Science.gov

Sample records for action learning sets

  1. Reflections and Learning from Using Action Learning Sets in a Healthcare Education Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Liz; Proctor, Gillian; Bartlett, Ruth; Haslam, Mark; Wood, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the delivery of action learning sets to students on the peer educator course provided by the Dementia Studies Department at University of Bradford. Our understanding of action learning sets is laid out together with our rationale for their use on this course. Feedback is presented that described a conflicted, even confused…

  2. Leadership development through action learning sets: an evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Walia, Surinder; Marks-Maran, Di

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the use of action learning sets in a leadership module delivered by a university in south east England. An evaluation research study was undertaking using survey method to evaluate student engagement with action learning sets, and their value, impact and sustainability. Data were collected through a questionnaire with a mix of Likert-style and open-ended questions and qualitative and quantitative data analysis was undertaken. Findings show that engagement in the action learning sets was very high. Action learning sets also had a positive impact on the development of leadership knowledge and skills and are highly valued by participants. It is likely that they would be sustainable as the majority would recommend action learning to colleagues and would consider taking another module that used action learning sets. When compared to existing literature on action learning, this study offers new insights as there is little empirical literature on student engagement with action learning sets and even less on value and sustainability.

  3. Psychological Climates in Action Learning Sets: A Manager's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeadon-Lee, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Action learning (AL) is often viewed as a process that facilitates professional learning through the creation of a positive psychological climate [Marquardt, M. J. 2000. "Action Learning and Leadership." "The Learning Organisation" 7 (5): 233-240; Schein, E. H. 1979. "Personal Change Through Interpersonal…

  4. The Impact of Being Part of an Action Learning Set for New Lecturers: A Reflective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haith, Mark P.; Whittingham, Katrina A.

    2012-01-01

    What is an action learning set (ALS)? An ALS is a regular, action focused peer discussion group, generally facilitated, to address work place issues. Methods of undertaking ALS: methods are flexible within a range of approaches according to the group's developing needs. Benefits of ALS: builds trust, professional development, enables action,…

  5. Study of a Self-Managed Action Learning Set: What Makes It Last 14 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    What contributes to longevity in an action learning (AL) set? What holds it together over a long period? The article relates the chronology and reasons why a self-managed set has flourished when so many sets of voluntary membership peter out. Major attributes of successful longevity are the adherence to strong ground rules and disciplined…

  6. Steps to Leadership Action Learning Sets: "Make It Challenging but Not Too Challenging"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Derek

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews how action learning was used as part of a regional leadership development programme involving a number of public sector organisations. It explores how the sets were designed and set up and the significant challenges that this particular approach brought. A number of positive tangible outcomes were produced from the sets and…

  7. Action Learning Sets and Social Capital: Ameliorating the Burden of Clergy Isolation in One Rural Diocese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muskett, Judith A.; Village, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Rural clergy often lack colleagues and may struggle with isolation, especially if over-extended in multi-parish benefices. Theory suggests that this sense of isolation could be addressed by launching clergy action learning sets, which have the potential to establish a peer support network through the formation of social capital as a by-product of…

  8. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings…

  9. Participating in a Collaborative Action Learning Set (CAL): Beginning the Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Brendan; Henderson, Elizabeth; Boomer, Christine; Collin, Ita; Robinson, David

    2008-01-01

    Action learning is being increasingly utilised as a strategy to underpin practitioner focused development and research projects in healthcare generally and nursing in particular. Whilst facilitators of and participants in action learning have a variety of resource materials to guide their practice and participation, there continue to be few…

  10. Link prediction based on temporal similarity metrics using continuous action set learning automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    Link prediction is a social network research area that tries to predict future links using network structure. The main approaches in this area are based on predicting future links using network structure at a specific period, without considering the links behavior through different periods. For example, a common traditional approach in link prediction calculates a chosen similarity metric for each non-connected link and outputs the links with higher similarity scores as the prediction result. In this paper, we propose a new link prediction method based on temporal similarity metrics and Continuous Action set Learning Automata (CALA). The proposed method takes advantage of using different similarity metrics as well as different time periods. In the proposed algorithm, we try to model the link prediction problem as a noisy optimization problem and use a team of CALAs to solve the noisy optimization problem. CALA is a reinforcement based optimization tool which tries to learn the optimal behavior from the environment feedbacks. To determine the importance of different periods and similarity metrics on the prediction result, we define a coefficient for each of different periods and similarity metrics and use a CALA for each coefficient. Each CALA tries to learn the true value of the corresponding coefficient. Final link prediction is obtained from a combination of different similarity metrics in different times based on the obtained coefficients. The link prediction results reported here show satisfactory of the proposed method for some social network data sets.

  11. Setting the Direction. Partnerships in Action: First Nations, Metis and Inuit Learning Access and Success. A Learning Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Aboriginal Learning Subcommittee looked specifically at developing recommendations that address First Nations, Metis and Inuit learning needs and supports. The Subcommittee proposes policy actions and recommends that all stakeholders work together to implement these actions. The first recommendation for action is to build on partnerships to…

  12. Developing Deep Group Reflection within a Critical Reflection Action Learning Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This account of practice describes how a manufacturing company in the North of England transformed their approach to problem-solving and action through the use of a Critical Reflection Action Learning (CRAL) methodology. The company, who had been in business for over 25 years, experienced problems due to a diminishing customer base and substantial…

  13. Leaders Behaving Badly: Using Power to Generate Undiscussables in Action Learning Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Paul Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    "Undiscussables" are topics associated with threat or embarrassment that are avoided by groups, where that avoidance is also not discussed. Their deleterious effect on executive groups has been a point of discussion for several decades. More recently critical action learning (AL) has brought a welcome focus to power relations within AL…

  14. Implementing Action Research and Professional Learning Communities in a Professional Development School Setting to Support Teacher Candidate Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews teacher candidates' use of action research and the Professional Learning Community (PLC) concept to support their work in their pre-student teaching field experience. In this research study, teacher candidates are involved in a professional development school relationship that uses action research and PLCs to support candidate…

  15. Structure learning in action

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Daniel A.; Mehring, Carsten; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Learning to learn’ phenomena have been widely investigated in cognition, perception and more recently also in action. During concept learning tasks, for example, it has been suggested that characteristic features are abstracted from a set of examples with the consequence that learning of similar tasks is facilitated—a process termed ‘learning to learn’. From a computational point of view such an extraction of invariants can be regarded as learning of an underlying structure. Here we review the evidence for structure learning as a ‘learning to learn’ mechanism, especially in sensorimotor control where the motor system has to adapt to variable environments. We review studies demonstrating that common features of variable environments are extracted during sensorimotor learning and exploited for efficient adaptation in novel tasks. We conclude that structure learning plays a fundamental role in skill learning and may underlie the unsurpassed flexibility and adaptability of the motor system. PMID:19720086

  16. Resistance in Action Learning: Struggling with Self-Efficacy and the Social Self--and What about the Set Advisor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This account of practice explores the concept of resistance in action learning. Resistance is conceptualized as an attempt of self-protection that is manifested in action learners' struggles with their sense of self-efficacy and their social Self. These struggles are an inherent part of the action learning process and may elicit defensive…

  17. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and…

  18. Set Goals & Select Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This phase of the Local Climate Action Framework will help users articulate the goals for their climate, energy, and sustainability programs, as well as to identify the actions that are most appropriate to help meet those goals.

  19. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  20. Action Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  1. Action Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and…

  2. Action Learning in John Lewis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Chris

    2005-01-01

    A small group of training professionals within the John Lewis Partnership set up an action learning group about 2 years ago. The main aim was to explore the technique for our own learning and development. The timing and lifespan of the group reflected the generally strategic and long-term nature of our projects. One of these was to introduce…

  3. Team Challenge and Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how action learning can be accompanied by a project to encourage shared learning about organisation culture, the external environment, political context and team dynamics, while allowing space for personal issues. It drives forward reflective practice and encourages sets to deliver a tangible pay-back to the organisation.…

  4. 25 Action Learning Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.

    This booklet on action-learning reflects an interest in preparing youth for the world of real experiences. Arranged in two major parts, the first offers information on the background and development of action-learning. Included in this section are the conclusions of the Panel on Youth of the President's Science Advisory Committee, the National…

  5. Action Learning and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Today's leaders perform the following roles: systems thinker, change agent, innovator, servant, polychronic coordinator, teacher-mentor, and visionary. The elements of action learning (real problems, teams, reflective inquiry, commitment to action, focus on learning) contribute to the development of these critical skills. (Author/SK)

  6. The Alchemy of Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Penny; Choueke, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the authors' experiences as action learning set facilitators within a public sector organisation undergoing change. Our objectives were to assist in the identification of internal and external drivers for change and to work with the set to explore how people's roles and responsibilities might be enhanced and developed in a…

  7. To Act and Learn: A Bakhtinian Exploration of Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Jeff; Anderson, Lisa; Clarke, Jean; Thorpe, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the work of the Russian social philosopher and cultural theorist, Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin as a source of understanding for those involved in action learning. Drawing upon data gathered over two years during the evaluation of 20 action learning sets in the north of England, we will seek to work with the ideas of Bakhtin to…

  8. Its All Action, Its All Learning: Action Learning in SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jean; Thorpe, Richard; Anderson, Lisa; Gold, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that action learning (AL) may provide a means of successfully developing small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: The literature around SME learning suggests a number of processes are important for SME learning which similarity, it is argued, are encompassed in AL. AL may…

  9. Action Learning in the BBC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Eversley; Keevill, Joan

    2008-01-01

    This account tells the story of the development of an action learning culture in the BBC between 2002 and 2007. From its early beginnings as a sporadic, unsystematic intervention with a small number of leaders scattered throughout the organisation, action learning has now become embedded in our approach to the way we develop our leaders. In this…

  10. An emerging action science of social settings.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Seymour B. Sarason's innovative ideas have influenced much of my work. These same ideas-in particular, his concepts of social settings, behavioral and programmatic regularities, and the universe of alternatives-also serve as the foundation for an action science of social settings. Questions regarding theory, measurement, intervention, and research design and data analysis are central to the development of this action science, and there have been recent innovations in each of these areas. However, future challenges remain for the field. We must continue to move forward to advance an action science of social settings and make a real difference in people's lives.

  11. Informal Learning in Experiential Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neathery, Madelyn Faye

    1998-01-01

    Assesses informal learning in experiential settings. Elementary teachers (n=20) from public and private schools participated in an on-site seminar involving experiential learning in science centers, a wildlife refuge, and a zoological sanctuary. The significance of instruction provided by guides, types of exhibits, and the use of informational…

  12. Learning to Internalize Action Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Teresa Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore how participants of a communications workshop, "Action Dialogue," perceived their ability to engage in dialogue was improved and enhanced. The study was based on the following assumptions: (1) dialogue skills can be learned and people are able to learn these skills; (2) context and emotion influence…

  13. Action Learning Enabled Strategy Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, John

    2008-01-01

    Action learning encourages individual reflection, insightful questioning and assumption breaking that result in changes in attitude and behaviour. This learning process provides the potential to explore and solve complex organizational problems such as the question of how to develop a future business strategy. Existing literature on the process of…

  14. LEAD at Lunch: Inquiry, Learning, and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This account of practice discusses the author's experience in facilitating a small group of managers in health care over lunchtime utilizing an action learning approach. This was part of a larger leadership development initiative which took place in the organization and the intention was to create a more intimate, informal and safe setting whereby…

  15. "Learning-in-Action" and "Learning Inaction": Advancing the Theory and Practice of Critical Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vince, Russ

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to improve our understanding of the emotional and political dynamics that are generated (and too often avoided) in action learning. The idea at the centre of the paper is a distinction between "learning-in-action" and "learning inaction". The phrase "learning-in-action" represents the value of action…

  16. Action Learning: Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Gillian; de Vera, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the experience of forming a set in a higher education institution and offers some observations and insights gained from the perspectives of the role of the set adviser, cultural differences and the challenges of attempting to align theory, practice and experience.

  17. Cubical Sets and Trace Monoid Actions

    PubMed Central

    Husainov, Ahmet A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to connections between trace monoids and cubical sets. We prove that the category of trace monoids is isomorphic to the category of generalized tori and it is a reflective subcategory of the category of cubical sets. Adjoint functors between the categories of cubical sets and trace monoid actions are constructed. These functors carry independence preserving morphisms in the independence preserving morphisms. This allows us to build adjoint functors between the category of weak asynchronous systems and the category of higher dimensional automata. PMID:24453827

  18. Action Learning. Symposium 1. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document contains three papers on action learning. "Action Learning: Case Studies of Most Valued Learning and Application" (Suzanne D. Butterfield) reports on a qualitative study in which longitudinal data was collected from document analysis and first-line consulting managers who had participated in action learning. The study…

  19. Using Action Learning to Consolidate Coaching Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Clare; Powell, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to answer the questions: (1) How can action learning aid in strategic change?; (2) What are the benefits of using action learning as part of a broader learning intervention?; (3) What are the issues to consider when introducing action learning into a corporate environment?; and (4) How can you engage people in reflection as a…

  20. Action Learning in an SME: Appetite Comes with Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This account describes action learning in a small to medium-size enterprise (SME) that operates as a local power utility on an established market that is currently going through a process of radical transformation. The task of the action learning set was to improve the flow of information to employees about the evolving framework in which the…

  1. Action Research Monographs. Complete Set. Pennsylvania Action Research Network, 1998-99. A Section 353 Project of the Pennsylvania Department of Education, Bureau of Adult Basic and Literacy Education. A Learning from Practice Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., McKeesport.

    This publication consists of the complete set of 23 monographs developed by the Pennsylvania Action Research Network to supplement the 67 monographs produced over the past 3 years. The specific audience are literacy, General Educational Development (GED), and English-as-a Second Language (ESL) practitioners. The titles are: "Use of…

  2. Student Accounts of Action Learning on a DBA Programme: Learning Inaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonça, Roger; Parker, Anthony; Udo, Uwem; Groves, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This account of practice sets out the action learning experience of three doctoral students on the same Doctoral Programme in Business Administration at a UK university. It also include the sense-making of a fourth member of the set. It explores the tension between their area of work and their engagement in the action learning process and, in so…

  3. Using Evidence: How Action Learning Can Support Individual and Organisational Learning through Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Belinda; Sharp, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the use of action learning as a structured and deliberate learning process to support practitioners to implement change in an action research project. It discusses both action learning and action research before describing the context of the study. The article then goes on to discuss how the process of action learning…

  4. Conscious awareness of action potentiates sensorimotor learning.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Arnaud; Blandin, Yannick; Massen, Cristina; Heuer, Herbert; Badets, Arnaud

    2014-10-01

    Many everyday skills are unconsciously learned through repetitions of the same behaviour by binding independent motor acts into unified sets of actions. However, our ability to be consciously aware of producing newly and highly trained motor skills raises the question of the role played by conscious awareness of action upon skill acquisition. In this study we strengthened conscious awareness of self-produced sequential finger movements by way of asking participants to judge their performance in terms of maximal fluency after each trial. Control conditions in which participants did not make any judgment or performance-unrelated judgments were also included. Findings indicate that conscious awareness of action, enhanced via subjective appraisal of motor efficiency, potentiates sensorimotor learning and skilful motor production in optimising the processing and sequencing of action units, as compared to the control groups. The current work lends support to the claim that the learning and skilful expression of sensorimotor behaviours might be grounded upon our ability to be consciously aware of our own motor capability and efficiency.

  5. Using Learning Sets to Support UK Delivery of Off-Shore Learning in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice focuses on the delivery of Action Learning Sets in Swaziland and Malawi as part of a UK university's remote Master's degree teaching programme. It draws upon the experience of an Academic delivering the programme and the efforts made to refine the approach to action learning given time, understanding and resource…

  6. Critical Action Learning: Extending Its Reach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Monder

    2012-01-01

    The trend to imbue action learning with an explicit conception of criticality appears to be gathering momentum. The idea of critical action learning (CAL) foregrounds the connection between power, emotion and organizing. How this triumvirate of forces relate to each other fundamentally shapes the scope for learning. Theoretical and empirical…

  7. CLEANing the Reward: Counterfactual Actions to Remove Exploratory Action Noise in Multiagent Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HolmesParker, Chris; Taylor, Mathew E.; Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Learning in multiagent systems can be slow because agents must learn both how to behave in a complex environment and how to account for the actions of other agents. The inability of an agent to distinguish between the true environmental dynamics and those caused by the stochastic exploratory actions of other agents creates noise in each agent's reward signal. This learning noise can have unforeseen and often undesirable effects on the resultant system performance. We define such noise as exploratory action noise, demonstrate the critical impact it can have on the learning process in multiagent settings, and introduce a reward structure to effectively remove such noise from each agent's reward signal. In particular, we introduce Coordinated Learning without Exploratory Action Noise (CLEAN) rewards and empirically demonstrate their benefits

  8. Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crul, Liselore

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…

  9. Preschoolers' Understanding of How Others Learn Through Action and Instruction.

    PubMed

    Sobel, David M; Letourneau, Susan M

    2017-03-10

    It is widely believed that exploration is a mechanism for young children's learning. The present investigation examines preschoolers' beliefs about how learning occurs. We asked 3- to 5-year-olds to articulate how characters in a set of stories learned about a new toy. Younger preschoolers were more likely to overemphasize the role of characters' actions in learning than older children were (Experiment 1, N = 53). Overall performance improved when the stories explicitly stated that characters were originally ignorant and clarified the characters' actions, but general developmental trends remained (Experiment 2, N = 48). These data suggest that explicit metacognitive understanding of the relation between actions and learning is developing during the preschool years, which might have implications for how children learn from exploration.

  10. From Movements to Actions: Two Mechanisms for Learning Action Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Wood, Justin N.

    2011-01-01

    When other individuals move, we interpret their movements as discrete, hierarchically-organized, goal-directed actions. However, the mechanisms that integrate visible movement features into actions are poorly understood. Here, we consider two sequence learning mechanisms--transitional probability-based (TP) and position-based encoding…

  11. Action Learning in ActionAid Nepal: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Patricia; Rai, Deep Ranjani

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an example of how action learning was used as a framework for an organisational intervention to fundamentally change the organisational culture over a period of time. It also identifies our learning over that period of time and what worked well (and not so well) in an International Non-Governmental Organisation in Nepal.

  12. Action Learning: Developing Leaders and Supporting Change in a Healthcare Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Louise

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice outlines how action learning was used as the key component of a leadership development initiative for managers in an acute hospital setting. It explains how the initiative was conceived, why action learning was chosen and how action learning principles were incorporated. Insights into the outcomes and considerations for…

  13. Reconciling Market Requirements and Operations Resources: An Opportunity for Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlan, Paul; Coghlan, David

    2009-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of action learning and operations strategy. It presents a case of action learning focused on strategic operations improvement in the extended manufacturing enterprise. As the third article in the set of explorations in this journal within the fields of action learning, operations strategy and collaborative…

  14. Action Learning: What, How, Why--What Next? Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Richard S.

    This paper defines and explains action learning and suggests some ideas and resources for putting action learning into practice. The paper is organized in eight sections of about one page each. The sections cover the following topics: (1) what action learning is; (2) how action learning works; (3) action learning and training--key differences; (4)…

  15. Practising Virtual Action Learning at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    The University for Applied Management is a semi-virtual institution widely using blended learning as an integrated approach of face-to-face instruction and e-learning. Virtual action learning is offered in all bachelor and master programmes. The module is transfer orientated and aims at encouraging reflection and supporting students to develop a…

  16. Action Learning Drives the Emerald Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalborczyk, Sarah; Sandelands, Luke

    2012-01-01

    This account examines the action learning process adopted by Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., embedded in the organization through the in-company Emerald Academy. In case study format, the paper emphasizes that in order to align learning with organizational objectives joined up thinking and practice is needed beyond the learning and development…

  17. Feedback Mechanisms in Learning Virtual Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colazzo, Luigi; Comai, Alessio; Davi, Filippo; Molinari, Andrea; Villa, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a set of services for the creation of on-line surveys, questionnaires, exams and self-assessment tests within a virtual community system used in e-learning settings. The system, called "Online Communities", is a dynamic web application used as platform for blended learning activities by the Faculty of Economics of…

  18. Setting the Stage for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2006-01-01

    According to this author, when parents provide competent daily care, they are teaching infants what love and trust are. All the daily routines parents perform, including feeding, cleaning up, diapering, undressing, dressing and settling into sleep, help provide infants with emotional comfort as well as the courage to learn. This article also…

  19. Learning User Preferences for Sets of Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2006-01-01

    Most work on preference learning has focused on pairwise preferences or rankings over individual items. In this paper, we present a method for learning preferences over sets of items. Our learning method takes as input a collection of positive examples--that is, one or more sets that have been identified by a user as desirable. Kernel density estimation is used to estimate the value function for individual items, and the desired set diversity is estimated from the average set diversity observed in the collection. Since this is a new learning problem, we introduce a new evaluation methodology and evaluate the learning method on two data collections: synthetic blocks-world data and a new real-world music data collection that we have gathered.

  20. Action Learning Research? Reflections from the Colloquium at the Third International Conference on Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghlan, David

    2013-01-01

    The case for the notion of action learning research has been posed and explored in several publications over the past few years. There is no tradition within action learning of understanding it as an approach to research. Within some academic circles, there has been a focus on the "action turn," the development of the notion of actionable…

  1. Reflections on Working with Virtual Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedler, Mike; Hauser, Bernhard; Caulat, Ghislaine

    2014-01-01

    This paper brings together the reflections of the authors on their shared and individual experiences of virtual action learning. Whilst many conclusions are shared, there are also some points of difference in practices.

  2. Science Learning in a Leisure Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, John H.; Storksdieck, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Most people visit a science center in order to satisfy specific leisure-related needs; needs which may or may not actually include science learning. Falk proposed that an individual's identity-related motivations provide a useful lens through which to understand adult free-choice science learning in leisure settings. Over a 3-year period the…

  3. Service Learning: An Action Oriented Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, George

    2013-01-01

    Service learning is an academic discipline that provides students with "hands-on" opportunities for developing skills in real-world, community-based projects that serve and benefit community members. This dissertation reflects an action-oriented process for improving the quality of the Service Learning Program at City University of…

  4. Learning Computer Science: Perceptions, Actions and Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Anders; Eckerdal, Anna; Pears, Arnold; East, Philip; Kinnunen, Paivi; Malmi, Lauri; McCartney, Robert; Mostrom, Jan-Erik; Murphy, Laurie; Ratcliffe, Mark; Schulte, Carsten; Simon, Beth; Stamouli, Ioanna; Thomas, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenographic study opens the classroom door to investigate teachers' experiences of students learning difficult computing topics. Three distinct themes are identified and analysed. "Why" do students succeed or fail to learn these concepts? "What" actions do teachers perceive will ameliorate the difficulties facing…

  5. Renewing Professional Organizations and Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    This account concerns the renewal of established professional organizations though action learning. In order to revitalize one national organization, an executive group of leaders committed to co-leading and co-learning through a friendly, computer-supported governance structure. Manifestations of our work together were an accelerated…

  6. Student Learning in an International Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Darren

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores student learning in an international setting and the importance that students place on the international setting when they are considering where to study abroad. It examines how the social distance of foreign sites from America has been reduced in recent years due to globalization, politics, the Internet, internationalization…

  7. Innovation Development--An Action Learning Programme for Medical Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beniston, Lee; Ellwood, Paul; Gold, Jeff; Roberts, James; Thorpe, Richard

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that action learning is valuable in a higher education setting. This paper goes on to report a personal development programme, based on principles of critical action learning, where the aim is to equip early-career scientists and engineers working in a university setting with the knowledge, skills and confidence to…

  8. Habits, action sequences, and reinforcement learning

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquire and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions. PMID:22487034

  9. Habits, action sequences and reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W

    2012-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquired and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary, and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions.

  10. How Can Action Learning Contribute to Social Capital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedler, Mike; Attwood, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the contribution that action learning can make to the formation of social capital via experiences of action learning projects in NHS Pathology Services in the UK. The paper describes the development of action learning practice in recent years, reviews the notion of social capital and considers how action learning might…

  11. Notes toward a Philosophy of Action Learning Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghlan, David; Coughlan, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The philosophical foundations of action learning research have not received a great deal of attention. In the context of action learning postgraduate and professional programmes in universities, articulation of a philosophy of action learning research seems timely and appropriate. This article explores a philosophy of action learning research,…

  12. Learning Initiatives in the Residential Setting. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 48

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Gene, Ed.; Gahagan, Jimmie, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, "Learning Reconsidered" urged educators to think more holistically about student learning and development. "Learning Initiatives in the Residential Setting" provides a framework for putting this call into action at large universities and small colleges alike. Chapters trace the history of learning in residence halls, discuss academic and…

  13. Neural model for learning-to-learn of novel task sets in the motor domain.

    PubMed

    Pitti, Alexandre; Braud, Raphaël; Mahé, Sylvain; Quoy, Mathias; Gaussier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    During development, infants learn to differentiate their motor behaviors relative to various contexts by exploring and identifying the correct structures of causes and effects that they can perform; these structures of actions are called task sets or internal models. The ability to detect the structure of new actions, to learn them and to select on the fly the proper one given the current task set is one great leap in infants cognition. This behavior is an important component of the child's ability of learning-to-learn, a mechanism akin to the one of intrinsic motivation that is argued to drive cognitive development. Accordingly, we propose to model a dual system based on (1) the learning of new task sets and on (2) their evaluation relative to their uncertainty and prediction error. The architecture is designed as a two-level-based neural system for context-dependent behavior (the first system) and task exploration and exploitation (the second system). In our model, the task sets are learned separately by reinforcement learning in the first network after their evaluation and selection in the second one. We perform two different experimental setups to show the sensorimotor mapping and switching between tasks, a first one in a neural simulation for modeling cognitive tasks and a second one with an arm-robot for motor task learning and switching. We show that the interplay of several intrinsic mechanisms drive the rapid formation of the neural populations with respect to novel task sets.

  14. Working as a Learning Coach Team in Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Judy A.; Lamm, Sharon L.

    2000-01-01

    A team of learning coaches facilitated an action learning group in a public utility. The coaches' diversity raised interpersonal issues but added a wealth of perspectives and experience. Important components were team formation, a balance of program and individual needs, and group diversity. (SK)

  15. Action Learning: How Learning Transfers from Entrepreneurs to Small Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karen; Sambrook, Sally A.; Pittaway, Luke; Henley, Andrew; Norbury, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents research with small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) owners who have participated in a leadership development programme. The primary focus of this paper is on learning transfer and factors affecting it, arguing that entrepreneurs must engage in "action" in order to "learn" and that under certain conditions…

  16. Reflections on Learning in Interdisciplinary Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Asa; Kalman, Hildur

    2010-01-01

    In the present article, we will reflect on some didactic challenges and possibilities that emerge when teaching in interdisciplinary settings, and we will use and discuss the journey as a metaphor for learning. We argue that teaching in interdisciplinary studies rests on movements between different understandings, and that it gives ample…

  17. Developing Citizen Leaders through Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This is an account of a programmer utilizing the application of action learning to the development of capacities of citizens. The Citizen Leadership for Democratic Governance is designed to equip citizens with the skills to get involved and handle the difficult tasks of governance in their communities in South Africa. After a history of apartheid…

  18. Systems Thinking, Lean Production and Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, John; Caulkin, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Systems thinking underpins "lean" management and is best understood through action-learning as the ideas are counter-intuitive. The Toyota Production System is just that--a system; the failure to appreciate that starting-place and the advocacy of "tools" leads many to fail to grasp what is, without doubt, a significant…

  19. Unlearning, Critical Action Learning and Wicked Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedler, Mike; Hsu, Shih-wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of unlearning in Critical Action Learning (CAL) as applied to the wicked problems of organisations and societies. It draws on data and ideas developed during a research project conducted for "Skills for Care" by Pedler, Abbott, Brook and Burgoyne ("Skills for Care" 2014) and from experiences on…

  20. Action Learning: Student Community Service Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronstein, Laurence W.; Olsen, Edward G.

    By engaging students in community service projects, action learning uses resources of the real world to give students opportunities to participate in performing tasks and making decisions that confront societal problems. Such projects should be decided on after a study of the needs of the community. After a project is selected, all relevant…

  1. Differences and Impacts through Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozubska, Joanna; MacKenzie, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Here, we argue that action learning (AL) has been evolving into different variations, whose respective advocates appear to concentrate on one of the several components inherent in Revans' formulation of AL as L = P + Q. They do this--sometimes inappropriately--to the virtual or relative exclusion of other aspects, and this has consequences for the…

  2. Collaborative action research: implementation of cooperative learning.

    PubMed

    Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Molle, Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Nurse educators must continually improve their teaching skills through innovation. However, research about the process used by faculty members to transform their teaching methods is limited. This collaborative study uses classroom action research to describe, analyze, and address problems encountered in implementing cooperative learning in two undergraduate nursing courses. After four rounds of action and reflection, the following themes emerged: students did not understand the need for structured cooperative learning; classroom structure and seating arrangement influenced the effectiveness of activities; highly structured activities engaged the students; and short, targeted activities that involved novel content were most effective. These findings indicate that designing specific activities to prepare students for class is critical to cooperative learning.

  3. Context transfer in reinforcement learning using action-value functions.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Amin; Nadjar Araabi, Babak; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the notion of context transfer in reinforcement learning tasks. Context transfer, as defined in this paper, implies knowledge transfer between source and target tasks that share the same environment dynamics and reward function but have different states or action spaces. In other words, the agents learn the same task while using different sensors and actuators. This requires the existence of an underlying common Markov decision process (MDP) to which all the agents' MDPs can be mapped. This is formulated in terms of the notion of MDP homomorphism. The learning framework is Q-learning. To transfer the knowledge between these tasks, the feature space is used as a translator and is expressed as a partial mapping between the state-action spaces of different tasks. The Q-values learned during the learning process of the source tasks are mapped to the sets of Q-values for the target task. These transferred Q-values are merged together and used to initialize the learning process of the target task. An interval-based approach is used to represent and merge the knowledge of the source tasks. Empirical results show that the transferred initialization can be beneficial to the learning process of the target task.

  4. Context Transfer in Reinforcement Learning Using Action-Value Functions

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Amin; Nadjar Araabi, Babak; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the notion of context transfer in reinforcement learning tasks. Context transfer, as defined in this paper, implies knowledge transfer between source and target tasks that share the same environment dynamics and reward function but have different states or action spaces. In other words, the agents learn the same task while using different sensors and actuators. This requires the existence of an underlying common Markov decision process (MDP) to which all the agents' MDPs can be mapped. This is formulated in terms of the notion of MDP homomorphism. The learning framework is Q-learning. To transfer the knowledge between these tasks, the feature space is used as a translator and is expressed as a partial mapping between the state-action spaces of different tasks. The Q-values learned during the learning process of the source tasks are mapped to the sets of Q-values for the target task. These transferred Q-values are merged together and used to initialize the learning process of the target task. An interval-based approach is used to represent and merge the knowledge of the source tasks. Empirical results show that the transferred initialization can be beneficial to the learning process of the target task. PMID:25610457

  5. Learning, attentional control and action video games

    PubMed Central

    Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.

    2012-01-01

    While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on ‘action video games’ produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. PMID:22440805

  6. Perceptual learning during action video game playing.

    PubMed

    Green, C Shawn; Li, Renjie; Bavelier, Daphne

    2010-04-01

    Action video games have been shown to enhance behavioral performance on a wide variety of perceptual tasks, from those that require effective allocation of attentional resources across the visual scene, to those that demand the successful identification of fleetingly presented stimuli. Importantly, these effects have not only been shown in expert action video game players, but a causative link has been established between action video game play and enhanced processing through training studies. Although an account based solely on attention fails to capture the variety of enhancements observed after action game playing, a number of models of perceptual learning are consistent with the observed results, with behavioral modeling favoring the hypothesis that avid video game players are better able to form templates for, or extract the relevant statistics of, the task at hand. This may suggest that the neural site of learning is in areas where information is integrated and actions are selected; yet changes in low-level sensory areas cannot be ruled out.

  7. Developing Results-Based Leadership Attributes and Team Cohesiveness through Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troupe, David

    2010-01-01

    Those who develop leaders in manufacturing settings have little data that describe the usefulness of action learning as a method of developing leaders' abilities to improve results-based leadership attributes or perceptions about their team's cohesiveness. The two purposes of this study were to evaluate an action learning program with regards to…

  8. Video Game Learning Dynamics: Actionable Measures of Multidimensional Learning Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Debbie Denise; Tabachnick, Barbara G.; Kosko, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Valid, accessible, reusable methods for instructional video game design and embedded assessment can provide actionable information enhancing individual and collective achievement. Cyberlearning through game-based, metaphor-enhanced learning objects (CyGaMEs) design and embedded assessment quantify player behavior to study knowledge discovery and…

  9. Rationales in Children's Causal Learning from Others' Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David M.; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    Shown commensurate actions and information by an adult, preschoolers' causal learning was influenced by the pedagogical context in which these actions occurred. Four-year-olds who were provided with a reason for an experimenter's action relevant to learning causal structure showed more accurate causal learning than children exposed to the same…

  10. Why Are We Using Action Learning and in What Contexts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sunyoung; Kang, Ingu; Valencic, Taryn R.; Cho, Yonjoo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contexts in which action learning has been used and provide implications for the design of action learning programmes. We performed a content analysis of 127 articles (case studies and case reports included) published in "Action Learning: Research and Practice" between 2004 and 2012. In this…

  11. Defining Success in Action Learning: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bong, Hyeon-Cheol; Cho, Yonjoo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to explore how the two groups of action learning experts (Korean and non-Korean experts) define success of action learning to see whether there are any cultural differences. To this end, the authors conducted a total of 44 interviews with action learning experts around the world. Research questions guiding…

  12. Action Learning for Professionals: A New Approach to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Christine; Mayes, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Following on from the article "Building Capacity in Social Care: An Evaluation of a National Programme of Action Learning Facilitator Development" (Abbott, C., L. Burtney, and C. Wall. 2013. "Action Learning: Research & Practice" 10 (2): 168--177), this article describes how action learning is being introduced in Cornwall…

  13. Identifying Balanced Action Learning: Cases of South Korean Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Bong, Hyeon-Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Despite considerable commitment to the application of action learning as leadership and organization development by a large number of Korean organizations, few identified empirical studies of action learning practices have been reported. The purpose of this study was to conduct case studies of South Korean action learning practices to examine…

  14. Issues in Action Learning: A Critical Realist Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, John

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to argue that the perspective of "critical realism" has considerable potential for moving forward the theory and practice of action learning. The paper addresses three questions: (1) Does action learning emphasise the individual or the collective? (2) Can action learning be thought of as critical, but should it also be…

  15. The learning of action sequences through social transmission.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Andrew; Cownden, Daniel; Laland, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Previous empirical work on animal social learning has found that many species lack the ability to learn entire action sequences solely through reliance on social information. Conversely, acquiring action sequences through asocial learning can be difficult due to the large number of potential sequences arising from even a small number of base actions. In spite of this, several studies report that some primates use action sequences in the wild. We investigate how social information can be integrated with asocial learning to facilitate the learning of action sequences. We formalize this problem by examining how learners using temporal difference learning, a widely applicable model of reinforcement learning, can combine social cues with their own experiences to acquire action sequences. The learning problem is modeled as a Markov decision process. The learning of nettle processing by mountain gorillas serves as a focal example. Through simulations, we find that the social facilitation of component actions can combine with individual learning to facilitate the acquisition of action sequences. Our analysis illustrates that how even simple forms of social learning, combined with asocial learning, generate substantially faster learning of action sequences compared to asocial processes alone, and that the benefits of social information increase with the length of the action sequence and the number of base actions.

  16. Action and Organizational Learning in an Elevator Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Loo, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To highlight the relevance of management control in action learning programs that aim to foster organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: Literature review plus case study. The latter consists of archival analysis and multiple interviews. Findings: When action learning programs are built around singular learning experiences,…

  17. Learn locally, act globally: learning language from variation set cues.

    PubMed

    Onnis, Luca; Waterfall, Heidi R; Edelman, Shimon

    2008-12-01

    Variation set structure--partial overlap of successive utterances in child-directed speech--has been shown to correlate with progress in children's acquisition of syntax. We demonstrate the benefits of variation set structure directly: in miniature artificial languages, arranging a certain proportion of utterances in a training corpus in variation sets facilitated word and phrase constituent learning in adults. Our findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms of L1 acquisition by children, and for the development of more efficient algorithms for automatic language acquisition, as well as better methods for L2 instruction.

  18. Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

    This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and

  19. Learning Paths in Academic Setting: Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirkov, Snežana

    2013-01-01

    The paper represents a synthesis of results obtained in empirical studies of variables related to learning process. A number of studies were carried out within the Students Approaches to Learning perspective. According to the 3P model of learning, the complex of learning process comprises three learning approaches--Deep, Surface and Achievement…

  20. What Am I to Action Learning and What Is Action Learning to Me?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This account of practice charts one organisation development practitioner's experience of the influence of action learning (AL) at various points in his career, from the early 1970s to the present day. It explores the impact of AL upon his practice over the years, chronicling various episodes which had strongest impact. It contrasts AL as it was…

  1. Different Preferences in Learning between American and French Learners in a Multinational Corporate Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossi, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The way training is delivered in a corporate environment has a tremendous effect on its results. This study investigated the role of culture in the learning styles of adult French and American learners working in an international corporate setting. The assumption was that Americans prefer to learn from action-oriented methods and are more…

  2. Practicing What We Teach: Using Action Research to Learn about Teaching Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barb; Dressler, Roswita; Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Jacobsen, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In this article, action research is explored as a process for instructor reflection, professional learning and collaboration. The context for the professional learning was the teaching of graduate level education courses in which action research, in conjunction with a cohort-based, collaboratory approach to learning, was used to facilitate…

  3. Goal Setting for Learning English Language of EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srichanyachon, Napaporn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated goal setting for learning English language of Bangkok University students. A set of questionnaires for the assessment of goal settings and problems of learning English was administered to 370 second-year students. The study revealed that the goal setting was at a moderate level. There were statistically significant…

  4. Understanding the Causal Path between Action, Learning, and Solutions: Maximizing the Power of Action Learning to Achieve Great Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, H. Skipton

    2015-01-01

    Clients and practitioners alike are often confused about the ultimate purpose of action learning (AL). Because of the title of the method, many believe the primary goal of AL is to generate learning. This article clarifies the relationship between action, learning, and solutions. It also provides historical evidence to support the conclusion that…

  5. Linking Action Learning and Inter-Organisational Learning: The Learning Journey Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The article presents and illustrates the learning journey (LJ)--a new management development approach to inter-organisational learning based on observation, reflection and problem-solving. The LJ involves managers from different organisations and applies key concepts of action learning and systemic organisational development. Made up of…

  6. Recognizing human actions by learning and matching shape-motion prototype trees.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhuolin; Lin, Zhe; Davis, Larry S

    2012-03-01

    A shape-motion prototype-based approach is introduced for action recognition. The approach represents an action as a sequence of prototypes for efficient and flexible action matching in long video sequences. During training, an action prototype tree is learned in a joint shape and motion space via hierarchical K-means clustering and each training sequence is represented as a labeled prototype sequence; then a look-up table of prototype-to-prototype distances is generated. During testing, based on a joint probability model of the actor location and action prototype, the actor is tracked while a frame-to-prototype correspondence is established by maximizing the joint probability, which is efficiently performed by searching the learned prototype tree; then actions are recognized using dynamic prototype sequence matching. Distance measures used for sequence matching are rapidly obtained by look-up table indexing, which is an order of magnitude faster than brute-force computation of frame-to-frame distances. Our approach enables robust action matching in challenging situations (such as moving cameras, dynamic backgrounds) and allows automatic alignment of action sequences. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieves recognition rates of 92.86 percent on a large gesture data set (with dynamic backgrounds), 100 percent on the Weizmann action data set, 95.77 percent on the KTH action data set, 88 percent on the UCF sports data set, and 87.27 percent on the CMU action data set.

  7. Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

    1996-01-01

    Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

  8. Concept learning set-size functions for Clark's nutcrackers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Leonard, Kevin; Kelly, Debbie M

    2016-01-01

    Same/Different abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) was tested with novel stimuli following learning of training set expansion (8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, and 1024 picture items). The resulting set-size function was compared to those from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia). Nutcrackers showed partial concept learning following initial eight-item set learning, unlike the other species (Magnotti, Katz, Wright, & Kelly, 2015). The mean function for the nutcrackers' novel-stimulus transfer increased linearly as a function of the logarithm of training set size, which intersected its baseline function at the 128-item set size. Thus, nutcrackers on average achieved full concept learning (i.e., transfer statistically equivalent to baseline performance) somewhere between set sizes of 64 to 128 items, similar to full concept learning by monkeys. Pigeons required a somewhat larger training set (256 items) for full concept learning, but results from other experiments (initial training and transfer with 32- and 64-item set sizes) suggested carryover effects with smaller set sizes may have artificially prolonged the pigeon's full concept learning. We find it remarkable that these diverse species with very different neural architectures can fully learn this same/different abstract concept, and (at least under some conditions) do so with roughly similar sets sizes (64-128 items) and numbers of training exemplars, despite initial concept learning advantages (nutcrackers), learning disadvantages (pigeons), or increasing baselines (monkeys).

  9. Using Action Verbs as Learning Outcomes: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy in Measuring Instructional Objectives in Introductory Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; McClelland, Nate

    2013-01-01

    We used a set of action verbs based on Bloom's taxonomy to assess learning outcomes in two college-level introductory psychology courses. The action verbs represented an acronym, IDEA, comprising skills relating to identifying, defining or describing, evaluating or explaining, and applying psychological knowledge. Exam performance demonstrated…

  10. Youth Participatory Action Research: A Transformative Approach to Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schensul, Jean J.; Berg, Marlene

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a model of participatory action research and service-learning conducted with urban, high school African American, West Indian/Caribbean, and Puerto Rican/Latino youth and adult facilitators, in a nonclassroom setting, in a mid-sized northeastern city. Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) integrates critical theory,…

  11. Tension, Risk and Conflict: Action-Learning Journeys with Four Public-Sector Partnership Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the learning gained from facilitating four action-learning sets whose members were drawn from management teams of local authority, health, education and police, working in partnership. Facilitation posed a series of difficult choices which impacted on personal and organizational dynamics within and between the partnership…

  12. Action Learning on the Edge: Contributing to a Master's Programme in Human Resources for Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonstone, John; Robson, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice describes the introduction of an accredited postgraduate management qualification which used action learning as a major contribution to a blended learning approach in a fragile cross-border setting on the edge of Europe. Conventional management education has frequently been challenged on the grounds of relevance, efficacy…

  13. Learning Circles: One Form of Knowledge Production in Social Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravensbergen, Frances; Vanderplaat, Madine

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "learning circles" as one form of knowledge production in social action research. It reports on a project that used learning circles as a setting within which to increase the engagement of people living with low income in developing strategies for the reduction and elimination of poverty in Canada. It…

  14. The Role of Embodied Manual Action in Second Language Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morett, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has provided evidence that mental imagery and embodied action can facilitate lexical learning in a novel language. However, it is unclear "how" these factors interact--as well as "why" they play a role--in lexical learning. Through a set of four experiments, this research demonstrated that neither mental…

  15. Implementing Blended Self-Managed Action Learning for Digital Entrepreneurs in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurville, Simon; Rospigliosi, Asher

    2009-01-01

    We report upon implementing blended self-managed action learning (SMAL) within graduate and postgraduate courses in digital entrepreneurship. In four out of five cases, we found that SMAL was highly motivating to our learners and integrated well with a blended and flexible approach to learning. We report a case where a SMAL set broke down due to…

  16. Learning Communities in Remote Retreat Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersch, Gretchen T.; Lund, Carole L.

    2002-01-01

    The example of the formation of a learning community in a Yukon Island retreat center demonstrates the influence of context and the importance of community building. Organic learning occurs through the synthesis of the natural environment, the community, and the learning process. (SK)

  17. Launching Professional Learning Communities: Beginning Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Tara; Cowan, D'Ette

    2000-01-01

    A Professional Learning Community (PLC) is a school where administrators and teachers continuously seek and share learning to increase their effectiveness for students and act on what they learn. PLCs are characterized by five dimensions: shared and supportive leadership, shared values and vision, collective learning and application of learning,…

  18. A Framework for the Ethical Practice of Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig

    2010-01-01

    By tradition the action learning community has encouraged an eclectic view of practice. This involves a number of different permutations around a kernel of nebulous ideas. However, the disadvantages of such an open philosophy have never been considered. In particular consumer protection against inauthentic action learning experiences has been…

  19. Spontaneous Action and Transformative Learning: Empirical Investigations and Pragmatist Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nohl, Arnd-Michael

    2009-01-01

    Whereas present theories of transformative learning tend to focus on the rational and reflective actor, in this article it is suggested that spontaneous action may play a decisive role in transformative learning too. In the spontaneity of action, novelty finds its way into life, gains momentum, is respected by others and reflected by the actor.…

  20. Action Learning in Virtual Higher Education: Applying Leadership Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the historical foundation of Northeastern University's course, LDR 6100: Developing Your Leadership Capability, a partial literature review of action learning (AL) and virtual action learning (VAL), a course methodology of LDR 6100 requiring students to apply leadership perspectives using VAL as instructed by the author,…

  1. Franchisees in Crisis: Using Action Learning to Self-Organise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The present article describes the use of action learning by a group of 30 franchisees to organise themselves and work through a period of upheaval and uncertainty when their parent company faced liquidation. Written from the perspective of one of the franchisees who found herself adopting action learning principles to facilitate the group, it…

  2. The Impact of Action Learning Experience on Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Nicole S.

    2012-01-01

    This case study examines the changes that occur with respect to reflective practices as a result of participating in an action learning group through the identification of aspects/activities of action learning that contribute to such changes and the impact these aspects/activities had on the program participants at a department of the federal…

  3. The Evidence for the Effectiveness of Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, H. Skipton; Marquardt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    For the past 50 years, organizations and individuals around the world have reported success in their use of action learning programs to solve problems, develop leaders, build teams and transform their corporate cultures. However, very little rigorous research has been conducted to determine the effectiveness of action learning. The authors…

  4. Action Learning: Nothing So Practical as a Good Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Kurt Lewin's epigrammatic paradox is particularly true for action learning. Marquardt and Waddill (2004), and previously Yorks O'Neil and Marsick (1999) have approached the issue of the relationship between theory and action learning by looking at a variety of theories which they have placed in "schools". This provides an interesting analysis, but…

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Student Engagement, Learning, and Satisfaction in Lecture Hall and Online Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabe-Hemp, Cara; Woollen, Susan; Humiston, Gail Sears

    2009-01-01

    The current study involves a comparison of student levels of engagement, ability to learn autonomously, and interaction with peers and faculty in two different learning settings: a large lecture hall and online. Results suggest that learning mechanism drives the styles of learning and teaching practiced in traditional and online learning settings.…

  6. Enhancing Student Learning: Setting the Campus Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stage, Frances K., Ed.; Watson, Lemuel W., Ed.; Terrell, Melvin, Ed.

    This book offers eight papers intended for student affairs professionals, college administrators, and faculty which discuss wholistic approaches to college student learning, focusing on the entire campus learning environment. Following an introduction by Frances K. Stage and Lemuel W. Watson, the papers are: (1) "A Framework to Enhance Student…

  7. The Contradictions of Impact: Action Learning and Power in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vince, Russ

    2012-01-01

    In this polemical essay, Professor Russ Vince argues that it is important to understand the contradictions that can be generated by action learning. This method is a powerful and effective approach to managers' learning that can underpin transformations of management practice. However, any method for learning, no matter how convinced we are of its…

  8. A Collaborative Action Research Approach to Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleicher, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The field of professional development is moving towards the notion of professional learning, highlighting the active learning role that teachers play in changing their knowledge bases, beliefs and practice. This article builds on this idea and argues for creating professional learning that is guided by a collaborative action research (CAR)…

  9. The Role of Facilitators in Project Action Learning Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Rui; Chuah, Kong Bieng; Chao, Yiu Chung; Kwong, Kar Fai; Law, Mo Yin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the importance of a more proactive role of organizational learning (OL) facilitators, learning motivation reinforcer, through a two-part longitudinal study in a case company. The first part of this study aims to investigate and analyze some unexpected challenges in the project action learning-driven (PAL) OL…

  10. Workplace wellness using online learning tools in a healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Blake, Holly; Gartshore, Emily

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to develop and evaluate an online learning tool for use with UK healthcare employees, healthcare educators and healthcare students, to increase knowledge of workplace wellness as an important public health issue. A 'Workplace Wellness' e-learning tool was developed and peer-reviewed by 14 topic experts. This focused on six key areas relating to workplace wellness: work-related stress, musculoskeletal disorders, diet and nutrition, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Each key area provided current evidence-based information on causes and consequences, access to UK government reports and national statistics, and guidance on actions that could be taken to improve health within a workplace setting. 188 users (93.1% female, age 18-60) completed online knowledge questionnaires before (n = 188) and after (n = 88) exposure to the online learning tool. Baseline knowledge of workplace wellness was poor (n = 188; mean accuracy 47.6%, s.d. 11.94). Knowledge significantly improved from baseline to post-intervention (mean accuracy = 77.5%, s.d. 13.71) (t(75) = -14.801, p < 0.0005) with knowledge increases evident for all included topics areas. Usability evaluation showed that participants perceived the tool to be useful (96.4%), engaging (73.8%) and would recommend it to others (86.9%). Healthcare professionals, healthcare educators and pre-registered healthcare students held positive attitudes towards online learning, indicating scope for development of further online packages relating to other important health parameters.

  11. Organizational Learning in Educational Settings (Technical): An Indian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patnaik, B.; Beriha, G. S.; Mahapatra, S. S.; Singh, N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present an empirical study on organizational learning in Indian educational organizations. Design/methodology/approach: The Learning Organization Profile (LOP) Survey is used as the tool for eliciting responses from the staff regarding the nature and state of organizational learning prevailing in educational settings.…

  12. Collaborative Teacher Learning in Different Primary School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppenberg, Jannet J.; Bakx, Anouke W. E. A.; den Brok, Perry J.

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades there has been a growing awareness of the potentially strong role teacher collaboration can play in relation to teacher and team learning. Teachers collaborate with their colleagues in different formal and informal settings. Because most studies have focused on teacher learning in one collaborative setting or are…

  13. Neural signature of hierarchically structured expectations predicts clustering and transfer of rule sets in reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Collins, Anne Gabrielle Eva; Frank, Michael Joshua

    2016-07-01

    Often the world is structured such that distinct sensory contexts signify the same abstract rule set. Learning from feedback thus informs us not only about the value of stimulus-action associations but also about which rule set applies. Hierarchical clustering models suggest that learners discover structure in the environment, clustering distinct sensory events into a single latent rule set. Such structure enables a learner to transfer any newly acquired information to other contexts linked to the same rule set, and facilitates re-use of learned knowledge in novel contexts. Here, we show that humans exhibit this transfer, generalization and clustering during learning. Trial-by-trial model-based analysis of EEG signals revealed that subjects' reward expectations incorporated this hierarchical structure; these structured neural signals were predictive of behavioral transfer and clustering. These results further our understanding of how humans learn and generalize flexibly by building abstract, behaviorally relevant representations of the complex, high-dimensional sensory environment.

  14. Cooperative Learning: Experiencing the Constitution in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Lawrence; Foyle, Harvey C.

    Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy involving students in small group learning activities that promote positive interaction. Research studies have consistently found that cooperative learning promotes increased academic achievement and involves relative use of implementation and reasonable costs. Improved behavior, increased positive…

  15. Action Learning: Images and Pathways. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Lifelong Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth, Robert L.; Willis, Verna J.

    This book provides information and strategies on how adult educators can integrate action learning concepts in their teaching practice. The book defines action learning as going beyond the traditional idea of "learn by doing" and applies it to various organizational cultures and educational contexts. Chapter 1 introduces the origins of action…

  16. Improving Pedagogy through Action Learning and Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This ASA Teaching Workshop explored the potential of Action Learning to use teachers' tacit knowledge to collaboratively confront pedagogical issues. The Action Learning model grows out of industrial management and is based on the notion that peers are a valuable resource for learning about how to solve the problems encountered in the workplace.…

  17. School Vision of Learning: Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Tiffany A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author develops her school vision of learning. She explains the theories she used to help develop the vision. The author then goes into detail on the methods she will use to make her vision for a school that prepares urban students for a successful life after high school. She takes into account all the stakeholders and how they…

  18. Action-effect bindings and ideomotor learning in intention- and stimulus-based actions.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Arvid; Waszak, Florian

    2012-01-01

    According to ideomotor theory, action-effect associations are crucial for voluntary action control. Recently, a number of studies started to investigate the conditions that mediate the acquisition and application of action-effect associations by comparing actions carried out in response to exogenous stimuli (stimulus-based) with actions selected endogenously (intention-based). There is evidence that the acquisition and/or application of action-effect associations is boosted when acting in an intention-based action mode. For instance, bidirectional action-effect associations were diagnosed in a forced choice test phase if participants previously experienced action-effect couplings in an intention-based but not in a stimulus-based action mode. The present study aims at investigating effects of the action mode on action-effect associations in more detail. In a series of experiments, we compared the strength and durability of short-term action-effect associations (binding) immediately following intention- as well as stimulus-based actions. Moreover, long-term action-effect associations (learning) were assessed in a subsequent test phase. Our results show short-term action-effect associations of equal strength and durability for both action modes. However, replicating previous results, long-term associations were observed only following intention-based actions. These findings indicate that the effect of the action mode on long-term associations cannot merely be a result of accumulated short-term action-effect bindings. Instead, only those episodic bindings are selectively perpetuated and retrieved that integrate action-relevant aspects of the processing event, i.e., in case of intention-based actions, the link between action and ensuing effect.

  19. Cooperative Learning in a Community College Setting: Developmental Coursework in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    This action research study, set in a community college in the southwestern United States, was designed to investigate the effects of implementing cooperative learning strategies in a developmental mathematics course. Introductory algebra was formerly taught in a lecture based format, and as such regularly had a low course completion rate. To…

  20. Developing Entrepreneurial Graduates: An Action-Learning Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Evans, Dylan; Williams, William; Deacon, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Describes development and marketing of a Welsh business school's diploma in entrepreneurial practice, an action learning-based program. Discusses problems encountered in dealing with the concept of business ambiguity, program flexibility, and measurement of outcomes. (SK)

  1. Mindfulness into Action: Transformational Learning through Collaborative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergara, Mariana Ines

    2016-01-01

    This action research exploratory study sought to learn how to better develop my practice by using grounded theory. It explored the apparent cognitive transformational experience of nine participants over a period of four weeks after the implementation of an intervention called Mindfulness into Action. The informal intervention was used with the…

  2. Agroecology Education: Action-Oriented Learning and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles; Ostergaard, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines and evaluates the potential contributions from action learning and action research with stakeholders to higher education in agriculture and food systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on our experiences over the past two decades of running PhD courses and an MSc degree programme in Agroecology in…

  3. Learning Networks--Enabling Change through Community Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Learning networks are a critical element of ethos of the community action research approach taken by the Early Learning Initiative at the National College of Ireland, a community-based educational initiative in the Dublin Docklands. Key criteria for networking, whether at local, national or international level, are the individual's and…

  4. Improving Adolescent Learning: An Action Agenda. A TASC Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    At a recent national forum at the Ford Foundation in New York, 140 education and youth development professionals discussed how to better support adolescent learning. Drawing on the discussion and the latest research in neuroscience, psychology and cognitive learning science, TASC presents an action agenda that can be tailored to circumstances in…

  5. Organizational Support for Action Learning in South Korean Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Egan, Toby

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the impact of organizational support on employee learning and performance and (2) to elaborate on the context of organizational support for action learning in South Korean organizations. For this inquiry, two central questions were posed: What are employee reactions to organizational support for action…

  6. Collaborative Action Research on Technology Integration for Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chien-hsing; Ke, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jin-Tong; Hsu, Wen-Hua

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly reports the outcomes of an action research inquiry on the use of blogs, MS PowerPoint [PPT], and the Internet as learning tools with a science class of sixth graders for project-based learning. Multiple sources of data were essential to triangulate the key findings articulated in this paper. Corresponding to previous studies,…

  7. Case Studies of Action Research in Various Adult Education Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhne, Gary W.; Weirauch, Drucie; Fetterman, David J.; Mearns, Raiana M.; Kalinosky, Kathy; Cegles, Kathleen A.; Ritchey, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Six case studies illustrate action research in adult education: faculty development in a museum, participation in a church congregation, retention of literacy volunteers in a corrections center, learner participation in a homeless shelter, technology innovation in a university, and infection control in a hospital. (SK)

  8. Using Action Research and Action Learning for Entrepreneurial Network Capability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies an action research (AR) design and action learning (AL) approach to network capability development in an entrepreneurial context. Recent research suggests that networks are a viable strategy for the entrepreneurial firm to overcome the liabilities associated with newness and smallness. However, a gap emerges as few, if any,…

  9. History and Culture of Alara--The Action Learning and Action Research Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun; Passfield, Ron

    2016-01-01

    As co-founders of the Action Learning and Action Research Association (ALARA), we tell the story of this international network organisation through our personal experience. Our history traces the evolution of ALARA from origins at the first World Congress in 1990 in Brisbane, Australia, through development over two and a half decades, to its…

  10. Setting Priorities: Personal Values, Organizational Results. Ideas into Action Guidebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Talula

    2007-01-01

    Successful leaders get results. To get results, you need to set priorities. This book can help you do a better job of setting priorities, recognizing the personal values that motivate your decision making, the probable trade-offs and consequences of your decisions, and the importance of aligning your priorities with your organization's…

  11. ICT-Enabled Learning Settings: Course, Person or Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colazzo, Luigi; Molinari, Andrea; Villa, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a discussion on the different approaches that the authors have found in learning settings respect to ICT platforms that support the educational activities. The authors discuss three different approaches in pursuing learning activities in real educational contexts. The considered approaches are different in the sense of the…

  12. Narrative Assessment: Making Mathematics Learning Visible in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories--the preferred form of narrative assessment--currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper,…

  13. Collaborative learning in gerontological clinical settings: The students' perspective.

    PubMed

    Suikkala, Arja; Kivelä, Eeva; Käyhkö, Pirjo

    2016-03-01

    This study deals with student nurses' experiences of collaborative learning in gerontological clinical settings where aged people are involved as age-experts in students' learning processes. The data were collected in 2012 using the contents of students' reflective writing assignments concerning elderly persons' life history interviews and the students' own assessments of their learning experiences in authentic elder care settings. The results, analyzed using qualitative content analysis, revealed mostly positive learning experiences. Interaction and collaborative learning activities in genuine gerontological clinical settings contributed to the students' understanding of the multiple age-related and disease-specific challenges as well as the issues of functional decline that aged patients face. Three types of factors influenced the students' collaborative learning experiences in gerontological clinical settings: student-related, patient-related and learning environment-related factors. According to the results, theoretical studies in combination with collaboration, in an authentic clinical environment, by student nurses, elderly patients, representatives of the elder care staff and nurse educators provide a feasible method for helping students transform their experiences with patients into actual skills. Their awareness of and sensitivity to the needs of the elderly increase as they learn.

  14. Informal Language Learning Setting: Technology or Social Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…

  15. From Action to Insight: A Professional Learning Community's Experiences with the European Language Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristmanson, Paula Lee; Lafargue, Chantal; Culligan, Karla

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on an action research project set in the context of one professional learning community's (PLC's) exploration of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and the European Language Portfolio (ELP). Teachers of second and foreign languages in a large urban high school examined the potential of principles and tools related…

  16. Does Lean Production Sacrifice Learning in a Manufacturing Environment? An Action Learning Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Fiona M.; Butler, Jim; Edwards, John

    2001-01-01

    An action learning program was implemented by a manufacturer using lean production practices. Action learning practices were accommodated during times of stability, but abandoned in times of crisis. The meaning of work in this organizational culture excluded all practices, such as reflection, that were not visible and targeted at immediate…

  17. Action Learning, Team Learning and Co-Operation in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubatova, Slava

    2012-01-01

    This account of practice presents two cases of the application of Action Learning (AL) communication methodology as described by Marquardt [2004. "Optimising the power of action learning". Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing]. The teams were Czech and international top management teams. The AL methodology was used to improve…

  18. Action Learning and Executive Education: Achieving Credible Personal, Practitioner and Organisational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Simon; Margey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Action learning involves balancing the often conflicting forces between working knowledge and academic knowledge. This paper explores the experience of executive learners; academics and external contributors involved in action learning at the postgraduate level. The executive learners are members of cohorts on two masters programmes based in…

  19. Learning in Action and Adventure Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellmer, Eva; Rynne, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The exponential growth in action and adventure sport (e.g. snowboarding, bicycle motorcross (BMX), surfing, parkour) participation over the past two decades has been showcased in world championship events and the inclusion in Olympic programs. Yet, by virtue of their alternative, escapist and/or adventure-based origins, these sports do not fully…

  20. Learn Locally, Act Globally: Learning Language from Variation Set Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onnis, Luca; Waterfall, Heidi R.; Edelman, Shimon

    2008-01-01

    Variation set structure--partial overlap of successive utterances in child-directed speech--has been shown to correlate with progress in children's acquisition of syntax. We demonstrate the benefits of variation set structure directly: in miniature artificial languages, arranging a certain proportion of utterances in a training corpus in variation…

  1. Systemic Action and Learning in Public Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Complex, systemic issues continue to challenge public services without respect for organisational and professional boundaries. In practice, collaborative working with others who have differing professional cultural norms and systems confront members with the need to learn about each other's values, priorities and practices. This paper explores the…

  2. Learning & Memory: The Brain in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger, Marilee

    Based on the assumption that the more teachers know about brain science, the better prepared they will be to make instructional decisions, this book presents information on current research regarding learning and memory, and applies the research to situations that educators face daily. Chapter 1 examines the structure of the brain and its…

  3. Interprofessional Learning: Reasons, Judgement, and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guile, David

    2011-01-01

    This article makes a number of interconnected arguments. First, spatially and temporally distributed project teams constitute a new form of interprofessional work and, as a corollary, a new site for interprofessional learning. Second, researchers in cultural-historical activity theory have generated some concepts and methods, for example,…

  4. Movements or targets: what makes an action in action-effect learning?

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Joachim; Lenhard, Alexandra; Sebald, Albrecht; Pfister, Roland

    2009-12-01

    According to ideomotor theory, actions become linked to the sensory feedback they contingently produce, so that anticipating the feedback automatically evokes the action it typically results from. Numerous recent studies have provided evidence in favour of such action-effect learning but left an important issue unresolved. It remains unspecified to what extent action-effect learning is based on associating effect-representations to representations of the performed movements or to representations of the targets at which the behaviour aimed at. Two experiments were designed to clarify this issue. In an acquisition phase, participants learned the contingency between key presses and effect tones. In a following test phase, key-effect and movement-effect relations were orthogonally assessed by changing the hand-key mapping for one half of the participants. Experiment 1 showed precedence for target-effect over movement-effect learning in a forced-choice RT task. In Experiment 2, target-effect learning was also shown to influence the outcome of response selection in a free-choice task. Altogether, the data indicate that both movement-effect and target-effect associations contribute to the formation of action-effect linkages-provided that movements and targets are likewise contingently related to the effects.

  5. Civic learning and action among older citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, David L.

    1992-07-01

    The purposes of this article are first, to consider the role of senior citizens as advocates, both in matters of specific concern to their fellow age cohorts and in issues of general interest to the community; and, second, to examine the relationship of self-education and learning to advocacy in civic affairs. Literature on sociological and political theory as well as adult civic education provides a conceptual base from which to explain the involvement of persons in their later years in advocacy efforts and in learning activities designed to enhance civic involvement. Citizens have banded together to advocate their vision of a desired future throughout history. Citizen participation in political and civic affairs is generally age-integrated and intergenerational, thus affording opportunities to dispel negative age stereotypes. Participation in civic affairs invokes ageless values, creates meaning in life, and allows elderly participants to transcend themselves and their limitations.

  6. Place-Based Learning: Action Learning in MA Program for Educational Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassner, Amnon; Eran-Zoran, Yael

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a new pedagogical idea and practice for educational practitioners. The practice was developed as a workshop of MA program in order to change and expand the meaning of education for the wellbeing of the community. The "place-based learning" workshop combined action learning (AL) with project-based learning (PBL). The…

  7. Learning from Toyota: How Action Learning Can Foster Competitive Advantage in New Product Development (NPD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    New product development and commercialization are essential to entrepreneurial growth and international competitiveness. Excellence in this area is strongly supported by individual and organizational learning efforts. By analyzing how Japanese car manufacturer Toyota organizes learning, this paper evaluates the potential of action learning to…

  8. Acute stress impairs set-shifting but not reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Butts, K A; Floresco, S B; Phillips, A G

    2013-09-01

    The ability to update and modify previously learned behavioral responses in a changing environment is essential for successful utilization of promising opportunities and for coping with adverse events. Valid models of cognitive flexibility that contribute to behavioral flexibility include set-shifting and reversal learning. One immediate effect of acute stress is the selective impairment of performance on higher-order cognitive control tasks mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not the hippocampus. Previous studies show that the mPFC is required for set-shifting but not for reversal learning, therefore the aim of the present experiment is to assess whether exposure to acute stress (15 min of mild tail-pinch stress) given immediately before testing on either a set-shifting or reversal learning tasks would impair performance selectively on the set-shifting task. An automated operant chamber-based task, confirmed that exposure to acute stress significantly disrupts set-shifting but has no effect on reversal learning. Rats exposed to an acute stressor require significantly more trials to reach criterion and make significantly more perseverative errors. Thus, these data reveal that an immediate effect of acute stress is to impair mPFC-dependent cognition selectively by disrupting the ability to inhibit the use of a previously relevant cognitive strategy.

  9. Learning from their own actions: the unique effect of producing actions on infants' action understanding.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Sarah A; Woodward, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests that infants' action production affects their action understanding, but little is known about the aspects of motor experience that render these effects. In Study 1, the relative contributions of self-produced (n = 30) and observational (n = 30) action experience on 3-month-old infants' action understanding was assessed using a visual habituation paradigm. In Study 2, generalization of training to a new context was examined (n = 30). Results revealed a unique effect of active over observational experience. Furthermore, findings suggest that benefits of trained actions do not generalize broadly, at least following brief training.

  10. Learning and change in a community mental health setting.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Michael A; Miner, Craig S

    2013-10-01

    This article offers methodological reflections and lessons learned from a three-year university-community partnership that used participatory action research methods to develop and evaluate a model for learning and change. Communities of practice were used to facilitate the translation of recovery-oriented and evidence-based programs into everyday practice at a community mental health agency. Four lessons were drawn from this project. First, the processes of learning and organizational change are complex, slow, and multifaceted. Second, development of leaders and champions is vital to sustained implementation in an era of restricted resources. Third, it is important to have the agency's values, mission, policies, and procedures align with the principles and practices of recovery and integrated treatment. And fourth, effective learning of evidence-based practices is influenced by organizational culture and climate. These four lessons are expanded upon and situated within the broader literature and implications for future research are discussed.

  11. Statistical learning of action: the role of conditional probability.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Meredith; Baldwin, Dare

    2011-12-01

    Identification of distinct units within a continuous flow of human action is fundamental to action processing. Such segmentation may rest in part on statistical learning. In a series of four experiments, we examined what types of statistics people can use to segment a continuous stream involving many brief, goal-directed action elements. The results of Experiment 1 showed no evidence for sensitivity to conditional probability, whereas Experiment 2 displayed learning based on joint probability. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that additional exposure to the input failed to engender sensitivity to conditional probability. However, the results of Experiment 4 showed that a subset of adults-namely, those more successful at identifying actions that had been seen more frequently than comparison sequences-were also successful at learning conditional-probability statistics. These experiments help to clarify the mechanisms subserving processing of intentional action, and they highlight important differences from, as well as similarities to, prior studies of statistical learning in other domains, including language.

  12. Education in Environmental Chemistry: Setting the Agenda and Recommending Action. A Workshop Report Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoller, Uri

    2005-08-01

    Worldwide, the essence of the current reform in science education is a paradigm shift from algorithmic, lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS) teaching to higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) learning. In the context of education in environmental chemistry (EEC), the ultimate goal is to educate students to be science technology environment society (STES)-literate, capable of evaluative thinking, decision making, problem solving and taking responsible action accordingly. Educators need to translate this goal into effective courses that can be implemented: this includes developing teaching strategies and assessment methodologies that are consonant with the goal of HOCS learning. An international workshop—"Environmental Chemistry Education in Europe: Setting the Agenda"—yielded two main recommendations for those undertaking educational reform in science education, particularly to promote meaningful EEC. The first recommendation concerns integration of environmental sciences into core chemistry courses as well as the development and implementation of HOCS-promoting teaching strategies and assessment methodologies in chemical education. The second emphasizes the development of students' HOCS for transfer, followed by performance assessment of HOCS. This requires changing the way environmental chemistry is typically taught, moving from a narrowly focused approach (applied analytical, ecotoxicological, or environmental engineering chemistry) to an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach.

  13. Beyond rational imitation: learning arbitrary means actions from communicative demonstrations.

    PubMed

    Király, Ildikó; Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György

    2013-10-01

    The principle of rationality has been invoked to explain that infants expect agents to perform the most efficient means action to attain a goal. It has also been demonstrated that infants take into account the efficiency of observed actions to achieve a goal outcome when deciding whether to reenact a specific behavior or not. It is puzzling, however, that they also tend to imitate an apparently suboptimal unfamiliar action even when they can bring about the same outcome more efficiently by applying a more rational action alternative available to them. We propose that this apparently paradoxical behavior is explained by infants' interpretation of action demonstrations as communicative manifestations of novel and culturally relevant means actions to be acquired, and we present empirical evidence supporting this proposal. In Experiment 1, we found that 14-month-olds reenacted novel arbitrary means actions only following a communicative demonstration. Experiment 2 showed that infants' inclination to reproduce communicatively manifested novel actions is restricted to behaviors they can construe as goal-directed instrumental acts. The study also provides evidence that infants' reenactment of the demonstrated novel actions reflects epistemic motives rather than purely social motives. We argue that ostensive communication enables infants to represent the teleological structure of novel actions even when the causal relations between means and end are cognitively opaque and apparently violate the efficiency expectation derived from the principle of rationality. This new account of imitative learning of novel means shows how the teleological stance and natural pedagogy--two separate cognitive adaptations to interpret instrumental versus communicative actions--are integrated as a system for learning socially constituted instrumental knowledge in humans.

  14. Narrative assessment: making mathematics learning visible in early childhood settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories—the preferred form of narrative assessment—currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper, we draw on data from 13 teacher interviews and samples of 18 children's learning stories to examine how mathematics is made visible within learning stories. Despite appreciating that mathematics is embedded in a range of everyday activities within the centres, we found that the nature of a particular activity appeared to influence `how' and `what' the teachers chose to document as mathematics learning. Many of the teachers expressed a preference to document and analyse mathematics learning that occurred within explicit mathematics activities rather than within play that involves mathematics. Our concern is that this restricted documentation of mathematical activity could potentially limit opportunities for mathematics learning both in the centre and home settings.

  15. The Present and Future State of Blended Learning in Workplace Learning Settings in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Curtis J.; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Oh, Eun Jung; Teng, Ya-Ting; Son, Su Jin

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports survey findings related to the present and future state of blended learning in workplace learning settings across the U.S. Surveyed in this study are 118 practitioners in corporate training or elearning in various workplace settings. The findings reveal interesting perceptions by respondents regarding the benefits of and…

  16. Learning with Nature and Learning from Others: Nature as Setting and Resource for Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacQuarrie, Sarah; Nugent, Clare; Warden, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Nature-based learning is an increasingly popular type of early childhood education. Despite this, children's experiences--in particular, their form and function within different settings and how they are viewed by practitioners--are relatively unknown. Accordingly, the use of nature as a setting and a resource for learning was researched. A…

  17. Critical Action Learning--Rituals and Reflective Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heneberry, Pamela; Turner, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    This paper is written to outline our ideas on rituals and reflective places and how this thinking has emerged through our writing, facilitation and reflections around critical action learning and critical leadership. We attempt to show the conceptual framework that underpins our vision of Critical Leadership and how out of this work we have begun…

  18. Learning Difficulties and Ethnicity: Updating a Framework for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poxton, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This update of the Framework for Action highlights the continuing relevance of its message as well as those raised by Valuing People Now. People with learning difficulties and their families from Black and minority ethnic (BME) communities have been highlighted as a priority group by Valuing People since 2001 and remain a priority for better…

  19. Sowing the Seeds of Change: Action Learning in Merseytravel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Merseytravel is a large and diverse public sector organisation facing significant changes, but faced with a cultural inertia which is a legacy inherited from historical management styles. Action learning is now being used with great success as part of their change programme, to promote empowerment of the staff, challenge historical ways of working…

  20. A Protean Practice? Perspectives on the Practice of Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Cheryl; Pedler, Mike; Burgoyne, John G

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to assess the extent to which these practitioners ' perspectives and practices match Willis's conception of a Revans "gold standard" of action learning. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopts a qualitative design and methodology based on interviews and the collection of cases or accounts of…

  1. An Action Learning Method for Increased Innovation Capability in Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Annika; Wadell, Carl; Odenrick, Per; Norell Bergendahl, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    Product innovation in highly complex and technological areas, such as medical technology, puts high requirements on the innovation capability of an organisation. Previous research and publications have highlighted organisational issues and learning matters as important and necessary for the development of innovation capability. Action learning…

  2. Evaluating Action Learning: A Critical Realist Complex Network Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This largely theoretical paper will argue the case for the usefulness of applying network and complex adaptive systems theory to an understanding of action learning and the challenge it is evaluating. This approach, it will be argued, is particularly helpful in the context of improving capability in dealing with wicked problems spread around…

  3. An Extreme Case of Action Learning at BAT Niemeyer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Emiel; Veenhoven, Gert; De Loo, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a "winning organization" when one currently is an "ugly ducking" can be a difficult and strenuous task. BAT Niemeyer in the Netherlands succeeded in making such a transformation over the course of four years. Action learning was used, among other methods, to steer part of this transformation, in which employee…

  4. Entrepreneurial Learning through Action: A Case Study of the Six-Squared Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittaway, Luke; Missing, Caroline; Hudson, Nigel; Maragh, Dean

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of "action" in entrepreneurial learning and illustrates how programs designed to support action learning can enhance management development in entrepreneurial businesses. The paper begins by exploring action learning and the way "action" is conceived in different types of program. In the second part, the paper details…

  5. Brain plasticity through the life span: learning to learn and action video games.

    PubMed

    Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Pouget, Alexandre; Schrater, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The ability of the human brain to learn is exceptional. Yet, learning is typically quite specific to the exact task used during training, a limiting factor for practical applications such as rehabilitation, workforce training, or education. The possibility of identifying training regimens that have a broad enough impact to transfer to a variety of tasks is thus highly appealing. This work reviews how complex training environments such as action video game play may actually foster brain plasticity and learning. This enhanced learning capacity, termed learning to learn, is considered in light of its computational requirements and putative neural mechanisms.

  6. Quantifying Learning in Young Infants: Tracking Leg Actions During a Discovery-learning Task.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Barbara; Reimann, Hendrik; Kubo, Masayoshi; Fetters, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Task-specific actions emerge from spontaneous movement during infancy. It has been proposed that task-specific actions emerge through a discovery-learning process. Here a method is described in which 3-4 month old infants learn a task by discovery and their leg movements are captured to quantify the learning process. This discovery-learning task uses an infant activated mobile that rotates and plays music based on specified leg action of infants. Supine infants activate the mobile by moving their feet vertically across a virtual threshold. This paradigm is unique in that as infants independently discover that their leg actions activate the mobile, the infants' leg movements are tracked using a motion capture system allowing for the quantification of the learning process. Specifically, learning is quantified in terms of the duration of mobile activation, the position variance of the end effectors (feet) that activate the mobile, changes in hip-knee coordination patterns, and changes in hip and knee muscle torque. This information describes infant exploration and exploitation at the interplay of person and environmental constraints that support task-specific action. Subsequent research using this method can investigate how specific impairments of different populations of infants at risk for movement disorders influence the discovery-learning process for task-specific action.

  7. Learning trees and rules with set-valued features

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, W.W.

    1996-12-31

    In most learning systems examples are represented as fixed-length {open_quotes}feature vectors{close_quotes}, the components of which are either real numbers or nominal values. We propose an extension of the feature-vector representation that allows the value of a feature to be a set of strings; for instance, to represent a small white and black dog with the nominal features size and species and the set-valued feature color, one might use a feature vector with size-small, species-canis-familiaris and color-(white, black). Since we make no assumptions about the number of possible set elements, this extension of the traditional feature-vector representation is closely connected to Blum`s {open_quotes}infinite attribute{close_quotes} representation. We argue that many decision tree and rule learning algorithms can be easily extended to set-valued features. We also show by example that many real-world learning problems can be efficiently and naturally represented with set-valued features; in particular, text categorization problems and problems that arise in propositionalizing first-order representations lend themselves to set-valued features.

  8. Beyond You and Me: Stories for Collective Action and Learning? Perspectives from an Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearty, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the combination of storytelling and reflective action research as a means to effect change and learning within and across communities and organizations. Taking the complex challenge of "pro-environmental behaviour change" as an example, the paper reflects on the experiences of a pilot project run for the UK government…

  9. Exploration and learning in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.): the role of action-outcome contingencies.

    PubMed

    Polizzi di Sorrentino, Eugenia; Sabbatini, Gloria; Truppa, Valentina; Bordonali, Anna; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Formica, Domenico; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2014-09-01

    Animals have a strong propensity to explore the environment. Spontaneous exploration has a great biological significance since it allows animals to discover and learn the relation between specific behaviours and their consequences. The role of the contingency between action and outcome for learning has been mainly investigated in instrumental learning settings and much less in free exploration contexts. We tested 16 capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) with a mechatronic platform that allowed complex modules to be manipulated and to produce different outcomes. Experimental subjects could manipulate the modules and discover the contingencies between their own specific actions and the outcomes produced (i.e., the opening and lighting of a box). By contrast, Control subjects could operate on the modules, but the outcomes experienced were those performed by their paired Experimental subjects ("yoked-control" paradigm). In the exploration phase, in which no food reward was present, Experimental subjects spent more time on the board and manipulated the modules more than Yoked subjects. Experimental subjects outperformed Yoked subjects in the following test phase, where success required recalling the effective action so to open the box, now baited with food. These findings demonstrate that the opportunity to experience action-outcome contingencies in the absence of extrinsic rewards promotes capuchins' exploration and facilitates learning processes. Thus, this intrinsically motivated learning represents a powerful mechanism allowing the acquisition of skills and cognitive competence that the individual can later exploit for adaptive purposes.

  10. Setting Writing Revision Goals after Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of goal setting for revision in an EFL writing classroom where principles of assessment "for" learning (AfL) were followed. Following draft writing, instruction, and assessment, college freshmen were put into control, goal, and goal+ groups. Before students started to revise their drafts, individuals in…

  11. E-Learning in Poly-Topic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2014-01-01

    In e-learning settings, technology plays several crucial roles in the teaching. In addition to enabling students to gain remote access to teaching, it can also change the way time, space and presence are perceived by students and teachers. This paper attempts to analyse and discuss the consequences of the transparency or visibility of e-learning…

  12. The Impact of Problem Sets on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Myeong Hwan; Cho, Moon-Heum; Leonard, Karen Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the role of problem sets on student learning in university microeconomics. A total of 126 students participated in the study in consecutive years. independent samples t test showed that students who were not given answer keys outperformed students who were given answer keys. Multiple regression analysis showed that, along with…

  13. Permaculture in higher education: Teaching sustainability through action learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisti, Bryce Thomas

    This is a case study of the use of Action Learning (AL) theory to teach and confer degrees in Permaculture and other forms of sustainability at the newly formed Gaia University International (GUI). In Chapter Two I argue that GUI, as an institution of higher learning, is organized to provide support for learning. The goal of the university structure is to provide students, called Associates, with a vehicle for accumulation of credit towards a bachelor's degree. This organizational structure is necessary, but insufficient for AL because Associates need more than an organization to provide and coordinate their degree programs. In other words, just because the network of university structures are organized in ways that make AL possible and convenient, it does not necessarily follow that Action Learning will occur for any individual Associate. The support structures within GUI's degrees are discussed in Chapter Three. To a greater or lesser degree GUI provides support for personal learning among Associates as advisors and advisees with the goal of helping Associates complete and document the outcomes of world-change projects. The support structures are necessary, but not sufficient for AL because the personal learning process occurring for each Associate requires transformative reflection. Additionally, because Associates' attrition rate is very high, many Associates do not remain enrolled in GUI long enough to benefit from the support structures. At the simplest organizational level I discuss the reflection process conducted in the patterned interactions of assigned learning groups called Guilds (Chapter Four). These groups of Associates work to provide each other with the best possible environment for personal learning through reflection. As its Associates experience transformative reflection, GUI is able to help elevate the quality of world-change efforts in the Permaculture community. Provided the organizational and support structures are in place, this reflection

  14. Collaborative Action Research on Technology Integration for Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chien-Hsing; Ke, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jin-Tong; Hsu, Wen-Hua

    2012-02-01

    This paper briefly reports the outcomes of an action research inquiry on the use of blogs, MS PowerPoint [PPT], and the Internet as learning tools with a science class of sixth graders for project-based learning. Multiple sources of data were essential to triangulate the key findings articulated in this paper. Corresponding to previous studies, the incorporation of technology and project-based learning could motivate students in self-directed exploration. The students were excited about the autonomy over what to learn and the use of PPT to express what they learned. Differing from previous studies, the findings pointed to the lack information literacy among students. The students lacked information evaluation skills, note-taking and information synthesis. All these findings imply the importance of teaching students about information literacy and visual literacy when introducing information technology into the classroom. The authors suggest that further research should focus on how to break the culture of "copy-and-paste" by teaching the skills of note-taking and synthesis through inquiry projects for science learning. Also, further research on teacher professional development should focus on using collaboration action research as a framework for re-designing graduate courses for science teachers in order to enhance classroom technology integration.

  15. Learning and exploration in action-perception loops.

    PubMed

    Little, Daniel Y; Sommer, Friedrich T

    2013-01-01

    Discovering the structure underlying observed data is a recurring problem in machine learning with important applications in neuroscience. It is also a primary function of the brain. When data can be actively collected in the context of a closed action-perception loop, behavior becomes a critical determinant of learning efficiency. Psychologists studying exploration and curiosity in humans and animals have long argued that learning itself is a primary motivator of behavior. However, the theoretical basis of learning-driven behavior is not well understood. Previous computational studies of behavior have largely focused on the control problem of maximizing acquisition of rewards and have treated learning the structure of data as a secondary objective. Here, we study exploration in the absence of external reward feedback. Instead, we take the quality of an agent's learned internal model to be the primary objective. In a simple probabilistic framework, we derive a Bayesian estimate for the amount of information about the environment an agent can expect to receive by taking an action, a measure we term the predicted information gain (PIG). We develop exploration strategies that approximately maximize PIG. One strategy based on value-iteration consistently learns faster than previously developed reward-free exploration strategies across a diverse range of environments. Psychologists believe the evolutionary advantage of learning-driven exploration lies in the generalized utility of an accurate internal model. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrate that agents which learn more efficiently during exploration are later better able to accomplish a range of goal-directed tasks. We will conclude by discussing how our work elucidates the explorative behaviors of animals and humans, its relationship to other computational models of behavior, and its potential application to experimental design, such as in closed-loop neurophysiology studies.

  16. Learning and exploration in action-perception loops

    PubMed Central

    Little, Daniel Y.; Sommer, Friedrich T.

    2013-01-01

    Discovering the structure underlying observed data is a recurring problem in machine learning with important applications in neuroscience. It is also a primary function of the brain. When data can be actively collected in the context of a closed action-perception loop, behavior becomes a critical determinant of learning efficiency. Psychologists studying exploration and curiosity in humans and animals have long argued that learning itself is a primary motivator of behavior. However, the theoretical basis of learning-driven behavior is not well understood. Previous computational studies of behavior have largely focused on the control problem of maximizing acquisition of rewards and have treated learning the structure of data as a secondary objective. Here, we study exploration in the absence of external reward feedback. Instead, we take the quality of an agent's learned internal model to be the primary objective. In a simple probabilistic framework, we derive a Bayesian estimate for the amount of information about the environment an agent can expect to receive by taking an action, a measure we term the predicted information gain (PIG). We develop exploration strategies that approximately maximize PIG. One strategy based on value-iteration consistently learns faster than previously developed reward-free exploration strategies across a diverse range of environments. Psychologists believe the evolutionary advantage of learning-driven exploration lies in the generalized utility of an accurate internal model. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrate that agents which learn more efficiently during exploration are later better able to accomplish a range of goal-directed tasks. We will conclude by discussing how our work elucidates the explorative behaviors of animals and humans, its relationship to other computational models of behavior, and its potential application to experimental design, such as in closed-loop neurophysiology studies. PMID:23579347

  17. A Framework for Hierarchical Perception-Action Learning Utilizing Fuzzy Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Windridge, David; Felsberg, Michael; Shaukat, Affan

    2013-02-01

    Perception-action (P-A) learning is an approach to cognitive system building that seeks to reduce the complexity associated with conventional environment-representation/action-planning approaches. Instead, actions are directly mapped onto the perceptual transitions that they bring about, eliminating the need for intermediate representation and significantly reducing training requirements. We here set out a very general learning framework for cognitive systems in which online learning of the P-A mapping may be conducted within a symbolic processing context, so that complex contextual reasoning can influence the P-A mapping. In utilizing a variational calculus approach to define a suitable objective function, the P-A mapping can be treated as an online learning problem via gradient descent using partial derivatives. Our central theoretical result is to demonstrate top-down modulation of low-level perceptual confidences via the Jacobian of the higher levels of a subsumptive P-A hierarchy. Thus, the separation of the Jacobian as a multiplying factor between levels within the objective function naturally enables the integration of abstract symbolic manipulation in the form of fuzzy deductive logic into the P-A mapping learning. We experimentally demonstrate that the resulting framework achieves significantly better accuracy than using P-A learning without top-down modulation. We also demonstrate that it permits novel forms of context-dependent multilevel P-A mapping, applying the mechanism in the context of an intelligent driver assistance system.

  18. An Exploration of Significant Leadership Development Factors in Action Learning: A Comparison of Three Action Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Chris Allen

    2013-01-01

    As the need for new leaders has increased, so has the need for new and more effective forms of leadership development (Hamel, 2007; Lojeski, 2010; Gratton, 2011). Action learning has been popularized as one of these new forms of leadership development (Peters & Smith, 1998; Byrnes, 2005; ASTD, 2008; Trehan & Pedler, 2011). However,…

  19. Learning by Doing: A Handbook for Professional Learning Communities at Work™ (Second Edition)-- Action Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solution Tree, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This action guide is intended to assist in the reading of and reflection upon "Learning by Doing: A Handbook for Professional Learning Communities at Work, Second Edition" by Richard DuFour, Rebecca DuFour, Richard Eaker, and Thomas Many. The guide can be used by an individual, a small group, or an entire faculty to identify key points,…

  20. Leaders Learning from Leaders as an Emergent Action Learning Strategy Type of Paper: Account of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Rodríguez, Mariela A.; Allen, Tawannah G.

    2015-01-01

    This account of practice describes what three executive leaders in a professional association have learned about action learning and their own practices of organizational renewal. Data are approached narratively and stories are told from the perspectives of diverse educators' experiences, agency, and expertise. Mature organizations can be…

  1. Changing Teaching and Learning Relationships through Collaborative Action Research: Learning to Ask Different Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Paula; Gillam, Katy; Andrews, Jane; Day, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The article reports work over one year by three teachers from the Milton Keynes Primary Schools Learning Network. Their collaborative classroom-focused action research investigated the limits and possibilities of pupils' and teachers' learning through self-evaluation. In phase one the teacher researchers used questionnaires, interviews and…

  2. Algorithms for Learning Preferences for Sets of Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A method is being developed that provides for an artificial-intelligence system to learn a user's preferences for sets of objects and to thereafter automatically select subsets of objects according to those preferences. The method was originally intended to enable automated selection, from among large sets of images acquired by instruments aboard spacecraft, of image subsets considered to be scientifically valuable enough to justify use of limited communication resources for transmission to Earth. The method is also applicable to other sets of objects: examples of sets of objects considered in the development of the method include food menus, radio-station music playlists, and assortments of colored blocks for creating mosaics. The method does not require the user to perform the often-difficult task of quantitatively specifying preferences; instead, the user provides examples of preferred sets of objects. This method goes beyond related prior artificial-intelligence methods for learning which individual items are preferred by the user: this method supports a concept of setbased preferences, which include not only preferences for individual items but also preferences regarding types and degrees of diversity of items in a set. Consideration of diversity in this method involves recognition that members of a set may interact with each other in the sense that when considered together, they may be regarded as being complementary, redundant, or incompatible to various degrees. The effects of such interactions are loosely summarized in the term portfolio effect. The learning method relies on a preference representation language, denoted DD-PREF, to express set-based preferences. In DD-PREF, a preference is represented by a tuple that includes quality (depth) functions to estimate how desired a specific value is, weights for each feature preference, the desired diversity of feature values, and the relative importance of diversity versus depth. The system applies statistical

  3. Integrating Peer Assisted Learning and eLearning: Using Innovative Pedagogies to Support Learning and Teaching in Higher Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan; Bone, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports the findings from a project which examined the interface between Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) and eLearning in a higher education setting. Traditional uses of ICTs in Higher Education have focused on the "transfer model" where existing face to face pedagogies have tended to be transferred to approaches to eLearning.…

  4. Action learning in virtual higher education: applying leadership theory

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper reports the historical foundation of Northeastern University’s course, LDR 6100: Developing Your Leadership Capability, a partial literature review of action learning (AL) and virtual action learning (VAL), a course methodology of LDR 6100 requiring students to apply leadership perspectives using VAL as instructed by the author, questionnaire and survey results of students who evaluated the effectiveness of their application of leadership theories using VAL and insights believed to have been gained by the author administering VAL. Findings indicate most students thought applying leadership perspectives using AL was better than considering leadership perspectives not using AL. In addition as implemented in LDR 6100, more students evaluated VAL positively than did those who assessed VAL negatively.

  5. Learning robot actions based on self-organising language memory.

    PubMed

    Wermter, Stefan; Elshaw, Mark

    2003-01-01

    In the MirrorBot project we examine perceptual processes using models of cortical assemblies and mirror neurons to explore the emergence of semantic representations of actions, percepts and concepts in a neural robot. The hypothesis under investigation is whether a neural model will produce a life-like perception system for actions. In this context we focus in this paper on how instructions for actions can be modeled in a self-organising memory. Current approaches for robot control often do not use language and ignore neural learning. However, our approach uses language instruction and draws from the concepts of regional distributed modularity, self-organisation and neural assemblies. We describe a self-organising model that clusters actions into different locations depending on the body part they are associated with. In particular, we use actual sensor readings from the MIRA robot to represent semantic features of the action verbs. Furthermore, we outline a hierarchical computational model for a self-organising robot action control system using language for instruction.

  6. Moving to Learn: How Guiding the Hands Can Set the Stage for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Neon; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has found that guiding problem-solvers' movements can have an immediate effect on their ability to solve a problem. Here we explore these processes in a learning paradigm. We ask whether guiding a learner's movements can have a delayed effect on learning, setting the stage for change that comes about only after instruction. Children…

  7. The Present State and Future Trends of Blended Learning in Workplace Learning Settings across Five Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Bonk, Curtis; Teng, Ya-Ting

    2009-01-01

    This article reports survey findings related to the current status and future trends of blended learning in workplace learning settings from diverse cultures. This particular survey was conducted of 674 training and human resource development professionals from five different countries, mostly from the Asia-Pacific region (i.e., China, South…

  8. Action Learning and Constructivist Grounded Theory: Powerfully Overlapping Fields of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the shared characteristics between action learning (AL) and the research methodology constructivist grounded theory (CGT). Mirroring Edmonstone's [2011. "Action Learning and Organisation Development: Overlapping Fields of Practice." "Action Learning: Research and Practice" 8 (2): 93-102] article, which…

  9. Transitioning to a More Sustainable Society: Unpacking the Role of the Learning-Action Nexus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Joanne M.; Sinclair, A. John; Quinn, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, action on sustainability has been highly influential around the globe and many now recognize the importance of individual and social learning for inspiring action and achieving sustainability outcomes. Transformative learning theory has been criticized, however, for insufficient development of the link between learning and action.…

  10. Action Learning. Symposium 21. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on action learning that was conducted as part of a conference on human resource development (HRD). "Searching for Meaning in Complex Action Learning Data: What Environments, Acts, and Words Reveal" (Verna J. Willis) analyzes complex action learning documents produced as course…

  11. Model-based hierarchical reinforcement learning and human action control

    PubMed Central

    Botvinick, Matthew; Weinstein, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has reawakened interest in goal-directed or ‘model-based’ choice, where decisions are based on prospective evaluation of potential action outcomes. Concurrently, there has been growing attention to the role of hierarchy in decision-making and action control. We focus here on the intersection between these two areas of interest, considering the topic of hierarchical model-based control. To characterize this form of action control, we draw on the computational framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning, using this to interpret recent empirical findings. The resulting picture reveals how hierarchical model-based mechanisms might play a special and pivotal role in human decision-making, dramatically extending the scope and complexity of human behaviour. PMID:25267822

  12. Model-based hierarchical reinforcement learning and human action control.

    PubMed

    Botvinick, Matthew; Weinstein, Ari

    2014-11-05

    Recent work has reawakened interest in goal-directed or 'model-based' choice, where decisions are based on prospective evaluation of potential action outcomes. Concurrently, there has been growing attention to the role of hierarchy in decision-making and action control. We focus here on the intersection between these two areas of interest, considering the topic of hierarchical model-based control. To characterize this form of action control, we draw on the computational framework of hierarchical reinforcement learning, using this to interpret recent empirical findings. The resulting picture reveals how hierarchical model-based mechanisms might play a special and pivotal role in human decision-making, dramatically extending the scope and complexity of human behaviour.

  13. Learning Sequences of Actions in Collectives of Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.; Wolpert, David H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the problem of designing a collective of autonomous agents that individually learn sequences of actions such that the resultant sequence of joint actions achieves a predetermined global objective. We are particularly interested in instances of this problem where centralized control is either impossible or impractical. For single agent systems in similar domains, machine learning methods (e.g., reinforcement learners) have been successfully used. However, applying such solutions directly to multi-agent systems often proves problematic, as agents may work at cross-purposes, or have difficulty in evaluating their contribution to achievement of the global objective, or both. Accordingly, the crucial design step in multiagent systems centers on determining the private objectives of each agent so that as the agents strive for those objectives, the system reaches a good global solution. In this work we consider a version of this problem involving multiple autonomous agents in a grid world. We use concepts from collective intelligence to design goals for the agents that are 'aligned' with the global goal, and are 'learnable' in that agents can readily see how their behavior affects their utility. We show that reinforcement learning agents using those goals outperform both 'natural' extensions of single agent algorithms and global reinforcement, learning solutions based on 'team games'.

  14. Action Research to Improve the Learning Space for Diagnostic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Ariel, Ellen; Owens, Leigh

    2015-12-01

    The module described and evaluated here was created in response to perceived learning difficulties in diagnostic test design and interpretation for students in third-year Clinical Microbiology. Previously, the activities in lectures and laboratory classes in the module fell into the lower cognitive operations of "knowledge" and "understanding." The new approach was to exchange part of the traditional activities with elements of interactive learning, where students had the opportunity to engage in deep learning using a variety of learning styles. The effectiveness of the new curriculum was assessed by means of on-course student assessment throughout the module, a final exam, an anonymous questionnaire on student evaluation of the different activities and a focus group of volunteers. Although the new curriculum enabled a major part of the student cohort to achieve higher pass grades (p < 0.001), it did not meet the requirements of the weaker students, and the proportion of the students failing the module remained at 34%. The action research applied here provided a number of valuable suggestions from students on how to improve future curricula from their perspective. Most importantly, an interactive online program that facilitated flexibility in the learning space for the different reagents and their interaction in diagnostic tests was proposed. The methods applied to improve and assess a curriculum refresh by involving students as partners in the process, as well as the outcomes, are discussed. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  15. Action Research to Improve the Learning Space for Diagnostic Techniques†

    PubMed Central

    Ariel, Ellen; Owens, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    The module described and evaluated here was created in response to perceived learning difficulties in diagnostic test design and interpretation for students in third-year Clinical Microbiology. Previously, the activities in lectures and laboratory classes in the module fell into the lower cognitive operations of “knowledge” and “understanding.” The new approach was to exchange part of the traditional activities with elements of interactive learning, where students had the opportunity to engage in deep learning using a variety of learning styles. The effectiveness of the new curriculum was assessed by means of on-course student assessment throughout the module, a final exam, an anonymous questionnaire on student evaluation of the different activities and a focus group of volunteers. Although the new curriculum enabled a major part of the student cohort to achieve higher pass grades (p < 0.001), it did not meet the requirements of the weaker students, and the proportion of the students failing the module remained at 34%. The action research applied here provided a number of valuable suggestions from students on how to improve future curricula from their perspective. Most importantly, an interactive online program that facilitated flexibility in the learning space for the different reagents and their interaction in diagnostic tests was proposed. The methods applied to improve and assess a curriculum refresh by involving students as partners in the process, as well as the outcomes, are discussed. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:26753024

  16. Context and occasion setting in Drosophila visual learning

    PubMed Central

    Brembs, Björn; Wiener, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In a permanently changing environment, it is by no means an easy task to distinguish potentially important events from negligible ones. Yet, to survive, every animal has to continuously face that challenge. How does the brain accomplish this feat? Building on previous work in Drosophila melanogaster visual learning, we have developed an experimental methodology in which combinations of visual stimuli (colors and patterns) can be arranged such that the same stimuli can either be directly predictive, indirectly predictive, or nonpredictive of punishment. Varying this relationship, we found that wild-type flies can establish different memory templates for the same contextual color cues. The colors can either leave no trace in the pattern memory template, leading to context-independent pattern memory (context generalization), or be learned as a higher-order cue indicating the nature of the pattern-heat contingency leading to context-dependent memory (occasion setting) or serve as a conditioned stimulus predicting the punishment directly (simple conditioning). In transgenic flies with compromised mushroom-body function, the sensitivity to these subtle variations is altered. Our methodology constitutes a new concept for designing learning experiments. Our findings suggest that the insect mushroom bodies stabilize visual memories against context changes and are not required for cognition-like higher-order learning. PMID:17015858

  17. Using Science to Take a Stand: Action-Oriented Learning in an Afterschool Science Club

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenah, Sara

    This dissertation study investigates what happens when students participate in an afterschool science club designed around action-oriented science instruction, a set of curriculum design principles based on social justice pedagogy. Comprised of three manuscripts written for journal publication, the dissertation includes 1) Negotiating community-based action-oriented science teaching and learning: Articulating curriculum design principles, 2) Middle school girls' socio-scientific participation pathways in an afterschool science club, and 3) Laughing and learning together: Productive science learning spaces for middle school girls. By investigating how action-oriented science design principles get negotiated, female identity development in and with science, and the role of everyday social interactions as students do productive science, this research fills gaps in the understanding of how social justice pedagogy gets enacted and negotiated among multiple stakeholders including students, teachers, and community members along what identity development looks like across social and scientific activity. This study will be of interest to educators thinking about how to enact social justice pedagogy in science learning spaces and those interested in identity development in science.

  18. Solving and Learning Soft Temporal Constraints: Experimental Setting and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, F.; Sperduti, A.; Venable, K. B.; Khatib, L.; Morris, P.; Morris, R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Soft temporal constraints problems allow to describe in a natural way scenarios where events happen over time and preferences are associated to event distances and durations. However, sometimes such local preferences are difficult to set, and it may be easier instead to associate preferences to some complete solutions of the problem. Machine learning techniques can be useful in this respect. In this paper we describe two solvers (one more general and the other one more efficient) for tractable subclasses of soft temporal problems, and we show some experimental results. The random generator used to build the problems on which tests are performed is also described. We also compare the two solvers highlighting the tradeoff between performance and representational power. Finally, we present a learning module and we show its behavior on randomly-generated examples.

  19. Engaging novice teachers in semiotic inquiry: considering the environmental messages of school learning settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Bonnie

    2014-12-01

    Katherine Fogelberg's insightful study of the messages of zoo signs describes the complex, sometimes contradictory nature of the messages they communicate. The construction and content of signs are influenced by institutional power. Fogelberg argues that the creation of zoo signage designed to inform the public can, through its messages, silence a perspective of care and compassion for animals. The research presented in the following article extends discussion about the value of critical considerations of cultural and institutional messages created and read in another type of setting designed to educate and inform, the school learning setting. The article reports on a project that engaged novice teachers in explorations of the nature and types of environmental messages found in learning settings. During our inquiry work together, novice teachers suggested areas of particular concern to them, and began to construct ideas about aspects of their work in which they plan to take action or engage in future inquiry. The research also reveals some of the challenges involved when novice educators first begin the process of engaging in semiotic interpretive readings of learning settings.

  20. Project InterActions: A Multigenerational Robotic Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bers, Marina U.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents Project InterActions, a series of 5-week workshops in which very young learners (4- to 7-year-old children) and their parents come together to build and program a personally meaningful robotic project in the context of a multigenerational robotics-based community of practice. The goal of these family workshops is to teach both parents and children about the mechanical and programming aspects involved in robotics, as well as to initiate them in a learning trajectory with and about technology. Results from this project address different ways in which parents and children learn together and provide insights into how to develop educational interventions that would educate parents, as well as children, in new domains of knowledge and skills such as robotics and new technologies.

  1. Action errors, error management, and learning in organizations.

    PubMed

    Frese, Michael; Keith, Nina

    2015-01-03

    Every organization is confronted with errors. Most errors are corrected easily, but some may lead to negative consequences. Organizations often focus on error prevention as a single strategy for dealing with errors. Our review suggests that error prevention needs to be supplemented by error management--an approach directed at effectively dealing with errors after they have occurred, with the goal of minimizing negative and maximizing positive error consequences (examples of the latter are learning and innovations). After defining errors and related concepts, we review research on error-related processes affected by error management (error detection, damage control). Empirical evidence on positive effects of error management in individuals and organizations is then discussed, along with emotional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioral pathways of these effects. Learning from errors is central, but like other positive consequences, learning occurs under certain circumstances--one being the development of a mind-set of acceptance of human error.

  2. A Playbook for Data: Real-Life Scenario Demonstrates Learning Forward's Data Standard in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie; Hord, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    This article is an excerpt from "A Playbook for Professional Learning: Putting the Standards Into Action" (Learning Forward, 2012). Written by Learning Forward Executive Director Stephanie Hirsh and Scholar Laureate Shirley Hord, "A Playbook for Professional Learning" provides those who work in professional learning with readily accessible…

  3. The Ongoing Development of an Effective Model of Action Learning for Use by the Busy GP Veterinary Surgeon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuttleworth, Sue

    2005-01-01

    I passionately believe that reflective practice is an essential competency for the busy GP veterinary surgeon to develop throughout their career. Action learning sets would appear to offer a way of promoting this while at the same time helping the GP veterinary surgeon find a way forward with professional issues. In this article I reflect on my…

  4. How a Small Family Run Business Adopted Critical Reflection Action Learning Using Hand Drawn Images to Initiate Organisational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In this account of practice I would like to share my experiences of facilitating a Critical Reflection Action Learning (CRAL) set with a small family run business, struggling to make change and expand their services due to the problems they encountered in separating their business lives from their family lives. The account I present here is based…

  5. How Action-Learning Coaches Foster a Climate Conducive to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sara Henderson

    2011-01-01

    Today's businesses rely on the effective functioning of self-directed work teams to learn how to solve complex problems and take action. A key factor in a team's ability to perform in this manner is a group climate characterized by psychological safety. Psychological safety must often compete with a climate of evaluative pressure frequently found…

  6. Using Collaborative Action Learning Projects to Increase the Impact of Management Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyso, Ingunn Hybertsen; Mjoen, Kristian; Levin, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the field of human resource development by exploring the conditions that influence the organizational impact of action learning projects. Many organizations use such projects as an integral part of their management development programs. Past research on action learning projects has shown how balancing action and…

  7. Learning Actions, Objects and Types of Interaction: A Methodological Analysis of Expansive Learning among Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantavuori, Juhana; Engeström, Yrjö; Lipponen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyzes a collaborative learning process among Finnish pre-service teachers planning their own learning in a self-regulated way. The study builds on cultural-historical activity theory and the theory of expansive learning, integrating for the first time an analysis of learning actions and an analysis of types of interaction. We examine…

  8. What's statistical about learning? Insights from modelling statistical learning as a set of memory processes.

    PubMed

    Thiessen, Erik D

    2017-01-05

    Statistical learning has been studied in a variety of different tasks, including word segmentation, object identification, category learning, artificial grammar learning and serial reaction time tasks (e.g. Saffran et al. 1996 Science 274: , 1926-1928; Orban et al. 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: , 2745-2750; Thiessen & Yee 2010 Child Development 81: , 1287-1303; Saffran 2002 Journal of Memory and Language 47: , 172-196; Misyak & Christiansen 2012 Language Learning 62: , 302-331). The difference among these tasks raises questions about whether they all depend on the same kinds of underlying processes and computations, or whether they are tapping into different underlying mechanisms. Prior theoretical approaches to statistical learning have often tried to explain or model learning in a single task. However, in many cases these approaches appear inadequate to explain performance in multiple tasks. For example, explaining word segmentation via the computation of sequential statistics (such as transitional probability) provides little insight into the nature of sensitivity to regularities among simultaneously presented features. In this article, we will present a formal computational approach that we believe is a good candidate to provide a unifying framework to explore and explain learning in a wide variety of statistical learning tasks. This framework suggests that statistical learning arises from a set of processes that are inherent in memory systems, including activation, interference, integration of information and forgetting (e.g. Perruchet & Vinter 1998 Journal of Memory and Language 39: , 246-263; Thiessen et al. 2013 Psychological Bulletin 139: , 792-814). From this perspective, statistical learning does not involve explicit computation of statistics, but rather the extraction of elements of the input into memory traces, and subsequent integration across those memory traces that emphasize consistent information (Thiessen and Pavlik

  9. Learning from a dive show in an aquarium setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Lori M.

    A study was conducted at an aquarium next to a theme park to understand information recalled from two versions of shows viewed at the largest display. The goal of this research was to determine if learning was enhanced by having a diver in water as the treatment group. This project focused on the knowledge recalled about shark and ray feeding adaptations, the information recalled about the mentioned conservation message about sustainable seafood and the potential of the two shows to make memorable experiences. During the project, 30 adult participants from each group were given a survey with five open-ended questions. Results suggest that the diver might distract from biological content information, or that the diver is such a novel element that it interferes with recall. While guests seemed to recall information about rays and sharks, the amount of information was not substantial. It appears that the diver does not affect content messaging but does impact whether guests attend to Seafood Watch messaging. The diver may have been so novel that the treatment group could not attend to the conservation message that was delivered, regardless of topic, or the control group recalled the message because the guests were not distracted by the diver or feeding. The absence of a diver seems to allow the guests to better attend to what is happening outside of the tank. While adding a diver increases photo opportunities and may bring guests to a show, the results seem to indicate that it does not significantly increase recall. The results of this study show that guests in a theme park setting can recall information from an educational program. Guests may not enter this hybrid aquarium with the intention of learning, but recall, one of the components in learning, does occur.

  10. Automated, Unobtrusive, Action-by-Action Assessment of Self-Regulation during Learning with an Intelligent Tutoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleven, Vincent; Roll, Ido; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of students' self-regulated learning (SRL) requires a method for evaluating whether observed actions are appropriate acts of self-regulation in theEv specific learning context in which they occur. We review research that has resulted in an automated method for context-sensitive assessment of a specific SRL strategy, help seeking while…

  11. Goal-Setting and Learning in the High School Resource Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David C.; Gardner, Paula L.

    1978-01-01

    Students in a remedial resource room program were assigned spelling and vocabulary tasks under a goal-setting/no-goal-setting procedure to see if goal setting behaviors facilitate learning. Results supported Rotter's social learning theory and the use of unobtrusive goal-setting procedures in special education classes. (SJL)

  12. E-Learning: Students Input for Using Mobile Devices in Science Instructional Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ozkan

    2016-01-01

    A variety of e-learning theories, models, and strategy have been developed to support educational settings. There are many factors for designing good instructional settings. This study set out to determine functionality of mobile devices, students who already have, and the student needs and views in relation to e-learning settings. The study…

  13. Robots Show Us How to Teach Them: Feedback from Robots Shapes Tutoring Behavior during Action Learning

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Mühlig, Manuel; Steil, Jochen J.; Pitsch, Karola; Fritsch, Jannik; Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Wrede, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Robot learning by imitation requires the detection of a tutor's action demonstration and its relevant parts. Current approaches implicitly assume a unidirectional transfer of knowledge from tutor to learner. The presented work challenges this predominant assumption based on an extensive user study with an autonomously interacting robot. We show that by providing feedback, a robot learner influences the human tutor's movement demonstrations in the process of action learning. We argue that the robot's feedback strongly shapes how tutors signal what is relevant to an action and thus advocate a paradigm shift in robot action learning research toward truly interactive systems learning in and benefiting from interaction. PMID:24646510

  14. Robots show us how to teach them: feedback from robots shapes tutoring behavior during action learning.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Mühlig, Manuel; Steil, Jochen J; Pitsch, Karola; Fritsch, Jannik; Rohlfing, Katharina J; Wrede, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Robot learning by imitation requires the detection of a tutor's action demonstration and its relevant parts. Current approaches implicitly assume a unidirectional transfer of knowledge from tutor to learner. The presented work challenges this predominant assumption based on an extensive user study with an autonomously interacting robot. We show that by providing feedback, a robot learner influences the human tutor's movement demonstrations in the process of action learning. We argue that the robot's feedback strongly shapes how tutors signal what is relevant to an action and thus advocate a paradigm shift in robot action learning research toward truly interactive systems learning in and benefiting from interaction.

  15. US specificity of occasion setting: hierarchical or configural learning?

    PubMed

    Bonardi, Charlotte; Bartle, Craig; Jennings, Dómhnall

    2012-07-01

    Four experiments in rats examined whether occasion setters and target CSs play qualitatively different roles in occasion-setting discriminations. Two visual occasion setters, A and B, signalled reinforcement of two auditory target CSs, x and y, with sucrose and oil (A…x→suc, B…y→oil, A-, B-, x-, y-); in addition two transfer CSs w and z were paired with sucrose and oil (w→suc, z→oil). When w and z were substituted for x and y (A…w, B…w, A…z, B…z) more responding was observed when both stimuli had been paired with the same outcome (Experiments 1 and 3a). No effect was observed when two visual "pseudo-occasion setters", C and D (paired with sucrose and oil in a trace relation to the US:C…→suc, D…→oil), were substituted for the occasion setters A and B (C…x, D…x, C…y, D…y; Experiments 2, 3b and 4). These results could not be explained in terms of Pavlovian summation: responding to combinations of Pavlovian CSs paired with same or different outcomes was either the same, or lower when both stimuli had been paired with the same outcome (Experiment 4). Implications of these results for theories of occasion setting and configural learning are discussed.

  16. US specificity of occasion setting: Hierarchical or configural learning?

    PubMed Central

    Bonardi, Charlotte; Bartle, Craig; Jennings, Dómhnall

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments in rats examined whether occasion setters and target CSs play qualitatively different roles in occasion-setting discriminations. Two visual occasion setters, A and B, signalled reinforcement of two auditory target CSs, x and y, with sucrose and oil (A…x → suc, B…y → oil, A−, B−, x−, y−); in addition two transfer CSs w and z were paired with sucrose and oil (w → suc, z → oil). When w and z were substituted for x and y (A…w, B…w, A…z, B…z) more responding was observed when both stimuli had been paired with the same outcome (Experiments 1 and 3a). No effect was observed when two visual “pseudo-occasion setters”, C and D (paired with sucrose and oil in a trace relation to the US:C… → suc, D… → oil), were substituted for the occasion setters A and B (C…x, D…x, C…y, D…y; Experiments 2, 3b and 4). These results could not be explained in terms of Pavlovian summation: responding to combinations of Pavlovian CSs paired with same or different outcomes was either the same, or lower when both stimuli had been paired with the same outcome (Experiment 4). Implications of these results for theories of occasion setting and configural learning are discussed. PMID:22459561

  17. How actions shape perception: learning action-outcome relations and predicting sensory outcomes promote audio-visual temporal binding

    PubMed Central

    Desantis, Andrea; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    To maintain a temporally-unified representation of audio and visual features of objects in our environment, the brain recalibrates audio-visual simultaneity. This process allows adjustment for both differences in time of transmission and time for processing of audio and visual signals. In four experiments, we show that the cognitive processes for controlling instrumental actions also have strong influence on audio-visual recalibration. Participants learned that right and left hand button-presses each produced a specific audio-visual stimulus. Following one action the audio preceded the visual stimulus, while for the other action audio lagged vision. In a subsequent test phase, left and right button-press generated either the same audio-visual stimulus as learned initially, or the pair associated with the other action. We observed recalibration of simultaneity only for previously-learned audio-visual outcomes. Thus, learning an action-outcome relation promotes temporal grouping of the audio and visual events within the outcome pair, contributing to the creation of a temporally unified multisensory object. This suggests that learning action-outcome relations and the prediction of perceptual outcomes can provide an integrative temporal structure for our experiences of external events. PMID:27982063

  18. Evolution and Reconstruction of Learning Cities for Sustainable Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Connie; Wu, Aimee Tiu

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how the concept of learning cities evolved from the "learning society" and the lifelong education and learning movements, and advances multiple forms of communities of learning.

  19. Influence of action-effect associations acquired by ideomotor learning on imitation.

    PubMed

    Bunlon, Frédérique; Marshall, Peter J; Quandt, Lorna C; Bouquet, Cedric A

    2015-01-01

    According to the ideomotor theory, actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects, offering a solution for the correspondence problem of imitation (how to translate the observed action into a corresponding motor output). This effect-based coding of action is assumed to be acquired through action-effect learning. Accordingly, performing an action leads to the integration of the perceptual codes of the action effects with the motor commands that brought them about. While ideomotor theory is invoked to account for imitation, the influence of action-effect learning on imitative behavior remains unexplored. In two experiments, imitative performance was measured in a reaction time task following a phase of action-effect acquisition. During action-effect acquisition, participants freely executed a finger movement (index or little finger lifting), and then observed a similar (compatible learning) or a different (incompatible learning) movement. In Experiment 1, finger movements of left and right hands were presented as action-effects during acquisition. In Experiment 2, only right-hand finger movements were presented during action-effect acquisition and in the imitation task the observed hands were oriented orthogonally to participants' hands in order to avoid spatial congruency effects. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that imitative performance was improved after compatible learning, compared to incompatible learning. In Experiment 2, although action-effect learning involved perception of finger movements of right hand only, imitative capabilities of right- and left-hand finger movements were equally affected. These results indicate that an observed movement stimulus processed as the effect of an action can later prime execution of that action, confirming the ideomotor approach to imitation. We further discuss these findings in relation to previous studies of action-effect learning and in the framework of current ideomotor approaches to imitation.

  20. Using Mobile Technologies for Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings: Outcomes of Five Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearnley, Christine; Taylor, Jill; Hennessy, Scott; Parks, Maria; Coates, Catherine; Haigh, Jackie; Fairhall, John; Riley, Kevin; Dransfield, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of the Mobile Technologies Pilot Project for the Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings (ALPS) Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL). ALPS is a partnership of five Higher Education Institutions (HEI) that aims to develop and improve assessment, and thereby learning, in practice settings for…

  1. Using affective knowledge to generate and validate a set of emotion-related, action words

    PubMed Central

    Havelka, Jelena; Brown, Charity; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Emotion concepts are built through situated experience. Abstract word meaning is grounded in this affective knowledge, giving words the potential to evoke emotional feelings and reactions (e.g., Vigliocco et al., 2009). In the present work we explore whether words differ in the extent to which they evoke ‘specific’ emotional knowledge. Using a categorical approach, in which an affective ‘context’ is created, it is possible to assess whether words proportionally activate knowledge relevant to different emotional states (e.g., ‘sadness’, ‘anger’, Stevenson, Mikels & James, 2007a). We argue that this method may be particularly effective when assessing the emotional meaning of action words (e.g., Schacht & Sommer, 2009). In study 1 we use a constrained feature generation task to derive a set of action words that participants associated with six, basic emotional states (see full list in Appendix S1). Generation frequencies were taken to indicate the likelihood that the word would evoke emotional knowledge relevant to the state to which it had been paired. In study 2 a rating task was used to assess the strength of association between the six most frequently generated, or ‘typical’, action words and corresponding emotion labels. Participants were presented with a series of sentences, in which action words (typical and atypical) and labels were paired e.g., “If you are feeling ‘sad’ how likely would you be to act in the following way?” … ‘cry.’ Findings suggest that typical associations were robust. Participants always gave higher ratings to typical vs. atypical action word and label pairings, even when (a) rating direction was manipulated (the label or verb appeared first in the sentence), and (b) the typical behaviours were to be performed by the rater themselves, or others. Our findings suggest that emotion-related action words vary in the extent to which they evoke knowledge relevant for different emotional states. When measuring

  2. 25 CFR 900.135 - May the time frames for action set out in this subpart be reduced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the time frames for action set out in this subpart be... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Construction § 900.135 May the time frames for action set out in this subpart be reduced? Yes. The time frames in this subpart are intended to be maximum times and may be reduced based...

  3. 25 CFR 900.135 - May the time frames for action set out in this subpart be reduced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May the time frames for action set out in this subpart be... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Construction § 900.135 May the time frames for action set out in this subpart be reduced? Yes. The time frames in this subpart are intended to be maximum times and may be reduced based...

  4. Is there a relation between the 2D Causal Set action and the Lorentzian Gauss-Bonnet theorem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the relation between the two dimensional Causal Set action, Script S, and the Lorentzian Gauss-Bonnet theorem (LGBT). We give compelling reasons why the answer to the title's question is no. In support of this point of view we calculate the causal set inspired action of causal intervals in some two dimensional spacetimes: Minkowski, the flat cylinder and the flat trousers.

  5. Perception-action learning as an epistemologically-consistent model for self-updating cognitive representation.

    PubMed

    Windridge, David; Kittler, Josef

    2010-01-01

    As well as having the ability to formulate models of the world capable of experimental falsification, it is evident that human cognitive capability embraces some degree of representational plasticity, having the scope (at least in infancy) to modify the primitives in terms of which the world is delineated. We hence employ the term 'cognitive bootstrapping' to refer to the autonomous updating of an embodied agent's perceptual framework in response to the perceived requirements of the environment in such a way as to retain the ability to refine the environment model in a consistent fashion across perceptual changes.We will thus argue that the concept of cognitive bootstrapping is epistemically ill-founded unless there exists an a priori percept/motor interrelation capable of maintaining an empirical distinction between the various possibilities of perceptual categorization and the inherent uncertainties of environment modeling.As an instantiation of this idea, we shall specify a very general, logically-inductive model of perception-action learning capable of compact re-parameterization of the percept space. In consequence of the a priori percept/action coupling, the novel perceptual state transitions so generated always exist in bijective correlation with a set of novel action states, giving rise to the required empirical validation criterion for perceptual inferences. Environmental description is correspondingly accomplished in terms of progressively higher-level affordance conjectures which are likewise validated by exploratory action.Application of this mechanism within simulated perception-action environments indicates that, as well as significantly reducing the size and specificity of the a priori perceptual parameter-space, the method can significantly reduce the number of iterations required for accurate convergence of the world-model. It does so by virtue of the active learning characteristics implicit in the notion of cognitive bootstrapping.

  6. A Field Study of a Video Supported Seamless-Learning-Setting with Elementary Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fößl, Thomas; Ebner, Martin; Schön, Sandra; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Seamless Learning shall initiate human learning processes that exceeds lesson and classroom limits. At the same time this approach fosters a self-regulated learning, by means of inspirational, open education settings. Advanced learning materials are easily accessible via mobile digital devices connected to the Internet. In this study it was…

  7. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  8. Inquiring into the Dilemmas of Implementing Action Learning. Innovative Session 6. [Concurrent Innovative Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorks, Lyle; Dilworth, Robert L.; Marquardt, Michael J.; Marsick, Victoria; O'Neil, Judy

    Action learning is receiving increasing attention from human resource development (HRD) practitioners and the HRD management literature. Action learning has been characterized as follows: (1) working in small groups to take action on meaningful problems while seeking to learn from having taken the specified action lies at the foundation of action…

  9. Setting the New Standard with Mobile Computing in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Yuhsun Edward; Mills, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Mobile learning represents exciting new frontiers in education and pedagogy. With the features of "wearable" computing and multimedia content delivery via mobile technologies, mobile learning becomes feasible and offers new benefits to instructors and learners. How do mobile technologies influence our teaching and learning in traditional…

  10. Curriculum Development for Transfer Learning in Dynamic Multiagent Settings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Contents 1 Summary 1 1.1 Learning Inter-Task Transferability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Automatic Source Task Creation...16 3.5 Curriculum Construction by non-Expert Humans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.5.1 Language Learning with...by non-Expert Humans The following section describes a sequential RL task with natural language command learning and introduces a curriculum design

  11. Recording Single Neurons' Action Potentials from Freely Moving Pigeons Across Three Stages of Learning

    PubMed Central

    Güntürkün, Onur

    2014-01-01

    While the subject of learning has attracted immense interest from both behavioral and neural scientists, only relatively few investigators have observed single-neuron activity while animals are acquiring an operantly conditioned response, or when that response is extinguished. But even in these cases, observation periods usually encompass only a single stage of learning, i.e. acquisition or extinction, but not both (exceptions include protocols employing reversal learning; see Bingman et al.1 for an example). However, acquisition and extinction entail different learning mechanisms and are therefore expected to be accompanied by different types and/or loci of neural plasticity. Accordingly, we developed a behavioral paradigm which institutes three stages of learning in a single behavioral session and which is well suited for the simultaneous recording of single neurons' action potentials. Animals are trained on a single-interval forced choice task which requires mapping each of two possible choice responses to the presentation of different novel visual stimuli (acquisition). After having reached a predefined performance criterion, one of the two choice responses is no longer reinforced (extinction). Following a certain decrement in performance level, correct responses are reinforced again (reacquisition). By using a new set of stimuli in every session, animals can undergo the acquisition-extinction-reacquisition process repeatedly. Because all three stages of learning occur in a single behavioral session, the paradigm is ideal for the simultaneous observation of the spiking output of multiple single neurons. We use pigeons as model systems, but the task can easily be adapted to any other species capable of conditioned discrimination learning. PMID:24961391

  12. Doing Different Things or Doing Things Different: Exploring the Role of Action Learning in Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Christine; Weiss, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The notion of action learning driven innovation is explored with reference to three action-learning projects carried out in the last year and a proposed multi stakeholder project starting in 2016. The authors also provide an account of "innovation", including its rationale and characteristics, and argues for its particular suitability in…

  13. Human Dorsal Striatum Encodes Prediction Errors during Observational Learning of Instrumental Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jeffrey C.; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of…

  14. "Knowing Is Not Enough; We Must Apply": Reflections on a Failed Action Learning Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects upon a sub-optimal action learning application with a strategic business re-design project. The objective of the project was to improve the long-term business performance of a subsidiary business and build the strategic plan. Action learning was introduced to aid the group in expanding their view of the real problems…

  15. A Framework for the Development of Organizational Commitment Using Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishna, Vijay; Marquardt, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Organizational commitment has been explored extensively over the past 40 years because of its benefits to individuals and the organization. Action learning, in turn, has been used by companies worldwide to develop leaders, teams and organizations. No study, however, has been undertaken to determine how action learning might develop organizational…

  16. Participatory Action Research and Environmental Learning: Implications for Resilient Forests and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…

  17. Models, Definitions, and Outcome Variables of Action Learning: A Synthesis with Implications for HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenhall, Everon C.; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated model of action learning based on an examination of four reviewed action learning models, definitions, and espoused outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: A clear articulation of the strengths and limitations of each model was essential to developing an integrated model, which could be…

  18. Launch of Revans Academy for Action Learning and Research: Manchester Business School November 26, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the launching of the Revans Academy for Action Learning and Research at Manchester Business School on 26 November 2008. The goal of the Academy is to foster the development of action learning as a unifying framework within Manchester Business School. Its goal is to provide a hub for dialogue, collaboration, exploitation and…

  19. Leading Change in Tissue Viability Best Practice: An Action Learning Programme for Link Nurse Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellie, Jean; Henderson, Eileen; Milsom, Brian; Crawley, Hayley

    2010-01-01

    This account of practice reports on an action learning initiative designed and implemented in partnership between a regional NHS Acute Trust and a UK Business School. The central initiative was the implementation of an action learning programme entitled "Leading change in tissue viability best practice: a development programme for Link Nurse…

  20. The Impact of Action Learning: What Difference Are We Making in the World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Arthur; Heneberry, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Involvement in a number of action-learning programmes and associated development opportunities has led the Professional Development Centre Limited to question the relevance of a strict adherence to the "rules" of action learning as described by Reg Revans. A deliberate focus of one such programme to a financial services organisation…

  1. "Cast Your Net Widely": Three Steps to Expanding and Refining Your Problem before Action Learning Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects upon a three-step process to expand the problem definition in the early stages of an action learning project. The process created a community-powered problem-solving approach within the action learning context. The simple three steps expanded upon in the paper create independence, dependence, and inter-dependence to aid the…

  2. Exploring Action Learning: How to Use and Promote "Learning through Action" in Challenging Times: A One-Day Conference at Henley Business School--30 September, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heywood, John

    2009-01-01

    Action learning (AL) has been called the "engine of the learning organisation". It has been demonstrated that it can help individuals adapt to, and be more effective in, the fast-changing world. This article reports on a one-day conference held at Henley Business School. The conference was jointly organised by Henley Business School and…

  3. Lifelong Learning in Action: Hong Kong Practitioners' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbin, John, Ed.; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.

    This document consists of 32 papers presenting Hong Kong practitioners' perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Lifelong Learning" (Albert Tuijnman); "Growth and Development of Lifelong Learning in Hong Kong " (John Cribbin); "Competition and Collaboration" (John Cribbin); "A…

  4. Exploring action dynamics as an index of paired-associate learning.

    PubMed

    Dale, Rick; Roche, Jennifer; Snyder, Kristy; McCall, Ryan

    2008-03-05

    Much evidence exists supporting a richer interaction between cognition and action than commonly assumed. Such findings demonstrate that short-timescale processes, such as motor execution, may relate in systematic ways to longer-timescale cognitive processes, such as learning. We further substantiate one direction of this interaction: the flow of cognition into action systems. Two experiments explored match-to-sample paired-associate learning, in which participants learned randomized pairs of unfamiliar symbols. During the experiments, their hand movements were continuously tracked using the Nintendo Wiimote. Across learning, participant arm movements are initiated and completed more quickly, exhibit lower fluctuation, and exert more perturbation on the Wiimote during the button press. A second experiment demonstrated that action dynamics index novel learning scenarios, and not simply acclimatization to the Wiimote interface. Results support a graded and systematic covariation between cognition and action, and recommend ways in which this theoretical perspective may contribute to applied learning contexts.

  5. Issues for Deployment of Mobile Learning by Nurses in Australian Healthcare Settings.

    PubMed

    Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate nursing curricula are being redesigned to include strategies for deployment of mobile learning as a legitimate nursing function. A recent online survey exploring the use of mobile learning by undergraduate student nurses revealed barriers, challenges, risks, and benefits to using mobile learning at the workplace. Inability to access mobile learning at both individual and organisational levels impacted on student learning and teaching opportunities. Students also indicated that educational preparation for ensuring appropriate use of mobile learning is necessary to guide learning and teaching in situ at point of care. This highlights the need for the development of policy to guide best practice that will enable this new pedagogy to be fully utilised for learning and teaching in healthcare settings. Until governance of mobile learning in educational and healthcare settings in Australia is addressed, harnessing the indubitable benefit of mobile learning and teaching will be unachievable.

  6. Evaluating the Impact of Action Plans on Trainee Compliance with Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aumann, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods research study evaluated the use of technology-based action plans as a way to help improve compliance with the learning objectives of an online training event. It explored how the action planning strategy impacted subjects in a treatment group and compared them to subjects in a control group who did not get the action plan. The…

  7. The Effects of Self Set or Externally Set Goals on Learning in an Uncertain Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring refers to online awareness and self-evaluation of one's goal-directed actions, while Control refers to the generation and selection of goal-directed actions (Osman, 2010a). The present study examines the extent to which external estimations of performance influence monitoring and control behaviors. To achieve this, a complex dynamic…

  8. 'Ready. Set. ACTION!' A theater-based obesity prevention program for children: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Haines, Jess; Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Hannan, Peter J; Robins, Michael; Morris, Bonnie; Petrich, Christine A

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the feasibility of implementing an innovative theater-based after-school program, 'Ready. Set. ACTION!', to reach ethnically diverse and low-income children and their parents with obesity prevention messages. The study population included 96 children and 61 parents. Children were in fourth to sixth grade and 41% were overweight at baseline. Program impact was evaluated with a pre/post-randomized controlled study design, but a major focus was placed on the process evaluation conducted in the intervention schools. Intervention children and parents reported high program satisfaction and that they had made changes or intended to make positive changes in their behaviors due to program participation. However, few meaningful differences between the intervention and control conditions were found at follow-up. Thus, the combined process and impact evaluation results suggest that the intervention was effective in leading to increased awareness of the need for behavioral change, but was not powerful enough on its own to lead to behavioral change. From this feasibility study, we concluded that Ready. Set. ACTION! offers promise as a creative intervention strategy. The next research step may be to incorporate theater-based programs into more comprehensive school-based interventions, with both educational and environmental components, and evaluate program impact.

  9. The use of blogging in tertiary healthcare educational settings to enhance reflective learning in nursing leadership.

    PubMed

    Levine, Theodora C

    2014-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies such as blogs are increasingly used in academic settings; however, they are not widely used in hospital settings. This project explored the effectiveness of using a blog to enhance reflective learning in a nurse manager leadership development course of a tertiary care hospital setting. Differences in reflective learning between the blog group and traditional learning group were measured post training using a Reflective Learning and Interaction Questionnaire. Although the groups did not differ significantly on any reflective learning dimension (p < .05, n = 11), the mean scores showed that both groups identified a reflective learning experience. Findings from this study inform the practice of other nurse educators contemplating to incorporate blogs into their learning strategies to enhance reflective learning.

  10. An Examination of Learning Transfer System Characteristics across Organizational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Chen, Hsin-Chih; Naquin, Sharon S.

    2003-01-01

    No previous research in the United States has compared and contrasted learning transfer systems across organizations and training types, primarily because no standard instruments were used in previous research. This study, based on a subset of responses in the Learning Transfer System Inventory response database, is the first to conduct such a…

  11. Conceptual Change through Vicarious Learning in an Authentic Physics Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Derek A.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Eklund, John; Reimann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Recent research on principles of best practice for designing effective multimedia instruction has rarely taken into account students' alternative conceptions, which are known to strongly influence learning. The goal of this study was to determine how well students of quantum mechanics could learn "vicariously" by watching a student-tutor dialogue…

  12. Additive Routes to Action Learning: Layering Experience Shapes Engagement of the Action Observation Network

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Cross, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation. PMID:26209850

  13. Additive Routes to Action Learning: Layering Experience Shapes Engagement of the Action Observation Network.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Louise P; Cross, Emily S

    2015-12-01

    The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation.

  14. Gender lost and gender found: BRAC's Gender Quality Action-Learning Programme.

    PubMed

    Rao, A; Kelleher, D

    1998-05-01

    This article describes and analyzes the BRAC Gender Quality Action-Learning (GQAL) Program. BRAC aims to bring about organizational change and improve program quality through issue analysis, action planning, and implementation with an understanding of gender. During the 1990s, BRAC increased the number of women staff and set up a women's committee. In 1993, it piloted a gender training program. By 1994, BRAC did not know what the real problems were. A needs assessment was carried out among 400 staff in various program types and levels and revealed 3 empowerment issues. An intuitive understanding did not translate into creative solutions. Staff preferred non-confrontation in dealing with women's subordination in the family and community. Staff strongly believed in training as a way of changing behavior and values. BRAC is an organization in transition. The goal is changing the relationship between men and women. BRAC needs multiple perspectives of men and women staff and primary stakeholders. BRAC is gendered. Quantitative targets must be balanced with quality improvements. Quality occurs by analyzing the process and outcomes of programs. The GQAL program and cycle began in 1995. The GQAL outcome was improved working and democratic relationships and more open communication. Success was based on, for example, a field-based learning intervention, followed by trained facilitators, and innovative and tested methodology. Constraints were the perceived lack of top management support in some programs, frequent transfers of staff, and natural disasters. The authors identify future issues.

  15. 17β-estradiol replacement in ovariectomized female rats slows set 1 dorsolateral striatial-dependent learning and enhances learning of set 2 in an extradimensional set-shifting paradigm.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, Olga; Wiener, Nicholas; Andrews, Kelly; Kirshenbaum, Ari P; Green, John T; Toufexis, Donna J

    2016-02-01

    The role of estrogen in extradimensional set-shifting was evaluated with replacement of 17β-estradiol (E2) in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Rats were reinforced with food when they entered an arm of a plus-maze that was distinguished by visual and/or tactile cues (Set 1). In Set 2, reinforcement was shifted to construct a new association between food and visual/tactile cues that were different from Set 1. The purpose of using this extradimensional set-shifting task was to differentiate the effect of acute or continuous E2 on the dorsolateral (DLS) versus dorsomedial (DMS) striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), because Set 1 and 2 learning, respectively, are associated with these particular brain regions. Results showed that compared to controls, acute E2-replaced female rats required more training trials to reach criterion in Set 1. Moreover, E2-replaced females showed a significant delay in the rate of acquisition of Set 1 learning compared to controls. In Set 2 there were no group differences in perseverative errors, which are reduced by mPFC activation, or when learning took place in a previously reinforced arm, a DMS-mediated effect. Despite this, control females required more training trials to learn Set 2 compared to Set 1, suggesting that prior learning in Set 1 interfered with Set 2 performance in non-E-replaced rats. In contrast, E2 groups learned Set 2 in fewer training trials than Set 1. These data suggest that E2 facilitates set shifting, apart from any apparent enhancement of DMS or mPFC function, perhaps by interfering with DLS-mediated Set 1 learning.

  16. Long-Term Abstract Learning of Attentional Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leber, Andrew B.; Kawahara, Jun-Ichiro; Gabari, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    How does past experience influence visual search strategy (i.e., attentional set)? Recent reports have shown that, when given the option to use 1 of 2 attentional sets, observers persist with the set previously required in a training phase. Here, 2 related questions are addressed. First, does the training effect result only from perseveration with…

  17. Introducing Autonomous Learning in a Low Ability Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmert, Dorothee

    1997-01-01

    In this article, autonomous learning in foreign languages is defined and the steps for introducing it to Year 9 low-ability students and Year 10 high-ability students are described. (six references) (CK)

  18. Color Modulates Olfactory Learning in Honeybees by an Occasion-Setting Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Theo; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    A sophisticated form of nonelemental learning is provided by occasion setting. In this paradigm, animals learn to disambiguate an uncertain conditioned stimulus using alternative stimuli that do not enter into direct association with the unconditioned stimulus. For instance, animals may learn to discriminate odor rewarded from odor nonrewarded…

  19. Assessing Quality Dimensions and Elements of Online Learning Enacted in a Higher Education Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Dawn M.

    2009-01-01

    This study described how online learning is enacted in a university setting by addressing what university students reported about their perceptions of the quality of their learning in online environments and what university students reported about the ways in which online learning experiences were enacted across a large university. Using…

  20. Examining the Effectiveness of Team-Based Learning (TBL) in Different Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuretich, Richard F.; Kanner, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of effective learning in college classrooms, especially in a large lecture setting, has been a topic of discussion for a considerable span of time. Most efforts to improve learning incorporate various forms of student-active learning, such as in-class investigations or problems, group discussions, collaborative examinations and…

  1. Cognitive Control over Learning: Creating, Clustering, and Generalizing Task-Set Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Anne G. E.; Frank, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Learning and executive functions such as task-switching share common neural substrates, notably prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. Understanding how they interact requires studying how cognitive control facilitates learning but also how learning provides the (potentially hidden) structure, such as abstract rules or task-sets, needed for…

  2. Learning Dispositions and the Role of Mutual Engagement: Factors for Consideration in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Judith; Jones, Carolyn; Carr, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an emerging theoretical framework for examining relationships between learning dispositions and learning architecture. Three domains of learning dispositions--resilience, reciprocity and imagination--are discussed in relation to the structures and processes of early childhood education settings and new entrant classrooms.…

  3. Valuing the Adult Learner in E-Learning: A Conceptual Model for Corporate Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waight, Consuelo L.; Stewart, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The framework describes that e-Learning engagement, learning and transfer within corporate settings can possibly be achieved if antecedents such as needs assessment, learner analysis, for example, and moderators such as return on investment, learning theories, for example, are adhered. The realization of antecedents and moderators, however, are…

  4. Auto Action Learning: a tool for policy change. Building capacity across the developing regional system to improve health in the North East of England.

    PubMed

    Learmonth, Alyson; Pedler, Mike

    2004-05-01

    Health policy traditionally has tended to focus on health care policy. The World Health Organisation Investment for Health approach aims to influence policy development by locating health as both the outcome of, and an asset for, sustainable economic and social development. The policy context in England offers a range of drivers and opportunities to operationalise the Investment for Health approach through action to improve health and reduce inequalities, nationally and as importantly at a regional and local level. This paper traces developments in the North East of England April 2002-November 2002, from the perspective of an advocate for developing a systemic and systematic approach using an Investment for Health approach. The tool used to track change is based in action learning [M. Pedler, Action Learning for Managers, Lemos and Crane, London, 1996]. The Action Learning Problem Brief identifies why the goal is important, who to, how progress might be identified, difficulties and benefits. Generally, this acts as a starting point for problem solving within an Action Learning Set. This piece of work uses the framework for reflection and tracking, with input from a mentor, at four to eight weekly intervals, 'Auto Action Learning'. The authors pull out key learning points from the process, using a framework 'Towards a model for systematic learning from doing in the North East of England'.

  5. The Effect of Semantic Set Size on Word Learning by Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkel, Holly L.; Adlof, Suzanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to determine whether semantic set size, a measure of the number of semantic neighbors, influenced word learning, and whether the influence of semantic set size was broad, showing effects on multiple measures both during and after learning. Method: Thirty-six preschool children were exposed to 10 nonobjects, varying in…

  6. Personality Traits and Performance in Online Game-Based Learning: Collaborative versus Individual Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Extant research indicates that, in face-to-face settings, cooperative learning and game-based learning strategies can be effective. However, in online settings (e.g., in distance education), there is a paucity of research in this area. This study was designed to investigate performance and attitudes of university students who played an educational…

  7. Peer Assisted Learning in the Clinical Setting: An Activity Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Deirdre; O'Flynn, Siun; Kelly, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Peer assisted learning (PAL) is a common feature of medical education. Understanding of PAL has been based on processes and outcomes in controlled settings, such as clinical skills labs. PAL in the clinical setting, a complex learning environment, requires fresh evaluation. Socio-cultural theory is proposed as a means to understand educational…

  8. Moving the Classroom Outdoors: Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broda, Herbert W.

    2011-01-01

    Since Herb Broda published Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning, his groundbreaking first book on outdoor learning, many schools across North America have embraced the benefits of "greening" their learning programs. Herb has visited dozens of these schools and nature centers, and he showcases the very best examples of schoolyard-enhanced…

  9. Mayan Children's Creation of Learning Ecologies by Initiative and Cooperative Action.

    PubMed

    de León, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Mayan children's initiatives in creating their own learning environments in collaboration with others as they engage in culturally relevant endeavors of family and community life. To this end, I carry out a fine-grained ethnographic and linguistic analysis of the interactional emergence of learning ecologies. Erickson defines learning ecology as a socioecological system where participants mutually influence one another through verbal and nonverbal actions, as well as through other forms of semiotic communication (2010, 254). In analyzing learning ecologies, I adopt a "theory of action" approach, taking into account multimodal communication (e.g., talk, gesture, gaze, body positioning), participants' sociospatial organization, embodied action, objects, tools, and other culturally relevant materials brought together to build action (Goodwin, 2000, 2013; Hutchins, 1995). I use microethnographic analysis (Erickson, 1992) to bring to the surface central aspects of children's agentive roles in learning through "cooperative actions" (Goodwin, 2013) and "hands-on" experience (Ingold, 2007) the skills of competent members of their community. I examine three distinct Learning Ecologies created by children's initiatives among the Mayan children that I observed: (i) children requesting guidance to collaborate in a task, (ii) older children working on their own initiative with subsequent monitoring and correction from competent members, and (iii) children with near competence in a task with occasional monitoring and no guidance. I argue that these findings enrich and add power to models of family- and community-based learning such as Learning by Observing and Pitching In (Rogoff, 2014).

  10. Building predictive models for mechanism-of-action classification from phenotypic assay data sets.

    PubMed

    Berg, Ellen L; Yang, Jian; Polokoff, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    Compound mechanism-of-action information can be critical for drug development decisions but is often challenging for phenotypic drug discovery programs. One concern is that compounds selected by phenotypic screening will have a previously known but undesirable target mechanism. Here we describe a useful method for assigning mechanism class to compounds and bioactive agents using an 84-feature signature from a panel of primary human cell systems (BioMAP systems). For this approach, a reference data set of well-characterized compounds was used to develop predictive models for 28 mechanism classes using support vector machines. These mechanism classes encompass safety and efficacy-related mechanisms, include both target-specific and pathway-based classes, and cover the most common mechanisms identified in phenotypic screens, such as inhibitors of mitochondrial and microtubule function, histone deacetylase, and cAMP elevators. Here we describe the performance and the application of these predictive models in a decision scheme for triaging phenotypic screening hits using a previously published data set of 309 environmental chemicals tested as part of the Environmental Protection Agency's ToxCast program. By providing quantified membership in specific mechanism classes, this approach is suitable for identification of off-target toxicity mechanisms as well as enabling target deconvolution of phenotypic drug discovery hits.

  11. Working with Negative Emotions in Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Alison

    2012-01-01

    This account draws upon learning from an incident in an action learning set where an individual challenged a mandatory organisational requirement. As a facilitator I reflect upon my initial defensive reaction to this challenge. The use of critical action learning to inform ourselves as facilitators of the underlying tensions between set members…

  12. Acoustics in Physical Education Settings: The Learning Roadblocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Stu; Mendel, Lisa Lucks

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure noise levels in elementary, middle, and high school physical education settings and compare them to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) guidelines and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards for acoustics in educational settings. Mean unoccupied noise levels for 22…

  13. Differences between Boys and Girls in Extracurricular Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batz, Katrin; Wittler, Sebastian; Wilde, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Only few psychological differences between the sexes can be proven empirically. Presented here is a study about learning in the extracurricular environment of a zoological garden during a school excursion with particular regard to the differences between boys and girls. In the main focus are, hereby, motivational and cognitive levels of the…

  14. Acoustics in Physical Education Settings: The Learning Roadblock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Stu; Mendel, Lisa Lucks

    2010-01-01

    Background: The audibility of teachers and peers is an essential factor in determining the academic performance of school children. However, acoustic conditions in most classrooms are less than optimal and have been viewed as "hostile listening environments" that undermine the learning of children in school. While research has shown that…

  15. Context and Occasion Setting in "Drosophila" Visual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brembs, Bjorn; Wiener, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In a permanently changing environment, it is by no means an easy task to distinguish potentially important events from negligible ones. Yet, to survive, every animal has to continuously face that challenge. How does the brain accomplish this feat? Building on previous work in "Drosophila melanogaster" visual learning, we have developed an…

  16. Classroom Management: Setting Up the Classroom for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.

    2009-01-01

    Student learning is directly related to classroom control established the first week of school (Wong and Wong 2001)--what you do the first day counts, and what you do the first 10 minutes counts even more. This article shares the advanced planning aspects of classroom management that should be in place before students enter the classroom for the…

  17. The Use of Learning Contracts in an Italian University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedeli, Monica; Giampaolo, Mario; Coryell, Joellen E.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study illustrates the implementation of Malcolm Knowles's 1986 model of learning contracts in a current Italian University context. The study attempted to improve and adapt the tool to a master's degree course at the University of Padua. Three professors conducted the integrated course, making extensive efforts to share the aims…

  18. Career Consultation and Experiential Learning in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Rodney L.; Rich, Jonathan W.; Getch, Yvette Q.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is presented as a conceptual practice analysis of an experiential learning activity that took place during the fall 2011 academic term. Graduate students registered in a graduate-level career counseling course at a major Southeastern university were given the opportunity to conduct one-on-one career consultations with students enrolled…

  19. Social Learning Analytics: Navigating the Changing Settings of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Laat, Maarten; Prinsen, Fleur R.

    2014-01-01

    Current trends and challenges in higher education (HE) require a reorientation towards openness, technology use and active student participation. In this article we will introduce Social Learning Analytics (SLA) as instrumental in formative assessment practices, aimed at supporting and strengthening students as active learners in increasingly open…

  20. Learning about Inheritance in an Out-of-School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dairianathan, Anne; Subramaniam, R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate primary students' learning through participation in an out-of-school enrichment programme, held in a science centre, which focused on DNA and genes and whether participation in the programme led to an increased understanding of inheritance as well as promoted interest in the topic. The sample consisted…

  1. The State of Cooperative Learning in Postsecondary and Professional Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Smith, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Modern cooperative learning began in the mid- 1960s (D. W. Johnson & R. Johnson, 1999a). Its use, however, was resisted by advocates of social Darwinism (who believed that students must be taught to survive in a "dog-eat-dog" world) and individualism (who believed in the myth of the "rugged individualist"). Despite the resistance, cooperative…

  2. Text Sets, Deep Learning, and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donham, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core Curriculum Standards point educators toward rigorous or deep learning so that students will become "college and career ready." College-ready students engage with text in thoughtful ways so that they arrive at insights through interpretation, discussion, and analysis. One reading anchor standard of relevance for school…

  3. Defining Learning Space in a Serious Game in Terms of Operative and Resultant Actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Michael W.; Shen, Yuzhong

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the distinction between operative and resultant actions in games, and proposes that the learning space created by a serious game is a function of these actions. Further, it suggests a possible relationship between these actions and the forms of cognitive load imposed upon the game player. Association of specific types of cognitive load with respective forms of actions in game mechanics also presents some heuristics for integrating learning content into serious games. Research indicates that different balances of these types of actions are more suitable for novice or experienced learners. By examining these relationships, we can develop a few basic principles of game design which have an increased potential to promote positive learning outcomes.

  4. The Mutual Shaping of Human Action and Institutional Settings: A Study of the Transformation of Children's Services and Professional Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Harry

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the way we understand and investigate the relationship between human functioning and social setting. The central argument draws on the work of Bernstein and Vygotsky. A novel approach to the study of the mutual shaping of human action and institutional settings is developed and an empirical example of its application…

  5. A Reward Optimization Method Based on Action Subrewards in Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quan; Ling, Xionghong; Cui, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) is one kind of interactive learning methods. Its main characteristics are “trial and error” and “related reward.” A hierarchical reinforcement learning method based on action subrewards is proposed to solve the problem of “curse of dimensionality,” which means that the states space will grow exponentially in the number of features and low convergence speed. The method can reduce state spaces greatly and choose actions with favorable purpose and efficiency so as to optimize reward function and enhance convergence speed. Apply it to the online learning in Tetris game, and the experiment result shows that the convergence speed of this algorithm can be enhanced evidently based on the new method which combines hierarchical reinforcement learning algorithm and action subrewards. The “curse of dimensionality” problem is also solved to a certain extent with hierarchical method. All the performance with different parameters is compared and analyzed as well. PMID:24600318

  6. Change in Action: How Infants Learn to Walk down Slopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Simone V.; Adolph, Karen E.; Vereijken, Beatrix

    2009-01-01

    A critical aspect of perception-action coupling is the ability to modify ongoing actions in accordance with variations in the environment. Infants' ability to modify their gait patterns to walk down shallow and steep slopes was examined at three nested time scales. Across sessions, a microgenetic training design showed rapid improvements after the…

  7. Embodied Learning and Creative Writing: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Jennifer Ann

    2012-01-01

    This action research study used narrative analysis to explore the role of the body in the writing process of creative writers. Specifically, the purpose of this action research study was threefold: it was first to examine how professional creative writers describe their writing process with particular attention to their perceptions of the role and…

  8. Genetic Optimization of Training Sets for Improved Machine Learning Models of Molecular Properties.

    PubMed

    Browning, Nicholas J; Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole; Roethlisberger, Ursula

    2017-04-06

    The training of molecular models of quantum mechanical properties based on statistical machine learning requires large data sets which exemplify the map from chemical structure to molecular property. Intelligent a priori selection of training examples is often difficult or impossible to achieve, as prior knowledge may be unavailable. Ordinarily representative selection of training molecules from such data sets is achieved through random sampling. We use genetic algorithms for the optimization of training set composition consisting of tens of thousands of small organic molecules. The resulting machine learning models are considerably more accurate: in the limit of small training sets, mean absolute errors for out-of-sample predictions are reduced by up to ∼75%. We discuss and present optimized training sets consisting of 10 molecular classes for all molecular properties studied. We show that these classes can be used to design improved training sets for the generation of machine learning models of the same properties in similar but unrelated molecular sets.

  9. Action Research and Organisational Learning: A Norwegian Approach to Doing Action Research in Complex Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eikeland, Olav

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an…

  10. Building Better Futures: Leveraging Action Learning at Kentz Engineers & Constructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karallis, Takis; Sandelands, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a case study of how Kentz Engineers & Constructors, with more than 10,000 employees in 26 countries, are leveraging learning to "Build better futures" for its stakeholders: clients, shareholders, employees and communities. Kentz provide opportunities for learning at all levels, ensuring that "no one is left behind". This case…

  11. Collective Learning: Interaction and a Shared Action Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doos, Marianne; Wilhelmson, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to argue for a theoretical contribution that deals with the detection of collective learning. The aim is to examine and clarify the genesis processes of collective learning. The empirical basis is a telecoms context with task-driven networking across both internal and external organisational borders.…

  12. Service Learning and Social Action: Feeding Preservice Teachers' Souls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidson, Karla W.; Nickson, Lautrice; Hughes, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Preservice teacher education candidates identified personal and professional benefits of participating in a service-learning project helping a food pantry, culminating in a 48-hour fast. At the end of the project, student reflections revealed that the service-learning component influenced participants' preconceptions about hunger.

  13. Reinforcement Learning for the Adaptive Control of Perception and Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    This dissertation applies reinforcement learning to the adaptive control of active sensory-motor systems. Active sensory-motor systems, in addition...distinct states in the external world. This phenomenon, called perceptual aliasing, is shown to destabilize existing reinforcement learning algorithms

  14. Results from Action Analysis in an Interactive Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheuer, Oliver; Muhlenbrock, Martin; Melis, Erica

    2007-01-01

    Recently, there is a growing interest in the automatic analysis of learner activity in web-based learning environments. The approach and system SIAM (System for Interaction Analysis by Machine learning) presented in this article aims at helping to establish a basis for the automatic analysis of interaction data by developing a data logging and…

  15. Images in Action. Learning Tomorrow: Linking Technology and Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Foundation for the Improvement of Education, Washington, DC.

    Focusing on the use of advanced technologies in classrooms to reshape the educational environment in which students learn, this report on Phase II of the Learning Tomorrow program contains brief descriptions of the most promising educational practices submitted by teachers in response to two nation-wide calls for Innovation in Practice. The report…

  16. Transforming Constructivist Learning into Action: Design Thinking in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Andrea; Noweski, Christine; Meinel, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    In an ever changing society of the 21st century, there is a demand to equip students with meta competences going beyond cognitive knowledge. Education, therefore, needs a transition from transferring knowledge to developing individual potentials with the help of constructivist learning. Advantages of constructivist learning, and criteria for its…

  17. Students Learning Agroecology: Phenomenon-Based Education for Responsible Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostergaard, Edvin; Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Preparing students for a complex and dynamic future is a challenge for educators. This article explores three crucial issues related to agroecological education and learning: (1) the phenomenological foundation for learning agroecology in higher education; (2) the process of students' interactions with a wide range of various learners within and…

  18. Frontal Oscillatory Dynamics Predict Feedback Learning and Action Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Cohen, Michael X.

    2011-01-01

    Frontal oscillatory dynamics in the theta (4-8 Hz) and beta (20-30 Hz) frequency bands have been implicated in cognitive control processes. Here we investigated the changes in coordinated activity within and between frontal brain areas during feedback-based response learning. In a time estimation task, participants learned to press a button after…

  19. Experiential Learning and Research Ethics: Enhancing Knowledge through Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M.; Cameron, Abigail E.; Schulman, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    How can instructors use experiential learning strategies to enhance student understanding of research ethics and responsible research conduct? In this article, the authors review literature on using experiential learning to teach research ethics and responsible research conduct. They present a three-step exercise for teaching research ethics and…

  20. First Time Facilitator's Experience: Designing and Facilitating an Action Learning Programme in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinshuai; Bloodworth, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an action learning programme with China Unicom Broadband Limited (CUBO) to support its vision of transforming to become a world-leading broadband communications and information service provider. 64 Department directors and supervisors were invited to take part in the "China Unicom Broadband Online Phoenix Action Learning…

  1. Two-Year-Olds Learn Novel Nouns, Verbs, and Conventional Actions from Massed or Distributed Exposures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Jane B.; Tomasello, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examined 2-year-olds' comprehension and production of novel nouns, verbs, or actions at 3 intervals after training conducted in massed or distributed exposures. Found that for comprehension, children learned all item types in all training conditions at all retention intervals. Production was better for nonverbal actions than for either word type…

  2. Learning from Action Evaluation of the Use of Multimedia Case Studies in Management Information Systems Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawulich, Barbara B.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript shares lessons learned from conducting an action evaluation of the use of multimedia case studies in Management Information Systems (MIS) courses. Three undergraduate MIS classes took part in the study. The purpose for using case studies in these classes was to teach students about the role of MIS in business. An action evaluation…

  3. Organising Collective Action for Effective Environmental Management and Social Learning in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jane; Gibbon, David; Ingram, Julie; Reed, Matt; Short, Christopher; Dwyer, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The paper explored key factors that might lead to successful agri-environmental social learning and collective action in order to deliver landscape-scale resource management within agri-environment schemes. Using the theory of collective action as an analytical framework the paper examined findings from in-depth interviews with 20 members of two…

  4. The Methods of Teaching Course Based on Constructivist Learning Approach: An Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altun, Sertel; Yücel-Toy, Banu

    2015-01-01

    This purpose of this study is to investigate how the course designed based on constructivist principles has been implemented, what actions have been taken to solve problems and what thoughts have arisen in the minds of teacher candidates with regard to the constructivist learning approach. In this study, an action research was employed which…

  5. The Role of the NHS in the Development of Revans' Action Learning: Correspondence and Contradiction in Action Learning Development and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    In adapting Bowles' and Gintis's correspondence principle of education, this paper suggests that there are ways in which the theory and practice of action learning developed "in correspondence" with the NHS. In doing so, the paper draws, in part, upon an historical assessment of Revans' Hospital Internal Communications Project of the…

  6. Being, doing, knowing, and becoming: Science and opportunities for learning in the out-of-school-time setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, Bronwyn

    This dissertation addresses the question of how structured out-of-school-time settings, such as afterschool programs and summer camps, are positioned to support children's engagement and learning in science. This study addresses a gap in the research literature that does not fully specify the nature of the out-of-school-time (OST) setting and that generally does not position learning and development in relationship to one another, instead focusing on one or the other. As a result of an incomplete conceptualization of the OST setting as a site for learning and development, the OST field is becoming increasingly academicized, and its developmental qualities and benefits for children are under siege. A transformative activist stance (Stetsenko, 2008) guides my goals in undertaking this study -- to produce knowledge that can inform the design and implementation of OST science programs -- and it also guides my analysis of what constitutes learning in OST science. A transformative activist stance is a perspective on cultural-historical theory that understands individual development as occurring through agentive, goal-directed efforts to change one's self and one's world. These goals and actions are always developed and enacted in cultural-historical context. Learning, which occurs through the appropriation of cultural tools and schema to achieve one's purposes, and which leads human development, is understood broadly, as entailing processes of being, doing, knowing and becoming (see Herrenkohl & Mertl, in press). I also draw on bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) to analyze the proximal processes that support and sustain children's participation in the OST setting. In this study, I analyze the structural, developmental, and conceptual features of three different OST science programs to understand how they create opportunities for learning and engagement in science. The contributions of this study are to better specify the nature of the OST science program setting

  7. Girls' Biology, Boys' Physics: Evidence from Free-Choice Science Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Yarden, Anat

    2008-01-01

    Many of the explanations for girls' disinterest in physics focus on the role of the educational system in creating this situation. Here, we use evidence from free-choice science learning settings to study if this lack of interest is also expressed in non-school settings. Three sets of self-generated questions raised by children, adolescents and…

  8. Action Research: Measuring Literacy Programme Participants' Learning Outcomes. Results of the Final Phase (2011-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolly, Madina; Jonas, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Action Research on Measuring Literacy Programme Participants' Learning Outcomes (RAMAA) aims to develop, implement and collaborate on the creation of a methodological approach to measure acquired learning and study the various factors that influence its development. This report examines how RAMAA I has been implemented over the past four years in…

  9. The Art and Science of Rain Barrels: A Service Learning Approach to Youth Watershed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rector, Patricia; Lyons, Rachel; Yost, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Using an interdisciplinary approach to water resource education, 4-H Youth Development and Environmental Extension agents enlisted 4-H teens to connect local watershed education with social action. Teens participated in a dynamic service learning project that included learning about nonpoint source pollution; constructing, decorating, and teaching…

  10. Actionable Data Projects: Social Science and Service-Learning in General Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloyed, Christie L.

    2016-01-01

    The use of service-learning pedagogies in general education courses is often limited to increasing volunteerism or civic literacy with problem-based or research-based projects reserved for upper level courses. This article examines the implementation of an "actionable data" service-learning project in an introductory, general studies…

  11. Making Sense of Undergraduate Students' Reflections as They Learn through Writing an Action Research Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maoto, S.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores learning opportunities offered by students' written reflections as they learn through writing an action research proposal. From tapping into students' reported struggles, I analysed data using three stages of qualitative data analysis: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing (Miles and Huberman 1994). It emerged…

  12. Advancing Civic Learning and Engagement in Democracy: A Road Map and Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Today, the U.S. Department of Education joins the National Task Force on Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement, the American Commonwealth Partnership, and the Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools in a new national call to action to infuse and enhance civic learning and democratic engagement for all students throughout the American…

  13. Action Research in a Business Classroom--Another Lens to Examine Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Janice Witt; Clark, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This research study looks at the implementation of an action research project within a blended learning human resource management class in employee and labor relations. The internal and external environment created conditions that converged in the Perfect Storm and resulted in an almost disastrous learning experience for faculty and students. What…

  14. Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching: An Action-Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Megan; Sheen, Younghee

    2015-01-01

    The creation, implementation, and evaluation of language learning tasks remain a challenge for many teachers, especially those with limited experience with using tasks in their teaching. This action-research study reports on one teacher's experience of developing, implementing, critically reflecting on, and modifying a language learning task…

  15. Business Simulation Exercises in Small Business Management Education: Using Principles and Ideas from Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrielsson, Jonas; Tell, Joakim; Politis, Diamanto

    2010-01-01

    Recent calls to close the rigour-relevance gap in business school education have suggested incorporating principles and ideas from action learning in small business management education. In this paper we discuss how business simulation exercises can be used as a platform to trigger students' learning by providing them with a platform where they…

  16. Living While Being Alive: Education and Learning in the Treatment Action Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endresen, Kristin; Von Kotze, Astrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on research into the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) in South Africa. The research investigated whether, through being active members of this social movement, HIV-positive activists learn things they could not otherwise learn about their status and the epidemic, and how they put such knowledge to use. We show how activists…

  17. School-University Action Research: Impacts on Teaching Practices and Pupil Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attorps, Iiris; Kellner, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a design and implementation of a school-university action research project about teaching and learning biology and mathematics in primary school. Nine teachers in grades 1 to 6, in collaboration with two researchers, were using content representation (CoRe) in learning study (LS)-inspired cycle as pedagogical…

  18. Freeing the Child: Using Action Research on Visual Learning Strategies To Develop Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Laura; Nugent, Peg

    Teacher action research using both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to examine impacts of using visual learning strategies on five preschool children (ages 3-5) with autism in a self-contained classroom. During the six weeks of the study, pictures representing nine learning areas and specific developmental…

  19. Exemplary Care and Learning Sites: A Model for Achieving Continual Improvement in Care and Learning in the Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ogrinc, Greg; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Stevenson, Katherine M.; Shalaby, Marc; Beard, Albertine S.; Thörne, Karin E.; Coleman, Mary T.; Baum, Karyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Problem Current models of health care quality improvement do not explicitly describe the role of health professions education. The authors propose the Exemplary Care and Learning Site (ECLS) model as an approach to achieving continual improvement in care and learning in the clinical setting. Approach From 2008–2012, an iterative, interactive process was used to develop the ECLS model and its core elements—patients and families informing process changes; trainees engaging both in care and the improvement of care; leaders knowing, valuing, and practicing improvement; data transforming into useful information; and health professionals competently engaging both in care improvement and teaching about care improvement. In 2012–2013, a three-part feasibility test of the model, including a site self-assessment, an independent review of each site’s ratings, and implementation case stories, was conducted at six clinical teaching sites (in the United States and Sweden). Outcomes Site leaders reported the ECLS model provided a systematic approach toward improving patient (and population) outcomes, system performance, and professional development. Most sites found it challenging to incorporate the patients and families element. The trainee element was strong at four sites. The leadership and data elements were self-assessed as the most fully developed. The health professionals element exhibited the greatest variability across sites. Next Steps The next test of the model should be prospective, linked to clinical and educa tional outcomes, to evaluate whether it helps care delivery teams, educators, and patients and families take action to achieve better patient (and population) outcomes, system performance, and professional development. PMID:26760058

  20. The Study and Design of Adaptive Learning System Based on Fuzzy Set Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Bing; Zhong, Shaochun; Zheng, Tianyang; Liu, Zhiyong

    Adaptive learning is an effective way to improve the learning outcomes, that is, the selection of learning content and presentation should be adapted to each learner's learning context, learning levels and learning ability. Adaptive Learning System (ALS) can provide effective support for adaptive learning. This paper proposes a new ALS based on fuzzy set theory. It can effectively estimate the learner's knowledge level by test according to learner's target. Then take the factors of learner's cognitive ability and preference into consideration to achieve self-organization and push plan of knowledge. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of domain model and user model in ALS. Experiments confirmed that the system providing adaptive content can effectively help learners to memory the content and improve their comprehension.

  1. Dynamical and stationary properties of on-line learning from finite training sets.

    PubMed

    Luo, Peixun; Wong, K Y Michael

    2003-01-01

    The dynamical and stationary properties of on-line learning from finite training sets are analyzed by using the cavity method. For large input dimensions, we derive equations for the macroscopic parameters, namely, the student-teacher correlation, the student-student autocorrelation and the learning force fluctuation. This enables us to provide analytical solutions to Adaline learning as a benchmark. Theoretical predictions of training errors in transient and stationary states are obtained by a Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Generalization and training errors are found to agree with simulations. The physical origin of the critical learning rate is presented. Comparison with batch learning is discussed throughout the paper.

  2. Dynamical and stationary properties of on-line learning from finite training sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Peixun; Michael Wong, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The dynamical and stationary properties of on-line learning from finite training sets are analyzed by using the cavity method. For large input dimensions, we derive equations for the macroscopic parameters, namely, the student-teacher correlation, the student-student autocorrelation and the learning force fluctuation. This enables us to provide analytical solutions to Adaline learning as a benchmark. Theoretical predictions of training errors in transient and stationary states are obtained by a Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Generalization and training errors are found to agree with simulations. The physical origin of the critical learning rate is presented. Comparison with batch learning is discussed throughout the paper.

  3. Detecting communities in clustered networks based on group action on set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhanli; Jiang, Xin; Ma, Lili; Tang, Shaoting; Zheng, Zhiming

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a well targeted algorithm (GAS algorithm) for detecting communities in high clustered networks by presenting group action technology on community division. During the processing of this algorithm, the underlying community structure of a clustered network emerges simultaneously as the corresponding partition of orbits by the permutation groups acting on the node set are achieved. As the derivation of the orbit partition, an algebraic structure r-cycle can be considered as the origin of the community. To be a priori estimation for the community structure of the algorithm, the community separability is introduced to indicate whether a network has distinct community structure. By executing the algorithm on several typical networks and the LFR benchmark, it shows that this GAS algorithm can detect communities accurately and effectively in high clustered networks. Furthermore, we compare the GAS algorithm and the clique percolation algorithm on the LFR benchmark. It is shown that the GAS algorithm is more accurate at detecting non-overlapping communities in clustered networks. It is suggested that algebraic techniques can uncover fresh light on detecting communities in complex networks.

  4. Setting priorities for action plans at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.C.

    1992-09-30

    This report summarizes work done by Applied Decision Analysis (ADA) for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under Subcontract Number 9-XQ2-Y3837-1 with the University of California. The purpose of this work was to develop a method of setting priorities for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) deficiencies at Los Alamos. The deficiencies were identified by a DOE Tiger Team that visited LANL in the fall of 1991, and by self assessments done by the Laboratory. ADA did the work described here between October 1991 and the end of September 1992. The ADA staff working on this project became part of a Risk Management Team in the Laboratory`s Integration and Coordination Office (ICO). During the project, the Risk Management Team produced a variety of documents describing aspects of the action-plan prioritization system. Some of those documents are attached to this report. Rather than attempt to duplicate their contents, this report provides a guide to those documents, and references them whenever appropriate.

  5. Effect of Single Setting versus Multiple Setting Training on Learning to Shop in a Department Store.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westling, David L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Fifteen students, age 13-21, with moderate to profound mental retardation received shopping skills training in either 1 or 3 department stores. A study of operational behaviors, social behaviors, number of settings in which criterion performance was achieved, and number of sessions required to achieve criterion found no significant differences…

  6. Refining Learned Repertoire for Percussion Instruments in an Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Donald M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine teaching effectiveness in an elementary music setting using student achievement as a dependent measure. Because Orff Schulwerk instruction is one of the most prevalent pedagogies in elementary music education, this study examined the rehearsal strategies of recognized Orff Schulwerk teachers as they worked…

  7. Working across Disciplines to Understand Playful Learning in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina; Broadhead, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Educators stress the importance of play for children's cognitive, social, physical, and emotional development. In order to effectively advocate for the inclusion of play in education settings, it is important to fully understand it. Two researchers, one from England and one from the Netherlands, sought common ground for understanding what children…

  8. Conversations about Teaching and Learning in Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn, Ed.

    Noting that the work of early childhood educators is often complex, variable, and individualized, this booklet brings together a range of teacher stories that describe such work across many settings. A number of challenges for early childhood education are described, and a host of innovative teaching ideas are presented in an attempt to describe…

  9. Demonstrating and Evaluating an Action Learning Approach to Building Project Management Competence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotnour, Tim; Starr, Stan; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper contributes a description of an action-learning approach to building project management competence. This approach was designed, implemented, and evaluated for use with the Dynacs Engineering Development Contract at the Kennedy Space Center. The aim of the approach was to improve three levels of competence within the organization: individual project management skills, project team performance. and organizational capabilities such as the project management process and tools. The overall steps to the approach, evaluation results, and lessons learned are presented. Managers can use this paper to design a specific action-learning approach for their organization.

  10. Investigating physics teaching and learning in a university setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisasola, Jenaro; De Cock, Mieke; Kanim, Stephen; Ivanjek, Lana; Zuza, Kristina; Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Most of the initiatives taken by the European Community and by other countries internationally in the field of science education focus on elementary and secondary levels of education, and relatively few reports have analysed the state of science education in higher education. However, research in science education, and in particular in physics education, has shown repeatedly that the way teachers teach in elementary and secondary school is strongly influenced by their own prior experience as university students. The education that future professionals, such as scientists, engineers and science teachers, receive at the university is worthy of study, because it allows us to investigate student learning relatively independently of developmental issues, and because of the more rigorous treatment of physics topics at the university level. For these reasons, it seems appropriate to identify, analyse and provide solutions to the problems of teaching and learning related to the university physics curriculum. In this symposium, we present examples of physics education research from different countries that is focused on physics topics

  11. Awakening Sleepy Knowledge: Transformative Learning in Action. Final Report of the Transformative Learning through Environmental Action Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York Univ., Toronto (Ontario).

    This document summarizes and presents materials produced during a qualitative international study of the role of transformative learning in achieving sustainable societies and global responsibility that included the following activities: case studies of experiences with transformative learning in seven countries; international survey and workshop;…

  12. Learning styles of nursing students and environmental press perceptions of two clinical nursing settings.

    PubMed

    Laschinger, H K

    1986-05-01

    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory and Environmental Press Questionnaire were used to study 68 third-year baccalaureate nursing students' learning styles and perceptions of environmental press differences in medical-surgical and psychiatric nursing settings from the experiential learning theory perspective. Evidence for a hypothesized match between predominating student learning styles and predominating environmental press was sought. As hypothesized, student learning styles were found to be predominantly concrete as was the predominating environmental press in both nursing settings. Medical-surgical and psychiatric nursing settings did not differ significantly from environmental press. A profile of competencies felt to be important in nursing emerged with concrete people-oriented competencies rating higher than abstract competencies.

  13. Supporting the development of interpersonal skills in nursing, in an undergraduate mental health curriculum: reaching the parts other strategies do not reach through action learning.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Anna; McNay, Lisa; Dewar, Belinda; McCaig, Marie

    2014-09-01

    The centrality of therapeutic relationships is considered to be the cornerstone of effective mental health nursing practice. Strategies that support the development of these skills and the emotional aspects of learning need to be developed. Action learning is one such strategy. This article reports on a qualitative research study on the introduction of Action Learning Sets (ALS) into a Pre-registration Mental Health Nursing Programme. This teaching and learning methodology was chosen to support the emotional aspects of learning and mental health nursing skills. Four themes were identified: developing skills of listening and questioning in 'real time', enhanced self-awareness, being with someone in the moment--there is no rehearsal and doing things differently in practice. Students and lecturers found the experience positive and advocate for other Pre-registration Mental Health Nursing Programmes to consider the use of ALS within the curriculum.

  14. Closing the Professional Development, Learning Outcome and Budget Proposal Gap at a Two-Year Eduational Institution: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    Two-year community colleges are commissioned to close the assessment-outcome loop, which includes the research site for this study. This action research study, which utilized quantitative and qualitative data sets, was designed to close the assessments, learning outcomes and the professional development budget proposal process gap. The developed…

  15. Short-term memory traces for action bias in human reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Bogacz, Rafal; McClure, Samuel M; Li, Jian; Cohen, Jonathan D; Montague, P Read

    2007-06-11

    Recent experimental and theoretical work on reinforcement learning has shed light on the neural bases of learning from rewards and punishments. One fundamental problem in reinforcement learning is the credit assignment problem, or how to properly assign credit to actions that lead to reward or punishment following a delay. Temporal difference learning solves this problem, but its efficiency can be significantly improved by the addition of eligibility traces (ET). In essence, ETs function as decaying memories of previous choices that are used to scale synaptic weight changes. It has been shown in theoretical studies that ETs spanning a number of actions may improve the performance of reinforcement learning. However, it remains an open question whether including ETs that persist over sequences of actions allows reinforcement learning models to better fit empirical data regarding the behaviors of humans and other animals. Here, we report an experiment in which human subjects performed a sequential economic decision game in which the long-term optimal strategy differed from the strategy that leads to the greatest short-term return. We demonstrate that human subjects' performance in the task is significantly affected by the time between choices in a surprising and seemingly counterintuitive way. However, this behavior is naturally explained by a temporal difference learning model which includes ETs persisting across actions. Furthermore, we review recent findings that suggest that short-term synaptic plasticity in dopamine neurons may provide a realistic biophysical mechanism for producing ETs that persist on a timescale consistent with behavioral observations.

  16. Setting up and Running a Loss and Bereavement Support Group for Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyden, Paul; Freeman, Adele; Offen, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Following evidence based literature, the Birmingham Clinical Psychology Service for People with Learning Disabilities ran a Loss and Bereavement Psychotherapy Group. The group consisted of five adults with mild learning disabilities, who met for 8 consecutive weeks. This paper reports the process of setting up a bereavement group for people with…

  17. Setting Learning Analytics in Context: Overcoming the Barriers to Large-Scale Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Rebecca; Macfadyen, Leah P.; Clow, Doug; Tynan, Belinda; Alexander, Shirley; Dawson, Shane

    2014-01-01

    A core goal for most learning analytic projects is to move from small-scale research towards broader institutional implementation, but this introduces a new set of challenges because institutions are stable systems, resistant to change. To avoid failure and maximize success, implementation of learning analytics at scale requires explicit and…

  18. Systematic Review of Service-Learning in Youth Physical Activity Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Russell L.; Raguse, Allison L.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which service-learning exists in the field of kinesiology broadly, and more specifically related to the physical activity of youth, remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the service-learning literature in kinesiology, with a specific focus on youth physical activity settings.…

  19. Adult Learning in Nonformal Settings: Cultural Festivals as Spaces for Socially Situated Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrosino, Audrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest in the role of museums and cultural festivals in adult learning. Once considered the keepers of physical and cultural history, there was only limited concern for if and how adults learned from these settings. The conventional view held that museums provided knowledge, and it was an individual's…

  20. Fostering Collaborative Learning with Mobile Web 2.0 in Semi-Formal Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwanza-Simwami, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    Mobile Web 2.0 technologies such as: mobile apps, social networking sites and video sharing sites have become essential drivers for shaping daily activities and meeting learning needs in various settings. However, very few studies link mobile Web 2.0 to supporting collaborative learning in real-life problem solving activities in semi-formal…

  1. How Do Social Networks Influence Learning Outcomes? A Case Study in an Industrial Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maglajlic, Seid; Helic, Denis

    2012-01-01

    and Purpose: The purpose of this research is to shed light on the impact of implicit social networks to the learning outcome of e-learning participants in an industrial setting. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a theoretical framework that allows the authors to measure correlation coefficients between the different affiliations that…

  2. Use of Web 2.0 Technologies to Enhance Learning Experiences in Alternative School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    As the learning paradigms are shifting to include various forms of digital technologies such as synchronous, asynchronous, and interactive methods, social networking technologies have been introduced to the educational settings in order to increase the quality of learning environments. The literature suggests that effective application of these…

  3. Reworking or Reaffirming Practice? Perceptions of Professional Learning in Alternative and Flexible Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plows, Vicky

    2017-01-01

    The success of alternative and flexible education settings, serving young people for whom mainstream schooling has not worked well, rests on the practices of their staff. This paper explores interview and survey data on the professional learning experiences and perceptions of staff working in flexible learning programmes across Victoria,…

  4. Gradations of emulation learning in infants' imitation of actions on objects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Tai; Charman, Tony

    2005-11-01

    This study explored different gradations of emulation in the imitation of actions on objects by 17-month-olds. Experiment 1 established levels of behavioral reproduction following prerecorded video demonstrations similar to those levels following live demonstrations. In Experiment 2, two digitally modified videos, where object movements or body movements critical to producing the target action were highlighted in isolation, were developed. Infants produced the target action equally frequently by observing the object movement video and observing the unmodified video. In contrast, their performance was much less successful based on the body movement video. In Experiment 3, the performance obtained following the object movement video was similar to that following a further video that emphasized the object movements produced in unsuccessful attempts to produce the target action. These findings suggest that emulation in the form of object movement reenactment or affordance learning plays a role in the social learning of actions on objects during infancy.

  5. Frontal oscillatory dynamics predict feedback learning and action adjustment.

    PubMed

    van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Cohen, Michael X

    2011-12-01

    Frontal oscillatory dynamics in the theta (4-8 Hz) and beta (20-30 Hz) frequency bands have been implicated in cognitive control processes. Here we investigated the changes in coordinated activity within and between frontal brain areas during feedback-based response learning. In a time estimation task, participants learned to press a button after specific, randomly selected time intervals (300-2000 msec) using the feedback after each button press (correct, too fast, too slow). Consistent with previous findings, theta-band activity over medial frontal scalp sites (presumably reflecting medial frontal cortex activity) was stronger after negative feedback, whereas beta-band activity was stronger after positive feedback. Theta-band power predicted learning only after negative feedback, and beta-band power predicted learning after positive and negative feedback. Furthermore, negative feedback increased theta-band intersite phase synchrony (a millisecond resolution measure of functional connectivity) among right lateral prefrontal, medial frontal, and sensorimotor sites. These results demonstrate the importance of frontal theta- and beta-band oscillations and intersite communication in the realization of reinforcement learning.

  6. Procuring a Sustainable Future: An Action Learning Approach to the Development and Modelling of Ethical and Sustainable Procurement Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boak, George; Watt, Peter; Gold, Jeff; Devins, David; Garvey, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to an understanding of the processes by which organisational actors learn how to affect positive and sustainable social change in their local region through action learning, action research and appreciative inquiry. The paper is based on a critically reflective account of key findings from an ongoing action research project,…

  7. Color modulates olfactory learning in honeybees by an occasion-setting mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mota, Theo; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    A sophisticated form of nonelemental learning is provided by occasion setting. In this paradigm, animals learn to disambiguate an uncertain conditioned stimulus using alternative stimuli that do not enter into direct association with the unconditioned stimulus. For instance, animals may learn to discriminate odor rewarded from odor nonrewarded trials if these two situations are indicated by different colors that do not themselves become associated with the reward. Despite a growing interest in nonelemental learning in insects, no study has so far attempted to study occasion setting in restrained honeybees, although this would allow direct access to the neural basis of nonelemental learning. Here we asked whether colors can modulate olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) via an occasion-setting mechanism. We show that intact, harnessed bees are not capable of learning a direct association between color and sucrose. Despite this incapacity, bees solved an occasion-setting discrimination in which colors set the occasion for appropriate responding to an odor that was rewarded or nonrewarded depending on the color. We therefore provide the first controlled demonstration of bimodal (color-odor) occasion setting in harnessed honeybees, which opens the door for studying the neural basis of such bimodal, nonelemental discriminations in insects.

  8. Oculomotor learning revisited: a model of reinforcement learning in the basal ganglia incorporating an efference copy of motor actions

    PubMed Central

    Fee, Michale S.

    2012-01-01

    In its simplest formulation, reinforcement learning is based on the idea that if an action taken in a particular context is followed by a favorable outcome, then, in the same context, the tendency to produce that action should be strengthened, or reinforced. While reinforcement learning forms the basis of many current theories of basal ganglia (BG) function, these models do not incorporate distinct computational roles for signals that convey context, and those that convey what action an animal takes. Recent experiments in the songbird suggest that vocal-related BG circuitry receives two functionally distinct excitatory inputs. One input is from a cortical region that carries context information about the current “time” in the motor sequence. The other is an efference copy of motor commands from a separate cortical brain region that generates vocal variability during learning. Based on these findings, I propose here a general model of vertebrate BG function that combines context information with a distinct motor efference copy signal. The signals are integrated by a learning rule in which efference copy inputs gate the potentiation of context inputs (but not efference copy inputs) onto medium spiny neurons in response to a rewarded action. The hypothesis is described in terms of a circuit that implements the learning of visually guided saccades. The model makes testable predictions about the anatomical and functional properties of hypothesized context and efference copy inputs to the striatum from both thalamic and cortical sources. PMID:22754501

  9. Can the Identity of a Behavior Setting Be Perceived Through Patterns of Joint Action? An Investigation of Place Perception

    PubMed Central

    Heft, Harry; Hoch, Justine; Edmunds, Trent; Weeks, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    “Behavior settings” are generated by joint actions of individuals in conjunction with the milieu features (or affordances) that are available. The reported research explores the hypothesis that the identity or meaning of a behavior setting can be perceived by means of the patterns of action collectively generated by the setting’s participants. A set of computer animations was created based on detailed observation of activities in everyday settings. Three experiments were conducted to assess whether perceivers could extract “structure from motion” (in this case, collective actions) that was specific to the particular behavior setting displayed by way of the animations. Two experiments assessed whether individuals could accurately perceive the identity of the behavior settings with such displays, and a third experiment indirectly examined this possibility by evaluating whether setting possibilities and constraints were recognized. The results offered some support for the hypothesis, and suggested several refinements in how to conceptualize a typology of behavior settings. An ecological approach to place perception is also discussed. PMID:25431443

  10. Exploring the Challenges in Scaling up the Delivery of Action Learning Facilitator Training within a Global Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antell, Sonja; Heywood, John

    2015-01-01

    Action learning is often used as an element of leadership development programmes. The intention is to support classroom learning with an experiential thread which runs throughout the life of the programme. Action Learning Associates (ALA) has been working with an international organisation for three years to deliver the global "First Line…

  11. Action Learning, the Tool for Problem-Solving in Universities; Uganda Martyrs Nkozi, Makerere and Nkumba Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bwegyeme, Jacinta; Munene, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents an account of how action learning principles were implemented to alleviate complex problems in universities. It focuses on the registrars and administrators under the academic Registrar's department. The Marquardt model of action learning was used in combination with the constructivist theories of learning, namely community of…

  12. Join Us in a Participatory Approach to Training, Learning & Production. A Practical Guide to the Action Training Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frings, A.; And Others

    This handbook is intended to help trainers and development workers plan and conduct training programs based on the Action Training Model (ATM). The ATM combines training with action and learning with production by building upon participants' knowledge and learning needs and involving participants in a process of active learning and cooperative…

  13. Dorsal striatum is necessary for stimulus-value but not action-value learning in humans

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Khoi; Rutledge, Robb B.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate the striatum in learning from experience on the basis of positive and negative feedback. However, the necessity of the striatum for such learning has been difficult to demonstrate in humans, because brain damage is rarely restricted to this structure. Here we test a rare individual with widespread bilateral damage restricted to the dorsal striatum. His performance was impaired and not significantly different from chance on several classic learning tasks, consistent with current theories regarding the role of the striatum. However, he also exhibited remarkably intact performance on a different subset of learning paradigms. The tasks he could perform can all be solved by learning the value of actions, while those he could not perform can only be solved by learning the value of stimuli. Although dorsal striatum is often thought to play a specific role in action-value learning, we find surprisingly that dorsal striatum is necessary for stimulus-value but not action-value learning in humans. PMID:25273995

  14. Joining the Game: Living and Learning as an Action Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on graduate students' thoughts and beliefs about utilizing action research as a means of professional development two years after their graduation from a Master of Arts program in Education. Because many school districts now encourage teachers to engage in self-study and to collect data that informs their instruction, the author…

  15. Action Learning with Second Life--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Christian; Ip, Rachael K. F.

    2009-01-01

    Virtual worlds, computer-based simulated environments in which users interact via avatars, provide an opportunity for the highly realistic enactment of real life activities online. Unlike computer games, which have a pre-defined purpose, pay-off structure, and action patterns, virtual worlds can leave many of these elements for users to determine.…

  16. Creating Safe Learning Zones: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This report is a follow-up to the first publication of the Child Proofing Our Communities Campaign, titled "Poisoned Schools: Invisible Threats, Visible Actions." The previous report looked at the problems of public schools built on contaminated land years ago, the trend of proposing new schools on contaminated land, and the threat of…

  17. Literacy Learning within Community Action Projects for Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dana E.; Mahiri, Jabari

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the literacy development of a struggling reader over a seven-month period as he engaged in a youth-led participatory action research (PAR) project. The project's goal was for youth participants to develop a proposal for productive change in their local community and present it to community stakeholders. The study focused…

  18. Project InterActions: A Multigenerational Robotic Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Marina U.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents Project InterActions, a series of 5-week workshops in which very young learners (4- to 7-year-old children) and their parents come together to build and program a personally meaningful robotic project in the context of a multigenerational robotics-based community of practice. The goal of these family workshops is to teach both…

  19. New Evaluation Vector through the Stanford Mobile Inquiry-Based Learning Environment (SMILE) for Participatory Action Research

    PubMed Central

    An, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This article reviews an evaluation vector model driven from a participatory action research leveraging a collective inquiry system named SMILE (Stanford Mobile Inquiry-based Learning Environment). Methods SMILE has been implemented in a diverse set of collective inquiry generation and analysis scenarios including community health care-specific professional development sessions and community-based participatory action research projects. In each scenario, participants are given opportunities to construct inquiries around physical and emotional health-related phenomena in their own community. Results Participants formulated inquiries as well as potential clinical treatments and hypothetical scenarios to address health concerns or clarify misunderstandings or misdiagnoses often found in their community practices. From medical universities to rural village health promotion organizations, all participatory inquiries and potential solutions can be collected and analyzed. The inquiry and solution sets represent an evaluation vector which helps educators better understand community health issues at a much deeper level. Conclusions SMILE helps collect problems that are most important and central to their community health concerns. The evaluation vector, consisting participatory and collective inquiries and potential solutions, helps the researchers assess the participants' level of understanding on issues around health concerns and practices while helping the community adequately formulate follow-up action plans. The method used in SMILE requires much further enhancement with machine learning and advanced data visualization. PMID:27525157

  20. Describing and Analyzing Learning in Action: An Empirical Study of the Importance of Misconceptions in Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamza, Karim M.; Wickman, Per-Olof

    2008-01-01

    Although misconceptions in science have been established in interview studies, their role during the learning process is poorly examined. In this paper, we use results from a classroom study to analyze to what extent nonscientific ideas in electrochemistry that students report in interviews enter into their learning in a more authentic setting. We…

  1. Exploring the Neural Basis of Real-Life Joint Action: Measuring Brain Activation during Joint Table Setting with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Egetemeir, Johanna; Stenneken, Prisca; Koehler, Saskia; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Herrmann, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Many every-day life situations require two or more individuals to execute actions together. Assessing brain activation during naturalistic tasks to uncover relevant processes underlying such real-life joint action situations has remained a methodological challenge. In the present study, we introduce a novel joint action paradigm that enables the assessment of brain activation during real-life joint action tasks using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We monitored brain activation of participants who coordinated complex actions with a partner sitting opposite them. Participants performed table setting tasks, either alone (solo action) or in cooperation with a partner (joint action), or they observed the partner performing the task (action observation). Comparing joint action and solo action revealed stronger activation (higher [oxy-Hb]-concentration) during joint action in a number of areas. Among these were areas in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) that additionally showed an overlap of activation during action observation and solo action. Areas with such a close link between action observation and action execution have been associated with action simulation processes. The magnitude of activation in these IPL areas also varied according to joint action type and its respective demand on action simulation. The results validate fNIRS as an imaging technique for exploring the functional correlates of interindividual action coordination in real-life settings and suggest that coordinating actions in real-life situations requires simulating the actions of the partner. PMID:21927603

  2. A Comparison of the Long-Term Learning Effects of Comprehensive and Topic-Specific Practice Set Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatemi, Darius; Marley, Robert; Marquis, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the long-term learning effects of two different practice set assignment approaches on business students' long-term learning: a comprehensive, multiple-period practice set and a topic-specific practice set. Student learning was measured longitudinally across semesters. The authors found evidence that students using a…

  3. The Relationship between Learning Styles and Learning Outcomes for Adults in an Informal Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Larry N.

    2013-01-01

    With more adults seeking unique and meaningful learning experiences in both recreational and professional arenas, informal learning institutions, such as museums, zoos, and botanical gardens are a natural source. Informal learning opportunities are the business of these institutions; moreover, a goal in education mission statements of many of…

  4. Students´ Perspectives on eLearning Activities in Person-Centered, Blended Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselberger, David; Motsching, Renate

    2016-01-01

    Blended or hybrid learning has become a frequent practice in higher education. In this article our primary research interest was to find out how students perceived eLearning activities in blended learning courses based on the person-centered paradigm. Through analyzing the content of a series of semi-structured interviews we found out that…

  5. Synchronous Learning Best Practices: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Clyde A.; Stanworth, James O.; Ren, Jian Biao; Warden, Antony R.

    2013-01-01

    Low cost and significant advances in technology now allow instructors to create their own virtual learning environments. Creating social interactions within a virtual space that emulates the physical classroom remains challenging. While students are familiar with virtual worlds and video meetings, they are inexperienced as virtual learners. Over a…

  6. Leading Professional Learning in Schools: Emotion in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jane; Riley, Philip; Loughran, John

    2010-01-01

    School leadership and teacher professional development are two well-defined fields of research within the education literature, yet there is relatively little research that has examined the leadership of teachers' professional development and learning. The study reported in this paper seeks to understand the experience of teachers who have…

  7. Participatory Action Research: Lessons Learned with Aboriginal Grandmothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Geraldine; Green, Kathryn L.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve older Aboriginal women in a Canadian city were trained to be co-researchers as part of a participatory health assessment and health promotion project involving 40 such women. Lessons were learned about project ownership, Native perceptions of research, use of traditions, participants' capacity to engage in research and analysis, conflict…

  8. Modes of Imprinted Gene Action in Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isles, A. R.; Humby, T.

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is now widely acknowledged that there may be a genetic contribution to learning disability and neuropsychiatric disorders, stemming from evidence provided by family, twin and adoption studies, and from explicit syndromic conditions. Recently it has been recognized that in some cases the presentation of genetic syndromes (or discrete…

  9. Problematizing Service-Learning: Critical Reflections for Development and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Trae, Ed.; Webster, Nicole, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Interest in and research on civic engagement and service-learning have increased exponentially. In this rapid growth, efforts have been made to institutionalize pedagogies of engagement across both K-12 and higher education. As a result, increased positive attention has been complemented equally by well-founded critiques complicating experiential…

  10. Student-Centered Learning: Nine Classrooms in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nave, Bill, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    What does student-centered learning look like in real-life classrooms? In this collection, educator Bill Nave and nine award-winning K-12 teachers tell the story of how and why they changed their teaching and redesigned their classrooms in order to "reach every child." They reflect on their successes and struggles to put students in…

  11. Communities in Action: Lifelong Learning for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noguchi, Fumiko; Guevara, Jose Roberto; Yorozu, Rika

    2015-01-01

    This handbook identifies principles and policy mechanisms to advance community-based learning for sustainable development based on the commitments endorsed by the participants of the "Kominkan-CLC International Conference on Education for Sustainable Development," which took place in Okayama City, Japan, in October 2014. To inform…

  12. Blended Learning and Teaching Writing: A Teacher Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camahalan, Faye Marsha G.; Ruley, Andrea G.

    2014-01-01

    This teacher research project focused on utilizing blended learning to teach writing to middle school students. The intervention was designed to fit into individual lessons needed to improve students' writing skills with the main focus on sentence structure. Sixteen (16) 7th grade students were assessed with a writing sample applying the new…

  13. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats.

    PubMed

    Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.

  14. Impact of Problem-Based Learning in a Large Classroom Setting: Student Perception and Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klegeris, Andis; Hurren, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) can be described as a learning environment where the problem drives the learning. This technique usually involves learning in small groups, which are supervised by tutors. It is becoming evident that PBL in a small-group setting has a robust positive effect on student learning and skills, including better…

  15. With you or against you: Social orientation dependent learning signals guide actions made for others

    PubMed Central

    Christopoulos, George I.; King-Casas, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    In social environments, it is crucial that decision-makers take account of the impact of their actions not only for oneself, but also on other social agents. Previous work has identified neural signals in the striatum encoding value-based prediction errors for outcomes to oneself; also, recent work suggests neural activity in prefrontal cortex may similarly encode value-based prediction errors related to outcomes to others. However, prior work also indicates that social valuations are not isomorphic, with social value orientations of decision-makers ranging on a cooperative to competitive continuum; this variation has not been examined within social learning environments. Here, we combine a computational model of learning with functional neuroimaging to examine how individual differences in orientation impact neural mechanisms underlying ‘other-value’ learning. Across four experimental conditions, reinforcement learning signals for other-value were identified in medial prefrontal cortex, and were distinct from self-value learning signals identified in striatum. Critically, the magnitude and direction of the other-value learning signal depended strongly on an individual’s cooperative or competitive orientation towards others. These data indicate that social decisions are guided by a social orientation-dependent learning system that is computationally similar but anatomically distinct from self-value learning. The sensitivity of the medial prefrontal learning signal to social preferences suggests a mechanism linking such preferences to biases in social actions and highlights the importance of incorporating heterogeneous social predispositions in neurocomputational models of social behavior. PMID:25224998

  16. With you or against you: social orientation dependent learning signals guide actions made for others.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, George I; King-Casas, Brooks

    2015-01-01

    In social environments, it is crucial that decision-makers take account of the impact of their actions not only for oneself, but also on other social agents. Previous work has identified neural signals in the striatum encoding value-based prediction errors for outcomes to oneself; also, recent work suggests that neural activity in prefrontal cortex may similarly encode value-based prediction errors related to outcomes to others. However, prior work also indicates that social valuations are not isomorphic, with social value orientations of decision-makers ranging on a cooperative to competitive continuum; this variation has not been examined within social learning environments. Here, we combine a computational model of learning with functional neuroimaging to examine how individual differences in orientation impact neural mechanisms underlying 'other-value' learning. Across four experimental conditions, reinforcement learning signals for other-value were identified in medial prefrontal cortex, and were distinct from self-value learning signals identified in striatum. Critically, the magnitude and direction of the other-value learning signal depended strongly on an individual's cooperative or competitive orientation toward others. These data indicate that social decisions are guided by a social orientation-dependent learning system that is computationally similar but anatomically distinct from self-value learning. The sensitivity of the medial prefrontal learning signal to social preferences suggests a mechanism linking such preferences to biases in social actions and highlights the importance of incorporating heterogeneous social predispositions in neurocomputational models of social behavior.

  17. Predicting Mathematical Achievement and Mathematical Learning Disability with a Simple Screening Tool: The Number Sets Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Bailey, Drew H.; Hoard, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    The Number Sets Test was developed to assess the speed and accuracy with which children can identify and process quantities represented by Arabic numerals and object sets. The utility of this test for predicting mathematics achievement and risk for mathematical learning disability (MLD) was assessed for a sample of 223 children. A signal detection…

  18. The Process of Organizational Capacity Development in Action in Post-Conflict Setting of the Literacy Department of Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wajdi, Habibullah

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model of capacity development for public organizations in post-conflict settings. The paper reveals the challenges faced by the author as a "change agent" who tried to understand and develop the basic capacity of the Literacy Department of the Ministry of Education in Afghanistan. The author used an action-research…

  19. Hebbian learning and predictive mirror neurons for actions, sensations and emotions

    PubMed Central

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Spike-timing-dependent plasticity is considered the neurophysiological basis of Hebbian learning and has been shown to be sensitive to both contingency and contiguity between pre- and postsynaptic activity. Here, we will examine how applying this Hebbian learning rule to a system of interconnected neurons in the presence of direct or indirect re-afference (e.g. seeing/hearing one's own actions) predicts the emergence of mirror neurons with predictive properties. In this framework, we analyse how mirror neurons become a dynamic system that performs active inferences about the actions of others and allows joint actions despite sensorimotor delays. We explore how this system performs a projection of the self onto others, with egocentric biases to contribute to mind-reading. Finally, we argue that Hebbian learning predicts mirror-like neurons for sensations and emotions and review evidence for the presence of such vicarious activations outside the motor system. PMID:24778372

  20. Learning to Sleep without Perching: Reflections by Activist-Educators on Learning in Social Action in Ghanaian Social Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This article conveys results from a participatory action research (PAR) engagement with activist/educators working in Ghanaian social movements. First, this PAR group has articulated two typologies from which to understand Ghanaian social movements based on their processes of organization, communication and learning rather than merely the issues,…

  1. Action Control, Motivated Strategies, and Integrative Motivation as Predictors of Language Learning Affect and the Intention to Continue Learning French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Blackie, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the relative ability of variables from three motivational frameworks to predict four non-linguistic outcomes of language learning. The study examines Action Control Theory with its measures of (1) hesitation, (2) volatility and (3) rumination. The study also examined Pintrich's expectancy-value model that uses measures…

  2. Facilitating the Learning Process in Design-Based Learning Practices: An Investigation of Teachers' Actions in Supervising Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez Puente, S. M.; van Eijck, M.; Jochems, W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In research on design-based learning (DBL), inadequate attention is paid to the role the teacher plays in supervising students in gathering and applying knowledge to design artifacts, systems, and innovative solutions in higher education. Purpose: In this study, we examine whether teacher actions we previously identified in the DBL…

  3. The Belem Framework for Action: Harnessing the Power and Potential of Adult Learning and Education for a Viable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Learning, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the Belem Framework for Action. This framework focuses on harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. This framework begins with a preamble on adult education and towards lifelong learning.

  4. A cooperative inquiry into action learning and praxis development in a community nursing module.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Emrys R; Mabbett, Gaynor M; Surridge, Andrea G; Warring, Joanna; Gwynn, Elizabeth D

    2009-09-01

    As nurse lecturers we investigated practice development and action learning approaches aimed at enabling postregistration bachelor's- and master's-level nursing students (Community Health Studies, Nursing in the Home) to advance practice in the context of policy and professional developments. A patchwork text was used to assess summatively what students achieved (practice change/development) and how this was informed critically, via an extended epistemology. First-person inquiry supplemented by cooperative inquiry postcourse completion (including reflective discussions with 16 students and 16 practice mentors) were used to assist coresearcher constructions of meaning. A relational, tripartite approach to learning and assessment (students', teachers', and practice mentors' collective contributions) depends on continuing reflective attention. Action learning enhances interrelation of experience with dialectic thinking. The patchwork text functions to promote creative writing, evaluative thinking, and praxis development. Role modeling by all, being genuine and not just "talking" genuine, is challenging yet crucial if people are to function as mutual resources for learning.

  5. SOCAP: Lessons learned in applying SIPE-2 to the military operations crisis action planning domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desimone, Roberto

    1992-01-01

    This report describes work funded under the DARPA Planning and Scheduling Initiative that led to the development of SOCAP (System for Operations Crisis Action Planning). In particular, it describes lessons learned in applying SIPE-2, the underlying AI planning technology within SOCAP, to the domain of military operations deliberate and crisis action planning. SOCAP was demonstrated at the U.S. Central Command and at the Pentagon in early 1992. A more detailed report about the lessons learned is currently being prepared. This report was presented during one of the panel discussions on 'The Relevance of Scheduling to AI Planning Systems.'

  6. Experiential learning in nursing consultation education via clinical simulation with actors: action research.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Saionara Nunes; do Prado, Marta Lenise; Kempfer, Silvana Silveira; Martini, Jussara Gue; Caravaca-Morera, Jaime Alonso; Bernardi, Mariely Carmelina

    2015-02-01

    This was an action research study conducted during an undergraduate nursing course. The objective was to propose and implement experiential learning for nursing consultation education using clinical simulation with actors. The 4 steps of action research were followed: planning, action, observation and reflection. Three nursing undergraduate students participated in the study. Data were collected in May and July 2013 via participant comments and interviews and were analyzed in accordance with the operative proposal for qualitative data analysis. Planning included constructing and validating the clinical guides, selecting and training the actors, organizing and preparing the scenario and the issuing invitations to the participants. The action was carried out according to Kolb's (1984) 4 stages of learning cycles: Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualization and Active Experimentation. Clinical simulation involves different subjects' participation in all stages, and action research is a method that enables the clinical stimulation to be implemented. It must be guided by clear learning objectives and by a critical pedagogy that encourages critical thinking in students. Using actors and a real scenario facilitated psychological fidelity, and debriefing was the key moment of the reflective process that facilitated the integral training of students through experiential learning.

  7. BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Visuomotor Associative Learning and the Sensitivity to Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Hétu, Sébastien; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Massicotte, Elsa; De Beaumont, Louis; Fecteau, Shirley; Poirier, Judes; Mercier, Catherine; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Jackson, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Motor representations in the human mirror neuron system are tuned to respond to specific observed actions. This ability is widely believed to be influenced by genetic factors, but no study has reported a genetic variant affecting this system so far. One possibility is that genetic variants might interact with visuomotor associative learning to configure the system to respond to novel observed actions. In this perspective, we conducted a candidate gene study on the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism, a genetic variant linked to motor learning in regions of the mirror neuron system, and tested the effect of this polymorphism on motor facilitation and visuomotor associative learning. In a single-pulse TMS study carried on 16 Met (Val/Met and Met/Met) and 16 Val/Val participants selected from a large pool of healthy volunteers, Met participants showed significantly less muscle-specific corticospinal sensitivity during action observation, as well as reduced visuomotor associative learning, compared to Val homozygotes. These results are the first evidence of a genetic variant tuning sensitivity to action observation and bring to light the importance of considering the intricate relation between genetics and associative learning in order to further understand the origin and function of the human mirror neuron system. PMID:27703276

  8. Creating and Sustaining a Professional Learning Community to Impact Student Achievement on a High School Campus: An Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Dionne DeShall

    2013-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLCs) have become one of the most talked about ideas in education today. Many K-12 schools are working to become PLCs in the hope that student learning will improve when adults commit themselves to talking collaboratively about teaching and learning and then take action that will improve student learning and…

  9. Follow-up Actions on Electronic Referral Communicationin a Multispecialty Outpatient Setting

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel, Adol; Sittig, Dean F.; Murphy, Daniel; Kadiyala, Himabindu; Schiesser, Rachel; Espadas, Donna; Petersen, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES Electronic health records (EHR) enable transmission and tracking of referrals between primary-care practitioners (PCPs) and subspecialists. We used an EHR to examine follow-up actions on electronic referral communication in a large multispecialty VA facility. METHODS We retrieved outpatient referrals to five subspecialties between October 2006 and December 2007, and queried the EHR to determine their status: completed, discontinued (returned to PCP), or unresolved (no action taken by subspecialist). All unresolved referrals, and random samples of discontinued and completed referrals were reviewed to determine whether subspecialists took follow-up actions (i.e., schedule appointments anytime in the future) within 30 days of referral-receipt. For referrals without timely follow-up, we determined whether inaction was supported by any predetermined justifiable reasons or associated with certain referral characteristics. We also reviewed if PCPs took the required action on returned information. RESULTS Of 61,931 referrals, 22,535 were discontinued (36.4%), and 474 were unresolved (0.8%). We selected 412 discontinued referrals randomly for review. Of these, 52% lacked follow-up actions within 30 days. Appropriate justifications for inaction were documented in 69.8% (150/215) of those without action and included lack of prerequisite testing by the PCP and subspecialist opinion that no intervention was required despite referral. We estimated that at 30 days, 6.3% of all referrals were associated with an unexplained lack of follow-up actions by subspecialists. Conversely, 7.4% of discontinued referrals returned to PCPs were associated with an unexplained lack of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Although the EHR facilitates transmission of valuable information at the PCP-subspecialist interface, unexplained communication breakdowns in the referral process persist in a subset of cases. PMID:20848235

  10. Perceived impact on student engagement when learning middle school science in an outdoor setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbatiello, James

    Human beings have an innate need to spend time outside, but in recent years children are spending less time outdoors. It is possible that this decline in time spent outdoors could have a negative impact on child development. Science teachers can combat the decline in the amount of time children spend outside by taking their science classes outdoors for regular classroom instruction. This study identified the potential impacts that learning in an outdoor setting might have on student engagement when learning middle school science. One sixth-grade middle school class participated in this case study, and students participated in outdoor intervention lessons where the instructional environment was a courtyard on the middle school campus. The outdoor lessons consisted of the same objectives and content as lessons delivered in an indoor setting during a middle school astronomy unit. Multiple sources of data were collected including questionnaires after each lesson, a focus group, student work samples, and researcher observations. The data was triangulated, and a vignette was written about the class' experiences learning in an outdoor setting. This study found that the feeling of autonomy and freedom gained by learning in an outdoor setting, and the novelty of the outdoor environment did increase student engagement for learning middle school science. In addition, as a result of this study, more work is needed to identify how peer to peer relationships are impacted by learning outdoors, how teachers could best utilize the outdoor setting for regular science instruction, and how learning in an outdoor setting might impact a feeling of stewardship for the environment in young adults.

  11. Managerial Action and Sensemaking in E-Learning Implementation in Brazilian Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Angilberto Sabino; Bandeira-de-Mello, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The existing literature on e-learning implementation is either descriptive or normative and falls short on explaining how managers act in introducing and disseminating e-learning projects in school settings. In this paper, we follow a symbolic approach in order to offer a grounded model for explaining how managerial framing of the introduction of…

  12. Picturing Service-Learning: Defining the Field, Setting Expectations, Shaping Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, David M.; Fenner, Derek; Mitchell, Tania D.

    2015-01-01

    This study used content analysis and audiencing to understand how service-learning is presented visually by institutions of higher education and interpreted by college students. Data included 834 photographs from the service-learning web pages of 63 four-year institutions in California. The majority showed a narrow range of direct service…

  13. Mobile Learning: Two Case Studies of Supporting Inquiry Learning in Informal and Semiformal Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ann C.; Scanlon, Eileen; Clough, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Mobile technologies can support learning across different contexts as their portability enables them to be used by the learner in whichever context she or he is in. They can be particularly beneficial in informal and semiformal contexts where learners have more control over their learning goals and where motivation is often high. Inquiries in…

  14. Could We Make Diverse Learning Materials Compatible with E-Readers Used in Classroom Learning Settings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching; Lin, Wei-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how to make diverse learning/instructional materials compatible with e-readers when the instructor pioneered to adopt e-readers into a course of the graduate level. What problems did the instructor encounter when she used the e-readers as a major tool to deliver learning contents, such as the process of converting the…

  15. Building a community of practice for sustainability: strengthening learning and collective action of Canadian biosphere reserves through a national partnership.

    PubMed

    Reed, Maureen G; Godmaire, Hélène; Abernethy, Paivi; Guertin, Marc-André

    2014-12-01

    Deliberation, dialogue and systematic learning are now considered attributes of good practice for organizations seeking to advance sustainability. Yet we do not know whether organizations that span spatial scales and governance responsibilities can establish effective communities of practice to facilitate learning and action. The purpose of this paper is to generate a framework that specifies actions and processes of a community of practice designed to instill collective learning and action strategies across a multi-level, multi-partner network. The framework is then used to describe and analyze a partnership among practitioners of Canada's 16 UNESCO biosphere reserves, and additional researchers and government representatives from across Canada. The framework is a cycle of seven action steps, beginning and ending with reflecting on and evaluating present practice. It is supported by seven characteristics of collaborative environmental management that are used to gauge the success of the partnership. Our results show that the partnership successfully built trust, established shared norms and common interest, created incentives to participate, generated value in information sharing and willingness to engage, demonstrated effective flow of information, and provided leadership and facilitation. Key to success was the presence of a multi-lingual facilitator who could bridge cultural differences across regions and academia-practitioner expectations. The project succeeded in establishing common goals, setting mutual expectations and building relations of trust and respect, and co-creating knowledge. It is too soon to determine whether changes in practices that support sustainability will be maintained over the long term and without the help of an outside facilitator.

  16. Teaching students to think spatially through embodied actions: Design principles for learning environments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

    PubMed

    DeSutter, D; Stieff, M

    2017-01-01

    Spatial thinking is a vital component of the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curriculum. However, to date, broad development of learning environments that target domain-specific spatial thinking is incomplete. The present article visits the problem of improving spatial thinking by first reviewing the evidence that the human mind is embodied: that cognition, memory, and knowledge representation maintain traces of sensorimotor impressions from acting and perceiving in a physical environment. In particular, we review the evidence that spatial cognition and the ways that humans perceive and conceive of space are embodied. We then propose a set of design principles to aid researchers, designers, and practitioners in creating and evaluating learning environments that align principled embodied actions to targets of spatial thinking in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  17. The path to learning: action acquisition is impaired when visual reinforcement signals must first access cortex.

    PubMed

    Thirkettle, Martin; Walton, Thomas; Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin; Redgrave, Peter; Stafford, Tom

    2013-04-15

    Animals, interacting with the environment, learn and exploit the consequences of their movements. Fundamental to this is the pairing of salient sensory input with recent motor output to form an action-outcome pair linking a performed movement with its outcome. Short-latency dopamine (DA) signalling in the basal ganglia has been proposed to support this crucial task. For visual stimuli, this DA signalling is triggered at short latency by input from the superior colliculus (SC). While some aspects of the visual signal (e.g. luminance), are relayed directly to the SC via the retinotectal projection, other information unavailable to this subcortical pathway must take a more circuitous route to the SC, first submitting to early visual processing in cortex. By comparing action-outcome pairing when the visual stimulus denoting success was immediately available to the SC, via the retinotectal pathway, against that when cortical processing of the signal was required, the impact this additional sensory processing has on action-outcome learning can be established. We found that action acquisition was significantly impaired when the action was reinforced by a stimulus ineligible for the retinotectal pathway. Furthermore, we found that when the stimulus was eligible for the retinotectal pathway but evoked an increased latency, action acquisition was not impaired. These results suggest that the afferent sensory pathway via the SC is certainly primary and possibly instrumental to the DA neurons' role in the discovery of novel actions and that the differences found are not due to simple sensory latency.

  18. Consistency of Learning Styles of Undergraduate Athletic Training Students in the Traditional Classroom versus the Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Coker, Cheryl A.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To examine the learning styles of undergraduate athletic training students to determine their consistency in traditional classroom versus clinical settings. Design and Setting: Subjects completed the Learning Styles Inventory twice, once focusing on learning new information in the classroom and the other focusing on learning new information in the clinical setting. The order of focus regarding setting (classroom or clinical) was counterbalanced across subjects. Subjects: A total of 26 undergraduate athletic training students from a Committee on the Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs accredited athletic training education program (16 women and 10 men; mean age, 24.42 ± 6.44 years) who were currently assigned to a clinical practicum as part of their academic program served as subjects. Measurements: I performed 4 paired t tests, 1 for each learning mode, to determine if differences existed between the classroom and clinical settings. The percentage of respondents whose learning styles changed across settings was also calculated. Results: The paired t tests revealed a significant difference between the Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation modes across settings. In addition, 58% of respondents' learning styles changed according to setting focus. Conclusions: It appears that learning styles do indeed shift, depending on the domain through which an individual is learning. Consequently, teaching strategies incorporated in 1 setting may not be equally effective in the other setting. Each learning setting should, therefore, be treated separately in order to accommodate individual learning styles and maximize learning achievement. Furthermore, if learning styles are to be considered when designing athletic training education, these findings indicate that in order to ensure the validity of the resulting learning style profile, it may be necessary to provide the respondent with a specific focus, either that of a classroom or clinical

  19. Collaborative action learning: a professional development model for educational innovation in nursing.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Annette; Spratt, Christine; Reilly, Amanda

    2008-05-01

    The paper describes the processes and outcomes of a major curriculum innovation which was conducted by a collaborative multi-disciplinary team (nurse academics, educational developers and software developers). The paper argues that collaborative professional development in pedagogical innovation in nursing can be successfully supported by action learning as a framework for practice. In presenting this argument the paper draws on the experience of the School of Nursing and Midwifery (SNM) at the University of Tasmania in integrating high-fidelity simulation-based learning into an existing undergraduate case-based learning curriculum in the three year Bachelor of Nursing (BN).

  20. Are people successful at learning sequences of actions on a perceptual matching task?

    PubMed

    Yakushijin, Reiko; Jacobs, Robert A

    2011-07-01

    We report the results of an experiment in which human subjects were trained to perform a perceptual matching task. Subjects were asked to manipulate comparison objects until they matched target objects using the fewest manipulations possible. An unusual feature of the experimental task is that efficient performance requires an understanding of the hidden or latent causal structure governing the relationships between actions and perceptual outcomes. We use two benchmarks to evaluate the quality of subjects' learning. One benchmark is based on optimal performance as calculated by a dynamic programming procedure. The other is based on an adaptive computational agent that uses a reinforcement-learning method known as Q-learning to learn to perform the task. Our analyses suggest that subjects were successful learners. In particular, they learned to perform the perceptual matching task in a near-optimal manner (i.e., using a small number of manipulations) at the end of training. Subjects were able to achieve near-optimal performance because they learned, at least partially, the causal structure underlying the task. In addition, subjects' performances were broadly consistent with those of model-based reinforcement-learning agents that built and used internal models of how their actions influenced the external environment. We hypothesize that people will achieve near-optimal performances on tasks requiring sequences of action-especially sensorimotor tasks with underlying latent causal structures-when they can detect the effects of their actions on the environment, and when they can represent and reason about these effects using an internal mental model.

  1. Learning to Be Interdisciplinary: An Action Research Approach to Boundary Spanning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Jeris, Laurel

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study explored challenges and barriers that need to be addressed in a preprofessional educational setting to provide opportunities for boundary spanning that leads to family-centred interdisciplinary service provision. Design: The design employed in this study was participatory action research, an inductive approach. Setting: The…

  2. The DiabetAction Program: Implementation in Community-Based Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Brochu, Martin; Beliveau, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Developed for specialists who want to increase the physical activity (PA) level of type 2 diabetic and at-risk individuals, the 10-week DiabetAction program introduced participants to a wide variety of cardiovascular, resistance, balance, and flexibility exercises. Thirty-three of 48 individuals completed the intervention in community-based…

  3. Facilitating the learning process in design-based learning practices: an investigation of teachers' actions in supervising students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Puente, S. M.; van Eijck, M.; Jochems, W.

    2013-11-01

    Background: In research on design-based learning (DBL), inadequate attention is paid to the role the teacher plays in supervising students in gathering and applying knowledge to design artifacts, systems, and innovative solutions in higher education. Purpose: In this study, we examine whether teacher actions we previously identified in the DBL literature as important in facilitating learning processes and student supervision are present in current DBL engineering practices. Sample: The sample (N=16) consisted of teachers and supervisors in two engineering study programs at a university of technology: mechanical and electrical engineering. We selected randomly teachers from freshman and second-year bachelor DBL projects responsible for student supervision and assessment. Design and method: Interviews with teachers, and interviews and observations of supervisors were used to examine how supervision and facilitation actions are applied according to the DBL framework. Results: Major findings indicate that formulating questions is the most common practice seen in facilitating learning in open-ended engineering design environments. Furthermore, other DBL actions we expected to see based upon the literature were seldom observed in the coaching practices within these two programs. Conclusions: Professionalization of teachers in supervising students need to include methods to scaffold learning by supporting students in reflecting and in providing formative feedback.

  4. Automation of learning-set testing - The video-task paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1989-01-01

    Researchers interested in studying discrimination learning in primates have typically utilized variations in the Wisconsin General Test Apparatus (WGTA). In the present experiment, a new testing apparatus for the study of primate learning is proposed. In the video-task paradigm, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) respond to computer-generated stimuli by manipulating a joystick. Using this apparatus, discrimination learning-set data for 2 monkeys were obtained. Performance on Trial 2 exceeded 80 percent within 200 discrimination learning problems. These data illustrate the utility of the video-task paradigm in comparative research. Additionally, the efficient learning and rich data that were characteristic of this study suggest several advantages of the present testing paradigm over traditional WGTA testing.

  5. Nurses learn caring theory by being co-researchers in a surgical setting.

    PubMed

    Boussaid, Lena; Dahlgren, Monica; Lindwall, Lillemor

    2012-05-01

    This paper present findings from research on the following issues: How nurses from surgical unit learn a caring theory by being co-researchers in a research group. The aim was to describe the learning process of the nurses when they were co-researchers in a research group. The study has a qualitative design and a hermeneutical approach. Data were collected through interviews with seven registered nurses in hospital in mid Sweden. The study shows that nurses learn caring by listening to each other. Four sub-themes emerged through the interpretation: Nurses learn caring theory by listening to each other when they are; giving time to talk to one another, expressing their actions in words, sharing thoughts with others and allowing themselves to be touched by each other's stories. The new understanding highlights that learning in research groups can be understood as a learning process, where nurses listen to one another and thereby create an expression and meaning of their experiences through caring theory, while at the same time developing their profession. Nurses learn caring theory by being co-researchers in a research group. In order for this to happen, the research collaboration should be characterized by realism and engagement.

  6. Studying learning in the healthcare setting: the potential of quantitative diary methods.

    PubMed

    Ciere, Yvette; Jaarsma, Debbie; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Snippe, Evelien; Fleer, Joke

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative diary methods are longitudinal approaches that involve the repeated measurement of aspects of peoples' experience of daily life. In this article, we outline the main characteristics and applications of quantitative diary methods and discuss how their use may further research in the field of medical education. Quantitative diary methods offer several methodological advantages, such as measuring aspects of learning with great detail, accuracy and authenticity. Moreover, they enable researchers to study how and under which conditions learning in the health care setting occurs and in which way learning can be promoted. Hence, quantitative diary methods may contribute to theory development and the optimization of teaching methods in medical education.

  7. "Scaffolding" of Action Learning within a Part-Time Management Development Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joesbury, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This Account of Practice describes the introduction and development of action learning within a level 5 module of "Communications at Work" delivered as part of a Business & Technology Education Council (BTEC) Professional Certificate in Management (CMS) between 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. This will commence with a personal narrative and…

  8. Implementing Experiential Action Learning in International Management Education: The Global Business Strategic (GLOBUSTRAT) Consulting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamath, Shyam; Agrawal, Jagdish; Krickx, Guido

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the theoretical foundations and implementation challenges and outcomes of a unique "hands-on" global consulting program that is integrated into an international EMBA program for mid-career and senior American and European managers. It details the challenges for the integration of experiential action learning, double-loop…

  9. Doing Poverty: Learning Outcomes among Students Participating in the Community Action Poverty Simulation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steck, Laura West; Engler, Jennifer N.; Ligon, Mary; Druen, Perri B.; Cosgrove, Erin

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses an application of the Lewinian/Kolb experiential learning model in the context of undergraduate participation in the Missouri Community Action Poverty Simulation (CAPS) program. CAPS is designed to simulate common, everyday experiences among people living in poverty as participants take on the roles of family members working…

  10. Impact of Action Learning on Entrepreneurial Traits and Inclination: Evidence from a Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Hilleas Chi Hang; Man, Thomas Wing Yan

    2012-01-01

    Based on a comparative survey supplemented with focus group interviews, it was found that an action learning activity in an entrepreneurship programme produced both positive and negative results with regard to the entrepreneurial traits of students and their inclination towards entrepreneurship, depending on the influence of external and…

  11. Integrating Teaching, Learning, and Action Research: Enhancing Instruction in the K-12 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Ernest T.; Christensen, Lois McFadyen; Baldwin, Shelia C.

    2010-01-01

    This book demonstrates how teachers can use action research as an integral component of teaching and learning. The text uses examples and lesson plans to demonstrate how student research processes can be incorporated into classroom lessons that are linked to standards. Key features of this book are: (1) Guides teachers through systematic steps of…

  12. Action Learning in Higher Education: An Investigation of Its Potential to Develop Professional Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizzio, Alf; Wilson, Keithia

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which a course, designed using peer and action learning principles to function as an 'on campus practicum', can develop the professional capabilities of students. As part of their formal coursework, third year behavioural science students, functioning as 'student consultants', entered into a…

  13. Teacher Professional Development through Collaborative Action Research: Impact on Foreign English-Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banegas, Dario; Pavese, Anahi; Velazquez, Aurelia; Velez, Sandra Maria

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 we, a group of English-as-a-foreign-language teachers at a secondary school in Argentina, decided to investigate our teaching practices through collaborative action research so as to improve our students' learning opportunities and thus revitalise English-language teaching in our context. We implemented and evaluated the integration of…

  14. Using Action Research to Teach Students to Manage Team Learning and Improve Teamwork Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Ladd, Brenda; Chan, Christopher C. A.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study investigating strategies that students can use to develop skills in managing team learning. Two groups of second-year management students participated in a semester-long action research project over two semesters. The students were educated on team development, team processes and conflict management and how to…

  15. A Partnership Approach to Action Learning within a Masters Educational Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patricia; Edwards, Carys

    2012-01-01

    This account of practice provides a practical example of the use of action learning within a masters educational programme, an MA in Change Management designed and delivered by a collaborative partnership between the Isle of Anglesey County Council (ACC) and Liverpool Business School (LBS), Liverpool John Moores University. The account has been…

  16. Managing the Action/Reflection Polarity Through Dialogue: A Path to Transformative Learning. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laiken, Marilyn E.

    At the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Ontario, a course entitled Developing and Leading High Performing Teams: Theory and Practice is experimenting with a design that surfaces the action/reflection paradox for the purpose of learning how to manage this polarity. Whether the product is defined as services or goods,…

  17. Learning and Teaching Breathing and Oboe Playing: Action Research in a Conservatoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Helena

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents findings from action research in a conservatoire (the Guildhall School of Music & Drama) which focused on teaching and learning effective breathing in playing the oboe. A range of approaches and techniques emerged from a literature review. These were implemented in practice with oboe students at the Guildhall School, and…

  18. Kanbay's Global Leadership Development Program: A Case Study of Virtual Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Catherine; Johnson, Carrie

    2005-01-01

    This study examines action learning as a vehicle for the transfer of organizational values in a multi-cultural, virtual-team based leadership development process. A Case Study of Kanbay International's Global Leadership Development Program is used as a lens through which HRD researchers and practitioners may glimpse new possibilities for the…

  19. Evaluating STAR--A Transformative Learning Framework: Interdisciplinary Action Research in Health Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Margaret; Oprescu, Florin; Downer, Teresa; Lyons, Michael; Pelly, Fiona; Barr, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Transformative learning aims to awaken students to issues of injustice, and to promote their critical analysis of assumptions, beliefs and values that lead to and sustain social inequities, so that they may become agents of social change. This paper introduces the Sensitise Take Action and Reflection (STAR) framework, which encapsulates…

  20. An Action Research Study on the Effect of Interactive Technology and Active Learning on Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, Teresa J.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative action science research study utilized a causal-comparative experimental research design in order to determine if the use of student response systems (clickers), as an active learning strategy in a community college course, improved student performance in the course. Students in the experimental group (n = 26) used clickers to…

  1. Service Learning Experience and Undergraduate Leadership Behaviors: An Action Research Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenary, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Service-learning has been shown to be an effective practice that positively affects students' academic achievement, self-esteem, and problem-solving skills (Billig, 2002; Eyler & Giles, 1999; Wilczenski & Coomey, 2007). This mixed-method action research case study was conducted to explore the possible link between service-learning…

  2. A Contribution to the Discussion on Participant Readiness for Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breathnach, Catherine; Stephenson, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The authors explore their experience of a course for long-term unemployed people and reflect as to whether the traits identified by Tom Bourner on readiness for action learning actually relate to their experience. They conclude that based on the obvious development by the members of the group over the course, they observed, in some small way, the…

  3. Doing Right in Business: Can Action Learning Develop Moral Sensitivity and Promote Ethical Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Cheryl; Christy, Gill

    2013-01-01

    The question addressed in this paper is whether action learning as a management development technique can be more effective in promoting ethical decision-making than more traditional approaches. Recent examples of moral failures which have emerged in both corporate and public sector organisations in the UK during recent years have prompted a…

  4. Reflections on "Creative" Action Learning in Business Education: Some Issues in Its Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Cheryl; Milner, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider some issues in the uses of what we have termed "creative" action learning in a business education context, and to review some aspects of its practice. A review of the literature, including its use in higher education, is followed by a case illustration of its use in a UK business school with…

  5. Engaging Preservice Teachers in Action Research to Enhance Awareness of Second Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin, Hanizah; Moore, Rashid A.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines a study on how preservice teachers enhance their understanding of theory and research in second language learning through an action research project that took place in a TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) education course. The study focuses on how interaction with English language learners (ELLs)…

  6. The Learning of Visually Guided Action: An Information-Space Analysis of Pole Balancing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, David M.; Vaz, Daniela V.; Michaels, Claire F.

    2012-01-01

    In cart-pole balancing, one moves a cart in 1 dimension so as to balance an attached inverted pendulum. We approached perception-action and learning in this task from an ecological perspective. This entailed identifying a space of informational variables that balancers use as they perform the task and demonstrating that they improve by traversing…

  7. Using Participatory Action Research to Increase Learning Transfer of Recovery-Based Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barish, Diane J.

    2009-01-01

    This study questions whether or not participatory action research is an effective and practical method for increasing learning transfer of recovery-based principles. The participants (N = 250) were ethnically and educationally diverse clinicians, in an urban state mental health institute. The Self-Assessment of Recovery-Based Behaviors survey ( n…

  8. Rethinking Approaches to Working with Children Who Challenge: Action Learning for Emancipatory Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNaughton, Glenda; Hughes, Patrick; Smith, Kylie

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an action-learning project that helped teachers to rethink their approaches to children who challenge. The project enabled and encouraged teachers to reflect critically on why and how particular children challenged them and then to use their critical reflections to strengthen their capacity to work with those children. The…

  9. Conversations outside the Comfort Zone: Identity Formation in SME Manager Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lisa; Gold, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider the construction of narrative identity and particularly how managers of small businesses may construct new narrative identities within the activity of the action learning situation. We build on recent work to suggest that the "world" of managers can be explored through a consideration of Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory…

  10. Bridging the Generation Gap: "Growing Golf" through an Action Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbert, Norb; Cumiskey, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an action learning simulation designed for a Professional Golf Management (PGM) program housed in a College of Business of a public university. The PGA Golf Management University Program, a 4.5- to 5-year college curriculum for aspiring PGA Professionals is offered at 19 PGA accredited universities nationwide. The program…

  11. Promoting Students' Motivation in Learning Physical Science--An Action Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Hsiao-Lin; Chin, Chi-Chin; Tsai, Chih-Chung

    This study reported how four science teachers used action research to promote their students' motivation in learning physical science. Four teachers with one of their 8th grade physical science classes participated in the study. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research design were used in the study, and data collection included…

  12. Enacting Change through Action Learning: Mobilizing and Managing Power and Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, James; Cohen-Schneider, Rochelle; Linkewich, Beth; Legault, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of how action learning facilitates the movement of knowledge between social contexts. The study involved a community organization that provides educational services related to aphasia and members of a complex continuing care (CCC) practice that received training from the agency. People with aphasia (PWA) (a disability…

  13. Action-Based Digital Tools: Mathematics Learning in 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; Desoete, Annemie; Fonck, Nathalie; Roderiguez, Dave; Six, Leen; Vermeersch, Tine; Vermeulen, Lies

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study we used a metaphorical representation in order to stimulate the numerical competences of six-year-olds. It was expected that when properties of physical action are used for mathematical thinking or when abstract mathematical thinking is grounded in sensorimotor processes, learning gains should be more pronounced…

  14. Supplemental action learning workshops: Understanding the effects of independent and cooperative workshops on students' knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Kathryn Michelle

    Community colleges enroll more than half of the undergraduate population in the United States, thereby retaining students of varying demographics with extracurricular demands differing from traditional four-year university students. Often in a collegiate lecture course, students are limited in their abilities to absorb and process information presented by their instructors due to content-specific cognitive gaps between the instructor and the student (Preszler, 2009). Research has shown that implementation of instructor-facilitated action learning workshops as supplemental instruction may help bridge these cognitive gaps allowing better student conceptualization and dissemination of knowledge (Drake, 2011; Fullilove & Treisman, 1990; Preszler, 2009; Udovic, Morris, Dickman, Postlethwait, & Wetherwax, 2002). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cooperative action learning workshops and independent action learning workshops on students' knowledge of specified topics within a General Biology I with lab course. The results of this investigation indicate that implementation of an instructor-facilitated action learning workshop did not affect students' knowledge gain; furthermore, attendance of a particular workshop style (independent or cooperative) did not affect students' knowledge gain.

  15. Dynamic mesolimbic dopamine signaling during action sequence learning and expectation violation

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Anne L.; Greenfield, Venuz Y.; Bye, Jeffrey K.; Linker, Kay E.; Wang, Alice S.; Wassum, Kate M.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged mesolimbic dopamine concentration changes have been detected during spatial navigation, but little is known about the conditions that engender this signaling profile or how it develops with learning. To address this, we monitored dopamine concentration changes in the nucleus accumbens core of rats throughout acquisition and performance of an instrumental action sequence task. Prolonged dopamine concentration changes were detected that ramped up as rats executed each action sequence and declined after earned reward collection. With learning, dopamine concentration began to rise increasingly earlier in the execution of the sequence and ultimately backpropagated away from stereotyped sequence actions, becoming only transiently elevated by the most distal and unexpected reward predictor. Action sequence-related dopamine signaling was reactivated in well-trained rats if they became disengaged in the task and in response to an unexpected change in the value, but not identity of the earned reward. Throughout training and test, dopamine signaling correlated with sequence performance. These results suggest that action sequences can engender a prolonged mode of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core and that such signaling relates to elements of the motivation underlying sequence execution and is dynamic with learning, overtraining and violations in reward expectation. PMID:26869075

  16. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children's language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children's math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers' structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness.

  17. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children’s language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children’s math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers’ structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness. PMID:22665945

  18. Setting action levels for drinking water: are we protecting our health or our economy (or our backs!)?

    PubMed

    Reimann, Clemens; Banks, David

    2004-10-01

    Clean and healthy drinking water is important for life. Drinking water can be drawn from streams, lakes and rivers, directly collected (and stored) from rain, acquired by desalination of ocean water and melting of ice or it can be extracted from groundwater resources. Groundwater may reach the earth's surface in the form of springs or can be extracted via dug or drilled wells; it also contributes significantly to river baseflow. Different water quality issues have to be faced when utilising these different water resources. Some of these are at present largely neglected in water quality regulations. This paper focuses on the inorganic chemical quality of natural groundwater. Possible health effects, the problems of setting meaningful action levels or maximum admissible concentrations (MAC-values) for drinking water, and potential shortcomings in current legislation are discussed. An approach to setting action levels based on transparency, toxicological risk assessment, completeness, and identifiable responsibility is suggested.

  19. Toward Solutions: The Work of the Physics Action-Research Group. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Roger; Schollum, Brendan

    In the action-research phase of the Learning in Science Project, four groups of people worked on problems identified in the project's second (in-depth) phase. The Physics action-research group considered problems related to the teaching and learning of ideas associated with force and motion, suggesting that children's ideas of these concepts might…

  20. Speech-language pathologists' informal learning in healthcare settings: behaviours and motivations.

    PubMed

    Walden, Patrick R; Bryan, Valerie C

    2011-08-01

    The current research sought to identify the types of informal learning behaviours speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in healthcare settings engage in as well as SLPs' motivations for engaging in informal learning. Twenty-four American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA)-certified SLPs participated in this qualitative study. Data collection consisted of computer-mediated interviews, online journaling, and a virtual focus group. These textual data were coded and collapsed into themes. All participant SLPs reported that they learned through collaboration (inter- and intra-disciplinary), worked with patients to learn through trial-and-error, and consulted non-peer-reviewed material on the internet as well as peer-reviewed research in order to learn informally in the workplace. Eighteen of the 24 participants reported being motivated to learn at work to meet a patient's need to meet therapy goals. Five of the 24 participants reported meeting their own personal learning needs was a motivating factor and 10 of the 24 participants reported learning informally to meet the needs of the healthcare organization/SLP profession. Results were compared to past research on SLPs' information retrieval behaviours. It was concluded that SLPs acknowledge their personal work-related gaps in knowledge and skills and actively seek to develop their knowledge and skill base through informal means.

  1. Human Dorsal Striatum Encodes Prediction Errors during Observational Learning of Instrumental Actions

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jeffrey C.; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O’Doherty, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of others. In this study, we investigated the extent to which human dorsal striatum is involved in observational as well as experiential instrumental reward learning. Human participants were scanned with fMRI while they observed a confederate over a live video performing an instrumental conditioning task to obtain liquid juice rewards. Participants also performed a similar instrumental task for their own rewards. Using a computational model-based analysis, we found reward prediction errors in the dorsal striatum not only during the experiential learning condition but also during observational learning. These results suggest a key role for the dorsal striatum in learning instrumental associations, even when those associations are acquired purely by observing others. PMID:21812568

  2. Contextual taste cues modulate olfactory learning in C. elegans by an occasion-setting mechanism.

    PubMed

    Law, Eric; Nuttley, William M; van der Kooy, Derek

    2004-07-27

    Manipulations of context can affect learning and memory performance across species in many associative learning paradigms. Using taste cues to create distinct contexts for olfactory adaptation assays in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we now show that performance in this associative learning paradigm is sensitive to context manipulations, and we investigate the mechanism(s) used for the integration of context cues in learning. One possibility is that the taste and olfactory stimuli are perceived as a combined, blended cue that the animals then associate with the unconditioned stimulus (US) in the same manner as with any other unitary conditioned stimuli (CS). Alternatively, an occasion-setting model suggests that the taste cues only define the appropriate context for olfactory memory retrieval without directly entering into the primary association. Analysis of genetic mutants demonstrated that the olfactory and context cues are sensed by distinct primary sensory neurons and that the animals' ability to use taste cues to modulate olfactory learning is independent from their ability to utilize these same taste cues for adaptation. We interpret these results as evidence for the occasion-setting mechanism in which context cues modulate primary Pavlovian association by functioning in a hierarchical manner to define the appropriate setting for memory recall.

  3. Robust autonomous model learning from 2D and 3D data sets.

    PubMed

    Langs, Georg; Donner, René; Peloschek, Philipp; Bischof, Horst

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose a weakly supervised learning algorithm for appearance models based on the minimum description length (MDL) principle. From a set of training images or volumes depicting examples of an anatomical structure, correspondences for a set of landmarks are established by group-wise registration. The approach does not require any annotation. In contrast to existing methods no assumptions about the topology of the data are made, and the topology can change throughout the data set. Instead of a continuous representation of the volumes or images, only sparse finite sets of interest points are used to represent the examples during optimization. This enables the algorithm to efficiently use distinctive points, and to handle texture variations robustly. In contrast to standard elasticity based deformation constraints the MDL criterion accounts for systematic deformations typical for training sets stemming from medical image data. Experimental results are reported for five different 2D and 3D data sets.

  4. Service Users' Views of Physical Restraint Procedures in Secure Settings for People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter; Kroese, Biza Stenfert

    2007-01-01

    The appropriateness and justification of physical restraint procedures in secure learning disability settings is an emotive issue. This paper examines the views of service users (n = 10) from secure residential facilities who are restrained frequently. Using a semi-structured interview schedule, Service users were interviewed about their restraint…

  5. Effects of Instructional Set on Bender Recall Performance of Learning Disabled and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sczechowicz, Edward; Hinrichsen, James J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-eight normal and 28 learning disabled children were given the Bender-Gestalt Test under instructional sets of low (standard) attention or high attention. Results failed to support the hypothesis that high attention instructions would lead to differential recall performance of the diagnostic groups.

  6. Motivating the Learning of Science Topics in Secondary School: A Constructivist Edutainment Setting for Studying Chaos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertacchini, Francesca; Bilotta, Eleonora; Pantano, Pietro; Tavernise, Assunta

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an Edutainment (education plus entertainment) secondary school setting based on the construction of artifacts and manipulation of virtual contents (images, sound, and music) connected to Chaos. This interactive learning environment also foresees the use of a virtual theatre, by which students can manipulate 3D contents…

  7. The Collegiate Learning Assessment: Setting Standards for Performance at a College or University. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardison, Chaitra M.; Vilamovska, Anna-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) is a measure of how much students' critical thinking improves after attending college or university. This report illustrates how institutions can set their own standards on the CLA using a method that is appropriate for the CLA's unique characteristics. The authors examined evidence of reliability and…

  8. Theorizing the Effects of Class, Gender, and Race on Adult Learning in Nonformal and Informal Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Margaret L.

    Recent empirical and theoretical literature was reviewed to examine how the dynamics of class, gender, and race affect adult learning in nonformal and informal settings. The following were among the key findings: (1) social dynamics such as class, gender, and race influence individuals' development of their self or subjectivity, which in turn…

  9. Our Stories about Teaching and Learning: A Pedagogy of Consequence for Yukon First Nation Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Owen, Thomas; Doiron, Ashley; McMillan, Barbara; Renaud, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this study, First Nation community members in Canada's Yukon Territory share their stories about teaching and learning, both in informal and formal settings, in an effort to identify practices that might serve teachers to be more responsive to their First Nation students. In all, 52 community members between the ages of 15 and 82 shared their…

  10. Learning Steps: A Handbook for Persons Working with Deaf-Blind Children in Residential Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwestern Region Deaf-Blind Center, Sacramento, CA.

    The handbook for persons working with deaf blind children in residential settings includes general suggestions, specific teaching activities, and an introduction to sign language. The book is based on the John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf Blind Children. General suggestions are provided for topics such…

  11. The Effect of Interactive Technology on Informal Learning and Performance in a Social Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boileau, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    This study is based on a qualitative multiple case study research design using a mixed methods approach to provide insight into the effect of interactive technology on informal learning and performance in a social business setting inhabited by knowledge workers. The central phenomenon examined is the variance in behavioral intention towards…

  12. Conservation Learning in Wildlife Tourism Settings: Lessons from Research in Zoos and Aquariums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Packer, Jan; Hughes, Karen; Dierking, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Zoos and aquariums have shifted their focus over recent years, taking a much more active role in wildlife conservation and in promoting conservation learning among their visitors. Research in these settings provides a valuable foundation for the emerging field of non-captive wildlife tourism. In particular, valuable lessons regarding the potential…

  13. Using Computational Chemistry Activities to Promote Learning and Retention in a Secondary School General Chemistry Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochterski, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of using state-of-the-art, research-quality software as a learning tool in a general chemistry secondary school classroom setting. I present three activities designed to introduce fundamental chemical concepts regarding molecular shape and atomic orbitals to students with little background in chemistry, such as…

  14. Data Literacy: Real-World Learning through Problem-Solving with Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Robin W., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of deep learning by secondary students requires teaching approaches that draw students into task commitment, integrated curricula, and analytical thinking. By using real-world data sets in project based instructional units, teachers can guide students in analyzing, interpreting, and reporting quantitative data. Working with…

  15. The Interplay of Space, Place and Identity: Transforming Our Learning Experiences in an Outdoor Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Alice L. E. V.; Wright, W. Alan; Strean, William B.; Watson, Gavan P. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we use a day-long professional development workshop for higher education faculty conducted in an outdoor setting as the starting point for an examination of the value of such activities. We explore the potential benefits, in terms of learning and holistic well-being, of educational activities designed to provide participants with…

  16. Does individual learning styles influence the choice to use a web-based ECG learning programme in a blended learning setting?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The compressed curriculum in modern knowledge-intensive medicine demands useful tools to achieve approved learning aims in a limited space of time. Web-based learning can be used in different ways to enhance learning. Little is however known regarding its optimal utilisation. Our aim was to investigate if the individual learning styles of medical students influence the choice to use a web-based ECG learning programme in a blended learning setting. Methods The programme, with three types of modules (learning content, self-assessment questions and interactive ECG interpretation training), was offered on a voluntary basis during a face to face ECG learning course for undergraduate medical students. The Index of Learning Styles (ILS) and a general questionnaire including questions about computer and Internet usage, preferred future speciality and prior experience of E-learning were used to explore different factors related to the choice of using the programme or not. Results 93 (76%) out of 123 students answered the ILS instrument and 91 the general questionnaire. 55 students (59%) were defined as users of the web-based ECG-interpretation programme. Cronbach's alpha was analysed with coefficients above 0.7 in all of the four dimensions of ILS. There were no significant differences with regard to learning styles, as assessed by ILS, between the user and non-user groups; Active/Reflective; Visual/Verbal; Sensing/Intuitive; and Sequential/Global (p = 0.56-0.96). Neither did gender, prior experience of E-learning or preference for future speciality differ between groups. Conclusion Among medical students, neither learning styles according to ILS, nor a number of other characteristics seem to influence the choice to use a web-based ECG programme. This finding was consistent also when the usage of the different modules in the programme were considered. Thus, the findings suggest that web-based learning may attract a broad variety of medical students. PMID:22248183

  17. The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources – findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). Methods This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Results The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. Conclusions District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to

  18. Cognitive control over learning: Creating, clustering and generalizing task-set structure

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Anne G.E.; Frank, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Executive functions and learning share common neural substrates essential for their expression, notably in prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. Understanding how they interact requires studying how cognitive control facilitates learning, but also how learning provides the (potentially hidden) structure, such as abstract rules or task-sets, needed for cognitive control. We investigate this question from three complementary angles. First, we develop a new computational “C-TS” (context-task-set) model inspired by non-parametric Bayesian methods, specifying how the learner might infer hidden structure and decide whether to re-use that structure in new situations, or to create new structure. Second, we develop a neurobiologically explicit model to assess potential mechanisms of such interactive structured learning in multiple circuits linking frontal cortex and basal ganglia. We systematically explore the link betweens these levels of modeling across multiple task demands. We find that the network provides an approximate implementation of high level C-TS computations, where manipulations of specific neural mechanisms are well captured by variations in distinct C-TS parameters. Third, this synergism across models yields strong predictions about the nature of human optimal and suboptimal choices and response times during learning. In particular, the models suggest that participants spontaneously build task-set structure into a learning problem when not cued to do so, which predicts positive and negative transfer in subsequent generalization tests. We provide evidence for these predictions in two experiments and show that the C-TS model provides a good quantitative fit to human sequences of choices in this task. These findings implicate a strong tendency to interactively engage cognitive control and learning, resulting in structured abstract representations that afford generalization opportunities, and thus potentially long-term rather than short-term optimality. PMID

  19. [Nursing students' perception of the learning process in a hospital setting].

    PubMed

    Alves, Elcilene Andreíne Terra Durgante; Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identijf how nursing students perceive and experience the learning process during curricular practice in a hospital setting. A qualitative, retrospective, documentary study was developed in an undergraduate nursing course. Data were comprised of 162 posts made by 34 students in the online discussion forum of the Learning Management System Moodle, during the first half of 2011. The following themes emergedfrom t he thematic content analysis: "nursing students' understanding about the professional practice," and "the teaching and learning process in the perspective of nursing students." The study demonstrated that the forum was a place for reporting experiences such as the description of the physical area, performing procedures, perception of nursing care activities, conJlicts with peers, coping with death and learning evaluation. The online discussion forum needs to be used by professors as a space of interaction so as to contribute to professional training.

  20. "I Want to Learn My Phone Number": Encourage Young Children to Set Their Own Learning Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warash, Bobbie Gibson; Smith, Keri; Root, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Young children's capabilities continue to be revealed through brain and other scientific research. These advances in knowledge have led to the implementation of more progressive learning experiences in preschool programs. More in-depth explorations accommodate young children's intellect and they help children develop life skills as competent…

  1. Interpersonal Exchanges in Discussion Forums: A Study of Learning Communities in Distance Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer Bassani, Patricia B.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative relationships are the foundation of a model of online learning based on communities. The development of a community depends on the interaction between community members. This study is based on the belief that the dynamics of exchange of thought, from a Piagetian perspective, are one possibility for understanding the process of…

  2. Using a New Learning Environment Questionnaire for Reflection in Teacher Action Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldridge, Jill M.; Fraser, Barry J.; Bell, Lisa; Dorman, Jeffrey

    2012-04-01

    This article reports the development, validation and use of an instrument designed to provide teachers with feedback information, based on students' perceptions, about their classroom environments. The instrument was developed to provide teachers with feedback that they could use to reflect on their teaching practices and, in turn, guide the implementation of strategies to improve their learning environments. To determine the validity and reliability of the new instrument, data from 2043 grade 11 and 12 students from 147 classes in 9 schools were analysed. The Rasch model was used to convert data collected using a frequency response scale into interval data that are suitable for parametric analyses. During an action research process, reflective journals, written feedback, discussions at a forum and interviews with eight teachers helped to illuminate the processes used by teachers during action research. This article reports the views of these teachers in general and examines more closely how one of the teachers used student responses to the learning environment questionnaire as a tool for reflection and as a guide in transforming her classroom environment. This case study helped us to gauge the extent to which action research based on students' perceptions of the learning environment was useful in guiding teachers' improvements of their classroom learning environments.

  3. Learning from Lessons: Teachers' Insights and Intended Actions Arising from Their Learning about Student Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Anne; Clarke, Doug; Clarke, David; Chan, Man Ching Esther

    2016-01-01

    A central premise of this project is that teachers learn from the act of teaching a lesson and that this learning is evident in the planning and teaching of a subsequent lesson. We are studying the knowledge construction of mathematics teachers utilising multi-camera research techniques during lesson planning, classroom interactions and…

  4. Opportunities and Limitations for Learning within Teachers' Collaboration in Teams: Perspectives from Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plauborg, Helle

    2009-01-01

    Researchers posit that teachers' teaching and learning are improved by teachers' collective efforts to examine and reflect on practice. Yet the questions of what and how teachers learn when collaborating with colleagues remain unanswered: What kinds of knowledge and skills do teachers acquire in conjunction with their collaboration? What brings…

  5. Olfactory Perceptual Learning Requires Action of Noradrenaline in the Olfactory Bulb: Comparison with Olfactory Associative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinera, Jennifer; Kermen, Florence; Sacquet, Joëlle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie; Richard, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Noradrenaline contributes to olfactory-guided behaviors but its role in olfactory learning during adulthood is poorly documented. We investigated its implication in olfactory associative and perceptual learning using local infusion of mixed a1-ß adrenergic receptor antagonist (labetalol) in the adult mouse olfactory bulb. We reported that…

  6. Decoding Learning in Law: Collaborative Action towards the Reshaping of University Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Annette

    2014-01-01

    At the University of the Free State (UFS) in South Africa, professional development is characterised by its focus on the advancement of scholarly teaching in the disciplines. Practices followed are informed by the scholarship of teaching and learning movement. Within learning communities, special attention is given to the motivational conditions…

  7. Understanding Professional Learning in Action: A Case Study of a Research-Based Professional Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stukey, Marisa Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    During the last twenty years, professional learning for teachers has been promoted as a viable path for increased teacher effectiveness and student achievement. Because of the complexities of the school system and the diversity of the student population, designing quality professional learning opportunities that are meaningful for teachers can be…

  8. Personal Action Potency: Early Years Practitioners Participating in Interprofessional Practice in Early Years Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payler, Jane Katherine; Georgeson, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on case study research in the UK analysing the participation of early years staff in interprofessional practice to provide effective care and education for children, primarily those with special educational needs. Even though case study staff in different "outstanding" settings had equivalent qualifications and similar…

  9. Intellectual Curiosity in Action: A Framework to Assess First-Year Seminars in Liberal Arts Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Kenneth H.; Longest, Kyle C.; Barnett, Jenna C.

    2014-01-01

    Fostering students' intellectual curiosity is a common goal of first-year seminar programs--especially in liberal arts settings. The authors propose an alternative method to assess this ambiguous, value-laden concept. Relying on data gathered from pre- and posttest in-depth interviews of 34 students enrolled in first-year seminars, they construct…

  10. Setting Your Development Goals: Start with Your Values. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternbergh, Bill; Weitzel, Sloan R.

    This guidebook is about changing the way people think about setting goals; it is about identifying goals that are important and meaningful. Creating those kinds of goals means taking stock of personal values--what one believes and how one can act to carry out those beliefs--in five key areas of life: career, self, family, community, and spirit.…

  11. Mobile learning for HIV/AIDS healthcare worker training in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We present an innovative approach to healthcare worker (HCW) training using mobile phones as a personal learning environment. Twenty physicians used individual Smartphones (Nokia N95 and iPhone), each equipped with a portable solar charger. Doctors worked in urban and peri-urban HIV/AIDS clinics in Peru, where almost 70% of the nation's HIV patients in need are on treatment. A set of 3D learning scenarios simulating interactive clinical cases was developed and adapted to the Smartphones for a continuing medical education program lasting 3 months. A mobile educational platform supporting learning events tracked participant learning progress. A discussion forum accessible via mobile connected participants to a group of HIV specialists available for back-up of the medical information. Learning outcomes were verified through mobile quizzes using multiple choice questions at the end of each module. Methods In December 2009, a mid-term evaluation was conducted, targeting both technical feasibility and user satisfaction. It also highlighted user perception of the program and the technical challenges encountered using mobile devices for lifelong learning. Results With a response rate of 90% (18/20 questionnaires returned), the overall satisfaction of using mobile tools was generally greater for the iPhone. Access to Skype and Facebook, screen/keyboard size, and image quality were cited as more troublesome for the Nokia N95 compared to the iPhone. Conclusions Training, supervision and clinical mentoring of health workers are the cornerstone of the scaling up process of HIV/AIDS care in resource-limited settings (RLSs). Educational modules on mobile phones can give flexibility to HCWs for accessing learning content anywhere. However lack of softwares interoperability and the high investment cost for the Smartphones' purchase could represent a limitation to the wide spread use of such kind mLearning programs in RLSs. PMID:20825677

  12. Action Learning: a new method to increase tractor rollover protective structure (ROPS) adoption.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Elyce Anne; Keane, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Action Learning is a problem-solving process that is used in various industries to address difficult problems. This project applied Action Learning to a leading problem in agricultural safety. Tractor overturns are the leading cause of fatal injury to farmworkers. This cause of injury is preventable using rollover protective structures (ROPS), protective equipment that functions as a roll bar structure to protect the operator in the event of an overturn. For agricultural tractors manufactured after 1976 and employee operated, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulation requires employers to equip them with ROPS and seat belts. By the mid-1980s, US tractor manufacturers began adding ROPS on all farm tractors over 20 horsepower sold in the United States (http://www.nasdonline.org/document/113/d001656/rollover-protection-for-farm-tractor-operators.html). However, many older tractors remain in use without ROPS, putting tractor operators at continued risk for traumatic injury and fatality. For many older tractor models ROPS are available for retrofit, but for a variety of reasons, tractor owners have not chosen to retrofit those ROPS. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) attempted various means to ameliorate this occupational safety risk, including the manufacture of a low-cost ROPS for self-assembly. Other approaches address barriers to adoption. An Action Learning approach to increasing adoption of ROPS was followed in Virginia and New York, with mixed results. Virginia took action to increase the manufacturing and adoption of ROPS, but New York saw problems that would be insurmountable. Increased focus on team composition might be needed to establish effective Action Learning teams to address this problem.

  13. The action of orexin B on passive avoidance learning. Involvement of neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Palotai, Miklós; Telegdy, Gyula; Ekwerike, Alphonsus; Jászberényi, Miklós

    2014-10-01

    The extensive projection of orexigenic neurons and the diffuse expression of orexin receptors suggest that endogenous orexins are involved in several physiological functions of the central nervous system, including learning and memory. Our previous study demonstrated that orexin A improves learning, consolidation and retrieval processes, which involves α- and β-adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABA-A-ergic, opiate and nitrergic neurotransmissions. However, we have little evidence about the action of orexin B on memory processes and the underlying neuromodulation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the action of orexin B on passive avoidance learning and the involvement of neurotransmitters in this action in rats. Accordingly, rats were pretreated with the selective orexin 2 receptor (OX2R) antagonist, EMPA; the γ-aminobutyric acid subunit A (GABA-A) receptor antagonist, the bicuculline; a D2, D3, D4 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol; the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone; the non-specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, nitro-l-arginine; the nonselective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist, phenoxybenzamine and the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol. Our results demonstrate that orexin B can improve learning, consolidation of memory and retrieval. EMPA reversed completely the action of orexin B on memory consolidation. Bicuculline blocked fully; naloxone, nitro-l-arginine, phenoxybenzamine and propranolol attenuated the orexin B-induced memory consolidation, whereas haloperidol was ineffective. These data suggest that orexin B improves memory functions through OX2R and GABA-ergic, opiate, nitrergic, α- and β-adrenergic neurotransmissions are also involved in this action.

  14. Exploring Daily Physical Activity and Nutrition Patterns in Early Learning Settings: Snapshots of Young Children in Head Start, Primary, and After-School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegelin, Dolores A.; Anderson, Denise; Kemper, Karen; Wagner, Jennifer; Evans, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to gain a greater understanding of daily routines of 4-7 year olds regarding physical activity and nutrition practices in typical early learning environments. The settings selected for this observational study included Head Start, primary, and after-school learning environments in a city in the southeast.…

  15. Blockade of NMDA receptors in the dorsomedial striatum prevents action-outcome learning in instrumental conditioning.

    PubMed

    Yin, Henry H; Knowlton, Barbara J; Balleine, Bernard W

    2005-07-01

    Although there is consensus that instrumental conditioning depends on the encoding of action-outcome associations, it is not known where this learning process is localized in the brain. Recent research suggests that the posterior dorsomedial striatum (pDMS) may be the critical locus of these associations. We tested this hypothesis by examining the contribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in the pDMS to action-outcome learning. Rats with bilateral cannulae in the pDMS were first trained to perform two actions (left and right lever presses), for sucrose solution. After the pre-training phase, they were given an infusion of the NMDA antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV, 1 mg/mL) or artificial cerebral spinal fluid (ACSF) before a 30-min session in which pressing one lever delivered food pellets and pressing the other delivered fruit punch. Learning during this session was tested the next day by sating the animals on either the pellets or fruit punch before assessing their performance on the two levers in extinction. The ACSF group selectively reduced responding on the lever that, in training, had earned the now devalued outcome, whereas the APV group did not. Experiment 2 replicated the effect of APV during the critical training session but found no effect of APV given after acquisition and before test. Furthermore, Experiment 3 showed that the effect of APV on instrumental learning was restricted to the pDMS; infusion into the dorsolateral striatum did not prevent learning. These experiments provide the first direct evidence that, in instrumental conditioning, NMDARs in the dorsomedial striatum are involved in encoding action-outcome associations.

  16. Transforming Language Ideologies through Action Research: A Case Study of Bilingual Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eunah

    This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed how one teacher and I, the researcher, collaboratively reflected on classroom language practices during the video analysis meetings and focus groups. Further, I analyzed twelve videos that we coded together to see the changes in the teacher's language practices over time. My unit of analysis was the discourse practice mediated by additive language ideologies. Throughout the collaborative action research process, we both critically reflected on the classroom language use. We also developed a critical consciousness about the participatory shifts and learning of focal English Learner (EL) students. Finally, the teacher made changes to her classroom language practices. The results of this study will contribute to the literacy education research field for theoretical, methodological, and practical insights. The integration of language ideologies, CHAT, and action research can help educational practitioners, researchers, and policy makers understand the importance of transforming teachers' language ideologies in designing additive learning contexts for ELs. From a methodological perspective, the transformative language ideologies through researcher and teacher collaborated video analysis process provide a unique contribution to the language ideologies in education literature, with analytic triangulation. As a practical implication, this study suggests action research can be one of the teacher education tools to help the teachers transform language ideologies for EL education.

  17. Family Involvement as a Priority Element for an Educational Action Based on Dialogic Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valls, Mercè Pañellas; de Nicolás, Montserrat Alguacil; Torremorell, Maria Carme Boqué

    In our society, there is a need for a critical reflection on education and the tasks to be developed by every agent. The family and school are the two main socializing settings of children and adolescents and, therefore, their joint responsibility in their education is a commitment that should be established in an atmosphere of confidence and harmony in order to tend towards a learning community model based on dialogic learning.

  18. Potentially preventable events: an actionable set of measures for linking quality improvement and cost savings.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Norbert; Kelly, William P; Patel, Kavita

    2012-01-01

    Rising health care costs will result in reduced payments to providers, but across-the-board provider payment reductions are not the answer. Instead, existing payment systems should be reformed to strengthen value for the dollars spent. This can be accomplished by increasing efficiency, improving quality and outcomes, and lowering costs. Payment system reforms must be practical, transparent, identify opportunities for care improvement, and demonstrate material cost savings. Most importantly, because the current growth in health care costs is unsustainable, these reforms must be able to be implemented today. A set of comprehensive measures is being used by state government and private payers in the United States to adjust payment, based on improved outcomes quality. This article details the use of this set of measures, referred to as potentially preventable events, and demonstrates how they are being applied to achieve health care value.

  19. Surveillance of fetal arrhythmias in the outpatient setting: current limitations and call for action.

    PubMed

    Freire, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Surveillance of fetal arrhythmias in the outpatient setting remains limited by lack of monitoring modalities. Despite technological advances made in the field of obstetrics, existing devices are not currently suitable to monitor fetal arrhythmias. In this report, the author describes the current and developing fetal heart rate monitoring technologies including the recent introduction of hand-held Doppler monitors for outpatient surveillance of fetal arrhythmias.

  20. Joint Patch and Multi-label Learning for Facial Action Unit Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kaili; Chu, Wen-Sheng; De la Torre, Fernando; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Zhang, Honggang

    2016-01-01

    The face is one of the most powerful channel of nonverbal communication. The most commonly used taxonomy to describe facial behaviour is the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). FACS segments the visible effects of facial muscle activation into 30+ action units (AUs). AUs, which may occur alone and in thousands of combinations, can describe nearly all-possible facial expressions. Most existing methods for automatic AU detection treat the problem using one-vs-all classifiers and fail to exploit dependencies among AU and facial features. We introduce joint-patch and multi-label learning (JPML) to address these issues. JPML leverages group sparsity by selecting a sparse subset of facial patches while learning a multi-label classifier. In four of five comparisons on three diverse datasets, CK+, GFT, and BP4D, JPML produced the highest average F1 scores in comparison with state-of-the art. PMID:27382243