, N = 48). These data suggest that explicit metacognitive understanding of the relation between actions and learning is developing during the preschool years, which might have implications for how children learn from exploration.
Lyman, Lawrence; Foyle, Harvey C.
Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy involving students in small group learning activities that promote positive interaction. Research studies have consistently found that cooperative learning promotes increased academic achievement and involves relative use of implementation and reasonable costs. Improved behavior, increased positive…
Dilworth, Robert L.; Willis, Verna J.
This book provides information and strategies on how adult educators can integrate action learning concepts in their teaching practice. The book defines action learning as going beyond the traditional idea of "learn by doing" and applies it to various organizational cultures and educational contexts. Chapter 1 introduces the origins of action…
This ASA Teaching Workshop explored the potential of Action Learning to use teachers' tacit knowledge to collaboratively confront pedagogical issues. The Action Learning model grows out of industrial management and is based on the notion that peers are a valuable resource for learning about how to solve the problems encountered in the workplace.…
Miller, Brant G.; Hougham, R. Justin; Eitel, Karla Bradley
The Adventure Learning (AL) approach to designing and implementing learning experiences has great potential for practitioners. This manuscript delineates the practical enactment of AL to support the K-12 community, teacher educators, and residential environmental science program providers in the conceptualization and delivery of their own AL…
Herwig, Arvid; Waszak, Florian
According to ideomotor theory, action-effect associations are crucial for voluntary action control. Recently, a number of studies started to investigate the conditions that mediate the acquisition and application of action-effect associations by comparing actions carried out in response to exogenous stimuli (stimulus-based) with actions selected endogenously (intention-based). There is evidence that the acquisition and/or application of action-effect associations is boosted when acting in an intention-based action mode. For instance, bidirectional action-effect associations were diagnosed in a forced choice test phase if participants previously experienced action-effect couplings in an intention-based but not in a stimulus-based action mode. The present study aims at investigating effects of the action mode on action-effect associations in more detail. In a series of experiments, we compared the strength and durability of short-term action-effect associations (binding) immediately following intention- as well as stimulus-based actions. Moreover, long-term action-effect associations (learning) were assessed in a subsequent test phase. Our results show short-term action-effect associations of equal strength and durability for both action modes. However, replicating previous results, long-term associations were observed only following intention-based actions. These findings indicate that the effect of the action mode on long-term associations cannot merely be a result of accumulated short-term action-effect bindings. Instead, only those episodic bindings are selectively perpetuated and retrieved that integrate action-relevant aspects of the processing event, i.e., in case of intention-based actions, the link between action and ensuing effect.
Jones-Evans, Dylan; Williams, William; Deacon, Jonathan
Describes development and marketing of a Welsh business school's diploma in entrepreneurial practice, an action learning-based program. Discusses problems encountered in dealing with the concept of business ambiguity, program flexibility, and measurement of outcomes. (SK)
Vergara, Mariana Ines
This action research exploratory study sought to learn how to better develop my practice by using grounded theory. It explored the apparent cognitive transformational experience of nine participants over a period of four weeks after the implementation of an intervention called Mindfulness into Action. The informal intervention was used with the…
Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles; Ostergaard, Edvin
Purpose: This article examines and evaluates the potential contributions from action learning and action research with stakeholders to higher education in agriculture and food systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on our experiences over the past two decades of running PhD courses and an MSc degree programme in Agroecology in…
Learning networks are a critical element of ethos of the community action research approach taken by the Early Learning Initiative at the National College of Ireland, a community-based educational initiative in the Dublin Docklands. Key criteria for networking, whether at local, national or international level, are the individual's and…
At a recent national forum at the Ford Foundation in New York, 140 education and youth development professionals discussed how to better support adolescent learning. Drawing on the discussion and the latest research in neuroscience, psychology and cognitive learning science, TASC presents an action agenda that can be tailored to circumstances in…
Cho, Yonjoo; Egan, Toby
The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the impact of organizational support on employee learning and performance and (2) to elaborate on the context of organizational support for action learning in South Korean organizations. For this inquiry, two central questions were posed: What are employee reactions to organizational support for action…
Wang, Chien-hsing; Ke, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jin-Tong; Hsu, Wen-Hua
This paper briefly reports the outcomes of an action research inquiry on the use of blogs, MS PowerPoint [PPT], and the Internet as learning tools with a science class of sixth graders for project-based learning. Multiple sources of data were essential to triangulate the key findings articulated in this paper. Corresponding to previous studies,…
Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun; Passfield, Ron
As co-founders of the Action Learning and Action Research Association (ALARA), we tell the story of this international network organisation through our personal experience. Our history traces the evolution of ALARA from origins at the first World Congress in 1990 in Brisbane, Australia, through development over two and a half decades, to its…
Scott, Fiona M.; Butler, Jim; Edwards, John
An action learning program was implemented by a manufacturer using lean production practices. Action learning practices were accommodated during times of stability, but abandoned in times of crisis. The meaning of work in this organizational culture excluded all practices, such as reflection, that were not visible and targeted at immediate…
Mendonça, Roger; Parker, Anthony; Udo, Uwem; Groves, Catherine
This account of practice sets out the action learning experience of three doctoral students on the same Doctoral Programme in Business Administration at a UK university. It also include the sense-making of a fourth member of the set. It explores the tension between their area of work and their engagement in the action learning process and, in so…
Dunphy, Liz; Proctor, Gillian; Bartlett, Ruth; Haslam, Mark; Wood, Chris
This paper describes the delivery of action learning sets to students on the peer educator course provided by the Dementia Studies Department at University of Bradford. Our understanding of action learning sets is laid out together with our rationale for their use on this course. Feedback is presented that described a conflicted, even confused…
Stephens, Simon; Margey, Michael
Action learning involves balancing the often conflicting forces between working knowledge and academic knowledge. This paper explores the experience of executive learners; academics and external contributors involved in action learning at the postgraduate level. The executive learners are members of cohorts on two masters programmes based in…
Ellmer, Eva; Rynne, Steven
The exponential growth in action and adventure sport (e.g. snowboarding, bicycle motorcross (BMX), surfing, parkour) participation over the past two decades has been showcased in world championship events and the inclusion in Olympic programs. Yet, by virtue of their alternative, escapist and/or adventure-based origins, these sports do not fully…
Complex, systemic issues continue to challenge public services without respect for organisational and professional boundaries. In practice, collaborative working with others who have differing professional cultural norms and systems confront members with the need to learn about each other's values, priorities and practices. This paper explores the…
Based on the assumption that the more teachers know about brain science, the better prepared they will be to make instructional decisions, this book presents information on current research regarding learning and memory, and applies the research to situations that educators face daily. Chapter 1 examines the structure of the brain and its…
This article makes a number of interconnected arguments. First, spatially and temporally distributed project teams constitute a new form of interprofessional work and, as a corollary, a new site for interprofessional learning. Second, researchers in cultural-historical activity theory have generated some concepts and methods, for example,…
Hoffmann, Joachim; Lenhard, Alexandra; Sebald, Albrecht; Pfister, Roland
According to ideomotor theory, actions become linked to the sensory feedback they contingently produce, so that anticipating the feedback automatically evokes the action it typically results from. Numerous recent studies have provided evidence in favour of such action-effect learning but left an important issue unresolved. It remains unspecified to what extent action-effect learning is based on associating effect-representations to representations of the performed movements or to representations of the targets at which the behaviour aimed at. Two experiments were designed to clarify this issue. In an acquisition phase, participants learned the contingency between key presses and effect tones. In a following test phase, key-effect and movement-effect relations were orthogonally assessed by changing the hand-key mapping for one half of the participants. Experiment 1 showed precedence for target-effect over movement-effect learning in a forced-choice RT task. In Experiment 2, target-effect learning was also shown to influence the outcome of response selection in a free-choice task. Altogether, the data indicate that both movement-effect and target-effect associations contribute to the formation of action-effect linkages-provided that movements and targets are likewise contingently related to the effects.
Boggs, David L.
The purposes of this article are first, to consider the role of senior citizens as advocates, both in matters of specific concern to their fellow age cohorts and in issues of general interest to the community; and, second, to examine the relationship of self-education and learning to advocacy in civic affairs. Literature on sociological and political theory as well as adult civic education provides a conceptual base from which to explain the involvement of persons in their later years in advocacy efforts and in learning activities designed to enhance civic involvement. Citizens have banded together to advocate their vision of a desired future throughout history. Citizen participation in political and civic affairs is generally age-integrated and intergenerational, thus affording opportunities to dispel negative age stereotypes. Participation in civic affairs invokes ageless values, creates meaning in life, and allows elderly participants to transcend themselves and their limitations.
New product development and commercialization are essential to entrepreneurial growth and international competitiveness. Excellence in this area is strongly supported by individual and organizational learning efforts. By analyzing how Japanese car manufacturer Toyota organizes learning, this paper evaluates the potential of action learning to…
Gerson, Sarah A; Woodward, Amanda L
Prior research suggests that infants' action production affects their action understanding, but little is known about the aspects of motor experience that render these effects. In Study 1, the relative contributions of self-produced (n = 30) and observational (n = 30) action experience on 3-month-old infants' action understanding was assessed using a visual habituation paradigm. In Study 2, generalization of training to a new context was examined (n = 30). Results revealed a unique effect of active over observational experience. Furthermore, findings suggest that benefits of trained actions do not generalize broadly, at least following brief training.
Meyer, Meredith; Baldwin, Dare
Identification of distinct units within a continuous flow of human action is fundamental to action processing. Such segmentation may rest in part on statistical learning. In a series of four experiments, we examined what types of statistics people can use to segment a continuous stream involving many brief, goal-directed action elements. The results of Experiment 1 showed no evidence for sensitivity to conditional probability, whereas Experiment 2 displayed learning based on joint probability. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that additional exposure to the input failed to engender sensitivity to conditional probability. However, the results of Experiment 4 showed that a subset of adults-namely, those more successful at identifying actions that had been seen more frequently than comparison sequences-were also successful at learning conditional-probability statistics. These experiments help to clarify the mechanisms subserving processing of intentional action, and they highlight important differences from, as well as similarities to, prior studies of statistical learning in other domains, including language.
Mousavi, Amin; Nadjar Araabi, Babak; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid
This paper discusses the notion of context transfer in reinforcement learning tasks. Context transfer, as defined in this paper, implies knowledge transfer between source and target tasks that share the same environment dynamics and reward function but have different states or action spaces. In other words, the agents learn the same task while using different sensors and actuators. This requires the existence of an underlying common Markov decision process (MDP) to which all the agents' MDPs can be mapped. This is formulated in terms of the notion of MDP homomorphism. The learning framework is Q-learning. To transfer the knowledge between these tasks, the feature space is used as a translator and is expressed as a partial mapping between the state-action spaces of different tasks. The Q-values learned during the learning process of the source tasks are mapped to the sets of Q-values for the target task. These transferred Q-values are merged together and used to initialize the learning process of the target task. An interval-based approach is used to represent and merge the knowledge of the source tasks. Empirical results show that the transferred initialization can be beneficial to the learning process of the target task.
Mousavi, Amin; Nadjar Araabi, Babak; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid
This paper discusses the notion of context transfer in reinforcement learning tasks. Context transfer, as defined in this paper, implies knowledge transfer between source and target tasks that share the same environment dynamics and reward function but have different states or action spaces. In other words, the agents learn the same task while using different sensors and actuators. This requires the existence of an underlying common Markov decision process (MDP) to which all the agents' MDPs can be mapped. This is formulated in terms of the notion of MDP homomorphism. The learning framework is Q-learning. To transfer the knowledge between these tasks, the feature space is used as a translator and is expressed as a partial mapping between the state-action spaces of different tasks. The Q-values learned during the learning process of the source tasks are mapped to the sets of Q-values for the target task. These transferred Q-values are merged together and used to initialize the learning process of the target task. An interval-based approach is used to represent and merge the knowledge of the source tasks. Empirical results show that the transferred initialization can be beneficial to the learning process of the target task. PMID:25610457
Király, Ildikó; Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György
The principle of rationality has been invoked to explain that infants expect agents to perform the most efficient means action to attain a goal. It has also been demonstrated that infants take into account the efficiency of observed actions to achieve a goal outcome when deciding whether to reenact a specific behavior or not. It is puzzling, however, that they also tend to imitate an apparently suboptimal unfamiliar action even when they can bring about the same outcome more efficiently by applying a more rational action alternative available to them. We propose that this apparently paradoxical behavior is explained by infants' interpretation of action demonstrations as communicative manifestations of novel and culturally relevant means actions to be acquired, and we present empirical evidence supporting this proposal. In Experiment 1, we found that 14-month-olds reenacted novel arbitrary means actions only following a communicative demonstration. Experiment 2 showed that infants' inclination to reproduce communicatively manifested novel actions is restricted to behaviors they can construe as goal-directed instrumental acts. The study also provides evidence that infants' reenactment of the demonstrated novel actions reflects epistemic motives rather than purely social motives. We argue that ostensive communication enables infants to represent the teleological structure of novel actions even when the causal relations between means and end are cognitively opaque and apparently violate the efficiency expectation derived from the principle of rationality. This new account of imitative learning of novel means shows how the teleological stance and natural pedagogy--two separate cognitive adaptations to interpret instrumental versus communicative actions--are integrated as a system for learning socially constituted instrumental knowledge in humans.
Heneberry, Pamela; Turner, Arthur
This paper is written to outline our ideas on rituals and reflective places and how this thinking has emerged through our writing, facilitation and reflections around critical action learning and critical leadership. We attempt to show the conceptual framework that underpins our vision of Critical Leadership and how out of this work we have begun…
This update of the Framework for Action highlights the continuing relevance of its message as well as those raised by Valuing People Now. People with learning difficulties and their families from Black and minority ethnic (BME) communities have been highlighted as a priority group by Valuing People since 2001 and remain a priority for better…
Merseytravel is a large and diverse public sector organisation facing significant changes, but faced with a cultural inertia which is a legacy inherited from historical management styles. Action learning is now being used with great success as part of their change programme, to promote empowerment of the staff, challenge historical ways of working…
Brook, Cheryl; Pedler, Mike; Burgoyne, John G
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to assess the extent to which these practitioners ' perspectives and practices match Willis's conception of a Revans "gold standard" of action learning. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopts a qualitative design and methodology based on interviews and the collection of cases or accounts of…
Olsson, Annika; Wadell, Carl; Odenrick, Per; Norell Bergendahl, Margareta
Product innovation in highly complex and technological areas, such as medical technology, puts high requirements on the innovation capability of an organisation. Previous research and publications have highlighted organisational issues and learning matters as important and necessary for the development of innovation capability. Action learning…
Burgoyne, John G.
This largely theoretical paper will argue the case for the usefulness of applying network and complex adaptive systems theory to an understanding of action learning and the challenge it is evaluating. This approach, it will be argued, is particularly helpful in the context of improving capability in dealing with wicked problems spread around…
Eckstein, Emiel; Veenhoven, Gert; De Loo, Ivo
Becoming a "winning organization" when one currently is an "ugly ducking" can be a difficult and strenuous task. BAT Niemeyer in the Netherlands succeeded in making such a transformation over the course of four years. Action learning was used, among other methods, to steer part of this transformation, in which employee…
Pittaway, Luke; Missing, Caroline; Hudson, Nigel; Maragh, Dean
This paper explores the role of "action" in entrepreneurial learning and illustrates how programs designed to support action learning can enhance management development in entrepreneurial businesses. The paper begins by exploring action learning and the way "action" is conceived in different types of program. In the second part, the paper details…
Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Pouget, Alexandre; Schrater, Paul
The ability of the human brain to learn is exceptional. Yet, learning is typically quite specific to the exact task used during training, a limiting factor for practical applications such as rehabilitation, workforce training, or education. The possibility of identifying training regimens that have a broad enough impact to transfer to a variety of tasks is thus highly appealing. This work reviews how complex training environments such as action video game play may actually foster brain plasticity and learning. This enhanced learning capacity, termed learning to learn, is considered in light of its computational requirements and putative neural mechanisms.
Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.
This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and
Sargent, Barbara; Reimann, Hendrik; Kubo, Masayoshi; Fetters, Linda
Task-specific actions emerge from spontaneous movement during infancy. It has been proposed that task-specific actions emerge through a discovery-learning process. Here a method is described in which 3-4 month old infants learn a task by discovery and their leg movements are captured to quantify the learning process. This discovery-learning task uses an infant activated mobile that rotates and plays music based on specified leg action of infants. Supine infants activate the mobile by moving their feet vertically across a virtual threshold. This paradigm is unique in that as infants independently discover that their leg actions activate the mobile, the infants' leg movements are tracked using a motion capture system allowing for the quantification of the learning process. Specifically, learning is quantified in terms of the duration of mobile activation, the position variance of the end effectors (feet) that activate the mobile, changes in hip-knee coordination patterns, and changes in hip and knee muscle torque. This information describes infant exploration and exploitation at the interplay of person and environmental constraints that support task-specific action. Subsequent research using this method can investigate how specific impairments of different populations of infants at risk for movement disorders influence the discovery-learning process for task-specific action.
This paper explores the combination of storytelling and reflective action research as a means to effect change and learning within and across communities and organizations. Taking the complex challenge of "pro-environmental behaviour change" as an example, the paper reflects on the experiences of a pilot project run for the UK government…
Wang, Chien-Hsing; Ke, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jin-Tong; Hsu, Wen-Hua
This paper briefly reports the outcomes of an action research inquiry on the use of blogs, MS PowerPoint [PPT], and the Internet as learning tools with a science class of sixth graders for project-based learning. Multiple sources of data were essential to triangulate the key findings articulated in this paper. Corresponding to previous studies, the incorporation of technology and project-based learning could motivate students in self-directed exploration. The students were excited about the autonomy over what to learn and the use of PPT to express what they learned. Differing from previous studies, the findings pointed to the lack information literacy among students. The students lacked information evaluation skills, note-taking and information synthesis. All these findings imply the importance of teaching students about information literacy and visual literacy when introducing information technology into the classroom. The authors suggest that further research should focus on how to break the culture of "copy-and-paste" by teaching the skills of note-taking and synthesis through inquiry projects for science learning. Also, further research on teacher professional development should focus on using collaboration action research as a framework for re-designing graduate courses for science teachers in order to enhance classroom technology integration.
Little, Daniel Y; Sommer, Friedrich T
Discovering the structure underlying observed data is a recurring problem in machine learning with important applications in neuroscience. It is also a primary function of the brain. When data can be actively collected in the context of a closed action-perception loop, behavior becomes a critical determinant of learning efficiency. Psychologists studying exploration and curiosity in humans and animals have long argued that learning itself is a primary motivator of behavior. However, the theoretical basis of learning-driven behavior is not well understood. Previous computational studies of behavior have largely focused on the control problem of maximizing acquisition of rewards and have treated learning the structure of data as a secondary objective. Here, we study exploration in the absence of external reward feedback. Instead, we take the quality of an agent's learned internal model to be the primary objective. In a simple probabilistic framework, we derive a Bayesian estimate for the amount of information about the environment an agent can expect to receive by taking an action, a measure we term the predicted information gain (PIG). We develop exploration strategies that approximately maximize PIG. One strategy based on value-iteration consistently learns faster than previously developed reward-free exploration strategies across a diverse range of environments. Psychologists believe the evolutionary advantage of learning-driven exploration lies in the generalized utility of an accurate internal model. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrate that agents which learn more efficiently during exploration are later better able to accomplish a range of goal-directed tasks. We will conclude by discussing how our work elucidates the explorative behaviors of animals and humans, its relationship to other computational models of behavior, and its potential application to experimental design, such as in closed-loop neurophysiology studies.
Little, Daniel Y.; Sommer, Friedrich T.
Discovering the structure underlying observed data is a recurring problem in machine learning with important applications in neuroscience. It is also a primary function of the brain. When data can be actively collected in the context of a closed action-perception loop, behavior becomes a critical determinant of learning efficiency. Psychologists studying exploration and curiosity in humans and animals have long argued that learning itself is a primary motivator of behavior. However, the theoretical basis of learning-driven behavior is not well understood. Previous computational studies of behavior have largely focused on the control problem of maximizing acquisition of rewards and have treated learning the structure of data as a secondary objective. Here, we study exploration in the absence of external reward feedback. Instead, we take the quality of an agent's learned internal model to be the primary objective. In a simple probabilistic framework, we derive a Bayesian estimate for the amount of information about the environment an agent can expect to receive by taking an action, a measure we term the predicted information gain (PIG). We develop exploration strategies that approximately maximize PIG. One strategy based on value-iteration consistently learns faster than previously developed reward-free exploration strategies across a diverse range of environments. Psychologists believe the evolutionary advantage of learning-driven exploration lies in the generalized utility of an accurate internal model. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrate that agents which learn more efficiently during exploration are later better able to accomplish a range of goal-directed tasks. We will conclude by discussing how our work elucidates the explorative behaviors of animals and humans, its relationship to other computational models of behavior, and its potential application to experimental design, such as in closed-loop neurophysiology studies. PMID:23579347
Cowan, Chris Allen
As the need for new leaders has increased, so has the need for new and more effective forms of leadership development (Hamel, 2007; Lojeski, 2010; Gratton, 2011). Action learning has been popularized as one of these new forms of leadership development (Peters & Smith, 1998; Byrnes, 2005; ASTD, 2008; Trehan & Pedler, 2011). However,…
Solution Tree, 2010
This action guide is intended to assist in the reading of and reflection upon "Learning by Doing: A Handbook for Professional Learning Communities at Work, Second Edition" by Richard DuFour, Rebecca DuFour, Richard Eaker, and Thomas Many. The guide can be used by an individual, a small group, or an entire faculty to identify key points,…
Mullen, Carol A.; Rodríguez, Mariela A.; Allen, Tawannah G.
This account of practice describes what three executive leaders in a professional association have learned about action learning and their own practices of organizational renewal. Data are approached narratively and stories are told from the perspectives of diverse educators' experiences, agency, and expertise. Mature organizations can be…
Harrington, Paula; Gillam, Katy; Andrews, Jane; Day, Christopher
The article reports work over one year by three teachers from the Milton Keynes Primary Schools Learning Network. Their collaborative classroom-focused action research investigated the limits and possibilities of pupils' and teachers' learning through self-evaluation. In phase one the teacher researchers used questionnaires, interviews and…
Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro
To understand young infants' flexible changes of learned actions when abrupt environmental changes occur, we examined fifty-four 3-month-olds who performed a mobile task, in which they learned to move the mobile by a string attached to their arms or legs (arm-based or leg-based learning). We manipulated the order of tests-arm to leg (AL) and leg to arm (LA)-and observed the time course of motion of four limbs. The infants in the AL condition showed a differentiated movement pattern, in which the movement of the connected arm was dominant, and when the connected limb changed, they immediately inhibited the prior movement pattern. The infants in the LA condition produced undifferentiated movement pattern of multiple limbs, which was maintained even when the critical limb was changed. The results suggest that the infants' flexibility of actions in a novel situation depends on the prior experience. We speculate neural mechanisms, which may underlie the difference between the arm-based and leg-based learning.
Wermter, Stefan; Elshaw, Mark
In the MirrorBot project we examine perceptual processes using models of cortical assemblies and mirror neurons to explore the emergence of semantic representations of actions, percepts and concepts in a neural robot. The hypothesis under investigation is whether a neural model will produce a life-like perception system for actions. In this context we focus in this paper on how instructions for actions can be modeled in a self-organising memory. Current approaches for robot control often do not use language and ignore neural learning. However, our approach uses language instruction and draws from the concepts of regional distributed modularity, self-organisation and neural assemblies. We describe a self-organising model that clusters actions into different locations depending on the body part they are associated with. In particular, we use actual sensor readings from the MIRA robot to represent semantic features of the action verbs. Furthermore, we outline a hierarchical computational model for a self-organising robot action control system using language for instruction.
Moyer, Joanne M.; Sinclair, A. John; Quinn, Lisa
In recent years, action on sustainability has been highly influential around the globe and many now recognize the importance of individual and social learning for inspiring action and achieving sustainability outcomes. Transformative learning theory has been criticized, however, for insufficient development of the link between learning and action.…
This account of practice outlines how action learning was used as the key component of a leadership development initiative for managers in an acute hospital setting. It explains how the initiative was conceived, why action learning was chosen and how action learning principles were incorporated. Insights into the outcomes and considerations for…
Coughlan, Paul; Coghlan, David
This article brings together the fields of action learning and operations strategy. It presents a case of action learning focused on strategic operations improvement in the extended manufacturing enterprise. As the third article in the set of explorations in this journal within the fields of action learning, operations strategy and collaborative…
This document contains three papers from a symposium on action learning that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "Searching for Meaning in Complex Action Learning Data: What Environments, Acts, and Words Reveal" (Verna J. Willis) analyzes complex action learning documents produced as course…
Botvinick, Matthew; Weinstein, Ari
Recent work has reawakened interest in goal-directed or ‘model-based’ choice, where decisions are based on prospective evaluation of potential action outcomes. Concurrently, there has been growing attention to the role of hierarchy in decision-making and action control. We focus here on the intersection between these two areas of interest, considering the topic of hierarchical model-based control. To characterize this form of action control, we draw on the computational framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning, using this to interpret recent empirical findings. The resulting picture reveals how hierarchical model-based mechanisms might play a special and pivotal role in human decision-making, dramatically extending the scope and complexity of human behaviour. PMID:25267822
Botvinick, Matthew; Weinstein, Ari
Recent work has reawakened interest in goal-directed or 'model-based' choice, where decisions are based on prospective evaluation of potential action outcomes. Concurrently, there has been growing attention to the role of hierarchy in decision-making and action control. We focus here on the intersection between these two areas of interest, considering the topic of hierarchical model-based control. To characterize this form of action control, we draw on the computational framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning, using this to interpret recent empirical findings. The resulting picture reveals how hierarchical model-based mechanisms might play a special and pivotal role in human decision-making, dramatically extending the scope and complexity of human behaviour.
Turner, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Wolpert, David H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
In this paper we focus on the problem of designing a collective of autonomous agents that individually learn sequences of actions such that the resultant sequence of joint actions achieves a predetermined global objective. We are particularly interested in instances of this problem where centralized control is either impossible or impractical. For single agent systems in similar domains, machine learning methods (e.g., reinforcement learners) have been successfully used. However, applying such solutions directly to multi-agent systems often proves problematic, as agents may work at cross-purposes, or have difficulty in evaluating their contribution to achievement of the global objective, or both. Accordingly, the crucial design step in multiagent systems centers on determining the private objectives of each agent so that as the agents strive for those objectives, the system reaches a good global solution. In this work we consider a version of this problem involving multiple autonomous agents in a grid world. We use concepts from collective intelligence to design goals for the agents that are 'aligned' with the global goal, and are 'learnable' in that agents can readily see how their behavior affects their utility. We show that reinforcement learning agents using those goals outperform both 'natural' extensions of single agent algorithms and global reinforcement, learning solutions based on 'team games'.
Ariel, Ellen; Owens, Leigh
The module described and evaluated here was created in response to perceived learning difficulties in diagnostic test design and interpretation for students in third-year Clinical Microbiology. Previously, the activities in lectures and laboratory classes in the module fell into the lower cognitive operations of "knowledge" and "understanding." The new approach was to exchange part of the traditional activities with elements of interactive learning, where students had the opportunity to engage in deep learning using a variety of learning styles. The effectiveness of the new curriculum was assessed by means of on-course student assessment throughout the module, a final exam, an anonymous questionnaire on student evaluation of the different activities and a focus group of volunteers. Although the new curriculum enabled a major part of the student cohort to achieve higher pass grades (p < 0.001), it did not meet the requirements of the weaker students, and the proportion of the students failing the module remained at 34%. The action research applied here provided a number of valuable suggestions from students on how to improve future curricula from their perspective. Most importantly, an interactive online program that facilitated flexibility in the learning space for the different reagents and their interaction in diagnostic tests was proposed. The methods applied to improve and assess a curriculum refresh by involving students as partners in the process, as well as the outcomes, are discussed. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.
Ariel, Ellen; Owens, Leigh
The module described and evaluated here was created in response to perceived learning difficulties in diagnostic test design and interpretation for students in third-year Clinical Microbiology. Previously, the activities in lectures and laboratory classes in the module fell into the lower cognitive operations of “knowledge” and “understanding.” The new approach was to exchange part of the traditional activities with elements of interactive learning, where students had the opportunity to engage in deep learning using a variety of learning styles. The effectiveness of the new curriculum was assessed by means of on-course student assessment throughout the module, a final exam, an anonymous questionnaire on student evaluation of the different activities and a focus group of volunteers. Although the new curriculum enabled a major part of the student cohort to achieve higher pass grades (p < 0.001), it did not meet the requirements of the weaker students, and the proportion of the students failing the module remained at 34%. The action research applied here provided a number of valuable suggestions from students on how to improve future curricula from their perspective. Most importantly, an interactive online program that facilitated flexibility in the learning space for the different reagents and their interaction in diagnostic tests was proposed. The methods applied to improve and assess a curriculum refresh by involving students as partners in the process, as well as the outcomes, are discussed. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:26753024
Alberta Advanced Education, 2006
The Aboriginal Learning Subcommittee looked specifically at developing recommendations that address First Nations, Metis and Inuit learning needs and supports. The Subcommittee proposes policy actions and recommends that all stakeholders work together to implement these actions. The first recommendation for action is to build on partnerships to…
Bers, Marina U.
This paper presents Project InterActions, a series of 5-week workshops in which very young learners (4- to 7-year-old children) and their parents come together to build and program a personally meaningful robotic project in the context of a multigenerational robotics-based community of practice. The goal of these family workshops is to teach both parents and children about the mechanical and programming aspects involved in robotics, as well as to initiate them in a learning trajectory with and about technology. Results from this project address different ways in which parents and children learn together and provide insights into how to develop educational interventions that would educate parents, as well as children, in new domains of knowledge and skills such as robotics and new technologies.
Hirsh, Stephanie; Hord, Shirley
This article is an excerpt from "A Playbook for Professional Learning: Putting the Standards Into Action" (Learning Forward, 2012). Written by Learning Forward Executive Director Stephanie Hirsh and Scholar Laureate Shirley Hord, "A Playbook for Professional Learning" provides those who work in professional learning with readily accessible…
Gibson, Sara Henderson
Today's businesses rely on the effective functioning of self-directed work teams to learn how to solve complex problems and take action. A key factor in a team's ability to perform in this manner is a group climate characterized by psychological safety. Psychological safety must often compete with a climate of evaluative pressure frequently found…
Lyso, Ingunn Hybertsen; Mjoen, Kristian; Levin, Morten
This article aims to contribute to the field of human resource development by exploring the conditions that influence the organizational impact of action learning projects. Many organizations use such projects as an integral part of their management development programs. Past research on action learning projects has shown how balancing action and…
Rantavuori, Juhana; Engeström, Yrjö; Lipponen, Lasse
The paper analyzes a collaborative learning process among Finnish pre-service teachers planning their own learning in a self-regulated way. The study builds on cultural-historical activity theory and the theory of expansive learning, integrating for the first time an analysis of learning actions and an analysis of types of interaction. We examine…
Aleven, Vincent; Roll, Ido; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
Assessment of students' self-regulated learning (SRL) requires a method for evaluating whether observed actions are appropriate acts of self-regulation in theEv specific learning context in which they occur. We review research that has resulted in an automated method for context-sensitive assessment of a specific SRL strategy, help seeking while…
Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Mühlig, Manuel; Steil, Jochen J.; Pitsch, Karola; Fritsch, Jannik; Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Wrede, Britta
Robot learning by imitation requires the detection of a tutor's action demonstration and its relevant parts. Current approaches implicitly assume a unidirectional transfer of knowledge from tutor to learner. The presented work challenges this predominant assumption based on an extensive user study with an autonomously interacting robot. We show that by providing feedback, a robot learner influences the human tutor's movement demonstrations in the process of action learning. We argue that the robot's feedback strongly shapes how tutors signal what is relevant to an action and thus advocate a paradigm shift in robot action learning research toward truly interactive systems learning in and benefiting from interaction. PMID:24646510
Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Mühlig, Manuel; Steil, Jochen J; Pitsch, Karola; Fritsch, Jannik; Rohlfing, Katharina J; Wrede, Britta
Robot learning by imitation requires the detection of a tutor's action demonstration and its relevant parts. Current approaches implicitly assume a unidirectional transfer of knowledge from tutor to learner. The presented work challenges this predominant assumption based on an extensive user study with an autonomously interacting robot. We show that by providing feedback, a robot learner influences the human tutor's movement demonstrations in the process of action learning. We argue that the robot's feedback strongly shapes how tutors signal what is relevant to an action and thus advocate a paradigm shift in robot action learning research toward truly interactive systems learning in and benefiting from interaction.
While the subject of learning has attracted immense interest from both behavioral and neural scientists, only relatively few investigators have observed single-neuron activity while animals are acquiring an operantly conditioned response, or when that response is extinguished. But even in these cases, observation periods usually encompass only a single stage of learning, i.e. acquisition or extinction, but not both (exceptions include protocols employing reversal learning; see Bingman et al.1 for an example). However, acquisition and extinction entail different learning mechanisms and are therefore expected to be accompanied by different types and/or loci of neural plasticity. Accordingly, we developed a behavioral paradigm which institutes three stages of learning in a single behavioral session and which is well suited for the simultaneous recording of single neurons' action potentials. Animals are trained on a single-interval forced choice task which requires mapping each of two possible choice responses to the presentation of different novel visual stimuli (acquisition). After having reached a predefined performance criterion, one of the two choice responses is no longer reinforced (extinction). Following a certain decrement in performance level, correct responses are reinforced again (reacquisition). By using a new set of stimuli in every session, animals can undergo the acquisition-extinction-reacquisition process repeatedly. Because all three stages of learning occur in a single behavioral session, the paradigm is ideal for the simultaneous observation of the spiking output of multiple single neurons. We use pigeons as model systems, but the task can easily be adapted to any other species capable of conditioned discrimination learning. PMID:24961391
Desantis, Andrea; Haggard, Patrick
To maintain a temporally-unified representation of audio and visual features of objects in our environment, the brain recalibrates audio-visual simultaneity. This process allows adjustment for both differences in time of transmission and time for processing of audio and visual signals. In four experiments, we show that the cognitive processes for controlling instrumental actions also have strong influence on audio-visual recalibration. Participants learned that right and left hand button-presses each produced a specific audio-visual stimulus. Following one action the audio preceded the visual stimulus, while for the other action audio lagged vision. In a subsequent test phase, left and right button-press generated either the same audio-visual stimulus as learned initially, or the pair associated with the other action. We observed recalibration of simultaneity only for previously-learned audio-visual outcomes. Thus, learning an action-outcome relation promotes temporal grouping of the audio and visual events within the outcome pair, contributing to the creation of a temporally unified multisensory object. This suggests that learning action-outcome relations and the prediction of perceptual outcomes can provide an integrative temporal structure for our experiences of external events. PMID:27982063
Watson, Connie; Wu, Aimee Tiu
This chapter describes how the concept of learning cities evolved from the "learning society" and the lifelong education and learning movements, and advances multiple forms of communities of learning.
Bunlon, Frédérique; Marshall, Peter J; Quandt, Lorna C; Bouquet, Cedric A
According to the ideomotor theory, actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects, offering a solution for the correspondence problem of imitation (how to translate the observed action into a corresponding motor output). This effect-based coding of action is assumed to be acquired through action-effect learning. Accordingly, performing an action leads to the integration of the perceptual codes of the action effects with the motor commands that brought them about. While ideomotor theory is invoked to account for imitation, the influence of action-effect learning on imitative behavior remains unexplored. In two experiments, imitative performance was measured in a reaction time task following a phase of action-effect acquisition. During action-effect acquisition, participants freely executed a finger movement (index or little finger lifting), and then observed a similar (compatible learning) or a different (incompatible learning) movement. In Experiment 1, finger movements of left and right hands were presented as action-effects during acquisition. In Experiment 2, only right-hand finger movements were presented during action-effect acquisition and in the imitation task the observed hands were oriented orthogonally to participants' hands in order to avoid spatial congruency effects. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that imitative performance was improved after compatible learning, compared to incompatible learning. In Experiment 2, although action-effect learning involved perception of finger movements of right hand only, imitative capabilities of right- and left-hand finger movements were equally affected. These results indicate that an observed movement stimulus processed as the effect of an action can later prime execution of that action, confirming the ideomotor approach to imitation. We further discuss these findings in relation to previous studies of action-effect learning and in the framework of current ideomotor approaches to imitation.
Waugh, Anna; McNay, Lisa; Dewar, Belinda; McCaig, Marie
The centrality of therapeutic relationships is considered to be the cornerstone of effective mental health nursing practice. Strategies that support the development of these skills and the emotional aspects of learning need to be developed. Action learning is one such strategy. This article reports on a qualitative research study on the introduction of Action Learning Sets (ALS) into a Pre-registration Mental Health Nursing Programme. This teaching and learning methodology was chosen to support the emotional aspects of learning and mental health nursing skills. Four themes were identified: developing skills of listening and questioning in 'real time', enhanced self-awareness, being with someone in the moment--there is no rehearsal and doing things differently in practice. Students and lecturers found the experience positive and advocate for other Pre-registration Mental Health Nursing Programmes to consider the use of ALS within the curriculum.
Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar
Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…
Yorks, Lyle; Dilworth, Robert L.; Marquardt, Michael J.; Marsick, Victoria; O'Neil, Judy
Action learning is receiving increasing attention from human resource development (HRD) practitioners and the HRD management literature. Action learning has been characterized as follows: (1) working in small groups to take action on meaningful problems while seeking to learn from having taken the specified action lies at the foundation of action…
Beniston, Lee; Ellwood, Paul; Gold, Jeff; Roberts, James; Thorpe, Richard
There is increasing evidence that action learning is valuable in a higher education setting. This paper goes on to report a personal development programme, based on principles of critical action learning, where the aim is to equip early-career scientists and engineers working in a university setting with the knowledge, skills and confidence to…
McCormack, Brendan; Henderson, Elizabeth; Boomer, Christine; Collin, Ita; Robinson, David
Action learning is being increasingly utilised as a strategy to underpin practitioner focused development and research projects in healthcare generally and nursing in particular. Whilst facilitators of and participants in action learning have a variety of resource materials to guide their practice and participation, there continue to be few…
Abbott, Christine; Weiss, Michael
The notion of action learning driven innovation is explored with reference to three action-learning projects carried out in the last year and a proposed multi stakeholder project starting in 2016. The authors also provide an account of "innovation", including its rationale and characteristics, and argues for its particular suitability in…
Cooper, Jeffrey C.; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P.
The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of…
This paper reflects upon a sub-optimal action learning application with a strategic business re-design project. The objective of the project was to improve the long-term business performance of a subsidiary business and build the strategic plan. Action learning was introduced to aid the group in expanding their view of the real problems…
Those who develop leaders in manufacturing settings have little data that describe the usefulness of action learning as a method of developing leaders' abilities to improve results-based leadership attributes or perceptions about their team's cohesiveness. The two purposes of this study were to evaluate an action learning program with regards to…
Krishna, Vijay; Marquardt, Michael J.
Organizational commitment has been explored extensively over the past 40 years because of its benefits to individuals and the organization. Action learning, in turn, has been used by companies worldwide to develop leaders, teams and organizations. No study, however, has been undertaken to determine how action learning might develop organizational…
Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.
How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…
Chenhall, Everon C.; Chermack, Thomas J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated model of action learning based on an examination of four reviewed action learning models, definitions, and espoused outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: A clear articulation of the strengths and limitations of each model was essential to developing an integrated model, which could be…
This article reports on the launching of the Revans Academy for Action Learning and Research at Manchester Business School on 26 November 2008. The goal of the Academy is to foster the development of action learning as a unifying framework within Manchester Business School. Its goal is to provide a hub for dialogue, collaboration, exploitation and…
Kellie, Jean; Henderson, Eileen; Milsom, Brian; Crawley, Hayley
This account of practice reports on an action learning initiative designed and implemented in partnership between a regional NHS Acute Trust and a UK Business School. The central initiative was the implementation of an action learning programme entitled "Leading change in tissue viability best practice: a development programme for Link Nurse…
Turner, Arthur; Heneberry, Pamela
Involvement in a number of action-learning programmes and associated development opportunities has led the Professional Development Centre Limited to question the relevance of a strict adherence to the "rules" of action learning as described by Reg Revans. A deliberate focus of one such programme to a financial services organisation…
Reese, Simon R.
This paper reflects upon a three-step process to expand the problem definition in the early stages of an action learning project. The process created a community-powered problem-solving approach within the action learning context. The simple three steps expanded upon in the paper create independence, dependence, and inter-dependence to aid the…
Cribbin, John, Ed.; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.
This document consists of 32 papers presenting Hong Kong practitioners' perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Lifelong Learning" (Albert Tuijnman); "Growth and Development of Lifelong Learning in Hong Kong " (John Cribbin); "Competition and Collaboration" (John Cribbin); "A…
Dale, Rick; Roche, Jennifer; Snyder, Kristy; McCall, Ryan
Much evidence exists supporting a richer interaction between cognition and action than commonly assumed. Such findings demonstrate that short-timescale processes, such as motor execution, may relate in systematic ways to longer-timescale cognitive processes, such as learning. We further substantiate one direction of this interaction: the flow of cognition into action systems. Two experiments explored match-to-sample paired-associate learning, in which participants learned randomized pairs of unfamiliar symbols. During the experiments, their hand movements were continuously tracked using the Nintendo Wiimote. Across learning, participant arm movements are initiated and completed more quickly, exhibit lower fluctuation, and exert more perturbation on the Wiimote during the button press. A second experiment demonstrated that action dynamics index novel learning scenarios, and not simply acclimatization to the Wiimote interface. Results support a graded and systematic covariation between cognition and action, and recommend ways in which this theoretical perspective may contribute to applied learning contexts.
Aumann, Michael J.
This mixed methods research study evaluated the use of technology-based action plans as a way to help improve compliance with the learning objectives of an online training event. It explored how the action planning strategy impacted subjects in a treatment group and compared them to subjects in a control group who did not get the action plan. The…
Kirsch, Louise P.; Cross, Emily S.
The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation. PMID:26209850
Kirsch, Louise P; Cross, Emily S
The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation.
Broda, Herbert W.
Since Herb Broda published Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning, his groundbreaking first book on outdoor learning, many schools across North America have embraced the benefits of "greening" their learning programs. Herb has visited dozens of these schools and nature centers, and he showcases the very best examples of schoolyard-enhanced…
The paper reviews teacher candidates' use of action research and the Professional Learning Community (PLC) concept to support their work in their pre-student teaching field experience. In this research study, teacher candidates are involved in a professional development school relationship that uses action research and PLCs to support candidate…
de León, Lourdes
This chapter examines Mayan children's initiatives in creating their own learning environments in collaboration with others as they engage in culturally relevant endeavors of family and community life. To this end, I carry out a fine-grained ethnographic and linguistic analysis of the interactional emergence of learning ecologies. Erickson defines learning ecology as a socioecological system where participants mutually influence one another through verbal and nonverbal actions, as well as through other forms of semiotic communication (2010, 254). In analyzing learning ecologies, I adopt a "theory of action" approach, taking into account multimodal communication (e.g., talk, gesture, gaze, body positioning), participants' sociospatial organization, embodied action, objects, tools, and other culturally relevant materials brought together to build action (Goodwin, 2000, 2013; Hutchins, 1995). I use microethnographic analysis (Erickson, 1992) to bring to the surface central aspects of children's agentive roles in learning through "cooperative actions" (Goodwin, 2013) and "hands-on" experience (Ingold, 2007) the skills of competent members of their community. I examine three distinct Learning Ecologies created by children's initiatives among the Mayan children that I observed: (i) children requesting guidance to collaborate in a task, (ii) older children working on their own initiative with subsequent monitoring and correction from competent members, and (iii) children with near competence in a task with occasional monitoring and no guidance. I argue that these findings enrich and add power to models of family- and community-based learning such as Learning by Observing and Pitching In (Rogoff, 2014).
Martin, Michael W.; Shen, Yuzhong
This paper explores the distinction between operative and resultant actions in games, and proposes that the learning space created by a serious game is a function of these actions. Further, it suggests a possible relationship between these actions and the forms of cognitive load imposed upon the game player. Association of specific types of cognitive load with respective forms of actions in game mechanics also presents some heuristics for integrating learning content into serious games. Research indicates that different balances of these types of actions are more suitable for novice or experienced learners. By examining these relationships, we can develop a few basic principles of game design which have an increased potential to promote positive learning outcomes.
Liu, Quan; Ling, Xionghong; Cui, Zhiming
Reinforcement learning (RL) is one kind of interactive learning methods. Its main characteristics are “trial and error” and “related reward.” A hierarchical reinforcement learning method based on action subrewards is proposed to solve the problem of “curse of dimensionality,” which means that the states space will grow exponentially in the number of features and low convergence speed. The method can reduce state spaces greatly and choose actions with favorable purpose and efficiency so as to optimize reward function and enhance convergence speed. Apply it to the online learning in Tetris game, and the experiment result shows that the convergence speed of this algorithm can be enhanced evidently based on the new method which combines hierarchical reinforcement learning algorithm and action subrewards. The “curse of dimensionality” problem is also solved to a certain extent with hierarchical method. All the performance with different parameters is compared and analyzed as well. PMID:24600318
Gill, Simone V.; Adolph, Karen E.; Vereijken, Beatrix
A critical aspect of perception-action coupling is the ability to modify ongoing actions in accordance with variations in the environment. Infants' ability to modify their gait patterns to walk down shallow and steep slopes was examined at three nested time scales. Across sessions, a microgenetic training design showed rapid improvements after the…
Tobin, Jennifer Ann
This action research study used narrative analysis to explore the role of the body in the writing process of creative writers. Specifically, the purpose of this action research study was threefold: it was first to examine how professional creative writers describe their writing process with particular attention to their perceptions of the role and…
The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an…
Karallis, Takis; Sandelands, Eric
This article provides a case study of how Kentz Engineers & Constructors, with more than 10,000 employees in 26 countries, are leveraging learning to "Build better futures" for its stakeholders: clients, shareholders, employees and communities. Kentz provide opportunities for learning at all levels, ensuring that "no one is left behind". This case…
Doos, Marianne; Wilhelmson, Lena
Purpose: The paper seeks to argue for a theoretical contribution that deals with the detection of collective learning. The aim is to examine and clarify the genesis processes of collective learning. The empirical basis is a telecoms context with task-driven networking across both internal and external organisational borders.…
Eidson, Karla W.; Nickson, Lautrice; Hughes, Teresa
Preservice teacher education candidates identified personal and professional benefits of participating in a service-learning project helping a food pantry, culminating in a 48-hour fast. At the end of the project, student reflections revealed that the service-learning component influenced participants' preconceptions about hunger.
This dissertation applies reinforcement learning to the adaptive control of active sensory-motor systems. Active sensory-motor systems, in addition...distinct states in the external world. This phenomenon, called perceptual aliasing, is shown to destabilize existing reinforcement learning algorithms
Scheuer, Oliver; Muhlenbrock, Martin; Melis, Erica
Recently, there is a growing interest in the automatic analysis of learner activity in web-based learning environments. The approach and system SIAM (System for Interaction Analysis by Machine learning) presented in this article aims at helping to establish a basis for the automatic analysis of interaction data by developing a data logging and…
National Foundation for the Improvement of Education, Washington, DC.
Focusing on the use of advanced technologies in classrooms to reshape the educational environment in which students learn, this report on Phase II of the Learning Tomorrow program contains brief descriptions of the most promising educational practices submitted by teachers in response to two nation-wide calls for Innovation in Practice. The report…
Scheer, Andrea; Noweski, Christine; Meinel, Christoph
In an ever changing society of the 21st century, there is a demand to equip students with meta competences going beyond cognitive knowledge. Education, therefore, needs a transition from transferring knowledge to developing individual potentials with the help of constructivist learning. Advantages of constructivist learning, and criteria for its…
Ostergaard, Edvin; Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles
Preparing students for a complex and dynamic future is a challenge for educators. This article explores three crucial issues related to agroecological education and learning: (1) the phenomenological foundation for learning agroecology in higher education; (2) the process of students' interactions with a wide range of various learners within and…
van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Cohen, Michael X.
Frontal oscillatory dynamics in the theta (4-8 Hz) and beta (20-30 Hz) frequency bands have been implicated in cognitive control processes. Here we investigated the changes in coordinated activity within and between frontal brain areas during feedback-based response learning. In a time estimation task, participants learned to press a button after…
Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M.; Cameron, Abigail E.; Schulman, Michael D.
How can instructors use experiential learning strategies to enhance student understanding of research ethics and responsible research conduct? In this article, the authors review literature on using experiential learning to teach research ethics and responsible research conduct. They present a three-step exercise for teaching research ethics and…
Wang, Jinshuai; Bloodworth, Mike
This paper describes an action learning programme with China Unicom Broadband Limited (CUBO) to support its vision of transforming to become a world-leading broadband communications and information service provider. 64 Department directors and supervisors were invited to take part in the "China Unicom Broadband Online Phoenix Action Learning…
Childers, Jane B.; Tomasello, Michael
Examined 2-year-olds' comprehension and production of novel nouns, verbs, or actions at 3 intervals after training conducted in massed or distributed exposures. Found that for comprehension, children learned all item types in all training conditions at all retention intervals. Production was better for nonverbal actions than for either word type…
Kawulich, Barbara B.
This manuscript shares lessons learned from conducting an action evaluation of the use of multimedia case studies in Management Information Systems (MIS) courses. Three undergraduate MIS classes took part in the study. The purpose for using case studies in these classes was to teach students about the role of MIS in business. An action evaluation…
Mills, Jane; Gibbon, David; Ingram, Julie; Reed, Matt; Short, Christopher; Dwyer, Janet
The paper explored key factors that might lead to successful agri-environmental social learning and collective action in order to deliver landscape-scale resource management within agri-environment schemes. Using the theory of collective action as an analytical framework the paper examined findings from in-depth interviews with 20 members of two…
Nevid, Jeffrey S.; McClelland, Nate
We used a set of action verbs based on Bloom's taxonomy to assess learning outcomes in two college-level introductory psychology courses. The action verbs represented an acronym, IDEA, comprising skills relating to identifying, defining or describing, evaluating or explaining, and applying psychological knowledge. Exam performance demonstrated…
Altun, Sertel; Yücel-Toy, Banu
This purpose of this study is to investigate how the course designed based on constructivist principles has been implemented, what actions have been taken to solve problems and what thoughts have arisen in the minds of teacher candidates with regard to the constructivist learning approach. In this study, an action research was employed which…
Schensul, Jean J.; Berg, Marlene
This article describes a model of participatory action research and service-learning conducted with urban, high school African American, West Indian/Caribbean, and Puerto Rican/Latino youth and adult facilitators, in a nonclassroom setting, in a mid-sized northeastern city. Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) integrates critical theory,…
This account of practice describes how a manufacturing company in the North of England transformed their approach to problem-solving and action through the use of a Critical Reflection Action Learning (CRAL) methodology. The company, who had been in business for over 25 years, experienced problems due to a diminishing customer base and substantial…
In adapting Bowles' and Gintis's correspondence principle of education, this paper suggests that there are ways in which the theory and practice of action learning developed "in correspondence" with the NHS. In doing so, the paper draws, in part, upon an historical assessment of Revans' Hospital Internal Communications Project of the…
Bolly, Madina; Jonas, Nicolas
Action Research on Measuring Literacy Programme Participants' Learning Outcomes (RAMAA) aims to develop, implement and collaborate on the creation of a methodological approach to measure acquired learning and study the various factors that influence its development. This report examines how RAMAA I has been implemented over the past four years in…
Rector, Patricia; Lyons, Rachel; Yost, Theresa
Using an interdisciplinary approach to water resource education, 4-H Youth Development and Environmental Extension agents enlisted 4-H teens to connect local watershed education with social action. Teens participated in a dynamic service learning project that included learning about nonpoint source pollution; constructing, decorating, and teaching…
Maloyed, Christie L.
The use of service-learning pedagogies in general education courses is often limited to increasing volunteerism or civic literacy with problem-based or research-based projects reserved for upper level courses. This article examines the implementation of an "actionable data" service-learning project in an introductory, general studies…
This article explores learning opportunities offered by students' written reflections as they learn through writing an action research proposal. From tapping into students' reported struggles, I analysed data using three stages of qualitative data analysis: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing (Miles and Huberman 1994). It emerged…
US Department of Education, 2012
Today, the U.S. Department of Education joins the National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement, the American Commonwealth Partnership, and the Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools in a new national call to action to infuse and enhance civic learning and democratic engagement for all students throughout the American…
Smith, Janice Witt; Clark, Gloria
This research study looks at the implementation of an action research project within a blended learning human resource management class in employee and labor relations. The internal and external environment created conditions that converged in the Perfect Storm and resulted in an almost disastrous learning experience for faculty and students. What…
This paper examines the learning gained from facilitating four action-learning sets whose members were drawn from management teams of local authority, health, education and police, working in partnership. Facilitation posed a series of difficult choices which impacted on personal and organizational dynamics within and between the partnership…
Calvert, Megan; Sheen, Younghee
The creation, implementation, and evaluation of language learning tasks remain a challenge for many teachers, especially those with limited experience with using tasks in their teaching. This action-research study reports on one teacher's experience of developing, implementing, critically reflecting on, and modifying a language learning task…
Edmonstone, John; Robson, Jean
This account of practice describes the introduction of an accredited postgraduate management qualification which used action learning as a major contribution to a blended learning approach in a fragile cross-border setting on the edge of Europe. Conventional management education has frequently been challenged on the grounds of relevance, efficacy…
Ravensbergen, Frances; Vanderplaat, Madine
This paper explores the use of "learning circles" as one form of knowledge production in social action research. It reports on a project that used learning circles as a setting within which to increase the engagement of people living with low income in developing strategies for the reduction and elimination of poverty in Canada. It…
Gabrielsson, Jonas; Tell, Joakim; Politis, Diamanto
Recent calls to close the rigour-relevance gap in business school education have suggested incorporating principles and ideas from action learning in small business management education. In this paper we discuss how business simulation exercises can be used as a platform to trigger students' learning by providing them with a platform where they…
Endresen, Kristin; Von Kotze, Astrid
This paper is based on research into the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) in South Africa. The research investigated whether, through being active members of this social movement, HIV-positive activists learn things they could not otherwise learn about their status and the epidemic, and how they put such knowledge to use. We show how activists…
Attorps, Iiris; Kellner, Eva
The aim of this article is to describe a design and implementation of a school-university action research project about teaching and learning biology and mathematics in primary school. Nine teachers in grades 1 to 6, in collaboration with two researchers, were using content representation (CoRe) in learning study (LS)-inspired cycle as pedagogical…
Boswell, Laura; Nugent, Peg
Teacher action research using both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to examine impacts of using visual learning strategies on five preschool children (ages 3-5) with autism in a self-contained classroom. During the six weeks of the study, pictures representing nine learning areas and specific developmental…
Previous research has provided evidence that mental imagery and embodied action can facilitate lexical learning in a novel language. However, it is unclear "how" these factors interact--as well as "why" they play a role--in lexical learning. Through a set of four experiments, this research demonstrated that neither mental…
Shurville, Simon; Rospigliosi, Asher
We report upon implementing blended self-managed action learning (SMAL) within graduate and postgraduate courses in digital entrepreneurship. In four out of five cases, we found that SMAL was highly motivating to our learners and integrated well with a blended and flexible approach to learning. We report a case where a SMAL set broke down due to…
Jiang, Zhuolin; Lin, Zhe; Davis, Larry S
A shape-motion prototype-based approach is introduced for action recognition. The approach represents an action as a sequence of prototypes for efficient and flexible action matching in long video sequences. During training, an action prototype tree is learned in a joint shape and motion space via hierarchical K-means clustering and each training sequence is represented as a labeled prototype sequence; then a look-up table of prototype-to-prototype distances is generated. During testing, based on a joint probability model of the actor location and action prototype, the actor is tracked while a frame-to-prototype correspondence is established by maximizing the joint probability, which is efficiently performed by searching the learned prototype tree; then actions are recognized using dynamic prototype sequence matching. Distance measures used for sequence matching are rapidly obtained by look-up table indexing, which is an order of magnitude faster than brute-force computation of frame-to-frame distances. Our approach enables robust action matching in challenging situations (such as moving cameras, dynamic backgrounds) and allows automatic alignment of action sequences. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieves recognition rates of 92.86 percent on a large gesture data set (with dynamic backgrounds), 100 percent on the Weizmann action data set, 95.77 percent on the KTH action data set, 88 percent on the UCF sports data set, and 87.27 percent on the CMU action data set.
Kotnour, Tim; Starr, Stan; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)
This paper contributes a description of an action-learning approach to building project management competence. This approach was designed, implemented, and evaluated for use with the Dynacs Engineering Development Contract at the Kennedy Space Center. The aim of the approach was to improve three levels of competence within the organization: individual project management skills, project team performance. and organizational capabilities such as the project management process and tools. The overall steps to the approach, evaluation results, and lessons learned are presented. Managers can use this paper to design a specific action-learning approach for their organization.
York Univ., Toronto (Ontario).
This document summarizes and presents materials produced during a qualitative international study of the role of transformative learning in achieving sustainable societies and global responsibility that included the following activities: case studies of experiences with transformative learning in seven countries; international survey and workshop;…
Bogacz, Rafal; McClure, Samuel M; Li, Jian; Cohen, Jonathan D; Montague, P Read
Recent experimental and theoretical work on reinforcement learning has shed light on the neural bases of learning from rewards and punishments. One fundamental problem in reinforcement learning is the credit assignment problem, or how to properly assign credit to actions that lead to reward or punishment following a delay. Temporal difference learning solves this problem, but its efficiency can be significantly improved by the addition of eligibility traces (ET). In essence, ETs function as decaying memories of previous choices that are used to scale synaptic weight changes. It has been shown in theoretical studies that ETs spanning a number of actions may improve the performance of reinforcement learning. However, it remains an open question whether including ETs that persist over sequences of actions allows reinforcement learning models to better fit empirical data regarding the behaviors of humans and other animals. Here, we report an experiment in which human subjects performed a sequential economic decision game in which the long-term optimal strategy differed from the strategy that leads to the greatest short-term return. We demonstrate that human subjects' performance in the task is significantly affected by the time between choices in a surprising and seemingly counterintuitive way. However, this behavior is naturally explained by a temporal difference learning model which includes ETs persisting across actions. Furthermore, we review recent findings that suggest that short-term synaptic plasticity in dopamine neurons may provide a realistic biophysical mechanism for producing ETs that persist on a timescale consistent with behavioral observations.
Chan, Cheri C. Y.; Tardif, Twila; Chen, Jie; Pulverman, Rachel B.; Zhu, Liqi; Meng, Xiangzhi
Research based on naturalistic and checklist methods has revealed differences between English and Chinese monolingual children in their trajectories of learning nouns and verbs. However, studies based on controlled laboratory designs (e.g., Imai et al., 2008) have yielded a more mixed picture. Guided by a multidimensional view of word learning (in…
Huang, Chi-Tai; Charman, Tony
This study explored different gradations of emulation in the imitation of actions on objects by 17-month-olds. Experiment 1 established levels of behavioral reproduction following prerecorded video demonstrations similar to those levels following live demonstrations. In Experiment 2, two digitally modified videos, where object movements or body movements critical to producing the target action were highlighted in isolation, were developed. Infants produced the target action equally frequently by observing the object movement video and observing the unmodified video. In contrast, their performance was much less successful based on the body movement video. In Experiment 3, the performance obtained following the object movement video was similar to that following a further video that emphasized the object movements produced in unsuccessful attempts to produce the target action. These findings suggest that emulation in the form of object movement reenactment or affordance learning plays a role in the social learning of actions on objects during infancy.
van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Cohen, Michael X
Frontal oscillatory dynamics in the theta (4-8 Hz) and beta (20-30 Hz) frequency bands have been implicated in cognitive control processes. Here we investigated the changes in coordinated activity within and between frontal brain areas during feedback-based response learning. In a time estimation task, participants learned to press a button after specific, randomly selected time intervals (300-2000 msec) using the feedback after each button press (correct, too fast, too slow). Consistent with previous findings, theta-band activity over medial frontal scalp sites (presumably reflecting medial frontal cortex activity) was stronger after negative feedback, whereas beta-band activity was stronger after positive feedback. Theta-band power predicted learning only after negative feedback, and beta-band power predicted learning after positive and negative feedback. Furthermore, negative feedback increased theta-band intersite phase synchrony (a millisecond resolution measure of functional connectivity) among right lateral prefrontal, medial frontal, and sensorimotor sites. These results demonstrate the importance of frontal theta- and beta-band oscillations and intersite communication in the realization of reinforcement learning.
Boak, George; Watt, Peter; Gold, Jeff; Devins, David; Garvey, Robert
This paper contributes to an understanding of the processes by which organisational actors learn how to affect positive and sustainable social change in their local region through action learning, action research and appreciative inquiry. The paper is based on a critically reflective account of key findings from an ongoing action research project,…
This account of practice explores the concept of resistance in action learning. Resistance is conceptualized as an attempt of self-protection that is manifested in action learners' struggles with their sense of self-efficacy and their social Self. These struggles are an inherent part of the action learning process and may elicit defensive…
Fee, Michale S.
In its simplest formulation, reinforcement learning is based on the idea that if an action taken in a particular context is followed by a favorable outcome, then, in the same context, the tendency to produce that action should be strengthened, or reinforced. While reinforcement learning forms the basis of many current theories of basal ganglia (BG) function, these models do not incorporate distinct computational roles for signals that convey context, and those that convey what action an animal takes. Recent experiments in the songbird suggest that vocal-related BG circuitry receives two functionally distinct excitatory inputs. One input is from a cortical region that carries context information about the current “time” in the motor sequence. The other is an efference copy of motor commands from a separate cortical brain region that generates vocal variability during learning. Based on these findings, I propose here a general model of vertebrate BG function that combines context information with a distinct motor efference copy signal. The signals are integrated by a learning rule in which efference copy inputs gate the potentiation of context inputs (but not efference copy inputs) onto medium spiny neurons in response to a rewarded action. The hypothesis is described in terms of a circuit that implements the learning of visually guided saccades. The model makes testable predictions about the anatomical and functional properties of hypothesized context and efference copy inputs to the striatum from both thalamic and cortical sources. PMID:22754501
Antell, Sonja; Heywood, John
Action learning is often used as an element of leadership development programmes. The intention is to support classroom learning with an experiential thread which runs throughout the life of the programme. Action Learning Associates (ALA) has been working with an international organisation for three years to deliver the global "First Line…
Bwegyeme, Jacinta; Munene, John C.
The article presents an account of how action learning principles were implemented to alleviate complex problems in universities. It focuses on the registrars and administrators under the academic Registrar's department. The Marquardt model of action learning was used in combination with the constructivist theories of learning, namely community of…
Frings, A.; And Others
This handbook is intended to help trainers and development workers plan and conduct training programs based on the Action Training Model (ATM). The ATM combines training with action and learning with production by building upon participants' knowledge and learning needs and involving participants in a process of active learning and cooperative…
Frese, Michael; Keith, Nina
Every organization is confronted with errors. Most errors are corrected easily, but some may lead to negative consequences. Organizations often focus on error prevention as a single strategy for dealing with errors. Our review suggests that error prevention needs to be supplemented by error management--an approach directed at effectively dealing with errors after they have occurred, with the goal of minimizing negative and maximizing positive error consequences (examples of the latter are learning and innovations). After defining errors and related concepts, we review research on error-related processes affected by error management (error detection, damage control). Empirical evidence on positive effects of error management in individuals and organizations is then discussed, along with emotional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioral pathways of these effects. Learning from errors is central, but like other positive consequences, learning occurs under certain circumstances--one being the development of a mind-set of acceptance of human error.
Vo, Khoi; Rutledge, Robb B.; Chatterjee, Anjan
Several lines of evidence implicate the striatum in learning from experience on the basis of positive and negative feedback. However, the necessity of the striatum for such learning has been difficult to demonstrate in humans, because brain damage is rarely restricted to this structure. Here we test a rare individual with widespread bilateral damage restricted to the dorsal striatum. His performance was impaired and not significantly different from chance on several classic learning tasks, consistent with current theories regarding the role of the striatum. However, he also exhibited remarkably intact performance on a different subset of learning paradigms. The tasks he could perform can all be solved by learning the value of actions, while those he could not perform can only be solved by learning the value of stimuli. Although dorsal striatum is often thought to play a specific role in action-value learning, we find surprisingly that dorsal striatum is necessary for stimulus-value but not action-value learning in humans. PMID:25273995
This study reports on graduate students' thoughts and beliefs about utilizing action research as a means of professional development two years after their graduation from a Master of Arts program in Education. Because many school districts now encourage teachers to engage in self-study and to collect data that informs their instruction, the author…
Wagner, Christian; Ip, Rachael K. F.
Virtual worlds, computer-based simulated environments in which users interact via avatars, provide an opportunity for the highly realistic enactment of real life activities online. Unlike computer games, which have a pre-defined purpose, pay-off structure, and action patterns, virtual worlds can leave many of these elements for users to determine.…
This report is a follow-up to the first publication of the Child Proofing Our Communities Campaign, titled "Poisoned Schools: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions." The previous report looked at the problems of public schools built on contaminated land years ago, the trend of proposing new schools on contaminated land, and the threat of…
Wright, Dana E.; Mahiri, Jabari
This case study describes the literacy development of a struggling reader over a seven-month period as he engaged in a youth-led participatory action research (PAR) project. The project's goal was for youth participants to develop a proposal for productive change in their local community and present it to community stakeholders. The study focused…
Bers, Marina U.
This paper presents Project InterActions, a series of 5-week workshops in which very young learners (4- to 7-year-old children) and their parents come together to build and program a personally meaningful robotic project in the context of a multigenerational robotics-based community of practice. The goal of these family workshops is to teach both…
Warden, Clyde A.; Stanworth, James O.; Ren, Jian Biao; Warden, Antony R.
Low cost and significant advances in technology now allow instructors to create their own virtual learning environments. Creating social interactions within a virtual space that emulates the physical classroom remains challenging. While students are familiar with virtual worlds and video meetings, they are inexperienced as virtual learners. Over a…
Mitchell, Jane; Riley, Philip; Loughran, John
School leadership and teacher professional development are two well-defined fields of research within the education literature, yet there is relatively little research that has examined the leadership of teachers' professional development and learning. The study reported in this paper seeks to understand the experience of teachers who have…
Dickson, Geraldine; Green, Kathryn L.
Twelve older Aboriginal women in a Canadian city were trained to be co-researchers as part of a participatory health assessment and health promotion project involving 40 such women. Lessons were learned about project ownership, Native perceptions of research, use of traditions, participants' capacity to engage in research and analysis, conflict…
Isles, A. R.; Humby, T.
Background: It is now widely acknowledged that there may be a genetic contribution to learning disability and neuropsychiatric disorders, stemming from evidence provided by family, twin and adoption studies, and from explicit syndromic conditions. Recently it has been recognized that in some cases the presentation of genetic syndromes (or discrete…
Stewart, Trae, Ed.; Webster, Nicole, Ed.
Interest in and research on civic engagement and service-learning have increased exponentially. In this rapid growth, efforts have been made to institutionalize pedagogies of engagement across both K-12 and higher education. As a result, increased positive attention has been complemented equally by well-founded critiques complicating experiential…
Nave, Bill, Ed.
What does student-centered learning look like in real-life classrooms? In this collection, educator Bill Nave and nine award-winning K-12 teachers tell the story of how and why they changed their teaching and redesigned their classrooms in order to "reach every child." They reflect on their successes and struggles to put students in…
Noguchi, Fumiko; Guevara, Jose Roberto; Yorozu, Rika
This handbook identifies principles and policy mechanisms to advance community-based learning for sustainable development based on the commitments endorsed by the participants of the "Kominkan-CLC International Conference on Education for Sustainable Development," which took place in Okayama City, Japan, in October 2014. To inform…
Camahalan, Faye Marsha G.; Ruley, Andrea G.
This teacher research project focused on utilizing blended learning to teach writing to middle school students. The intervention was designed to fit into individual lessons needed to improve students' writing skills with the main focus on sentence structure. Sixteen (16) 7th grade students were assessed with a writing sample applying the new…
Christopoulos, George I.; King-Casas, Brooks
In social environments, it is crucial that decision-makers take account of the impact of their actions not only for oneself, but also on other social agents. Previous work has identified neural signals in the striatum encoding value-based prediction errors for outcomes to oneself; also, recent work suggests neural activity in prefrontal cortex may similarly encode value-based prediction errors related to outcomes to others. However, prior work also indicates that social valuations are not isomorphic, with social value orientations of decision-makers ranging on a cooperative to competitive continuum; this variation has not been examined within social learning environments. Here, we combine a computational model of learning with functional neuroimaging to examine how individual differences in orientation impact neural mechanisms underlying ‘other-value’ learning. Across four experimental conditions, reinforcement learning signals for other-value were identified in medial prefrontal cortex, and were distinct from self-value learning signals identified in striatum. Critically, the magnitude and direction of the other-value learning signal depended strongly on an individual’s cooperative or competitive orientation towards others. These data indicate that social decisions are guided by a social orientation-dependent learning system that is computationally similar but anatomically distinct from self-value learning. The sensitivity of the medial prefrontal learning signal to social preferences suggests a mechanism linking such preferences to biases in social actions and highlights the importance of incorporating heterogeneous social predispositions in neurocomputational models of social behavior. PMID:25224998
Christopoulos, George I; King-Casas, Brooks
In social environments, it is crucial that decision-makers take account of the impact of their actions not only for oneself, but also on other social agents. Previous work has identified neural signals in the striatum encoding value-based prediction errors for outcomes to oneself; also, recent work suggests that neural activity in prefrontal cortex may similarly encode value-based prediction errors related to outcomes to others. However, prior work also indicates that social valuations are not isomorphic, with social value orientations of decision-makers ranging on a cooperative to competitive continuum; this variation has not been examined within social learning environments. Here, we combine a computational model of learning with functional neuroimaging to examine how individual differences in orientation impact neural mechanisms underlying 'other-value' learning. Across four experimental conditions, reinforcement learning signals for other-value were identified in medial prefrontal cortex, and were distinct from self-value learning signals identified in striatum. Critically, the magnitude and direction of the other-value learning signal depended strongly on an individual's cooperative or competitive orientation toward others. These data indicate that social decisions are guided by a social orientation-dependent learning system that is computationally similar but anatomically distinct from self-value learning. The sensitivity of the medial prefrontal learning signal to social preferences suggests a mechanism linking such preferences to biases in social actions and highlights the importance of incorporating heterogeneous social predispositions in neurocomputational models of social behavior.
Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria
Spike-timing-dependent plasticity is considered the neurophysiological basis of Hebbian learning and has been shown to be sensitive to both contingency and contiguity between pre- and postsynaptic activity. Here, we will examine how applying this Hebbian learning rule to a system of interconnected neurons in the presence of direct or indirect re-afference (e.g. seeing/hearing one's own actions) predicts the emergence of mirror neurons with predictive properties. In this framework, we analyse how mirror neurons become a dynamic system that performs active inferences about the actions of others and allows joint actions despite sensorimotor delays. We explore how this system performs a projection of the self onto others, with egocentric biases to contribute to mind-reading. Finally, we argue that Hebbian learning predicts mirror-like neurons for sensations and emotions and review evidence for the presence of such vicarious activations outside the motor system. PMID:24778372
This article conveys results from a participatory action research (PAR) engagement with activist/educators working in Ghanaian social movements. First, this PAR group has articulated two typologies from which to understand Ghanaian social movements based on their processes of organization, communication and learning rather than merely the issues,…
MacIntyre, Peter D.; Blackie, Rebecca A.
The present study examines the relative ability of variables from three motivational frameworks to predict four non-linguistic outcomes of language learning. The study examines Action Control Theory with its measures of (1) hesitation, (2) volatility and (3) rumination. The study also examined Pintrich's expectancy-value model that uses measures…
Gómez Puente, S. M.; van Eijck, M.; Jochems, W.
Background: In research on design-based learning (DBL), inadequate attention is paid to the role the teacher plays in supervising students in gathering and applying knowledge to design artifacts, systems, and innovative solutions in higher education. Purpose: In this study, we examine whether teacher actions we previously identified in the DBL…
Adult Learning, 2012
This article presents the Belem Framework for Action. This framework focuses on harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. This framework begins with a preamble on adult education and towards lifelong learning.
Jenkins, Emrys R; Mabbett, Gaynor M; Surridge, Andrea G; Warring, Joanna; Gwynn, Elizabeth D
As nurse lecturers we investigated practice development and action learning approaches aimed at enabling postregistration bachelor's- and master's-level nursing students (Community Health Studies, Nursing in the Home) to advance practice in the context of policy and professional developments. A patchwork text was used to assess summatively what students achieved (practice change/development) and how this was informed critically, via an extended epistemology. First-person inquiry supplemented by cooperative inquiry postcourse completion (including reflective discussions with 16 students and 16 practice mentors) were used to assist coresearcher constructions of meaning. A relational, tripartite approach to learning and assessment (students', teachers', and practice mentors' collective contributions) depends on continuing reflective attention. Action learning enhances interrelation of experience with dialectic thinking. The patchwork text functions to promote creative writing, evaluative thinking, and praxis development. Role modeling by all, being genuine and not just "talking" genuine, is challenging yet crucial if people are to function as mutual resources for learning.
Moncorge, R.; Boulon, G.; Vivien, D.; Lejus, A. M.; Collongues, R.
Using the Verneuil technique, the authors have grown large single crystals of Al2O3:Ti3+ having concentrations up to 0.15 percent. Laser action was observed in this material, tunable over the range 700-810 nm. Losses in the 800-nm region are less than 0.03/cm (below the detection limit in the measurements).
This report describes work funded under the DARPA Planning and Scheduling Initiative that led to the development of SOCAP (System for Operations Crisis Action Planning). In particular, it describes lessons learned in applying SIPE-2, the underlying AI planning technology within SOCAP, to the domain of military operations deliberate and crisis action planning. SOCAP was demonstrated at the U.S. Central Command and at the Pentagon in early 1992. A more detailed report about the lessons learned is currently being prepared. This report was presented during one of the panel discussions on 'The Relevance of Scheduling to AI Planning Systems.'
de Oliveira, Saionara Nunes; do Prado, Marta Lenise; Kempfer, Silvana Silveira; Martini, Jussara Gue; Caravaca-Morera, Jaime Alonso; Bernardi, Mariely Carmelina
This was an action research study conducted during an undergraduate nursing course. The objective was to propose and implement experiential learning for nursing consultation education using clinical simulation with actors. The 4 steps of action research were followed: planning, action, observation and reflection. Three nursing undergraduate students participated in the study. Data were collected in May and July 2013 via participant comments and interviews and were analyzed in accordance with the operative proposal for qualitative data analysis. Planning included constructing and validating the clinical guides, selecting and training the actors, organizing and preparing the scenario and the issuing invitations to the participants. The action was carried out according to Kolb's (1984) 4 stages of learning cycles: Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualization and Active Experimentation. Clinical simulation involves different subjects' participation in all stages, and action research is a method that enables the clinical stimulation to be implemented. It must be guided by clear learning objectives and by a critical pedagogy that encourages critical thinking in students. Using actors and a real scenario facilitated psychological fidelity, and debriefing was the key moment of the reflective process that facilitated the integral training of students through experiential learning.
Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Hétu, Sébastien; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Massicotte, Elsa; De Beaumont, Louis; Fecteau, Shirley; Poirier, Judes; Mercier, Catherine; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Jackson, Philip L.
Motor representations in the human mirror neuron system are tuned to respond to specific observed actions. This ability is widely believed to be influenced by genetic factors, but no study has reported a genetic variant affecting this system so far. One possibility is that genetic variants might interact with visuomotor associative learning to configure the system to respond to novel observed actions. In this perspective, we conducted a candidate gene study on the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism, a genetic variant linked to motor learning in regions of the mirror neuron system, and tested the effect of this polymorphism on motor facilitation and visuomotor associative learning. In a single-pulse TMS study carried on 16 Met (Val/Met and Met/Met) and 16 Val/Val participants selected from a large pool of healthy volunteers, Met participants showed significantly less muscle-specific corticospinal sensitivity during action observation, as well as reduced visuomotor associative learning, compared to Val homozygotes. These results are the first evidence of a genetic variant tuning sensitivity to action observation and bring to light the importance of considering the intricate relation between genetics and associative learning in order to further understand the origin and function of the human mirror neuron system. PMID:27703276
Polizzi di Sorrentino, Eugenia; Sabbatini, Gloria; Truppa, Valentina; Bordonali, Anna; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Formica, Domenico; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Visalberghi, Elisabetta
Animals have a strong propensity to explore the environment. Spontaneous exploration has a great biological significance since it allows animals to discover and learn the relation between specific behaviours and their consequences. The role of the contingency between action and outcome for learning has been mainly investigated in instrumental learning settings and much less in free exploration contexts. We tested 16 capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) with a mechatronic platform that allowed complex modules to be manipulated and to produce different outcomes. Experimental subjects could manipulate the modules and discover the contingencies between their own specific actions and the outcomes produced (i.e., the opening and lighting of a box). By contrast, Control subjects could operate on the modules, but the outcomes experienced were those performed by their paired Experimental subjects ("yoked-control" paradigm). In the exploration phase, in which no food reward was present, Experimental subjects spent more time on the board and manipulated the modules more than Yoked subjects. Experimental subjects outperformed Yoked subjects in the following test phase, where success required recalling the effective action so to open the box, now baited with food. These findings demonstrate that the opportunity to experience action-outcome contingencies in the absence of extrinsic rewards promotes capuchins' exploration and facilitates learning processes. Thus, this intrinsically motivated learning represents a powerful mechanism allowing the acquisition of skills and cognitive competence that the individual can later exploit for adaptive purposes.
Nichols, Dionne DeShall
Professional learning communities (PLCs) have become one of the most talked about ideas in education today. Many K-12 schools are working to become PLCs in the hope that student learning will improve when adults commit themselves to talking collaboratively about teaching and learning and then take action that will improve student learning and…
Windridge, David; Felsberg, Michael; Shaukat, Affan
Perception-action (P-A) learning is an approach to cognitive system building that seeks to reduce the complexity associated with conventional environment-representation/action-planning approaches. Instead, actions are directly mapped onto the perceptual transitions that they bring about, eliminating the need for intermediate representation and significantly reducing training requirements. We here set out a very general learning framework for cognitive systems in which online learning of the P-A mapping may be conducted within a symbolic processing context, so that complex contextual reasoning can influence the P-A mapping. In utilizing a variational calculus approach to define a suitable objective function, the P-A mapping can be treated as an online learning problem via gradient descent using partial derivatives. Our central theoretical result is to demonstrate top-down modulation of low-level perceptual confidences via the Jacobian of the higher levels of a subsumptive P-A hierarchy. Thus, the separation of the Jacobian as a multiplying factor between levels within the objective function naturally enables the integration of abstract symbolic manipulation in the form of fuzzy deductive logic into the P-A mapping learning. We experimentally demonstrate that the resulting framework achieves significantly better accuracy than using P-A learning without top-down modulation. We also demonstrate that it permits novel forms of context-dependent multilevel P-A mapping, applying the mechanism in the context of an intelligent driver assistance system.
Collins, Anne G E; Frank, Michael J
The striatal dopaminergic system has been implicated in reinforcement learning (RL), motor performance, and incentive motivation. Various computational models have been proposed to account for each of these effects individually, but a formal analysis of their interactions is lacking. Here we present a novel algorithmic model expanding the classical actor-critic architecture to include fundamental interactive properties of neural circuit models, incorporating both incentive and learning effects into a single theoretical framework. The standard actor is replaced by a dual opponent actor system representing distinct striatal populations, which come to differentially specialize in discriminating positive and negative action values. Dopamine modulates the degree to which each actor component contributes to both learning and choice discriminations. In contrast to standard frameworks, this model simultaneously captures documented effects of dopamine on both learning and choice incentive-and their interactions-across a variety of studies, including probabilistic RL, effort-based choice, and motor skill learning.
Thirkettle, Martin; Walton, Thomas; Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin; Redgrave, Peter; Stafford, Tom
Animals, interacting with the environment, learn and exploit the consequences of their movements. Fundamental to this is the pairing of salient sensory input with recent motor output to form an action-outcome pair linking a performed movement with its outcome. Short-latency dopamine (DA) signalling in the basal ganglia has been proposed to support this crucial task. For visual stimuli, this DA signalling is triggered at short latency by input from the superior colliculus (SC). While some aspects of the visual signal (e.g. luminance), are relayed directly to the SC via the retinotectal projection, other information unavailable to this subcortical pathway must take a more circuitous route to the SC, first submitting to early visual processing in cortex. By comparing action-outcome pairing when the visual stimulus denoting success was immediately available to the SC, via the retinotectal pathway, against that when cortical processing of the signal was required, the impact this additional sensory processing has on action-outcome learning can be established. We found that action acquisition was significantly impaired when the action was reinforced by a stimulus ineligible for the retinotectal pathway. Furthermore, we found that when the stimulus was eligible for the retinotectal pathway but evoked an increased latency, action acquisition was not impaired. These results suggest that the afferent sensory pathway via the SC is certainly primary and possibly instrumental to the DA neurons' role in the discovery of novel actions and that the differences found are not due to simple sensory latency.
Marlow, Annette; Spratt, Christine; Reilly, Amanda
The paper describes the processes and outcomes of a major curriculum innovation which was conducted by a collaborative multi-disciplinary team (nurse academics, educational developers and software developers). The paper argues that collaborative professional development in pedagogical innovation in nursing can be successfully supported by action learning as a framework for practice. In presenting this argument the paper draws on the experience of the School of Nursing and Midwifery (SNM) at the University of Tasmania in integrating high-fidelity simulation-based learning into an existing undergraduate case-based learning curriculum in the three year Bachelor of Nursing (BN).
Yakushijin, Reiko; Jacobs, Robert A
We report the results of an experiment in which human subjects were trained to perform a perceptual matching task. Subjects were asked to manipulate comparison objects until they matched target objects using the fewest manipulations possible. An unusual feature of the experimental task is that efficient performance requires an understanding of the hidden or latent causal structure governing the relationships between actions and perceptual outcomes. We use two benchmarks to evaluate the quality of subjects' learning. One benchmark is based on optimal performance as calculated by a dynamic programming procedure. The other is based on an adaptive computational agent that uses a reinforcement-learning method known as Q-learning to learn to perform the task. Our analyses suggest that subjects were successful learners. In particular, they learned to perform the perceptual matching task in a near-optimal manner (i.e., using a small number of manipulations) at the end of training. Subjects were able to achieve near-optimal performance because they learned, at least partially, the causal structure underlying the task. In addition, subjects' performances were broadly consistent with those of model-based reinforcement-learning agents that built and used internal models of how their actions influenced the external environment. We hypothesize that people will achieve near-optimal performances on tasks requiring sequences of action-especially sensorimotor tasks with underlying latent causal structures-when they can detect the effects of their actions on the environment, and when they can represent and reason about these effects using an internal mental model.
Gómez Puente, S. M.; van Eijck, M.; Jochems, W.
Background: In research on design-based learning (DBL), inadequate attention is paid to the role the teacher plays in supervising students in gathering and applying knowledge to design artifacts, systems, and innovative solutions in higher education. Purpose: In this study, we examine whether teacher actions we previously identified in the DBL literature as important in facilitating learning processes and student supervision are present in current DBL engineering practices. Sample: The sample (N=16) consisted of teachers and supervisors in two engineering study programs at a university of technology: mechanical and electrical engineering. We selected randomly teachers from freshman and second-year bachelor DBL projects responsible for student supervision and assessment. Design and method: Interviews with teachers, and interviews and observations of supervisors were used to examine how supervision and facilitation actions are applied according to the DBL framework. Results: Major findings indicate that formulating questions is the most common practice seen in facilitating learning in open-ended engineering design environments. Furthermore, other DBL actions we expected to see based upon the literature were seldom observed in the coaching practices within these two programs. Conclusions: Professionalization of teachers in supervising students need to include methods to scaffold learning by supporting students in reflecting and in providing formative feedback.
This Account of Practice describes the introduction and development of action learning within a level 5 module of "Communications at Work" delivered as part of a Business & Technology Education Council (BTEC) Professional Certificate in Management (CMS) between 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. This will commence with a personal narrative and…
Kamath, Shyam; Agrawal, Jagdish; Krickx, Guido
This paper discusses the theoretical foundations and implementation challenges and outcomes of a unique "hands-on" global consulting program that is integrated into an international EMBA program for mid-career and senior American and European managers. It details the challenges for the integration of experiential action learning, double-loop…
Steck, Laura West; Engler, Jennifer N.; Ligon, Mary; Druen, Perri B.; Cosgrove, Erin
This article discusses an application of the Lewinian/Kolb experiential learning model in the context of undergraduate participation in the Missouri Community Action Poverty Simulation (CAPS) program. CAPS is designed to simulate common, everyday experiences among people living in poverty as participants take on the roles of family members working…
Wong, Hilleas Chi Hang; Man, Thomas Wing Yan
Based on a comparative survey supplemented with focus group interviews, it was found that an action learning activity in an entrepreneurship programme produced both positive and negative results with regard to the entrepreneurial traits of students and their inclination towards entrepreneurship, depending on the influence of external and…
Stringer, Ernest T.; Christensen, Lois McFadyen; Baldwin, Shelia C.
This book demonstrates how teachers can use action research as an integral component of teaching and learning. The text uses examples and lesson plans to demonstrate how student research processes can be incorporated into classroom lessons that are linked to standards. Key features of this book are: (1) Guides teachers through systematic steps of…
Lizzio, Alf; Wilson, Keithia
This study investigated the extent to which a course, designed using peer and action learning principles to function as an 'on campus practicum', can develop the professional capabilities of students. As part of their formal coursework, third year behavioural science students, functioning as 'student consultants', entered into a…
Banegas, Dario; Pavese, Anahi; Velazquez, Aurelia; Velez, Sandra Maria
In 2011 we, a group of English-as-a-foreign-language teachers at a secondary school in Argentina, decided to investigate our teaching practices through collaborative action research so as to improve our students' learning opportunities and thus revitalise English-language teaching in our context. We implemented and evaluated the integration of…
Scott-Ladd, Brenda; Chan, Christopher C. A.
This article reports on a study investigating strategies that students can use to develop skills in managing team learning. Two groups of second-year management students participated in a semester-long action research project over two semesters. The students were educated on team development, team processes and conflict management and how to…
Harrison, Patricia; Edwards, Carys
This account of practice provides a practical example of the use of action learning within a masters educational programme, an MA in Change Management designed and delivered by a collaborative partnership between the Isle of Anglesey County Council (ACC) and Liverpool Business School (LBS), Liverpool John Moores University. The account has been…
Laiken, Marilyn E.
At the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Ontario, a course entitled Developing and Leading High Performing Teams: Theory and Practice is experimenting with a design that surfaces the action/reflection paradox for the purpose of learning how to manage this polarity. Whether the product is defined as services or goods,…
This paper presents findings from action research in a conservatoire (the Guildhall School of Music & Drama) which focused on teaching and learning effective breathing in playing the oboe. A range of approaches and techniques emerged from a literature review. These were implemented in practice with oboe students at the Guildhall School, and…
Marsh, Catherine; Johnson, Carrie
This study examines action learning as a vehicle for the transfer of organizational values in a multi-cultural, virtual-team based leadership development process. A Case Study of Kanbay International's Global Leadership Development Program is used as a lens through which HRD researchers and practitioners may glimpse new possibilities for the…
Muskett, Judith A.; Village, Andrew
Rural clergy often lack colleagues and may struggle with isolation, especially if over-extended in multi-parish benefices. Theory suggests that this sense of isolation could be addressed by launching clergy action learning sets, which have the potential to establish a peer support network through the formation of social capital as a by-product of…
McAllister, Margaret; Oprescu, Florin; Downer, Teresa; Lyons, Michael; Pelly, Fiona; Barr, Nigel
Transformative learning aims to awaken students to issues of injustice, and to promote their critical analysis of assumptions, beliefs and values that lead to and sustain social inequities, so that they may become agents of social change. This paper introduces the Sensitise Take Action and Reflection (STAR) framework, which encapsulates…
Bear, Teresa J.
This quantitative action science research study utilized a causal-comparative experimental research design in order to determine if the use of student response systems (clickers), as an active learning strategy in a community college course, improved student performance in the course. Students in the experimental group (n = 26) used clickers to…
Service-learning has been shown to be an effective practice that positively affects students' academic achievement, self-esteem, and problem-solving skills (Billig, 2002; Eyler & Giles, 1999; Wilczenski & Coomey, 2007). This mixed-method action research case study was conducted to explore the possible link between service-learning…
Breathnach, Catherine; Stephenson, Frances
The authors explore their experience of a course for long-term unemployed people and reflect as to whether the traits identified by Tom Bourner on readiness for action learning actually relate to their experience. They conclude that based on the obvious development by the members of the group over the course, they observed, in some small way, the…
Brook, Cheryl; Christy, Gill
The question addressed in this paper is whether action learning as a management development technique can be more effective in promoting ethical decision-making than more traditional approaches. Recent examples of moral failures which have emerged in both corporate and public sector organisations in the UK during recent years have prompted a…
Brook, Cheryl; Milner, Christopher
The purpose of this paper is to consider some issues in the uses of what we have termed "creative" action learning in a business education context, and to review some aspects of its practice. A review of the literature, including its use in higher education, is followed by a case illustration of its use in a UK business school with…
Zainuddin, Hanizah; Moore, Rashid A.
This article examines a study on how preservice teachers enhance their understanding of theory and research in second language learning through an action research project that took place in a TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) education course. The study focuses on how interaction with English language learners (ELLs)…
This paper reviews how action learning was used as part of a regional leadership development programme involving a number of public sector organisations. It explores how the sets were designed and set up and the significant challenges that this particular approach brought. A number of positive tangible outcomes were produced from the sets and…
Jacobs, David M.; Vaz, Daniela V.; Michaels, Claire F.
In cart-pole balancing, one moves a cart in 1 dimension so as to balance an attached inverted pendulum. We approached perception-action and learning in this task from an ecological perspective. This entailed identifying a space of informational variables that balancers use as they perform the task and demonstrating that they improve by traversing…
Barish, Diane J.
This study questions whether or not participatory action research is an effective and practical method for increasing learning transfer of recovery-based principles. The participants (N = 250) were ethnically and educationally diverse clinicians, in an urban state mental health institute. The Self-Assessment of Recovery-Based Behaviors survey ( n…
Kristmanson, Paula Lee; Lafargue, Chantal; Culligan, Karla
This paper focuses on an action research project set in the context of one professional learning community's (PLC's) exploration of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and the European Language Portfolio (ELP). Teachers of second and foreign languages in a large urban high school examined the potential of principles and tools related…
MacNaughton, Glenda; Hughes, Patrick; Smith, Kylie
This article describes an action-learning project that helped teachers to rethink their approaches to children who challenge. The project enabled and encouraged teachers to reflect critically on why and how particular children challenged them and then to use their critical reflections to strengthen their capacity to work with those children. The…
Anderson, Lisa; Gold, Jeff
In this paper we consider the construction of narrative identity and particularly how managers of small businesses may construct new narrative identities within the activity of the action learning situation. We build on recent work to suggest that the "world" of managers can be explored through a consideration of Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory…
Elbert, Norb; Cumiskey, Kevin J.
This paper describes an action learning simulation designed for a Professional Golf Management (PGM) program housed in a College of Business of a public university. The PGA Golf Management University Program, a 4.5- to 5-year college curriculum for aspiring PGA Professionals is offered at 19 PGA accredited universities nationwide. The program…
Tuan, Hsiao-Lin; Chin, Chi-Chin; Tsai, Chih-Chung
This study reported how four science teachers used action research to promote their students' motivation in learning physical science. Four teachers with one of their 8th grade physical science classes participated in the study. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research design were used in the study, and data collection included…
Conklin, James; Cohen-Schneider, Rochelle; Linkewich, Beth; Legault, Emma
This paper reports on a study of how action learning facilitates the movement of knowledge between social contexts. The study involved a community organization that provides educational services related to aphasia and members of a complex continuing care (CCC) practice that received training from the agency. People with aphasia (PWA) (a disability…
Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; Desoete, Annemie; Fonck, Nathalie; Roderiguez, Dave; Six, Leen; Vermeersch, Tine; Vermeulen, Lies
Introduction: In the present study we used a metaphorical representation in order to stimulate the numerical competences of six-year-olds. It was expected that when properties of physical action are used for mathematical thinking or when abstract mathematical thinking is grounded in sensorimotor processes, learning gains should be more pronounced…
Morris, Kathryn Michelle
Community colleges enroll more than half of the undergraduate population in the United States, thereby retaining students of varying demographics with extracurricular demands differing from traditional four-year university students. Often in a collegiate lecture course, students are limited in their abilities to absorb and process information presented by their instructors due to content-specific cognitive gaps between the instructor and the student (Preszler, 2009). Research has shown that implementation of instructor-facilitated action learning workshops as supplemental instruction may help bridge these cognitive gaps allowing better student conceptualization and dissemination of knowledge (Drake, 2011; Fullilove & Treisman, 1990; Preszler, 2009; Udovic, Morris, Dickman, Postlethwait, & Wetherwax, 2002). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cooperative action learning workshops and independent action learning workshops on students' knowledge of specified topics within a General Biology I with lab course. The results of this investigation indicate that implementation of an instructor-facilitated action learning workshop did not affect students' knowledge gain; furthermore, attendance of a particular workshop style (independent or cooperative) did not affect students' knowledge gain.
Collins, Anne L.; Greenfield, Venuz Y.; Bye, Jeffrey K.; Linker, Kay E.; Wang, Alice S.; Wassum, Kate M.
Prolonged mesolimbic dopamine concentration changes have been detected during spatial navigation, but little is known about the conditions that engender this signaling profile or how it develops with learning. To address this, we monitored dopamine concentration changes in the nucleus accumbens core of rats throughout acquisition and performance of an instrumental action sequence task. Prolonged dopamine concentration changes were detected that ramped up as rats executed each action sequence and declined after earned reward collection. With learning, dopamine concentration began to rise increasingly earlier in the execution of the sequence and ultimately backpropagated away from stereotyped sequence actions, becoming only transiently elevated by the most distal and unexpected reward predictor. Action sequence-related dopamine signaling was reactivated in well-trained rats if they became disengaged in the task and in response to an unexpected change in the value, but not identity of the earned reward. Throughout training and test, dopamine signaling correlated with sequence performance. These results suggest that action sequences can engender a prolonged mode of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core and that such signaling relates to elements of the motivation underlying sequence execution and is dynamic with learning, overtraining and violations in reward expectation. PMID:26869075
Osborne, Roger; Schollum, Brendan
In the action-research phase of the Learning in Science Project, four groups of people worked on problems identified in the project's second (in-depth) phase. The Physics action-research group considered problems related to the teaching and learning of ideas associated with force and motion, suggesting that children's ideas of these concepts might…
Cooper, Jeffrey C.; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O’Doherty, John P.
The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of others. In this study, we investigated the extent to which human dorsal striatum is involved in observational as well as experiential instrumental reward learning. Human participants were scanned with fMRI while they observed a confederate over a live video performing an instrumental conditioning task to obtain liquid juice rewards. Participants also performed a similar instrumental task for their own rewards. Using a computational model-based analysis, we found reward prediction errors in the dorsal striatum not only during the experiential learning condition but also during observational learning. These results suggest a key role for the dorsal striatum in learning instrumental associations, even when those associations are acquired purely by observing others. PMID:21812568
This dissertation study investigates what happens when students participate in an afterschool science club designed around action-oriented science instruction, a set of curriculum design principles based on social justice pedagogy. Comprised of three manuscripts written for journal publication, the dissertation includes 1) Negotiating community-based action-oriented science teaching and learning: Articulating curriculum design principles, 2) Middle school girls' socio-scientific participation pathways in an afterschool science club, and 3) Laughing and learning together: Productive science learning spaces for middle school girls. By investigating how action-oriented science design principles get negotiated, female identity development in and with science, and the role of everyday social interactions as students do productive science, this research fills gaps in the understanding of how social justice pedagogy gets enacted and negotiated among multiple stakeholders including students, teachers, and community members along what identity development looks like across social and scientific activity. This study will be of interest to educators thinking about how to enact social justice pedagogy in science learning spaces and those interested in identity development in science.
Aldridge, Jill M.; Fraser, Barry J.; Bell, Lisa; Dorman, Jeffrey
This article reports the development, validation and use of an instrument designed to provide teachers with feedback information, based on students' perceptions, about their classroom environments. The instrument was developed to provide teachers with feedback that they could use to reflect on their teaching practices and, in turn, guide the implementation of strategies to improve their learning environments. To determine the validity and reliability of the new instrument, data from 2043 grade 11 and 12 students from 147 classes in 9 schools were analysed. The Rasch model was used to convert data collected using a frequency response scale into interval data that are suitable for parametric analyses. During an action research process, reflective journals, written feedback, discussions at a forum and interviews with eight teachers helped to illuminate the processes used by teachers during action research. This article reports the views of these teachers in general and examines more closely how one of the teachers used student responses to the learning environment questionnaire as a tool for reflection and as a guide in transforming her classroom environment. This case study helped us to gauge the extent to which action research based on students' perceptions of the learning environment was useful in guiding teachers' improvements of their classroom learning environments.
Roche, Anne; Clarke, Doug; Clarke, David; Chan, Man Ching Esther
A central premise of this project is that teachers learn from the act of teaching a lesson and that this learning is evident in the planning and teaching of a subsequent lesson. We are studying the knowledge construction of mathematics teachers utilising multi-camera research techniques during lesson planning, classroom interactions and…
Researchers posit that teachers' teaching and learning are improved by teachers' collective efforts to examine and reflect on practice. Yet the questions of what and how teachers learn when collaborating with colleagues remain unanswered: What kinds of knowledge and skills do teachers acquire in conjunction with their collaboration? What brings…
Vinera, Jennifer; Kermen, Florence; Sacquet, Joëlle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie; Richard, Marion
Noradrenaline contributes to olfactory-guided behaviors but its role in olfactory learning during adulthood is poorly documented. We investigated its implication in olfactory associative and perceptual learning using local infusion of mixed a1-ß adrenergic receptor antagonist (labetalol) in the adult mouse olfactory bulb. We reported that…
At the University of the Free State (UFS) in South Africa, professional development is characterised by its focus on the advancement of scholarly teaching in the disciplines. Practices followed are informed by the scholarship of teaching and learning movement. Within learning communities, special attention is given to the motivational conditions…
Stukey, Marisa Ramirez
During the last twenty years, professional learning for teachers has been promoted as a viable path for increased teacher effectiveness and student achievement. Because of the complexities of the school system and the diversity of the student population, designing quality professional learning opportunities that are meaningful for teachers can be…
Biddle, Elyce Anne; Keane, Paul R
Action Learning is a problem-solving process that is used in various industries to address difficult problems. This project applied Action Learning to a leading problem in agricultural safety. Tractor overturns are the leading cause of fatal injury to farmworkers. This cause of injury is preventable using rollover protective structures (ROPS), protective equipment that functions as a roll bar structure to protect the operator in the event of an overturn. For agricultural tractors manufactured after 1976 and employee operated, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulation requires employers to equip them with ROPS and seat belts. By the mid-1980s, US tractor manufacturers began adding ROPS on all farm tractors over 20 horsepower sold in the United States (http://www.nasdonline.org/document/113/d001656/rollover-protection-for-farm-tractor-operators.html). However, many older tractors remain in use without ROPS, putting tractor operators at continued risk for traumatic injury and fatality. For many older tractor models ROPS are available for retrofit, but for a variety of reasons, tractor owners have not chosen to retrofit those ROPS. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) attempted various means to ameliorate this occupational safety risk, including the manufacture of a low-cost ROPS for self-assembly. Other approaches address barriers to adoption. An Action Learning approach to increasing adoption of ROPS was followed in Virginia and New York, with mixed results. Virginia took action to increase the manufacturing and adoption of ROPS, but New York saw problems that would be insurmountable. Increased focus on team composition might be needed to establish effective Action Learning teams to address this problem.
Palotai, Miklós; Telegdy, Gyula; Ekwerike, Alphonsus; Jászberényi, Miklós
The extensive projection of orexigenic neurons and the diffuse expression of orexin receptors suggest that endogenous orexins are involved in several physiological functions of the central nervous system, including learning and memory. Our previous study demonstrated that orexin A improves learning, consolidation and retrieval processes, which involves α- and β-adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABA-A-ergic, opiate and nitrergic neurotransmissions. However, we have little evidence about the action of orexin B on memory processes and the underlying neuromodulation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the action of orexin B on passive avoidance learning and the involvement of neurotransmitters in this action in rats. Accordingly, rats were pretreated with the selective orexin 2 receptor (OX2R) antagonist, EMPA; the γ-aminobutyric acid subunit A (GABA-A) receptor antagonist, the bicuculline; a D2, D3, D4 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol; the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone; the non-specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, nitro-l-arginine; the nonselective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist, phenoxybenzamine and the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol. Our results demonstrate that orexin B can improve learning, consolidation of memory and retrieval. EMPA reversed completely the action of orexin B on memory consolidation. Bicuculline blocked fully; naloxone, nitro-l-arginine, phenoxybenzamine and propranolol attenuated the orexin B-induced memory consolidation, whereas haloperidol was ineffective. These data suggest that orexin B improves memory functions through OX2R and GABA-ergic, opiate, nitrergic, α- and β-adrenergic neurotransmissions are also involved in this action.
Yin, Henry H; Knowlton, Barbara J; Balleine, Bernard W
Although there is consensus that instrumental conditioning depends on the encoding of action-outcome associations, it is not known where this learning process is localized in the brain. Recent research suggests that the posterior dorsomedial striatum (pDMS) may be the critical locus of these associations. We tested this hypothesis by examining the contribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in the pDMS to action-outcome learning. Rats with bilateral cannulae in the pDMS were first trained to perform two actions (left and right lever presses), for sucrose solution. After the pre-training phase, they were given an infusion of the NMDA antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV, 1 mg/mL) or artificial cerebral spinal fluid (ACSF) before a 30-min session in which pressing one lever delivered food pellets and pressing the other delivered fruit punch. Learning during this session was tested the next day by sating the animals on either the pellets or fruit punch before assessing their performance on the two levers in extinction. The ACSF group selectively reduced responding on the lever that, in training, had earned the now devalued outcome, whereas the APV group did not. Experiment 2 replicated the effect of APV during the critical training session but found no effect of APV given after acquisition and before test. Furthermore, Experiment 3 showed that the effect of APV on instrumental learning was restricted to the pDMS; infusion into the dorsolateral striatum did not prevent learning. These experiments provide the first direct evidence that, in instrumental conditioning, NMDARs in the dorsomedial striatum are involved in encoding action-outcome associations.
This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed how one teacher and I, the researcher, collaboratively reflected on classroom language practices during the video analysis meetings and focus groups. Further, I analyzed twelve videos that we coded together to see the changes in the teacher's language practices over time. My unit of analysis was the discourse practice mediated by additive language ideologies. Throughout the collaborative action research process, we both critically reflected on the classroom language use. We also developed a critical consciousness about the participatory shifts and learning of focal English Learner (EL) students. Finally, the teacher made changes to her classroom language practices. The results of this study will contribute to the literacy education research field for theoretical, methodological, and practical insights. The integration of language ideologies, CHAT, and action research can help educational practitioners, researchers, and policy makers understand the importance of transforming teachers' language ideologies in designing additive learning contexts for ELs. From a methodological perspective, the transformative language ideologies through researcher and teacher collaborated video analysis process provide a unique contribution to the language ideologies in education literature, with analytic triangulation. As a practical implication, this study suggests action research can be one of the teacher education tools to help the teachers transform language ideologies for EL education.
Zhao, Kaili; Chu, Wen-Sheng; De la Torre, Fernando; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Zhang, Honggang
The face is one of the most powerful channel of nonverbal communication. The most commonly used taxonomy to describe facial behaviour is the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). FACS segments the visible effects of facial muscle activation into 30+ action units (AUs). AUs, which may occur alone and in thousands of combinations, can describe nearly all-possible facial expressions. Most existing methods for automatic AU detection treat the problem using one-vs-all classifiers and fail to exploit dependencies among AU and facial features. We introduce joint-patch and multi-label learning (JPML) to address these issues. JPML leverages group sparsity by selecting a sparse subset of facial patches while learning a multi-label classifier. In four of five comparisons on three diverse datasets, CK+, GFT, and BP4D, JPML produced the highest average F1 scores in comparison with state-of-the art. PMID:27382243
Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C.; Liuzzi, Gianpiero
Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects and actions. Words and what they stand for are supposed to be grounded in perceptual and sensorimotor brain circuits depending on their meaning. If there are specific brain representations for different word categories, we hypothesized behavioural differences in the learning of action-related and object-related words. Paradigm A, with the learning of novel words for body-related actions spread out over a number of days, revealed fast learning of these new action words, and stable retention up to 4 weeks after training. The single-session Paradigm B employed objects and actions. Performance during acquisition did not differ between action-related and object-related words (time*word category: p = 0.01), but the translation rate was clearly better for object-related (79%) than for action-related words (53%, p = 0.002). Both paradigms yielded robust associative learning of novel action-related words, as previously demonstrated for object-related words. Translation success differed for action- and object-related words, which may indicate different neural mechanisms. The paradigms tested here are well suited to investigate such differences with neuroscientific means. Given the stable retention and minimal requirements for conscious effort, these learning paradigms are promising for vocabulary re-learning in brain-lesioned people. In combination with neuroimaging, neuro-stimulation or pharmacological intervention, they may well advance the understanding of language learning
Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero
Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects and actions. Words and what they stand for are supposed to be grounded in perceptual and sensorimotor brain circuits depending on their meaning. If there are specific brain representations for different word categories, we hypothesized behavioural differences in the learning of action-related and object-related words. Paradigm A, with the learning of novel words for body-related actions spread out over a number of days, revealed fast learning of these new action words, and stable retention up to 4 weeks after training. The single-session Paradigm B employed objects and actions. Performance during acquisition did not differ between action-related and object-related words (time*word category: p = 0.01), but the translation rate was clearly better for object-related (79%) than for action-related words (53%, p = 0.002). Both paradigms yielded robust associative learning of novel action-related words, as previously demonstrated for object-related words. Translation success differed for action- and object-related words, which may indicate different neural mechanisms. The paradigms tested here are well suited to investigate such differences with neuroscientific means. Given the stable retention and minimal requirements for conscious effort, these learning paradigms are promising for vocabulary re-learning in brain-lesioned people. In combination with neuroimaging, neuro-stimulation or pharmacological intervention, they may well advance the understanding of language learning
Telegdy, Gyula; Adamik, Ágnes
Kisspeptins are G protein-coupled receptor ligands originally identified as human metastasis suppressor gene products that have the ability to suppress melanoma and breast cancer metastasis and recently found to play an important role in initiating the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone at puberty. Kisspeptin-13 is an endogenous isoform that consists of 13 amino acids. The action of kisspeptin in the regulation of gonadal function has been widely studied, but little is known as concerns its function in limbic brain structures. In the brain, the gene is transcribed within the hippocampal dentate gyrus. This paper reports on a study the effects of kisspeptin-13 on passive avoidance learning and the involvement of the adrenergic, serotonergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic and GABA-A-ergic, opiate receptors and nitric oxide in its action in mice. Mice were pretreated with a nonselective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist, phenoxybenzamine, an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, yohimbine, a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, a mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, methysergide, a nonselective 5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, cyproheptadine, a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, atropine, D2, D3, D4 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, a γ-aminobutyric acid subunit A (GABAA) receptor antagonist, bicuculline, naloxone, a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist and nitro-l-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Kisspeptin-13 facilitated learning and memory consolidation in a passive avoidance paradigm. Phenoxybenzamine, yohimbine, propranolol, methysergide, cyproheptadine, atropine, bicuculline and nitro-l-arginine prevented the action of kisspeptin-13 on passive avoidance learning, but haloperidol and naloxone did not block the effects of kisspeptin-13. The results demonstrated that the action of kisspeptin-13 on the facilitation of passive avoidance learning and memory consolidation is mediated
Cherin, D; Enguidanos, S; Brumley, R
Currently, single loop learning is the predominant method of problem solving orientation engaged in by healthcare institutions. This mode of learning is not conductive to fostering needed communications between health care providers and terminal patients. Reflection in action, second loop learning, focuses on deep listening and dialogue and can be critical in opening communications paths between the dying patient and his or her caregivers. This article discusses organizational learning theory and applies the theories double loop learning technique of reflection in action to end-of-life care. The article further explores an exemplar of reflection in action in a Palliative Care Program, and end-of-life home care program at Kaiser Permanente. In order to more effectively meet the needs of terminally ill patients, greater efforts are needed to incorporate second loop learning into the practice of those caring for these patients.
Green, C Shawn; Pouget, Alexandre; Bavelier, Daphne
Action video game play benefits performance in an array of sensory, perceptual, and attentional tasks that go well beyond the specifics of game play [1-9]. That a training regimen may induce improvements in so many different skills is notable because the majority of studies on training-induced learning report improvements on the trained task but limited transfer to other, even closely related, tasks (, but see also [11-13]). Here we ask whether improved probabilistic inference may explain such broad transfer. By using a visual perceptual decision making task [14, 15], the present study shows for the first time that action video game experience does indeed improve probabilistic inference. A neural model of this task  establishes how changing a single parameter, namely the strength of the connections between the neural layer providing the momentary evidence and the layer integrating the evidence over time, captures improvements in action-gamers behavior. These results were established in a visual, but also in a novel auditory, task, indicating generalization across modalities. Thus, improved probabilistic inference provides a general mechanism for why action video game playing enhances performance in a wide variety of tasks. In addition, this mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning.
Morita, Kenji; Jitsev, Jenia; Morrison, Abigail
Value-based action selection has been suggested to be realized in the corticostriatal local circuits through competition among neural populations. In this article, we review theoretical and experimental studies that have constructed and verified this notion, and provide new perspectives on how the local-circuit selection mechanisms implement reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms and computations beyond them. The striatal neurons are mostly inhibitory, and lateral inhibition among them has been classically proposed to realize "Winner-Take-All (WTA)" selection of the maximum-valued action (i.e., 'max' operation). Although this view has been challenged by the revealed weakness, sparseness, and asymmetry of lateral inhibition, which suggest more complex dynamics, WTA-like competition could still occur on short time scales. Unlike the striatal circuit, the cortical circuit contains recurrent excitation, which may enable retention or temporal integration of information and probabilistic "soft-max" selection. The striatal "max" circuit and the cortical "soft-max" circuit might co-implement an RL algorithm called Q-learning; the cortical circuit might also similarly serve for other algorithms such as SARSA. In these implementations, the cortical circuit presumably sustains activity representing the executed action, which negatively impacts dopamine neurons so that they can calculate reward-prediction-error. Regarding the suggested more complex dynamics of striatal, as well as cortical, circuits on long time scales, which could be viewed as a sequence of short WTA fragments, computational roles remain open: such a sequence might represent (1) sequential state-action-state transitions, constituting replay or simulation of the internal model, (2) a single state/action by the whole trajectory, or (3) probabilistic sampling of state/action.
Andersson, Sten-Ove; Lundberg, Lars; Jonsson, Anders; Tingström, Pia; Dahlgren, Madeleine Abrandt
The objective of this study is to examine how medics within the Swedish Armed Forces perceive their learning outcome following military prehospital training. A qualitative study with a phenomenographic approach was used to investigate how learning is perceived among military medics. At meta level, the results can be viewed as an interaction, i.e., being able to collaborate in the medical platoon, including the ability to interact within the group and being able to lead; an action, i.e., being able to assess and treat casualties, including the ability to communicate with the casualty, to prioritize, and to be able to act; and a reflection, i.e., having confidence in one's own ability in first aid, including being prepared and feeling confident. Interaction during the period of education is important for learning. Action, being able to act in the field, is based on a drill in which the subject progresses from simple to complex procedures. Reflection, learning to help others, is important for confidence, which in turn creates preparedness, thereby making the knowledge meaningful.
Basu, Amrita; McFarlane, Hewlet G; Kopchick, John J
Growth hormone (GH) has a significant influence on cognitive performance in humans and other mammals. To understand the influence of altered GH action on cognition, we assessed spatial learning and memory using a Barnes maze (BM) comparing twelve-month old, male, bovine GH (bGH) and GH receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice and their corresponding wild type (WT) littermates. During the acquisition training period in the BM, bGH mice showed increased latency, traveled longer path lengths and made more errors to reach the target than WT mice indicating significantly poorer learning. Short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) trials showed significantly suppressed memory retention in bGH mice when compared to the WT group. Conversely, GHA mice showed significantly better learning parameters (latency, path length and errors) and increased use of an efficient search strategy than WT mice. Our study indicates a negative impact of GH excess and a beneficial effect of the inhibition of GH action on spatial learning and memory and, therefore, cognitive performance in male mice. Further research to elucidate GH's role in brain function will facilitate identifying therapeutic applications of GH or GHA for neuropathological and neurodegenerative conditions.
Fujisawa, Kazuko; Inoue, Tomoyoshi; Yamana, Yuko; Hayashi, Humirhiro
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether participants with intellectual impairments could benefit from the movement associated with animated pictures while they were learning symbol names. Sixteen school students, whose linguistic-developmental age ranged from 38?91 months, participated in the experiment. They were taught 16 static visual symbols and the corresponding action words (naming task) in two sessions conducted one week apart. In the experimental condition, animation was employed to facilitate comprehension, whereas no animation was used in the control condition. Enhancement of learning was shown in the experimental condition, suggesting that the participants benefited from animated symbols. Furthermore, it was found that the lower the linguistic developmental age, the more effective the animated cue was in learning static visual symbols.
Gatti, R; Tettamanti, A; Gough, P M; Riboldi, E; Marinoni, L; Buccino, G
Both motor imagery and action observation have been shown to play a role in learning or re-learning complex motor tasks. According to a well accepted view they share a common neurophysiological basis in the mirror neuron system. Neurons within this system discharge when individuals perform a specific action and when they look at another individual performing the same or a motorically related action. In the present paper, after a short review of literature on the role of action observation and motor imagery in motor learning, we report the results of a kinematics study where we directly compared motor imagery and action observation in learning a novel complex motor task. This involved movement of the right hand and foot in the same angular direction (in-phase movement), while at the same time moving the left hand and foot in an opposite angular direction (anti-phase movement), all at a frequency of 1Hz. Motor learning was assessed through kinematics recording of wrists and ankles. The results showed that action observation is better than motor imagery as a strategy for learning a novel complex motor task, at least in the fast early phase of motor learning. We forward that these results may have important implications in educational activities, sport training and neurorehabilitation.
Liu, Pei-Lin; Chen, Chiu-Jung
This study investigated the impact of taking photos using mobile phones on the English phrase-learning performance of English as a second-language learners. A total of 116 students enrolled in a college in Central Taiwan participated in this study. The participants were divided randomly into two groups: a control group and an experimental group…
Luchi, Kelly Cristina Gaviao; Montrezor, Luís Henrique; Marcondes, Fernanda K
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an educational game that is used for teaching the mechanisms of the action potentials in cell membranes. The game was composed of pieces representing the intracellular and extracellular environments, ions, ion channels, and the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pump. During the game activity, the students arranged the pieces to demonstrate how the ions move through the membrane in a resting state and during an action potential, linking the ion movement with a graph of the action potential. To test the effect of the game activity on student understanding, first-year dental students were given the game to play at different times in a series of classes teaching resting membrane potential and action potentials. In all experiments, students who played the game performed better in assessments. According to 98% of the students, the game supported the learning process. The data confirm the students' perception, indicating that the educational game improved their understanding about action potentials.
Windridge, David; Kittler, Josef
As well as having the ability to formulate models of the world capable of experimental falsification, it is evident that human cognitive capability embraces some degree of representational plasticity, having the scope (at least in infancy) to modify the primitives in terms of which the world is delineated. We hence employ the term 'cognitive bootstrapping' to refer to the autonomous updating of an embodied agent's perceptual framework in response to the perceived requirements of the environment in such a way as to retain the ability to refine the environment model in a consistent fashion across perceptual changes.We will thus argue that the concept of cognitive bootstrapping is epistemically ill-founded unless there exists an a priori percept/motor interrelation capable of maintaining an empirical distinction between the various possibilities of perceptual categorization and the inherent uncertainties of environment modeling.As an instantiation of this idea, we shall specify a very general, logically-inductive model of perception-action learning capable of compact re-parameterization of the percept space. In consequence of the a priori percept/action coupling, the novel perceptual state transitions so generated always exist in bijective correlation with a set of novel action states, giving rise to the required empirical validation criterion for perceptual inferences. Environmental description is correspondingly accomplished in terms of progressively higher-level affordance conjectures which are likewise validated by exploratory action.Application of this mechanism within simulated perception-action environments indicates that, as well as significantly reducing the size and specificity of the a priori perceptual parameter-space, the method can significantly reduce the number of iterations required for accurate convergence of the world-model. It does so by virtue of the active learning characteristics implicit in the notion of cognitive bootstrapping.
Waismeyer, Anna; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Gopnik, Alison
How do young children learn about causal structure in an uncertain and variable world? We tested whether they can use observed probabilistic information to solve causal learning problems. In two experiments, 24-month-olds observed an adult produce a probabilistic pattern of causal evidence. The toddlers then were given an opportunity to design their own intervention. In Experiment 1, toddlers saw one object bring about an effect with a higher probability than a second object. In Experiment 2, the frequency of the effect was held constant, though its probability differed. After observing the probabilistic evidence, toddlers in both experiments chose to act on the object that was more likely to produce the effect. The results demonstrate that toddlers can learn about cause and effect without trial-and-error or linguistic instruction on the task, simply by observing the probabilistic patterns of evidence resulting from the imperfect actions of other social agents. Such observational causal learning from probabilistic displays supports human children's rapid cultural learning.
Traeger, James; Norgate, Carolyn
This is an account of practice. It explores the meeting point between action learning and action research, as a way of doing capacity building in organisational development (OD) in the NHS in the UK. The authors were part of a short cooperative inquiry (Heron, J. 1996. "Co-operative Inquiry: Research into the Human Condition." London:…
Brook, Cheryl; Milner, Christopher
This account reports on some experiences of facilitating action learning with international business students. Interest in international student learning and the international student experience is significant and increasing with a considerable range of literature on the subject. Some of this literature is concerned with the perceived…
Lavine, Marc H.; Roussin, Christopher J.
The authors describe a semester-long action-learning project where undergraduate or graduate management students learn about ethics, responsibility, and organizational behavior by examining the policy of their college or university that addresses academic integrity. Working in teams, students adopt a stakeholder management approach as they make…
Patterson, Tamatha A.; Grundel, Ralph
Conservation Action Planning (CAP) is an adaptive management planning process refined by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and embraced worldwide as the Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation. The CAP process facilitates open, multi-institutional collaboration on a common conservation agenda through organized actions and quantified results. While specifically designed for conservation efforts, the framework is adaptable and flexible to multiple scales and can be used for any collaborative planning effort. The CAP framework addresses inception; design and development of goals, measures, and strategies; and plan implementation and evaluation. The specific components of the CAP include defining the project scope and conservation targets; assessing the ecological viability; ascertaining threats and surrounding situation; identifying opportunities and designing strategies for action; and implementing actions and monitoring results. In 2007, TNC and a multidisciplinary graduate student team from the University of Michigan's School of Natural Resources and Environment initiated a CAP for the St. Marys River, the connecting channel between Lake Superior and Lake Huron, and its local watershed. The students not only gained experience in conservation planning, but also learned lessons that notably benefited the CAP process and were valuable for any successful collaborative effort—a dedicated core team improved product quality, accelerated the timeline, and provided necessary support for ongoing efforts; an academic approach in preparation for engagement in the planning process brought applicable scientific research to the forefront, enhanced workshop facilitation, and improved stakeholder participation; and early and continuous interactions with regional stakeholders improved cooperation and built a supportive network for collaboration.
Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mannella, Francesco; Fiore, Vincenzo G; Redgrave, Peter; Gurney, Kevin; Mirolli, Marco
Reinforcement (trial-and-error) learning in animals is driven by a multitude of processes. Most animals have evolved several sophisticated systems of 'extrinsic motivations' (EMs) that guide them to acquire behaviours allowing them to maintain their bodies, defend against threat, and reproduce. Animals have also evolved various systems of 'intrinsic motivations' (IMs) that allow them to acquire actions in the absence of extrinsic rewards. These actions are used later to pursue such rewards when they become available. Intrinsic motivations have been studied in Psychology for many decades and their biological substrates are now being elucidated by neuroscientists. In the last two decades, investigators in computational modelling, robotics and machine learning have proposed various mechanisms that capture certain aspects of IMs. However, we still lack models of IMs that attempt to integrate all key aspects of intrinsically motivated learning and behaviour while taking into account the relevant neurobiological constraints. This paper proposes a bio-constrained system-level model that contributes a major step towards this integration. The model focusses on three processes related to IMs and on the neural mechanisms underlying them: (a) the acquisition of action-outcome associations (internal models of the agent-environment interaction) driven by phasic dopamine signals caused by sudden, unexpected changes in the environment; (b) the transient focussing of visual gaze and actions on salient portions of the environment; (c) the subsequent recall of actions to pursue extrinsic rewards based on goal-directed reactivation of the representations of their outcomes. The tests of the model, including a series of selective lesions, show how the focussing processes lead to a faster learning of action-outcome associations, and how these associations can be recruited for accomplishing goal-directed behaviours. The model, together with the background knowledge reviewed in the paper
Conboy, Lisa; Sandi, Carmen
Stress and glucocorticoids (GCs) can facilitate memory formation. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating their effects are largely unknown. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor (AMPAR) trafficking has been implicated in the changes in synaptic strength at central glutamatergic synapses associated with memory formation. In cell cultures, corticosterone has been shown to condition the synaptic trafficking of the AMPAR GluA2 subunit. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GluA2 trafficking in the facilitation of learning by stress. Using the water maze spatial task involving different stress levels, mice trained under more stressful conditions (water at 22 degrees C) showed better learning and memory, and higher post-training corticosterone levels, than mice trained under lower stress (water at 30 degrees C). Strikingly, this facilitated learning by stress was accompanied by enhanced synaptic expression of GluA2 AMPARs that was not observed in mice trained under less stressful conditions. Interfering with GC actions by injecting the GC synthesis inhibitor, metyrapone, blocked both the memory facilitation and the enhanced GluA2 trafficking induced by stressful learning. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the peptide, pep2m, that blocks GluA2 synaptic trafficking by interfering with the interaction between N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor and GluA2, impaired immediate performance at learning as well as long-term memory retrieval, supporting a causal role for GluA2 trafficking in stress-induced facilitation of spatial learning and memory. Evidence for the involvement of the neural cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin in interaction with GluA2 is also provided. These findings underscore a new mechanism whereby stress can improve memory function.
Mosca, Joseph B.; Paul, David P., III; Skiba, Michaeline
The use of service learning as a means of training future business leaders is advantageous when used as part of learning process and an introduction to problem solving. This study reviews how student knowledge can be enhanced when the learning process is linked with real world experiences such as internships, apprenticeships, cooperative education…
Kobza, Stefan; Bellebaum, Christian
Learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations is driven by outcome prediction errors (PEs). Previous studies have shown larger PE-dependent activity in the striatum for learning from own as compared to observed actions and the following outcomes despite comparable learning rates. We hypothesised that this finding relates primarily to a stronger integration of action and outcome information in active learners. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated brain activations related to action-dependent PEs, reflecting the deviation between action values and obtained outcomes, and action-independent PEs, reflecting the deviation between subjective values of response-preceding cues and obtained outcomes. To this end, 16 active and 15 observational learners engaged in a probabilistic learning card-guessing paradigm. On each trial, active learners saw one out of five cues and pressed either a left or right response button to receive feedback (monetary win or loss). Each observational learner observed exactly those cues, responses and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance was assessed in active test trials without feedback and did not differ between groups. For both types of PEs, activations were found in the globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, and insula in active learners. However, only for action-dependent PEs, activations in these structures and the anterior cingulate were increased in active relative to observational learners. Thus, PE-related activity in the reward system is not generally enhanced in active relative to observational learning but only for action-dependent PEs. For the cerebellum, additional activations were found across groups for cue-related uncertainty, thereby emphasising the cerebellum's role in stimulus-outcome learning.
Fargier, Raphaël; Paulignan, Yves; Boulenger, Véronique; Monaghan, Padraic; Reboul, Anne; Nazir, Tatjana A
Action words referring to face, arm or leg actions activate areas along the motor strip that also control the planning and execution of the actions specified by the words. This electroencephalogram (EEG) study aimed to test the learning profile of this language-induced motor activity. Participants were trained to associate novel verbal stimuli to videos of object-oriented hand and arm movements or animated visual images on two consecutive days. Each training session was preceded and followed by a test-session with isolated videos and verbal stimuli. We measured motor-related brain activity (reflected by a desynchronization in the μ frequency bands; 8-12 Hz range) localized at centro-parietal and fronto-central electrodes. We compared activity from viewing the videos to activity resulting from processing the language stimuli only. At centro-parietal electrodes, stable action-related μ suppression was observed during viewing of videos in each test-session of the two days. For processing of verbal stimuli associated with motor actions, a similar pattern of activity was evident only in the second test-session of Day 1. Over the fronto-central regions, μ suppression was observed in the second test-session of Day 2 for the videos and in the second test-session of Day 1 for the verbal stimuli. Whereas the centro-parietal μ suppression can be attributed to motor events actually experienced during training, the fronto-central μ suppression seems to serve as a convergence zone that mediates underspecified motor information. Consequently, sensory-motor reactivations through which concepts are comprehended seem to differ in neural dynamics from those implicated in their acquisition.
Nandipati, Giridhar; Govind, Niranjan; Andersen, Amity; Rohatgi, Aashish
Atomistic on-lattice self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (SLKMC) method was used to examine the vacancy-mediated diffusion of an Al atom in pure hcp Mg. Local atomic environment dependent activation barriers for vacancy-atom exchange processes were calculated on-the-fly using climbing image nudged-elastic band method (CI-NEB) and using a Mg-Al binary modified embedded-atom method (MEAM) interatomic potential. Diffusivities of vacancy and Al atom in pure Mg were obtained from SLKMC simulations and are compared with values available in the literature that are obtained from experiments and first-principle calculations. Al Diffusivities obtained from SLKMC simulations are lower, due to larger activation barriers and lower diffusivity prefactors, than those available in the literature but have same order of magnitude. We present all vacancy-Mg and vacancy-Al atom exchange processes and their activation barriers that were identified in SLKMC simulations. We will describe a simple mapping scheme to map a hcp lattice on to a simple cubic lattice that would enable hcp lattices to be simulated in an on-lattice KMC framework. We also present the pattern recognition scheme used in SLKMC simulations.
Primary/elementary teachers are uniquely positioned in terms of their need for ongoing, science-focused professional development. They are usually generalists, having limited preparation for teaching science, and often do not feel prepared or comfortable in teaching science. In this case study, CHAT or cultural-historical activity theory is used as a lens to examine primary/elementary teachers' activity system as they engaged in a teacher-driven professional development initiative. Teachers engaged in collaborative action research to change their practice, with the objective of making their science teaching more engaging and hands-on for students. A range of qualitative methods and sources such as teacher interviews and reflections, teacher-created artifacts, and researcher observational notes were adopted to gain insight into teacher learning. Outcomes report on how the teachers' activity system changed as they participated in two cycles of collaborative action research and how the contradictions that arose in their activity system became sources of professional growth. Furthermore, this research shows how the framework of activity theory may be used to garner insight into the activity and learning of teachers as both their professional activities and the context change over time.
Rao, A; Kelleher, D
This article describes and analyzes the BRAC Gender Quality Action-Learning (GQAL) Program. BRAC aims to bring about organizational change and improve program quality through issue analysis, action planning, and implementation with an understanding of gender. During the 1990s, BRAC increased the number of women staff and set up a women's committee. In 1993, it piloted a gender training program. By 1994, BRAC did not know what the real problems were. A needs assessment was carried out among 400 staff in various program types and levels and revealed 3 empowerment issues. An intuitive understanding did not translate into creative solutions. Staff preferred non-confrontation in dealing with women's subordination in the family and community. Staff strongly believed in training as a way of changing behavior and values. BRAC is an organization in transition. The goal is changing the relationship between men and women. BRAC needs multiple perspectives of men and women staff and primary stakeholders. BRAC is gendered. Quantitative targets must be balanced with quality improvements. Quality occurs by analyzing the process and outcomes of programs. The GQAL program and cycle began in 1995. The GQAL outcome was improved working and democratic relationships and more open communication. Success was based on, for example, a field-based learning intervention, followed by trained facilitators, and innovative and tested methodology. Constraints were the perceived lack of top management support in some programs, frequent transfers of staff, and natural disasters. The authors identify future issues.
Langlois, Sophie; Goudreau, Johanne; Lalonde, Lyne
The persistent theory-practice gap shows how challenging it can be for healthcare professionals to keep updating their practices. The continuing education challenges are partly explained by the tremendous stream of new discoveries in health and the epidemic of multi-morbid conditions. Participatory action research (PAR) is used in healthcare as a research approach that capitalizes on people's resources to better understand and enhance their professional practices. PAR thus can consolidate our knowledge on workplace learning in continuing interprofessional education while directly improving quality of care. However, PAR lacks clear scientific criteria to ensure the consistency between the investigators' methodology and philosophy, which jeopardize its credibility. This paper outlines the principles of rigour in PAR and describes the additions of a preliminary planning phase to Kemmis and McTaggart's PAR description as well as the use of the professional co-development group, an action-oriented data collection method. We believe that this will help PAR co-participants achieve improved scientific rigour and encourage more investigators to collaborate through this research approach contributing to the advancement of knowledge on workplace learning in continuing interprofessional education.
Bin Kadir, Mohd Amin; Arifin, Syamsul; Latipun; Fuad, Ahmad Nur
This study describes adult learners' understanding in learning Islam using andragogy approach in which the study was conducted in Kampung Siglap Mosque and Al-Zuhri Higher Learning Institute. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) educate his companions of who are adults from the shackles of "jahiliyyah," spiritual and intellectual…
Davis, Kierrynn; Brownie, Sonya; Doran, Frances; Evans, Sue; Hutchinson, Marie; Mozolic-Staunton, Beth; Provost, Stephen; van Aken, Rosalie
The worldwide academic workforce is ageing. At the same time, health and human services workforces are expanding. The preparation of educators to fill gaps in expertise and to position the health sciences for future growth is an urgent need. The findings from a recent action learning project that aimed to enhance the professional growth and development of higher degree researcher student supervisors in a School of Health and Human Sciences are presented. Seven early career researchers and the facilitator met for two hours every two to three weeks over 4 months between April and July 2010, in a rural and regional university in New South Wales, Australia. The processes initiated were a combination of experiential knowledge, referral to relevant published reports, use of an effective supervision checklist, and critical conversations. Learning outcomes centered on higher degree management and supervision pedagogy, communities of practice, knowledge translation, and the establishment of a research culture. The contextual barriers and implications of the methodology and learning outcomes for the professional development of health and human science practitioners, researchers and educators is also discussed.
Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza
Link prediction is a social network research area that tries to predict future links using network structure. The main approaches in this area are based on predicting future links using network structure at a specific period, without considering the links behavior through different periods. For example, a common traditional approach in link prediction calculates a chosen similarity metric for each non-connected link and outputs the links with higher similarity scores as the prediction result. In this paper, we propose a new link prediction method based on temporal similarity metrics and Continuous Action set Learning Automata (CALA). The proposed method takes advantage of using different similarity metrics as well as different time periods. In the proposed algorithm, we try to model the link prediction problem as a noisy optimization problem and use a team of CALAs to solve the noisy optimization problem. CALA is a reinforcement based optimization tool which tries to learn the optimal behavior from the environment feedbacks. To determine the importance of different periods and similarity metrics on the prediction result, we define a coefficient for each of different periods and similarity metrics and use a CALA for each coefficient. Each CALA tries to learn the true value of the corresponding coefficient. Final link prediction is obtained from a combination of different similarity metrics in different times based on the obtained coefficients. The link prediction results reported here show satisfactory of the proposed method for some social network data sets.
Brewer, Jennifer F.
Extensive research demonstrates that public participation in environmental decision making can increase understanding of diverse worldviews and knowledge bases, public faith in governance institutions, and compliance with resulting rules. Concerns linger around costs, possibilities of polarization and decreased legitimacy in cases of poorly executed processes, and the ability of newly empowered groups to gain political leverage over others. If participants in public processes can bracket their personal experience to better assess other viewpoints, establishing mutual respect and understanding through deliberative exchange, they increase the likelihood of maximizing participatory benefits and minimizing risks. Such reflexivity indicates double-loop social learning, change undertaken through collective discussion and interaction. A capacity-building workshop program aims to foster such learning within the Maine fishing industry. Case material draws primarily on participant observation and interview data, using a grounded theory approach to qualitative analysis. Evidence indicates that in social contexts removed from the norms of daily life and the frustrations of past fishery management confrontations, harvesters acquire knowledge and skills that facilitate more strategic and productive behavior in formal and informal marine resource decision venues. Suspensions of longstanding spatio-temporal assumptions around the prosecution and management of fisheries comprise key learning moments, and yield corresponding changes in industry attitudes and actions. With heightened appreciation for a diversity of experiences and management priorities, harvesters can better mobilize a broad spectrum of local knowledge to develop viable regulatory proposals and collaborative decision processes.
Rowell, Lonnie L.; Polush, Elena Yu; Riel, Margaret; Bruewer, Aaron
The purpose of this study was to identify distinguishing characteristics of action research within the Action Research Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association. The authors sought to delineate the foundational framework endorsed by this community. The study was conducted during January-April 2012 and employed an…
Kelle, Pido I.; Ratterman, Christian; Gibbs, Cecil
This slide presentation reviews the Constellation Program Problem Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action Process and System (Cx PRACA). The goal of the Cx PRACA is to incorporate Lessons learned from the Shuttle, ISS, and Orbiter programs by creating a single tool for managing the PRACA process, that clearly defines the scope of PRACA applicability and what must be reported, and defines the ownership and responsibility for managing the PRACA process including disposition approval authority. CxP PRACA is a process, supported by a single information gathering data module which will be integrated with a single CxP Information System, providing interoperability, import and export capability making the CxP PRACA a more effective and user friendly technical and management tool.
van Dijk, Ludger; Heerschop, Anniek; van der Sluis, Corry K; Bongers, Raoul M
This study aims to determine to what extent the task for an action system in its initial development relies on functional and anatomical components. Fifty-two able-bodied participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups or to a control group. As a pre- and post-test all groups performed a computer game with the same goal and using the same musculature. One experimental group also trained to perform this test, while the other two experimental groups learned to perform a game that differed either in its goal or in the musculature used. The observed change in accuracy indicated that retaining the goal of the task or the musculature used equally increased transfer performance relative to controls. Conversely, changing either the goal or the musculature equally decreased transfer relative to training the test. These results suggest that in the initial development of an action system, the task to which the system pertains is not specified solely by either the goal of the task or the anatomical structures involved. It is suggested that functional specificity and anatomical dependence might equally be outcomes of continuously differentiating activity.
van Dijk, Ludger; Heerschop, Anniek; van der Sluis, Corry K.; Bongers, Raoul M.
This study aims to determine to what extent the task for an action system in its initial development relies on functional and anatomical components. Fifty-two able-bodied participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups or to a control group. As a pre- and post-test all groups performed a computer game with the same goal and using the same musculature. One experimental group also trained to perform this test, while the other two experimental groups learned to perform a game that differed either in its goal or in the musculature used. The observed change in accuracy indicated that retaining the goal of the task or the musculature used equally increased transfer performance relative to controls. Conversely, changing either the goal or the musculature equally decreased transfer relative to training the test. These results suggest that in the initial development of an action system, the task to which the system pertains is not specified solely by either the goal of the task or the anatomical structures involved. It is suggested that functional specificity and anatomical dependence might equally be outcomes of continuously differentiating activity. PMID:28018278
Cruz, Georgina E.; Sahley, Christie L.; Muller, Kenneth J.
The spatial and temporal patterns of action potential initiations were studied in a behaving leech preparation to determine the basis of increased firing that accompanies sensitization, a form of non-associative learning requiring the S-interneurons. Little is known at the network level about mechanisms of behavioral sensitization. The S-interneurons, one in each ganglion and linked by electrical synapses with both neighbors to form a chain, are interposed between sensory and motor neurons. In sensitized preparations the strength of shortening is related to S-cell firing, which itself is the result of impulses initiating in several S-cells. Because the S-cells, as independent initiation sites, all contribute to activity in the chain, it was hypothesized that during sensitization, increased multi-site activity increased the chain's firing rate. However, it was found that during sensitization, the single site with the largest initiation rate, the S-cell in the stimulated segment, suppressed initiations in adjacent ganglia. Experiments showed this was both because (1) it received the earliest, greatest input and (2) the delayed synaptic input to the adjacent S-cells coincided with the action potential refractory period. A compartmental model of the S-cell and its inputs showed that a simple, intrinsic mechanism of inexcitability after each action potential may account for suppression of impulse initiations. Thus, a non-synaptic competition between neurons alters synaptic integration in the chain. In one mode, inputs to different sites sum independently, whereas in another, synaptic input to a single site precisely specifies the overall pattern of activity. PMID:17644266
Martinet, Louis-Emmanuel; Sheynikhovich, Denis; Benchenane, Karim; Arleo, Angelo
The interplay between hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) is fundamental to spatial cognition. Complementing hippocampal place coding, prefrontal representations provide more abstract and hierarchically organized memories suitable for decision making. We model a prefrontal network mediating distributed information processing for spatial learning and action planning. Specific connectivity and synaptic adaptation principles shape the recurrent dynamics of the network arranged in cortical minicolumns. We show how the PFC columnar organization is suitable for learning sparse topological-metrical representations from redundant hippocampal inputs. The recurrent nature of the network supports multilevel spatial processing, allowing structural features of the environment to be encoded. An activation diffusion mechanism spreads the neural activity through the column population leading to trajectory planning. The model provides a functional framework for interpreting the activity of PFC neurons recorded during navigation tasks. We illustrate the link from single unit activity to behavioral responses. The results suggest plausible neural mechanisms subserving the cognitive "insight" capability originally attributed to rodents by Tolman & Honzik. Our time course analysis of neural responses shows how the interaction between hippocampus and PFC can yield the encoding of manifold information pertinent to spatial planning, including prospective coding and distance-to-goal correlates.
Bennett, Dawn; Sunderland, Naomi; Bartleet, Brydie-Leigh; Power, Anne
Although the value of service-learning opportunities has long been aligned to student engagement, global citizenship, and employability, the rhetoric can be far removed from the reality of coordinating such activities within higher education. This article stems from arts-based service-learning initiatives with Indigenous communities in Australia.…
Asks why so few prospective teachers, on completing their studies (extolling action research), continue to use this approach in their subsequent practice. Drawing upon Esland's notion of "managerialism" and employing an indepth case study of Gerard, a recent graduate, concludes that marketing pressures have taken priority over core…
I passionately believe that reflective practice is an essential competency for the busy GP veterinary surgeon to develop throughout their career. Action learning sets would appear to offer a way of promoting this while at the same time helping the GP veterinary surgeon find a way forward with professional issues. In this article I reflect on my…
This article discusses the development of the online spaces that were used to create a learning framework: a student-centred framework that combined face-to-face teaching with online social and participatory media. The author, as part of her Doctoral research study, used action research as a mechanism for continual improvement as she redesigned…
Ballantyne, Roy; Packer, Jan
This paper argues the need for the providers of ecotourism and other free-choice environmental learning experiences to promote the adoption of environmentally sustainable actions beyond their own sites, when visitors return to their home environments. Previous research indicates that although visitors often leave such experiences with a heightened…
In this account of practice I would like to share my experiences of facilitating a Critical Reflection Action Learning (CRAL) set with a small family run business, struggling to make change and expand their services due to the problems they encountered in separating their business lives from their family lives. The account I present here is based…
Newman, Jane L.; Dantzler, John; Coleman, April N.
The purpose of Science in Action (SIA) was to examine the relationship between implementing quality science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) service-learning (SL) projects and the effect on students' academic engagement in middle school science, civic responsibility, and resilience to at-risk behaviors. The innovative project funded by…
Winterburn, Kathryn; Hicks, Fiona
While action learning is a familiar tenet of much management and leadership development activity within the NHS it is not commonly utilised within the education and development of doctors where didactic methods remain the preferred mechanism to impart factual knowledge necessary to fulfil the autonomous practitioner role. Within the specialism of…
Rienties, Bart; Boroowa, Avinash; Cross, Simon; Kubiak, Chris; Mayles, Kevin; Murphy, Sam
There is an urgent need to develop an evidence-based framework for learning analytics whereby stakeholders can manage, evaluate, and make decisions about which types of interventions work well and under which conditions. In this article, we will work towards developing a foundation of an Analytics4Action Evaluation Framework (A4AEF) that is…
Markic, Silvija; Eilks, Ingo
This paper discusses a project of Participatory Action Research (PAR) on lower secondary chemistry education. In this ongoing project, practicing teachers and university researchers in chemical education jointly carry out projects for developing and evaluating new lesson plans. The focus of the PAR group is to develop teaching/learning activities…
Udeani, U. N.; Atagana, H. I.; Esiobu, G. O.
The main objective of the study was to implement an action research strategy to improve the teaching and learning of biology in senior secondary schools in Nigeria. Specifically the following research questions were raised: (1) What are the levels of intellectual challenge included in the activities used for classroom and laboratory instructions?…
Pauleen, David J.; Corbitt, Brian; Yoong, Pak
Purpose: To provide a conceptual model for the discovery and articulation of emergent organizational knowledge, particularly knowledge that develops when people work with new technologies. Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on two widely accepted research methods--action learning and grounded theory--and is illustrated using a case…
Baran, Evrim; Uygun, Erdem
Design-based learning (DBL) has been considered a useful approach in teacher education because of its emphasis on the investigation of technology integration problems in design processes. Despite recent interest in understanding how technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) translates to action, limited research exists on how TPACK…
Beveridge, Sue; Groundwater-Smith, Susan; Kemmis, Stephen; Wasson, Dianne
This article presents the learnings from PASP, the Priority Action Schools Program expressed in the meta-evaluation "Knowing Makes the Difference". PASP, jointly supported by the NSW Department of Education and Training and the NSW Teachers Federation, was designed to provide intensive support to 74 schools with concentrations of…
One of the principle tenets of action learning is that it provides the potential to explore and solve complex organisational problems. The question of how best to develop a future business strategy is such a problem. Existing literature on strategy making presents a multi-faceted debate, suggesting that the complexity of competitive environments…
Knight, Michelle G.; Watson, Vaughn W. M.
Rendering visible African immigrants' shared and differing experiences of civic learning and action, the authors present findings from in-depth semi-structured interviews with second- and 1.5-generation African immigrants in New York City. Drawing on an interdisciplinary framework of African immigrant identities constructions and civic engagement,…
Planning – Organizational Learning • Organizational Learning Factors Identified in Sustainability Reports and Plans: What Readers Learn...2007) United States European Command Organizational Learning Factors Identified in Sustainability Reports and Plans: What Readers Learn...DoD reports on both estates and partially operations United States European Command Sustainability Reporting and Planning – Organizational
Yoon, Hyung Joon; Cho, Yonjoo; Bong, Hyeon-Cheol
The primary purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact of a dual-project action learning program (DPALP) conducted in South Korea. A dual-project program requires each participant to carry out both team and individual projects. Cho and Egan's [2009. Action learning research: A systematic review and conceptual framework. "Human Resource…
Thompson, Joseph J; McColeman, C M; Stepanova, Ekaterina R; Blair, Mark R
Many theories of complex cognitive-motor skill learning are built on the notion that basic cognitive processes group actions into easy-to-perform sequences. The present work examines predictions derived from laboratory-based studies of motor chunking and motor preparation using data collected from the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. We examined 996,163 action sequences in the telemetry data of 3,317 players across seven levels of skill. As predicted, the latency to the first action (thought to be the beginning of a chunked sequence) is delayed relative to the other actions in the group. Other predictions, inspired by the memory drum theory of Henry and Rogers, received only weak support.
Lammons, Elizabeth; Momata, Yuko; Mynard, Jo; Noguchi, Junko; Watkins, Satoko
Paper-based tools such as self-evaluation activities, learning plans, reflective journals and learning logs are commonplace for managing Self-Directed Language Learning (SDLL). Such tools not only promote ownership over learning and provide a sense of achievement to learners, but they also promote reflection and raise awareness of learning…
Elkington, Rob, Ed.
"Turning Pupils on to Learning" documents and makes visible how creative learning approaches can engage and motivate children in their learning. The book features six case studies of creative learning projects that cover the early years through to Key Stage 3 which are written by the teachers and creative practitioners involved. From the creation…
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What actions must a SASP take when it learns of damage to or loss of surplus property in its custody? 102-37.250 Section 102-37... learns of damage to or loss of surplus property in its custody? If you learn that surplus property...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What actions must a SASP take when it learns of damage to or loss of surplus property in its custody? 102-37.250 Section 102-37... learns of damage to or loss of surplus property in its custody? If you learn that surplus property...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What actions must a SASP take when it learns of damage to or loss of surplus property in its custody? 102-37.250 Section 102-37... learns of damage to or loss of surplus property in its custody? If you learn that surplus property...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What actions must a SASP take when it learns of damage to or loss of surplus property in its custody? 102-37.250 Section 102-37... learns of damage to or loss of surplus property in its custody? If you learn that surplus property...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What actions must a SASP take when it learns of damage to or loss of surplus property in its custody? 102-37.250 Section 102-37... learns of damage to or loss of surplus property in its custody? If you learn that surplus property...
Call, Josep; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael
There is currently much debate about the nature of social learning in chimpanzees. The main question is whether they can copy others' actions, as opposed to reproducing the environmental effects of these actions using their own preexisting behavioral strategies. In the current study, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens) were shown different demonstrations of how to open a tube-in both cases by a conspecific. In different experimental conditions, demonstrations consisted of (1) action only (the actions necessary to open the tube without actually opening it); (2) end state only (the open tube, without showing any actions); (3) both of these components (in a full demonstration); or (4) neither of these components (in a baseline condition). In the first three conditions subjects saw one of two different ways that the tube could open (break in middle; caps off ends). Subjects' behavior in each condition was assessed for how often they opened the tube, how often they opened it in the same location as the demonstrator, and how often they copied the demonstrator's actions or style of opening the tube. Whereas chimpanzees reproduced mainly the environmental results of the demonstrations (emulation), human children often reproduced the demonstrator's actions (imitation). Because the procedure used was similar in many ways to the procedure that Meltzoff (Dev Psych 31:1, 1995) used to study the understanding of others' unfulfilled intentions, the implications of these findings with regard to chimpanzees' understanding of others' intentions are also discussed.
Chersi, Fabian; Mirolli, Marco; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca
Dual-system theories postulate that actions are supported either by a goal-directed or by a habit-driven response system. Neuroimaging and anatomo-functional studies have provided evidence that the prefrontal cortex plays a fundamental role in the first type of action control, while internal brain areas such as the basal ganglia are more active during habitual and overtrained responses. Additionally, it has been shown that areas of the cortex and the basal ganglia are connected through multiple parallel "channels", which are thought to function as an action selection mechanism resolving competitions between alternative options available in a given context. In this paper we propose a multi-layer network of spiking neurons that implements in detail the thalamo-cortical circuits that are believed to be involved in action learning and execution. A key feature of this model is that neurons are organized in small pools in the motor cortex and form independent loops with specific pools of the basal ganglia where inhibitory circuits implement a multistep selection mechanism. The described model has been validated utilizing it to control the actions of a virtual monkey that has to learn to turn on briefly flashing lights by pressing corresponding buttons on a board. When the animal is able to fluently execute the task the button-light associations are remapped so that it has to suppress its habitual behavior in order to execute goal-directed actions. The model nicely shows how sensory-motor associations for action sequences are formed at the cortico-basal ganglia level and how goal-directed decisions may override automatic motor responses.
Singer, George H. S.
This commentary discusses the limitations of traditional research and the benefits of participatory action research (PAR) that changes the stance of the researcher from dispassionate observer to that of friend, ally, and colleague of the "subject". The use of PAR in helping researchers, parents, and advocates work together in promoting…
Wiggett, Alison J.; Hudson, Matt; Tipper, Steve P.; Downing, Paul E.
Observation of another person executing an action primes the same action in the observer's motor system. Recent evidence has shown that these priming effects are flexible, where training of new associations, such as making a foot response when viewing a moving hand, can reduce standard action priming effects (Gillmeister, Catmur, Liepelt, Brass,…
Bruce, Susan M.; Pine, Gerald J.
This is the first book about action research devoted to the complex issues faced by children with disabilities and their teachers. The authors begin by providing the historical and philosophical underpinnings of action research and then present a framework for conducting action research in special education. In addition, they feature four examples…
Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang
Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.
Hamza, Karim M.; Wickman, Per-Olof
Although misconceptions in science have been established in interview studies, their role during the learning process is poorly examined. In this paper, we use results from a classroom study to analyze to what extent nonscientific ideas in electrochemistry that students report in interviews enter into their learning in a more authentic setting. We…
Academic learning traditionally involves research, and the production of journal papers, books, etc. "Learning in academia" refers to academics becoming more skilful in what they do. It is what legal or medical clinicians would refer to as continuing professional education (or development) (CPE/D) which, by analogy, invokes the notion of CPE in…
Gordon, Christopher; Debus, Ray; Dillon, Jane; Arthur-Kelly, Michael
This paper describe one aspect of a recent study that investigated the impact and dimensions of several teaching and learning approaches utilised in tertiary institutions. The study aimed to reduce reliance on surface learning techniques and improve deep learning processes amongst a cohort of undergraduate students studying in a Bachelor of…
Loudermilk, Teresa J.
Schools' functioning as learning organizations provide educators the opportunity to focus on working together in innovative ways. However, it is unknown to what extent learning organizations exist in small high schools or whether small high schools' functioning as learning organizations improve academic achievement. The purpose of this study was…
Kinnebrew, John S.; Biswas, Gautam
Our learning-by-teaching environment, Betty's Brain, captures a wealth of data on students' learning interactions as they teach a virtual agent. This paper extends an exploratory data mining methodology for assessing and comparing students' learning behaviors from these interaction traces. The core algorithm employs sequence mining techniques to…
Montgomery, Sarah E.; Miller, Wendy; Foss, Page; Tallakson, Denise; Howard, Maria
Teaching about the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948, is one way to support students' learning about issues of fairness. However, learning about this document is not enough. Students need to have experiences where they explore issues of justice and equity in order to learn about…
Learmonth, Alyson; Pedler, Mike
Health policy traditionally has tended to focus on health care policy. The World Health Organisation Investment for Health approach aims to influence policy development by locating health as both the outcome of, and an asset for, sustainable economic and social development. The policy context in England offers a range of drivers and opportunities to operationalise the Investment for Health approach through action to improve health and reduce inequalities, nationally and as importantly at a regional and local level. This paper traces developments in the North East of England April 2002-November 2002, from the perspective of an advocate for developing a systemic and systematic approach using an Investment for Health approach. The tool used to track change is based in action learning [M. Pedler, Action Learning for Managers, Lemos and Crane, London, 1996]. The Action Learning Problem Brief identifies why the goal is important, who to, how progress might be identified, difficulties and benefits. Generally, this acts as a starting point for problem solving within an Action Learning Set. This piece of work uses the framework for reflection and tracking, with input from a mentor, at four to eight weekly intervals, 'Auto Action Learning'. The authors pull out key learning points from the process, using a framework 'Towards a model for systematic learning from doing in the North East of England'.
Reed, Maureen G; Godmaire, Hélène; Abernethy, Paivi; Guertin, Marc-André
Deliberation, dialogue and systematic learning are now considered attributes of good practice for organizations seeking to advance sustainability. Yet we do not know whether organizations that span spatial scales and governance responsibilities can establish effective communities of practice to facilitate learning and action. The purpose of this paper is to generate a framework that specifies actions and processes of a community of practice designed to instill collective learning and action strategies across a multi-level, multi-partner network. The framework is then used to describe and analyze a partnership among practitioners of Canada's 16 UNESCO biosphere reserves, and additional researchers and government representatives from across Canada. The framework is a cycle of seven action steps, beginning and ending with reflecting on and evaluating present practice. It is supported by seven characteristics of collaborative environmental management that are used to gauge the success of the partnership. Our results show that the partnership successfully built trust, established shared norms and common interest, created incentives to participate, generated value in information sharing and willingness to engage, demonstrated effective flow of information, and provided leadership and facilitation. Key to success was the presence of a multi-lingual facilitator who could bridge cultural differences across regions and academia-practitioner expectations. The project succeeded in establishing common goals, setting mutual expectations and building relations of trust and respect, and co-creating knowledge. It is too soon to determine whether changes in practices that support sustainability will be maintained over the long term and without the help of an outside facilitator.
Stewart, Lauren; Verdonschot, Rinus G; Nasralla, Patrick; Lanipekun, Jennifer
The principle of common coding suggests that a joint representation is formed when actions are repeatedly paired with a specific perceptual event. Musicians are occupationally specialized with regard to the coupling between actions and their auditory effects. In the present study, we employed a novel paradigm to demonstrate automatic action-effect associations in pianists. Pianists and nonmusicians pressed keys according to aurally presented number sequences. Numbers were presented at pitches that were neutral, congruent, or incongruent with respect to pitches that would normally be produced by such actions. Response time differences were seen between congruent and incongruent sequences in pianists alone. A second experiment was conducted to determine whether these effects could be attributed to the existence of previously documented spatial/pitch compatibility effects. In a "stretched" version of the task, the pitch distance over which the numbers were presented was enlarged to a range that could not be produced by the hand span used in Experiment 1. The finding of a larger response time difference between congruent and incongruent trials in the original, standard, version compared with the stretched version, in pianists, but not in nonmusicians, indicates that the effects obtained are, at least partially, attributable to learned action effects.
learned process to ensure that it is learning and adapting its counterterrorism operations for maximum success. Yet, at least publically, this...appears to not be the case. The lack of such a process is compounded by the fact that both the conduct and oversight of these operations are divided among...analytic framework and lessons-learned process that the U.S. government could—and should—use to continually and comprehensively improve the
The interesting novelty of the paper by Burini et al.  is that the authors present a survey and a new approach of collective learning based on suitable development of methods of the kinetic theory  and theoretical tools of evolutionary game theory . Methods of statistical dynamics and kinetic theory lead naturally to stochastic and collective dynamics. Indeed, the authors propose the use of games where the state of the interacting entities is delivered by probability distributions.
This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed…
Narratives are being increasingly used in nursing and action research. In this participatory action research study, nurse leaders of an acute care of the older person unit collectively, critically and creatively reflected on lived experiences in order to explore the concept of person-centred leadership within their own practice. This paper…
Nicolaides, Aliki; Dzubinski, Leanne
Life in the 21st century is increasingly complex, paradoxical, and ambiguous, bringing into question the ways that graduate adult education programs function. In this article, we describe an action research study involving the method of collaborative developmental action inquiry conducted with key stakeholders of a program in adult education at a…
Objectives This article reviews an evaluation vector model driven from a participatory action research leveraging a collective inquiry system named SMILE (Stanford Mobile Inquiry-based Learning Environment). Methods SMILE has been implemented in a diverse set of collective inquiry generation and analysis scenarios including community health care-specific professional development sessions and community-based participatory action research projects. In each scenario, participants are given opportunities to construct inquiries around physical and emotional health-related phenomena in their own community. Results Participants formulated inquiries as well as potential clinical treatments and hypothetical scenarios to address health concerns or clarify misunderstandings or misdiagnoses often found in their community practices. From medical universities to rural village health promotion organizations, all participatory inquiries and potential solutions can be collected and analyzed. The inquiry and solution sets represent an evaluation vector which helps educators better understand community health issues at a much deeper level. Conclusions SMILE helps collect problems that are most important and central to their community health concerns. The evaluation vector, consisting participatory and collective inquiries and potential solutions, helps the researchers assess the participants' level of understanding on issues around health concerns and practices while helping the community adequately formulate follow-up action plans. The method used in SMILE requires much further enhancement with machine learning and advanced data visualization. PMID:27525157
Beesley, Andrea; Clark, Tedra; Barker, Jane; Germeroth, Carrie; Apthorp, Helen
Background: Expeditionary Learning Schools opens and transforms K-12 schools. Through engaging, long-term interdisciplinary projects designed to achieve academic standards and an emphasis on a healthy school culture, Expeditionary Learning aims to develop students who are not only high-achieving but also highly motivated to do challenging…
Despite that fact that the demand for asynchronous learning is booming, the literature on distance learning facilitation skills is lacking (Sherry, 1996). This study supports the premise that the use of paraphrasing strategies impacts learners in an asynchronous environment. The research question has been narrowed to inspect the particular…
Santacruz-Valencia, Liliana Patricia; Navarro, Antonio; Kloos, Carlos Delgado; Aedo, Ignacio
Nowadays, a wide range of initiatives are focused on providing solutions relating to the integration and reuse of different types of learning objects. This paper deals with the assembly of learning objects, one of the most difficult components for reuse. Our proposal takes into account the requirements and competencies defined for each learning…
Savoia, Elena; Agboola, Foluso; Biddinger, Paul D
Many public health and healthcare organizations use formal knowledge management practices to identify and disseminate the experiences gained over time. The "lessons-learned" approach is one such example of knowledge management practice applied to the wider concept of organizational learning. In the field of emergency preparedness, the lessons-learned approach stands on the assumption that learning from experience improves practice and minimizes avoidable deaths and negative economic and social consequences of disasters. In this project, we performed a structured review of AARs to analyze how lessons learned from the response to real-incidents may be used to maximize knowledge management and quality improvement practices such as the design of public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) exercises. We chose as a source of data the "Lessons Learned Information Sharing (LLIS.gov)" system, a joined program of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security DHS and FEMA that serves as the national, online repository of lessons learned, best practices, and innovative ideas. We identified recurring challenges reported by various states and local public health agencies in the response to different types of incidents. We also strove to identify the limitations of systematic learning that can be achieved due to existing weaknesses in the way AARs are developed.
Nitschke, Peter; Malvicini, Peter
This study supported the emergence of a transformative learning and planning community among marginalized informal settlers in Manila, Philippines. The research was rooted in transformative learning theory while drawing from systems theory, planning, and development participation. We adapted the Search Conference (SC) to examine the process of…
McManus, Michael S.; Thiamwong, Ladda
This study focuses on the effects of involving fourth grade students in an experiential learning task that improves the school and requires the students to call on community agency, area business, and high school student support. Data related to students' learning were collected by using evaluative writing surveys, student and parent conferences,…
Davis, Bryce Collin
The purpose of this dissertation was to document, analyze, understand, and describe how the environmental virtue ethics of undergraduate students were impacted after participating in a service-learning project designed to establish a new university garden. This service-learning project occurred during the fall semester of 2011, on the campus of…
Basu, Sreyashi Jhumki; Calabrese Barton, Angela
In this rejoinder to Bryan Brown and John Reveles, we highlight the facts that (a) sociocultural theories of learning do not go far enough because they fail to address a number of issues and (b) we require concepts such as power and positionality to understand science learning.
de Freitas, Angilberto Sabino; Bandeira-de-Mello, Rodrigo
The existing literature on e-learning implementation is either descriptive or normative and falls short on explaining how managers act in introducing and disseminating e-learning projects in school settings. In this paper, we follow a symbolic approach in order to offer a grounded model for explaining how managerial framing of the introduction of…
This case study, one of a series of publications exploring effective and inclusive models of work-based learning, finds that work-based courses bring college to the production line by using the job as a learning lab. Work-based courses are an innovative way to give incumbent workers access to community college credits and degrees. They are…
Schultz, Patrick L.; Quinn, Andrew S.
In this article, we present a proposal for fostering learning in the management classroom through the use of student-produced video assignments. We describe the potential for video technology to create active learning environments focused on problem solving, authentic and direct experiences, and interaction and collaboration to promote student…
Curtis, Steven; Blair, Alasdair
Inspired by the work of Ernest Boyer and the Boyer Commission, the Scholarship of Engagement for Politics project was an attempt to adapt their demands for research-based undergraduate learning opportunities to the British context through the pedagogy of placement learning. This article explores the project's attempts to make placement learning…
Jewitt, Carey; Kress, Gunther; Ogborn, Jon; Charalampos, Tsatsarelis
A study of the ways science students transformed their teacher's description of cells suggests that learning is multimodal, arising from the interaction of visual, verbal, and linguistic communication. It demonstrates that learning is a process of selection, adaptation, and transformation of information across communication systems. (Author/SK)
Brett, Valerie; Mullally, Martina; O'Gorman, Bill; Fuller-Love, Nerys
Developing sustainable learning networks for entrepreneurs is the core objective of the Sustainable Learning Networks in Ireland and Wales (SLNIW) project. One research team drawn from the Centre for Enterprise Development and Regional Economy at Waterford Institute of Technology and the School of Management and Business from Aberystwyth…
Punhagui, Giovana Chimentão; de Souza, Nadia Aparecida
Learning a foreign language is, among other factors, based on the perception of one's own development and on undertaking strategies for greater communicative competence, which are founded in autonomous procedures that span the necessity for greater responsibility. As learning a language demands constant study, even after the school period--when…
Parker, Lynn; And Others
The physical, emotional, and intellectual impact of nutrition on children's ability to learn is the subject of this guide for school personnel. The guide is divided into two parts and includes two appendices. Part 1, "What We Know About the Relationship Between Nutrition and Learning," reviews research linking nutrition and academic…
Waterman, Margaret; Weber, Janet; Pracht, Carl; Conway, Kathleen; Kunz, David; Evans, Beverly; Hoffman, Steven; Smentkowski, Brian; Starrett, David
The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) Fellows Program at Southeast Missouri State University supports an annual cohort of 10 faculty Fellows to evaluate, through individual research projects, the effect of teaching on student learning of two or more of the university's General Education objectives. Designed around practical action…
Hudson, Rachel, Ed.; Maslin-Prothero, Sian, Ed.; Oates, Lyn, Ed.
Following an introduction (Hudson, Maslin-Prothero, Oates), the following 31 case studies describe flexible learning developments in the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States: "Teaching Business Writing Online" (Fulkerth); "Don't Lecture Me about Flexible Learning!" (Dunning); "Improving Independent Learning…
Purpose: Although there has been increasing optimism about the potential for social media platforms such as Twitter to support educators' professional learning, it is yet unclear whether such promises hold true. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to explore school administrators' use of Twitter for professional learning.…
Waismeyer, Anna; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Gopnik, Alison
How do young children learn about causal structure in an uncertain and variable world? We tested whether they can use observed probabilistic information to solve causal learning problems. In two experiments, 24-month-olds observed an adult produce a probabilistic pattern of causal evidence. The toddlers then were given an opportunity to design…
Norris, Cynthia J.; Barnett, Bruce G.; Basom, Margaret R.; Yerkes, Diane M.
In this book, a working model for leadership development is presented, resulting from groundbreaking work with learning communities in educational leadership preparation programs. Chapter 1 develops the concept of a learning community as both a structure for the delivery of course content (the product) and a laboratory for promoting collaborative…
Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery
A series of quantitative studies investigated undergraduate students' perceptions of their cognitive and affective learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. To explore these quantitative findings, a qualitative research protocol was developed to characterize student learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Students (N = 13)…
Ingelgard, Anders; Roth, Jonas; Shani, A. B. (Rami); Styhre, Alexander
Interviews with participants in research and development in a pharmaceutical company explored the use of organizational learning mechanisms to create knowledge. Results indicate that dynamic learning capability is embedded in and influenced by company culture, existing skills and competence, capacity for continuous change, and leadership.…
Keskin, Nilgun Ozdamar; Kuzu, Abdullah
In the present study, a mobile learning system for the professional development of academics was developed by design based action research, and the perceptions and experiences of the academics using this system were examined. In the first phase of this design-based action research, the research question was defined. In the second phase, a…
The research has shown a model of learning activities that can be used to stimulate reflective abstraction in students. Reflective abstraction as a method of constructing knowledge in the Action-Process-Object-Schema theory, and is expected to occur when students are in learning activities, will be able to encourage students to make the process of…
Hatziconstantis, Christos; Kolympari, Tania
The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme for secondary education students requires the successful completion of the Creativity, Action, Service (CAS) component (more recently renamed Creativity, Activity, Service) which is based on the philosophy of experiential learning and Academic Service Learning. In this article, the technique of…
McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.
More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.
Krupat, Edward; Pololi, Linda; Schnell, Eugene R; Kern, David E
The culture of academic medicine has been described as hierarchical, competitive, and not highly supportive of female or minority faculty. In response to this, the authors designed the Learning Action Network (LAN), which was part of the National Initiative on Gender, Culture and Leadership in Medicine (C-Change). The LAN is a five-school consortium aimed at changing the organizational culture of its constituent institutions. The authors selected LAN schools to be geographically diverse and representative of U.S. medical schools. Institutional leaders and faculty representatives from constituent schools met twice yearly for four years (2006-2010), forming a cross-institutional learning community. Through their quarterly listing of institutional activities, schools reported a wide array of actions. Most common were increased faculty development and/or mentoring, new approaches to communication, and adoption of new policies and procedures. Other categories included data collection/management, engagement of key stakeholders, education regarding gender/diversity, and new/expanded leadership positions. Through exit interviews, most participants reported feeling optimistic about maintaining the momentum of change. However, some, especially in schools with leadership changes, expressed uncertainty. Participants reported that they felt that the LAN enabled, empowered, facilitated, and/or caused the reported actions.For others who might want to work toward changing the culture of academic medicine, the authors offer several lessons learned from their experiences with C-Change. Most notably, people, structures, policies, and reward systems must be put into place to support cultural values, and broad-based support should be created in order for changes to persist when inevitable transitions in leadership occur.
Chng, Vivien Lee Looi; Coombs, Steven J.
The information explosion characteristic of a knowledge-based economy is fuelled by rapid technological changes. As technology continues to permeate our lives, there will be fresh demands upon the conduct of learning and teaching to ensure that learners are equipped with new economy skills and dispositions for creating significant and relevant…
Parker, Francine M; Faulk, Debbie
Nurse educators are continually challenged to develop and implement effective activities to stimulate reflective learning in the RN to BSN student. The authors discuss the successful use of the feature film My Life as a reflective learning activity for a family health systems course.While feature films have been used constructively to teach family systems and social development, there is scant literature on the use of feature film as a teaching strategy within the discipline of nursing. The authors present evidence of how a film promoted stimulating and powerful transformative learning.
Bazos, Dorothy A; Schifferdecker, Karen E; Fedrizzi, Rudolph; Hoebeke, Jaime; Ruggles, Laural; Goldsberry, Yvonne
Although process elements that define community-based participatory research (CBPR) are well articulated and provide guidance for bringing together researchers and communities, additional models to implement CBPR are needed. One potential model for implementing and monitoring CBPR is Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs); short term, team-based learning processes that are grounded in quality improvement. Since 2010, the Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth (PRCD) has used ALCs with three communities as a platform to design, implement and evaluate CBPR. The first ALC provided an opportunity for academia and community leadership to strengthen their relationships and knowledge of respective assets through design and evaluation of community-based QI projects. Building on this work, we jointly designed and are implementing a second ALC, a cross-community research project focused on obesity prevention in vulnerable populations. An enhanced community capacity now exists to support CBPR activities with a high degree of sophistication and decreased reliance on external facilitation.
Suto, Nobuyoshi; Laque, Amanda; De Ness, Genna L; Wagner, Grant E; Watry, Debbie; Kerr, Tony; Koya, Eisuke; Mayford, Mark R; Hope, Bruce T; Weiss, Friedbert
Conflicting evidence exists regarding the role of infralimbic cortex (IL) in the environmental control of appetitive behavior. Inhibition of IL, irrespective of its intrinsic neural activity, attenuates not only the ability of environmental cues predictive of reward availability to promote reward seeking, but also the ability of environmental cues predictive of reward omission to suppress this behavior. Here we report that such bidirectional behavioral modulation in rats is mediated by functionally distinct units of neurons (neural ensembles) that are concurrently localized within the same IL brain area but selectively reactive to different environmental cues. Ensemble-specific neural activity is thought to function as a memory engram representing a learned association between environment and behavior. Our findings establish the causal evidence for the concurrent existence of two distinct engrams within a single brain site, each mediating opposing environmental actions on a learned behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21920.001 PMID:27938664
DeSutter, D; Stieff, M
Spatial thinking is a vital component of the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curriculum. However, to date, broad development of learning environments that target domain-specific spatial thinking is incomplete. The present article visits the problem of improving spatial thinking by first reviewing the evidence that the human mind is embodied: that cognition, memory, and knowledge representation maintain traces of sensorimotor impressions from acting and perceiving in a physical environment. In particular, we review the evidence that spatial cognition and the ways that humans perceive and conceive of space are embodied. We then propose a set of design principles to aid researchers, designers, and practitioners in creating and evaluating learning environments that align principled embodied actions to targets of spatial thinking in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
Seol, Jae-Wook; Yi, Wangjin; Choi, Jinwook; Lee, Kyung Soon
Clinical narrative text includes information related to a patient's medical history such as chronological progression of medical problems and clinical treatments. A chronological view of a patient's history makes clinical audits easier and improves quality of care. In this paper, we propose a clinical Problem-Action relation extraction method, based on clinical semantic units and event causality patterns, to present a chronological view of a patient's problem and a doctor's action. Based on our observation that a clinical text describes a patient's medical problems and a doctor's treatments in chronological order, a clinical semantic unit is defined as a problem and/or an action relation. Since a clinical event is a basic unit of the problem and action relation, events are extracted from narrative texts, based on the external knowledge resources context features of the conditional random fields. A clinical semantic unit is extracted from each sentence based on time expressions and context structures of events. Then, a clinical semantic unit is classified into a problem and/or action relation based on the event causality patterns of the support vector machines. Experimental results on Korean discharge summaries show 78.8% performance in the F1-measure. This result shows that the proposed method is effectively classifies clinical Problem-Action relations.
Research on exhibit design over the past twenty years has started to identify many different methods to increase the learning that occurs in informal education environments. This study utilized relevant research on exhibit design to create and study the effectiveness of a mobile interactive exhibit at the Seneca Park Zoo that promotes socialization, engagement in science, and conservation-related practices among guests. This study will serve as one component of a major redesign project at the Seneca Park Zoo for their Rocky Coasts exhibit. This action research study targeted the following question, "How can interactive exhibits be designed to promote socialization, engagement in science, and real-world conservation-related practices (RCPs) among zoo guests?" Specific research questions included: 1. In what ways did guests engage with the exhibit? 2. In what ways were guests impacted by the exhibit? a) What evidence exists, if any, of guests learning science content from the exhibit? b) What evidence exists, if any, of guests being emotionally affected by the exhibit? c) What evidence exists, if any, of guests changing their RCPs after visiting the exhibit? Data were collected through zoo guest surveys completed by zoo guests comparing multiple exhibits, interviews with guests before and after they used the prototype exhibit, observations and audio recordings of guests using the prototype exhibit, and follow-up phone interviews with guests who volunteered to participate. Data were analyzed collaboratively with members of the zoo's exhibit Redesign Team using grounded theory qualitative data analysis techniques to find patterns and trends among data. Initial findings from data analysis were used to develop shifts in the exhibit in order to increase visitor engagement and learning. This process continued for two full action research spirals, which resulted in three iterations of the prototype exhibit. The overall findings of this study highlight the ways in which
Valls, Mercè Pañellas; de Nicolás, Montserrat Alguacil; Torremorell, Maria Carme Boqué
In our society, there is a need for a critical reflection on education and the tasks to be developed by every agent. The family and school are the two main socializing settings of children and adolescents and, therefore, their joint responsibility in their education is a commitment that should be established in an atmosphere of confidence and harmony in order to tend towards a learning community model based on dialogic learning.
An intimate link exists between the predictive and learning processes in the brain. Perceptual/cognitive and spatial/motor processes use complementary predictive mechanisms to learn, recognize, attend and plan about objects in the world, determine their current value, and act upon them. Recent neural models clarify these mechanisms and how they interact in cortical and subcortical brain regions. The present paper reviews and synthesizes data and models of these processes, and outlines a unified theory of predictive brain processing. PMID:19528003
Bednark, Jeffery G; Reynolds, John N J; Stafford, Tom; Redgrave, Peter; Franz, Elizabeth A
Performance of voluntary behavior requires the selection of appropriate movements to attain a desired goal. We propose that the selection of voluntary movements is often contingent on the formation of a movement heuristic or set of internal rules governing movement selection. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify the electrophysiological correlates of the formation of movement heuristics during movement-outcome learning. In two experiments, ERPs from non-learning control tasks were compared to a movement-learning task in which a movement heuristic was formed. We found that novelty P3 amplitude was negatively correlated with improved performance in the movement-learning task. Additionally, enhancement of novelty P3 amplitude was observed during learning even after controlling for memory, attentional and inter-stimulus interval parameters. The feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) was only elicited by sensory effects following intentional movements. These findings extend previous studies demonstrating the role of the fCRP in performance monitoring and the role of the P3 in learning. In particular, the present study highlights an integrative role of the fCRP and the novelty P3 for the acquisition of movement heuristics. While the fCRP indicates that the goal of intentional movements has been attained, the novelty P3 engages stimulus-driven attentional mechanisms to determine the primary aspects of movement and context required to elicit the sensory effect.
Izawa, Jun; Criscimagna-Hemminger, Sarah E; Shadmehr, Reza
When we use a novel tool, the motor commands may not produce the expected outcome. In healthy individuals, with practice the brain learns to alter the motor commands. This change depends critically on the cerebellum as damage to this structure impairs adaptation. However, it is unclear precisely what the cerebellum contributes to the process of adaptation in human motor learning. Is the cerebellum crucial for learning to associate motor commands with novel sensory consequences, called forward model, or is the cerebellum important for learning to associate sensory goals with novel motor commands, called inverse model? Here, we compared performance of cerebellar patients and healthy controls in a reaching task with a gradual perturbation schedule. This schedule allowed both groups to adapt their motor commands. Following training, we measured two kinds of behavior: in one case, people were presented with reach targets near the direction in which they had trained. The resulting generalization patterns of patients and controls were similar, suggesting comparable inverse models. In the second case, participants reached without a target and reported the location of their hand. In controls, the pattern of change in reported hand location was consistent with simulation results of a forward model that had learned to associate motor commands with new sensory consequences. In patients, this change was significantly smaller. Therefore, in our sample of patients, we observed that while adaptation of motor commands can take place despite cerebellar damage, cerebellar integrity appears critical for learning to predict visual sensory consequences of motor commands.
Kennedy, Claire; Levy, Mike
This article discusses an experiment in sending regular Short Message Service (SMS) messages to support language learning, and vocabulary learning in particular, at beginners' level in Italian at an Australian university. The approach we took built on the initiatives of Thornton and Houser (2005) and Dias (2002b), and was informed by the results…
Iguchi, Yoshio; Lin, Ziqiao; Nishikawa, Hiromi; Minabe, Yoshio; Toda, Shigenobu
The distinction between goal-directed action and habitual response, particularly with respect to moderate or extended appetitive instrumental training, is well documented; however, the propensity toward instrumental behavior in the early training stage has not been elucidated. In this study, we trained Sprague Dawley rats to press a lever to obtain food as an outcome for various time periods and monitored the changes in their sensitivity to outcome devaluation and choice between the levers they had been trained with and unfamiliar levers. After the extensive training with a random interval schedule, the rats were insensitive to outcome devaluation, and exhibited a typical habit-like phenotype, as previously reported, and the untrained leverpresses were relatively rare and sporadic. During the initial stage of training (≤1 week), the rats exhibited a similar insensitivity to the devaluation; however, in contrast to the overtrained condition, they performed distinctive unbiased leverpresses on both the trained and untrained levers. Thus, we propose a possibility that, contrary to the authentic concept that instrumental learning is initiated with an outcome devaluation-sensitive goal-directed stage, under some conditions, this learning can unconventionally begin with the initial stage that is distinct from both goal-directed action and habitual response. PMID:28240299
Iguchi, Yoshio; Lin, Ziqiao; Nishikawa, Hiromi; Minabe, Yoshio; Toda, Shigenobu
The distinction between goal-directed action and habitual response, particularly with respect to moderate or extended appetitive instrumental training, is well documented; however, the propensity toward instrumental behavior in the early training stage has not been elucidated. In this study, we trained Sprague Dawley rats to press a lever to obtain food as an outcome for various time periods and monitored the changes in their sensitivity to outcome devaluation and choice between the levers they had been trained with and unfamiliar levers. After the extensive training with a random interval schedule, the rats were insensitive to outcome devaluation, and exhibited a typical habit-like phenotype, as previously reported, and the untrained leverpresses were relatively rare and sporadic. During the initial stage of training (≤1 week), the rats exhibited a similar insensitivity to the devaluation; however, in contrast to the overtrained condition, they performed distinctive unbiased leverpresses on both the trained and untrained levers. Thus, we propose a possibility that, contrary to the authentic concept that instrumental learning is initiated with an outcome devaluation-sensitive goal-directed stage, under some conditions, this learning can unconventionally begin with the initial stage that is distinct from both goal-directed action and habitual response.
Franz, E. A.
The present paper builds on the idea that attention is largely in service of our actions. A framework and model which captures the allocation of attention for learning of goal-directed actions is proposed and developed. This framework highlights an evolutionary model based on the notion that rudimentary functions of the basal ganglia have become embedded into increasingly higher levels of networks which all contribute to adaptive learning. Supporting the proposed model, background literature is presented alongside key evidence based on experimental studies in the so-called “split-brain” (surgically divided cerebral hemispheres), and selected evidence from related areas of research. Although overlap with other existing findings and models is acknowledged, the proposed framework is an original synthesis of cognitive experimental findings with supporting evidence of a neural system and a carefully formulated model of attention. It is the hope that this new synthesis will be informative in fields of cognition and other fields of brain sciences and will lead to new avenues for experimentation across domains. PMID:23267335
Tartanson, Marie-Anne; Rivallin, Matthieu; Pecastaings, Sophie; Chis, Cristian V.; Penaranda, Diego; Roques, Christine; Faur, Catherine
The bactericidal activity of an Al2O3-TiO2-Ag granular material against an Escherichia coli strain was confirmed by a culture-based method. In particular, 100% of microorganisms were permanently inactivated in 30 to 45 min. The present work aimed to investigate the mechanisms of the bactericidal action of this material and their dynamics on Escherichia coli using different techniques. Observations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at different times of disinfection revealed morphological changes in the bacteria as soon as they were put in contact with the material. Notably highlighted were cell membrane damage; cytoplasm detachment; formation of vacuoles, possibly due to DNA condensation, in association with regions exhibiting different levels of electron density; and membrane lysis. PCR and flow cytometry analyses were used to confirm and quantify the observations of cell integrity. The direct exposure of cells to silver, combined with the oxidative stress induced by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated, was identified to be responsible for these morphological alterations. From the first 5 min of treatment with the Al2O3-TiO2-Ag material, 98% of E. coli isolates were lysed. From 30 min, cell viability decreased to reach total inactivation, although approximately 1% of permeable E. coli cells and 1% of intact cells (105 genomic units · ml−1) were evidenced. This study demonstrates that the bactericidal effect of the material results from a synergic action of desorbed and supported silver. Supported silver was shown to generate the ROS evidenced. PMID:26253665
Kalra, Gurvinder S
Kissed (1996) is a serious film that portrays the disturbing and taboo issue of necrophilia in a delicate and viewer friendly way. Being a rare paraphilia, it may sometimes be difficult to get necrophilia related literature or even understand this complex behavior. An interested person may have to rely on the few case reports from forensic journals or law books in order to understand what and how necrophiles do what they do! A movie club can be an interesting and novel way to learn various issues in medicine and psychiatry, including necrophilia. This paper discusses the use of this film in academic sessions in order to learn necrophilia.
Meltzer, Judith, Ed.; Joseph, Rachel Molly, Ed.; Shookhoff, Andy, Ed.
This series of papers brings together distinguished experts writing on the use of class action litigation to reform public child welfare systems. It is an effort to tease out of four decades of experience in this work, the factors that increase the likelihood that litigation will result in successful system reform. This publication is an outgrowth…
Wong, Arch Chee Keen
The article reports the final results of a collaborative action research project that devised a reflective approach to theological education. This project lives within the tension between prescribing and implementing a model of theological education and working at the level of applied understanding. Living within this tension are six professors in…
McFerran, Katrina; Hunt, Meagan
This article describes three research projects that utilise a range of research approaches to investigate the benefits of music therapy as support for young people experiencing both bereavement and migration. Two of the research projects utilise formal action research principles in their design, whilst the original project employs a…
Zheng, Dongping; Young, Michael F.; Wagner, Manuela Maria; Brewer, Robert A.
This study analyzes the user chat logs and other artifacts of a virtual world, "Quest Atlantis" (QA), and proposes the concept of Negotiation for Action (NfA) to explain how interaction, specifically, avatar-embodied collaboration between native English speakers and nonnative English speakers, provided resources for English language acquisition.…
This article reports on the action research (AR) approach adopted by one New Zealand (NZ) primary school to review and improve its appraisal system. Historically the staff had demonstrated considerable negativity towards appraisal. The classic reconnaissance, implementation and evaluation phases of AR were adopted by the case study school as a…
Electronic Blocks are a new programming environment designed specifically for children aged between 3 and 8 years. These physical, stackable blocks include sensor blocks, action blocks, and logic blocks. By connecting these blocks, children can program a wide variety of structures that interact with one another and the environment. Electronic…
Weiss, Josie A.; Dwonch-Schoen, Kathy; Howard-Barr, Elissa M.; Panella, Michael P.
The well-being of a community is only as good as the well-being of the individuals who reside in the community. A group of citizens, concerned about the welfare of their community, recognized the high rates of HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy in their south Florida county and decided to take action. Supported by community leaders and using available…
The curricular structure of Taking Action is described and analyzed as a form of culturally responsive and culturally specific pedagogy. In this design structure, students reconsider what they have done and identify key aspects of their experience. Based on this reflection, they design a way to interact with people outside of their class in order…
Roushan, Gelareh; Holley, Debbie; Biggins, David
This paper describes a two-spiral action research approach (AR) in its analysis of the experience of a British University endeavouring to change and reposition itself in the context of fast pace external change in terms of innovation. Taking the European Union (EU) 2020 digital competence framework (Ferrari 2013), with its drive to address the…
Cockburn-Wootten, Cheryl; Henderson, Alison; Rix, Caroline
An action research project, managed by a graduate student, resulted in the development of an academic website as an effective internal and external communication tool. The main focus of the investigation was to uncover the tacit knowledge held by staff in the Department of Management Communication through a series of in-depth interviews, a focus…
Rogers, Laurette H.
The California Freshwater Shrimp Project is an example of a student-initiated, eco-action project. Students, from a fourth grade class in the Ross Valley School District in San Rafael, California, were linked to their community and environment through their work in rehabilitating habitat and educating the public. The paper gives an overview of a…
Domingos-Grilo, Paula; Reis-Grilo, Carlos; Ruiz, Constantino; Mellado, Vicente
We describe part of an action-research programme in Spain which was based on metacognitive reflection. The participants were four science teachers in a secondary school during the 2004-05 and 2005-06 academic years. During the study, they each analysed their own pupils' alternative ideas on photosynthesis and their teaching methods as recorded in…
Brahier, Daniel; Leinwand, Steve; Huniker, DeAnn
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) launched the "standards-based" education movement in North America in 1989 with the release of "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics," an unprecedented action to promote systemic improvement in mathematics education. Now, twenty-five years later, the…
Kirshner, Ben; Pozzoboni, Kristen; Jones, Hannah
Youth programs that are organized around intellectually challenging, socially relevant projects create opportunities for deep cognitive engagement. One type of authentic project that deserves attention from applied developmental scientists is youth participatory action research (YPAR), in which participants study a problem relevant to young…
Huang, Chi-Tai.; Charman, Tony
This study explored different gradations of emulation in the imitation of actions on objects by 17-month-olds. Experiment 1 established levels of behavioral reproduction following prerecorded video demonstrations similar to those levels following live demonstrations. In Experiment 2, two digitally modified videos, where object movements or body…
Du, Yong; Fu, Yun; Wang, Liang
Motion characteristics of human actions can be represented by the position variation of skeleton joints. Traditional approaches generally extract the spatial-temporal representation of the skeleton sequences with well-designed hand-crafted features. In this paper, in order to recognize actions according to the relative motion between the limbs and the trunk, we propose an end-to-end hierarchical RNN for skeleton-based action recognition. We divide human skeleton into five main parts in terms of the human physical structure, and then feed them to five independent subnets for local feature extraction. After the following hierarchical feature fusion and extraction from local to global, dimensions of the final temporal dynamics representations are reduced to the same number of action categories in the corresponding data set through a single-layer perceptron. In addition, the output of the perceptron is temporally accumulated as the input of a softmax layer for classification. Random scale and rotation transformations are employed to improve the robustness during training. We compare with five other deep RNN variants derived from our model in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed network. In addition, we compare with several other methods on motion capture and Kinect data sets. Furthermore, we evaluate the robustness of our model trained with random scale and rotation transformations for a multiview problem. Experimental results demonstrate that our model achieves the state-of-the-art performance with high computational efficiency.
Education for sustainable development establishes the need for change within education; in particular, teacher education is recognised as a priority for reorientation towards sustainability needs. The Ubuntu Network is an action research programme, focusing on supporting teacher educators to explore the integration of development education and…
Jordan, J. Scott; Hunsinger, Matthew
When participants control the horizontal movements of a stimulus and indicate its vanishing point after it unexpectedly vanishes, the perceived vanishing point is displaced beyond the actual vanishing point, and the size of the displacement is directly related to the action-effect anticipation one has to generate to successfully control the…
Munoz, Karen; Jeris, Laurel
Objective: This study explored challenges and barriers that need to be addressed in a preprofessional educational setting to provide opportunities for boundary spanning that leads to family-centred interdisciplinary service provision. Design: The design employed in this study was participatory action research, an inductive approach. Setting: The…
This article reports recent foraging for ideas in action research among the lives and intellects of Chinese society. It began and is reported as a personal journey, initially following the trail of the activist scholar Wang Yang-Ming. The method is a roam through some of the resources that have so far been discovered. The style is…
Daher, Wajeeh; Baya'a, Nimer
Learning in the cellular phone environment enables utilizing the multiple functions of the cellular phone, such as mobility, availability, interactivity, verbal and voice communication, taking pictures or recording audio and video, measuring time and transferring information. These functions together with mathematics-designated cellular phone…
Dolinsky, Rebecca; Rhodes, Terrel L.; McCambly, Heather
The Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) launched Quality Collaboratives (QC): Assessing and Reporting Degree Qualifications Profile Competencies in the Context of Transfer in 2011 as a three-year project that engaged educational, assessment, and policy leaders in student learning outcomes assessment and transfer pathways.…
Stainsby, Kate; Bannigan, Katrina
Physiotherapy became a graduate profession in the 1990s marking a shift from "training" to "education". This means students are required to develop as reflective, innovative and autonomous practitioners. Traditional work-based learning has remained a key component in the curricula of physiotherapy programmes in higher…
Smith, Janice Witt; Stitts, D. Kathy
As the reported institution increased admission requirements, added master's and doctoral programs, and revised its strategic thrust, greater emphasis was placed on assessing student learning outcomes and whether the "treatment" of education has had a measurable impact. Consistent with Smith and Clark (2010), we implemented an action…
Tabor, Sharon W.; Minch, Robert P.
Digital technologies offer many opportunities for creating engaging course content. In this study we captured student perceptions and adoption choices related to creating and using digital media as learning tools. Podcasts, video and other media were integrated in a variety of contexts and tasks in two undergraduate information technology (IT)…
Chen, Jie; Tardif, Twila; Pulverman, Rachel; Casasola, Marianella; Zhu, Liqi; Zheng, Xiaobei; Meng, Xiangzhi
The present studies examined the role of linguistic experience in directing English and Mandarin learners' attention to aspects of a visual scene. Specifically, they asked whether young language learners in these 2 cultures attend to differential aspects of a word-learning situation. Two groups of English and Mandarin learners, 6-8-month-olds (n =…
Friend, Jennifer; Militello, Matthew
This article analyzes specific uses of digital video production in the field of educational leadership preparation, advancing a three-part framework that includes the use of video in (a) teaching and learning, (b) research methods, and (c) program evaluation and service to the profession. The first category within the framework examines videos…
Active Learner: A Foxfire Journal for Teachers, 2000
Students in a combined grade 3-4 in a charter school in Asheville, North Carolina, chose the topics and ways to demonstrate their learning to fulfill history curriculum requirements. Their choices of local historical architecture and traditional quilt-making spiraled out to include photography, historical fiction, and quilted pillows, which were…
Warner, Alan; Eames, Chris; Irving, Robyn
Environmental experiences often engage learners and create an intention to act, which is then not followed through once the learner is removed from the environment. This study utilized an exploratory, interpretive framework with younger primary school classes to investigate if transfer of learning from field trip experiences "in" and…
Cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), founded on the seminal work of Vygotsky and evolving in the subsequent work of Leont'ev and Engestrom, continues to emerge as a robust and increasingly widely used conceptual framework for the research and analysis of the complex social mediation of human learning and development. Yet there remains…
Atwong, Catherine T.
To prepare students for the rapidly evolving field of digital marketing, which requires more and more technical skills every year, a social media practicum creates a learning environment in which students can apply marketing principles and become ready for collaborative work in social media marketing and analytics. Using student newspapers as…
Reich, Christine A.
This study examined organizational change in science museums toward practices that are inclusive of people with disabilities. Guided by two overarching frameworks, organizational learning and the social model of disability, this study sought to answer the following: What are the contexts and processes that facilitate, sustain, or impede a science…
Green, D. Wayne
This essay describes benefits of the Learning Paradigm and discusses policy governance as an example of this paradigm. In education, the current dominant paradigm is known as the "Instruction Paradigm." According to this paradigm, instructors should serve to transfer information and offer some practice using this information in such a…
Zheng, Dongping; Bischoff, Michael; Gilliland, Betsy
Drawing on ecological and dialogical perspectives on language and cognition, this exploratory case study examines how vocabulary learning occurs during a quest-play mediated in English between a Japanese undergraduate student and a native speaker of English. Understanding embodiment as coaction between the player-avatar and player-player relations…
This case study, one of a series of publications exploring effective and inclusive models of work-based learning, finds that entry-level occupations in manufacturing have historically been considered unskilled jobs for which little or no training is necessary. As a consequence, employers have experienced high turnover among new-hires, and…
Improving principal leadership is a vital component to the success of educational reform initiatives that seek to improve whole-school performance, as principal leadership often exercises positive but indirect effects on student learning. Because of the importance of principals within the field of school improvement, this article focuses on…
Fischer, Kenneth Brian
The purpose of this study is to examine how a school-based leadership team identifies and alters school conditions to foster the development of TLCs. Many educators, school leaders, and politicians have embraced teacher learning communities (TLCs) as a vehicle for school reform. Despite the considerable documentation of the capability for TLCs to…
Pereira, Alfredo; Smith, Linda; Yu, Chen
We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants' body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M=18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner's hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child's learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed.
Pereira, Alfredo F.; Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen
We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants’ body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M = 18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner’s hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child’s learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed. PMID:20953274
This student guide is intended to assist persons employed as supervisors in learning the principles of industrial relations. Discussed in the first eight sections are the following topics: the nature and scope of industrial relations, management organizations and employers' associations, unions, the rights and roles of union representatives, the…
Curtis, Rachel E.; City, Elizabeth A.
How can we systemically improve the quality of classroom instruction and the learning and achievement of students? In an era when isolated examples of excellence are not good enough, we need systems that support improvement and excellence for all. This book describes how systems can effectively engage in this complex, challenging, and crucial…
Anderson, Andrea; Steffen, Beth; Wiese, Chad; King, M. Bruce
While teachers face new expectations for student learning and more equitable educational outcomes, instruction and assessment remain rooted in traditional approaches that are largely inequitable, culturally irrelevant, and intellectually disengaging, contributing to gaps in academic achievement across student groups (Darling-Hammond, 2010; King…
Association of American Colleges and Universities (NJ1), 2012
This report from the National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement calls on the nation to reclaim higher education's civic mission. Commissioned by the Department of Education and released at a White House convening in January 2012, the report pushes back against a prevailing national dialogue that limits the mission of higher…
Wells, Gordon, Ed.
This book presents a collection of essays on building collaborative communities in which democratic principles of education may be recognized, focusing on learning and teaching through inquiry. After (1) "The Development of a Community of Inquirers" (Gordon Wells), there are three parts. Part 1, "Inquiries in the Elementary…
Michels, Birgit; Chen, Yi-chun; Saumweber, Timo; Mishra, Dushyant; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Schmid, Benjamin; Engmann, Olivia; Gerber, Bertram
Synapsin is an evolutionarily conserved, presynaptic vesicular phosphoprotein. Here, we ask where and how synapsin functions in associative behavioral plasticity. Upon loss or reduction of synapsin in a deletion mutant or via RNAi, respectively, "Drosophila" larvae are impaired in odor-sugar associative learning. Acute global expression of…
This adult education curriculum, part of the Aprender Es Poder (To Learn Is Power) program, explores the themes of school success for Latino children, expands the work options and improves the working conditions of Latino adults, and identifies community issues. It is meant to be a resource for English as a Second Language Literacy and adult basic…
How do districts know if the resources they have allocated to support professional learning in their school district are actually improving the quality of teaching and impacting student performance? In an increasingly challenging financial environment, this is important to know. In this article, a Chicago-area district facing a budget deficit…
Due to demographic shifts suburban schools are having difficulty meeting the needs of students of immigrant, poor and working class families. Schools are forced with the difficult task of closing learning gaps with students who may have difficult circumstances. Literature indicates fostering a healthy home/school connection by conducting…
Avouris, N.; Fiotakis, G.; Kahrimanis, G.; Margaritis, M.; Komis, V.
In this article, we discuss key requirements for collecting behavioural data concerning technology-supported collaborative learning activities. It is argued that the common practice of analysis of computer generated log files of user interactions with software tools is not enough for building a thorough view of the activity. Instead, more…
Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.; Swick, Kevin J., Ed.
This book presents papers by teacher educators who describe how they foster the integration of service learning into their teacher education programs, with the eventual goal of institutionalization. The papers are: "Introduction" (Marty Duckenfield and Kevin J. Swick); "An Experiment in Implementation" (Bill Yost); "Pathways to Partnership:…
Ornostay, Anna; Cowie, Andrew M; Hindle, Matthew; Baker, Christopher J O; Martyniuk, Christopher J
The herbicide linuron (LIN) is an endocrine disruptor with an anti-androgenic mode of action. The objectives of this study were to (1) improve knowledge of androgen and anti-androgen signaling in the teleostean ovary and to (2) assess the ability of gene networks and machine learning to classify LIN as an anti-androgen using transcriptomic data. Ovarian explants from vitellogenic fathead minnows (FHMs) were exposed to three concentrations of either 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), flutamide (FLUT), or LIN for 12h. Ovaries exposed to DHT showed a significant increase in 17β-estradiol (E2) production while FLUT and LIN had no effect on E2. To improve understanding of androgen receptor signaling in the ovary, a reciprocal gene expression network was constructed for DHT and FLUT using pathway analysis and these data suggested that steroid metabolism, translation, and DNA replication are processes regulated through AR signaling in the ovary. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that FLUT and LIN shared more regulated gene networks in common compared to DHT. Using transcriptomic datasets from different fish species, machine learning algorithms classified LIN successfully with other anti-androgens. This study advances knowledge regarding molecular signaling cascades in the ovary that are responsive to androgens and anti-androgens and provides proof of concept that gene network analysis and machine learning can classify priority chemicals using experimental transcriptomic data collected from different fish species.
Cos, Ignasi; Khamassi, Mehdi; Girard, Benoît
Recent experiments showed that the bio-mechanical ease and end-point stability associated to reaching movements are predicted prior to movement onset, and that these factors exert a significant influence on the choice of movement. As an extension of these results, here we investigate whether the knowledge about biomechanical costs and their influence on decision-making are the result of an adaptation process taking place during each experimental session or whether this knowledge was learned at an earlier stage of development. Specifically, we analysed both the pattern of decision-making and its fluctuations during each session, of several human subjects making free choices between two reaching movements that varied in path distance (target relative distance), biomechanical cost, aiming accuracy and stopping requirement. Our main result shows that the effect of biomechanics is well established at the start of the session, and that, consequently, the learning of biomechanical costs in decision-making occurred at an earlier stage of development. As a means to characterise the dynamics of this learning process, we also developed a model-based reinforcement learning model, which generates a possible account of how biomechanics may be incorporated into the motor plan to select between reaching movements. Results obtained in simulation showed that, after some pre-training corresponding to a motor babbling phase, the model can reproduce the subjects' overall movement preferences. Although preliminary, this supports that the knowledge about biomechanical costs may have been learned in this manner, and supports the hypothesis that the fluctuations observed in the subjects' behaviour may adapt in a similar fashion.