Science.gov

Sample records for action learning model

  1. Developing an Action Learning Design Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bong, Hyeon-Cheol; Cho, Yonjoo; Kim, Hyung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    As the number of organizations implementing action learning increases, both successful and failed cases also increase in action learning practice in South Korea. Existing studies on action learning have listed key success factors of action learning at the program level or at the team level but have not paid sufficient attention to the program…

  2. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  3. Model-based hierarchical reinforcement learning and human action control

    PubMed Central

    Botvinick, Matthew; Weinstein, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has reawakened interest in goal-directed or ‘model-based’ choice, where decisions are based on prospective evaluation of potential action outcomes. Concurrently, there has been growing attention to the role of hierarchy in decision-making and action control. We focus here on the intersection between these two areas of interest, considering the topic of hierarchical model-based control. To characterize this form of action control, we draw on the computational framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning, using this to interpret recent empirical findings. The resulting picture reveals how hierarchical model-based mechanisms might play a special and pivotal role in human decision-making, dramatically extending the scope and complexity of human behaviour. PMID:25267822

  4. Models, Definitions, and Outcome Variables of Action Learning: A Synthesis with Implications for HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenhall, Everon C.; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated model of action learning based on an examination of four reviewed action learning models, definitions, and espoused outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: A clear articulation of the strengths and limitations of each model was essential to developing an integrated model, which could be…

  5. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and Action Research in Context" (Cliff…

  6. Learning to take actions

    SciTech Connect

    Khardon, R.

    1996-12-31

    We formalize a model for supervised learning of action strategies in dynamic stochastic domains, and show that pac-learning results on Occam algorithms hold in this model as well. We then identify a particularly useful bias for action strategies based on production rule systems. We show that a subset of production rule systems, including rules in predicate calculus style, small hidden state, and unobserved support predicates, is properly learnable. The bias we introduce enables the learning algorithm to invent the recursive support predicates which are used in the action strategy, and to reconstruct the internal state of the strategy. It is also shown that hierarchical strategies are learnable if a helpful teacher is available, but that otherwise the problem is computationally hard.

  7. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  8. Action Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  9. Community-Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sarah; Mattern, Mark; Telin, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes an undergraduate course entitled Public Interest Research in which students learn research methods by conducting research on behalf of one or more community organizations. Students' work is conceived of as community action learning, a combination of participatory action research and service learning, emphasizing…

  10. Action Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and transfer…

  11. Join Us in a Participatory Approach to Training, Learning & Production. A Practical Guide to the Action Training Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frings, A.; And Others

    This handbook is intended to help trainers and development workers plan and conduct training programs based on the Action Training Model (ATM). The ATM combines training with action and learning with production by building upon participants' knowledge and learning needs and involving participants in a process of active learning and cooperative…

  12. Oculomotor learning revisited: a model of reinforcement learning in the basal ganglia incorporating an efference copy of motor actions

    PubMed Central

    Fee, Michale S.

    2012-01-01

    In its simplest formulation, reinforcement learning is based on the idea that if an action taken in a particular context is followed by a favorable outcome, then, in the same context, the tendency to produce that action should be strengthened, or reinforced. While reinforcement learning forms the basis of many current theories of basal ganglia (BG) function, these models do not incorporate distinct computational roles for signals that convey context, and those that convey what action an animal takes. Recent experiments in the songbird suggest that vocal-related BG circuitry receives two functionally distinct excitatory inputs. One input is from a cortical region that carries context information about the current “time” in the motor sequence. The other is an efference copy of motor commands from a separate cortical brain region that generates vocal variability during learning. Based on these findings, I propose here a general model of vertebrate BG function that combines context information with a distinct motor efference copy signal. The signals are integrated by a learning rule in which efference copy inputs gate the potentiation of context inputs (but not efference copy inputs) onto medium spiny neurons in response to a rewarded action. The hypothesis is described in terms of a circuit that implements the learning of visually guided saccades. The model makes testable predictions about the anatomical and functional properties of hypothesized context and efference copy inputs to the striatum from both thalamic and cortical sources. PMID:22754501

  13. Action Learning as Invigoration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Terence S.

    2011-01-01

    The present account of action learning describes its adoption for pragmatic reasons by the University of the Third Age (U3A). The reason for the existence of this movement is the education of retired people. The account seeks to explain why the action learning method spread from one local U3A to another and across it to other local U3As. The case…

  14. What Has Action Learning Learned to Become?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedler, Mike; Burgoyne, John; Brook, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    This inquiry originates in a conversation between the first two authors which concluded with the challenge that a Revans Institute for Action Learning & Research should not only be doing research "by" action learning and but should also be researching "into" action learning itself. Action learning has been a recognised innovation in management…

  15. Following the Action in Action Learning: Towards Ethnomethodological Studies of (Critical) Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Action learning is a pedagogical practice that helps participants learn by talking about their workplace action with fellow participants ("comrades in adversity") in their action learning set. This paper raises questions about the action in action learning, such as: how do members of an action learning set learn from and through each other? How do…

  16. Improving Learning and Teaching through Action Learning and Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber-Skeriit, Ortrun

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical framework for action learning and action research is presented, as a basis for better understanding college instruction and learning. Action research is viewed as a philosophy, theory of learning, research methodology, and teaching technique. It is argued that action research both increases knowledge and improves teaching.…

  17. The Concept of Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun

    2002-01-01

    Based on classic and emerging international literature, action learning is defined as learning form concrete experience and critical reflection on experience, focused on problem solving and change. Facilitators of action learning do not impose solutions but guide action learning teams through the process. (Contains 44 references.) (SK)

  18. Developmental Action Learning: Toward Collaborative Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raelin, Joseph A.; Raelin, Jonathan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this account of practice, the authors introduce a variant of classic action learning, called developmental action learning (DAL). The DAL model, derived from cognitive development theory, introduces conventional learning modules prior to the more intensive set experience. It also calls for facilitation designed to help participants, selected…

  19. A Reinforcement Learning Model with Function of Generating Macro-Actions in Grid-World Maze Problems and a Study on its Learning Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Seiichi

    A macro-action is a typical series of useful actions that brings high expected rewards to an agent. Murata et al. have proposed an Actor-Critic model which can generate macro-actions automatically based on the information on state values and visiting frequency of states. However, their model has not assumed that generated macro-actions are utilized for leaning different tasks. In this paper, we extend the Murata's model such that generated macro-actions can help an agent learn an optimal policy quickly in multi-task Grid-World (MTGW) maze problems. The proposed model is applied to two MTGW problems, each of which consists of six different maze tasks. From the experimental results, it is concluded that the proposed model could speed up learning if macro-actions are generated in the so-called correlated regions.

  20. Spatial Learning and Action Planning in a Prefrontal Cortical Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Martinet, Louis-Emmanuel; Sheynikhovich, Denis; Benchenane, Karim; Arleo, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    The interplay between hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) is fundamental to spatial cognition. Complementing hippocampal place coding, prefrontal representations provide more abstract and hierarchically organized memories suitable for decision making. We model a prefrontal network mediating distributed information processing for spatial learning and action planning. Specific connectivity and synaptic adaptation principles shape the recurrent dynamics of the network arranged in cortical minicolumns. We show how the PFC columnar organization is suitable for learning sparse topological-metrical representations from redundant hippocampal inputs. The recurrent nature of the network supports multilevel spatial processing, allowing structural features of the environment to be encoded. An activation diffusion mechanism spreads the neural activity through the column population leading to trajectory planning. The model provides a functional framework for interpreting the activity of PFC neurons recorded during navigation tasks. We illustrate the link from single unit activity to behavioral responses. The results suggest plausible neural mechanisms subserving the cognitive “insight” capability originally attributed to rodents by Tolman & Honzik. Our time course analysis of neural responses shows how the interaction between hippocampus and PFC can yield the encoding of manifold information pertinent to spatial planning, including prospective coding and distance-to-goal correlates. PMID:21625569

  1. Collaborative action learning: a professional development model for educational innovation in nursing.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Annette; Spratt, Christine; Reilly, Amanda

    2008-05-01

    The paper describes the processes and outcomes of a major curriculum innovation which was conducted by a collaborative multi-disciplinary team (nurse academics, educational developers and software developers). The paper argues that collaborative professional development in pedagogical innovation in nursing can be successfully supported by action learning as a framework for practice. In presenting this argument the paper draws on the experience of the School of Nursing and Midwifery (SNM) at the University of Tasmania in integrating high-fidelity simulation-based learning into an existing undergraduate case-based learning curriculum in the three year Bachelor of Nursing (BN). PMID:17716945

  2. Its All Action, Its All Learning: Action Learning in SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jean; Thorpe, Richard; Anderson, Lisa; Gold, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that action learning (AL) may provide a means of successfully developing small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: The literature around SME learning suggests a number of processes are important for SME learning which similarity, it is argued, are encompassed in AL. AL may…

  3. Action Learning in the BBC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Eversley; Keevill, Joan

    2008-01-01

    This account tells the story of the development of an action learning culture in the BBC between 2002 and 2007. From its early beginnings as a sporadic, unsystematic intervention with a small number of leaders scattered throughout the organisation, action learning has now become embedded in our approach to the way we develop our leaders. In this…

  4. Learning to Internalize Action Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Teresa Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore how participants of a communications workshop, "Action Dialogue," perceived their ability to engage in dialogue was improved and enhanced. The study was based on the following assumptions: (1) dialogue skills can be learned and people are able to learn these skills; (2) context and emotion influence…

  5. Team Challenge and Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how action learning can be accompanied by a project to encourage shared learning about organisation culture, the external environment, political context and team dynamics, while allowing space for personal issues. It drives forward reflective practice and encourages sets to deliver a tangible pay-back to the organisation.…

  6. Action Learning Enabled Strategy Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, John

    2008-01-01

    Action learning encourages individual reflection, insightful questioning and assumption breaking that result in changes in attitude and behaviour. This learning process provides the potential to explore and solve complex organizational problems such as the question of how to develop a future business strategy. Existing literature on the process of…

  7. Action Learning from a Participant's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, N. J.

    2006-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to give an account of action learning in practice. It demonstrates the potential strengths and weaknesses of action learning. The information given is derived from five years in an action learning set. Significant events from within and without the action learning set will be explored using the themes clarifying;…

  8. Modelling the learning of biomechanics and visual planning for decision-making of motor actions.

    PubMed

    Cos, Ignasi; Khamassi, Mehdi; Girard, Benoît

    2013-11-01

    Recent experiments showed that the bio-mechanical ease and end-point stability associated to reaching movements are predicted prior to movement onset, and that these factors exert a significant influence on the choice of movement. As an extension of these results, here we investigate whether the knowledge about biomechanical costs and their influence on decision-making are the result of an adaptation process taking place during each experimental session or whether this knowledge was learned at an earlier stage of development. Specifically, we analysed both the pattern of decision-making and its fluctuations during each session, of several human subjects making free choices between two reaching movements that varied in path distance (target relative distance), biomechanical cost, aiming accuracy and stopping requirement. Our main result shows that the effect of biomechanics is well established at the start of the session, and that, consequently, the learning of biomechanical costs in decision-making occurred at an earlier stage of development. As a means to characterise the dynamics of this learning process, we also developed a model-based reinforcement learning model, which generates a possible account of how biomechanics may be incorporated into the motor plan to select between reaching movements. Results obtained in simulation showed that, after some pre-training corresponding to a motor babbling phase, the model can reproduce the subjects' overall movement preferences. Although preliminary, this supports that the knowledge about biomechanical costs may have been learned in this manner, and supports the hypothesis that the fluctuations observed in the subjects' behaviour may adapt in a similar fashion. PMID:23973913

  9. Using Action Learning to Consolidate Coaching Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Clare; Powell, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to answer the questions: (1) How can action learning aid in strategic change?; (2) What are the benefits of using action learning as part of a broader learning intervention?; (3) What are the issues to consider when introducing action learning into a corporate environment?; and (4) How can you engage people in reflection as a…

  10. Action Learning through Indigenous Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beveridge, Lorraine; McLeod, Julie Hinde

    2009-01-01

    The action learning project described tells about one primary school's journey in addressing issues of social justice and equity in relation to Aboriginal education in Australia. The setting was a new regional primary school in New South Wales, Australia. The school needed to get Aboriginal Education on the agenda, in line with the mandatory…

  11. The Alchemy of Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Penny; Choueke, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the authors' experiences as action learning set facilitators within a public sector organisation undergoing change. Our objectives were to assist in the identification of internal and external drivers for change and to work with the set to explore how people's roles and responsibilities might be enhanced and developed in a…

  12. Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

    1996-01-01

    Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

  13. Developing Self-Managed Action Learning (SMAL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourner, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an account of self-managed action learning (SMAL), where it came from and how it has been implemented in practice. Self-managed action learning offers a way of realising action learning without the continuing presence of a set advisor in set meetings to facilitate the process. It enables participants to manage and facilitate…

  14. Using Action Learning for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses using action learning with different professional groups in the UK--nurses and educators. It addresses the question: To what extent is action learning an effective approach in relation to professional development, and, if so, in what way/s? The formulation and developmental processes of action learning sets are examined. The…

  15. Using Evidence: How Action Learning Can Support Individual and Organisational Learning through Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Belinda; Sharp, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the use of action learning as a structured and deliberate learning process to support practitioners to implement change in an action research project. It discusses both action learning and action research before describing the context of the study. The article then goes on to discuss how the process of action learning…

  16. Preparing Scholars of Teaching and Learning Using a Model of Collaborative Peer Consulting and Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Margaret; Weber, Janet; Pracht, Carl; Conway, Kathleen; Kunz, David; Evans, Beverly; Hoffman, Steven; Smentkowski, Brian; Starrett, David

    2010-01-01

    The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) Fellows Program at Southeast Missouri State University supports an annual cohort of 10 faculty Fellows to evaluate, through individual research projects, the effect of teaching on student learning of two or more of the university's General Education objectives. Designed around practical action…

  17. Improving Pedagogy through Action Learning and Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This ASA Teaching Workshop explored the potential of Action Learning to use teachers' tacit knowledge to collaboratively confront pedagogical issues. The Action Learning model grows out of industrial management and is based on the notion that peers are a valuable resource for learning about how to solve the problems encountered in the workplace.…

  18. The Ongoing Development of an Effective Model of Action Learning for Use by the Busy GP Veterinary Surgeon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuttleworth, Sue

    2005-01-01

    I passionately believe that reflective practice is an essential competency for the busy GP veterinary surgeon to develop throughout their career. Action learning sets would appear to offer a way of promoting this while at the same time helping the GP veterinary surgeon find a way forward with professional issues. In this article I reflect on my…

  19. Learning about Learning: Action Learning in Times of Organisational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the conduct and outcomes of an action learning activity during a period of intense organisational change in a medium-sized vocational education and training organisation in Victoria, Australia. This organisation was the subject of significant change due to government-driven and statewide amalgamation, downsizing and sector…

  20. Action Learning: A Strategy for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silins, Halia

    The National Staff Development Committee of the Vocational Education and Training Sector in Australia is promoting action learning as a preferred professional development strategy to support the implementation of key competencies. Action learning was piloted across five training areas within the Department of Employment, Training, and Further…

  1. The Challenge of Evaluating Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonstone, John

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the benefits claimed for action learning at individual, organisational and inter-organisational levels. It goes on to identify both generic difficulties in evaluating development programmes and action learning specifically. The distinction between formative and summative evaluation is considered and a summative evaluation…

  2. Action Learning: A Strategy for Empowering Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsick, Victoria J.

    Action learning is a potentially empowering management development strategy--empowering to managers and through them to employees. The core of the action learning process is similar to the empowerment process identified by Freire (1973), although the context of these approaches is very different: praxis. Praxis involves critical reflection on…

  3. Virtual Action Learning: Practices and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickenson, Mollie; Burgoyne, John; Pedler, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports findings from research that set out to explore virtual action learning (VAL) as an emerging variety of action learning (AL). In bringing together geographically dispersed individuals within and across organizations, and possibly across time, VAL has obvious potential in both educational and commercial contexts. Whilst there is…

  4. Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crul, Liselore

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…

  5. From Movements to Actions: Two Mechanisms for Learning Action Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Wood, Justin N.

    2011-01-01

    When other individuals move, we interpret their movements as discrete, hierarchically-organized, goal-directed actions. However, the mechanisms that integrate visible movement features into actions are poorly understood. Here, we consider two sequence learning mechanisms--transitional probability-based (TP) and position-based encoding…

  6. Action Learning in ActionAid Nepal: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Patricia; Rai, Deep Ranjani

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an example of how action learning was used as a framework for an organisational intervention to fundamentally change the organisational culture over a period of time. It also identifies our learning over that period of time and what worked well (and not so well) in an International Non-Governmental Organisation in Nepal.

  7. Action Learning: What, How, Why--What Next? Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Richard S.

    This paper defines and explains action learning and suggests some ideas and resources for putting action learning into practice. The paper is organized in eight sections of about one page each. The sections cover the following topics: (1) what action learning is; (2) how action learning works; (3) action learning and training--key differences; (4)…

  8. Action Learning Drives the Emerald Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalborczyk, Sarah; Sandelands, Luke

    2012-01-01

    This account examines the action learning process adopted by Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., embedded in the organization through the in-company Emerald Academy. In case study format, the paper emphasizes that in order to align learning with organizational objectives joined up thinking and practice is needed beyond the learning and development…

  9. Switching Reinforcement Learning for Continuous Action Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayoshi, Masato; Murao, Hajime; Tamaki, Hisashi

    Reinforcement Learning (RL) attracts much attention as a technique of realizing computational intelligence such as adaptive and autonomous decentralized systems. In general, however, it is not easy to put RL into practical use. This difficulty includes a problem of designing a suitable action space of an agent, i.e., satisfying two requirements in trade-off: (i) to keep the characteristics (or structure) of an original search space as much as possible in order to seek strategies that lie close to the optimal, and (ii) to reduce the search space as much as possible in order to expedite the learning process. In order to design a suitable action space adaptively, we propose switching RL model to mimic a process of an infant's motor development in which gross motor skills develop before fine motor skills. Then, a method for switching controllers is constructed by introducing and referring to the “entropy”. Further, through computational experiments by using robot navigation problems with one and two-dimensional continuous action space, the validity of the proposed method has been confirmed.

  10. Human action recognition using integrated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yang; Lin, Yikun

    2013-07-01

    A novel action recognition framework based on integrated model is proposed in the paper. First, the covariance descriptor is utilized to extract features from video sequences, and then each class specific codebook is constructed and appended to the global codebook. A static model applying the template matching technique and a dynamic model employing the trigram model are learned to capture complementary information in an action. And lastly, an integrated model is used to estimate the confidence of the static and dynamic models and produces a reliable result. Comparative experiments show that our presented method achieves superior results over other state-of-the-art approaches. Keywords: human action recognition, covariance descriptor, integrated model

  11. To Act and Learn: A Bakhtinian Exploration of Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Jeff; Anderson, Lisa; Clarke, Jean; Thorpe, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the work of the Russian social philosopher and cultural theorist, Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin as a source of understanding for those involved in action learning. Drawing upon data gathered over two years during the evaluation of 20 action learning sets in the north of England, we will seek to work with the ideas of Bakhtin to…

  12. Activation of neurotensin receptor 1 facilitates neuronal excitability and spatial learning and memory in the entorhinal cortex: beneficial actions in an Alzheimer's disease model.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhaoyang; Cilz, Nicholas I; Kurada, Lalitha; Hu, Binqi; Yang, Chuanxiu; Wada, Etsuko; Combs, Colin K; Porter, James E; Lesage, Florian; Lei, Saobo

    2014-05-14

    Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide distributed in the CNS, including the entorhinal cortex (EC), a structure that is crucial for learning and memory and undergoes the earliest pathological alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whereas NT has been implicated in modulating cognition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which NT modifies cognitive processes and the potential therapeutic roles of NT in AD have not been determined. Here we examined the effects of NT on neuronal excitability and spatial learning in the EC, which expresses high density of NT receptors. Brief application of NT induced persistent increases in action potential firing frequency, which could last for at least 1 h. NT-induced facilitation of neuronal excitability was mediated by downregulation of TREK-2 K(+) channels and required the functions of NTS1, phospholipase C, and protein kinase C. Microinjection of NT or NTS1 agonist, PD149163, into the EC increased spatial learning as assessed by the Barnes Maze Test. Activation of NTS1 receptors also induced persistent increases in action potential firing frequency and significantly improved the memory status in APP/PS1 mice, an animal model of AD. Our study identifies a cellular substrate underlying learning and memory and suggests that NTS1 agonists may exert beneficial actions in an animal model of AD. PMID:24828655

  13. Activation of Neurotensin Receptor 1 Facilitates Neuronal Excitability and Spatial Learning and Memory in the Entorhinal Cortex: Beneficial Actions in an Alzheimer's Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhaoyang; Cilz, Nicholas I.; Kurada, Lalitha; Hu, Binqi; Yang, Chuanxiu; Wada, Etsuko; Combs, Colin K.; Porter, James E.; Lesage, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide distributed in the CNS, including the entorhinal cortex (EC), a structure that is crucial for learning and memory and undergoes the earliest pathological alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whereas NT has been implicated in modulating cognition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which NT modifies cognitive processes and the potential therapeutic roles of NT in AD have not been determined. Here we examined the effects of NT on neuronal excitability and spatial learning in the EC, which expresses high density of NT receptors. Brief application of NT induced persistent increases in action potential firing frequency, which could last for at least 1 h. NT-induced facilitation of neuronal excitability was mediated by downregulation of TREK-2 K+ channels and required the functions of NTS1, phospholipase C, and protein kinase C. Microinjection of NT or NTS1 agonist, PD149163, into the EC increased spatial learning as assessed by the Barnes Maze Test. Activation of NTS1 receptors also induced persistent increases in action potential firing frequency and significantly improved the memory status in APP/PS1 mice, an animal model of AD. Our study identifies a cellular substrate underlying learning and memory and suggests that NTS1 agonists may exert beneficial actions in an animal model of AD. PMID:24828655

  14. Action Learning Research? Reflections from the Colloquium at the Third International Conference on Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghlan, David

    2013-01-01

    The case for the notion of action learning research has been posed and explored in several publications over the past few years. There is no tradition within action learning of understanding it as an approach to research. Within some academic circles, there has been a focus on the "action turn," the development of the notion of actionable…

  15. Reflections on Working with Virtual Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedler, Mike; Hauser, Bernhard; Caulat, Ghislaine

    2014-01-01

    This paper brings together the reflections of the authors on their shared and individual experiences of virtual action learning. Whilst many conclusions are shared, there are also some points of difference in practices.

  16. Service Learning: An Action Oriented Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, George

    2013-01-01

    Service learning is an academic discipline that provides students with "hands-on" opportunities for developing skills in real-world, community-based projects that serve and benefit community members. This dissertation reflects an action-oriented process for improving the quality of the Service Learning Program at City University of…

  17. Learning Computer Science: Perceptions, Actions and Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Anders; Eckerdal, Anna; Pears, Arnold; East, Philip; Kinnunen, Paivi; Malmi, Lauri; McCartney, Robert; Mostrom, Jan-Erik; Murphy, Laurie; Ratcliffe, Mark; Schulte, Carsten; Simon, Beth; Stamouli, Ioanna; Thomas, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenographic study opens the classroom door to investigate teachers' experiences of students learning difficult computing topics. Three distinct themes are identified and analysed. "Why" do students succeed or fail to learn these concepts? "What" actions do teachers perceive will ameliorate the difficulties facing students? "Who" is…

  18. Systems Thinking, Lean Production and Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, John; Caulkin, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Systems thinking underpins "lean" management and is best understood through action-learning as the ideas are counter-intuitive. The Toyota Production System is just that--a system; the failure to appreciate that starting-place and the advocacy of "tools" leads many to fail to grasp what is, without doubt, a significant opportunity for learning and…

  19. New Perspectives on Action Learning: Developing Criticality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lisa; Thorpe, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the role of criticality in action learning and in Master's level management education; examines approaches to developing criticality through social constructionist approaches to learning and illustrates how a heightened consciousness of language use by managers can be used to develop critical reflection. Examines critical…

  20. Action Learning as Legitimate Peripheral Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Aileen

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how students made sense of the learning that occurred within a Masters educational programme (an MA in Human Resource Development), a programme informed by the ideals of critical action learning and critically reflective practice. Theoretically the paper develops links between communities of practice theory and critical action…

  1. Notes toward a Philosophy of Action Learning Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghlan, David; Coughlan, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The philosophical foundations of action learning research have not received a great deal of attention. In the context of action learning postgraduate and professional programmes in universities, articulation of a philosophy of action learning research seems timely and appropriate. This article explores a philosophy of action learning research,…

  2. How Can Action Learning Contribute to Social Capital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedler, Mike; Attwood, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the contribution that action learning can make to the formation of social capital via experiences of action learning projects in NHS Pathology Services in the UK. The paper describes the development of action learning practice in recent years, reviews the notion of social capital and considers how action learning might…

  3. From Aspiration to Action: A Learning Intentions Model to Promote Critical Engagement with Science in the Print-Based Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClune, Billy; Jarman, Ruth

    2011-11-01

    Science programmes which prepare students to read critically and respond thoughtfully to science-based reports in the media could play an important role in promoting informed participation in the public debate about issues relating to science, technology and society. Evidence based guidance about the practice and pattern of use of science-based media in the classroom is limited. This study sought to identify learning intentions that teachers believe ought to underpin the development of programmes of study designed to achieve this end-result. Teachers' views of knowledge, skills and attitudes required to engage critically with science-based news served as a basis for this study. Teachers developed a pedagogical model by selecting appropriate statements of learning intentions, grouping these into coherent and manageable themes and coding them according to perceived level of difficulty. The model is largely compatible with current curricular provision in the UK, highlights opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration and illustrates the developmental nature of the topic.

  4. Working as a Learning Coach Team in Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Judy A.; Lamm, Sharon L.

    2000-01-01

    A team of learning coaches facilitated an action learning group in a public utility. The coaches' diversity raised interpersonal issues but added a wealth of perspectives and experience. Important components were team formation, a balance of program and individual needs, and group diversity. (SK)

  5. Action Learning: How Learning Transfers from Entrepreneurs to Small Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karen; Sambrook, Sally A.; Pittaway, Luke; Henley, Andrew; Norbury, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents research with small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) owners who have participated in a leadership development programme. The primary focus of this paper is on learning transfer and factors affecting it, arguing that entrepreneurs must engage in "action" in order to "learn" and that under certain conditions…

  6. Jointly Learning Multiple Sequential Dynamics for Human Action Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, An-An; Su, Yu-Ting; Nie, Wei-Zhi; Yang, Zhao-Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Discovering visual dynamics during human actions is a challenging task for human action recognition. To deal with this problem, we theoretically propose the multi-task conditional random fields model and explore its application on human action recognition. For visual representation, we propose the part-induced spatiotemporal action unit sequence to represent each action sample with multiple partwise sequential feature subspaces. For model learning, we propose the multi-task conditional random fields (MTCRFs) model to discover the sequence-specific structure and the sequence-shared relationship. Specifically, the multi-chain graph structure and the corresponding probabilistic model are designed to represent the interaction among multiple part-induced action unit sequences. Moreover we propose the model learning and inference methods to discover temporal context within individual action unit sequence and the latent correlation among different body parts. Extensive experiments are implemented to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method on two popular RGB human action datasets, KTH & TJU, and the depth dataset in MSR Daily Activity 3D. PMID:26147979

  7. Developing Citizen Leaders through Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This is an account of a programmer utilizing the application of action learning to the development of capacities of citizens. The Citizen Leadership for Democratic Governance is designed to equip citizens with the skills to get involved and handle the difficult tasks of governance in their communities in South Africa. After a history of apartheid…

  8. Unlearning, Critical Action Learning and Wicked Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedler, Mike; Hsu, Shih-wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of unlearning in Critical Action Learning (CAL) as applied to the wicked problems of organisations and societies. It draws on data and ideas developed during a research project conducted for "Skills for Care" by Pedler, Abbott, Brook and Burgoyne ("Skills for Care" 2014) and from experiences on…

  9. Differences and Impacts through Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozubska, Joanna; MacKenzie, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Here, we argue that action learning (AL) has been evolving into different variations, whose respective advocates appear to concentrate on one of the several components inherent in Revans' formulation of AL as L = P + Q. They do this--sometimes inappropriately--to the virtual or relative exclusion of other aspects, and this has consequences for the…

  10. LEAD at Lunch: Inquiry, Learning, and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This account of practice discusses the author's experience in facilitating a small group of managers in health care over lunchtime utilizing an action learning approach. This was part of a larger leadership development initiative which took place in the organization and the intention was to create a more intimate, informal and safe setting whereby…

  11. Action Learning over Time: An Ipsative Enquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourner, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore several decades of experience of action learning and to distil lessons from that experience that are worth sharing with other practitioners. The method is to systematically collect the experiential data within three categories (sense-based, affective and cognitive data), interrogate them to draw out lessons…

  12. Collaborative action research: implementation of cooperative learning.

    PubMed

    Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Molle, Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Nurse educators must continually improve their teaching skills through innovation. However, research about the process used by faculty members to transform their teaching methods is limited. This collaborative study uses classroom action research to describe, analyze, and address problems encountered in implementing cooperative learning in two undergraduate nursing courses. After four rounds of action and reflection, the following themes emerged: students did not understand the need for structured cooperative learning; classroom structure and seating arrangement influenced the effectiveness of activities; highly structured activities engaged the students; and short, targeted activities that involved novel content were most effective. These findings indicate that designing specific activities to prepare students for class is critical to cooperative learning. PMID:20210268

  13. Learning, attentional control and action video games

    PubMed Central

    Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.

    2012-01-01

    While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on ‘action video games’ produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. PMID:22440805

  14. Learning, attentional control, and action video games.

    PubMed

    Green, C S; Bavelier, D

    2012-03-20

    While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on 'action video games' produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. PMID:22440805

  15. A neural network model of causative actions.

    PubMed

    Lee-Hand, Jeremy; Knott, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    A common idea in models of action representation is that actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects (see e.g., Prinz, 1997; Hommel et al., 2001; Sahin et al., 2007; Umiltà et al., 2008; Hommel, 2013). In this paper we extend existing models of effect-based action representations to account for a novel distinction. Some actions bring about effects that are independent events in their own right: for instance, if John smashes a cup, he brings about the event of the cup smashing. Other actions do not bring about such effects. For instance, if John grabs a cup, this action does not cause the cup to "do" anything: a grab action has well-defined perceptual effects, but these are not registered by the perceptual system that detects independent events involving external objects in the world. In our model, effect-based actions are implemented in several distinct neural circuits, which are organized into a hierarchy based on the complexity of their associated perceptual effects. The circuit at the top of this hierarchy is responsible for actions that bring about independently perceivable events. This circuit receives input from the perceptual module that recognizes arbitrary events taking place in the world, and learns movements that reliably cause such events. We assess our model against existing experimental observations about effect-based motor representations, and make some novel experimental predictions. We also consider the possibility that the "causative actions" circuit in our model can be identified with a motor pathway reported in other work, specializing in "functional" actions on manipulable tools (Bub et al., 2008; Binkofski and Buxbaum, 2013). PMID:26175685

  16. Action Learning: The Possibility of Differing Hierarchies in Learning Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeadon-Lee, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the proposition that a variety of differing hierarchies exist in an action learning set at any one time, and each hierarchy has the potential to affect an individual's behaviour within the set. An interpretivist philosophy underpins the research framework adopted in this paper. Data were captured by means of 11 in-depth…

  17. Video Game Learning Dynamics: Actionable Measures of Multidimensional Learning Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Debbie Denise; Tabachnick, Barbara G.; Kosko, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Valid, accessible, reusable methods for instructional video game design and embedded assessment can provide actionable information enhancing individual and collective achievement. Cyberlearning through game-based, metaphor-enhanced learning objects (CyGaMEs) design and embedded assessment quantify player behavior to study knowledge discovery and…

  18. Action Learning for Professionals: A New Approach to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Christine; Mayes, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Following on from the article "Building Capacity in Social Care: An Evaluation of a National Programme of Action Learning Facilitator Development" (Abbott, C., L. Burtney, and C. Wall. 2013. "Action Learning: Research & Practice" 10 (2): 168--177), this article describes how action learning is being introduced in Cornwall…

  19. Identifying Balanced Action Learning: Cases of South Korean Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Bong, Hyeon-Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Despite considerable commitment to the application of action learning as leadership and organization development by a large number of Korean organizations, few identified empirical studies of action learning practices have been reported. The purpose of this study was to conduct case studies of South Korean action learning practices to examine…

  20. Why Are We Using Action Learning and in What Contexts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sunyoung; Kang, Ingu; Valencic, Taryn R.; Cho, Yonjoo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contexts in which action learning has been used and provide implications for the design of action learning programmes. We performed a content analysis of 127 articles (case studies and case reports included) published in "Action Learning: Research and Practice" between 2004 and 2012. In this study, we…

  1. Issues in Action Learning: A Critical Realist Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, John

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to argue that the perspective of "critical realism" has considerable potential for moving forward the theory and practice of action learning. The paper addresses three questions: (1) Does action learning emphasise the individual or the collective? (2) Can action learning be thought of as critical, but should it also be…

  2. Elementary Teachers' Teaching for Conceptual Understanding: Learning from Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Nam-Hwa

    2007-01-01

    This study reports teachers' learning through action research on students' conceptual understanding. The study examined (a) the teachers' views about science teaching and learning, (b) the teachers' learning about their teaching practices and (c) the conditions that supported the teachers' learning through action research. A total of 14 elementary…

  3. Psychological Climates in Action Learning Sets: A Manager's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeadon-Lee, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Action learning (AL) is often viewed as a process that facilitates professional learning through the creation of a positive psychological climate [Marquardt, M. J. 2000. "Action Learning and Leadership." "The Learning Organisation" 7 (5): 233-240; Schein, E. H. 1979. "Personal Change Through Interpersonal…

  4. Action and Organizational Learning in an Elevator Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Loo, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To highlight the relevance of management control in action learning programs that aim to foster organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: Literature review plus case study. The latter consists of archival analysis and multiple interviews. Findings: When action learning programs are built around singular learning experiences,…

  5. A neural network model of causative actions

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Hand, Jeremy; Knott, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    A common idea in models of action representation is that actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects (see e.g., Prinz, 1997; Hommel et al., 2001; Sahin et al., 2007; Umiltà et al., 2008; Hommel, 2013). In this paper we extend existing models of effect-based action representations to account for a novel distinction. Some actions bring about effects that are independent events in their own right: for instance, if John smashes a cup, he brings about the event of the cup smashing. Other actions do not bring about such effects. For instance, if John grabs a cup, this action does not cause the cup to “do” anything: a grab action has well-defined perceptual effects, but these are not registered by the perceptual system that detects independent events involving external objects in the world. In our model, effect-based actions are implemented in several distinct neural circuits, which are organized into a hierarchy based on the complexity of their associated perceptual effects. The circuit at the top of this hierarchy is responsible for actions that bring about independently perceivable events. This circuit receives input from the perceptual module that recognizes arbitrary events taking place in the world, and learns movements that reliably cause such events. We assess our model against existing experimental observations about effect-based motor representations, and make some novel experimental predictions. We also consider the possibility that the “causative actions” circuit in our model can be identified with a motor pathway reported in other work, specializing in “functional” actions on manipulable tools (Bub et al., 2008; Binkofski and Buxbaum, 2013). PMID:26175685

  6. Learning and exploration in action-perception loops.

    PubMed

    Little, Daniel Y; Sommer, Friedrich T

    2013-01-01

    Discovering the structure underlying observed data is a recurring problem in machine learning with important applications in neuroscience. It is also a primary function of the brain. When data can be actively collected in the context of a closed action-perception loop, behavior becomes a critical determinant of learning efficiency. Psychologists studying exploration and curiosity in humans and animals have long argued that learning itself is a primary motivator of behavior. However, the theoretical basis of learning-driven behavior is not well understood. Previous computational studies of behavior have largely focused on the control problem of maximizing acquisition of rewards and have treated learning the structure of data as a secondary objective. Here, we study exploration in the absence of external reward feedback. Instead, we take the quality of an agent's learned internal model to be the primary objective. In a simple probabilistic framework, we derive a Bayesian estimate for the amount of information about the environment an agent can expect to receive by taking an action, a measure we term the predicted information gain (PIG). We develop exploration strategies that approximately maximize PIG. One strategy based on value-iteration consistently learns faster than previously developed reward-free exploration strategies across a diverse range of environments. Psychologists believe the evolutionary advantage of learning-driven exploration lies in the generalized utility of an accurate internal model. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrate that agents which learn more efficiently during exploration are later better able to accomplish a range of goal-directed tasks. We will conclude by discussing how our work elucidates the explorative behaviors of animals and humans, its relationship to other computational models of behavior, and its potential application to experimental design, such as in closed-loop neurophysiology studies. PMID:23579347

  7. Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

    This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and

  8. Action Learning and Organizational Learning: Power, Politics and Emotion in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vince, Russ

    2004-01-01

    The theme of this paper is a discussion of the relationship between action learning and organizational learning. The main argument is that action learning has been understood in terms of the impact that it can have within the organization, and that, in addition, it is important to ask--what is the impact of organization on action learning? The…

  9. Action Learning--An Experiential Tool for Solving Organizational Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Sharon B.

    2011-01-01

    Action Learning can be effectively used in both large and small businesses and organizations by employees, stakeholders, or volunteers through this "learning by doing" approach to evaluate an issue or issues of importance to the organization. First developed in the 1940s, Action Learning has increasingly been used as a method to explore questions…

  10. Developing Healthcare Practice through Action Learning: Individual and Group Journeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; McCormack, Brendan; Ives, Glenice

    2008-01-01

    Action Learning is now a well established strategy for reflective inquiry in healthcare. Whilst a great deal is know about action learning there has been inadequate research on the process of learning that takes place, and the impact that this holds for individuals, groups or organisations. This article reports on the findings of 15-month action…

  11. Action Learning and the Program at the Revans Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botham, David; Vick, Donna

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Revans Centre for Action Learning and Research based at the University of Salford (United Kingdom). Topics include collaborations between practitioners and academics, organizational and professional development, change and human learning processes, interdisciplinary teamwork, action learning interfacing with research; and degrees…

  12. Action Learning Unveiled: Finding Depth through Understanding Related Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of student learning is a subject of considerable attention in higher education institutions around the world. One emerging pedagogy that addresses this issue for both higher education and the professional workplace is action learning. One concern, however, is that the definitions and conceptions of action learning vary widely. The…

  13. Practicing What We Teach: Using Action Research to Learn about Teaching Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barb; Dressler, Roswita; Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Jacobsen, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In this article, action research is explored as a process for instructor reflection, professional learning and collaboration. The context for the professional learning was the teaching of graduate level education courses in which action research, in conjunction with a cohort-based, collaboratory approach to learning, was used to facilitate…

  14. Linking Action Learning and Inter-Organisational Learning: The Learning Journey Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The article presents and illustrates the learning journey (LJ)--a new management development approach to inter-organisational learning based on observation, reflection and problem-solving. The LJ involves managers from different organisations and applies key concepts of action learning and systemic organisational development. Made up of…

  15. Understanding the Causal Path between Action, Learning, and Solutions: Maximizing the Power of Action Learning to Achieve Great Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, H. Skipton

    2015-01-01

    Clients and practitioners alike are often confused about the ultimate purpose of action learning (AL). Because of the title of the method, many believe the primary goal of AL is to generate learning. This article clarifies the relationship between action, learning, and solutions. It also provides historical evidence to support the conclusion that…

  16. Language bootstrapping: learning word meanings from perception-action association.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Giampiero; Montesano, Luis; Bernardino, Alexandre; Santos-Victor, José

    2012-06-01

    We address the problem of bootstrapping language acquisition for an artificial system similarly to what is observed in experiments with human infants. Our method works by associating meanings to words in manipulation tasks, as a robot interacts with objects and listens to verbal descriptions of the interactions. The model is based on an affordance network, i.e., a mapping between robot actions, robot perceptions, and the perceived effects of these actions upon objects. We extend the affordance model to incorporate spoken words, which allows us to ground the verbal symbols to the execution of actions and the perception of the environment. The model takes verbal descriptions of a task as the input and uses temporal co-occurrence to create links between speech utterances and the involved objects, actions, and effects. We show that the robot is able form useful word-to-meaning associations, even without considering grammatical structure in the learning process and in the presence of recognition errors. These word-to-meaning associations are embedded in the robot's own understanding of its actions. Thus, they can be directly used to instruct the robot to perform tasks and also allow to incorporate context in the speech recognition task. We believe that the encouraging results with our approach may afford robots with a capacity to acquire language descriptors in their operation's environment as well as to shed some light as to how this challenging process develops with human infants. PMID:22106152

  17. Leadership development through action learning sets: an evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Walia, Surinder; Marks-Maran, Di

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the use of action learning sets in a leadership module delivered by a university in south east England. An evaluation research study was undertaking using survey method to evaluate student engagement with action learning sets, and their value, impact and sustainability. Data were collected through a questionnaire with a mix of Likert-style and open-ended questions and qualitative and quantitative data analysis was undertaken. Findings show that engagement in the action learning sets was very high. Action learning sets also had a positive impact on the development of leadership knowledge and skills and are highly valued by participants. It is likely that they would be sustainable as the majority would recommend action learning to colleagues and would consider taking another module that used action learning sets. When compared to existing literature on action learning, this study offers new insights as there is little empirical literature on student engagement with action learning sets and even less on value and sustainability. PMID:25164108

  18. Action Learning--A Process Which Supports Organisational Change Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on how action learning sets (ALSs) were used to support organisational change initiatives. It sets the scene with contextualising the inclusion of change projects in a masters programme. Action learning is understood to be a dynamic process where a team meets regularly to help individual members address issues through a highly…

  19. The Evidence for the Effectiveness of Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, H. Skipton; Marquardt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    For the past 50 years, organizations and individuals around the world have reported success in their use of action learning programs to solve problems, develop leaders, build teams and transform their corporate cultures. However, very little rigorous research has been conducted to determine the effectiveness of action learning. The authors…

  20. Action Learning: Developing Critical Competencies for Knowledge Era Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Greg

    2005-01-01

    For most of the twentieth century, the goal in education was the generation and dissemination of information. With the rise of technology and unlimited access to information, it is the ability to apply knowledge and learn from experience that is the new priority for employee development. Action learning, with its emphasis on action and reflection,…

  1. Franchisees in Crisis: Using Action Learning to Self-Organise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The present article describes the use of action learning by a group of 30 franchisees to organise themselves and work through a period of upheaval and uncertainty when their parent company faced liquidation. Written from the perspective of one of the franchisees who found herself adopting action learning principles to facilitate the group, it…

  2. On the Nature of Problems in Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonstone, John

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to explore the nature of problems in action learning. Beginning with Revans' distinction between problems and puzzles, it draws parallels with the notion of wicked and tame problems. It offers four means of considering problems in action learning--in terms of the locus of a set's work; from the viewpoint of an…

  3. A Framework for the Ethical Practice of Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig

    2010-01-01

    By tradition the action learning community has encouraged an eclectic view of practice. This involves a number of different permutations around a kernel of nebulous ideas. However, the disadvantages of such an open philosophy have never been considered. In particular consumer protection against inauthentic action learning experiences has been…

  4. The Impact of Action Learning Experience on Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Nicole S.

    2012-01-01

    This case study examines the changes that occur with respect to reflective practices as a result of participating in an action learning group through the identification of aspects/activities of action learning that contribute to such changes and the impact these aspects/activities had on the program participants at a department of the federal…

  5. Action Learning in Virtual Higher Education: Applying Leadership Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the historical foundation of Northeastern University's course, LDR 6100: Developing Your Leadership Capability, a partial literature review of action learning (AL) and virtual action learning (VAL), a course methodology of LDR 6100 requiring students to apply leadership perspectives using VAL as instructed by the author,…

  6. Attitudes Regarding Action Learning: Undergraduate vs. Graduate Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Alvin; Ashley, Allan; Gupta, Rakesh; Ulin, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    Previous research in our Action Learning Program demonstrated that although undergraduates preferred the Action Learning mode to the traditional lecture and discussion mode of instruction, they missed the familiar structure of the more traditional pedagogy. Consequently increased structure was implemented in both an undergraduate and graduate…

  7. Action Learning in an SME: Appetite Comes with Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This account describes action learning in a small to medium-size enterprise (SME) that operates as a local power utility on an established market that is currently going through a process of radical transformation. The task of the action learning set was to improve the flow of information to employees about the evolving framework in which the…

  8. Spontaneous Action and Transformative Learning: Empirical Investigations and Pragmatist Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nohl, Arnd-Michael

    2009-01-01

    Whereas present theories of transformative learning tend to focus on the rational and reflective actor, in this article it is suggested that spontaneous action may play a decisive role in transformative learning too. In the spontaneity of action, novelty finds its way into life, gains momentum, is respected by others and reflected by the actor.…

  9. Developing Managers as Learners and Researchers: Using Action Learning and Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raelin, Joseph A.; Coghlan, David

    2006-01-01

    This article takes the view that formal educational programs often miss opportunities to use the rich experiences of working managers to produce both learning and knowledge. Two alternative pedagogical approaches, action learning and action research, are proposed as contributing to management education by their respective capabilities to generate…

  10. The Concept of Experiential Learning and John Dewey's Theory of Reflective Thought and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miettinen, Reijo

    2000-01-01

    Studies Kolb's eclectic method of constructing a model of experiential learning, comparing his interpretation of Dewey's ideas to Dewey's concepts of reflective thought and action. Concludes that Kolb's notion of immediate concrete experience is epistemologically problematic. (SK)

  11. Cycles of Action through Systems of Activity: Examining an Action Research Model through the Lens of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orland-Barak, Lily; Becher, Ayelet

    2011-01-01

    In this article we offer an extended reading of an action research model in the context of mentored learning in preservice education in Israel. Our reading attends both to how a particular form of action research plays out in participants' constructions of the practice of mentoring and mentored learning and how such constructions can be understood…

  12. A Collaborative Action Research Approach to Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleicher, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The field of professional development is moving towards the notion of professional learning, highlighting the active learning role that teachers play in changing their knowledge bases, beliefs and practice. This article builds on this idea and argues for creating professional learning that is guided by a collaborative action research (CAR)…

  13. The Contradictions of Impact: Action Learning and Power in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vince, Russ

    2012-01-01

    In this polemical essay, Professor Russ Vince argues that it is important to understand the contradictions that can be generated by action learning. This method is a powerful and effective approach to managers' learning that can underpin transformations of management practice. However, any method for learning, no matter how convinced we are of its…

  14. The Role of Facilitators in Project Action Learning Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Rui; Chuah, Kong Bieng; Chao, Yiu Chung; Kwong, Kar Fai; Law, Mo Yin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the importance of a more proactive role of organizational learning (OL) facilitators, learning motivation reinforcer, through a two-part longitudinal study in a case company. The first part of this study aims to investigate and analyze some unexpected challenges in the project action learning-driven (PAL) OL…

  15. Action Learning, the Tool for Problem-Solving in Universities; Uganda Martyrs Nkozi, Makerere and Nkumba Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bwegyeme, Jacinta; Munene, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents an account of how action learning principles were implemented to alleviate complex problems in universities. It focuses on the registrars and administrators under the academic Registrar's department. The Marquardt model of action learning was used in combination with the constructivist theories of learning, namely community of…

  16. CLEANing the Reward: Counterfactual Actions to Remove Exploratory Action Noise in Multiagent Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HolmesParker, Chris; Taylor, Mathew E.; Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Learning in multiagent systems can be slow because agents must learn both how to behave in a complex environment and how to account for the actions of other agents. The inability of an agent to distinguish between the true environmental dynamics and those caused by the stochastic exploratory actions of other agents creates noise in each agent's reward signal. This learning noise can have unforeseen and often undesirable effects on the resultant system performance. We define such noise as exploratory action noise, demonstrate the critical impact it can have on the learning process in multiagent settings, and introduce a reward structure to effectively remove such noise from each agent's reward signal. In particular, we introduce Coordinated Learning without Exploratory Action Noise (CLEAN) rewards and empirically demonstrate their benefits

  17. The Role of the Blended Action Learning Facilitator: An Enabler of Learning and a Trusted Inquisitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Kate; Yoong, Pak

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study that involved the use of blended action learning to support leadership development within the New Zealand education sector. An important contributor to the success of this technology-enabled approach to professional learning was the role taken by the blended action learning facilitator. Two complementary…

  18. Virtual Action Learning: Experiences from a Study of an SME e-Learning Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jean-Anne; Alexander, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a project investigating management development for SME managers using an action learning programme, combining both face-to-face workshops and a virtual action learning environment. This programme was undertaken as part of the ENSeL (Engaging Networks for Sustainable eLearning) project, which was supported by…

  19. Cooperative Learning: Experiencing the Constitution in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Lawrence; Foyle, Harvey C.

    Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy involving students in small group learning activities that promote positive interaction. Research studies have consistently found that cooperative learning promotes increased academic achievement and involves relative use of implementation and reasonable costs. Improved behavior, increased positive…

  20. Early markers of ongoing action-effect learning.

    PubMed

    Ruge, Hannes; Krebs, Ruth M; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Acquiring knowledge about the relationship between stimulus conditions, one's own actions, and the resulting consequences or effects, is one prerequisite for intentional action. Previous studies have shown that such contextualized associations between actions and their effects (S-R-E associations) can be picked up very quickly. The present study examined how such weakly practiced associations might affect overt behavior during the process of initial learning and during subsequent retrieval, and how these two measures are inter-related. We examined incidental (S-)R-E learning in the context of trial-and-error S-R learning and in the context of instruction-based S-R learning. Furthermore, as a control condition, common outcome (CO) learning blocks were included in which all responses produced one common sound effect, hence precluding differential (S-)R-E learning. Post-learning retrieval of R-E associations was tested by re-using previously produced sound effects as novel imperative stimuli combined with actions that were either compatible or incompatible with the previously encountered R-E mapping. The central result was that the size of the compatibility effect could be predicted by the size of relative response slowing during ongoing learning in the preceding acquisition phase, both in trial-and-error learning and in instruction-based learning. Importantly, this correlation was absent for the CO control condition, precluding accounts based on unspecific factors. Instead, the results suggest that differential outcomes are "actively" integrated into action planning and that this takes additional planning time. We speculate that this might be especially true for weakly practiced (S-)R-E associations before an initial goal-directed action mode transitions into a more stimulus-based action mode. PMID:23205016

  1. A Pilot Action Learning Set for NHS R&D Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boaden, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    A pilot action learning set was established in late September 2002, with the objective to develop a model of action learning appropriate for R&D managers. This initiative was one of a number of responses to a request for training and support by a small group of R&D managers who were based in non-teaching acute and primary care NHS trusts. The…

  2. Agroecology Education: Action-Oriented Learning and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles; Ostergaard, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines and evaluates the potential contributions from action learning and action research with stakeholders to higher education in agriculture and food systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on our experiences over the past two decades of running PhD courses and an MSc degree programme in Agroecology in…

  3. Mindfulness into Action: Transformational Learning through Collaborative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergara, Mariana Ines

    2016-01-01

    This action research exploratory study sought to learn how to better develop my practice by using grounded theory. It explored the apparent cognitive transformational experience of nine participants over a period of four weeks after the implementation of an intervention called Mindfulness into Action. The informal intervention was used with the…

  4. Science Learning Environments and Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Dunlop, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    A learning environment survey can be easily used in the science classroom to evaluate new instructional approaches, to spark enthusiasm, and to produce evidence showing that science teachers are indeed becoming a reflective practitioner. Conducting learning environment research in the classroom is personally rewarding as well. It allows science…

  5. Organizational Support for Action Learning in South Korean Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Egan, Toby

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the impact of organizational support on employee learning and performance and (2) to elaborate on the context of organizational support for action learning in South Korean organizations. For this inquiry, two central questions were posed: What are employee reactions to organizational support for action…

  6. Improving Adolescent Learning: An Action Agenda. A TASC Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    At a recent national forum at the Ford Foundation in New York, 140 education and youth development professionals discussed how to better support adolescent learning. Drawing on the discussion and the latest research in neuroscience, psychology and cognitive learning science, TASC presents an action agenda that can be tailored to circumstances in…

  7. From Practise to Practice: Action Learning to Support Transforming Derby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Olwen

    2010-01-01

    This account charts my progress in becoming an action learning set facilitator through a part-time course which was delivered over one year. My development and understanding owes much to my work with groups of colleagues involved in transformation projects at Derby City Council, who willingly took part in this learning experiment. It is a…

  8. Learning Networks--Enabling Change through Community Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Learning networks are a critical element of ethos of the community action research approach taken by the Early Learning Initiative at the National College of Ireland, a community-based educational initiative in the Dublin Docklands. Key criteria for networking, whether at local, national or international level, are the individual's and…

  9. Using Action Research and Action Learning for Entrepreneurial Network Capability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies an action research (AR) design and action learning (AL) approach to network capability development in an entrepreneurial context. Recent research suggests that networks are a viable strategy for the entrepreneurial firm to overcome the liabilities associated with newness and smallness. However, a gap emerges as few, if any,…

  10. History and Culture of Alara--The Action Learning and Action Research Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun; Passfield, Ron

    2016-01-01

    As co-founders of the Action Learning and Action Research Association (ALARA), we tell the story of this international network organisation through our personal experience. Our history traces the evolution of ALARA from origins at the first World Congress in 1990 in Brisbane, Australia, through development over two and a half decades, to its…

  11. Mayan Children's Creation of Learning Ecologies by Initiative and Cooperative Action.

    PubMed

    de León, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Mayan children's initiatives in creating their own learning environments in collaboration with others as they engage in culturally relevant endeavors of family and community life. To this end, I carry out a fine-grained ethnographic and linguistic analysis of the interactional emergence of learning ecologies. Erickson defines learning ecology as a socioecological system where participants mutually influence one another through verbal and nonverbal actions, as well as through other forms of semiotic communication (2010, 254). In analyzing learning ecologies, I adopt a "theory of action" approach, taking into account multimodal communication (e.g., talk, gesture, gaze, body positioning), participants' sociospatial organization, embodied action, objects, tools, and other culturally relevant materials brought together to build action (Goodwin, 2000, 2013; Hutchins, 1995). I use microethnographic analysis (Erickson, 1992) to bring to the surface central aspects of children's agentive roles in learning through "cooperative actions" (Goodwin, 2013) and "hands-on" experience (Ingold, 2007) the skills of competent members of their community. I examine three distinct Learning Ecologies created by children's initiatives among the Mayan children that I observed: (i) children requesting guidance to collaborate in a task, (ii) older children working on their own initiative with subsequent monitoring and correction from competent members, and (iii) children with near competence in a task with occasional monitoring and no guidance. I argue that these findings enrich and add power to models of family- and community-based learning such as Learning by Observing and Pitching In (Rogoff, 2014). PMID:26955927

  12. Impulsivity and predictive control are associated with suboptimal action-selection and action-value learning in regular gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Matthew S.M.; Jocham, Gerhard; Hunt, Laurence T.; Behrens, Timothy E.J.; Rogers, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Heightened impulsivity and cognitive biases are risk factors for gambling problems. However, little is known about precisely how these factors increase the risks of gambling-related harm in vulnerable individuals. Here, we modelled the behaviour of eighty-seven community-recruited regular, but not clinically problematic, gamblers during a binary-choice reinforcement-learning game, to characterise the relationships between impulsivity, cognitive biases, and the capacity to make optimal action selections and learn about action-values. Impulsive gamblers showed diminished use of an optimal (Bayesian-derived) probability estimate when selecting between candidate actions, and showed slower learning rates and enhanced non-linear probability weighting while learning action values. Critically, gamblers who believed that it is possible to predict winning outcomes (as 'predictive control') failed to use the game's reinforcement history to guide their action selections. Extensive evidence attests to the ease with which gamblers can erroneously perceive structure in the reinforcement history of games when there is none. Our findings demonstrate that the generic and specific risk factors of impulsivity and cognitive biases can interfere with the capacity of some gamblers to utilise structure when it is available in the reinforcement history of games, potentially increasing their risks of sustaining gambling-related harms. PMID:27274706

  13. A continuous-time neural model for sequential action

    PubMed Central

    Kachergis, George; Wyatte, Dean; O'Reilly, Randall C.; de Kleijn, Roy; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Action selection, planning and execution are continuous processes that evolve over time, responding to perceptual feedback as well as evolving top-down constraints. Existing models of routine sequential action (e.g. coffee- or pancake-making) generally fall into one of two classes: hierarchical models that include hand-built task representations, or heterarchical models that must learn to represent hierarchy via temporal context, but thus far lack goal-orientedness. We present a biologically motivated model of the latter class that, because it is situated in the Leabra neural architecture, affords an opportunity to include both unsupervised and goal-directed learning mechanisms. Moreover, we embed this neurocomputational model in the theoretical framework of the theory of event coding (TEC), which posits that actions and perceptions share a common representation with bidirectional associations between the two. Thus, in this view, not only does perception select actions (along with task context), but actions are also used to generate perceptions (i.e. intended effects). We propose a neural model that implements TEC to carry out sequential action control in hierarchically structured tasks such as coffee-making. Unlike traditional feedforward discrete-time neural network models, which use static percepts to generate static outputs, our biological model accepts continuous-time inputs and likewise generates non-stationary outputs, making short-timescale dynamic predictions. PMID:25267830

  14. A continuous-time neural model for sequential action.

    PubMed

    Kachergis, George; Wyatte, Dean; O'Reilly, Randall C; de Kleijn, Roy; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-11-01

    Action selection, planning and execution are continuous processes that evolve over time, responding to perceptual feedback as well as evolving top-down constraints. Existing models of routine sequential action (e.g. coffee- or pancake-making) generally fall into one of two classes: hierarchical models that include hand-built task representations, or heterarchical models that must learn to represent hierarchy via temporal context, but thus far lack goal-orientedness. We present a biologically motivated model of the latter class that, because it is situated in the Leabra neural architecture, affords an opportunity to include both unsupervised and goal-directed learning mechanisms. Moreover, we embed this neurocomputational model in the theoretical framework of the theory of event coding (TEC), which posits that actions and perceptions share a common representation with bidirectional associations between the two. Thus, in this view, not only does perception select actions (along with task context), but actions are also used to generate perceptions (i.e. intended effects). We propose a neural model that implements TEC to carry out sequential action control in hierarchically structured tasks such as coffee-making. Unlike traditional feedforward discrete-time neural network models, which use static percepts to generate static outputs, our biological model accepts continuous-time inputs and likewise generates non-stationary outputs, making short-timescale dynamic predictions. PMID:25267830

  15. Copying Actions and Copying Outcomes: Social Learning through the Second Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The present work documents how the logic of a model's demonstration and the communicative cues that the model provides interact with age to influence how children engage in social learning. Children at ages 12, 18, and 24 months (n = 204) watched a model open a series of boxes. Twelve-month-old subjects only copied the specific actions of the…

  16. Student Accounts of Action Learning on a DBA Programme: Learning Inaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonça, Roger; Parker, Anthony; Udo, Uwem; Groves, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This account of practice sets out the action learning experience of three doctoral students on the same Doctoral Programme in Business Administration at a UK university. It also include the sense-making of a fourth member of the set. It explores the tension between their area of work and their engagement in the action learning process and, in so…

  17. Action Learning, Team Learning and Co-Operation in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubatova, Slava

    2012-01-01

    This account of practice presents two cases of the application of Action Learning (AL) communication methodology as described by Marquardt [2004. "Optimising the power of action learning". Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing]. The teams were Czech and international top management teams. The AL methodology was used to improve cooperation and…

  18. Does Lean Production Sacrifice Learning in a Manufacturing Environment? An Action Learning Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Fiona M.; Butler, Jim; Edwards, John

    2001-01-01

    An action learning program was implemented by a manufacturer using lean production practices. Action learning practices were accommodated during times of stability, but abandoned in times of crisis. The meaning of work in this organizational culture excluded all practices, such as reflection, that were not visible and targeted at immediate…

  19. Action Learning and Executive Education: Achieving Credible Personal, Practitioner and Organisational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Simon; Margey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Action learning involves balancing the often conflicting forces between working knowledge and academic knowledge. This paper explores the experience of executive learners; academics and external contributors involved in action learning at the postgraduate level. The executive learners are members of cohorts on two masters programmes based in…

  20. Don't Just Do Something...Stand There: Using Action Learning to Help Organisations Work with Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linklater, Jane; Kellner, Kamil

    2008-01-01

    This article gives an account of their work with psychodynamic principles within an action learning framework. Linklater and Kellner are primarily Organisation Development consultants with a rich heritage in psychodynamic theory and methods. Having worked with action learning for decades (and seen hugely positive results using traditional models)…

  1. Learning Human Actions by Combining Global Dynamics and Local Appearance.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guan; Yang, Shuang; Tian, Guodong; Yuan, Chunfeng; Hu, Weiming; Maybank, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of human action recognition through combining global temporal dynamics and local visual spatio-temporal appearance features. For this purpose, in the global temporal dimension, we propose to model the motion dynamics with robust linear dynamical systems (LDSs) and use the model parameters as motion descriptors. Since LDSs live in a non-Euclidean space and the descriptors are in non-vector form, we propose a shift invariant subspace angles based distance to measure the similarity between LDSs. In the local visual dimension, we construct curved spatio-temporal cuboids along the trajectories of densely sampled feature points and describe them using histograms of oriented gradients (HOG). The distance between motion sequences is computed with the Chi-Squared histogram distance in the bag-of-words framework. Finally we perform classification using the maximum margin distance learning method by combining the global dynamic distances and the local visual distances. We evaluate our approach for action recognition on five short clips data sets, namely Weizmann, KTH, UCF sports, Hollywood2 and UCF50, as well as three long continuous data sets, namely VIRAT, ADL and CRIM13. We show competitive results as compared with current state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26353152

  2. Learning & Memory: The Brain in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger, Marilee

    Based on the assumption that the more teachers know about brain science, the better prepared they will be to make instructional decisions, this book presents information on current research regarding learning and memory, and applies the research to situations that educators face daily. Chapter 1 examines the structure of the brain and its…

  3. Action Research on "Visible Learning" in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, David

    2014-01-01

    "Visible teaching and learning" is an educational philosophy that makes the processes and endpoints in a classroom highly visible and understandable to all involved. This was translated into a series of lesson "roadmaps" for a group of chemistry students studying rates of reaction and reaction energetics. Their end-of-unit…

  4. Interprofessional Learning: Reasons, Judgement, and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guile, David

    2011-01-01

    This article makes a number of interconnected arguments. First, spatially and temporally distributed project teams constitute a new form of interprofessional work and, as a corollary, a new site for interprofessional learning. Second, researchers in cultural-historical activity theory have generated some concepts and methods, for example,…

  5. Systemic Action and Learning in Public Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Complex, systemic issues continue to challenge public services without respect for organisational and professional boundaries. In practice, collaborative working with others who have differing professional cultural norms and systems confront members with the need to learn about each other's values, priorities and practices. This paper explores the…

  6. Place-Based Learning: Action Learning in MA Program for Educational Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassner, Amnon; Eran-Zoran, Yael

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a new pedagogical idea and practice for educational practitioners. The practice was developed as a workshop of MA program in order to change and expand the meaning of education for the wellbeing of the community. The "place-based learning" workshop combined action learning (AL) with project-based learning (PBL). The…

  7. Learning from Toyota: How Action Learning Can Foster Competitive Advantage in New Product Development (NPD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    New product development and commercialization are essential to entrepreneurial growth and international competitiveness. Excellence in this area is strongly supported by individual and organizational learning efforts. By analyzing how Japanese car manufacturer Toyota organizes learning, this paper evaluates the potential of action learning to…

  8. Action Learning Guided by Tao for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San, Sam Kong

    2006-01-01

    Information Technology brings about rapid changes in working environment, quickly rendering skills and knowledge gained in formal learning institutions obsolete. Even as they prepare students for their first career, institutions also need to equip students with skills necessary for lifelong learning. The Nanyang Technological University (NTU),…

  9. Learning from Action Research About Science Teacher Preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchener, Carole P.; Jackson, Wendy M.

    2012-02-01

    In this article, we present a case study of a beginning science teacher's year-long action research project, during which she developed a meaningful grasp of learning from practice. Wendy was a participant in the middle grade science program designed for career changers from science professions who had moved to teaching middle grade science. An extended action research experience in the second year of induction proved valuable to her in learning how to modify her teaching to reach her goal, using evidence of student learning as her guide. This article closes with reflections on the value of extended action research within science teacher preparation, particularly early in one's career, and explores the promise for ongoing practice-based professional development throughout a teacher's career.

  10. Civic learning and action among older citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, David L.

    1992-07-01

    The purposes of this article are first, to consider the role of senior citizens as advocates, both in matters of specific concern to their fellow age cohorts and in issues of general interest to the community; and, second, to examine the relationship of self-education and learning to advocacy in civic affairs. Literature on sociological and political theory as well as adult civic education provides a conceptual base from which to explain the involvement of persons in their later years in advocacy efforts and in learning activities designed to enhance civic involvement. Citizens have banded together to advocate their vision of a desired future throughout history. Citizen participation in political and civic affairs is generally age-integrated and intergenerational, thus affording opportunities to dispel negative age stereotypes. Participation in civic affairs invokes ageless values, creates meaning in life, and allows elderly participants to transcend themselves and their limitations.

  11. Context transfer in reinforcement learning using action-value functions.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Amin; Nadjar Araabi, Babak; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the notion of context transfer in reinforcement learning tasks. Context transfer, as defined in this paper, implies knowledge transfer between source and target tasks that share the same environment dynamics and reward function but have different states or action spaces. In other words, the agents learn the same task while using different sensors and actuators. This requires the existence of an underlying common Markov decision process (MDP) to which all the agents' MDPs can be mapped. This is formulated in terms of the notion of MDP homomorphism. The learning framework is Q-learning. To transfer the knowledge between these tasks, the feature space is used as a translator and is expressed as a partial mapping between the state-action spaces of different tasks. The Q-values learned during the learning process of the source tasks are mapped to the sets of Q-values for the target task. These transferred Q-values are merged together and used to initialize the learning process of the target task. An interval-based approach is used to represent and merge the knowledge of the source tasks. Empirical results show that the transferred initialization can be beneficial to the learning process of the target task. PMID:25610457

  12. Action Learning for Strategic Innovation in Mature Organizations: Key Cognitive, Design and Contextual Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Jeffrey S.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2005-01-01

    This article lays out a model of action learning for catalyzing strategic innovation in mature organizations that are faced with a new competitive playing field. Central to this model is the development of a set of sophisticated cognitive capabilities--sensemaking, strategic thinking, critical thinking, divergent thinking, conceptual capacity and…

  13. Professional Learning Communities: A Middle School Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, David N.

    2010-01-01

    This research project explored the transition from a traditional model to a Professional Learning Community model in a NJ Middle School. The administration overcame obstacles during the transition such as scheduling conflicts, teacher apathy, and resistance. This action research study gathered data to determine how to best structure the…

  14. Action Control, Motivated Strategies, and Integrative Motivation as Predictors of Language Learning Affect and the Intention to Continue Learning French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Blackie, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the relative ability of variables from three motivational frameworks to predict four non-linguistic outcomes of language learning. The study examines Action Control Theory with its measures of (1) hesitation, (2) volatility and (3) rumination. The study also examined Pintrich's expectancy-value model that uses measures…

  15. Entrepreneurial Learning through Action: A Case Study of the Six-Squared Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittaway, Luke; Missing, Caroline; Hudson, Nigel; Maragh, Dean

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of "action" in entrepreneurial learning and illustrates how programs designed to support action learning can enhance management development in entrepreneurial businesses. The paper begins by exploring action learning and the way "action" is conceived in different types of program. In the second part, the paper details…

  16. Quantifying Learning in Young Infants: Tracking Leg Actions During a Discovery-learning Task.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Barbara; Reimann, Hendrik; Kubo, Masayoshi; Fetters, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Task-specific actions emerge from spontaneous movement during infancy. It has been proposed that task-specific actions emerge through a discovery-learning process. Here a method is described in which 3-4 month old infants learn a task by discovery and their leg movements are captured to quantify the learning process. This discovery-learning task uses an infant activated mobile that rotates and plays music based on specified leg action of infants. Supine infants activate the mobile by moving their feet vertically across a virtual threshold. This paradigm is unique in that as infants independently discover that their leg actions activate the mobile, the infants' leg movements are tracked using a motion capture system allowing for the quantification of the learning process. Specifically, learning is quantified in terms of the duration of mobile activation, the position variance of the end effectors (feet) that activate the mobile, changes in hip-knee coordination patterns, and changes in hip and knee muscle torque. This information describes infant exploration and exploitation at the interplay of person and environmental constraints that support task-specific action. Subsequent research using this method can investigate how specific impairments of different populations of infants at risk for movement disorders influence the discovery-learning process for task-specific action. PMID:26066904

  17. An Action Learning Method for Increased Innovation Capability in Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Annika; Wadell, Carl; Odenrick, Per; Norell Bergendahl, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    Product innovation in highly complex and technological areas, such as medical technology, puts high requirements on the innovation capability of an organisation. Previous research and publications have highlighted organisational issues and learning matters as important and necessary for the development of innovation capability. Action learning…

  18. An Extreme Case of Action Learning at BAT Niemeyer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Emiel; Veenhoven, Gert; De Loo, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a "winning organization" when one currently is an "ugly ducking" can be a difficult and strenuous task. BAT Niemeyer in the Netherlands succeeded in making such a transformation over the course of four years. Action learning was used, among other methods, to steer part of this transformation, in which employee involvement was heavily…

  19. An Action Learning Project on Diversity: Pitfalls and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hite, Linda M.

    1997-01-01

    In a college course on diversity in the workplace, students' experiences with conducting a cultural audit of the university as a workplace illustrate the dilemmas that can arise when students conduct action research in a real client system. Despite the inherent problems, the project resulted in significant student learning about the subject and…

  20. Learning from Action Research about Science Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchener, Carole P.; Jackson, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a case study of a beginning science teacher's year-long action research project, during which she developed a meaningful grasp of learning from practice. Wendy was a participant in the middle grade science program designed for career changers from science professions who had moved to teaching middle grade science. An…

  1. Leadership Development in SMEs: An Action Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, Claire M.; McMullan, Christel; Harrison, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate an action learning-based, leadership development programme designed for founders and leaders of growth-oriented, entrepreneurial small to medium-sized enterprises. Based on in-depth, qualitative interviews with participants on one cohort, undertaken two years after completion of the seven-month programme, we demonstrate…

  2. Critical Action Learning--Rituals and Reflective Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heneberry, Pamela; Turner, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    This paper is written to outline our ideas on rituals and reflective places and how this thinking has emerged through our writing, facilitation and reflections around critical action learning and critical leadership. We attempt to show the conceptual framework that underpins our vision of Critical Leadership and how out of this work we have begun…

  3. The Compatibility of Action Learning with Inner Game Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitkenhead, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Using "inner game" coaching techniques in the remediation of a challenged programme at a Global Investment Bank the environment was transformed into a delivery focused culture. The techniques included group sessions that would be familiar to anyone aware of action learning and were an integral part of the strategy to ensure sustainable change was…

  4. Evaluating Action Learning: A Critical Realist Complex Network Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This largely theoretical paper will argue the case for the usefulness of applying network and complex adaptive systems theory to an understanding of action learning and the challenge it is evaluating. This approach, it will be argued, is particularly helpful in the context of improving capability in dealing with wicked problems spread around…

  5. Sowing the Seeds of Change: Action Learning in Merseytravel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Merseytravel is a large and diverse public sector organisation facing significant changes, but faced with a cultural inertia which is a legacy inherited from historical management styles. Action learning is now being used with great success as part of their change programme, to promote empowerment of the staff, challenge historical ways of working…

  6. Learning Difficulties and Ethnicity: Updating a Framework for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poxton, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This update of the Framework for Action highlights the continuing relevance of its message as well as those raised by Valuing People Now. People with learning difficulties and their families from Black and minority ethnic (BME) communities have been highlighted as a priority group by Valuing People since 2001 and remain a priority for better…

  7. With you or against you: social orientation dependent learning signals guide actions made for others.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, George I; King-Casas, Brooks

    2015-01-01

    In social environments, it is crucial that decision-makers take account of the impact of their actions not only for oneself, but also on other social agents. Previous work has identified neural signals in the striatum encoding value-based prediction errors for outcomes to oneself; also, recent work suggests that neural activity in prefrontal cortex may similarly encode value-based prediction errors related to outcomes to others. However, prior work also indicates that social valuations are not isomorphic, with social value orientations of decision-makers ranging on a cooperative to competitive continuum; this variation has not been examined within social learning environments. Here, we combine a computational model of learning with functional neuroimaging to examine how individual differences in orientation impact neural mechanisms underlying 'other-value' learning. Across four experimental conditions, reinforcement learning signals for other-value were identified in medial prefrontal cortex, and were distinct from self-value learning signals identified in striatum. Critically, the magnitude and direction of the other-value learning signal depended strongly on an individual's cooperative or competitive orientation toward others. These data indicate that social decisions are guided by a social orientation-dependent learning system that is computationally similar but anatomically distinct from self-value learning. The sensitivity of the medial prefrontal learning signal to social preferences suggests a mechanism linking such preferences to biases in social actions and highlights the importance of incorporating heterogeneous social predispositions in neurocomputational models of social behavior. PMID:25224998

  8. Beyond You and Me: Stories for Collective Action and Learning? Perspectives from an Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearty, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the combination of storytelling and reflective action research as a means to effect change and learning within and across communities and organizations. Taking the complex challenge of "pro-environmental behaviour change" as an example, the paper reflects on the experiences of a pilot project run for the UK government…

  9. Doers of the Word? An Enquiry into the Nature of Action in Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooke, John; Altounyan, Caroline; Young, Angela; Young, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A recent trend in public policy in many countries is the requirement for "joined up thinking" and "joined up working", including partnership within and between agencies, and between agencies and their publics. This in turn has led to a growth of interest in action learning as a means to bring about the organizational and individual development…

  10. Permaculture in higher education: Teaching sustainability through action learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisti, Bryce Thomas

    This is a case study of the use of Action Learning (AL) theory to teach and confer degrees in Permaculture and other forms of sustainability at the newly formed Gaia University International (GUI). In Chapter Two I argue that GUI, as an institution of higher learning, is organized to provide support for learning. The goal of the university structure is to provide students, called Associates, with a vehicle for accumulation of credit towards a bachelor's degree. This organizational structure is necessary, but insufficient for AL because Associates need more than an organization to provide and coordinate their degree programs. In other words, just because the network of university structures are organized in ways that make AL possible and convenient, it does not necessarily follow that Action Learning will occur for any individual Associate. The support structures within GUI's degrees are discussed in Chapter Three. To a greater or lesser degree GUI provides support for personal learning among Associates as advisors and advisees with the goal of helping Associates complete and document the outcomes of world-change projects. The support structures are necessary, but not sufficient for AL because the personal learning process occurring for each Associate requires transformative reflection. Additionally, because Associates' attrition rate is very high, many Associates do not remain enrolled in GUI long enough to benefit from the support structures. At the simplest organizational level I discuss the reflection process conducted in the patterned interactions of assigned learning groups called Guilds (Chapter Four). These groups of Associates work to provide each other with the best possible environment for personal learning through reflection. As its Associates experience transformative reflection, GUI is able to help elevate the quality of world-change efforts in the Permaculture community. Provided the organizational and support structures are in place, this reflection

  11. Animated pose templates for modeling and detecting human actions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Benjamin Z; Nie, Bruce X; Liu, Zicheng; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents animated pose templates (APTs) for detecting short-term, long-term, and contextual actions from cluttered scenes in videos. Each pose template consists of two components: 1) a shape template with deformable parts represented in an And-node whose appearances are represented by the Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features, and 2) a motion template specifying the motion of the parts by the Histogram of Optical-Flows (HOF) features. A shape template may have more than one motion template represented by an Or-node. Therefore, each action is defined as a mixture (Or-node) of pose templates in an And-Or tree structure. While this pose template is suitable for detecting short-term action snippets in two to five frames, we extend it in two ways: 1) For long-term actions, we animate the pose templates by adding temporal constraints in a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and 2) for contextual actions, we treat contextual objects as additional parts of the pose templates and add constraints that encode spatial correlations between parts. To train the model, we manually annotate part locations on several keyframes of each video and cluster them into pose templates using EM. This leaves the unknown parameters for our learning algorithm in two groups: 1) latent variables for the unannotated frames including pose-IDs and part locations, 2) model parameters shared by all training samples such as weights for HOG and HOF features, canonical part locations of each pose, coefficients penalizing pose-transition and part-deformation. To learn these parameters, we introduce a semi-supervised structural SVM algorithm that iterates between two steps: 1) learning (updating) model parameters using labeled data by solving a structural SVM optimization, and 2) imputing missing variables (i.e., detecting actions on unlabeled frames) with parameters learned from the previous step and progressively accepting high-score frames as newly labeled examples. This algorithm belongs to a

  12. Collaborative Action Research on Technology Integration for Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chien-Hsing; Ke, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jin-Tong; Hsu, Wen-Hua

    2012-02-01

    This paper briefly reports the outcomes of an action research inquiry on the use of blogs, MS PowerPoint [PPT], and the Internet as learning tools with a science class of sixth graders for project-based learning. Multiple sources of data were essential to triangulate the key findings articulated in this paper. Corresponding to previous studies, the incorporation of technology and project-based learning could motivate students in self-directed exploration. The students were excited about the autonomy over what to learn and the use of PPT to express what they learned. Differing from previous studies, the findings pointed to the lack information literacy among students. The students lacked information evaluation skills, note-taking and information synthesis. All these findings imply the importance of teaching students about information literacy and visual literacy when introducing information technology into the classroom. The authors suggest that further research should focus on how to break the culture of "copy-and-paste" by teaching the skills of note-taking and synthesis through inquiry projects for science learning. Also, further research on teacher professional development should focus on using collaboration action research as a framework for re-designing graduate courses for science teachers in order to enhance classroom technology integration.

  13. Learning Resources Operational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant County Junior Coll. District, Ft. Worth, TX.

    The learning resources program at Tarrant Count Junior College calls for a district-wide resource dedicated to the support of instruction. Traditional library and media services are subsumed within this approach. The operational model consists of many interrelated subsystems most of which are described by flow charts. The systems viewpoint is…

  14. Action learning sets in a nursing and midwifery practice learning context: a realistic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Machin, Alison I; Pearson, Pauline

    2014-08-01

    Action learning sets (ALS) are used widely for organisational and workforce development, including in nursing (Anderson and Thorpe, 2004; Pounder, 2009; Young et al., 2010). In the United Kingdom, a multi-faceted educational Pilot programme for new nurses and midwives was implemented to accelerate their clinical practice and leadership development (NHS Education Scotland, 2010). Action Learning Sets were provided for peer support and personal development. The Realistic Evaluation study reported in this paper explored issues of context, mechanism and outcome (Pawson and Tilley, 1997) influencing the action learning experiences of: programme participants (recently qualified nurses and midwives, from different practice settings); and programme supporters. A range of data were collected via: online questionnaires from 66 participants and 29 supporters; three focus groups, each comprising between eight and 10 programme participants; and one focus group with three action learning facilitators. The qualitative data pertaining to the ALS are presented in this paper. Thematic data analysis of context, mechanism and outcome configurations, generated five themes: creating and sustaining a collective learning environment; challenging constructively; collective support; the role of feedback; and effectiveness of ALS. Study outcomes suggest nursing and midwifery action learning should (a) be facilitated positively to improve participants' experience; (b) be renamed to avoid learning methodology confusion; and (c) be outcome focused to evidence impact on practice. PMID:24480095

  15. Count Me in: The Role of Action Learning in Making Learning and Skills Provision More Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Gill

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the role of action learning in a national programme of research and development. The aim of the programme was to improve provision for disabled learners in the learning and skills sector by supporting providers in implementing the requirements of the Disability Discrimination Act (2002). Practitioners worked on a wide range…

  16. Leaders Learning from Leaders as an Emergent Action Learning Strategy Type of Paper: Account of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Rodríguez, Mariela A.; Allen, Tawannah G.

    2015-01-01

    This account of practice describes what three executive leaders in a professional association have learned about action learning and their own practices of organizational renewal. Data are approached narratively and stories are told from the perspectives of diverse educators' experiences, agency, and expertise. Mature organizations can be…

  17. Learning by Doing: A Handbook for Professional Learning Communities at Work™ (Second Edition)-- Action Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solution Tree, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This action guide is intended to assist in the reading of and reflection upon "Learning by Doing: A Handbook for Professional Learning Communities at Work, Second Edition" by Richard DuFour, Rebecca DuFour, Richard Eaker, and Thomas Many. The guide can be used by an individual, a small group, or an entire faculty to identify key points,…

  18. Changing Teaching and Learning Relationships through Collaborative Action Research: Learning to Ask Different Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Paula; Gillam, Katy; Andrews, Jane; Day, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The article reports work over one year by three teachers from the Milton Keynes Primary Schools Learning Network. Their collaborative classroom-focused action research investigated the limits and possibilities of pupils' and teachers' learning through self-evaluation. In phase one the teacher researchers used questionnaires, interviews and…

  19. Transforming Clinical Data into Actionable Prognosis Models: Machine-Learning Framework and Field-Deployable App to Predict Outcome of Ebola Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fradet, Terrence; Retzepi, Kalliroi; Fry, Ben; Sabeti, Pardis

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessment of the response to the 2014–15 Ebola outbreak indicates the need for innovations in data collection, sharing, and use to improve case detection and treatment. Here we introduce a Machine Learning pipeline for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) prognosis prediction, which packages the best models into a mobile app to be available in clinical care settings. The pipeline was trained on a public EVD clinical dataset, from 106 patients in Sierra Leone. Methods/Principal Findings We used a new tool for exploratory analysis, Mirador, to identify the most informative clinical factors that correlate with EVD outcome. The small sample size and high prevalence of missing records were significant challenges. We applied multiple imputation and bootstrap sampling to address missing data and quantify overfitting. We trained several predictors over all combinations of covariates, which resulted in an ensemble of predictors, with and without viral load information, with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.8 or more, after correcting for optimistic bias. We ranked the predictors by their F1-score, and those above a set threshold were compiled into a mobile app, Ebola CARE (Computational Assignment of Risk Estimates). Conclusions/Significance This method demonstrates how to address small sample sizes and missing data, while creating predictive models that can be readily deployed to assist treatment in future outbreaks of EVD and other infectious diseases. By generating an ensemble of predictors instead of relying on a single model, we are able to handle situations where patient data is partially available. The prognosis app can be updated as new data become available, and we made all the computational protocols fully documented and open-sourced to encourage timely data sharing, independent validation, and development of better prediction models in outbreak response. PMID:26991501

  20. Learning planar ising models

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jason K; Chertkov, Michael; Netrapalli, Praneeth

    2010-11-12

    Inference and learning of graphical models are both well-studied problems in statistics and machine learning that have found many applications in science and engineering. However, exact inference is intractable in general graphical models, which suggests the problem of seeking the best approximation to a collection of random variables within some tractable family of graphical models. In this paper, we focus our attention on the class of planar Ising models, for which inference is tractable using techniques of statistical physics [Kac and Ward; Kasteleyn]. Based on these techniques and recent methods for planarity testing and planar embedding [Chrobak and Payne], we propose a simple greedy algorithm for learning the best planar Ising model to approximate an arbitrary collection of binary random variables (possibly from sample data). Given the set of all pairwise correlations among variables, we select a planar graph and optimal planar Ising model defined on this graph to best approximate that set of correlations. We present the results of numerical experiments evaluating the performance of our algorithm.

  1. Awareness, Solidarity, and Action: An Educational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichenbach, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    How Extension fosters social change and innovation can be improved through the use of theory-based educational models. Educational models can serve as foundations for the conceptual designs of educational interventions. I describe, using examples from my own work, one such model: the awareness, solidarity, and action model. This three-part model…

  2. The Soft-Skills Learning Triangle: A Learning Model for Supporting Online Management & Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jean

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the Soft-skills Learning Triangle (SLT)--a model created to help coaches, mentors, and educators understand how web-technologies can be used to support management learning and soft-skills development. SLT emerged as part of a larger action-learning research project--the NewMindsets Management Education…

  3. Community-based health improvement: lessons from the Learning for Action Institute, Simmons College.

    PubMed

    Knapp, M L; Lowe, J M

    2001-01-01

    The Learning for Action Institute at the Graduate School for Health Studies, Simmons College, uses continuous quality improvement concepts and methods to help community-based groups to make positive change. Eight core concepts are the basis for creating sustainable improvements, developing new models for community capacity, and building and disseminating knowledge of what has been learned. These concepts are: clarify the aim, form the right team, target improvement efforts, use data, listen to the customer, use tools and methods, conduct improvement and learning cycles, and make improvements. Two community-based projects are used to illustrate the concepts. PMID:11499348

  4. When Action Learning Doesn't "Take": Reflections on the DALEK Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonstone, John

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of "business-driven" action learning in a healthcare setting. It reviews and reflects on an example where action learning does not "take", identifying the likely causes of this. It also poses four questions--whether action learning is counter-cultural in some organisations; whether the Organisation Development…

  5. Action Learning: Developing Leaders and Supporting Change in a Healthcare Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Louise

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice outlines how action learning was used as the key component of a leadership development initiative for managers in an acute hospital setting. It explains how the initiative was conceived, why action learning was chosen and how action learning principles were incorporated. Insights into the outcomes and considerations for…

  6. Culture and Commitment: The Key to the Creation of an Action Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hind, Matthew; Koenigsberger, John

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the introduction and practice of action learning into a highly volatile, commercial environment. During nine years of action learning projects, the impact on individuals, the action learning sets into which they were formed, the organization and its structure and the organizational culture were evaluated. The article…

  7. Reconciling Market Requirements and Operations Resources: An Opportunity for Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlan, Paul; Coghlan, David

    2009-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of action learning and operations strategy. It presents a case of action learning focused on strategic operations improvement in the extended manufacturing enterprise. As the third article in the set of explorations in this journal within the fields of action learning, operations strategy and collaborative…

  8. Action Learning and Constructivist Grounded Theory: Powerfully Overlapping Fields of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the shared characteristics between action learning (AL) and the research methodology constructivist grounded theory (CGT). Mirroring Edmonstone's [2011. "Action Learning and Organisation Development: Overlapping Fields of Practice." "Action Learning: Research and Practice" 8 (2): 93-102] article, which…

  9. Learning Sequences of Actions in Collectives of Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Wolpert, David H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the problem of designing a collective of autonomous agents that individually learn sequences of actions such that the resultant sequence of joint actions achieves a predetermined global objective. We are particularly interested in instances of this problem where centralized control is either impossible or impractical. For single agent systems in similar domains, machine learning methods (e.g., reinforcement learners) have been successfully used. However, applying such solutions directly to multi-agent systems often proves problematic, as agents may work at cross-purposes, or have difficulty in evaluating their contribution to achievement of the global objective, or both. Accordingly, the crucial design step in multiagent systems centers on determining the private objectives of each agent so that as the agents strive for those objectives, the system reaches a good global solution. In this work we consider a version of this problem involving multiple autonomous agents in a grid world. We use concepts from collective intelligence to design goals for the agents that are 'aligned' with the global goal, and are 'learnable' in that agents can readily see how their behavior affects their utility. We show that reinforcement learning agents using those goals outperform both 'natural' extensions of single agent algorithms and global reinforcement, learning solutions based on 'team games'.

  10. Action principles for extended magnetohydrodynamic models

    SciTech Connect

    Keramidas Charidakos, I.; Lingam, M.; Morrison, P. J.; White, R. L.; Wurm, A.

    2014-09-15

    The general, non-dissipative, two-fluid model in plasma physics is Hamiltonian, but this property is sometimes lost or obscured in the process of deriving simplified (or reduced) two-fluid or one-fluid models from the two-fluid equations of motion. To ensure that the reduced models are Hamiltonian, we start with the general two-fluid action functional, and make all the approximations, changes of variables, and expansions directly within the action context. The resulting equations are then mapped to the Eulerian fluid variables using a novel nonlocal Lagrange-Euler map. Using this method, we recover Lüst's general two-fluid model, extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall MHD, and electron MHD from a unified framework. The variational formulation allows us to use Noether's theorem to derive conserved quantities for each symmetry of the action.

  11. Infants learn enduring functions of novel tools from action demonstrations

    PubMed Central

    Hernik, Mikołaj; Csibra, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    According to recent theoretical proposals, one function of infant goal attribution is to support early social learning of artifact functions from instrumental actions, and one function of infant sensitivity to communication is to support early acquisition of generic knowledge about enduring, kind-relevant properties of the referents. The present study tested two hypotheses, derived from these proposals, about the conditions that facilitate the acquisition of enduring functions for novel tools in human infancy. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we show that 13.5-months-old infants encode arbitrary end-states of action-sequences in relation to the novel tools employed to bring them about. These mappings are not formed if the same end states of action sequences cannot be interpreted as action goals. Moreover, the tool-goal mappings acquired from infant-directed communicative demonstrations are more resilient to counter-evidence than those acquired from non-infant-directed presentations, and thus show similarities to generic rather than episodic representations. These findings suggest that the acquisition of tool functions in infancy is guided by both teleological action interpretation mechanisms and the expectation that communicative demonstrations reveal enduring dispositional properties of tools. PMID:25462040

  12. Action Research to Improve the Learning Space for Diagnostic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Ariel, Ellen; Owens, Leigh

    2015-12-01

    The module described and evaluated here was created in response to perceived learning difficulties in diagnostic test design and interpretation for students in third-year Clinical Microbiology. Previously, the activities in lectures and laboratory classes in the module fell into the lower cognitive operations of "knowledge" and "understanding." The new approach was to exchange part of the traditional activities with elements of interactive learning, where students had the opportunity to engage in deep learning using a variety of learning styles. The effectiveness of the new curriculum was assessed by means of on-course student assessment throughout the module, a final exam, an anonymous questionnaire on student evaluation of the different activities and a focus group of volunteers. Although the new curriculum enabled a major part of the student cohort to achieve higher pass grades (p < 0.001), it did not meet the requirements of the weaker students, and the proportion of the students failing the module remained at 34%. The action research applied here provided a number of valuable suggestions from students on how to improve future curricula from their perspective. Most importantly, an interactive online program that facilitated flexibility in the learning space for the different reagents and their interaction in diagnostic tests was proposed. The methods applied to improve and assess a curriculum refresh by involving students as partners in the process, as well as the outcomes, are discussed. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education. PMID:26753024

  13. Action Research to Improve the Learning Space for Diagnostic Techniques†

    PubMed Central

    Ariel, Ellen; Owens, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    The module described and evaluated here was created in response to perceived learning difficulties in diagnostic test design and interpretation for students in third-year Clinical Microbiology. Previously, the activities in lectures and laboratory classes in the module fell into the lower cognitive operations of “knowledge” and “understanding.” The new approach was to exchange part of the traditional activities with elements of interactive learning, where students had the opportunity to engage in deep learning using a variety of learning styles. The effectiveness of the new curriculum was assessed by means of on-course student assessment throughout the module, a final exam, an anonymous questionnaire on student evaluation of the different activities and a focus group of volunteers. Although the new curriculum enabled a major part of the student cohort to achieve higher pass grades (p < 0.001), it did not meet the requirements of the weaker students, and the proportion of the students failing the module remained at 34%. The action research applied here provided a number of valuable suggestions from students on how to improve future curricula from their perspective. Most importantly, an interactive online program that facilitated flexibility in the learning space for the different reagents and their interaction in diagnostic tests was proposed. The methods applied to improve and assess a curriculum refresh by involving students as partners in the process, as well as the outcomes, are discussed. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:26753024

  14. Setting the Direction. Partnerships in Action: First Nations, Metis and Inuit Learning Access and Success. A Learning Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Aboriginal Learning Subcommittee looked specifically at developing recommendations that address First Nations, Metis and Inuit learning needs and supports. The Subcommittee proposes policy actions and recommends that all stakeholders work together to implement these actions. The first recommendation for action is to build on partnerships to…

  15. No transfer of calibration between action and perception in learning a golf putting task.

    PubMed

    Van Lier, Wim; Van der Kamp, John; van der Zanden, Anne; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2011-10-01

    We assessed calibration of perception and action in the context of a golf putting task. Previous research has shown that right-handed novice golfers make rightward errors both in the perception of the perfect aiming line from the ball to the hole and in the putting action. Right-handed experts, however, produce accurate putting actions but tend to make leftward errors in perception. In two experiments, we examined whether these skill-related differences in directional error reflect transfer of calibration from action to perception. In the main experiment, three groups of right-handed novice participants followed a pretest, practice, posttest, retention test design. During the tests, directional error for the putting action and the perception of the perfect aiming line were determined. During practice, participants were provided only with verbal outcome feedback about directional error; one group trained perception and the second trained action, whereas the third group did not practice. Practice led to a relatively permanent annihilation of directional error, but these improvements in accuracy were specific to the trained task. Hence, no transfer of calibration occurred between perception and action. The findings are discussed within the two-visual-system model for perception and action, and implications for perceptual learning in action are raised. PMID:21814859

  16. Model learning for robot control: a survey.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Tuong, Duy; Peters, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Models are among the most essential tools in robotics, such as kinematics and dynamics models of the robot's own body and controllable external objects. It is widely believed that intelligent mammals also rely on internal models in order to generate their actions. However, while classical robotics relies on manually generated models that are based on human insights into physics, future autonomous, cognitive robots need to be able to automatically generate models that are based on information which is extracted from the data streams accessible to the robot. In this paper, we survey the progress in model learning with a strong focus on robot control on a kinematic as well as dynamical level. Here, a model describes essential information about the behavior of the environment and the influence of an agent on this environment. In the context of model-based learning control, we view the model from three different perspectives. First, we need to study the different possible model learning architectures for robotics. Second, we discuss what kind of problems these architecture and the domain of robotics imply for the applicable learning methods. From this discussion, we deduce future directions of real-time learning algorithms. Third, we show where these scenarios have been used successfully in several case studies. PMID:21487784

  17. Visual Modelling of Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copperman, Elana; Beeri, Catriel; Ben-Zvi, Nava

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces various visual models for the analysis and description of learning processes. The models analyse learning on two levels: the dynamic level (as a process over time) and the functional level. Two types of model for dynamic modelling are proposed: the session trace, which documents a specific learner in a particular learning…

  18. Multimedia Learning Design Pedagogy: A Hybrid Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsoi, Mun Fie; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides insights on a hybrid learning model for multimedia learning design conceptualized from the Piagetian science learning cycle model and the Kolb's experiential learning model. This model represents learning as a cognitive process in a cycle of four phases, namely, Translating, Sculpting, Operationalizing, and Integrating and is…

  19. Learning reliable manipulation strategies without initial physical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Alan D.; Mason, Matthew T.; Mitchell, Tom M.

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of a robot, possessing limited sensory and effectory capabilities but no initial model of the effects of its actions on the world, that acquires such a model through exploration, practice, and observation. By acquiring an increasingly correct model of its actions, it generates increasingly successful plans to achieve its goals. In an apparently nondeterministic world, achieving reliability requires the identification of reliable actions and a preference for using such actions. Furthermore, by selecting its training actions carefully, the robot can significantly improve its learning rate.

  20. Project InterActions: A Multigenerational Robotic Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bers, Marina U.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents Project InterActions, a series of 5-week workshops in which very young learners (4- to 7-year-old children) and their parents come together to build and program a personally meaningful robotic project in the context of a multigenerational robotics-based community of practice. The goal of these family workshops is to teach both parents and children about the mechanical and programming aspects involved in robotics, as well as to initiate them in a learning trajectory with and about technology. Results from this project address different ways in which parents and children learn together and provide insights into how to develop educational interventions that would educate parents, as well as children, in new domains of knowledge and skills such as robotics and new technologies.

  1. A Playbook for Data: Real-Life Scenario Demonstrates Learning Forward's Data Standard in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie; Hord, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    This article is an excerpt from "A Playbook for Professional Learning: Putting the Standards Into Action" (Learning Forward, 2012). Written by Learning Forward Executive Director Stephanie Hirsh and Scholar Laureate Shirley Hord, "A Playbook for Professional Learning" provides those who work in professional learning with readily accessible…

  2. The 3P Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatti, Mohamed Amine; Jarke, Matthias; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing the failures of traditional Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) initiatives to achieve performance improvement, we need to rethink how we design new TEL models that can respond to the learning requirements of the 21st century and mirror the characteristics of knowledge and learning which are fundamentally personal, social, distributed,…

  3. Reflective Internet Searching: An Action Research Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sylvia Lauretta; Bruce, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Presents an action research model of planning, acting, recording, and reflecting as an approach to Internet searching. Explains how the constantly changing Internet environment requires continuous reassessment of search tools and strategies and development of new techniques. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

  4. Modelling the control of interceptive actions.

    PubMed Central

    Beek, P J; Dessing, J C; Peper, C E; Bullock, D

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, several phenomenological dynamical models have been formulated that describe how perceptual variables are incorporated in the control of motor variables. We call these short-route models as they do not address how perception-action patterns might be constrained by the dynamical properties of the sensory, neural and musculoskeletal subsystems of the human action system. As an alternative, we advocate a long-route modelling approach in which the dynamics of these subsystems are explicitly addressed and integrated to reproduce interceptive actions. The approach is exemplified through a discussion of a recently developed model for interceptive actions consisting of a neural network architecture for the online generation of motor outflow commands, based on time-to-contact information and information about the relative positions and velocities of hand and ball. This network is shown to be consistent with both behavioural and neurophysiological data. Finally, some problems are discussed with regard to the question of how the motor outflow commands (i.e. the intended movement) might be modulated in view of the musculoskeletal dynamics. PMID:14561342

  5. Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Angela R.; Buchanan, Natasha D.; Fairley, Temeika L.; Smith, Judith Lee

    2016-01-01

    Long-term objectives associated with cancer survivors have been suggested by Healthy People 2020, including increasing the proportion of survivors living beyond 5 years after diagnosis and improving survivors’ mental and physical health-related quality of life. Prior to reaching these objectives, several intermediate steps must be taken to improve the physical, social, emotional, and financial well-being of cancer survivors. Public health has a role in developing strategic, actionable, and measurable approaches to facilitate change at multiple levels to improve the lives of survivors and their families. The social ecological model has been used by the public health community as the foundation of multilevel intervention design and implementation, encouraging researchers and practitioners to explore methods that promote internal and external changes at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels. The survivorship community, including public health professionals, providers, policymakers, survivors, advocates, and caregivers, must work collaboratively to identify, develop, and implement interventions that benefit cancer survivors. The National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship highlights public health domains and associated strategies that can be the impetus for collaboration between and among the levels in the social ecological model and are integral to improving survivor outcomes. This paper describes the Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship, an integrative framework that combines the National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship with the social ecological model to demonstrate how interaction among the various levels may promote better outcomes for survivors. PMID:26590641

  6. How Action-Learning Coaches Foster a Climate Conducive to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sara Henderson

    2011-01-01

    Today's businesses rely on the effective functioning of self-directed work teams to learn how to solve complex problems and take action. A key factor in a team's ability to perform in this manner is a group climate characterized by psychological safety. Psychological safety must often compete with a climate of evaluative pressure frequently found…

  7. Using Collaborative Action Learning Projects to Increase the Impact of Management Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyso, Ingunn Hybertsen; Mjoen, Kristian; Levin, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the field of human resource development by exploring the conditions that influence the organizational impact of action learning projects. Many organizations use such projects as an integral part of their management development programs. Past research on action learning projects has shown how balancing action and…

  8. Facilitating Organizational Development through Action Learning--Some Practical and Theoretical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnenberg, Otmar; De Loo, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    Action learning programmes are supposed to result in both personal and organizational development. However, organizational development can be negligible because, as the term implies, a connection must be secured between what has been learned by action learning participants and other members of an organization. Here, the facilitation and analysis…

  9. Moving from Opportunism to Expediency When Introducing Action Learning into an Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodworth, Mike

    2014-01-01

    During my first year of practice as a new action learning facilitator undertaking an "ILM Level 5 Certificate in Action Learning Facilitation", an innovative Individual Service Fund pilot was launched by "Certitude", the organisation for which I work. The aim of this pilot was to enable people with learning disabilities and…

  10. Animating Critical Action Learning: Process-Based Leadership and Management Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trehan, Kiran; Pedler, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Increasing attention is focusing on the value of critical approaches to enhancing leadership and management development processes. This paper examines how a critical action learning perspectives can be harnessed to produce valuable learning and development through critically reflective practise. Critical action learning approaches not only explore…

  11. The Implementation of Models-Based Practice in Physical Education through Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Ashley; Dyson, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of action research as a framework to investigate cooperative learning and tactical games as instructional models in physical education (PE). The teacher/researcher taught a tennis unit using a combination of Cooperative Learning and Teaching Games for Understanding to three classes of boys aged…

  12. Predicting terrorist actions using sequence learning and past events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, Harald; Das, Subrata K.; Zacharias, Greg L.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes the application of sequence learning to the domain of terrorist group actions. The goal is to make accurate predictions of future events based on learning from past history. The past history of the group is represented as a sequence of events. Well-established sequence learning approaches are used to generate temporal rules from the event sequence. In order to represent all the possible events involving a terrorist group activities, an event taxonomy has been created that organizes the events into a hierarchical structure. The event taxonomy is applied when events are extracted, and the hierarchical form of the taxonomy is especially useful when only scant information is available about an event. The taxonomy can also be used to generate temporal rules at various levels of abstraction. The generated temporal rules are used to generate predictions that can be compared to actual events for evaluation. The approach was tested on events collected for a four-year period from relevant newspaper articles and other open-source literature. Temporal rules were generated based on the first half of the data, and predictions were generated for the second half of the data. Evaluation yielded a high hit rate and a moderate false-alarm rate.

  13. Learning of Action Through Adaptive Combination of Motor Primitives

    PubMed Central

    Thoroughman, Kurt A.; Shadmehr, Reza

    2008-01-01

    Understanding how the brain constructs movements remains a fundamental challenge in neuroscience. The brain may control complex movements through flexible combination of motor primitives1, where each primitive is an element of computation in the sensorimotor map that transforms desired limb trajectories into motor commands. Theoretical studies have shown that a system’s ability to learn actions depends on the shape of its primitives2. Using a time-series analysis of error patterns, here we find evidence that humans learn dynamics of reaching movements through flexible combination of primitives that have Gaussian-like tuning functions encoding hand velocity. The wide tuning of the inferred primitives predicts limitations on the brain’s ability to represent viscous dynamics. We find close agreement between the predicted limitations and subjects’ adaptation to novel force fields. The mathematical properties of the derived primitives resemble the tuning curves of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Activity of these cells may encode primitives that underlie learning of dynamics. PMID:11048720

  14. Action Learning: a new method to increase tractor rollover protective structure (ROPS) adoption.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Elyce Anne; Keane, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Action Learning is a problem-solving process that is used in various industries to address difficult problems. This project applied Action Learning to a leading problem in agricultural safety. Tractor overturns are the leading cause of fatal injury to farmworkers. This cause of injury is preventable using rollover protective structures (ROPS), protective equipment that functions as a roll bar structure to protect the operator in the event of an overturn. For agricultural tractors manufactured after 1976 and employee operated, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulation requires employers to equip them with ROPS and seat belts. By the mid-1980s, US tractor manufacturers began adding ROPS on all farm tractors over 20 horsepower sold in the United States (http://www.nasdonline.org/document/113/d001656/rollover-protection-for-farm-tractor-operators.html). However, many older tractors remain in use without ROPS, putting tractor operators at continued risk for traumatic injury and fatality. For many older tractor models ROPS are available for retrofit, but for a variety of reasons, tractor owners have not chosen to retrofit those ROPS. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) attempted various means to ameliorate this occupational safety risk, including the manufacture of a low-cost ROPS for self-assembly. Other approaches address barriers to adoption. An Action Learning approach to increasing adoption of ROPS was followed in Virginia and New York, with mixed results. Virginia took action to increase the manufacturing and adoption of ROPS, but New York saw problems that would be insurmountable. Increased focus on team composition might be needed to establish effective Action Learning teams to address this problem. PMID:22994641

  15. A Computer Model of Simple Forms of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas L.

    A basic unsolved problem in science is that of understanding learning, the process by which people and machines use their experience in a situation to guide future action in similar situations. The ideas of Piaget, Pavlov, Hull, and other learning theorists, as well as previous heuristic programing models of human intelligence, stimulated this…

  16. Robots Show Us How to Teach Them: Feedback from Robots Shapes Tutoring Behavior during Action Learning

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Mühlig, Manuel; Steil, Jochen J.; Pitsch, Karola; Fritsch, Jannik; Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Wrede, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Robot learning by imitation requires the detection of a tutor's action demonstration and its relevant parts. Current approaches implicitly assume a unidirectional transfer of knowledge from tutor to learner. The presented work challenges this predominant assumption based on an extensive user study with an autonomously interacting robot. We show that by providing feedback, a robot learner influences the human tutor's movement demonstrations in the process of action learning. We argue that the robot's feedback strongly shapes how tutors signal what is relevant to an action and thus advocate a paradigm shift in robot action learning research toward truly interactive systems learning in and benefiting from interaction. PMID:24646510

  17. The role of action effects in 12-month-olds' action control: a comparison of televised model and live model.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette M; Hauf, Petra; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated differences in infant imitation after watching a televised model and a live model and addressed the issue of whether action effects influence infants' action control in both cases. In a 2x2 design, 12-month-old infants observed a live or a televised model performing a three-step action sequence, in which either the 2nd or the 3rd action step was combined with an acoustical action effect. We assumed that infants would use the observed action-effect relations for their own action control in the test phase afterwards. Even though results exhibited differences in the absolute amount of imitation between the two demonstration groups, both groups showed similar result patterns regarding the action effect manipulation: infants imitated the action step that was followed by a salient action effect more often and mostly as the first target action, emphasizing the important role of action effects in infants' action control. PMID:17138306

  18. Model-based machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications. PMID:23277612

  19. Model-based machine learning.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Christopher M

    2013-02-13

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications. PMID:23277612

  20. Preclinical models of antipsychotic drug action

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, José L.; González-Maeso, Javier

    2016-01-01

    One of the main obstacles faced by translational neuroscience is the development of animal models of psychiatric disorders. Behavioural pharmacology studies indicate that psychedelic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and dissociative drugs, such as phencyclidine (PCP), induce in healthy human volunteers psychotic and cognitive symptoms that resemble some of those observed in schizophrenia patients. Serotonin 5-HT2A and metabotropic glutamate 2 receptors have been involved in the mechanism of action of psychedelic and dissociative drugs. Here we review recent advances using LSD-like and PCP-like drugs in rodent models that implicate these receptors in the neurobiology of schizophrenia and its treatment. PMID:23745738

  1. Evolution and Reconstruction of Learning Cities for Sustainable Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Connie; Wu, Aimee Tiu

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how the concept of learning cities evolved from the "learning society" and the lifelong education and learning movements, and advances multiple forms of communities of learning.

  2. Efficient model learning methods for actor-critic control.

    PubMed

    Grondman, Ivo; Vaandrager, Maarten; Buşoniu, Lucian; Babuska, Robert; Schuitema, Erik

    2012-06-01

    We propose two new actor-critic algorithms for reinforcement learning. Both algorithms use local linear regression (LLR) to learn approximations of the functions involved. A crucial feature of the algorithms is that they also learn a process model, and this, in combination with LLR, provides an efficient policy update for faster learning. The first algorithm uses a novel model-based update rule for the actor parameters. The second algorithm does not use an explicit actor but learns a reference model which represents a desired behavior, from which desired control actions can be calculated using the inverse of the learned process model. The two novel methods and a standard actor-critic algorithm are applied to the pendulum swing-up problem, in which the novel methods achieve faster learning than the standard algorithm. PMID:22156998

  3. Influence of Action-Effect Associations Acquired by Ideomotor Learning on Imitation

    PubMed Central

    Bunlon, Frédérique; Marshall, Peter J.; Quandt, Lorna C.; Bouquet, Cedric A.

    2015-01-01

    According to the ideomotor theory, actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects, offering a solution for the correspondence problem of imitation (how to translate the observed action into a corresponding motor output). This effect-based coding of action is assumed to be acquired through action-effect learning. Accordingly, performing an action leads to the integration of the perceptual codes of the action effects with the motor commands that brought them about. While ideomotor theory is invoked to account for imitation, the influence of action-effect learning on imitative behavior remains unexplored. In two experiments, imitative performance was measured in a reaction time task following a phase of action-effect acquisition. During action-effect acquisition, participants freely executed a finger movement (index or little finger lifting), and then observed a similar (compatible learning) or a different (incompatible learning) movement. In Experiment 1, finger movements of left and right hands were presented as action-effects during acquisition. In Experiment 2, only right-hand finger movements were presented during action-effect acquisition and in the imitation task the observed hands were oriented orthogonally to participants’ hands in order to avoid spatial congruency effects. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that imitative performance was improved after compatible learning, compared to incompatible learning. In Experiment 2, although action-effect learning involved perception of finger movements of right hand only, imitative capabilities of right- and left-hand finger movements were equally affected. These results indicate that an observed movement stimulus processed as the effect of an action can later prime execution of that action, confirming the ideomotor approach to imitation. We further discuss these findings in relation to previous studies of action-effect learning and in the framework of current ideomotor approaches to imitation. PMID:25793755

  4. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  5. Independent Learning Models: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, R. E. Y.

    Five models of independent learning are suitable for use in adult education programs. The common factor is a facilitator who works in some way with the student in the learning process. They display different characteristics, including the extent of independence in relation to content and/or process. Nondirective tutorial instruction and learning…

  6. Inquiring into the Dilemmas of Implementing Action Learning. Innovative Session 6. [Concurrent Innovative Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorks, Lyle; Dilworth, Robert L.; Marquardt, Michael J.; Marsick, Victoria; O'Neil, Judy

    Action learning is receiving increasing attention from human resource development (HRD) practitioners and the HRD management literature. Action learning has been characterized as follows: (1) working in small groups to take action on meaningful problems while seeking to learn from having taken the specified action lies at the foundation of action…

  7. Learning to Model in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainsburg, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Policymakers and education scholars recommend incorporating mathematical modeling into mathematics education. Limited implementation of modeling instruction in schools, however, has constrained research on how students learn to model, leaving unresolved debates about whether modeling should be reified and explicitly taught as a competence, whether…

  8. Innovation Development--An Action Learning Programme for Medical Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beniston, Lee; Ellwood, Paul; Gold, Jeff; Roberts, James; Thorpe, Richard

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that action learning is valuable in a higher education setting. This paper goes on to report a personal development programme, based on principles of critical action learning, where the aim is to equip early-career scientists and engineers working in a university setting with the knowledge, skills and confidence to…

  9. "Knowing Is Not Enough; We Must Apply": Reflections on a Failed Action Learning Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects upon a sub-optimal action learning application with a strategic business re-design project. The objective of the project was to improve the long-term business performance of a subsidiary business and build the strategic plan. Action learning was introduced to aid the group in expanding their view of the real problems…

  10. A Framework for the Development of Organizational Commitment Using Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishna, Vijay; Marquardt, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Organizational commitment has been explored extensively over the past 40 years because of its benefits to individuals and the organization. Action learning, in turn, has been used by companies worldwide to develop leaders, teams and organizations. No study, however, has been undertaken to determine how action learning might develop organizational…

  11. The Narrative Turn in Action Learning Practices: From Restitution to Quest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Mandy; Yates, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Discourse genres of narrative and dialogue are integral to action learning approaches. Whilst an examination of dialogue as the mode of critical thinking, sense making and strategising has been thorough, we suggest that there has been scant attention paid to the role of narrative in action learning practices. In this paper the authors present a…

  12. Doing Different Things or Doing Things Different: Exploring the Role of Action Learning in Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Christine; Weiss, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The notion of action learning driven innovation is explored with reference to three action-learning projects carried out in the last year and a proposed multi stakeholder project starting in 2016. The authors also provide an account of "innovation", including its rationale and characteristics, and argues for its particular suitability in…

  13. Participatory Action Research and Environmental Learning: Implications for Resilient Forests and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…

  14. Critical by Design: Enacting Critical Action Learning in a Small Business Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Monder; Trehan, Kiran

    2009-01-01

    A small but growing strand of literature is beginning to make the case for "critical action learning" (CAL). Much of this interest operates on theoretical terrain, speculating on the extent to which it might differ from more conventional notions of action learning. This paper draws on insights from (CAL) to demonstrate the importance of being…

  15. Human Dorsal Striatum Encodes Prediction Errors during Observational Learning of Instrumental Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jeffrey C.; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of…

  16. Participating in a Collaborative Action Learning Set (CAL): Beginning the Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Brendan; Henderson, Elizabeth; Boomer, Christine; Collin, Ita; Robinson, David

    2008-01-01

    Action learning is being increasingly utilised as a strategy to underpin practitioner focused development and research projects in healthcare generally and nursing in particular. Whilst facilitators of and participants in action learning have a variety of resource materials to guide their practice and participation, there continue to be few…

  17. Leading Change in Tissue Viability Best Practice: An Action Learning Programme for Link Nurse Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellie, Jean; Henderson, Eileen; Milsom, Brian; Crawley, Hayley

    2010-01-01

    This account of practice reports on an action learning initiative designed and implemented in partnership between a regional NHS Acute Trust and a UK Business School. The central initiative was the implementation of an action learning programme entitled "Leading change in tissue viability best practice: a development programme for Link Nurse…

  18. "Cast Your Net Widely": Three Steps to Expanding and Refining Your Problem before Action Learning Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects upon a three-step process to expand the problem definition in the early stages of an action learning project. The process created a community-powered problem-solving approach within the action learning context. The simple three steps expanded upon in the paper create independence, dependence, and inter-dependence to aid the…

  19. Developing Results-Based Leadership Attributes and Team Cohesiveness through Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troupe, David

    2010-01-01

    Those who develop leaders in manufacturing settings have little data that describe the usefulness of action learning as a method of developing leaders' abilities to improve results-based leadership attributes or perceptions about their team's cohesiveness. The two purposes of this study were to evaluate an action learning program with regards to…

  20. The Impact of Action Learning: What Difference Are We Making in the World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Arthur; Heneberry, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Involvement in a number of action-learning programmes and associated development opportunities has led the Professional Development Centre Limited to question the relevance of a strict adherence to the "rules" of action learning as described by Reg Revans. A deliberate focus of one such programme to a financial services organisation offered some…

  1. Launch of Revans Academy for Action Learning and Research: Manchester Business School November 26, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the launching of the Revans Academy for Action Learning and Research at Manchester Business School on 26 November 2008. The goal of the Academy is to foster the development of action learning as a unifying framework within Manchester Business School. Its goal is to provide a hub for dialogue, collaboration, exploitation and…

  2. Exploring Action Learning: How to Use and Promote "Learning through Action" in Challenging Times: A One-Day Conference at Henley Business School--30 September, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heywood, John

    2009-01-01

    Action learning (AL) has been called the "engine of the learning organisation". It has been demonstrated that it can help individuals adapt to, and be more effective in, the fast-changing world. This article reports on a one-day conference held at Henley Business School. The conference was jointly organised by Henley Business School and by the…

  3. Corticostriatal circuit mechanisms of value-based action selection: Implementation of reinforcement learning algorithms and beyond.

    PubMed

    Morita, Kenji; Jitsev, Jenia; Morrison, Abigail

    2016-09-15

    Value-based action selection has been suggested to be realized in the corticostriatal local circuits through competition among neural populations. In this article, we review theoretical and experimental studies that have constructed and verified this notion, and provide new perspectives on how the local-circuit selection mechanisms implement reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms and computations beyond them. The striatal neurons are mostly inhibitory, and lateral inhibition among them has been classically proposed to realize "Winner-Take-All (WTA)" selection of the maximum-valued action (i.e., 'max' operation). Although this view has been challenged by the revealed weakness, sparseness, and asymmetry of lateral inhibition, which suggest more complex dynamics, WTA-like competition could still occur on short time scales. Unlike the striatal circuit, the cortical circuit contains recurrent excitation, which may enable retention or temporal integration of information and probabilistic "soft-max" selection. The striatal "max" circuit and the cortical "soft-max" circuit might co-implement an RL algorithm called Q-learning; the cortical circuit might also similarly serve for other algorithms such as SARSA. In these implementations, the cortical circuit presumably sustains activity representing the executed action, which negatively impacts dopamine neurons so that they can calculate reward-prediction-error. Regarding the suggested more complex dynamics of striatal, as well as cortical, circuits on long time scales, which could be viewed as a sequence of short WTA fragments, computational roles remain open: such a sequence might represent (1) sequential state-action-state transitions, constituting replay or simulation of the internal model, (2) a single state/action by the whole trajectory, or (3) probabilistic sampling of state/action. PMID:27173430

  4. Can model-free reinforcement learning explain deontological moral judgments?

    PubMed

    Ayars, Alisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Dual-systems frameworks propose that moral judgments are derived from both an immediate emotional response, and controlled/rational cognition. Recently Cushman (2013) proposed a new dual-system theory based on model-free and model-based reinforcement learning. Model-free learning attaches values to actions based on their history of reward and punishment, and explains some deontological, non-utilitarian judgments. Model-based learning involves the construction of a causal model of the world and allows for far-sighted planning; this form of learning fits well with utilitarian considerations that seek to maximize certain kinds of outcomes. I present three concerns regarding the use of model-free reinforcement learning to explain deontological moral judgment. First, many actions that humans find aversive from model-free learning are not judged to be morally wrong. Moral judgment must require something in addition to model-free learning. Second, there is a dearth of evidence for central predictions of the reinforcement account-e.g., that people with different reinforcement histories will, all else equal, make different moral judgments. Finally, to account for the effect of intention within the framework requires certain assumptions which lack support. These challenges are reasonable foci for future empirical/theoretical work on the model-free/model-based framework. PMID:26918742

  5. Model-based action planning involves cortico-cerebellar and basal ganglia networks.

    PubMed

    Fermin, Alan S R; Yoshida, Takehiko; Yoshimoto, Junichiro; Ito, Makoto; Tanaka, Saori C; Doya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Humans can select actions by learning, planning, or retrieving motor memories. Reinforcement Learning (RL) associates these processes with three major classes of strategies for action selection: exploratory RL learns state-action values by exploration, model-based RL uses internal models to simulate future states reached by hypothetical actions, and motor-memory RL selects past successful state-action mapping. In order to investigate the neural substrates that implement these strategies, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment while humans performed a sequential action selection task under conditions that promoted the use of a specific RL strategy. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum increased activity in the exploratory condition; the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsomedial striatum, and lateral cerebellum in the model-based condition; and the supplementary motor area, putamen, and anterior cerebellum in the motor-memory condition. These findings suggest that a distinct prefrontal-basal ganglia and cerebellar network implements the model-based RL action selection strategy. PMID:27539554

  6. Model-based action planning involves cortico-cerebellar and basal ganglia networks

    PubMed Central

    Fermin, Alan S. R.; Yoshida, Takehiko; Yoshimoto, Junichiro; Ito, Makoto; Tanaka, Saori C.; Doya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Humans can select actions by learning, planning, or retrieving motor memories. Reinforcement Learning (RL) associates these processes with three major classes of strategies for action selection: exploratory RL learns state-action values by exploration, model-based RL uses internal models to simulate future states reached by hypothetical actions, and motor-memory RL selects past successful state-action mapping. In order to investigate the neural substrates that implement these strategies, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment while humans performed a sequential action selection task under conditions that promoted the use of a specific RL strategy. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum increased activity in the exploratory condition; the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsomedial striatum, and lateral cerebellum in the model-based condition; and the supplementary motor area, putamen, and anterior cerebellum in the motor-memory condition. These findings suggest that a distinct prefrontal-basal ganglia and cerebellar network implements the model-based RL action selection strategy. PMID:27539554

  7. Implementing the learning health system: from concept to action.

    PubMed

    Greene, Sarah M; Reid, Robert J; Larson, Eric B

    2012-08-01

    Clinicians and health systems are facing widespread challenges, including changes in care delivery, escalating health care costs, and the need to keep up with rapid scientific discovery. Reorganizing U.S. health care and changing its practices to render better, more affordable care requires transformation in how health systems generate and apply knowledge. The "rapid-learning health system"-posited as a conceptual strategy to spur such transformation-leverages recent developments in health information technology and a growing health data infrastructure to access and apply evidence in real time, while simultaneously drawing knowledge from real-world care-delivery processes to promote innovation and health system change on the basis of rigorous research. This article describes an evolving learning health system at Group Health Cooperative, the 6 phases characterizing its approach, and examples of organization-wide applications. This practical model promotes bidirectional discovery and an open mind at the system level, resulting in willingness to make changes on the basis of evidence that is both scientifically sound and practice-based. Rapid learning must be valued as a health system property to realize its full potential for knowledge generation and application. PMID:22868839

  8. Representing Learning With Graphical Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray L.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Probabilistic graphical models are being used widely in artificial intelligence, for instance, in diagnosis and expert systems, as a unified qualitative and quantitative framework for representing and reasoning with probabilities and independencies. Their development and use spans several fields including artificial intelligence, decision theory and statistics, and provides an important bridge between these communities. This paper shows by way of example that these models can be extended to machine learning, neural networks and knowledge discovery by representing the notion of a sample on the graphical model. Not only does this allow a flexible variety of learning problems to be represented, it also provides the means for representing the goal of learning and opens the way for the automatic development of learning algorithms from specifications.

  9. The Reflective Teacher Leader: An Action Research Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtado, Leena; Anderson, Dawnette

    2012-01-01

    This study presents four teacher reflections from action research projects ranging from kindergarten to adult school improvements. A teacher leadership matrix guided participants to connect teaching and learning theory to best practices by exploring uncharted territory within an iterative cycle of research and action. Teachers developed the…

  10. Learning from Their Own Actions: The Unique Effect of Producing Actions on Infants' Action Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests that infants' action production affects their action understanding, but little is known about the aspects of motor experience that render these effects. In Study 1, the relative contributions of self-produced (n = 30) and observational (n = 30) action experience on 3-month-old infants' action understanding was…

  11. Flexible and Inexpensive: Improving Learning Transfer and Program Evaluation through Participant Action Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Chris A.; Goldman, Ellen F.; Hook, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Action plans have been shown to improve transfer of learning and have proven an effective tool in training evaluation. This study describes how action planning was simply and successfully adapted to a preexisting curriculum with few additional resources. The decision to use participant action planning, the administration of it, and the…

  12. The Impact of Being Part of an Action Learning Set for New Lecturers: A Reflective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haith, Mark P.; Whittingham, Katrina A.

    2012-01-01

    What is an action learning set (ALS)? An ALS is a regular, action focused peer discussion group, generally facilitated, to address work place issues. Methods of undertaking ALS: methods are flexible within a range of approaches according to the group's developing needs. Benefits of ALS: builds trust, professional development, enables action,…

  13. Education as Sustainability: An Action Research Study of the Burns Model of Sustainability Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Postsecondary teaching and learning must be reoriented to equip learners with the knowledge, skills, and values they will need for creating a more sustainable world. This action research study examined the effects of implementing the "Burns model of sustainability pedagogy" in university courses taught by the researcher. This model is comprised of…

  14. Action-outcome learning and prediction shape the window of simultaneity of audiovisual outcomes.

    PubMed

    Desantis, Andrea; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    To form a coherent representation of the objects around us, the brain must group the different sensory features composing these objects. Here, we investigated whether actions contribute in this grouping process. In particular, we assessed whether action-outcome learning and prediction contribute to audiovisual temporal binding. Participants were presented with two audiovisual pairs: one pair was triggered by a left action, and the other by a right action. In a later test phase, the audio and visual components of these pairs were presented at different onset times. Participants judged whether they were simultaneous or not. To assess the role of action-outcome prediction on audiovisual simultaneity, each action triggered either the same audiovisual pair as in the learning phase ('predicted' pair), or the pair that had previously been associated with the other action ('unpredicted' pair). We found the time window within which auditory and visual events appeared simultaneous increased for predicted compared to unpredicted pairs. However, no change in audiovisual simultaneity was observed when audiovisual pairs followed visual cues, rather than voluntary actions. This suggests that only action-outcome learning promotes temporal grouping of audio and visual effects. In a second experiment we observed that changes in audiovisual simultaneity do not only depend on our ability to predict what outcomes our actions generate, but also on learning the delay between the action and the multisensory outcome. When participants learned that the delay between action and audiovisual pair was variable, the window of audiovisual simultaneity for predicted pairs increased, relative to a fixed action-outcome pair delay. This suggests that participants learn action-based predictions of audiovisual outcome, and adapt their temporal perception of outcome events based on such predictions. PMID:27131076

  15. Moving the Classroom Outdoors: Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broda, Herbert W.

    2011-01-01

    Since Herb Broda published Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning, his groundbreaking first book on outdoor learning, many schools across North America have embraced the benefits of "greening" their learning programs. Herb has visited dozens of these schools and nature centers, and he showcases the very best examples of schoolyard-enhanced learning in…

  16. Promoting Quality for Teacher Action Research: Lessons Learned from Science Teachers' Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Feldman, Allan

    2006-01-01

    In this article we explore the concept of quality in teacher action research by re-examining our participation with science teachers in several different collaborative action research projects. We conducted second-order action research and generated a series reflexive conditions for promoting and ensuring quality action research. We assert that a…

  17. Novel associative-memory-based self-learning neurocontrol model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke

    1992-09-01

    Intelligent control is an important field of AI application, which is closely related to machine learning, and the neurocontrol is a kind of intelligent control that controls actions of a physical system or a plant. Linear associative memory model is a good analytic tool for artificial neural networks. In this paper, we present a novel self-learning neurocontrol on the basis of the linear associative memory model to support intelligent control. Using our self-learning neurocontrol model, the learning process is viewed as an extension of one of J. Piaget's developmental stages. After a particular linear associative model developed by us is presented, a brief introduction to J. Piaget's cognitive theory is described as the basis of our self-learning style control. It follows that the neurocontrol model is presented, which usually includes two learning stages, viz. primary learning and high-level learning. As a demonstration of our neurocontrol model, an example is also presented with simulation techniques, called that `bird' catches an aim. The tentative experimental results show that the learning and controlling performance of this approach is surprisingly good. In conclusion, future research is pointed out to improve our self-learning neurocontrol model and explore other areas of application.

  18. Concept Model on Topological Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ae, Tadashi; Kioi, Kazumasa

    2010-11-01

    We discuss a new model for concept based on topological learning, where the learning process on the neural network is represented by mathematical topology. The topological learning of neural networks is summarized by a quotient of input space and the hierarchical step induces a tree where each node corresponds to a quotient. In general, the concept acquisition is a difficult problem, but the emotion for a subject is represented by providing the questions to a person. Therefore, a kind of concept is captured by such data and the answer sheet can be mapped into a topology consisting of trees. In this paper, we will discuss a way of mapping the emotional concept to a topological learning model.

  19. A Visual Detection Learning Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Bettina L.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Trejo, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Our learning model has memory templates representing the target-plus-noise and noise-alone stimulus sets. The best correlating template determines the response. The correlations and the feedback participate in the additive template updating rule. The model can predict the relative thresholds for detection in random, fixed and twin noise.

  20. Modelling Routes towards Learning Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tattersall, Colin; Janssen, Jose; van den Berg, Bert; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to define the need for a route modelling language in e-learning, identifying requirements and candidate languages, before providing a recommended approach. Design/methodology/approach: Several sources of requirements are drawn from the literature then used to review available approaches to route modelling. The best…

  1. Recording Single Neurons' Action Potentials from Freely Moving Pigeons Across Three Stages of Learning

    PubMed Central

    Güntürkün, Onur

    2014-01-01

    While the subject of learning has attracted immense interest from both behavioral and neural scientists, only relatively few investigators have observed single-neuron activity while animals are acquiring an operantly conditioned response, or when that response is extinguished. But even in these cases, observation periods usually encompass only a single stage of learning, i.e. acquisition or extinction, but not both (exceptions include protocols employing reversal learning; see Bingman et al.1 for an example). However, acquisition and extinction entail different learning mechanisms and are therefore expected to be accompanied by different types and/or loci of neural plasticity. Accordingly, we developed a behavioral paradigm which institutes three stages of learning in a single behavioral session and which is well suited for the simultaneous recording of single neurons' action potentials. Animals are trained on a single-interval forced choice task which requires mapping each of two possible choice responses to the presentation of different novel visual stimuli (acquisition). After having reached a predefined performance criterion, one of the two choice responses is no longer reinforced (extinction). Following a certain decrement in performance level, correct responses are reinforced again (reacquisition). By using a new set of stimuli in every session, animals can undergo the acquisition-extinction-reacquisition process repeatedly. Because all three stages of learning occur in a single behavioral session, the paradigm is ideal for the simultaneous observation of the spiking output of multiple single neurons. We use pigeons as model systems, but the task can easily be adapted to any other species capable of conditioned discrimination learning. PMID:24961391

  2. Additive Routes to Action Learning: Layering Experience Shapes Engagement of the Action Observation Network

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Cross, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation. PMID:26209850

  3. Neural model for learning-to-learn of novel task sets in the motor domain

    PubMed Central

    Pitti, Alexandre; Braud, Raphaël; Mahé, Sylvain; Quoy, Mathias; Gaussier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    During development, infants learn to differentiate their motor behaviors relative to various contexts by exploring and identifying the correct structures of causes and effects that they can perform; these structures of actions are called task sets or internal models. The ability to detect the structure of new actions, to learn them and to select on the fly the proper one given the current task set is one great leap in infants cognition. This behavior is an important component of the child's ability of learning-to-learn, a mechanism akin to the one of intrinsic motivation that is argued to drive cognitive development. Accordingly, we propose to model a dual system based on (1) the learning of new task sets and on (2) their evaluation relative to their uncertainty and prediction error. The architecture is designed as a two-level-based neural system for context-dependent behavior (the first system) and task exploration and exploitation (the second system). In our model, the task sets are learned separately by reinforcement learning in the first network after their evaluation and selection in the second one. We perform two different experimental setups to show the sensorimotor mapping and switching between tasks, a first one in a neural simulation for modeling cognitive tasks and a second one with an arm-robot for motor task learning and switching. We show that the interplay of several intrinsic mechanisms drive the rapid formation of the neural populations with respect to novel task sets. PMID:24155736

  4. The Binding of Learning to Action in Motor Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez Castro, Luis Nicolas; Monsen, Craig Bryant; Smith, Maurice A.

    2011-01-01

    In motor tasks, errors between planned and actual movements generally result in adaptive changes which reduce the occurrence of similar errors in the future. It has commonly been assumed that the motor adaptation arising from an error occurring on a particular movement is specifically associated with the motion that was planned. Here we show that this is not the case. Instead, we demonstrate the binding of the adaptation arising from an error on a particular trial to the motion experienced on that same trial. The formation of this association means that future movements planned to resemble the motion experienced on a given trial benefit maximally from the adaptation arising from it. This reflects the idea that actual rather than planned motions are assigned ‘credit’ for motor errors because, in a computational sense, the maximal adaptive response would be associated with the condition credited with the error. We studied this process by examining the patterns of generalization associated with motor adaptation to novel dynamic environments during reaching arm movements in humans. We found that these patterns consistently matched those predicted by adaptation associated with the actual rather than the planned motion, with maximal generalization observed where actual motions were clustered. We followed up these findings by showing that a novel training procedure designed to leverage this newfound understanding of the binding of learning to action, can improve adaptation rates by greater than 50%. Our results provide a mechanistic framework for understanding the effects of partial assistance and error augmentation during neurologic rehabilitation, and they suggest ways to optimize their use. PMID:21731476

  5. Implementing Action Research and Professional Learning Communities in a Professional Development School Setting to Support Teacher Candidate Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews teacher candidates' use of action research and the Professional Learning Community (PLC) concept to support their work in their pre-student teaching field experience. In this research study, teacher candidates are involved in a professional development school relationship that uses action research and PLCs to support candidate…

  6. Connecting Learning and Work: A Call to Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Connecting Learning and Work is a set of initiatives that combines education reform, work-force preparation, and economic development to prepare individuals for a lifetime of learning, citizenship, and career success. This report describes shifts in thinking about how students learn: meeting the needs of learners; schools, communities, and work…

  7. Lifelong Learning in Action: Hong Kong Practitioners' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbin, John, Ed.; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.

    This document consists of 32 papers presenting Hong Kong practitioners' perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Lifelong Learning" (Albert Tuijnman); "Growth and Development of Lifelong Learning in Hong Kong " (John Cribbin); "Competition and Collaboration" (John Cribbin); "A Profile of Hong Kong Adult Learners"…

  8. Hybrid generative-discriminative human action recognition by combining spatiotemporal words with supervised topic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Boliang

    2011-02-01

    We present a hybrid generative-discriminative learning method for human action recognition from video sequences. Our model combines a bag-of-words component with supervised latent topic models. A video sequence is represented as a collection of spatiotemporal words by extracting space-time interest points and describing these points using both shape and motion cues. The supervised latent Dirichlet allocation (sLDA) topic model, which employs discriminative learning using labeled data under a generative framework, is introduced to discover the latent topic structure that is most relevant to action categorization. The proposed algorithm retains most of the desirable properties of generative learning while increasing the classification performance though a discriminative setting. It has also been extended to exploit both labeled data and unlabeled data to learn human actions under a unified framework. We test our algorithm on three challenging data sets: the KTH human motion data set, the Weizmann human action data set, and a ballet data set. Our results are either comparable to or significantly better than previously published results on these data sets and reflect the promise of hybrid generative-discriminative learning approaches.

  9. Remedial action selection using groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, B.I.; Parish, G.B.; Hauge, L.

    1996-12-31

    An environmental investigation uncovered petroleum contamination at a gasoline station in southern Wisconsin. The site was located in part of the ancestral Rock River valley in Rock County, Wisconsin where the valley is filled with sands and gravels. Groundwater pump tests were conducted for determination of aquifer properties needed to plan a remediation system; the results were indicative of a very high hydraulic conductivity. The site hydrogeology was modeled using the U.S. Geological Survey`s groundwater model, Modflow. The calibrated model was used to determine the number, pumping rate, and configuration of recovery wells to remediate the site. The most effective configuration was three wells pumping at 303 liters per minute (1/m) (80 gallons per minute (gpm)), producing a total pumping rate of 908 l/m (240 gpm). Treating 908 l/min (240 gpm) or 1,308,240 liters per day (345,600 gallons per day) constituted a significant volume to be treated and discharged. It was estimated that pumping for the two year remediation would cost $375,000 while the air sparging would cost $200,000. The recommended remedial system consisted of eight air sparging wells and four vapor recovery laterals. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) approved the remedial action plan in March, 1993. After 11 months of effective operation the concentrations of removed VOCs had decreased by 94 percent and groundwater sampling indicated no detectable concentrations of gasoline contaminants. Groundwater modeling was an effective technique to determine the economic feasibility of a groundwater remedial alternative.

  10. The CCAILM Learning Model: An Instructional Model for Teaching and Learning of Engineering Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faleye, Sunday

    2011-01-01

    This research report presents a new teaching and learning model in engineering classes. The proposed learning model is called the CCAILM (constructionist computer aided instructional learning model). This new model was derived from the constructionist learning theory, the media-affects-learning hypothesis and the multiple representation principle.…

  11. Learning to use working memory: a reinforcement learning gating model of rule acquisition in rats.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Kevin; Becker, Nadine; Jones, Matthew W; Bogacz, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    Learning to form appropriate, task-relevant working memory representations is a complex process central to cognition. Gating models frame working memory as a collection of past observations and use reinforcement learning (RL) to solve the problem of when to update these observations. Investigation of how gating models relate to brain and behavior remains, however, at an early stage. The current study sought to explore the ability of simple RL gating models to replicate rule learning behavior in rats. Rats were trained in a maze-based spatial learning task that required animals to make trial-by-trial choices contingent upon their previous experience. Using an abstract version of this task, we tested the ability of two gating algorithms, one based on the Actor-Critic and the other on the State-Action-Reward-State-Action (SARSA) algorithm, to generate behavior consistent with the rats'. Both models produced rule-acquisition behavior consistent with the experimental data, though only the SARSA gating model mirrored faster learning following rule reversal. We also found that both gating models learned multiple strategies in solving the initial task, a property which highlights the multi-agent nature of such models and which is of importance in considering the neural basis of individual differences in behavior. PMID:23115551

  12. From Learning Object to Learning Cell: A Resource Organization Model for Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Shengquan; Yang, Xianmin; Cheng, Gang; Wang, Minjuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new model for organizing learning resources: Learning Cell. This model is open, evolving, cohesive, social, and context-aware. By introducing a time dimension into the organization of learning resources, Learning Cell supports the dynamic evolution of learning resources while they are being used. In addition, by introducing a…

  13. Community-Issues Biology: A Different Kind of Action-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Arthur P.

    1976-01-01

    Described is an action-learning secondary level biology course which combines science, English, and social studies. Guidelines for selecting topics to be presented and three detailed examples of topics that have been included in past courses are presented. (SL)

  14. Code-specific learning rules improve action selection by populations of spiking neurons.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Johannes; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Population coding is widely regarded as a key mechanism for achieving reliable behavioral decisions. We previously introduced reinforcement learning for population-based decision making by spiking neurons. Here we generalize population reinforcement learning to spike-based plasticity rules that take account of the postsynaptic neural code. We consider spike/no-spike, spike count and spike latency codes. The multi-valued and continuous-valued features in the postsynaptic code allow for a generalization of binary decision making to multi-valued decision making and continuous-valued action selection. We show that code-specific learning rules speed up learning both for the discrete classification and the continuous regression tasks. The suggested learning rules also speed up with increasing population size as opposed to standard reinforcement learning rules. Continuous action selection is further shown to explain realistic learning speeds in the Morris water maze. Finally, we introduce the concept of action perturbation as opposed to the classical weight- or node-perturbation as an exploration mechanism underlying reinforcement learning. Exploration in the action space greatly increases the speed of learning as compared to exploration in the neuron or weight space. PMID:24875790

  15. Defining Learning Space in a Serious Game in Terms of Operative and Resultant Actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Michael W.; Shen, Yuzhong

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the distinction between operative and resultant actions in games, and proposes that the learning space created by a serious game is a function of these actions. Further, it suggests a possible relationship between these actions and the forms of cognitive load imposed upon the game player. Association of specific types of cognitive load with respective forms of actions in game mechanics also presents some heuristics for integrating learning content into serious games. Research indicates that different balances of these types of actions are more suitable for novice or experienced learners. By examining these relationships, we can develop a few basic principles of game design which have an increased potential to promote positive learning outcomes.

  16. Teaching Economics: A Cooperative Learning Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caropreso, Edward J.; Haggerty, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Describes an alternative approach to introductory economics based on a cooperative learning model, "Learning Together." Discussion of issues in economics education and cooperative learning in higher education leads to explanation of how to adapt the Learning Together Model to lesson planning in economics. A flow chart illustrates the process for a…

  17. Urban Studies: A Learning Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Terry L.; Sundeen, Richard

    1979-01-01

    The urban studies learning model described in this article was found to increase students' self-esteem, imbue a more flexible and open perspective, contribute to the capacity for self-direction, produce increases on the feeling reactivity, spontaneity, and acceptance of aggression scales, and expand interpersonal competence. (Author/WI)

  18. Problem-Based Learning Associated by Action-Process-Object-Schema (APOS) Theory to Enhance Students' High Order Mathematical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudrikah, Achmad

    2016-01-01

    The research has shown a model of learning activities that can be used to stimulate reflective abstraction in students. Reflective abstraction as a method of constructing knowledge in the Action-Process-Object-Schema theory, and is expected to occur when students are in learning activities, will be able to encourage students to make the process of…

  19. The Effects of the Coordination Support on Shared Mental Models and Coordinated Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunsong; Kim, Dongsik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of coordination support (tool support and tutor support) on the development of shared mental models (SMMs) and coordinated action in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Eighteen students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions, including the tool condition, the…

  20. Live action: can young children learn verbs from video?

    PubMed

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Parish-Morris, Julia; Golinkoff, Roberta M

    2009-01-01

    The availability of educational programming aimed at infants and toddlers is increasing, yet the effect of video on language acquisition remains unclear. Three studies of 96 children aged 30-42 months investigated their ability to learn verbs from video. Study 1 asked whether children could learn verbs from video when supported by live social interaction. Study 2 tested whether children could learn verbs from video alone. Study 3 clarified whether the benefits of social interaction remained when the experimenter was shown on a video screen rather than in person. Results suggest that younger children only learn verbs from video with live social interaction whereas older children can learn verbs from video alone. Implications for verb learning and educational media are discussed. PMID:19765005

  1. Toward a dual-learning systems model of speech category learning

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Koslov, Seth R.; Maddox, W. T.

    2014-01-01

    More than two decades of work in vision posits the existence of dual-learning systems of category learning. The reflective system uses working memory to develop and test rules for classifying in an explicit fashion, while the reflexive system operates by implicitly associating perception with actions that lead to reinforcement. Dual-learning systems models hypothesize that in learning natural categories, learners initially use the reflective system and, with practice, transfer control to the reflexive system. The role of reflective and reflexive systems in auditory category learning and more specifically in speech category learning has not been systematically examined. In this article, we describe a neurobiologically constrained dual-learning systems theoretical framework that is currently being developed in speech category learning and review recent applications of this framework. Using behavioral and computational modeling approaches, we provide evidence that speech category learning is predominantly mediated by the reflexive learning system. In one application, we explore the effects of normal aging on non-speech and speech category learning. Prominently, we find a large age-related deficit in speech learning. The computational modeling suggests that older adults are less likely to transition from simple, reflective, unidimensional rules to more complex, reflexive, multi-dimensional rules. In a second application, we summarize a recent study examining auditory category learning in individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. We find a deficit in reflective-optimal and an enhancement in reflexive-optimal auditory category learning. Interestingly, individuals with elevated depressive symptoms also show an advantage in learning speech categories. We end with a brief summary and description of a number of future directions. PMID:25132827

  2. The involvement of the left motor cortex in learning of a novel action word lexicon.

    PubMed

    Liuzzi, Gianpiero; Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Hoppe, Julia; Heise, Kirstin; Zimerman, Maximo; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Gerloff, Christian; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2010-10-12

    Current theoretical positions assume that action-related word meanings are established by functional connections between perisylvian language areas and the motor cortex (MC) according to Hebb's associative learning principle. To test this assumption, we probed the functional relevance of the left MC for learning of a novel action word vocabulary by disturbing neural plasticity in the MC with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In combination with tDCS, subjects learned a novel vocabulary of 76 concrete, body-related actions by means of an associative learning paradigm. Compared with a control condition with "sham" stimulation, cathodal tDCS reduced success rates in vocabulary acquisition, as shown by tests of novel action word translation into the native language. The analysis of learning behavior revealed a specific effect of cathodal tDCS on the ability to associatively couple actions with novel words. In contrast, we did not find these effects in control experiments, when tDCS was applied to the prefrontal cortex or when subjects learned object-related words. The present study lends direct evidence to the proposition that the left MC is causally involved in the acquisition of novel action-related words. PMID:20888226

  3. Change in Action: How Infants Learn to Walk down Slopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Simone V.; Adolph, Karen E.; Vereijken, Beatrix

    2009-01-01

    A critical aspect of perception-action coupling is the ability to modify ongoing actions in accordance with variations in the environment. Infants' ability to modify their gait patterns to walk down shallow and steep slopes was examined at three nested time scales. Across sessions, a microgenetic training design showed rapid improvements after the…

  4. Embodied Learning and Creative Writing: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Jennifer Ann

    2012-01-01

    This action research study used narrative analysis to explore the role of the body in the writing process of creative writers. Specifically, the purpose of this action research study was threefold: it was first to examine how professional creative writers describe their writing process with particular attention to their perceptions of the role and…

  5. Model-free distributed learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dembo, Amir; Kailath, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Model-free learning for synchronous and asynchronous quasi-static networks is presented. The network weights are continuously perturbed, while the time-varying performance index is measured and correlated with the perturbation signals; the correlation output determines the changes in the weights. The perturbation may be either via noise sources or orthogonal signals. The invariance to detailed network structure mitigates large variability between supposedly identical networks as well as implementation defects. This local, regular, and completely distributed mechanism requires no central control and involves only a few global signals. Thus it allows for integrated on-chip learning in large analog and optical networks.

  6. Discovering motion primitives for unsupervised grouping and one-shot learning of human actions, gestures, and expressions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Saleemi, Imran; Shah, Mubarak

    2013-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel representation of articulated human actions and gestures and facial expressions. The main goals of the proposed approach are: 1) to enable recognition using very few examples, i.e., one or k-shot learning, and 2) meaningful organization of unlabeled datasets by unsupervised clustering. Our proposed representation is obtained by automatically discovering high-level subactions or motion primitives, by hierarchical clustering of observed optical flow in four-dimensional, spatial, and motion flow space. The completely unsupervised proposed method, in contrast to state-of-the-art representations like bag of video words, provides a meaningful representation conducive to visual interpretation and textual labeling. Each primitive action depicts an atomic subaction, like directional motion of limb or torso, and is represented by a mixture of four-dimensional Gaussian distributions. For one--shot and k-shot learning, the sequence of primitive labels discovered in a test video are labeled using KL divergence, and can then be represented as a string and matched against similar strings of training videos. The same sequence can also be collapsed into a histogram of primitives or be used to learn a Hidden Markov model to represent classes. We have performed extensive experiments on recognition by one and k-shot learning as well as unsupervised action clustering on six human actions and gesture datasets, a composite dataset, and a database of facial expressions. These experiments confirm the validity and discriminative nature of the proposed representation. PMID:23681992

  7. Facial Action Recognition Combining Heterogeneous Features via Multikernel Learning.

    PubMed

    Senechal, T; Rapp, V; Salam, H; Seguier, R; Bailly, K; Prevost, L

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents our response to the first international challenge on facial emotion recognition and analysis. We propose to combine different types of features to automatically detect action units (AUs) in facial images. We use one multikernel support vector machine (SVM) for each AU we want to detect. The first kernel matrix is computed using local Gabor binary pattern histograms and a histogram intersection kernel. The second kernel matrix is computed from active appearance model coefficients and a radial basis function kernel. During the training step, we combine these two types of features using the recently proposed SimpleMKL algorithm. SVM outputs are then averaged to exploit temporal information in the sequence. To evaluate our system, we perform deep experimentation on several key issues: influence of features and kernel function in histogram-based SVM approaches, influence of spatially independent information versus geometric local appearance information and benefits of combining both, sensitivity to training data, and interest of temporal context adaptation. We also compare our results with those of the other participants and try to explain why our method had the best performance during the facial expression recognition and analysis challenge. PMID:22623430

  8. Beyond the Information Given: Infants' Transfer of Actions Learned through Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Dahe; Sidman, Jason; Bushnell, Emily W.

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate infants' ability to transfer actions learned via imitation to new objects and to examine what components of the original context are critical to such transfer. Infants of 15 months observed an experimenter perform an action with one or two toys and then were offered a novel toy that was not…

  9. Organising Collective Action for Effective Environmental Management and Social Learning in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jane; Gibbon, David; Ingram, Julie; Reed, Matt; Short, Christopher; Dwyer, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The paper explored key factors that might lead to successful agri-environmental social learning and collective action in order to deliver landscape-scale resource management within agri-environment schemes. Using the theory of collective action as an analytical framework the paper examined findings from in-depth interviews with 20 members of two…

  10. Introduction: More than Methods--Reflections on Participatory Action Research in Geographic Teaching, Learning and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindon, Sara; Elwood, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to this symposium issue on participatory action research in geographic teaching, learning and research. It introduces the themes of the symposium and contributions from the participating authors, and also offers additional discussion of the attendant benefits and challenges of using participatory action research…

  11. Using Action Verbs as Learning Outcomes: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy in Measuring Instructional Objectives in Introductory Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; McClelland, Nate

    2013-01-01

    We used a set of action verbs based on Bloom's taxonomy to assess learning outcomes in two college-level introductory psychology courses. The action verbs represented an acronym, IDEA, comprising skills relating to identifying, defining or describing, evaluating or explaining, and applying psychological knowledge. Exam performance demonstrated…

  12. Data Wise in Action: Stories of Schools Using Data to Improve Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudett, Kathryn Parker, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    What does it look like when a school uses data wisely? "Data Wise in Action", a new companion and sequel to the bestselling "Data Wise", tells the stories of eight very different schools following the Data Wise process of using assessment results to improve teaching and learning. "Data Wise in Action" highlights the leadership challenges schools…

  13. Learning from Action Evaluation of the Use of Multimedia Case Studies in Management Information Systems Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawulich, Barbara B.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript shares lessons learned from conducting an action evaluation of the use of multimedia case studies in Management Information Systems (MIS) courses. Three undergraduate MIS classes took part in the study. The purpose for using case studies in these classes was to teach students about the role of MIS in business. An action evaluation…

  14. First Time Facilitator's Experience: Designing and Facilitating an Action Learning Programme in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinshuai; Bloodworth, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an action learning programme with China Unicom Broadband Limited (CUBO) to support its vision of transforming to become a world-leading broadband communications and information service provider. 64 Department directors and supervisors were invited to take part in the "China Unicom Broadband Online Phoenix Action Learning…

  15. Two-Year-Olds Learn Novel Nouns, Verbs, and Conventional Actions from Massed or Distributed Exposures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Jane B.; Tomasello, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examined 2-year-olds' comprehension and production of novel nouns, verbs, or actions at 3 intervals after training conducted in massed or distributed exposures. Found that for comprehension, children learned all item types in all training conditions at all retention intervals. Production was better for nonverbal actions than for either word type…

  16. The Methods of Teaching Course Based on Constructivist Learning Approach: An Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altun, Sertel; Yücel-Toy, Banu

    2015-01-01

    This purpose of this study is to investigate how the course designed based on constructivist principles has been implemented, what actions have been taken to solve problems and what thoughts have arisen in the minds of teacher candidates with regard to the constructivist learning approach. In this study, an action research was employed which…

  17. The Role of the NHS in the Development of Revans' Action Learning: Correspondence and Contradiction in Action Learning Development and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    In adapting Bowles' and Gintis's correspondence principle of education, this paper suggests that there are ways in which the theory and practice of action learning developed "in correspondence" with the NHS. In doing so, the paper draws, in part, upon an historical assessment of Revans' Hospital Internal Communications Project of the 1960s,…

  18. Can Robots Help the Learning of Skilled Actions?

    PubMed Central

    Reinkensmeyer, David J.; Patton, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Learning to move skillfully requires that the motor system adjusts muscle commands based on ongoing performance errors, a process influenced by the dynamics of the task being practiced. Recent experiments from our laboratories show how robotic devices can temporarily alter task dynamics in ways that contribute to the motor learning experience, suggesting possible applications in rehabilitation and sports training. PMID:19098524

  19. Results from Action Analysis in an Interactive Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheuer, Oliver; Muhlenbrock, Martin; Melis, Erica

    2007-01-01

    Recently, there is a growing interest in the automatic analysis of learner activity in web-based learning environments. The approach and system SIAM (System for Interaction Analysis by Machine learning) presented in this article aims at helping to establish a basis for the automatic analysis of interaction data by developing a data logging and…

  20. Images in Action. Learning Tomorrow: Linking Technology and Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Foundation for the Improvement of Education, Washington, DC.

    Focusing on the use of advanced technologies in classrooms to reshape the educational environment in which students learn, this report on Phase II of the Learning Tomorrow program contains brief descriptions of the most promising educational practices submitted by teachers in response to two nation-wide calls for Innovation in Practice. The report…

  1. Frontal Oscillatory Dynamics Predict Feedback Learning and Action Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Cohen, Michael X.

    2011-01-01

    Frontal oscillatory dynamics in the theta (4-8 Hz) and beta (20-30 Hz) frequency bands have been implicated in cognitive control processes. Here we investigated the changes in coordinated activity within and between frontal brain areas during feedback-based response learning. In a time estimation task, participants learned to press a button after…

  2. Transforming Constructivist Learning into Action: Design Thinking in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Andrea; Noweski, Christine; Meinel, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    In an ever changing society of the 21st century, there is a demand to equip students with meta competences going beyond cognitive knowledge. Education, therefore, needs a transition from transferring knowledge to developing individual potentials with the help of constructivist learning. Advantages of constructivist learning, and criteria for its…

  3. Collective Learning: Interaction and a Shared Action Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doos, Marianne; Wilhelmson, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to argue for a theoretical contribution that deals with the detection of collective learning. The aim is to examine and clarify the genesis processes of collective learning. The empirical basis is a telecoms context with task-driven networking across both internal and external organisational borders.…

  4. Developing an Inclusive Democratic Classroom "in Action" through Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Patrick, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how Cooperative learning (CL) and democracy can be examined in relation to one another. CL supports a social constructivist view of students learning together to form knowledge through direct interaction. The overriding benefits of CL are that that it is an effective strategy for maximising both social and academic learning…

  5. Experiential Learning and Research Ethics: Enhancing Knowledge through Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M.; Cameron, Abigail E.; Schulman, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    How can instructors use experiential learning strategies to enhance student understanding of research ethics and responsible research conduct? In this article, the authors review literature on using experiential learning to teach research ethics and responsible research conduct. They present a three-step exercise for teaching research ethics and…

  6. Students Learning Agroecology: Phenomenon-Based Education for Responsible Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostergaard, Edvin; Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Preparing students for a complex and dynamic future is a challenge for educators. This article explores three crucial issues related to agroecological education and learning: (1) the phenomenological foundation for learning agroecology in higher education; (2) the process of students' interactions with a wide range of various learners within and…

  7. Live Action: Can Young Children Learn Verbs from Video?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Parish-Morris, Julia; Golinkoff, Roberta M.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of educational programming aimed at infants and toddlers is increasing, yet the effect of video on language acquisition remains unclear. Three studies of 96 children aged 30-42 months investigated their ability to learn verbs from video. Study 1 asked whether children could learn verbs from video when supported by live social…

  8. Building Better Futures: Leveraging Action Learning at Kentz Engineers & Constructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karallis, Takis; Sandelands, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a case study of how Kentz Engineers & Constructors, with more than 10,000 employees in 26 countries, are leveraging learning to "Build better futures" for its stakeholders: clients, shareholders, employees and communities. Kentz provide opportunities for learning at all levels, ensuring that "no one is left behind". This case…

  9. Action Research: Measuring Literacy Programme Participants' Learning Outcomes. Results of the Final Phase (2011-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolly, Madina; Jonas, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Action Research on Measuring Literacy Programme Participants' Learning Outcomes (RAMAA) aims to develop, implement and collaborate on the creation of a methodological approach to measure acquired learning and study the various factors that influence its development. This report examines how RAMAA I has been implemented over the past four years in…

  10. Epistemological Agency: A Necessary Action-in-Context Perspective on New Employee Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ray

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses research premised on the view that new employees' necessary learning actions may be said to constitute a socio-cultural constructivist epistemology of necessity. It examines the work and learning activities of three new employees during their first months at a wholesale fruit and vegetable company. It proposes that what new…

  11. How Trainee Music Teachers Learn about Teaching by Talking to Each Other: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an action research study into how trainee music teachers in England use a structured discussion process called "Collegial Consultation" to learn about teaching. The research shows that, in Collegial Consultation, trainees learn from each other by offering several solutions to a problem, offering reasons for their ideas,…

  12. Tension, Risk and Conflict: Action-Learning Journeys with Four Public-Sector Partnership Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the learning gained from facilitating four action-learning sets whose members were drawn from management teams of local authority, health, education and police, working in partnership. Facilitation posed a series of difficult choices which impacted on personal and organizational dynamics within and between the partnership…

  13. Using Action Research to Improve Student Engagement in a Peer-Assisted Learning Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Yvonne; Benson, Robyn; Brack, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of students learning together in peer-assisted learning (PAL) programmes have been widely reported. Implementing and evaluating PAL programmes provide specific challenges for academic staff. This paper explains how action research was used to design, trial and refine a same-year PAL programme to enhance student engagement. The PAL…

  14. Making Sense of Undergraduate Students' Reflections as They Learn through Writing an Action Research Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maoto, S.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores learning opportunities offered by students' written reflections as they learn through writing an action research proposal. From tapping into students' reported struggles, I analysed data using three stages of qualitative data analysis: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing (Miles and Huberman 1994). It emerged…

  15. Service Learning Experience and Undergraduate Leadership Behaviors: An Action Research Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenary, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Service-learning has been shown to be an effective practice that positively affects students' academic achievement, self-esteem, and problem-solving skills (Billig, 2002; Eyler & Giles, 1999; Wilczenski & Coomey, 2007). This mixed-method action research case study was conducted to explore the possible link between service-learning experience and…

  16. Imitative Learning of Actions on Objects by Children, Chimpanzees, and Enculturated Chimpanzees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared the abilities of 3 mother-reared and 3 human-raised (enculturated) chimpanzees and 16 human toddlers to imitatively learn novel actions on objects. Found that mother-reared chimpanzees were poorer imitators than both enculturated chimpanzees and human children, who did not differ from one another in imitative learning. On time delay…

  17. Action Research in a Business Classroom--Another Lens to Examine Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Janice Witt; Clark, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This research study looks at the implementation of an action research project within a blended learning human resource management class in employee and labor relations. The internal and external environment created conditions that converged in the Perfect Storm and resulted in an almost disastrous learning experience for faculty and students. What…

  18. Freeing the Child: Using Action Research on Visual Learning Strategies To Develop Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Laura; Nugent, Peg

    Teacher action research using both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to examine impacts of using visual learning strategies on five preschool children (ages 3-5) with autism in a self-contained classroom. During the six weeks of the study, pictures representing nine learning areas and specific developmental…

  19. Insider Research as Part of a Master's Programme: Opportunities Lost and Found within Action Learning Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milano, Chloe; Lawless, Aileen; Eades, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    This account explores the role of action learning during and after an educational programme. We focus on the final stage of a master's programme and the insider research that is a key feature in many UK universities. Researching within one's own organization should lead to individual and organizational learning. However, there is relatively little…

  20. Advancing Civic Learning and Engagement in Democracy: A Road Map and Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Today, the U.S. Department of Education joins the National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement, the American Commonwealth Partnership, and the Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools in a new national call to action to infuse and enhance civic learning and democratic engagement for all students throughout the American…

  1. Investigating the Relationship between Belief and Action in Self-Directed Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Diego; Thornton, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Employing the principles of a contextual approach to learner belief research and applying it to a self-directed learning context at a Japanese university, this longitudinal study investigates the complex interplay between beliefs and actions and its contribution to the development of language learning skills. Through the triangulation of various…

  2. Living While Being Alive: Education and Learning in the Treatment Action Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endresen, Kristin; Von Kotze, Astrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on research into the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) in South Africa. The research investigated whether, through being active members of this social movement, HIV-positive activists learn things they could not otherwise learn about their status and the epidemic, and how they put such knowledge to use. We show how activists…

  3. The Art and Science of Rain Barrels: A Service Learning Approach to Youth Watershed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rector, Patricia; Lyons, Rachel; Yost, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Using an interdisciplinary approach to water resource education, 4-H Youth Development and Environmental Extension agents enlisted 4-H teens to connect local watershed education with social action. Teens participated in a dynamic service learning project that included learning about nonpoint source pollution; constructing, decorating, and teaching…

  4. Business Simulation Exercises in Small Business Management Education: Using Principles and Ideas from Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrielsson, Jonas; Tell, Joakim; Politis, Diamanto

    2010-01-01

    Recent calls to close the rigour-relevance gap in business school education have suggested incorporating principles and ideas from action learning in small business management education. In this paper we discuss how business simulation exercises can be used as a platform to trigger students' learning by providing them with a platform where they…

  5. Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching: An Action-Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Megan; Sheen, Younghee

    2015-01-01

    The creation, implementation, and evaluation of language learning tasks remain a challenge for many teachers, especially those with limited experience with using tasks in their teaching. This action-research study reports on one teacher's experience of developing, implementing, critically reflecting on, and modifying a language learning task…

  6. Action Research and Organisational Learning: A Norwegian Approach to Doing Action Research in Complex Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eikeland, Olav

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an overview nor a…

  7. Learning Strategies for Police Organization--Modeling Organizational Learning Perquisites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luoma, Markku; Nokelainen, Petri; Ruohotie, Pekka

    The factors contributing to organizational learning in police units in Finland and elsewhere were examined to find strategies to improve the prerequisites of learning and compare linear and nonlinear methods of modeling organizational learning prerequisites. A questionnaire was used to collect data from the 281 staff members of five police…

  8. Community ACTION Boards: An Innovative Model for Effective Community–Academic Research Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    James, Sherline; Arniella, Guedy; Bickell, Nina A.; Walker, Willie; Robinson, Virginia; Taylor, Barbara; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) requires equitable partnerships between community stakeholders and academics. Traditionally, researchers relied on community advisory boards, but these boards often play a reactive role on a project-by-project basis. The East and Central Harlem Health Outcomes (ECHHO) Community Action Board (CAB), however, is an effective, proactive group. Objectives The ECHHO board sought to identify key strategies and tools to build and employ a partnership model, and to disseminate lessons learned to other community–academic partnerships. Methods Current and former board members were interviewed and a wide range of related documents was reviewed. Lessons Learned The board became effective when it prioritized action and relationship-building, across seven key domains: Shared priorities, diversity, participation, transparency, mutual respect and recognition, and personal connections. The model is depicted graphically. Conclusion Community advisory boards may benefit from attention to taking action, and to building relationships between academics and community members. PMID:22616207

  9. Demonstrating and Evaluating an Action Learning Approach to Building Project Management Competence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotnour, Tim; Starr, Stan; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper contributes a description of an action-learning approach to building project management competence. This approach was designed, implemented, and evaluated for use with the Dynacs Engineering Development Contract at the Kennedy Space Center. The aim of the approach was to improve three levels of competence within the organization: individual project management skills, project team performance. and organizational capabilities such as the project management process and tools. The overall steps to the approach, evaluation results, and lessons learned are presented. Managers can use this paper to design a specific action-learning approach for their organization.

  10. Awakening Sleepy Knowledge: Transformative Learning in Action. Final Report of the Transformative Learning through Environmental Action Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York Univ., Toronto (Ontario).

    This document summarizes and presents materials produced during a qualitative international study of the role of transformative learning in achieving sustainable societies and global responsibility that included the following activities: case studies of experiences with transformative learning in seven countries; international survey and workshop;…

  11. Organizational Learning Post Catastrophic Events: A Descriptive Case Study Exploring NASA's Learning over Time Following Two Catastrophic Shuttle Accidents Using the Schwandt's Organizational Learning System Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Edgar Oscar

    2013-01-01

    A 30-year contribution of the Space Shuttle Program is the evolution of NASA's social actions through organizational learning. This study investigated how NASA learned over time following two catastrophic accidents. Schwandt's (1997) organizational Learning System Model (OLSM) characterized the learning in this High Reliability…

  12. Measurement Models for Reasoned Action Theory

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative researchers distinguish between causal and effect indicators. What are the analytic problems when both types of measures are present in a quantitative reasoned action analysis? To answer this question, we use data from a longitudinal study to estimate the association between two constructs central to reasoned action theory: behavioral beliefs and attitudes toward the behavior. The belief items are causal indicators that define a latent variable index while the attitude items are effect indicators that reflect the operation of a latent variable scale. We identify the issues when effect and causal indicators are present in a single analysis and conclude that both types of indicators can be incorporated in the analysis of data based on the reasoned action approach. PMID:23243315

  13. iNACOL's New Learning Models Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association for K-12 Online Learning, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This brief summarizes iNACOL's New Learning Models, which personalize learning using competency-based approaches. Supported by blended and online learning modalities, teachers use technology to differentiate instruction and engage students in deeper learning. By adapting instruction to reflect a student's level of mastery, blended and online…

  14. A Model of Adaptive Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Lindy J.

    2006-01-01

    This study applies theorizing from educational psychology and language learning to hypothesize a model of language learning that takes into account affect, motivation, and language learning strategies. The study employed a questionnaire to assess variables of motivation, self-efficacy, anxiety, and language learning strategies. The sample…

  15. Statistical mechanics approach to a reinforcement learning model with memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowski, Adam; Gontarek, Krzysztof; Ausloos, Marcel

    2009-05-01

    We introduce a two-player model of reinforcement learning with memory. Past actions of an iterated game are stored in a memory and used to determine player’s next action. To examine the behaviour of the model some approximate methods are used and confronted against numerical simulations and exact master equation. When the length of memory of players increases to infinity the model undergoes an absorbing-state phase transition. Performance of examined strategies is checked in the prisoner’ dilemma game. It turns out that it is advantageous to have a large memory in symmetric games, but it is better to have a short memory in asymmetric ones.

  16. An integrated model of learning.

    PubMed

    Trigg, A M; Cordova, F D

    1987-01-01

    Worldwide, most educational systems are based on three levels of education that utilize the pedagogical approaches to learning. In the 1960s, scholars formulated another approach to education that has become known as andragogy and has been applied to adult education. Several innovative scholars have seen how andragogy can be applied to teaching children. As a result, both andragogy and pedagogy are viewed as the opposite ends of the educational spectrum. Both of these approaches have a place and function within the modern educational framework. If one assumes that the goal of education is for the acquisition and application of knowledge, then both of these approaches can be used effectively for the attainment of that goal. In order to utilize these approaches effectively, an integrated model of learning has been developed that consists of initial teaching and exploratory learning phases. This model has both the directive and flexible qualities found in the theories of pedagogy and andragogy. With careful consideration and analysis this educational model can be utilized effectively within most educational systems. PMID:3588888

  17. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    More, Sandeep Vasant; Kumar, Hemant; Cho, Duk-Yeon; Yun, Yo-Sep; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson's disease dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders. PMID:27598124

  18. Resistance in Action Learning: Struggling with Self-Efficacy and the Social Self--and What about the Set Advisor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This account of practice explores the concept of resistance in action learning. Resistance is conceptualized as an attempt of self-protection that is manifested in action learners' struggles with their sense of self-efficacy and their social Self. These struggles are an inherent part of the action learning process and may elicit defensive…

  19. Exploring the Challenges in Scaling up the Delivery of Action Learning Facilitator Training within a Global Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antell, Sonja; Heywood, John

    2015-01-01

    Action learning is often used as an element of leadership development programmes. The intention is to support classroom learning with an experiential thread which runs throughout the life of the programme. Action Learning Associates (ALA) has been working with an international organisation for three years to deliver the global "First Line…

  20. Learning Graphical Models With Hubs

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kean Ming; London, Palma; Mohan, Karthik; Lee, Su-In; Fazel, Maryam; Witten, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of learning a high-dimensional graphical model in which there are a few hub nodes that are densely-connected to many other nodes. Many authors have studied the use of an ℓ1 penalty in order to learn a sparse graph in the high-dimensional setting. However, the ℓ1 penalty implicitly assumes that each edge is equally likely and independent of all other edges. We propose a general framework to accommodate more realistic networks with hub nodes, using a convex formulation that involves a row-column overlap norm penalty. We apply this general framework to three widely-used probabilistic graphical models: the Gaussian graphical model, the covariance graph model, and the binary Ising model. An alternating direction method of multipliers algorithm is used to solve the corresponding convex optimization problems. On synthetic data, we demonstrate that our proposed framework outperforms competitors that do not explicitly model hub nodes. We illustrate our proposal on a webpage data set and a gene expression data set. PMID:25620891

  1. Change in Action: How Infants Learn to Walk Down Slopes

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Simone V.; Adolph, Karen E.; Vereijken, Beatrix

    2009-01-01

    A critical aspect of perception-action coupling is the ability to modify ongoing actions in accordance with variations in the environment. Infants’ ability to modify their gait patterns to walk down shallow and steep slopes was examined at three nested time scales. Across sessions, a microgenetic training design showed rapid improvements after the first session in infants receiving concentrated practice walking down slopes and in infants in a control group who were tested only at the beginning and end of the study. Within sessions, analyses across easy and challenging slope angles showed that infants used a “braking strategy” to curb increases in walking speed across increasingly steeper slopes. Within trials, comparisons of infants’ gait modifications before and after stepping over the brink of the slopes showed that the braking strategy was planned prospectively. Findings illustrate how observing change in action provides important insights into the process of skill acquisition. PMID:19840044

  2. Machine learning in sedimentation modelling.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, B; Solomatine, D P

    2006-03-01

    The paper presents machine learning (ML) models that predict sedimentation in the harbour basin of the Port of Rotterdam. The important factors affecting the sedimentation process such as waves, wind, tides, surge, river discharge, etc. are studied, the corresponding time series data is analysed, missing values are estimated and the most important variables behind the process are chosen as the inputs. Two ML methods are used: MLP ANN and M5 model tree. The latter is a collection of piece-wise linear regression models, each being an expert for a particular region of the input space. The models are trained on the data collected during 1992-1998 and tested by the data of 1999-2000. The predictive accuracy of the models is found to be adequate for the potential use in the operational decision making. PMID:16530383

  3. Learning in the Workplace: Implications of the Capability Learning Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloch, Margaret; Cairns, Len; Hase, Stewart

    The implications of the capability learning model for learning in the workplace were examined in a roundtable discussion of two complementary projects: a study of the ideas and models associated with a range of approaches to workplace training and education in Australia and the United Kingdom and a study conducted to document capable organizations…

  4. Global Networked Learning: A New Form of Collaborative Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirny, A.; Wiske, M. S.; Joo, J.; Cunningham, G.; Daniels, D.; Farid, A. B.; Gordon, F.; Madani, R.; Nissen, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    A year-long collaborative action research project used networked technologies to connect researchers at a university-based online professional development program and a group of practitioner researchers based in a range of schools and educational agencies in several countries. They studied the process and effects of online professional development…

  5. Project InterActions: A Multigenerational Robotic Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Marina U.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents Project InterActions, a series of 5-week workshops in which very young learners (4- to 7-year-old children) and their parents come together to build and program a personally meaningful robotic project in the context of a multigenerational robotics-based community of practice. The goal of these family workshops is to teach both…

  6. Creating Safe Learning Zones: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This report is a follow-up to the first publication of the Child Proofing Our Communities Campaign, titled "Poisoned Schools: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions." The previous report looked at the problems of public schools built on contaminated land years ago, the trend of proposing new schools on contaminated land, and the threat of toxic…

  7. Teacher Actions to Maximize Mathematics Learning Opportunities in Heterogeneous Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Peter; Mousley, Judith; Zevenbergen, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The basic unit of school based mathematics teaching is the lesson. This article is a contribution to understanding teacher actions that facilitate successful lessons, defined as those that engage all students, especially those who may sometimes feel alienated from mathematics and schooling, in productive and successful mathematical thinking and…

  8. Joining the Game: Living and Learning as an Action Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on graduate students' thoughts and beliefs about utilizing action research as a means of professional development two years after their graduation from a Master of Arts program in Education. Because many school districts now encourage teachers to engage in self-study and to collect data that informs their instruction, the author…

  9. Action Learning with Second Life--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Christian; Ip, Rachael K. F.

    2009-01-01

    Virtual worlds, computer-based simulated environments in which users interact via avatars, provide an opportunity for the highly realistic enactment of real life activities online. Unlike computer games, which have a pre-defined purpose, pay-off structure, and action patterns, virtual worlds can leave many of these elements for users to determine.…

  10. Literacy Learning within Community Action Projects for Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dana E.; Mahiri, Jabari

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the literacy development of a struggling reader over a seven-month period as he engaged in a youth-led participatory action research (PAR) project. The project's goal was for youth participants to develop a proposal for productive change in their local community and present it to community stakeholders. The study focused…

  11. Action unit classification using active appearance models and conditional random fields.

    PubMed

    van der Maaten, Laurens; Hendriks, Emile

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate to what extent modern computer vision and machine learning techniques can assist social psychology research by automatically recognizing facial expressions. To this end, we develop a system that automatically recognizes the action units defined in the facial action coding system (FACS). The system uses a sophisticated deformable template, which is known as the active appearance model, to model the appearance of faces. The model is used to identify the location of facial feature points, as well as to extract features from the face that are indicative of the action unit states. The detection of the presence of action units is performed by a time series classification model, the linear-chain conditional random field. We evaluate the performance of our system in experiments on a large data set of videos with posed and natural facial expressions. In the experiments, we compare the action units detected by our approach with annotations made by human FACS annotators. Our results show that the agreement between the system and human FACS annotators is higher than 90% and underlines the potential of modern computer vision and machine learning techniques to social psychology research. We conclude with some suggestions on how systems like ours can play an important role in research on social signals. PMID:21989609

  12. Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and reviews the literature regarding language learning strategies and it's training model, pointing out the significance of language learning strategies to EFL learners and an applicable and effective language learning strategies training model, which is beneficial both to EFL learners and instructors, is badly needed.

  13. Mixture Modeling of Individual Learning Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streeter, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We show that student learning can be accurately modeled using a mixture of learning curves, each of which specifies error probability as a function of time. This approach generalizes Knowledge Tracing [7], which can be viewed as a mixture model in which the learning curves are step functions. We show that this generality yields order-of-magnitude…

  14. The left hemisphere and the selection of learned actions.

    PubMed

    Rushworth, M F; Nixon, P D; Wade, D T; Renowden, S; Passingham, R E

    1998-01-01

    The left hemisphere's dominance for movement is well known. The basis of its dominance is less clear. We have tested 16 left hemisphere (LH) patients, 17 right hemisphere (RH) patients and 12 neurologically normal controls on a battery of five tasks. The tasks were based on animal lesion and recording studies, and human imaging and magnetic stimulation studies that identified two distributed systems that are important for the selection of motor responses and object-oriented responses. The LH patients were impaired on three response selection tasks: learning to select between joystick movement responses instructed by visual cues; learning to select between analogous object-oriented responses instructed by visual cues; learning to select movements in a sequence. Although we replicated the finding that LH damage impairs sequencing, some of the impaired tasks had no sequencing element. We therefore argue that the LH deficits are best explained as an impairment of response selection. This was confirmed by showing that LH subjects were unimpaired on a more demanding task-object discrimination learning-which imposed a greater memory load but had no response selection element. Moreover, the LH deficits could not be attributed to disorganization of movement kinematics. The lesions of the impaired LH group were widespread but always included the distributed systems known to be important for response selection-the dorsolateral frontal and parietal cortices, striatum, thalamus and white matter fascicles. PMID:9533383

  15. Blended Learning and Teaching Writing: A Teacher Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camahalan, Faye Marsha G.; Ruley, Andrea G.

    2014-01-01

    This teacher research project focused on utilizing blended learning to teach writing to middle school students. The intervention was designed to fit into individual lessons needed to improve students' writing skills with the main focus on sentence structure. Sixteen (16) 7th grade students were assessed with a writing sample applying the new…

  16. Improving Virtual Collaborative Learning through Canonical Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Peter; Lehr, Christian; Gersch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Virtual collaboration continues to gain in significance and is attracting attention also as virtual collaborative learning (VCL) in education. This paper addresses aspects of VCL that we identified as critical in a series of courses named "Net Economy": (1) technical infrastructure, (2) motivation and collaboration, and (3) assessment…

  17. Problematizing Service-Learning: Critical Reflections for Development and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Trae, Ed.; Webster, Nicole, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Interest in and research on civic engagement and service-learning have increased exponentially. In this rapid growth, efforts have been made to institutionalize pedagogies of engagement across both K-12 and higher education. As a result, increased positive attention has been complemented equally by well-founded critiques complicating experiential…

  18. Synchronous Learning Best Practices: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Clyde A.; Stanworth, James O.; Ren, Jian Biao; Warden, Antony R.

    2013-01-01

    Low cost and significant advances in technology now allow instructors to create their own virtual learning environments. Creating social interactions within a virtual space that emulates the physical classroom remains challenging. While students are familiar with virtual worlds and video meetings, they are inexperienced as virtual learners. Over a…

  19. Communities in Action: Lifelong Learning for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguchi, Fumiko; Guevara, Jose Roberto; Yorozu, Rika

    2015-01-01

    This handbook identifies principles and policy mechanisms to advance community-based learning for sustainable development based on the commitments endorsed by the participants of the "Kominkan-CLC International Conference on Education for Sustainable Development," which took place in Okayama City, Japan, in October 2014. To inform…

  20. Modes of Imprinted Gene Action in Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isles, A. R.; Humby, T.

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is now widely acknowledged that there may be a genetic contribution to learning disability and neuropsychiatric disorders, stemming from evidence provided by family, twin and adoption studies, and from explicit syndromic conditions. Recently it has been recognized that in some cases the presentation of genetic syndromes (or discrete…

  1. Learning models of intelligent agents

    SciTech Connect

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S.

    1996-12-31

    Agents that operate in a multi-agent system need an efficient strategy to handle their encounters with other agents involved. Searching for an optimal interactive strategy is a hard problem because it depends mostly on the behavior of the others. In this work, interaction among agents is represented as a repeated two-player game, where the agents` objective is to look for a strategy that maximizes their expected sum of rewards in the game. We assume that agents` strategies can be modeled as finite automata. A model-based approach is presented as a possible method for learning an effective interactive strategy. First, we describe how an agent should find an optimal strategy against a given model. Second, we present an unsupervised algorithm that infers a model of the opponent`s automaton from its input/output behavior. A set of experiments that show the potential merit of the algorithm is reported as well.

  2. Facilitating the Learning Process in Design-Based Learning Practices: An Investigation of Teachers' Actions in Supervising Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez Puente, S. M.; van Eijck, M.; Jochems, W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In research on design-based learning (DBL), inadequate attention is paid to the role the teacher plays in supervising students in gathering and applying knowledge to design artifacts, systems, and innovative solutions in higher education. Purpose: In this study, we examine whether teacher actions we previously identified in the DBL…

  3. Hebbian learning and predictive mirror neurons for actions, sensations and emotions

    PubMed Central

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Spike-timing-dependent plasticity is considered the neurophysiological basis of Hebbian learning and has been shown to be sensitive to both contingency and contiguity between pre- and postsynaptic activity. Here, we will examine how applying this Hebbian learning rule to a system of interconnected neurons in the presence of direct or indirect re-afference (e.g. seeing/hearing one's own actions) predicts the emergence of mirror neurons with predictive properties. In this framework, we analyse how mirror neurons become a dynamic system that performs active inferences about the actions of others and allows joint actions despite sensorimotor delays. We explore how this system performs a projection of the self onto others, with egocentric biases to contribute to mind-reading. Finally, we argue that Hebbian learning predicts mirror-like neurons for sensations and emotions and review evidence for the presence of such vicarious activations outside the motor system. PMID:24778372

  4. Learning the Structure of Mixed Graphical Models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason D.; Hastie, Trevor J.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of learning the structure of a pairwise graphical model over continuous and discrete variables. We present a new pairwise model for graphical models with both continuous and discrete variables that is amenable to structure learning. In previous work, authors have considered structure learning of Gaussian graphical models and structure learning of discrete models. Our approach is a natural generalization of these two lines of work to the mixed case. The penalization scheme involves a novel symmetric use of the group-lasso norm and follows naturally from a particular parametrization of the model. Supplementary materials for this paper are available online. PMID:26085782

  5. Memristor models for machine learning.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, Juan Pablo; Dambre, Joni; Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    In the quest for alternatives to traditional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor, it is being suggested that digital computing efficiency and power can be improved by matching the precision to the application. Many applications do not need the high precision that is being used today. In particular, large gains in area and power efficiency could be achieved by dedicated analog realizations of approximate computing engines. In this work we explore the use of memristor networks for analog approximate computation, based on a machine learning framework called reservoir computing. Most experimental investigations on the dynamics of memristors focus on their nonvolatile behavior. Hence, the volatility that is present in the developed technologies is usually unwanted and is not included in simulation models. In contrast, in reservoir computing, volatility is not only desirable but necessary. Therefore, in this work, we propose two different ways to incorporate it into memristor simulation models. The first is an extension of Strukov's model, and the second is an equivalent Wiener model approximation. We analyze and compare the dynamical properties of these models and discuss their implications for the memory and the nonlinear processing capacity of memristor networks. Our results indicate that device variability, increasingly causing problems in traditional computer design, is an asset in the context of reservoir computing. We conclude that although both models could lead to useful memristor-based reservoir computing systems, their computational performance will differ. Therefore, experimental modeling research is required for the development of accurate volatile memristor models. PMID:25602769

  6. The Belem Framework for Action: Harnessing the Power and Potential of Adult Learning and Education for a Viable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Learning, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the Belem Framework for Action. This framework focuses on harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. This framework begins with a preamble on adult education and towards lifelong learning.

  7. Action-Based Learning of Multistate Objects in the Medial Temporal Lobe.

    PubMed

    Hindy, Nicholas C; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2016-05-01

    Actions constrain perception by changing the appearance of objects in the environment. As such, they provide an interactive basis for learning the structure of visual input. If an action systematically transforms one stimulus into another, then these stimuli are more likely to reflect different states of the same persisting object over time. Here we show that such multistate objects are represented in the human medial temporal lobe-the result of a mechanism in which actions influence associative learning of how objects transition between states. We further demonstrate that greater recruitment of these action-based representations during object perception is accompanied by attenuated activity in stimulus-selective visual cortex. In this way, our interactions with the environment help build visual knowledge that predictively facilitates perceptual processing. PMID:25754517

  8. Hidden Markov model approach to skill learning and its application to telerobotics

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J. . Robotics Inst. Univ. of Akron, OH . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Xu, Y. . Robotics Inst.); Chen, C.S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the problem of how human skill can be represented as a parametric model using a hidden Markov model (HMM), and how an HMM-based skill model can be used to learn human skill. HMM is feasible to characterize a doubly stochastic process--measurable action and immeasurable mental states--that is involved in the skill learning. The authors formulated the learning problem as a multidimensional HMM and developed a testbed for a variety of skill learning applications. Based on ''the most likely performance'' criterion, the best action sequence can be selected from all previously measured action data by modeling the skill as an HMM. The proposed method has been implemented in the teleoperation control of a space station robot system, and some important implementation issues have been discussed. The method allows a robot to learn human skill certain tasks and to improve motion performance.

  9. How Do PDP Models Learn Quasiregularity?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woojae; Pitt, Mark A.; Myung, Jay I.

    2013-01-01

    Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) models have had a profound impact on the study of cognition. One domain in which they have been particularly influential is quasiregular learning, in which mastery requires both learning regularities that capture the majority of the structure in the input plus learning exceptions that violate the regularities. How PDP models learn quasiregularity is still not well understood. Small- and large-scale analyses of a feedforward, three-layer network were carried out to address two fundamental issues about network functioning: how the model can learn both regularities and exceptions without sacrificing generalizability; and the nature of the hidden representation that makes this learning possible. Results show that capacity-limited learning pressures the network to form componential representations, which ensures good generalizability. Small and highly local perturbations of this representational system allow exceptions to be learned while minimally disrupting generalizability. Theoretical and methodological implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24015955

  10. Creating and Sustaining a Professional Learning Community to Impact Student Achievement on a High School Campus: An Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Dionne DeShall

    2013-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLCs) have become one of the most talked about ideas in education today. Many K-12 schools are working to become PLCs in the hope that student learning will improve when adults commit themselves to talking collaboratively about teaching and learning and then take action that will improve student learning and…

  11. SOCAP: Lessons learned in applying SIPE-2 to the military operations crisis action planning domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desimone, Roberto

    1992-01-01

    This report describes work funded under the DARPA Planning and Scheduling Initiative that led to the development of SOCAP (System for Operations Crisis Action Planning). In particular, it describes lessons learned in applying SIPE-2, the underlying AI planning technology within SOCAP, to the domain of military operations deliberate and crisis action planning. SOCAP was demonstrated at the U.S. Central Command and at the Pentagon in early 1992. A more detailed report about the lessons learned is currently being prepared. This report was presented during one of the panel discussions on 'The Relevance of Scheduling to AI Planning Systems.'

  12. Experiential learning in nursing consultation education via clinical simulation with actors: action research.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Saionara Nunes; do Prado, Marta Lenise; Kempfer, Silvana Silveira; Martini, Jussara Gue; Caravaca-Morera, Jaime Alonso; Bernardi, Mariely Carmelina

    2015-02-01

    This was an action research study conducted during an undergraduate nursing course. The objective was to propose and implement experiential learning for nursing consultation education using clinical simulation with actors. The 4 steps of action research were followed: planning, action, observation and reflection. Three nursing undergraduate students participated in the study. Data were collected in May and July 2013 via participant comments and interviews and were analyzed in accordance with the operative proposal for qualitative data analysis. Planning included constructing and validating the clinical guides, selecting and training the actors, organizing and preparing the scenario and the issuing invitations to the participants. The action was carried out according to Kolb's (1984) 4 stages of learning cycles: Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualization and Active Experimentation. Clinical simulation involves different subjects' participation in all stages, and action research is a method that enables the clinical stimulation to be implemented. It must be guided by clear learning objectives and by a critical pedagogy that encourages critical thinking in students. Using actors and a real scenario facilitated psychological fidelity, and debriefing was the key moment of the reflective process that facilitated the integral training of students through experiential learning. PMID:25563657

  13. Implementing a New Model for Teachers' Professional Learning in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honan, Eileen; Evans, Terry; Muspratt, Sandy; Paraide, Patricia; Reta, Medi; Baroutsis, Aspa

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study that investigates the possibilities of developing a professional learning model based on action research that could lead to sustained improvements in teaching and learning in schools in remote areas of Papua New Guinea. The issues related to the implementation of this model are discussed using a critical lens that…

  14. Exploration and learning in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.): the role of action-outcome contingencies.

    PubMed

    Polizzi di Sorrentino, Eugenia; Sabbatini, Gloria; Truppa, Valentina; Bordonali, Anna; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Formica, Domenico; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2014-09-01

    Animals have a strong propensity to explore the environment. Spontaneous exploration has a great biological significance since it allows animals to discover and learn the relation between specific behaviours and their consequences. The role of the contingency between action and outcome for learning has been mainly investigated in instrumental learning settings and much less in free exploration contexts. We tested 16 capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) with a mechatronic platform that allowed complex modules to be manipulated and to produce different outcomes. Experimental subjects could manipulate the modules and discover the contingencies between their own specific actions and the outcomes produced (i.e., the opening and lighting of a box). By contrast, Control subjects could operate on the modules, but the outcomes experienced were those performed by their paired Experimental subjects ("yoked-control" paradigm). In the exploration phase, in which no food reward was present, Experimental subjects spent more time on the board and manipulated the modules more than Yoked subjects. Experimental subjects outperformed Yoked subjects in the following test phase, where success required recalling the effective action so to open the box, now baited with food. These findings demonstrate that the opportunity to experience action-outcome contingencies in the absence of extrinsic rewards promotes capuchins' exploration and facilitates learning processes. Thus, this intrinsically motivated learning represents a powerful mechanism allowing the acquisition of skills and cognitive competence that the individual can later exploit for adaptive purposes. PMID:24638875

  15. From Learning Object to Learning Cell: A Resource Organization Model for Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Shengquan; Yang, Xianmin; Cheng, Gang

    2013-01-01

    The key to implementing ubiquitous learning is the construction and organization of learning resources. While current research on ubiquitous learning has primarily focused on concept models, supportive environments and small-scale empirical research, exploring ways to organize learning resources to make them available anywhere on-demand is also…

  16. Managing and learning with multiple models: Objectives and optimization algorithms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Probert, William J. M.; Hauser, C.E.; McDonald-Madden, E.; Runge, M.C.; Baxter, P.W.J.; Possingham, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of environmental decisions should be gauged according to managers' objectives. Management objectives generally seek to maximize quantifiable measures of system benefit, for instance population growth rate. Reaching these goals often requires a certain degree of learning about the system. Learning can occur by using management action in combination with a monitoring system. Furthermore, actions can be chosen strategically to obtain specific kinds of information. Formal decision making tools can choose actions to favor such learning in two ways: implicitly via the optimization algorithm that is used when there is a management objective (for instance, when using adaptive management), or explicitly by quantifying knowledge and using it as the fundamental project objective, an approach new to conservation.This paper outlines three conservation project objectives - a pure management objective, a pure learning objective, and an objective that is a weighted mixture of these two. We use eight optimization algorithms to choose actions that meet project objectives and illustrate them in a simulated conservation project. The algorithms provide a taxonomy of decision making tools in conservation management when there is uncertainty surrounding competing models of system function. The algorithms build upon each other such that their differences are highlighted and practitioners may see where their decision making tools can be improved. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A Biologically Inspired Computational Model of Basal Ganglia in Action Selection

    PubMed Central

    Baston, Chiara; Ursino, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are a subcortical structure implicated in action selection. The aim of this work is to present a new cognitive neuroscience model of the BG, which aspires to represent a parsimonious balance between simplicity and completeness. The model includes the 3 main pathways operating in the BG circuitry, that is, the direct (Go), indirect (NoGo), and hyperdirect pathways. The main original aspects, compared with previous models, are the use of a two-term Hebb rule to train synapses in the striatum, based exclusively on neuronal activity changes caused by dopamine peaks or dips, and the role of the cholinergic interneurons (affected by dopamine themselves) during learning. Some examples are displayed, concerning a few paradigmatic cases: action selection in basal conditions, action selection in the presence of a strong conflict (where the role of the hyperdirect pathway emerges), synapse changes induced by phasic dopamine, and learning new actions based on a previous history of rewards and punishments. Finally, some simulations show model working in conditions of altered dopamine levels, to illustrate pathological cases (dopamine depletion in parkinsonian subjects or dopamine hypermedication). Due to its parsimonious approach, the model may represent a straightforward tool to analyze BG functionality in behavioral experiments. PMID:26640481

  18. A Biologically Inspired Computational Model of Basal Ganglia in Action Selection.

    PubMed

    Baston, Chiara; Ursino, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are a subcortical structure implicated in action selection. The aim of this work is to present a new cognitive neuroscience model of the BG, which aspires to represent a parsimonious balance between simplicity and completeness. The model includes the 3 main pathways operating in the BG circuitry, that is, the direct (Go), indirect (NoGo), and hyperdirect pathways. The main original aspects, compared with previous models, are the use of a two-term Hebb rule to train synapses in the striatum, based exclusively on neuronal activity changes caused by dopamine peaks or dips, and the role of the cholinergic interneurons (affected by dopamine themselves) during learning. Some examples are displayed, concerning a few paradigmatic cases: action selection in basal conditions, action selection in the presence of a strong conflict (where the role of the hyperdirect pathway emerges), synapse changes induced by phasic dopamine, and learning new actions based on a previous history of rewards and punishments. Finally, some simulations show model working in conditions of altered dopamine levels, to illustrate pathological cases (dopamine depletion in parkinsonian subjects or dopamine hypermedication). Due to its parsimonious approach, the model may represent a straightforward tool to analyze BG functionality in behavioral experiments. PMID:26640481

  19. Professional Learning Communities: Concepts in Action in a Principal Preparation Program, an Elementary School Team, a Leadership Team, and a Business Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servais, Kristine; Derrington, Mary Lynne; Sanders, Kellie

    2009-01-01

    The Professional Learning Community (PLC) model has moved to the forefront in the field of education as one of the most effective frameworks to improve student achievement and overall school success. The research conducted for this paper provides evidence for systemic and action based improvement using the PLC model in four diverse venues:…

  20. Visuospatial cueing by self-caused features: Orienting of attention and action-outcome associative learning.

    PubMed

    Gozli, Davood G; Aslam, Hira; Pratt, Jay

    2016-04-01

    The effect of a salient visual feature in orienting spatial attention was examined as a function of the learned association between the visual feature and the observer's action. During an initial acquisition phase, participants learned that two keypress actions consistently produced red and green visual cues. Next, in a test phase, participants' actions continued to result in singletons, but their color could be either congruent or incongruent with the learned action-color associations. Furthermore, the color singletons now functioned as valid or invalid spatial cues in a visual search, in which participants looked for a tilted line ("/" or "\\") among distractors ("X"s). The results showed that an action-congruent color was more effective as a valid cue in the search task (increased benefit), but less effective as an invalid cue (reduced cost). We discuss our findings in terms of both an inhibition account and a preactivation account of action-driven sensory bias, and argue in favor of the preactivation account. PMID:26228183

  1. A Model for Learning Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilfoil, W. R.

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the way in which people perceive learning and the impact of these perceptions on teaching methods within the context of learning development in distance education. The context could, in fact, be any type of teaching and learning environment. The point is to balance approaches to teaching and learning depending on student…

  2. BUCKLE: A Model of Unobserved Cause Learning

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Christian C.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with alternative causes is necessary to avoid making inaccurate causal inferences from covariation data. However, information about alternative causes is frequently unavailable, rendering them unobserved. The current article reviews the way in which current learning models deal, or could deal, with unobserved causes. A new model of causal learning, BUCKLE (bidirectional unobserved cause learning) extends existing models of causal learning by dynamically inferring information about unobserved, alternative causes. During the course of causal learning, BUCKLE continually computes the probability that an unobserved cause is present during a given observation and then uses the results of these inferences to learn the causal strengths of the unobserved as well as observed causes. The current results demonstrate that BUCKLE provides a better explanation of people's causal learning than the existing models. PMID:17638500

  3. Modeling actions and operations to support mission preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, D. P.; Schreckenghost, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes two linked technology development projects to support Space Shuttle ground operations personnel, both during mission preparation analysis and related analyses in missions. The Space Propulsion Robust Analysis Tool (SPRAT) will provide intelligent support and automation for mission analysis setup, interpretation, reporting and documentation. SPRAT models the actions taken by flight support personnel during mission preparation and uses this model to generate an action plan. CONFIG will provide intelligent automation for procedure analyses and failure impact analyses, by simulating the interactions between operations and systems with embedded failures. CONFIG models the actions taken by crew during space vehicle malfunctions and simulates how the planned action sequences in procedures affect a device model. Jointly the SPRAT and CONFIG projects provide an opportunity to investigate how the nature of a task affects the representation of actions, and to determine a more general action representation supporting a broad range of tasks. This paper describes the problems in representing actions for mission preparation and their relation to planning and scheduling.

  4. A Generative Model of Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittrock, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    The learning of mathematics is presented as a cognitive process rather than as a behavioristic one. A generative model of mathematics learning is described. Learning with understanding can occur with discovery or reception treatments. Relevant empirical research is discussed and implications for teaching mathematics as a generative process are…

  5. A Situated Model of Creative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    This article puts forward a situated model of creative learning. Most educational studies on creativity tend to concentrate on explaining the relation between teaching and creativity while keeping learning as a secondary concept. However, it has been stated that it is likely that teaching creatively leads to creative learning, suggesting that…

  6. Models of Reality: Shaping Thought and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jacques, Ed.

    The 21 essays in this two-part book provide conceptual and operational understanding of the nature of models as representations of reality and as tools for description, analysis, interpretation, and forecasting. Topic areas addressed in part 1 (concept) include: the nature of models; the earth as a system; the determination of form; some…

  7. Bias and learning in temporal binding: intervals between actions and outcomes are compressed by prior bias.

    PubMed

    Cravo, Andre M; Haddad, Hamilton; Claessens, Peter M E; Baldo, Marcus V C

    2013-12-01

    It has consistently been shown that agents judge the intervals between their actions and outcomes as compressed in time, an effect named intentional binding. In the present work, we investigated whether this effect is result of prior bias volunteers have about the timing of the consequences of their actions, or if it is due to learning that occurs during the experimental session. Volunteers made temporal estimates of the interval between their action and target onset (Action conditions), or between two events (No-Action conditions). Our results show that temporal estimates become shorter throughout each experimental block in both conditions. Moreover, we found that observers judged intervals between action and outcomes as shorter even in very early trials of each block. To quantify the decrease of temporal judgments in experimental blocks, exponential functions were fitted to participants' temporal judgments. The fitted parameters suggest that observers had different prior biases as to intervals between events in which action was involved. These findings suggest that prior bias might play a more important role in this effect than calibration-type learning processes. PMID:24016785

  8. Modulation of neural activity during observational learning of actions and their sequential orders.

    PubMed

    Frey, Scott H; Gerry, Valerie E

    2006-12-20

    How does the brain transform perceptual representations of others' actions into motor representations that can be used to guide behavior? Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to record human brain activity while subjects watched others construct multipart objects under varied task demands. We find that relative to resting baseline, passive action observation increases activity within inferior frontal and parietal cortices implicated in action encoding (mirror system) and throughout a distributed network of areas involved in motor representation, including dorsal premotor cortex, pre-supplementary motor area, cerebellum, and basal ganglia (experiments 1 and 2). Relative to passive observation, these same areas show increased activity when subjects observe with the intention to subsequently reproduce component actions using the demonstrated sequential procedures (experiment 1). Observing the same actions with the intention of reproducing component actions, but without the requirement to use the demonstrated sequential procedure, increases activity in the same regions, although to a lesser degree (experiment 2). These findings demonstrate that when attempting to learn behaviors through observation, the observers' intentions modulate responses in a widely distributed network of cortical and subcortical regions implicated previously in action encoding and/or motor representation. Among these regions, only activity within the right intraparietal sulcus predicts the accuracy with which observed procedures are subsequently performed. Successful formation of motor representations of sequential procedures through observational learning is dependent on computations implemented within this parietal region. PMID:17182769

  9. Facilitating the learning process in design-based learning practices: an investigation of teachers' actions in supervising students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Puente, S. M.; van Eijck, M.; Jochems, W.

    2013-11-01

    Background: In research on design-based learning (DBL), inadequate attention is paid to the role the teacher plays in supervising students in gathering and applying knowledge to design artifacts, systems, and innovative solutions in higher education. Purpose: In this study, we examine whether teacher actions we previously identified in the DBL literature as important in facilitating learning processes and student supervision are present in current DBL engineering practices. Sample: The sample (N=16) consisted of teachers and supervisors in two engineering study programs at a university of technology: mechanical and electrical engineering. We selected randomly teachers from freshman and second-year bachelor DBL projects responsible for student supervision and assessment. Design and method: Interviews with teachers, and interviews and observations of supervisors were used to examine how supervision and facilitation actions are applied according to the DBL framework. Results: Major findings indicate that formulating questions is the most common practice seen in facilitating learning in open-ended engineering design environments. Furthermore, other DBL actions we expected to see based upon the literature were seldom observed in the coaching practices within these two programs. Conclusions: Professionalization of teachers in supervising students need to include methods to scaffold learning by supporting students in reflecting and in providing formative feedback.

  10. Modeling surgical skill learning with cognitive simulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Shi-Hyun; Suh, Irene H; Chien, Jung-hung; Paik, Jaehyon; Ritter, Frank E; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2011-01-01

    We used a cognitive architecture (ACT-R) to explore the procedural learning of surgical tasks and then to understand the process of perceptual motor learning and skill decay in surgical skill performance. The ACT-R cognitive model simulates declarative memory processes during motor learning. In this ongoing study, four surgical tasks (bimanual carrying, peg transfer, needle passing, and suture tying) were performed using the da Vinci© surgical system. Preliminary results revealed that an ACT-R model produced similar learning effects. Cognitive simulation can be used to demonstrate and optimize the perceptual motor learning and skill decay in surgical skill training. PMID:21335834

  11. A Model of Microevolution in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Larry A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity to help students understand the precepts of the Hardy-Weinberg principle and simultaneously permit observation of a model of evolution through natural selection in a nonthreatening setting. (PR)

  12. Extending the mirror neuron system model, I. Audible actions and invisible grasps.

    PubMed

    Bonaiuto, James; Rosta, Edina; Arbib, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The paper introduces mirror neuron system II (MNS2), a new version of the MNS model (Oztop and Arbib in Biol Cybern 87 (2):116-140, 2002) of action recognition learning by mirror neurons of the macaque brain. The new model uses a recurrent architecture that is biologically more plausible than that of the original model. Moreover, MNS2 extends the capacity of the model to address data on audio-visual mirror neurons and on the response of mirror neurons when the target object was recently visible but is currently hidden. PMID:17028884

  13. Enhancing practice teachers' knowledge and skills using collaborative action learning sets.

    PubMed

    Haydock, Deborah; Evers, Jean

    2014-06-01

    This research project was designed to enhance the critical thinking and problem-solving skills of practice teachers (PTs) and promote role modelling to specialist community public health nursing (SCPHN) students. This paper explores the impact of action learning sets (ALS) on the trainee PT role and associated students and stakeholders. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed by eight trainee PTs and three focus groups were held consisting of trainee PTs, practice education facilitators and students. Three focus groups for the trainee PTs, practice education facilitators and allocated students were held. Findings are presented in relation to three themes: knowledge, skills and role modelling in practice; dedicated practice teacher development; and ALS in practice. Data analysis demonstrated that the PTs valued the dedicated module and ALS enhanced their knowledge and skills. These skills were role modelled to students to guide reflection and knowledge acquisition. All participants intended to develop ALS as part of continued professional development. The paper concludes with recommendations to improve the educational development of both trainee and experienced PTs through the integration of ALS as part of PT development. PMID:24974553

  14. Supplemental action learning workshops: Understanding the effects of independent and cooperative workshops on students' knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Kathryn Michelle

    Community colleges enroll more than half of the undergraduate population in the United States, thereby retaining students of varying demographics with extracurricular demands differing from traditional four-year university students. Often in a collegiate lecture course, students are limited in their abilities to absorb and process information presented by their instructors due to content-specific cognitive gaps between the instructor and the student (Preszler, 2009). Research has shown that implementation of instructor-facilitated action learning workshops as supplemental instruction may help bridge these cognitive gaps allowing better student conceptualization and dissemination of knowledge (Drake, 2011; Fullilove & Treisman, 1990; Preszler, 2009; Udovic, Morris, Dickman, Postlethwait, & Wetherwax, 2002). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cooperative action learning workshops and independent action learning workshops on students' knowledge of specified topics within a General Biology I with lab course. The results of this investigation indicate that implementation of an instructor-facilitated action learning workshop did not affect students' knowledge gain; furthermore, attendance of a particular workshop style (independent or cooperative) did not affect students' knowledge gain.

  15. Observing Children's Learning: Informing Effective Intervention. A Personal Story of Investigative Research in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Andrew

    This paper outlines the underlying principles that have guided the development of an observational orientation to assessing children's learning. The development of an observation orientation was achieved through a process of a number of action-type research projects within a range of early years settings in the United Kingdom. The paper outlines a…

  16. Connecting Entrepreneurial and Action Learning in Student-Initiated New Business Ventures: The Case of SPEED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David

    2009-01-01

    The Student Placements for Entrepreneurs in Education (SPEED) project ran in 12 higher education institutes in the UK between 2006 and 2008, providing an innovative, action learning-based route that enabled students to start new business ventures as self-started work experience, and has influenced successor programmes. The paper addresses three…

  17. Rethinking Approaches to Working with Children Who Challenge: Action Learning for Emancipatory Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNaughton, Glenda; Hughes, Patrick; Smith, Kylie

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an action-learning project that helped teachers to rethink their approaches to children who challenge. The project enabled and encouraged teachers to reflect critically on why and how particular children challenged them and then to use their critical reflections to strengthen their capacity to work with those children. The…

  18. Leaders Behaving Badly: Using Power to Generate Undiscussables in Action Learning Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Paul Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    "Undiscussables" are topics associated with threat or embarrassment that are avoided by groups, where that avoidance is also not discussed. Their deleterious effect on executive groups has been a point of discussion for several decades. More recently critical action learning (AL) has brought a welcome focus to power relations within AL…

  19. The Learning of Visually Guided Action: An Information-Space Analysis of Pole Balancing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, David M.; Vaz, Daniela V.; Michaels, Claire F.

    2012-01-01

    In cart-pole balancing, one moves a cart in 1 dimension so as to balance an attached inverted pendulum. We approached perception-action and learning in this task from an ecological perspective. This entailed identifying a space of informational variables that balancers use as they perform the task and demonstrating that they improve by traversing…

  20. Enacting Change through Action Learning: Mobilizing and Managing Power and Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, James; Cohen-Schneider, Rochelle; Linkewich, Beth; Legault, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of how action learning facilitates the movement of knowledge between social contexts. The study involved a community organization that provides educational services related to aphasia and members of a complex continuing care (CCC) practice that received training from the agency. People with aphasia (PWA) (a disability…

  1. An Action Research Study on the Effect of Interactive Technology and Active Learning on Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, Teresa J.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative action science research study utilized a causal-comparative experimental research design in order to determine if the use of student response systems (clickers), as an active learning strategy in a community college course, improved student performance in the course. Students in the experimental group (n = 26) used clickers to…

  2. Action-Based Digital Tools: Mathematics Learning in 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; Desoete, Annemie; Fonck, Nathalie; Roderiguez, Dave; Six, Leen; Vermeersch, Tine; Vermeulen, Lies

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study we used a metaphorical representation in order to stimulate the numerical competences of six-year-olds. It was expected that when properties of physical action are used for mathematical thinking or when abstract mathematical thinking is grounded in sensorimotor processes, learning gains should be more pronounced…

  3. Impact of Action Learning on Entrepreneurial Traits and Inclination: Evidence from a Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Hilleas Chi Hang; Man, Thomas Wing Yan

    2012-01-01

    Based on a comparative survey supplemented with focus group interviews, it was found that an action learning activity in an entrepreneurship programme produced both positive and negative results with regard to the entrepreneurial traits of students and their inclination towards entrepreneurship, depending on the influence of external and…

  4. Managing the Action/Reflection Polarity Through Dialogue: A Path to Transformative Learning. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laiken, Marilyn E.

    At the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Ontario, a course entitled Developing and Leading High Performing Teams: Theory and Practice is experimenting with a design that surfaces the action/reflection paradox for the purpose of learning how to manage this polarity. Whether the product is defined as services or goods,…

  5. Distributed Leadership as a Factor in and Outcome of Teacher Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinham, Stephen; Aubusson, Peter; Brady, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an evaluation of Quality Teaching Action Learning (QTAL) projects conducted at New South Wales (NSW), Australia public (state) primary and secondary schools and explores how distributed leadership facilitated and was an outcome of the QTAL projects. The evaluation encompassed all 50 projects at 82 NSW public schools, and nine of…

  6. Teacher Professional Development through Collaborative Action Research: Impact on Foreign English-Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banegas, Dario; Pavese, Anahi; Velazquez, Aurelia; Velez, Sandra Maria

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 we, a group of English-as-a-foreign-language teachers at a secondary school in Argentina, decided to investigate our teaching practices through collaborative action research so as to improve our students' learning opportunities and thus revitalise English-language teaching in our context. We implemented and evaluated the integration of…

  7. Conversations outside the Comfort Zone: Identity Formation in SME Manager Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lisa; Gold, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider the construction of narrative identity and particularly how managers of small businesses may construct new narrative identities within the activity of the action learning situation. We build on recent work to suggest that the "world" of managers can be explored through a consideration of Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory…

  8. Engaging Preservice Teachers in Action Research to Enhance Awareness of Second Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin, Hanizah; Moore, Rashid A.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines a study on how preservice teachers enhance their understanding of theory and research in second language learning through an action research project that took place in a TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) education course. The study focuses on how interaction with English language learners (ELLs)…

  9. Blending Q and P: Incorporating Action Learning in a Master's Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boak, George

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on the experience of incorporating action learning within a Master's degree programme over a period of 14 years. The MA in Leading Innovation and Change was launched in 1995. It was first developed, and subsequently delivered, by a small group of staff working collaboratively across organisational boundaries. It is currently…

  10. Learning and Teaching Breathing and Oboe Playing: Action Research in a Conservatoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Helena

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents findings from action research in a conservatoire (the Guildhall School of Music & Drama) which focused on teaching and learning effective breathing in playing the oboe. A range of approaches and techniques emerged from a literature review. These were implemented in practice with oboe students at the Guildhall School, and…

  11. Doing Right in Business: Can Action Learning Develop Moral Sensitivity and Promote Ethical Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Cheryl; Christy, Gill

    2013-01-01

    The question addressed in this paper is whether action learning as a management development technique can be more effective in promoting ethical decision-making than more traditional approaches. Recent examples of moral failures which have emerged in both corporate and public sector organisations in the UK during recent years have prompted a…

  12. "Scaffolding" of Action Learning within a Part-Time Management Development Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joesbury, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This Account of Practice describes the introduction and development of action learning within a level 5 module of "Communications at Work" delivered as part of a Business & Technology Education Council (BTEC) Professional Certificate in Management (CMS) between 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. This will commence with a personal narrative and…

  13. Evaluating STAR--A Transformative Learning Framework: Interdisciplinary Action Research in Health Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Margaret; Oprescu, Florin; Downer, Teresa; Lyons, Michael; Pelly, Fiona; Barr, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Transformative learning aims to awaken students to issues of injustice, and to promote their critical analysis of assumptions, beliefs and values that lead to and sustain social inequities, so that they may become agents of social change. This paper introduces the Sensitise Take Action and Reflection (STAR) framework, which encapsulates…

  14. A Flexible Friend: Action Learning in the Context of a Multi-Agency Organisation Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonstone, John; Flanagan, Hugh

    2007-01-01

    The current profile of action learning in the UK has recently become clearer (Pedler et al., 2005). Using the template of what have been described as "Revans's Classical Principles", fundamental divergences have begun to emerge. Pedler et al. (2005) identified a number of variances from this template--specifically the use of permanent facilitators…

  15. A Contribution to the Discussion on Participant Readiness for Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breathnach, Catherine; Stephenson, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The authors explore their experience of a course for long-term unemployed people and reflect as to whether the traits identified by Tom Bourner on readiness for action learning actually relate to their experience. They conclude that based on the obvious development by the members of the group over the course, they observed, in some small way, the…

  16. Learning To Teach Games for Understanding: Coming To Know the Action Research Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Tim F.

    This paper describes and interprets an action research project that supported student teachers learning to teach physical education in a community-based, after-school games program. Ten student teachers taught 10 lessons to elementary school children, under the guidance of 3 supervisory teachers, who were graduate students, and one program…

  17. Using Action Research to Teach Students to Manage Team Learning and Improve Teamwork Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Ladd, Brenda; Chan, Christopher C. A.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study investigating strategies that students can use to develop skills in managing team learning. Two groups of second-year management students participated in a semester-long action research project over two semesters. The students were educated on team development, team processes and conflict management and how to…

  18. Using Participatory Action Research to Increase Learning Transfer of Recovery-Based Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barish, Diane J.

    2009-01-01

    This study questions whether or not participatory action research is an effective and practical method for increasing learning transfer of recovery-based principles. The participants (N = 250) were ethnically and educationally diverse clinicians, in an urban state mental health institute. The Self-Assessment of Recovery-Based Behaviors survey ( n…

  19. Skill Learning as a Concept in Life-Span Developmental Psychology: An Action Theoretic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, M.; Stewart, J.

    1984-01-01

    An action theoretic account of skill learning and skill use is offered as a useful heuristic for life-span developmental psychology. The version presented is one that is particularly prominent in industrial psychology in the German-speaking countries. (Author/RH)

  20. A Partnership Approach to Action Learning within a Masters Educational Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patricia; Edwards, Carys

    2012-01-01

    This account of practice provides a practical example of the use of action learning within a masters educational programme, an MA in Change Management designed and delivered by a collaborative partnership between the Isle of Anglesey County Council (ACC) and Liverpool Business School (LBS), Liverpool John Moores University. The account has been…

  1. Action Control and Dispositional Hope: An Examination of Their Effect on Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papantoniou, Georgia; Moraitou, Despina; Katsadima, Effie; Dinou, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The present study examined the effect of action control (i.e., disengagement, initiative, and persistence) and dispositional hope (i.e., pathways thought, and agency thinking) on self-regulated learning strategy use (i.e., cognitive, metacognitive, and resource management) and course achievement. Method: A total of 275 undergraduate…

  2. Bridging the Generation Gap: "Growing Golf" through an Action Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbert, Norb; Cumiskey, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an action learning simulation designed for a Professional Golf Management (PGM) program housed in a College of Business of a public university. The PGA Golf Management University Program, a 4.5- to 5-year college curriculum for aspiring PGA Professionals is offered at 19 PGA accredited universities nationwide. The program…

  3. Reflections on "Creative" Action Learning in Business Education: Some Issues in Its Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Cheryl; Milner, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider some issues in the uses of what we have termed "creative" action learning in a business education context, and to review some aspects of its practice. A review of the literature, including its use in higher education, is followed by a case illustration of its use in a UK business school with…

  4. Study of a Self-Managed Action Learning Set: What Makes It Last 14 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    What contributes to longevity in an action learning (AL) set? What holds it together over a long period? The article relates the chronology and reasons why a self-managed set has flourished when so many sets of voluntary membership peter out. Major attributes of successful longevity are the adherence to strong ground rules and disciplined…

  5. After-Action Reports: Capturing Lessons Learned and Identifying Areas for Improvement. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This issue of "Lessons Learned" addresses after-action reports, which are an integral part of the emergency preparedness planning continuum and support effective crisis response. After-action reports have a threefold purpose. They…

  6. Dynamic mesolimbic dopamine signaling during action sequence learning and expectation violation.

    PubMed

    Collins, Anne L; Greenfield, Venuz Y; Bye, Jeffrey K; Linker, Kay E; Wang, Alice S; Wassum, Kate M

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged mesolimbic dopamine concentration changes have been detected during spatial navigation, but little is known about the conditions that engender this signaling profile or how it develops with learning. To address this, we monitored dopamine concentration changes in the nucleus accumbens core of rats throughout acquisition and performance of an instrumental action sequence task. Prolonged dopamine concentration changes were detected that ramped up as rats executed each action sequence and declined after earned reward collection. With learning, dopamine concentration began to rise increasingly earlier in the execution of the sequence and ultimately backpropagated away from stereotyped sequence actions, becoming only transiently elevated by the most distal and unexpected reward predictor. Action sequence-related dopamine signaling was reactivated in well-trained rats if they became disengaged in the task and in response to an unexpected change in the value, but not identity of the earned reward. Throughout training and test, dopamine signaling correlated with sequence performance. These results suggest that action sequences can engender a prolonged mode of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core and that such signaling relates to elements of the motivation underlying sequence execution and is dynamic with learning, overtraining and violations in reward expectation. PMID:26869075

  7. Dynamic mesolimbic dopamine signaling during action sequence learning and expectation violation

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Anne L.; Greenfield, Venuz Y.; Bye, Jeffrey K.; Linker, Kay E.; Wang, Alice S.; Wassum, Kate M.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged mesolimbic dopamine concentration changes have been detected during spatial navigation, but little is known about the conditions that engender this signaling profile or how it develops with learning. To address this, we monitored dopamine concentration changes in the nucleus accumbens core of rats throughout acquisition and performance of an instrumental action sequence task. Prolonged dopamine concentration changes were detected that ramped up as rats executed each action sequence and declined after earned reward collection. With learning, dopamine concentration began to rise increasingly earlier in the execution of the sequence and ultimately backpropagated away from stereotyped sequence actions, becoming only transiently elevated by the most distal and unexpected reward predictor. Action sequence-related dopamine signaling was reactivated in well-trained rats if they became disengaged in the task and in response to an unexpected change in the value, but not identity of the earned reward. Throughout training and test, dopamine signaling correlated with sequence performance. These results suggest that action sequences can engender a prolonged mode of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core and that such signaling relates to elements of the motivation underlying sequence execution and is dynamic with learning, overtraining and violations in reward expectation. PMID:26869075

  8. Learning Spatio-Temporal Representations for Action Recognition: A Genetic Programming Approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Shao, Ling; Li, Xuelong; Lu, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Extracting discriminative and robust features from video sequences is the first and most critical step in human action recognition. In this paper, instead of using handcrafted features, we automatically learn spatio-temporal motion features for action recognition. This is achieved via an evolutionary method, i.e., genetic programming (GP), which evolves the motion feature descriptor on a population of primitive 3D operators (e.g., 3D-Gabor and wavelet). In this way, the scale and shift invariant features can be effectively extracted from both color and optical flow sequences. We intend to learn data adaptive descriptors for different datasets with multiple layers, which makes fully use of the knowledge to mimic the physical structure of the human visual cortex for action recognition and simultaneously reduce the GP searching space to effectively accelerate the convergence of optimal solutions. In our evolutionary architecture, the average cross-validation classification error, which is calculated by an support-vector-machine classifier on the training set, is adopted as the evaluation criterion for the GP fitness function. After the entire evolution procedure finishes, the best-so-far solution selected by GP is regarded as the (near-)optimal action descriptor obtained. The GP-evolving feature extraction method is evaluated on four popular action datasets, namely KTH, HMDB51, UCF YouTube, and Hollywood2. Experimental results show that our method significantly outperforms other types of features, either hand-designed or machine-learned. PMID:25700480

  9. A developmental approach to learning causal models for cyber security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugan, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    To keep pace with our adversaries, we must expand the scope of machine learning and reasoning to address the breadth of possible attacks. One approach is to employ an algorithm to learn a set of causal models that describes the entire cyber network and each host end node. Such a learning algorithm would run continuously on the system and monitor activity in real time. With a set of causal models, the algorithm could anticipate novel attacks, take actions to thwart them, and predict the second-order effects flood of information, and the algorithm would have to determine which streams of that flood were relevant in which situations. This paper will present the results of efforts toward the application of a developmental learning algorithm to the problem of cyber security. The algorithm is modeled on the principles of human developmental learning and is designed to allow an agent to learn about the computer system in which it resides through active exploration. Children are flexible learners who acquire knowledge by actively exploring their environment and making predictions about what they will find,1, 2 and our algorithm is inspired by the work of the developmental psychologist Jean Piaget.3 Piaget described how children construct knowledge in stages and learn new concepts on top of those they already know. Developmental learning allows our algorithm to focus on subsets of the environment that are most helpful for learning given its current knowledge. In experiments, the algorithm was able to learn the conditions for file exfiltration and use that knowledge to protect sensitive files.

  10. Toward Solutions: The Work of the Chemistry Action-Research Group. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Roger; And Others

    In the action-research phase of the Learning in Science Project, four groups of people worked on problems identified in the project's second (in-depth) phase. The Chemistry Action-Research Group considered problems related to the teaching and learning of ideas associated with particles and physical/chemical changes. Based on findings during the…

  11. Action Research as another Literacy Skill To Improve Academic Performance: A Case Study of Empowered Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariizumi, Yoshihiko

    2006-01-01

    Background: Even though action research has been employed in an increasing number of fields of practice including teaching, nursing, and business, application in learning has been scarcely reported. This case study is one of the first attempts to apply action research principles to help learners improve their learning performance. Purpose: This…

  12. Action Learning for Organizational and Systemic Development: Towards a "Both-and" Understanding of "I" and "We"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Clare

    2008-01-01

    In public services delivery, action learning is increasingly employed in the hope of improving capacity to address complex, multi-casual and "wicked" social issues to improve the lives of citizens. Yet the understanding of how and why action learning might have potential for enhancing organizational or systemic capability rarely goes beyond the…

  13. Toward Solutions: The Work of the Physics Action-Research Group. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Roger; Schollum, Brendan

    In the action-research phase of the Learning in Science Project, four groups of people worked on problems identified in the project's second (in-depth) phase. The Physics action-research group considered problems related to the teaching and learning of ideas associated with force and motion, suggesting that children's ideas of these concepts might…

  14. A Conceptual Model of Learning Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, Rob

    In the TENCompetence project a set of UML models (Booch et al. 1999) have been developed to specify the core concepts for Learning Networks Services that support professional competence development. The three most important, high-level models are (a) the use case model, (b) the conceptual model, and (c) the domain model. The first model identifies the primary use cases we need in order to support professional competence development. The second model describes the concept of competence and competence development from a theoretical point of view. What is a competence? How does it relate to the cognitive system of an actor? How are competences developed? The third model is a UML Domain Model that defines, among other things, the components of a Learning Network, defines the concepts and relationships between the concepts in a Learning Network and provides a starting point for the design of the overall architecture for Learning Network Services, including the data model.

  15. Model-Observer Similarity, Error Modeling and Social Learning in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Monfardini, Elisabetta; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Meunier, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Monkeys readily learn to discriminate between rewarded and unrewarded items or actions by observing their conspecifics. However, they do not systematically learn from humans. Understanding what makes human-to-monkey transmission of knowledge work or fail could help identify mediators and moderators of social learning that operate regardless of language or culture, and transcend inter-species differences. Do monkeys fail to learn when human models show a behavior too dissimilar from the animals’ own, or when they show a faultless performance devoid of error? To address this question, six rhesus macaques trained to find which object within a pair concealed a food reward were successively tested with three models: a familiar conspecific, a ‘stimulus-enhancing’ human actively drawing the animal’s attention to one object of the pair without actually performing the task, and a ‘monkey-like’ human performing the task in the same way as the monkey model did. Reward was manipulated to ensure that all models showed equal proportions of errors and successes. The ‘monkey-like’ human model improved the animals’ subsequent object discrimination learning as much as a conspecific did, whereas the ‘stimulus-enhancing’ human model tended on the contrary to retard learning. Modeling errors rather than successes optimized learning from the monkey and ‘monkey-like’ models, while exacerbating the adverse effect of the ‘stimulus-enhancing’ model. These findings identify error modeling as a moderator of social learning in monkeys that amplifies the models’ influence, whether beneficial or detrimental. By contrast, model-observer similarity in behavior emerged as a mediator of social learning, that is, a prerequisite for a model to work in the first place. The latter finding suggests that, as preverbal infants, macaques need to perceive the model as ‘like-me’ and that, once this condition is fulfilled, any agent can become an effective model. PMID

  16. Integrated Model for E-Learning Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadiani; Rodziah, A.; Hasan, S. M.; Rusli, A.; Noraini, C.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning is not going to work if the system is not used in accordance with user needs. User Interface is very important to encourage using the application. Many theories had discuss about user interface usability evaluation and technology acceptance separately, actually why we do not make it correlation between interface usability evaluation and user acceptance to enhance e-learning process. Therefore, the evaluation model for e-learning interface acceptance is considered important to investigate. The aim of this study is to propose the integrated e-learning user interface acceptance evaluation model. This model was combined some theories of e-learning interface measurement such as, user learning style, usability evaluation, and the user benefit. We formulated in constructive questionnaires which were shared at 125 English Language School (ELS) students. This research statistics used Structural Equation Model using LISREL v8.80 and MANOVA analysis.

  17. Effective action for noncommutative Bianchi I model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, M.; Vergara, J. D.; Minzoni, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    Quantum Mechanics, as a mini-superspace of Field Theory has been assumed to provide physically relevant information on quantum processes in Field Theory. In the case of Quantum Gravity this would imply using Cosmological models to investigate quantum processes at distances of the order of the Planck scale. However because of the Stone-von Neuman Theorem, it is well known that quantization of Cosmological models by the Wheeler-DeWitt procedure in the context of a Heisenberg-Weyl group with piecewise continuous parameters leads irremediably to a volume singularity. In order to avoid this information catastrophe it has been suggested recently the need to introduce in an effective theory of the quantization some form of reticulation in 3-space. On the other hand, since in the geometry of the General Relativistic formulation of Gravitation space can not be visualized as some underlying static manifold in which the physical system evolves, it would be interesting to investigate whether the effective reticulation which removes the singularity in such simple cosmologies as the Bianchi models has a dynamical origin manifested by a noncommutativity of the generators of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra, as would be expected from an operational point of view at the Planck length scale.

  18. Effective action for noncommutative Bianchi I model

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, M.; Vergara, J. D.; Minzoni, A. A.

    2013-06-12

    Quantum Mechanics, as a mini-superspace of Field Theory has been assumed to provide physically relevant information on quantum processes in Field Theory. In the case of Quantum Gravity this would imply using Cosmological models to investigate quantum processes at distances of the order of the Planck scale. However because of the Stone-von Neuman Theorem, it is well known that quantization of Cosmological models by the Wheeler-DeWitt procedure in the context of a Heisenberg-Weyl group with piecewise continuous parameters leads irremediably to a volume singularity. In order to avoid this information catastrophe it has been suggested recently the need to introduce in an effective theory of the quantization some form of reticulation in 3-space. On the other hand, since in the geometry of the General Relativistic formulation of Gravitation space can not be visualized as some underlying static manifold in which the physical system evolves, it would be interesting to investigate whether the effective reticulation which removes the singularity in such simple cosmologies as the Bianchi models has a dynamical origin manifested by a noncommutativity of the generators of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra, as would be expected from an operational point of view at the Planck length scale.

  19. Action selection performance of a reconfigurable basal ganglia inspired model with Hebbian-Bayesian Go-NoGo connectivity.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Pierre; Hellgren-Kotaleski, Jeanette; Lansner, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown a strong involvement of the basal ganglia (BG) in action selection and dopamine dependent learning. The dopaminergic signal to striatum, the input stage of the BG, has been commonly described as coding a reward prediction error (RPE), i.e., the difference between the predicted and actual reward. The RPE has been hypothesized to be critical in the modulation of the synaptic plasticity in cortico-striatal synapses in the direct and indirect pathway. We developed an abstract computational model of the BG, with a dual pathway structure functionally corresponding to the direct and indirect pathways, and compared its behavior to biological data as well as other reinforcement learning models. The computations in our model are inspired by Bayesian inference, and the synaptic plasticity changes depend on a three factor Hebbian-Bayesian learning rule based on co-activation of pre- and post-synaptic units and on the value of the RPE. The model builds on a modified Actor-Critic architecture and implements the direct (Go) and the indirect (NoGo) pathway, as well as the reward prediction (RP) system, acting in a complementary fashion. We investigated the performance of the model system when different configurations of the Go, NoGo, and RP system were utilized, e.g., using only the Go, NoGo, or RP system, or combinations of those. Learning performance was investigated in several types of learning paradigms, such as learning-relearning, successive learning, stochastic learning, reversal learning and a two-choice task. The RPE and the activity of the model during learning were similar to monkey electrophysiological and behavioral data. Our results, however, show that there is not a unique best way to configure this BG model to handle well all the learning paradigms tested. We thus suggest that an agent might dynamically configure its action selection mode, possibly depending on task characteristics and also on how much time is available. PMID:23060764

  20. Genotoxic mode of action predictions from a multiplexed flow cytometric assay and a machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Steven M; Bernacki, Derek T; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2016-04-01

    Several endpoints associated with cellular responses to DNA damage as well as overt cytotoxicity were multiplexed into a miniaturized, "add and read" type flow cytometric assay. Reagents included a detergent to liberate nuclei, RNase and propidium iodide to serve as a pan-DNA dye, fluorescent antibodies against γH2AX, phospho-histone H3, and p53, and fluorescent microspheres for absolute nuclei counts. The assay was applied to TK6 cells and 67 diverse reference chemicals that served as a training set. Exposure was for 24 hrs in 96-well plates, and unless precipitation or foreknowledge about cytotoxicity suggested otherwise, the highest concentration was 1 mM. At 4- and 24-hrs aliquots were removed and added to microtiter plates containing the reagent mix. Following a brief incubation period robotic sampling facilitated walk-away data acquisition. Univariate analyses identified biomarkers and time points that were valuable for classifying agents into one of three groups: clastogenic, aneugenic, or non-genotoxic. These mode of action predictions were optimized with a forward-stepping process that considered Wald test p-values, receiver operator characteristic curves, and pseudo R(2) values, among others. A particularly high performing multinomial logistic regression model was comprised of four factors: 4 hr γH2AX and phospho-histone H3 values, and 24 hr p53 and polyploidy values. For the training set chemicals, the four-factor model resulted in 94% concordance with our a priori classifications. Cross validation occurred via a leave-one-out approach, and in this case 91% concordance was observed. A test set of 17 chemicals that were not used to construct the model were evaluated, some of which utilized a short-term treatment in the presence of a metabolic activation system, and in 16 cases mode of action was correctly predicted. These initial results are encouraging as they suggest a machine learning strategy can be used to rapidly and reliably predict new chemicals

  1. Gauge invariant actions for string models

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, T.

    1986-06-01

    String models of unified interactions are elegant sets of Feynman rules for the scattering of gravitons, gauge bosons, and a host of massive excitations. The purpose of these lectures is to describe the progress towards a nonperturbative formulation of the theory. Such a formulation should make the geometrical meaning of string theory manifest and explain the many ''miracles'' exhibited by the string Feynman rules. There are some new results on gauge invariant observables, on the cosmological constant, and on the symmetries of interacting string field theory. 49 refs.

  2. The SUN Service System. Complementary Learning in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Claire Brown; Bouffard, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This report highlights Multnomah County's (Oregon) SUN Service System, an antipoverty and prevention effort that connects educational, social, health, and other services under one umbrella. The SUN model of combining educational, social, and health supports is rooted in a strong history of community involvement and partnerships in Multnomah…

  3. Invitational Teaching, Learning, and Living. Analysis and Action Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purkey, William Watson; Stanley, Paula Helen

    Invitational education aims at creating a total school environment that intentionally summons teachers and students to realize their potential in all areas of worthwhile human endeavor and to make classrooms "the most inviting place in town." Within this model, invitational teaching addresses the role of the teacher in summoning individuals to see…

  4. Peered and Tiered Learning: Action Research as Creative Cultural Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and problematizes a peered and tiered model of creative and educational knowledge transfer piloted in Culture Shack, a community-based arts education program in Melbourne, Australia. Drawing on Eisner and Sefton-Green and Soep, I argue the value of this approach as a potential new pedagogical strategy in both secondary…

  5. The Allocation of Attention to Learning of Goal-Directed Actions: A Cognitive Neuroscience Framework Focusing on the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Franz, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper builds on the idea that attention is largely in service of our actions. A framework and model which captures the allocation of attention for learning of goal-directed actions is proposed and developed. This framework highlights an evolutionary model based on the notion that rudimentary functions of the basal ganglia have become embedded into increasingly higher levels of networks which all contribute to adaptive learning. Supporting the proposed model, background literature is presented alongside key evidence based on experimental studies in the so-called “split-brain” (surgically divided cerebral hemispheres), and selected evidence from related areas of research. Although overlap with other existing findings and models is acknowledged, the proposed framework is an original synthesis of cognitive experimental findings with supporting evidence of a neural system and a carefully formulated model of attention. It is the hope that this new synthesis will be informative in fields of cognition and other fields of brain sciences and will lead to new avenues for experimentation across domains. PMID:23267335

  6. "Ordinary men" or "evil monsters"? An action systems model of genocidal actions and characteristics of perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Hollows, Kerrilee; Fritzon, Katarina

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to address the limitations of the existing genocide literature with the development of an empirically based classification system. Using Shye's (1985) action systems model, it was hypothesized that four types of perpetrators would exist and would be distinguishable by differences in the sources and target of individual criminal actions. Court transcripts from 80 perpetrators sentenced by the international courts were subject to content analysis and revealed 39 offense action variables, 17 perpetrator characteristic variables, and 6 perpetrator motive variables. A smallest space analysis using the Jaccard coefficient of association was conducted on the offense variables. The results supported the proposed framework, producing four distinct types of genocidal perpetrators. Correlational analyses were then conducted to examine the relationships between each of the perpetrator types and the remaining variables. The results of those correlations provided further support for the proposed framework. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22353044

  7. Team Learning: Building Shared Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Gijselaers, Wim; Segers, Mien; Woltjer, Geert; Kirschner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning behaviors and team effectiveness. Analyses were…

  8. Modelling and Optimizing Mathematics Learning in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Käser, Tanja; Busetto, Alberto Giovanni; Solenthaler, Barbara; Baschera, Gian-Marco; Kohn, Juliane; Kucian, Karin; von Aster, Michael; Gross, Markus

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a student model and control algorithm, optimizing mathematics learning in children. The adaptive system is integrated into a computer-based training system for enhancing numerical cognition aimed at children with developmental dyscalculia or difficulties in learning mathematics. The student model consists of a dynamic…

  9. Student Modeling and Ab Initio Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2003-01-01

    Provides examples of student modeling techniques that have been employed in computer-assisted language learning over the past decade. Describes two systems for learning German: "German Tutor" and "Geroline." Shows how a student model can support computerized adaptive language testing for diagnostic purposes in a Web-based language learning…

  10. Mathematical Modelling and New Theories of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boaler, Jo

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates the importance of expanding notions of learning beyond knowledge to the practices in mathematics classrooms. Considers a three-year study of students who learned through mathematical modeling. Shows that a modeling approach encouraged the development of a range of important practices in addition to knowledge that were useful in real…

  11. Taking Research into Schools: The West Lothian Action Enquiry Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binnie, Lynne M.; Allen, Kristen; Beck, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the efforts of an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) to develop its practice in the area of research. It will argue that the Action Enquiry model of service delivery can empower teaching staff and may allow an effective means of change and improvement to take place in schools. This model steers research towards providing…

  12. The application of temporal difference learning in optimal diet models.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Jan; Broom, Mark; Alonso, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    An experience-based aversive learning model of foraging behaviour in uncertain environments is presented. We use Q-learning as a model-free implementation of Temporal difference learning motivated by growing evidence for neural correlates in natural reinforcement settings. The predator has the choice of including an aposematic prey in its diet or to forage on alternative food sources. We show how the predator's foraging behaviour and energy intake depend on toxicity of the defended prey and the presence of Batesian mimics. We introduce the precondition of exploration of the action space for successful aversion formation and show how it predicts foraging behaviour in the presence of conflicting rewards which is conditionally suboptimal in a fixed environment but allows better adaptation in changing environments. PMID:24036204

  13. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model and Kolb Learning Styles on Learning Result of the Basics of Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugiharto

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to determine the effect of cooperative learning model and learning styles on learning result. This quasi-experimental study employed a 2x2 treatment by level, involved independent variables, i.e. cooperative learning model and learning styles, and learning result as the dependent variable. Findings signify that: (1)…

  14. Opponent actor learning (OpAL): modeling interactive effects of striatal dopamine on reinforcement learning and choice incentive.

    PubMed

    Collins, Anne G E; Frank, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The striatal dopaminergic system has been implicated in reinforcement learning (RL), motor performance, and incentive motivation. Various computational models have been proposed to account for each of these effects individually, but a formal analysis of their interactions is lacking. Here we present a novel algorithmic model expanding the classical actor-critic architecture to include fundamental interactive properties of neural circuit models, incorporating both incentive and learning effects into a single theoretical framework. The standard actor is replaced by a dual opponent actor system representing distinct striatal populations, which come to differentially specialize in discriminating positive and negative action values. Dopamine modulates the degree to which each actor component contributes to both learning and choice discriminations. In contrast to standard frameworks, this model simultaneously captures documented effects of dopamine on both learning and choice incentive-and their interactions-across a variety of studies, including probabilistic RL, effort-based choice, and motor skill learning. PMID:25090423

  15. Understanding Professional Learning in Action: A Case Study of a Research-Based Professional Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stukey, Marisa Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    During the last twenty years, professional learning for teachers has been promoted as a viable path for increased teacher effectiveness and student achievement. Because of the complexities of the school system and the diversity of the student population, designing quality professional learning opportunities that are meaningful for teachers can be…

  16. Olfactory Perceptual Learning Requires Action of Noradrenaline in the Olfactory Bulb: Comparison with Olfactory Associative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinera, Jennifer; Kermen, Florence; Sacquet, Joëlle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie; Richard, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Noradrenaline contributes to olfactory-guided behaviors but its role in olfactory learning during adulthood is poorly documented. We investigated its implication in olfactory associative and perceptual learning using local infusion of mixed a1-ß adrenergic receptor antagonist (labetalol) in the adult mouse olfactory bulb. We reported that…

  17. Beliefs about Organising Learning: A Conceptual and Empirical Analysis of Managers' and Workers' Learning Action Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Krogt, Ferd J.; Vermulst, Ad A.

    2000-01-01

    A study of staff of Dutch crisis centers for youth (49 managers, 309 workers) identified four dimensions of their perceptions of the organizational learning system (work orientedness, management influence, external training, on-job peer learning). Clear-cut differences between the perceptions of managers and workers indicated that they have…

  18. Decoding Learning in Law: Collaborative Action towards the Reshaping of University Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Annette

    2014-01-01

    At the University of the Free State (UFS) in South Africa, professional development is characterised by its focus on the advancement of scholarly teaching in the disciplines. Practices followed are informed by the scholarship of teaching and learning movement. Within learning communities, special attention is given to the motivational conditions…

  19. A Model of Values and Actions for Personal Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a "soft methodology" model in knowledge management that addresses the problem of accessing and managing one particular type of knowledge: personal (implicit/tacit) knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on the theories and methodologies of grounded theory, adult learning,…

  20. Sensitivity of the Action Observation Network to Physical and Observational Learning

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Emily S.; Kraemer, David J.M.; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.; Kelley, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Human motor skills can be acquired by observation without the benefit of immediate physical practice. The current study tested if physical rehearsal and observational learning share common neural substrates within an action observation network (AON) including premotor and inferior parietal regions, that is, areas activated both for execution and observation of similar actions. Participants trained for 5 days on dance sequences set to music videos. Each day they physically rehearsed one set of dance sequences (“danced”), and passively watched a different set of sequences (“watched”). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was obtained prior to and immediately following the 5 days of training. After training, a subset of the AON showed a degree of common activity for observational and physical learning. Activity in these premotor and parietal regions was sustained during observation of sequences that were danced or watched, but declined for unfamiliar sequences relative to the pretraining scan session. These imaging data demonstrate the emergence of action resonance processes in the human brain based on observational learning without physical practice and identify commonalities in the neural substrates for physical and observational learning. PMID:18515297

  1. Using Science to Take a Stand: Action-Oriented Learning in an Afterschool Science Club

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenah, Sara

    This dissertation study investigates what happens when students participate in an afterschool science club designed around action-oriented science instruction, a set of curriculum design principles based on social justice pedagogy. Comprised of three manuscripts written for journal publication, the dissertation includes 1) Negotiating community-based action-oriented science teaching and learning: Articulating curriculum design principles, 2) Middle school girls' socio-scientific participation pathways in an afterschool science club, and 3) Laughing and learning together: Productive science learning spaces for middle school girls. By investigating how action-oriented science design principles get negotiated, female identity development in and with science, and the role of everyday social interactions as students do productive science, this research fills gaps in the understanding of how social justice pedagogy gets enacted and negotiated among multiple stakeholders including students, teachers, and community members along what identity development looks like across social and scientific activity. This study will be of interest to educators thinking about how to enact social justice pedagogy in science learning spaces and those interested in identity development in science.

  2. Spectral action models of gravity on packed swiss cheese cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Adam; Marcolli, Matilde

    2016-06-01

    We present a model of (modified) gravity on spacetimes with fractal structure based on packing of spheres, which are (Euclidean) variants of the packed swiss cheese cosmology models. As the action functional for gravity we consider the spectral action of noncommutative geometry, and we compute its expansion on a space obtained as an Apollonian packing of three-dimensional spheres inside a four-dimensional ball. Using information from the zeta function of the Dirac operator of the spectral triple, we compute the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the spectral action. They consist of a zeta regularization of the divergent sum of the leading terms of the spectral actions of the individual spheres in the packing. This accounts for the contribution of points 1 and 3 in the dimension spectrum (as in the case of a 3-sphere). There is an additional term coming from the residue at the additional point in the real dimension spectrum that corresponds to the packing constant, as well as a series of fluctuations coming from log-periodic oscillations, created by the points of the dimension spectrum that are off the real line. These terms detect the fractality of the residue set of the sphere packing. We show that the presence of fractality influences the shape of the slow-roll potential for inflation, obtained from the spectral action. We also discuss the effect of truncating the fractal structure at a certain scale related to the energy scale in the spectral action.

  3. Addressing Cognitive Processes in e-learning: TSOI Hybrid Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsoi, Mun Fie; Goh, Ngoh Khang

    2008-01-01

    The development of e-learning materials for teaching and learning often needs to be guided by appropriate educational theories or models. As such, this paper provides alternative e-learning design pedagogy, the TSOI Hybrid Learning Model as a pedagogic model for the design of e-learning cognitively in science and chemistry education. This model is…

  4. Transforming Language Ideologies through Action Research: A Case Study of Bilingual Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eunah

    This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed how one teacher and I, the researcher, collaboratively reflected on classroom language practices during the video analysis meetings and focus groups. Further, I analyzed twelve videos that we coded together to see the changes in the teacher's language practices over time. My unit of analysis was the discourse practice mediated by additive language ideologies. Throughout the collaborative action research process, we both critically reflected on the classroom language use. We also developed a critical consciousness about the participatory shifts and learning of focal English Learner (EL) students. Finally, the teacher made changes to her classroom language practices. The results of this study will contribute to the literacy education research field for theoretical, methodological, and practical insights. The integration of language ideologies, CHAT, and action research can help educational practitioners, researchers, and policy makers understand the importance of transforming teachers' language ideologies in designing additive learning contexts for ELs. From a methodological perspective, the transformative language ideologies through researcher and teacher collaborated video analysis process provide a unique contribution to the language ideologies in education literature, with analytic triangulation. As a practical implication, this study suggests action research can be one of the teacher education tools to help the teachers transform language ideologies for EL education.

  5. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Ludvig, Elliot A.

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between RL models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both RL and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired. PMID:24409138

  6. A Hybrid Teaching and Learning Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhary, Jowati Binti

    This paper aims at analysing the needs for a specific teaching and learning model for the National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM). The main argument is that whether there are differences between teaching and learning for academic component versus military component at the university. It is further argued that in order to achieve excellence, there should be one teaching and learning culture. Data were collected through interviews with military cadets. It is found that there are variations of teaching and learning strategies for academic courses, in comparison to a dominant teaching and learning style for military courses. Thus, in the interest of delivering quality education and training for students at the university, the paper argues that possibly a hybrid model for teaching and learning is fundamental in order to generate a one culture of academic and military excellence for the NDUM.

  7. Ares I-X Thermal Model Correlation and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X vehicle launched and flew successfully on October 28, 2009. This paper will describe the correlation of the vehicle thermal model to both ground testing and flight data. A main purpose of the vehicle model and ground testing was to ensure that the avionics within the vehicle were held within their thermal limits prior to launch and during flight. The correlation of the avionics box temperatures will be shown. Also, the lessons learned in the thermal discipline during the modeling, test, correlation to test, and flight of the Ares I-X flight test vehicle will be described. Lessons learned will cover thermal modeling, as well as management of the thermal discipline, thermal team, and thermal-related actions in design, testing, and flight.

  8. Curricular Models for Service Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enos, Sandra; Troppe, Marie

    1996-01-01

    A variety of options for integrating service learning into the college curriculum is outlined, including: fourth credit option; introductory service learning courses; courses linking service and leadership; optional or required course component; significant course requirement; core curriculum component; graduation requirement; disciplinary…

  9. New Evaluation Vector through the Stanford Mobile Inquiry-Based Learning Environment (SMILE) for Participatory Action Research

    PubMed Central

    An, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This article reviews an evaluation vector model driven from a participatory action research leveraging a collective inquiry system named SMILE (Stanford Mobile Inquiry-based Learning Environment). Methods SMILE has been implemented in a diverse set of collective inquiry generation and analysis scenarios including community health care-specific professional development sessions and community-based participatory action research projects. In each scenario, participants are given opportunities to construct inquiries around physical and emotional health-related phenomena in their own community. Results Participants formulated inquiries as well as potential clinical treatments and hypothetical scenarios to address health concerns or clarify misunderstandings or misdiagnoses often found in their community practices. From medical universities to rural village health promotion organizations, all participatory inquiries and potential solutions can be collected and analyzed. The inquiry and solution sets represent an evaluation vector which helps educators better understand community health issues at a much deeper level. Conclusions SMILE helps collect problems that are most important and central to their community health concerns. The evaluation vector, consisting participatory and collective inquiries and potential solutions, helps the researchers assess the participants' level of understanding on issues around health concerns and practices while helping the community adequately formulate follow-up action plans. The method used in SMILE requires much further enhancement with machine learning and advanced data visualization. PMID:27525157

  10. Imitation and observational learning of hand actions: prefrontal involvement and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, S; Holle, H; Roberts, N; Eickhoff, S B; Vogt, S

    2012-01-16

    The first aim of this event-related fMRI study was to identify the neural circuits involved in imitation learning. We used a rapid imitation task where participants directly imitated pictures of guitar chords. The results provide clear evidence for the involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as the fronto-parietal mirror circuit (FPMC) during action imitation when the requirements for working memory are low. Connectivity analyses further indicated a robust connectivity between left prefrontal cortex and the components of the FPMC bilaterally. We conclude that a mechanism of automatic perception-action matching alone is insufficient to account for imitation learning. Rather, the motor representation of an observed, complex action, as provided by the FPMC, only serves as the 'raw material' for higher-order supervisory and monitoring operations associated with the prefrontal cortex. The second aim of this study was to assess whether these neural circuits are also recruited during observational practice (OP, without motor execution), or only during physical practice (PP). Whereas prefrontal cortex was not consistently activated in action observation across all participants, prefrontal activation intensities did predict the behavioural practice effects, thus indicating a crucial role of prefrontal cortex also in OP. In addition, whilst OP and PP produced similar activation intensities in the FPMC when assessed during action observation, during imitative execution, the practice-related activation decreases were significantly more pronounced for PP than for OP. This dissociation indicates a lack of execution-related resources in observationally practised actions. More specifically, we found neural efficiency effects in the right motor cingulate-basal ganglia circuit and the FPMC that were only observed after PP but not after OP. Finally, we confirmed that practice generally induced activation decreases in the FPMC during both action observation and

  11. Extension of Companion Modeling Using Classification Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Daisuke; Bousquet, François; Ishida, Toru

    Companion Modeling is a methodology of refining initial models for understanding reality through a role-playing game (RPG) and a multiagent simulation. In this research, we propose a novel agent model construction methodology in which classification learning is applied to the RPG log data in Companion Modeling. This methodology enables a systematic model construction that handles multi-parameters, independent of the modelers ability. There are three problems in applying classification learning to the RPG log data: 1) It is difficult to gather enough data for the number of features because the cost of gathering data is high. 2) Noise data can affect the learning results because the amount of data may be insufficient. 3) The learning results should be explained as a human decision making model and should be recognized by the expert as being the result that reflects reality. We realized an agent model construction system using the following two approaches: 1) Using a feature selction method, the feature subset that has the best prediction accuracy is identified. In this process, the important features chosen by the expert are always included. 2) The expert eliminates irrelevant features from the learning results after evaluating the learning model through a visualization of the results. Finally, using the RPG log data from the Companion Modeling of agricultural economics in northeastern Thailand, we confirm the capability of this methodology.

  12. Managerial Action and Sensemaking in E-Learning Implementation in Brazilian Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Angilberto Sabino; Bandeira-de-Mello, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The existing literature on e-learning implementation is either descriptive or normative and falls short on explaining how managers act in introducing and disseminating e-learning projects in school settings. In this paper, we follow a symbolic approach in order to offer a grounded model for explaining how managerial framing of the introduction of…

  13. Joint Patch and Multi-label Learning for Facial Action Unit Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kaili; Chu, Wen-Sheng; De la Torre, Fernando; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Zhang, Honggang

    2016-01-01

    The face is one of the most powerful channel of nonverbal communication. The most commonly used taxonomy to describe facial behaviour is the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). FACS segments the visible effects of facial muscle activation into 30+ action units (AUs). AUs, which may occur alone and in thousands of combinations, can describe nearly all-possible facial expressions. Most existing methods for automatic AU detection treat the problem using one-vs-all classifiers and fail to exploit dependencies among AU and facial features. We introduce joint-patch and multi-label learning (JPML) to address these issues. JPML leverages group sparsity by selecting a sparse subset of facial patches while learning a multi-label classifier. In four of five comparisons on three diverse datasets, CK+, GFT, and BP4D, JPML produced the highest average F1 scores in comparison with state-of-the art. PMID:27382243

  14. Associative Vocabulary Learning: Development and Testing of Two Paradigms for the (Re-) Acquisition of Action- and Object-Related Words

    PubMed Central

    Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C.; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects and actions. Words and what they stand for are supposed to be grounded in perceptual and sensorimotor brain circuits depending on their meaning. If there are specific brain representations for different word categories, we hypothesized behavioural differences in the learning of action-related and object-related words. Paradigm A, with the learning of novel words for body-related actions spread out over a number of days, revealed fast learning of these new action words, and stable retention up to 4 weeks after training. The single-session Paradigm B employed objects and actions. Performance during acquisition did not differ between action-related and object-related words (time*word category: p = 0.01), but the translation rate was clearly better for object-related (79%) than for action-related words (53%, p = 0.002). Both paradigms yielded robust associative learning of novel action-related words, as previously demonstrated for object-related words. Translation success differed for action- and object-related words, which may indicate different neural mechanisms. The paradigms tested here are well suited to investigate such differences with neuroscientific means. Given the stable retention and minimal requirements for conscious effort, these learning paradigms are promising for vocabulary re-learning in brain-lesioned people. In combination with neuroimaging, neuro-stimulation or pharmacological intervention, they may well advance the understanding of language learning

  15. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  16. Modelling Diffusion of a Personalized Learning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmeshu; Raman, Raghu; Nedungadi, Prema

    2012-01-01

    A new modelling approach for diffusion of personalized learning as an educational process innovation in social group comprising adopter-teachers is proposed. An empirical analysis regarding the perception of 261 adopter-teachers from 18 schools in India about a particular personalized learning framework has been made. Based on this analysis,…

  17. Mastery Learning: A Model for Allied Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reports the methods and philosophy used in developing a mastery learning model at the University of Missouri-Columbia to insure that allied health students in the physical therapy and occupational therapy programs learn the concepts of anatomy essential to the rest of the curriculum. (MF)

  18. The Interdependent Learning Model. Program Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, Berkeley, CA.

    This document is the sixth in a series of 12 early childhood program descriptions compiled by the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development. The program described here is the Interdependent Learning Model located at the Institute for Developmental Studies at New York University in New York City. The Interdependent Learning Model…

  19. Modelling Focused Learning in Role Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matessa, Michael; Anderson, John R.

    2000-01-01

    ACT-R is a theory of cognition that is capable of learning the relative usefulness of alternative rules. A model using this implicit procedural learning mechanism is described that explains results from a concept formation task created by McDonald and MacWhinney (1991), a role assignment created by Blackwell (1995), and a new role assignment…

  20. Developing a Model for Continuous Professional Development by Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Susan; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the work of two teacher educators with an in-service science teacher. This case study forms one cycle of a larger action research study that will eventually lead to a model of how the third-space concept for teacher professional development can be realized in natural school settings. The case study took place in…

  1. Action Research: A Developmental Model of Professional Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes a developmental model to socialize teachers at all levels (preservice, novice, and experienced) and in all positions (general education, special education, elementary school, middle school, and high school) in the methodology of action research. A process for advancing professional understanding is theorized to include the…

  2. Developmental Model of Democratic Values and Attitudes toward Social Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Koutselini, Mary

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the Cyprus results, and proposes a model of home environment and school climate on the social participation of ninth graders based on the IEA 1999 CIVIC education study data. This study examined ninth graders' participation in social actions by means of a questionnaire; the data were analyzed using structural equation…

  3. Participatory Action Research as a Model for Conducting Family Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Ramirez, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) approach to conducting family research. It proposes a model of PAR implementation level including the options of family members as research leaders and researchers as ongoing advisors, researchers and family members as coresearchers, and researches as leaders, and family members as…

  4. A Research on the Generative Learning Model Supported by Context-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulusoy, Fatma Merve; Onen, Aysem Seda

    2014-01-01

    This study is based on the generative learning model which involves context-based learning. Using the generative learning model, we taught the topic of Halogens. This topic is covered in the grade 10 chemistry curriculum using activities which are designed in accordance with the generative learning model supported by context-based learning. The…

  5. A Case of Web-Based Inquiry Learning Model Using Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Musawi, A.; Asan, A.; Abdelraheem, A.; Osman, M.

    2012-01-01

    This research seeks to (1) implement a model for an inquiry based learning environment using learning objects (LOs), and (2) apply the model to examine its impact on students' learning. This research showed that a well-designed learning environment can enhance students learning experiences. The proposed model was applied to an undergraduate course…

  6. Cardiac dynamics: a simplified model for action potential propagation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes a new semiphysiological ionic model, used recently to study reexitations and reentry in cardiac tissue [I.R. Cantalapiedra et al, PRE 82 011907 (2010)]. The aim of the model is to reproduce action potencial morphologies and restitution curves obtained, either from experimental data, or from more complex electrophysiological models. The model divides all ion currents into four groups according to their function, thus resulting into fast-slow and inward-outward currents. We show that this simplified model is flexible enough as to accurately capture the electrical properties of cardiac myocytes, having the advantage of being less computational demanding than detailed electrophysiological models. Under some conditions, it has been shown to be amenable to mathematical analysis. The model reproduces the action potential (AP) change with stimulation rate observed both experimentally and in realistic models of healthy human and guinea pig myocytes (TNNP and LRd models, respectively). When simulated in a cable it also gives the right dependence of the conduction velocity (CV) with stimulation rate. Besides reproducing correctly these restitution properties, it also gives a good fit for the morphology of the AP, including the notch typical of phase 1. Finally, we perform simulations in a realistic geometric model of the rabbit’s ventricles, finding a good qualitative agreement in AP propagation and the ECG. Thus, this simplified model represents an alternative to more complex models when studying instabilities in wave propagation. PMID:23194429

  7. Applying computer simulation models as learning tools in fishery management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    Computer models can be powerful tools for addressing many problems in fishery management, but uncertainty about how to apply models and how they should perform can lead to a cautious approach to modeling. Within this approach, we expect models to make quantitative predictions but only after all model inputs have been estimated from empirical data and after the model has been tested for agreement with an independent data set. I review the limitations to this approach and show how models can be more useful as tools for organizing data and concepts, learning about the system to be managed, and exploring management options. Fishery management requires deciding what actions to pursue to meet management objectives. Models do not make decisions for us but can provide valuable input to the decision-making process. When empirical data are lacking, preliminary modeling with parameters derived from other sources can help determine priorities for data collection. When evaluating models for management applications, we should attempt to define the conditions under which the model is a useful, analytical tool (its domain of applicability) and should focus on the decisions made using modeling results, rather than on quantitative model predictions. I describe an example of modeling used as a learning tool for the yellow perch Perca flavescens fishery in Green Bay, Lake Michigan.

  8. Model I & II Organizations: Examining Organizational Learning in Institutions Participating in the Academy for the Assessment of Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Antwione Maurice

    2012-01-01

    The Academy was an assessment enhancement program created by the HLC to help institutions strengthen and improve the assessment of student learning. Using a multiple case study approach, this study applies Argyis and Schon's (1976) Theory of Action to explore the espoused values and existence of Model I and II behavior characteristics. Argyis…

  9. Very Large System Dynamics Models - Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Leonard Malczynski

    2008-10-01

    This paper provides lessons learned from developing several large system dynamics (SD) models. System dynamics modeling practice emphasize the need to keep models small so that they are manageable and understandable. This practice is generally reasonable and prudent; however, there are times that large SD models are necessary. This paper outlines two large SD projects that were done at two Department of Energy National Laboratories, the Idaho National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. This paper summarizes the models and then discusses some of the valuable lessons learned during these two modeling efforts.

  10. Procedural learning as a measure of functional impairment in a mouse model of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Linden, Jérôme; Van de Beeck, Lise; Plumier, Jean-Christophe; Ferrara, André

    2016-07-01

    Basal ganglia stroke is often associated with functional deficits in patients, including difficulties to learn and execute new motor skills (procedural learning). To measure procedural learning in a murine model of stroke (30min right MCAO), we submitted C57Bl/6J mice to various sensorimotor tests, then to an operant procedure (Serial Order Learning) specifically assessing the ability to learn a simple motor sequence. Results showed that MCAO affected the performance in some of the sensorimotor tests (accelerated rotating rod and amphetamine rotation test) and the way animals learned a motor sequence. The later finding seems to be caused by difficulties regarding the chunking of operant actions into a coherent motor sequence; the appeal for food rewards and ability to press levers appeared unaffected by MCAO. We conclude that assessment of motor learning in rodent models of stroke might improve the translational value of such models. PMID:27001455

  11. Effective action for the Abelian Higgs model in FLRW

    SciTech Connect

    George, Damien P.; Mooij, Sander; Postma, Marieke E-mail: smooij@nikhef.nl

    2012-11-01

    We compute the divergent contributions to the one-loop action of the U(1) Abelian Higgs model. The calculation allows for a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space-time and a time-dependent expectation value for the scalar field. Treating the time-dependent masses as two-point interactions, we use the in-in formalism to compute the first, second and third order graphs that contribute quadratic and logarithmic divergences to the effective scalar action. Working in R{sub ξ} gauge we show that the result is gauge invariant upon using the equations of motion.

  12. "Analyze, Acquire, Apply, and Write" as a New Learning Model in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Jeong V.

    2015-01-01

    I have developed a new teaching and learning model called AAAW, which stand for Analyze, Acquire, Apply and Write. This model grows from action research and unique experience in teaching a biochemistry course to high school students who are talented in math and science. In this model, students first "Analyze" lab data to generate…

  13. Groundwater modeling in RCRA assessment, corrective action design and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rybak, I.; Henley, W.

    1995-12-31

    Groundwater modeling was conducted to design, implement, modify, and terminate corrective action at several RCRA sites in EPA Region 4. Groundwater flow, contaminant transport and unsaturated zone air flow models were used depending on the complexity of the site and the corrective action objectives. Software used included Modflow, Modpath, Quickflow, Bioplume 2, and AIR3D. Site assessment data, such as aquifer properties, site description, and surface water characteristics for each facility were used in constructing the models and designing the remedial systems. Modeling, in turn, specified additional site assessment data requirements for the remedial system design. The specific purpose of computer modeling is discussed with several case studies. These consist, among others, of the following: evaluation of the mechanism of the aquifer system and selection of a cost effective remedial option, evaluation of the capture zone of a pumping system, prediction of the system performance for different and difficult hydrogeologic settings, evaluation of the system performance, and trouble-shooting for the remedial system operation. Modeling is presented as a useful tool for corrective action system design, performance, evaluation, and trouble-shooting. The case studies exemplified the integration of diverse data sources, understanding the mechanism of the aquifer system, and evaluation of the performance of alternative remediation systems in a cost-effective manner. Pollutants of concern include metals and PAHs.

  14. Agent-based model of macrophage action on endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ignacio V; Gómez, Enrique J; Hernando, M Elena; Villares, Ricardo; Mellado, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an agent-based model of the action of macrophages on the beta cells of the endocrine pancreas. The aim of this model is to simulate the processes of beta cell proliferation and apoptosis and also the process of phagocytosis of cell debris by macrophages, all of which are related to the onset of the autoimmune response in type 1 diabetes. We have used data from the scientific literature to design the model. The results show that the model obtains good approximations to real processes and could be used to shed light on some open questions concerning such processes. PMID:23155767

  15. A critical test of the hippocampal theta model of anxiolytic drug action.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Michelle; Treit, Dallas; Dickson, Clayton T

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampal theta rhythms have been associated with a number of behavioural processes, including learning, memory and arousal. Recently it has been argued that the suppression of hippocampal theta is a valid indicator of anxiolytic drug action. Like all such models, however, it has relied almost exclusively on the experimental effects of well-known, clinically proven anxiolytic compounds for validation. The actual predictive validity of putative models of anxiolytic drug action, however, cannot be rigorously tested with this approach alone. The present study provides a stringent test of the predictive validity of the theta suppression model, using the drug phenytoin (50 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg), and a positive comparison compound, diazepam (2 mg/kg). Phenytoin has two important properties that are advantageous for assessing the validity of the theta suppression model: 1) it is a standard antiepileptic drug with no known anxiolytic effects, and 2) its primary mechanism of action is through suppression of the persistent sodium current, an effect that should also suppress hippocampal theta. Because of the latter property, we also directly compared the effects of phenytoin in the theta suppression model with its effects in the most widely tested behavioural model of anxiolytic drug action, the elevated plus-maze. While an anxiolytic-like effect of phenytoin in the theta suppression model might be expected simply due to its suppressive effects on sodium channel currents, anxiolytic effects in both tests would provide strong support for the predictive validity of the theta suppression model. Surprisingly, phenytoin produced clear anxiolytic-like effects in both neurophysiological and behavioural models, thus providing strong evidence of the predictive validity of the theta suppression model. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. PMID:21723303

  16. Goal Directed Model Inversion: Learning Within Domain Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Raghavan, Bharathi; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Goal Directed Model Inversion (GDMI) is an algorithm designed to generalize supervised learning to the case where target outputs are not available to the learning system. The output of the learning system becomes the input to some external device or transformation, and only the output of this device or transformation can be compared to a desired target. The fundamental driving mechanism of GDMI is to learn from success. Given that a wrong outcome is achieved, one notes that the action that produced that outcome "would have been right if the outcome had been the desired one." The algorithm makes use of these intermediate "successes" to achieve the final goal. A unique and potentially very important feature of this algorithm is the ability to modify the output of the learning module to force upon it a desired syntactic structure. This differs from ordinary supervised learning in the following way: in supervised learning the exact desired output pattern must be provided. In GDMI instead, it is possible to require simply that the output obey certain rules, i.e., that it "make sense" in some way determined by the knowledge domain. The exact pattern that will achieve the desired outcome is then found by the system. The ability to impose rules while allowing the system to search for its own answers in the context of neural networks is potentially a major breakthrough in two ways: 1) it may allow the construction of networks that can incorporate immediately some important knowledge, i.e. would not need to learn everything from scratch as normally required at present, and 2) learning and searching would be limited to the areas where it is necessary, thus facilitating and speeding up the process. These points are illustrated with examples from robotic path planning and parametric design.

  17. Goal Directed Model Inversion: Learning Within Domain Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Raghavan, Bharathi; Friedland, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Goal Directed Model Inversion (GDMI) is an algorithm designed to generalize supervised learning to the case where target outputs are not available to the learning system. The output of the learning system becomes the input to some external device or transformation, and only the output of this device or transformation can be compared to a desired target. The fundamental driving mechanism of GDMI is to learn from success. Given that a wrong outcome is achieved, one notes that the action that produced that outcome "would have been right if the outcome had been the desired one." The algorithm makes use of these intermediate "successes" to achieve the final goal. A unique and potentially very important feature of this algorithm is the ability to modify the output of the learning module to force upon it a desired syntactic structure. This differs from ordinary supervised learning in the following way: in supervised learning the exact desired output pattern must be provided. In GDMI instead, it is possible to require simply that the output obey certain rules, i.e., that it "make sense" in some way determined by the knowledge domain. The exact pattern that will achieve the desired outcome is then found by the system. The ability to impose rules while allowing the system to search for its own answers in the context of neural networks is potentially a major breakthrough in two ways: (1) it may allow the construction of networks that can incorporate immediately some important knowledge, i.e., would not need to learn everything from scratch as normally required at present; and (2) learning and searching would be limited to the areas where it is necessary, thus facilitating and speeding up the process. These points are illustrated with examples from robotic path planning and parametric design.

  18. Learning English through Actions: A Study of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Pei-Lin; Chen, Chiu-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of taking photos using mobile phones on the English phrase-learning performance of English as a second-language learners. A total of 116 students enrolled in a college in Central Taiwan participated in this study. The participants were divided randomly into two groups: a control group and an experimental group…

  19. A Concept Transformation Learning Model for Architectural Design Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua; Young, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Generally, in the foundation course of architectural design, much emphasis is placed on teaching of the basic design skills without focusing on teaching students to apply the basic design concepts in their architectural designs or promoting students' own creativity. Therefore, this study aims to propose a concept transformation learning model to…

  20. Kolb's Experiential Learning Model: Critique from a Modeling Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsteiner, Harald; Avery, Gayle C.; Neumann, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Kolb's experiential learning theory has been widely influential in adult learning. The theory and associated instruments continue to be criticized, but rarely is the graphical model itself examined. This is significant because models can aid scientific understanding and progress, as well as theory development and research. Applying accepted…